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THE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT

Functions of GI tract Ingestion - digestion - absorption - elimination

Ingestion The taking in of food

Digestion This is in two parts a. b. Mechanical digestion, increases surface area Chemical digestion, breaks up complex molecules into simple ones

Absorption Passage from the gut in to the blood or lymphatic systems

Elimination Waste products remain in the bowel after absorption, these are expelled as faeces

Components of the gastrointestinal tract Organs and structures Lips, Tongue, Teeth, Pharynx, Epiglottis, Oesophagus, Cardiac sphincter, Stomach, Pyloric sphincter, Small Intestine, (Duodenum, Jejunum, Ileum),

mastication Saliva .cleans Optimum pH 6.inside . Appendix.8 Salivary amylase Starch --. Descending).Ileocaecal valve. Anus. Rectum. Caecum. (Ascending. Accessory organs 3 pairs of salivary glands Pancreas Liver. Transverse. Colon. Gall Bladder Function of components Mouth and Nose Taste and smell Mechanical processes .maltose Tongue involved in swallowing lubricates digests (an enzyme) Epiglottis Guards entrance to airways Oesophagus Passage of food bolus to stomach Peristalsis Longitudinal muscle – outside Circular muscle .

5 . (chyme) Absorption Intrinsic factor Gastric juice Secreted by glands in the mucosa Hydrochloric acid Pepsin starts protein digestion Pepsinogen Optimum pH is 1.3. body and pyloric regions Has an oblique inner muscular layer Reservoir Mixes food.Stomach Greater and lesser curvature Fundus.8 Proteolytic activity .5 Small intestine About 5 metres long Duodenum Midpoint sphincter of Oddi (the billary tract) Bile Excretion of bilirubin Emulsify fats Colours and deodorises faeces Pancreatic juice Optimum pH 6 .

Trypsinogen --.fatty acids and glycerol Jejunum and Ileum Intestinal juice Succus entericus enteropeptidase Surface area inside small intestine 1. maltase.Chymotrypsin Converted by enteropeptidase in intestinal juice Carbohydrate digesting activity Pancreatic amylase Polysaccharides -----disaccharides Fat digesting activity Lipase Fats --. Microvilli Total absorptive area . lactase .trypsin Chymotrypsinogen --.250 square meters Enterocytes in walls of villi Peptidases Lipase Sucrose. Villi 3. Circular folds 2.

rectum.capillaries of villi Fatty acids and glycerol ---.5 . descending.1. transverse colon. appendix. Absorption/faeces formation 0. about 100 mls leave Faeces is semi-solid .lacteal Diffusion Active transport Ileum joins colon via ileocaecal valve Colon (Large Intestine) Caecum. splenic flexure.0 litres of fluid enter the colon per day. ascending colon.Final digestion mostly in cells of villi Absorption Proteins Carbohydrates Fats Mineral salts Vitamins Water Fibre Amino acids --. anus. hepatic flexure.

Mineral salts and vitamins are also absorbed Microbial activity Natural bacterial flora symbolically produce vitamin K and folic acid Coliforms are pathogenic in other places Gases produced pass out as flatus Defecation Peristalsis is more intermittent than small bowel Mass movement The gastro-colonic reflex Faecal material in the rectum stimulates stretch receptors Anus relaxes under voluntary control Rectum contracts under autonomic control Diaphragm goes down and abdominal muscles contract .