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Agricultural Crops of Pakistan Friendsmania.

net Introduction Agricultural activities in plain areas of Pakistan are performed in two seasons.Those crops which are cultivated before the beginning of winter season and harvested in early summer are known as "Rabi Crops".They include wheat ,barley ,grams,oil seeds,pulses e.t.c.But those crops which are grown in the beginning in summer and their picking or harvesting takes place in early winter are called "Kharif Crops".These may include Rice,Sugarcane,Millets,Maize etc.The following are the main crops cultivated in Pakistan:

Sugar Cane (Cash Crop) Introduction Sugar cane is an important cash crop of Pakistan.All available evidences indicate that Sugar Cane originated in Indo-Pak sub-continent.The description of sugar cane is found in the Indian mythological literature of 1000 B.C. It is a type of long grass "perennial" in nature.The first crop is called "plant cane" and the succeeding crops are called "Ratoon Crops".Although it is a plant of tropical regions but it can also be cultivated in sub-tropical areas. Uses of Sugar Cane Sugar cane is used for sweetening purposes.It is the most important and cheapest source of refined sugar.Gur,Alcohol and Desi Shakkar are also prepared from Sugar cane.The left out stalk fibers (bagasse) are used in the paper industries are as fuel and cattle food. Favourable Conditions For Its Growth 1. Temperature Sugarcane is a crop of wet tropical lands .From eight to twenty four months elapse between 65 degree F to 85degree F.Little or no growth takes place at a temperature below 60 degree F.Frost is very dangerous to young cane and sever frost during the period of ripening causes inversion of the sucrose.The sugarcane needs a minimum of 250 frost free days. 2. Water Heavy precipitation is beneficial during the early and intermediate stage of crop growth,but a dry season is desirable before harvest.It grows well in areas having rainfall of more than 40 degree annually.It is very sensitive to dought conditions.Stagnant water is very damaging.In our country Sugarcane is cultivated in canal irrigated areas since the rainfall is below 20" which is not sufficient. 3.Soils Sugarcane can be grown on a variety of soils ranging from sandy loams the heavy clays but sill loams and clay loams are most suitable.It is grown primarily on both alluvial and red soils.The soil should contain some elements of lime,potash and nitrogen.

4.Land The best land for sugarcane is flat or undulating and fertile with topsoil that retains moisture and sub soils that permit drainage.Therefore the main Sugarcane area in Pakistan is located in the canal colonies of the fertile Indus valley.

Sugarcane Cultivation In Pakistan,Sugarcane is cultivated in the spring season in the month of February or March.It is harvested in November or December .Sugarcane is included in both Rabi and Kharif Crops.It is a "perennial " crop.The first crop is called "plant cane" and the succeeding crops are called "ratoon crops" .Generally good yields from ratoon crops are obtained only in one or two years.

Sugarcane Growing Areas In Pakistan,a sub tropical continental climate milltates against the growing of thick canals.All the areas of our country are not suited to the growth of Sugarcane.It is mostly cultivated in canal irrigated areas of Punjab,N.W.F.P and Sindh provinces. 1. Punjab: Faisalabad,Sargodha,Multan,Bahawalpur,Lahore and Gujranwala division are famouse for Sugar cane production. 2. Sindh: Hyderabad division ranks first and Sukkur division second in the production of Sugar cane . 3. N.W.F.P Mardan and Peshawar districts are at the top and some amount of Sugar cane is also produced in the districts of Bannu and Dera Ismail Khan. Average And Production The following table shows areas,production and yield per hectare of sugarcane during the last three years: Period Area...............Production...........Yield Per Hectare (000 Hectares)................(000 Tones)...........(Tones) 1989-90 854 ..................35494.................41.56 1990-91 884...................35889.................40.71 1991-92 877...................34210.................39.00 (provisional)

Cotton (Cash Crop) Introduction Cotton is considered to be the most important cash crop of Pakistan.Pakistan,ranks fifth in world cotton production.It is outstanding among vegetable,animal and synthetic fibers,accounting for approximately one half of the all materials that are made into cloth.Besides the preparation of a number of its products ,we also earn a large amount of foreign exchange from its export to other countries .Its importance may be estimated from the fact that it contributes 15% to the G.N.P The entire textile industry directly or indirectly depends upon it.It provides employment to 2/3rd of industrial labour force. Biological And Historical Reference Cotton is also known as the "Silver Fiber" .It is a wooly fibre surrounded around the seeds of the plant the longing to genus "Gossypium".It is known to have been produced in the Indus plain since 3000 B.C. Favourable Conditions For Its Growth 1. Temperature: Humid tropical and sub-tropical savanna climates are both conductive to cotton growth .At the time of cultivation it requires temperature ranging between 80 degree F to 100 degree F but at the time of picking 50 degree F to 60 degree F temperature remains sufficient.Frost or severe cold is dangerous for its growth.As produced commercially,cotton requires a growing season of atleast 180 to 200 frost-free days. 2. Water: A minimum precipitation amount of 20" and a maximum of 40" per year is considered to be the optimum requirement for cotton cultivation.The annual rainfall in Pakistan is less than 20" which is insufficient ,so without artificial irrigation,cotton cultivation is not possible.It is for this reason that canal and tube well irrigated areas of Sindh and Punjab are devoted to cotton cultivation.The moisture should be comparatively even throughout much of the year but retarted during the harvesting period. 3. Soil: Cotton grows best on soils which retain moisture at their upper levels and are well drained at lower depths.Its favours alluvial soil but can do quite well on tighter soils if sufficient moisture is present to prevent excessive compaction around the plant roots.The use of natural or artificial manure is essential to maintain the fertility of soil. 4. Land: Sea breeze is very helpful for the production of quality cotton.For this reason low lands near the sea (Sindh areas ) are considered to be ideal situations for its cultivation. Cotton Cultivation: Cotton is a Kharif crop in Pakistan and is cultivated in the summer season.Sowing is mainly broadcast and begins in April in Sindh and in May or June in Punjab.In Sindh,picking starts from August.Whereas in Punjab it begins in September or October.Cotton mostly grows in rows and the minimum distance between row to row is kept about 11/2 feet .Similarly the minimum distance between plant to plant remain about 6".

. ........................In these areas the well-known variety of medium staple cotton is grown............ 1..9628....12500.2896.production and yield per hectare of cotton during the last three years: Period....9550 1990-91 ...Here both the American medium staple and Desi qualities of cotton are grown............. Punjab: The province of Punjab has a network of canals leading out from the mighty river Indus and draining the are.Lahore and Gujranwala constitute the cotton belt ....... Average And Production The following table shows area.....F.. ........................Sindh also produces surplus quantity of cotton which is more than the local requirements.Sargodha.The canal irrigated areas of Sindh.............Rs........Punjab produces a surplus quantity of cotton and after meeting the local requirements the rest of it is exported..(000 Hectares). Sindh: The province of Sindh also produces a considerable amount of cotton..........616 1991-92.....) 1989-90 .8560..........P...561 1990-91............2599.........Dera Ghazi Khan......(000 Tonnes).....Area............Yield Per Hectare ...W....... .Production......... 2......5916 (July to March) Rice (Food Crop) ...constituting Hyderabad and Sukkur division are the main cotton centres..........A small quantity of Desi quality cotton is allowed to be grown for domestic use.........Faisalabad... .......734 (provisional) Exports min..Cotton Growing Areas: In Pakistan cotton is grown in canal irrigated areas of Punjab and Sindh and also in some parts of Baluchistan and N......9553 1991-92 .............. (0 % of the crop depends Bahawalpur.............(kg) 1989-90...2662....

The temperature should be more than 80 degree F and in no way less than 70 degree F even for the quick maturing varieties.Its cultivation requires large amount of moisture.deltas and coasted plains are suitable areas.Besides it is an important raw material for manufacturing starch.It fulfills the food requirements of our country but we also earn a lot of foreign exchange from its export.In Pakistan rice is cutivated only one a year i.two species of which are cultavated."Oryza Glaberrima" and "Oryza Sativa". Favourable Coditions For Its growth: 1. 4.otherwise terracing is required.early summer.hats.When the rice crops mature .e. System of Cultivation There are two methods of rice cultivation: 1.The exact origin of rice is not known but most of the research workers give this credit to South East Asi..The annual rainfall should not be in any way leas than 40 ".it requires high temperature during the growing season of 4 to 6 months.paper . Biological and Historical References Rice belongs to the genus "Oxygen".less water is required and during ripening season. Soil: With the exemption of sandy soils which are very permeable .Importance of Rice in Pakistan: Rice holds an important position among the cash crops of Pakistan.Broad Cast Sowing: This involves direct plantation of rice plants in the fields. Temperature: Rice is a tropical plant.the field should be almost dry so that it can be harvested easily. 2.grain as well as its husk is also used as fodder for cattle.So the deficiency of rainfall has been met by the artificial arrangements of irrigation water through canals and tube wells etc.The root of the rice plant should remain submerged in water for a long time. The rice growing areas of Pakistan have an average annual rainfall of less than 20 " . Land: The flooding of rice fields requires level land and therefore river valleys.sandals.mattresses etc.Heavy clayey sub soil with water retaining capacity gives best results.For 75 days the rice fields should have 6 " of slow moving water.Its cultivation is not possible in areas of severe cold or where the temperature goes below freezing point. 2.The former is found only in tropical west African while the latter is found all over the rice growing areas.rice can be grown successfully on soils ranging from silt loam to clays . 3.Alluvial soil is the most suitable soil for the rich growth of rice.After 1468 it was introduced in Italy from where it spread to european and many other contries of the world.Transplantation: . Water Rice is known as a plant of water.

.....Faisalabad. Sindh: In the province of Sindh..When the plants attain a height of 4 " to 6 "...To a small extent it is also grown in the submountain districts in the North and the canal irrigated areas...It is the most scientific and beneficial method......Besides somu rice is also cultivated in Shakhupura....the per acre production increases considerably.Baluchistan and Azad Kashmir areas is not more than 1 % to 2 % of their total areas......Irri-8 etc.....Rs................. are grown in this part of Punjab..F....Best equalities like Basmati.Sukhdari...the division of Lahore and Gujranwala rank at the top............Rs..... 2..3198....Larkana district ranks at cultivated in Khairpur..2113....... Rice Growing Areas Cultivation of rice is mainly confined to the low lying parts of the Punjab plain and the flooded rivers and canal areas of Sindh.. Average And Production The following table shows areas.........Rice cultivation in N.This method is also called the Japanese method.The main qualities of rice which are common in the province of Sindh are Kangni..1543 1991-92....... 1...Yield Per Hectare .production and yield per hectare of rice during the last three years: Period... .. ...3220.2007...........2107... ....Rs..Irri-six etc.In this case sowing is first done in nursery beds......Sargodha.By its practice . 7083 million ..Production...the districts of Sukkur division are most famouse for good quality rice cultivation ........1528 1990-91.P ...(kg) 1989-90......3261.Multan and Bahawalpur divisions.....(000 Hec)........Parmal.1593 (Provisional) Exports: 1989-90 ...Area. 5144 million 1990-91 .................they are transplanted into big fields.Beghi... Rice is mostly cultivated in rows and the distance from row to row is kept about 6 " and from plant to plant remains 3 "..... . Punjab: In Punjab....... 7846 million 1991-92 .Nawabshah and Hyderabad districts..W.(000 Ton).....................

In Pakistan the average annual rainfall is less than 20 " which is insufficient.Due to lack of irrigational facilities Baluchistan and Potwar plateau depend exclusively on rainfall.It is cultivated in the month of October and November. Kinds of Wheat: There are two main types of wheat: 1. Soil: Wheat is known to grow on a varioty of soils but it does best in the well-drained clayey loams having plenty of humus. 3. Favourable Conditions For Its Growth 1.We use wheat and its products in a number of ways. . 2. Temperature: Wheat is essentially a temperate crop requiring moderate heat and moisture.Hence the dark coloured chernozems of the temperate grasslands like that of Pakistan are the most suitable soils.It accounts for over 70 % of the gross cereals and over 36 % of the country's acreage is devoted to wheat cultivation.(July-March) WHEAT (Food Crop) Introduction Wheat is the most popular food crop of Pakistan.Wheat being the staple diet of most of the people of Pakistan it dominates all crops in acreage and production .Durum: It has local importance and is mostly used for making of Suji (Semolina) and Sewian (Vermicelli).This high temperature helps in the ripening of the crop.The temperature then is between 50 degree and 60 degree F which is most suitable for wheat growth while it is harvested at the end of April or early in May when the temperature is between 80 degree F and 100 degree F.Thus wheat is mostly grown by means of irrigation.rain must come during the period of growth and sunny conditions should prevail at the time of ripening. 2.In Pakistan it is a rain (winter) crop.Minimum rainfall required during the growing season is 20 ". Wheat is being cultivated in our country from ancient times.According to some experts wheat was first cultivated in the Indus Valley.Vulgare or Sharbati: It is widely cultivated and is prized for common bread.Pakistan is the 4th largest producer of wheat in Asia and stands 11th in world production.However the yield per acre of the rain fed fields is about half that of irrigated fields. Water: For wheat cultivation.Rainfall is no way should exceed 40 ".

............The main wheat growing divisions are : Sargodha.............W.Kurram and Gomal rivers have a substantial share in wheat acreage..... Punjab: The province of Punjab ranks at the top in the production of wheat....1880 (provisional) Imports: ..Bahawalpur.....Sahiwal........ Sindh: The province of Sindh ranks second in wheat production.....14 657.....Wheat Producing Centres of Pakistan: Wheat is cultivated in all the four provinces of Pakistan... 1.....The upper indus plain accounts for 70 % of the total wheat of our country.production and yield per hectare of wheat during the last three years: Period...(kg) 1989-90....Most of the lands devoted to wheat cultivation in the lower Indus Plains are located in the irrigated districts of Nawabshah...............Yield per Hectare ....Shaikhupura and Sialkot................1825 1990-91..........1841 1991-92...Multan.........P roduction................The plain areas of Punjab and Sindh provinces have alluvial soil brought by River Indus and its tributaries....Peshawar and Bannu are famouse for wheat cultivation...(000 Hec).P: The North west Frontier province does not contribute much towards wheat production.... Average And Production The following table shows area..........The temperate climate aids wheat production in Sindh and Punjab...Dera Ghazi Khan.............7795...Punjab and Sindh provinces however rank at the top.....14 316............... Baluchistan: Some wheat is also grown in the plateau areas and the valleys of the hilly regions of Baluchistan..Tharparkar and Khairpur....On the Potwar Plateau there are large areas under wheat which depend entirely on rainfall......14 565...This deficiency has been made up by providing canals and other irrigational facilities....These rivers further increase the fertility of the soil by adding a number of organic and in-organic matters brought by them from various areas of our country ...........The plain areas of Punjab and Sindh provinces have insufficient rainfall..............P Mardan............Hyderabad.7845...... 3......7911.....F.. 2..F....Sukkur..........Canal fed fields produce 2/3 and the rest comes from the rain fed fields..............In the canal irrigated areas of N..W.........Area...(000 Ton)..Kabul...................... N....Faisalabad.........Lahore.........

.........................so people ... ....... .......1000....But due to deficient rainfall ....4057 (July-March)(ml metric tonnes) Need And Importance Of Irrigation 1..in those rivers a huge amount of water comes due to heavy rainfall and the melting of snow during summer.....This helps in the construction of canals and water can easily be distributed through canals from higher regions to lower areas...The supply of water in our rivers remains irregular during the year...................Unit Value .....972.........Period............That reduces the cost of construction.That is why canal irrigation is preferred in our country....... 4.. 7....The upper and lower areas of Indus plain have soft soil.. ........To regulate the water supply throughout the year the year the water is stored by constructing barrages........Rs/ml?) 1989-90..........So the areas lying between the rivers have provided irrigation facilities through canals and various types of crops are grown in these areas..The Rivers of our country used to take millions of gallons of water into the Arabian Sea......... 2.............Thus we store this surplus water in huge dams which is used for irrigation purposes in dry season.......dams and weirs etc..Quantity...........agricultural activities cannot be performed without adopting some artificial means of irrigation...That water is being used for canal irrigation and a number of dry desert areas have become fertile and productive regions of our country..The slope of our country lies from north east towards south.All the rivers of our country come from snow-covered mountainous areas............(000 ml?).. .... 3.3208 1991-92.2047..... 5...and cheap labour is available in abundance.having abundance of rainfall in summer ...........Canal water adds to the fertility of the soil by bringing a number of organic and inorganic matters with it.Most of the plain areas of Pakistan have been built by alluvial soil brought by the River Indus and its tributaries.where digging of canals is easier......... 6...while the water of tube -wells lacks all these matters.4197 1990-91..

(b)Non Perennial Canals: Such canals runs only during the summer and the rainy season .To regulate the supply dams and barrages have been built.India).prefer canal irrigation.but the modern system of large perennial canals was introduced by the Britishers.tube wells are used.it was taken out from river Ravi at madhopur (Gurdaspur district.Only one crop can be harvested in the commanded areas of such types of canals.government is encouraging the farmers to dig more and more tube wells.They are closed down during winter months when there is not enough water in the rivers.Canal irrigation is the cheapest and easiest means by which vast areas can be commanded and made productive.After that a number of canals have been taken out from various rivers and our country has got one of the most excellent systems of irrigation in the world.their construction cost being low. (c) Inundation or Flood Canals: These canals work only during the rainy season.due to shortage of canal irrigation water . 8.they also help in reducing the flood water and save the area from many dangers.The canals found in our country may be divided into the following types: (a)Perennial Canals: Those canals which supply water to their commanded areas throughout the year are known as perennial canals.Because no dam or barrage is built at their head . 2. (d)Karez: .Many old canals from the Indus and Chenab are of this type.It was being carried before the birth of christ in various areas of our country.The water is then lifted by "Charas" or "Persian wheels" driven by oxen or camels.Wells or Tube-wells: This is one of the oldest methods of irrigation which is being used from ancient times in our country.when the rivers have a plenty of water .They are found all over the plain where canal water is not available and water table is high enough for their construction.Canals: Irrigation from rivers is an ancient practice.Many shallow wells are dug by hand the areas where the water table is not far below the surface of the earth .the Sidhnal canals from Ravi and Haveli canals from Chenab are of this type.Well irrigation is quite common in pledmont areas of North Eastern mountains and in the vicinity of rivers where the water-table is high. Means Of Irrigation In Pakistan The following means of irrigation are practiced in various areas of our country: 1.Some of the canals from Sutlej . In areas where the water table is low and cheap electric power is available .Most of the canals of our country are of this type.The first modern canal in Punjab was opened in 1859.

In Baluchistan short underground canals called Karez have been built to carry the water which soaks into the ground at the foot of the mountains to the fields and villages .with only its Lahore branch reaching Pakistan.which begins in Madhopur (India). (ii) Systems On The Indus The largest dam on the Indus has been built at Tarbela. (i) Systems On Upper-Indus Tributaries The principal canal systems are:from the Jhelum.Sulaimanke.(b) the lower Chenab canal from Khanki.(b)the Lower Bari Doab canal from Balakot and (c) the Sidhanaj Canals from the left bank of the Ravi at Sidhnal .Main canals start from a barrage or dam or weir on a river.Islam and below the juction of the Sutlej with the Chenab at Panjnad. Canal Systems The irrigated area is served by more than 40 major canal commands.serve a number of outlets to the farmers water-courses each of which irrigates between 60 and 240 hectares.Guddu Barrage.(a) Upper Jhelum canal.the oldest barrage on the river.and (b) the Lower Jhelum canal which starts from Rasul:from the Chenab (a) the upper Chenab canal starting from marala and joining the Ravi near Ballokin to supplement the water supply of the Lower Bari Doab canal.joins the Chenab at Khanki to give its surplus water to the lower Chenab canal.the upper Chenab.are Jinnah barrage near Kalabagh.In Queta and Pashin districts this system is very popular and a large area of this region is irrigated by the Karez system.A number of minor tributaries feed out of the main canal and these in turn.150 km.Other barrages.from the Sutlej. (iii) Systems West of The Indus These include (a) the Swat Canals departing from the river at Malakand (upper Swat canal) and Abazal (Lower Swat Canal).from the Ravi. The upper Jhelum.and Ghulam Mohammad Barrage.part of the Thal project.upstream from Sukkar.further downstream.which was designed to carry surplus water from the Jhelum to the Chenab .in descending order along the river.(a) the upper Bari Doab canal.As the canals are underground no water is wasted by evaporation.and from the Chenab to the Ravi.irrigating mainly the Indian Punjab.which has 100.000 kw power station in addition to diversion works.A barrage feeds one or more main or link canals.which starts from Mangla.Taunsa Barrage 290 km.and (c) the Haveli system of canals from the Trimu weir below the junction of the Chenab and the Jhelum.the Sutlej valley project. (b) the warsak Multipupose Project on the Kabul . There are three major groups of canal system : (i) Canals on upper Indus Tributaries (ii) Systems on the Indus (iii) Systems west of the Indus.near Kotri.Sukkur or Liodyd Barrage.and the lower Bari Doab canals together form The Triple Project .in which canals depart from the river Gandas in Ghwala.

On the Jhelum river near the village of the Mangla.having a storage capacity of 5. Mangla And Tarbella Dam The Mangla Dam Under the Indus Basin Treaty.Some smaller dams have also been built by the Water and power Development Authority (WAPDA).w. to one million k.5 million acre feet.A number of such dams have been constructed in the dry sub-mountain areas of the north west.It is the second largest earth filled dam of our country.It construction started in 1968 under the Indus Basin Treaty.This dam has been built on the river Indus at Tarbela.this is the second largest multi-purpose project designed to control and conserve the flood water of the Jhelum for use mainly as replacement irrigation supplies for the area which was served by the three eastern rivers. Barrages According to Indus Basin Treaty five barrages have been built and various link canals .The installation of 10 units of electricity has been completed in 1985.River 30 kms.000 kilowatts of electricity and 88 lakh acre feet water for irrigation purposes.These include reil Dam.The Agricultural Development Corporation has set up the small Dam Organization to construct dams of localized utility storing the flood water of hill stream.a dam of the embankment type has been built.The project is providing 400.The design of the dam has a provision for future extension.about two miles upstream from the regulator of the upper Jhelum Canal and about 20 miles from Jhelum town.000 k.Gomal Dam Multi-Purpose Project Khanpur Dam.It is 9.Water from Tarbela will be used in the Haro and Soan Basins and for replacement the supplies will be diverted to the Chashma Jhelum link canal and thence to the Trimmu-Sidhnaj-MailsiBahawal link system.north west of Peshawar which includes a 160.This project was completed in 1967.and (c) the kurram Garhi Project on the kurram and barren rivers in Bannu tehsil.This is also a multipurpose project . The Mangla lake has been developed as a fishing centre and a health and tourist resort.Its height can also be increased about 99 feet and storage capacity can also be increased upto 9.and the dam was completed in 1974.The reservoir created by the dam is about 40 miles long.15 miles from maripur and 30 miles from Attock.6 million acre feet and electricity generated can also be increased from the present 400.1 million acre feet.and Hab Dam.It will provide 21 lakh kilowatts of electricity and 93 lakh acre feet of water for irrigation when completed .The dam has crest length of about 11.000 feet and its height is 380 feet. In addition to these major projects.w.A 50 mile long lake has been built behind it.This project will help other barrages to retain the supply of water.000 KW power plant.There is proposal of or the tarbela project that 2 large offchannel reservoirs will have to be built to increase storage and lengthen the life of the generating facilities.The dam has a gross storage capacity of 11.000 feet long and 485 feet high. The Tarbela Dam This is one of the largest earth and rock filled dam in the world.since silting is expected to reduce the life of main dam.

Near Mailsi below the existing Islam headworks on the Sutlej.A link Canal has been taken out from the right bank of Chashma providing water to canals of jhelum and Chenab.Chashma Barrage A barrage has been built on River Indus at Chashma . 1. All these Barrages have a total length of nearly 3 1/2 miles. 2.It is about miles long.The Chashma-Jhelum Link Canal: This link canal is 63 miles long and it is supplying 21.Jhelum and Chenab waters to the Islam headwrks canals from the Sutlej.The work of Chashma wast Bank is under progress.500 cusec water of Ravi to the Sutlej canals .Pakpattan and Depalpur canals.g.000 cusecs of water to their link canals.The Sidhnal-Mailsi-Bahawal Link: It is a sixty miles long canal.The Taunsa-Punjnad Link Canal: .Trmmu-Sidhnal Link Canal: Trmmu-Sidhnal link canal is providing 11.The Rasul-Qadirabad : A 30 miles long canal has been built linking Rasul with Qadirabad and 19. The other Barrages from where the following link canals have been taken out are: 1.this canal will irrigate large area of barren land in Dera ismail Khan and dera Ghazi Khan districts.Jhelum and chenab at Sidhnal on Ravi 6.000 cusecs water has been brought from Jhelum to Chenab.which is carrying the Indus. 3.e. 5.The Balloki Sulemanki Link: This link canal is providing 6. 4.600 cusec combine water of Jhelum and Chenab to Ravi at baloki. 7. Near Sighnaj on Ravi 4. Rasul at Jhelum 2.These barrages are providing about 100. Link Canals 1.have been taken out from these barages.000 cusec combined water of Indus . Near Qadirabad on Chenab 3.Qadirabad-Balloki: Qadirabad-Baloki link canal is supplying 18.700 cusecs water of Indus from Chashma to Jhelum so that the supply of water at Trimmu head works can be maintained.It is hoped that after completion.

000 cusec. .It is carrying the Indus water for use at the Panjnad headworks.but the present supply of water from the canal is insufficient for our requirements and a large amount of water is obtained from tube wells and other means.The link canals have a total length of 388 miles with a total capacity of about 100.This link canal is 38 miles long .

including its variation from season to season.Temperature .Pakistan can be divided into the following climatic regions: 1.Climatic Regions of Pakistan Friendsmania.The rainfall is generally low .The climate of a particular place is controlled by several geographical ractors like: (a) Distance from the equator (b) Distance from the Sea (c) Altitude or height above sea level etc.But here summer remains short cool and temperature .It mostly comes during winter and spring .In this region winters are cold and lengthy and often the temperatures goes below the freezing point.Winter season (from November to February) 2.net Climate The atmospheric conditions at any conditions at any place are known as weather.e.Climate is a generalization of the day to day weather conditions during the course of a year.wind rainfall etc. 1. Climate of Pakistan The whole of Pakistan lies in the warm temperate zone.It lies roughly between 24 degree N and 37degree N latitude.The monsoons bring such marked characteristics that a seasons in Pakistan. and the higher peaks remain snow -covered throughout the year.The North Western mountainous areas are less fertile and .pressure.Monsoon or Rainy season (from July to October) Climatic Regions Of Pakistan Keeping in view the various climatic factors.g.The North Western mountain areas have less amount of rainfall as compared to North Eastern mountains.Pakistan is noted for hot summer and cold winters with semi-arid to arid conditions prevailing in most parts.sub-humid conditions in a small area in the north.from South of Kohat and Waziristan rainfall decreases.so Quetta division in Baluchistan has a dry climate and there the mean annual rainfall is not more than 50 to 100 millimeters.Sub-Tropical Continental Highland Type This region includes the mountains in the North and West of the Indus plain.It means average weather.Summer season (from March to June) 3.are the composite parts or elements of climate.The topographic diversity and location of large areas a long distance from the sea have all the more intensified the climate contrasts.

the rainfall is about 7 inches or 18 cm. 2.Due to some rain in winter and spring.g.Here due to the influence of the sea.but due to poor rainfall.It has the hotest places of the country such as Jaccobabad and Sibbi.Here winters are cold . 3.and rain often comes during the months of January and February.g.but some of the places of these areas have the lowest rainfall e. of annual rainfall. 4.the temperature remains moderate . .annually.The places which are situated near pledmont areas have enough rainfall e.95 inches or 5 cm.Sub-Tropical Continental Low Lands Type This region includes the interior areas of Punjab and Sindh provinces.Although it has higher altitude .have barren rocks without any natural vegetation.Sub-Tropical Coastal Areas Type This region includes the coastal strip around Karachi and Makran coast in Baluchistan.a large amount of humidity remains in the atmosphere.but winters are cool and short.which promotes the rearing of sheep and goats.annually .and in summer temperature goes higher enough and often dust storms prevail .Sub-Tropical Continental Plateau Type This region includes the north western part of Baluchistan Province. The rainy season begins in the middle of the summer months.It has generally arid and extreme climate.some grass and shrubs appear.Nokundi has only 1.The influence of sea breeze during day time is felt throughout the summer.of rainfall annually.3 cm.these have turned into arid desert.g.In these areas there is scarcity of rain water and it is less than 10 inches or 25 cm.Here summer remains long and hot.But the western part of this plain is drier than the eastern due to very poor rainfall e.but due to proximity of the sea . Thal and Cholistan desert in Punjab and Nara and Tharparker desert in Sindh. Sialkot has about 30 inches or 88.

Agriculture and Its Problems in Pakistan .

3.So due to lack of capital they cannot afford to purchase modern scientific implements.It not only provides food for our growing population but is a source of raw materials for our principal industries as well as a source of foreign exchange for our government.It engages 53% of our employed labour .Hence they can not attain the required standards.as well as medium and small scale agro-based and cottage industries are directly dependent on this sector for their raw materials.including the major cash crops.agriculture has been the major occupation of the people of Pakistan.That is why their standard is lower than that of cultivators in developed countries.The circumstances have compelled them to use the crude implements.Their production is therefore low.chemical manures. 5.Every year .Lack of Capital The majority of our farmers are poor and they often live in a hand to mouth position.Water-logging and Salinity Due to excessive use of canal water.A farmer cannot afford tractors and other machineries for a small .In addition to this major large scale industries like cotton textile and sugar etc.000 acres of arable land into marches and salt lands.most of our cultivated lands have become victims of these two dangerous diseases. Problems Following are the causes of our backwardness in agriculture: 1. 32% of our gross domestic products belong to this sector.because due to small holdings of land and poverty they are unable to acquire and use modern scientific methods.improved types of seeds etc.Following the Old Traditions Most of our farmers are still stuck to the old traditions of their fore fathers.Most of them are always under heavy burdens of debts.They are unable to unde4rstand the modern scientific methods of agriculture and often remain ignorant of good means to protect and increase their yield.salinity alone.Uneconomical Land Holdings Due to our law of inheritance.Even today agriculture is a major sector and occupies a very important place in the economy of Pakistan.00.A large part (about 10%) of Pakistan's exports is made up of primary commodities .Lack of Education The farmers of our country are mostly un-educated and lack technical knowledge .is turning about 1. 2.Water-logging is no less injurious.About 75% of our people are engaged directly or indirectly with this profession.On the other hand the measures taken so far are quite inadequate for such issues.Introduction From time Immemorial. 4.our farmers command very small pieces of hands which prove to be costly.

.Our cultivators can not get just prices for their produce due to defective marketing organization.stands in the way of its progress.instead of being conductive to agricultural development .Hence his interest is converted to some other sector.D. 11. 13. 8.farm equipment.but most of our villages have no road or railway links with our markets.it is clear that the yield per acre of various crops in our country is comparatively low than of the other countries.The A. 7. @import "/extensions/GoogleAdSense/GoogleAdSense.fertilizers. 12.Thus the fertility is poor and soils are becoming less productive.especially in hilly regions. 10.our farmers cannot control the various diseases of crops and attacks of pests and insects.transport etc.Low Yield Per Acre Due to the above mentioned facts .piece of land and those his income is low. 6.layout.irrigation.Poor Means of Transportation The agricultural activities in our country are performed in rural areas.Lack of Organized Marketing The marketing facilities for agricultural products in Pakistan are still far from satisfactory level.Hence we are backward agriculturally.B.the upper fertile soil is being eroded by different natural agents of change .Pests and Crop Diseases Due to lack of agricultural education and methods of modern research.For the convenient and timely procurement of these resources the farmers must have easy access to credit.css".Rainfall is uncertain and the existing irrigational facilities in our country are quite insufficient and need to be extended.Land Tenure System The land tenure system of Pakistan has creates a chain of intermediatries in between the state and the tenants.Lack of Credit Facilities The resources required for agricultural operation are land.live stock.Scarcity of Water Our farmers have to face many problems due to scarcity of water which is one our major problems.Thus the cultivators do not take much real interest in increasing their product too.Large tracts of land estimated to be about 22 million acres is lying uncultivated due to shortage of water.So farmers have to face innumerable hardships to sell their products.Hence the farmers take very little interest in their profession and production suffers. seeds.P and commercial banks provide loans to the farmers which are insufficient because our farmers are very poor.The system.Soil Erosion In some areas of our country.The result is low yields. 9. Moreover the chain of middlemen between the producers and ultimate consumers take a heavy share of their produce .

the yield can be distributed among the owners according to their ownership.Mechanization Mechanization of agriculture refers to the use of various equipments the different stages of cultivation.fertilizers and modern implements is not possible without adequate credit facilities for the farmers.Better seeds will ultimately give better yield.The use of artificial manure should be introduced through out the country.Co-operative Farming Co-operative farming refers to the farming done on the basis of mutual help and cooperation. 7.Due to poverty and illiteracy our farmers hesitate to purchase the fertilizers. 9.But our farmers have no effective control over them.Therefore.By the use of modern equipments better results can be achieved in the shortest time. 5.Credit Facilities The use of better seeds.Tube-wells should be installed in the affected areas to decrease the salinity.Irrigation Facilities The major problem of agriculture in Pakistan is scarcity of water.Suggestions Or Remedies To Overcome The Problems 1. 2. 6.Under this method the small holdings are consqildated .In this way the owners of small holdings can also use fertilizers and modern equipments jointly.Most of the land is lying unused due to this problem.Therefore. The commercial banks also grant loans to the farmers.Reclamation of Land The land which has been declared useless due to salinity and water-logging should be reclaimed.Plant Protection Various plant diseases damage a large part of our crops.preventive and neurative measures should be taken throughout the country. 3. 4.The Use Of Fertilizers The agricultural yield can also be increased to a great extent by using fertilizers.These measures should be taken on priority basis to avoid further deterioration of land . .The more educated the farmers will be the better will be the results achieved.Beds of new canals should be made of concrete to avoid water-logging.Education Level Increase of literacy ratio in rural areas especially in agre-education is the need of the day.it is necessary that the irrigation facilities be extended for increasing agricultural out put.The government has extended the existing credit facilities to a large extent.Better Seeds The farmers should be provided better quality seeds at the lowest price and at the right time.but still there is a need for more facilities as our farmers are very poor. 8.After harvesting.

10.Improvement In The Means Of transportation And Communication The rural areas of the country must be provided with road and railway links with marketing centres and better means of transport and communication should be provided.Marketing Facilities Marketing procedures should be simplified and various marketing facilities should be provided to the cultivators. Details of Population . 11.

Population Density Density of population refers to the number of people living per square km.according to the 1981 census.2.1% per anum as against 3.8% for the whole world. Causes of Difference in Density of Population 1.It is therefore clear that the rate of population growth in the country is influenced by the difference between the birth and death rates.The Punjab has the highest density of 230 persons.which are the busiest centres of trade and commerce.000 live in Baluchistan 2.The density.5 million in 1947 to 117. the high rate of growth is due to natural increase.The population is increasing at the rate of 3.2% for China.the total population by the year 2000 will touch 150 million.for Baluchistan.Pakistan has one of the highest rates of Population growth in the World.birth rate and death rate.the excess of births over deaths.Its study is important because through it the pressure on the land can be measured and also magnitude of the requirements of the people can be assessed .062.around Lahore.000 in NWFP 4332. that is.135 for Sindh. Therefore.That is why the population of rural area is migrating towards .so many industries have also developed around these areas.2% for Asia and Africa .At this speed of growth .migration.000 live in Islamabad (FATA-Fedrally Administered Tribal Area) Rate of Population Growth The growth of Population depends upon the net addition of the people which is related to the behavior of three factors.1% for Europe and average rate 1.as against 82 persons in 1972 census.Since Independence the population of Pakistan has increased four-fold from 32.varies widely between provinces.so the necessities of life can be had easily.The irrigation facilities are available .however.3% for India.The employment facilities in different industrial and commercial units are also available.5% for Mexico.029.000 live in Punjab 19.1.32 million on January 1.The surrounding areas.A .are very fertile.is estimated at 106 persons per sq. The density of population in Pakistan. Pakistan being a developing country provides no attraction for the people from the other parts of the world and so the influence of migration on its population growth is almost negligible .The more densely populated centres of Pakistan are situated in the Urban areas.148 for NWFP .km.6% for U.km.1992 of which : 47.compared to 12 persons per sq.S.198.It also becomes the base for economic planning.Faisalabad and Gujranwala.000 live in Sindh 11.00 live FATA 340.Besides.063.81 for FATA and 376 for Islamabad.

Those areas which are situated far away and where climate is intense. @import "/extensions/GoogleAdSense/GoogleAdSense.Jhelum and Dera Ghazi Khan districts.cantonment.Similarly in Sindh.there density of population is very low. municipality.Death Rate Death rate in Pakistan .these Urban centres and their population is increasing very rapidly.css".In 1988 it stood at 11 per 100 persons.000 persons or over).satellite town) and size (5.the density if population also differs in various regions.In 1988 it stood at 41 per 100 persons.Faisalabad.even the water for drinking purpose has to be brought from long distances.Besides. civilizations.inspite of the developments of the last more than three decades in the field of industry and commerce.irrigation facilities are not available . 3.Dadu and Sanghar Districts.Factors responsible for the high birth rate in our country are : (i) Climatic Conditions (ii) Poverty (iii) Ill-Literacy (iv) Social Convention (v) Psychology of the people (vi) Economic Conditions and to marry in the early age and (vii) Religious minded people.Birth Rate Birth rate in Pakistan also figures highest in the World.Hence. 4.The areas of Punjab and Sindh there irrigation facilities and other resources are available.Hyderabad.snowfall is common and the mean of transportation become ineffective the establishment of industries not possible in these areas due to scarcity of resources.The areas situated in the plains are more densely populated than the mountain.the vast majority of the population lives in rural areas.in winter.Lahore.It is because of this factor that the average age in Pakistan is below 30 years.Nawabshah districts are more densely populated than Tharparkar.particularly of women and infants is very high.town committee. Distribution of Population in Pakistan (A)Rural/Urban Distribution The basis of Urbanity of settlement in Pakistan is its administrative organization (metropolitan.Gujranwala. The table below gives the percentage of the population of Pakistan by Arban/Rural areas during the last four censuses: .In the plains .Larkana. 2. due to intense cold.because the mountains having pugged topography are not suitable for agricultural activities.regions.That these areas are thinly populated.rain is meager and there is scarcity of resources.Thatta. Birth and Death Rates 1.Multan districts are more dense than Attock. 2.density of population is more than the dry Barani areas.Pakistan is pre-dominantly an agricultural country.

.000 persons per square kilometer is in Karachi division and 1..largely a result of rural-urban migration.Rural 1951------------------------------17.closest and small buildings and residential over crowding ....Dense Population With the passage of time .the population is very sparse.due to that city's great urban.km......The distances to be covered are long and the means of transport and the width of the roads in adequate and these cities are also known as city of problems or city of smoke...984 persons per sq..the density falls as low as two.It is possible to grow good crops there.the old and the modern. 1..For example.The "freedom" of the city or the availability of greater job opportunities in the town acted as a magnet..Sparsely Populated Areas Before the advent of canal irrigation the population of rural areas was very sparse...For these reasons cultivation is difficult.in the hills and sandy wastes of Sindh and Baluchistan.. 2..commercial and industrial development.km.is found in Lahore division.low rainfall and soll that is either sandy or stone have resulted in barren or waste lands.other industrial districts like Faisalabad.with the help of irrigation.This is....sparsely populated areas in the country are : (i) The Northern and Western hill tracts (ii) The dry plateau of Baluchistan (iii) The desert areas of Thal..Thar and Cholistan In these regions..Census Year -----------------------Percentage of Population Rural . In most of the metropoliton centres..On the other side ..indicate a general acceleration of growth of urban population.In the same way. ..... Pakistan is essentially dry with a large area of un-productive and barren land.. The process of industrialization has involved marked shifts with the use of material and human resources...The modern sections have wide roads...Peshawar..Hyderabad. and in Chaghi and Kharan...2% 1961------------------------------22....where less than three percent of the area is cultivated.therefore.48%----------------------------------------74.impressive lay-out and expensive buildings.the village autonomy and solidarity crumbled under impact of economic forces conductive to rural urban migration.there are only 10 persons per sq.50%----------------------------------------77..Rawalpindi and Mardan are densely populated.After the construction of canals...Since..8%-----------------------------------------82.improvement of facilities has called to keep pace with the rapid growth of population and these cities can be said overgrown..The higher rate of growth of urban population is....72% Percentage figures of urban population to the total since the beggining of regular censuses in the country..new settlements grew in the irrigated areas of Sindh and Punjab and there was a continuous rise of population..the density of population is less than 50 persons per sq.problems of "Katchi Abadis" are also growing rapidly..By contrast...In the more barren regions of Kalat Division.28%----------------------------------------71....of course.The highest density-over 2..Also. The historical evolution of the cities has been such that they have two distinct parts.the fertile Indus plain supports a fairly dense population..The old city suffers from narrow roads and alleys.52% 1981------------------------------28.water became available to areas away from the rivers....It has altered the occupational large-scale movement of population from rural to the urban areas.As a result ..'Urban.The rate of natural increase of urban population has been lower than that of rural population....50% 1972------------------------------25..km.

232-------------------------------40.84% (iii) 65 years and above-4.40% of the total population have done their B.021 1992---------------------------11.321-------------34.961 1972---------------------------65.12% It will be observed that people falling in the age group (15 t 54) years may be considered working population which is 51.Similarly it is higher in men than in women. (D) Literacy-Wise Population In Pakistan the literate people in towns is higher than in villages.Ratio of educated men and women is 23% and 7.000-------------------------------56.5% respectively.7310------------61.04% (ii) 15 to 54 years-51.only 20% of the workers are educated .Male---------------------------------Female 1961-------------------------.42.Among the literate persons in Pakistan only 3.310 (estimated) (C) Distribution By Age According to 1981 census the distribution of population by age is as under: (1) Under 15 years-44.remaining 48.978-------------23.A Even fewer are highly educated.481 1981---------------------------84.According to the present census report.(B) Distribution of Sex The last three population censuses estimates and also that of 1992 are as follows: Census Year-----------------Total-------------.840-------------------------------30.017 -------------------------------19.84%.15% have been educated upto secondary school level or above.The high degree of dependency is due to the high proportion of children in the total population.Only 0. .16% is the dependent population .253-------------44.

Our Pakistan has got world's one of the most exellent system of irrigation.there fore severe floods are experienced. The Lower Indus Plain Below Mithonkot in Sindh.but the soil is very fertile.The economic activities of man are the greatest in the plains also the developed.Actually the plain areas are the gift of the Indus and its tributariesn .g. The area is marked by ox-bow lakes locally called "Dhoros" and small salt lakes called "Dhands".malze.. The land in the center of the doab rises to an elevated land called "bar" e.levelled lopography are suitable for the construction of canals.divided into several doabs e. .the Sandal Bar (in the middle of the Rechna Doab) and the Kirana Bar (in the middle of the Chaj Doab).food poducts and manufactured goods.cultured areas.rice . 3.therefore.These plains with gentle slope .sugar cane.The Punjab plain is.the Ganji Bar (the old course of the beas and the Ravi).cotton. 4. West of the Indus lies the high Kirtan prdment plain which slopes gently to the river. 6.The plain areas produce the bulk of food grains.The river flows very slowly and the silt carried by it is largely deposil on its bed.The level plain is largely made of fertile alluvium deposited by the river Indus and its rubutaries. 2.Mohen-jo-daro in Sindh and Harrappa in Punjab. The annually flooded riverine area is called "Bet" and agriculturally is the most important area. The land which lies between two rivers is known as "doab" .the Nili Bar (between the Sutlej and the Beas).the Chaj doab (land between the Chenab and the Jhelum) and the Sindh Sagar doab (land between the Kirana Bar (in the middle of the Chaj doab).tobacco and fruits are the main crops.g.material .g. the Indus carries not only its own water but also that of its five big tributarfes.Also these plains are the cradles of the old civilization e.Hence most of the Pakistan's greatest industries are located in the plains.Both upper and lower Indus plain are the most important agricultural areas in Pakistan . Economic Importance 1.The ease of mobility on plains also facilitates the exchange of foods.grains.vast market.civilized.hence Pakistan's roads and railways are found mobily in the plain areas.Chiniot and Sangla.agricultural raw .some old dry hills rise above the plain known as the Kirana hills.Wheat .oil seeds. The Sub Mountain plain area ..the Rechna doab (land between the Ravi and the Chenab).millets.The Bari doab (land between Sutlej and Ravi).greatest cities consontration of population in Pakistan are found in there areas. 5.Orly near Sargodha.barley.Plain The Upper Indus Plain The Northern part of Indus Plain is known as Punjab (West and East)nthe greater portion of which lies in Pakistan .west of the indus known as "Derajat" is divided into the districts of Dera Ghazi Khan and Dera Ismail Khan.

The Indus Delta The Indus Delta is marked by a number of tributaries of the Indus River.International trade with the out side world is carried on through its ports. Economic Importance The major part of the delta is burren.Population is very sparse Agriculture is carried on with the help of durigation.Fish is not only consumed as food internally.Also these ports have great defence value. Economic Importance The progress of any country depends upon its coastal importance.The eastern part is more swampy than the western.g.Agriculture is practiced in small patches. 2.in Pakistan.from Thatta to Arabian Sea.For this purpose.The Desert Regions There are three different desert areas located in Punjab and Sindh e.The irrigational facilities provided by the Kotri Barrage have made it possible to reclaim a vast area of the delta.Most of the area is barren.Also rearing of animals is carried on to some extent.The area in South of Bahawalpur is an arid waste of shifting sand and is known as "Cholistan".Most of the part is covered with mangrove swamps.: 1.but it is also a .Agriculture is carried out in small patches. Economic Importance Annual rainfall is less than 5.Majority of the coastal population are fishermen.Thal Desert: More than three fourth of the Sindh Sagar Doab is still a desert or semi-desert (in between Chenab-Jhelum and indus river).In the eastern parts of the Khairpur and Tharparkar districts.the desert areas are known as "Pat" and "Thar" respectively. 3.about 150 miles of which is in Sindh from Kutch to Karachi and about 450 miles long coast is in Baluchistan from Karachi to Jiwani.the ports of Karachi and port Qasim are of very great importance . Coastal Areas Pakistan has about 600 miles of coastline .

Pakistan occupies first position in Asia and second position in the world as an exporter of cotton and cotton products.A large number of concessions and incentives were given to the export trade section etc.Indeed as far as one may go back the balance of payment has been in the red.its export has gone higher enough.R..Foreign Trade of Pakistan INTRODUCTION When Pakistan came into being her economy was completely based on agriculture.still our imports are greater than the exports.Japan.The experts consisted of agricultural products only.K.Sri Lanka.K. The year 1991-92 was estimated to have closed with a balance of payment deficit of dollar 2.Germany and Sudan.S.S.The Export Promotion Bureau and Export Promotion Council were set up to provide assistance and information to potential foreign buyers.U..U.Our main customers of raw cotton are .6 billion plus.Various measures were adopted for export improvement.Hong Kong.Due to increasing demand.We export a large amount of cotton cloth every year.Cotton: Cotton ranks at the top of the export list of Pakistan.S.S.U.The balance of trade is unfavourable and deficit.Germany. (a) Cotton Cloth: Cotton fabrics are at the top of our export list. (b) Cotton Yarn : It is another important export item of our country..Its export is increasing every year.Pakistan participated in International Trade Conferences and Fairs.Singapore.Export of Raw cotton.Export promotion was regarded as one of the highest national commitments by the government.and Burma. Hong Kong..Experts increased and now these include industrial finished products as well as raw materials. Important Customers are Japan.U.W. Some of the customers of cotton cloth are U.As a result the pattern of trade in Pakistan changed. In spite of the different measures taken by the government for boosting the export. with the figure hovering over dollar 1 billion through out the last ten years or so. (c) Raw Cotton: Pakistan grows surplus amount of best quality long staple American Upland Cotton which is very much demanded all over the world. CHIEF EXPORT ITEMS OF PAKISTAN Following are the main items which may be included in our export list: 1.W.For the economic development of the country there was need for diversification of her trade and a change in her pattern.The government of Pakistan decided to industrialize the country as rapidly as possible.A.cotton cloth and cotton yarn together contribute approximately 40 to 42% to the total export earning of Pakistan.Karachi with the cotton growing hinterland has almost the monopoly of the trade.

Japan.S.Sri Lanka.Europe.Spain.Japan.Hong Kong.because of leather industries in our country export of hides and skin. 3.East Asian and some African countries.Belgium etc.Petroleum Products: There are 3 oil refineries in Pakistan where crude petroleum is imported and a number of petroleum products are being produced.Germ any etc. CHIEF IMPORT ITEMS OF PAKISTAN .Singapore and Bangladesh.Synthetic Textile Products: Pakistani Synthetic Textle Products are popular in various foreign countries.In the previous years rice was at the top of our export list but due to fluctuation in the world market. 6.Fish And Fish Preparations : Fish is exported.U.Indonesia.Sports Goods: Pakistan has a worthy name in exporting sports goods to more than 100 countries.Middle Eastern and South Asian countries (specially Sri Lanka) are also important customers of Pakistani fish and fish preparation. 9. 8.Italy. @import "/extensions/GoogleAdSense/GoogleAdSense.Pakistan exports a number of miscellaneous items like raw wool.Japan.are important markets in this regard.Other customers are mostly European countries including France. 2.Carpets.W. to various countries. Besides the above mentioned items..Tobacco.Switzerland.S.European.Singapore etc.Best qualities like Basmati and Irri-6 are exported.principally to W.Pakistan exports rice to almost all the Gulf States and Middle Eastern.K.A.Rice: Pakistan has emerged as one of the leading exporters of rice .Rugs And Mats: Pakistan earns a large amount of foreign exchange by exporting very fine quality carpets (both hand and machine made) rugs and mats.France etc.Due to heavy competition in world's market their demand is increasing.S.Italy.Italy. 5.A....canned and dried.African and South american countries.Now. 4.Fruits.China.Belgium.Germany.America and Canada. 7.Turkey. U.Shrimps are exported to Japan and U.Leather And Hides: Pakistan produces hides and skin worth approximately 2 crore every year of which 40 % are exported. is an important buyer of Pakistani carpets.U.France.Germany. canned fish finds its market mostly in W.Some of the surplus products are exported to India.css".rugs and mats.W.K.Vegetables etc .China.fresh.K.its demand has decreased.Thes are mainly exported to Middle Eastern.Romania.Surgical Instruments: Pakistan is also exporting surgical equipments to China.A.U.Italy.U.

A.U. and other European countries.A. 5.U.motorcycles.U.E and other Middle East countries.So demand of these are high and hence they are imported from Japan.S.K.We import mineral oil from Saudi Arabia.The local industries are not in in the position to meet the required demand so we have to import a large number of electric goods from Japan.Iran.K.U.S.Although the government has taken various measures to boost up the production of oil seeds.K.The chemicals and drugs are mainly imported from Japan.A.Tea: Our country produces a very small quantity of tea which is sufficient to meet the demand of our country.These colours and dyes are mainly imported from Japan .various kinds of colours and dyes are imported.Dyes And Colours: Various Industries of our country use a number of dyes and colours as raw material in their products such as textile.Paper And Paper Products: . and Palm oil from Malaysia and Indonesia.So to meet the deficiency. etc. and Europeian countries.we have to import a large amount of mineral oil from other countries.U.g.The machines are usually imported from Japan.g. 9.rickshaws.A.Transport Equipments: Our country needs different kinds of transport equipments e.Italy and other countries.Electric Goods: Different kinds of electrical goods are needed in our country . and other European countries..Machinery: As our country is in its developing stage.Edible Oil: The production of edible oil is is not sufficient to meet the demand of our Ghee industry.Mineral Oil: Our country is not self sufficient in our mineral oil requirements.Germany. 6.but inspite of those our country is still deficient in edible oil so we have to import enough amount of edible oil e.Tea is mainly imported from Sri Lanka. 7.S. 2.S. 4.India and Kenya.So various tea companies port huge amount of tea.Chemicals And Drugs: The economy of our country mainly demands on agriculture.Thus to meet all these demands of our agricultural sector.U..we have to import various kinds of chemicals and drugs from other countries.cars.The present oil production of our own country meets only about 24% of the country's requirements.so to get higher yield from different crops spray of various chemicals is essential.S. soyabean oil from U. 3..Following are the main items of our country: 1..we have to import different kinds of machinery to meet the demands of various industries.Bangladesh.inting etc. buses.A.U.A. so to meet the demand of all these industries. 8.

but we import so many kinds of goods.so the balance of trade remains to the .Germany.Sweden.g.A.electric goods.A. etc.K.Uzbekistan.Japan is the top buyer of our export goods in Asian countries.Our exports are less in comparison to the imports from these countries and balance of trade is in favour of these countries.Mexico.Hong Kong.and our imports are about three times greater than our exports.Our exports to these countries has been decreasing every year.S.transport equipments and various other items from Japan.chemicals and various other items from these countries. 5.U.cotton cloth and various other items.such as rice.our export to these countries has declined to some extent.Cotton cloth .Asian countries..Asian Countries: Japan.and imports have increase too much so due to these circumstance the balance of trade go in the favour of these countries.but we have to import large amount of machinery..Nether lands and other Scandinavian countries can be included:These countries are the main buyers of our export goods e.France.Canada and other countries can be included in this group.Middle East Countries: Saudi Arabia.such as machinery.U.such as we import palm oil from Malaysia and Indonesia and Tea from Sri Lanka and Bangladesh.We import mineral oil and various other items from these countries.electrical goods.Before 1971.chemicals. 4.Malaysia.rugs.S.Japan. .North American Countries: U. 3.The exports of our country to North American group is not progressive.D.W.carpets.West European Countries: In this group U.China.These countries are the top buyers of our export goods.Although all these countries are trying to make their balances of trade favourable.the balance of trade is in their favour.Indonesia and various other countries can be included in this group.sports goods and many other items and we import machines.E. 2.Pakistani exports to Turkey and Iran are quite enough.but due to oil crises and Iran-Iraq war.Singapore.So due to all these conditions the balance of trade remains in favour of these countries.A.are still deficient in paper especially in paper for newspaper industry. but our imports from these countries have increased enough.Belgium.C.Although.we had a number of paper mills our eastern wing and our requirements were fulfilled from the eastern . Countries: In this group are included Iran.Iraq.R.Azerbaijan and Turkmanistan.but inspite of various measures taken by the concerned countries still Pakistan's imports are greater than exports.after 1971 some paper mills were set up in the wster wing. and other Arab countries can be included in this group.We have to import a large amount of news print paper and other kinds of paper from Cnada.soybean oil and requirements for our armed forces and various other items.Thus due to heavy imports from these countries.Turkey and newly Independent Central Asian Republics namely Tajikistan. DIRECTION OF TRADE The global concentration of Pakistan's trade can be broadly classified to the following major groups of countries: 1.Besides Japan we do trade with others.

but our imports are comparatively less than our exports. cotton cloth. U. Romania. sports goods.so balance of trade is in favour of our country.. Hungary.favour of these countries.S. Greece and others. Besides the above we do trade with so many African.Such countries import large amount of our export goods such as rice.carpets and various other items .East European Countries: This group includes countries of eastern Europe such as Poland. 6. Yugoslavia. .S.R.central and South American countries and also the various Asian and Oceania countries.

air and waterways which have a limitation of not being extendable to every part of a country and as such.The density of the transportation pattern is very low in the Northern and North-Western hilly areas and in the Baluchistan Plateau.It also facilitates the arrangement for guarding the frontiers through mobilization of defence store and personnel to the far flung border areas.As the economy becomes more complex and interlinked.its maintenance cost is also comparatively very low and as such. Inland Transportation (A) ROAD TRANSPORTATION Importance: Road transport plays a vital roll in the economic development through mobilization of human and material resources available in the economy of a country.The following means of transportation are available in our country i) Inland transportation(roads and railways) .Such as rail.their utility as means of mobilization of resources is very much reduced.and the density of the transport network is an index of economic development.improvement and expansion can be effected easily and cheaply in comparison to other systems.Means of Transport Introduction: Transport and communication systems are vital to the economic health of a country.Above all.road transport does not require a huge investment and the return of investment made in it not spread over a very very long period.It supports and compliments the working of other transport systems. 1.It facilities trade and opens business opportunities by collecting goods from the producing centres and distributing them to different areas where they are needed.Such movements accelerate social welfare of the people and help the government in maintaining law and order within the country.Pakistan. Again.(ii) Waterways (river and ocean transportation and (iii) Air transportation.Vast tracts of land are either totally devoid of any modern facilities or very inadequately served.is a relatively large country of diverse topography.adjustments and improvements must be made in the means of transport and communication.But today the thronged with .It promotes foreign trading by arranging the distribution of imported goods and collection of indigenous products to be sent abroad it serves as a mean of creating link between the urban and rural sectors and facilitates the movement of the people all over the country.its development.The reverse is true of the mountainous areas and this fact is reflected in the present in the present distributional pattern of means of transport and communications.Development of Transportation network in the plain areas is comparatively easy and economically rewarding. Road Transportation in Pakistan: All the time Pakistan was created there was not much vahiculay traffic on roads except bullock carts and other animal drawn carts .

trucks.Besides this the requirements of rural and urban areas of Baluchistan are fulfilled through this road.Raiwind.Nawabshah. This road links Karachi Port with other interior parts of our country.Gujrat.Sewan Sharif.This road connects the areas of N.Torkham.Jacobabad-Sibi: This is third important road of our country.station wagons. 4.connects various important cities of Baluchistan Province.It has strategic and economic importance.Okara.Jhelum.with Baluchistan Province.it has been rebuilt and is known as the Super Highway.a small border town near the border of Afghanistan.In many regions.Its distance is about 410 kilometers.reaches upto .Patt oki.this road run parallel to the railway line at some places due to heavy traffic from Hyderabad to Karachi.css".Chaman. 5.the density of the road network is still inadequate and the condition of most roads is unsatisfactory in quality.such as dry fruits etc. @import "/extensions/GoogleAdSense/GoogleAdSense.This road passing through different parts of Sindh Province.Its distance is about 834 kilometers from Karachi to Chaman. Although road traffic is increasing rapidly.All the big cities situated on this road are linked with other small towns and villages through small roads.Dera Ismail Khan.Its length is about 1735 kilometers.This road passes from the following towns and cities.Rahimyar Khan.Bannu.Hyderabad.Khanewal.National logistic cell established in 1978 is performing great service by transporting essential commodities to and from Karachi Port Inland. Principal Roads: The main roads of Pakistan are as follows: 1.Karachi to Torkham via Lahore: This is the longest and an important road of Pakistan.Kohat and Peshawar. and separation of up and down carriageways.a big highway is under construction.Larkana.width.Dadu.The import and export of Afghanistan goes through this road.The distance from Dera Ismail Khan to Quetta is 555 kilometers.Rohri to Quetta via Sukkur.Bahawalpur.Multan.Gujranwala.come to Karachi through this road.Nowshera.Peshawar.This road beginning from Karachi passing through the remote areas of Baluchistan Province. 3.Slow moving carts mingle with modern vehicular traffic and accidents and traffic jams are frequent.P .Karachi to Thatta.Lahore.Its distance from Karachi to Peshawar will be about 1220 kilometers and it is expected that it will be completed upto 1993.It is also known as the grand trunk road.This road also goes from Dera Ismail Khan to Peshawar via Bannu and Kohat.This highway will connect the following cities:Karachi.cars and motorcycles.buses.Dera Ghazi Khan.Rawalp indi.W. .Dera Ismail Khan to Quetta via Fort Sandeman: This is also an important road of our country.Kashmir .jeeps.Karachi to Chaman via Kalat and Quetta: This is the second largest and an important road of Pakistan.Shikarpur.F. 2.Sahiwal.The products of Baluchistan Province and trade with other province is mainly performed through this road.The products of Afghanistan .Rohri.Third National Highway: On the right bank of Indus River.

After the creation of Pakistan coal became a scarce commodity .Hasanabdal.and a large amount of foreign exchange is being saved also.(5315 miles) of railways .Besides this.Gujranw ala.2339 passengers coaches and 34851 freight wagons.Quetta.is 1045 miles or 1682 kilometers.Rohri to Chaman via Sukkur.R awalpindi.Trains can go up and down lines simultaneously.Karachi to Quetta via Kotri. Multan.907 stations and 78 train halts.At some places metre gauge track has been changed into broad gauge track.to which much addition has not been made.Its distance from Karachi city to peshawar cantt.The extension work has hampered because of difficulties in maintaining and running the existing railways.Jhelum.The products of Afghanistan such as fruits etc.a town situated near the border of Afghanistan.electrification of Railway track from Lahore to Khanewal has been completed and work of electrification to Samasatta Railway track is under progress.This line passing through Lahore (Pakistan Railway Headquarter) connects the biggest port of Pakistan(Karachi) with other cities of the country.Pakistan had to change its engines from coal to diesel which required money and time.Pattoki.Khairpur.but from Raiwind to Lodhran.Nawabshah.Lalamusa.Texila.Okara.Kotri.This line connects the port of Karachi with various cities of Baluchistan Province and reaches upto Quetta.Bahawalpur.This line has been further extended from Quetta to Zahidan via Nokundi .Workshop had also to be remodelled to to repair and maintain them. 3.Larkana.Its distance is about 323 miles.Therefore.(B) RAILWAYS Introduction: Railways are the convenient and quick means of transport of people and goods particularly heavy items.Rahimyar Khan.The following are the important stations situated on this route eshawar.Sahiwal. Pakistan Railways comprise of 8775 route kilometers.reach various provinces through this route.Hyderabad.Its major assets include 753 locomotives.The locomotives in Pakistan were run by coal.over long distances.Dadu.At present. Electric trains are being run between Lahore and Khanewal and further extension work is under progress.Raiwind.It is estimated that the expenditure of oil consumption have been reduced due to the use of electricity. Railway Routes Following are the principle routes at Pakistan railways: 1. It is a double line from Lodhran to Karachi and Lahore to Raiwind. .Gujrat.it reaches from Rohri to Chaman.Rohri.Lahore. Pakistan inherited 8554 km.Peshawar to Karachi via Lahore: This is the main line of Pakistan railway.it is a single line track and trains have to stop at various stations to pass the trains coming from the opposite site.Kara chi.Attock.Chaman: The distance of this route is 239 miles.Nowshera. 2.Another problem was the availability of railways are switching to concrete sleepers.Khanpur.Khanewal.Wazirabad.Jacobabad: This is also an important route of Pakistan railway.

It goes to U.In 1970-71 and 1971-72 .8 million (1970-71) to 6. Waterways (A)RIVER TRANSPORTATION: Rivers were the chief means of transportation in ancient times.In all PIA serves 43 International stations.There was a little set back because of political disturbances in East Pakistan and its eventual position in 1971.It also links small places which have transport difficulties like Gilgit .Russia etc.Pakistan International Airlines (PIA) is established by an ordinance. Hong Kong and Japan.Peshawar to Multan via Attock.Lalamusa to Khanewal via Sargodha.Faisalabad: This is also a branch line passing through various commercial centres and meets the main line near Lala Musa.PIA'S network extends from Tokyo to Newyork and Toronto. In PIA.and Quetta.within a few years engineering facilities will be further developed and production facilities will be geared up to undertake manufacturing and repair work.It goes to India. Peshawar.2 million in 1981-82.K .1992 Pia's fleet comprised of 47 aircrafts of different types. China. Singapore.more than three times increase was registered.Pasni.From Karachi there are connecting flights to various countries of Middle East.The result of this expansion has been that the number of the passengers and Cargo handled by PIA has greatly increase in 1955-56 PIA carried 1.In other ten years 1970-71 the increase was 3 times.A.1991.The Orient Airways was too small to meet the growing needs of the country.Two more companies quickly stand up namely the Pak-air Limited and Crescent Airways.Since then the conditions have started to improve steadily.Italy.4. (C) AIR TRANSPORT in 1947 a small air company.By 1952 the two new companies were dissolved.That is why most of the . Multan.two convairs and ten Dakutas.Kundian.The increase was phenomenal rise took place in international traffic from 0.5 million (1980-81). Karachi Airport of our country has gained the position of an International Airport.Lahore. It is a stopping point for flights from Europe to Far East and Australia and also for flights from China to Africa. Faisalabad.It connects many Europeon countries like U. Thailand.The Orient Airways was merged in the new company which now monopolizes air transport in Pakistan.In June.It has wide links outside Pakistan.The progress in Cargo handled by PIA as equally glorious. Hyderabad.France.Therefore.S.In ten years time the passenger traffic increased from 1.Gwadar.in April 1955.1 million passengers which was more than double in flye years time.Mari Indus. 2.Chitral.the Orient Airways.In 1955-56 only 1.Multan: This is a branch line which reaches from Multan to Attock and meets the main line. Islamabad. 5.three super constellation .Mashed in Iran as added as a new destination.It started its life with a fleet of 15 aircrafts. The PIA services are available to some large cities like Karachi. The Pakistan International Airline has made a phenomenal progress since it Inception.5 million in 1970-71 to 3. Bangladesh.It connects most of the countries of the Middle East and a few African countries.In all PIA serves 35 domestic stations.Skurdo.As on February 29.Operated in Pakistan.Germany.Like Mohenjo Daro.In another ten years (198081).Turbal and Jiwani and important historical places.00 tons of cargo was carried that increased by about 7 times in five years (195960).

There were three old ships with a dead weight of 18.In 1965.By 1970 the corporation had 31 vessels with dead weight of 336.its ships started to go to Singapore.The West Wharves and a dry dock for the construction and repair of ships have been built since independence.Expenses such as those involved in the building of roads and railway tracks are avoided as the running cost of boats is low.716 tons.More than 40 ships began to operate.China and Japan.The port has more than 25 berths.constructed over 50 years ago.To manage them Pakistan shipping corporation was established.plus a petroleum dock.The ports dry general cargo handling capacity.77 million freight tons during the previous-half year ending December 31.Further expansion of shipping enterprise was felt necessary.The government therefore became a member of U.1990. Shipping: Pakistan is started its life with a frail base in shipping sector.are transported from one place to another with the help of small boats. Karachi.Its ship began to operate on U. Rivers are probably the cheapest means of transportation. in 1964.The Indus carries sufficient water and is navigable from Attock to its delta which is about a distance of 960 miles.is still less than the actual .When compared with that of engines and trains .In 1974.stones etc.In 1963 a new shipping policy was adopted which among other things.Almost all the goods from foreign countries were brought on foreign ships and heavy drain of foreign exchange was taking place.though considerably increased in the past.The corporation has a dead weight of 352.The PNSC's development programme includes the acquisition of a bulk carrier for shipments of rock phosphate.K.Different kinds of Items such as timber.Hong Kong .Continent Conference line .four bulk carriers for shipments of iron ore and coal imported by Pakistan Steel and three container vessels for handling containerized general cargo trade.These 71 Pakistani ships were handling the entire interwing trade (East Pakistan-West Pakistan trade) and 14 % of the foreign sea-borne trade and could carry 6600 passengers.timber wood is transported by means of rivers.K.has been modernized.1991 the corporation handled 2.Today.000 tons.only cheap.bulky and non-perishable goods are carried by rivers.Besides there were 40 ships owned by other companies established in Pakistan.In 1979.It has a vast hinterland comprising not merely Pakistan and that part of Kashmir which is not under indian occupation but also Afghanistan.S.Red sea and Persian Gulf areas were tapped.In 1966.is Pakistan's only large port. At present there are 22 vessels owned by PNSC.the two corporations were merged under the name of Pakistan National Shipping Corporation (PNSC).grains.There is insufficient water in our rivers all the year round for large boats to use them easily.74 million freight tonnes of cargo as against 2.A. Karachi Port: Located west of the Indus Delta on the Arabian Sea coast.ancient cities grew up along the courses and at the junctions of rivers.sanctioned the purchase of 35 ships.Karachi Port has served Pakistan since its inception..an edible oil tanker for shipments of palm oil.continent route and U.In mountainous regions of our country . 1.931 tonnes.The East Wharf .Karachi is a natural harbour sheltered behind the island of Keamari and a break-water at Manora.a major port by world standards.During the same year National Shipping Corporation was established.th e private shipping companies were nationalized. (B)OCEAN TRANSPORTATION The import and export of Pakistan are mainly carried through Ocean transport.During the first half of the year ending December31.

Cargo Handling: Cargo handled at Port Bin Qasim during July March 1991-92 was 5.the harbour is very crowded. @import "/extensions/GoogleAdSense/GoogleAdSense. 2.the port will have special facilities for handling iron ore.was completed by 1987-88.2% above the corresponding period of the previous year.152 million tonnes of import and 0.000 dead weight oil tanker berth. coal and steel mill machinery.The fourth project of Karachi port included.the construction of 75.the necessity of a new port was felt.css".Port Mohammed Bin Qasim.including 5. .the two respectively being C and over 14 million tons per annum.7 million tons (11 million tons of import and 3.semi bulk and industrial port of the country is situated 53 kilometers south east of the Karachi Port.Most of the work in phase 1 has been completed and the port has started functioning.After examining a number of areas.with modern container terminals.Much has been done to improve the port in four projects .7 million tons of export) .which is 4.It has improve the old handling capacity of the port from 5 to 10 million tonnes per annum.Port Mohammed Bin Qasim Authority was established and the work on the port was started.768 million tonnes. Besides handling general cargo like rice.A master plan had been prepared for the development of the port and the first set of 8 berths.cement.finally a site for the new port was selected at Pilli Creek.which is the first bulk.fertilizers etc.and long delays in entering the port are usual .In June 1973.the Karachi port handled a cargo volume of 14. Cargo Handling: During the first nine months of the Financial year ending March 1992.The dry general cargo handling capacity of the port improved by 2 million tonnes.616 million tonnes of export goods.with most ships double-berthed.In the first phase the port shall have 8 berths and 12 more will be added in the second phase.among other works.close to Pakistan Steel Mill. Port Mohammed Bin Qasim: In view of the increasing work the Karachi Port had to perform.As a result.amount of cargo handled.

Industrial .

However modern means of transportation have opened the world market and decreased dependance on the local market.Modern complex industries consume large amount of power.In 70-71 the ratio increased upto 16.The consuming market should not be remote from the industries.thermal power .The factors are called the localization factors and are as follows: 1. 2.Labour: Labour of its three types: 1)Skilled 2)Unskilled and 3)Management and labour staff.Fuel must be easily available at the selected site.Raw Materials: No Industry can be established without availability of raw materials.otherwise the delivery of the manufactured items will add immensely to the cost.35%.Proximity to The Market: The ultimate purpose of all production is consumption.To restrict dependance on Indian industrial centres.31% .In 78-79 the ratio declined to 14.we cannot still claim to be an industrially developed country. Today the large soule industries have 19.Power Resources: An industry can not run without the supply of energy and power.5% of the national income.mineral oil and small quantity of coal (due to low production) is used as power in Pakistani industries.Pakistan has attained a fairly diversified base in manufacturing ranging from essential consumer goods to heavy engineering.it became essential to set up basic industries.The modern means of transportation have made possible to tap distant sources of raw material.Our economy still depends upon the agricultural sector and import of various industrial products from other countries. 4.chemicals and tools industry.They should be easily accessible otherwise the expenses incurred on their acquisition become immense . In 1949-50 manufactured items accounted for only 1.natural gas.9% share in our GNP. Abundant and cheap supply of all kinds of labour should be available at the site of the .To overcome this handicap the government encouraged the establishment of new industries based on local raw material which was sufficiently available.INTRODUCTION The Industrial base of Pakistan Pakistn at the time of Independence was very weak.Inspite of this enormous progress.After 10 years the ratio improved to 5 %. 3.Water power. LOCALIZATION FACTORS There are some important geographical and economic factors which exercise a great influence on the Localization of any industry. Not more than 35 important industries fell to Pakistan's share.

C .Suitable Climate: Climate determines the working power and efficiency of labourers and also the economy of the products. The making of textiles employs over 200.we earn a large amount of foreign exchange from the export of cotton yarn and cloth.availability of means of transport (may it be by air. Review of Progress: The country had 18 cotton mills in 1948 with 1. 8.F.Unfortunately we are not self sufficient in the supply of skilled labour which is a great handicap for our local industries.I.PICIC AND ICP are institutions in our country which are playing an indispensable role in the industrial development of our country by providing financial help to our industries.Political Conditions: Areas at a safe distance from politically explosive regions and enemy territories are preferred for industrial location.It also makes the largest contribution to the GNP.PIDC.sea or land)is indispensable.industry. 5.Different kinds of industries require different kinds of climate. 7.In .D.It is a broad industry and involves spinning i. (A) COTTON TEXTILE INDUSTRY Importance: Cotton textile industry is the biggest industry of Pakistan. 6.Apart from its basic contribution of fulfilling the need at home.e.cotton production.We have to import skilled labour which adds to our cost.B.The total production of yarn was 3 crore pounds and that of cloth amounted to 9 crore yds.Their production was altogether inadequate for the country's requirements and a large quantity of cloth and yarn had to be imported.824 looms. Generally speaking.P.Government Encouragement: Encouragement and incentive from the side of the government is an important localisation factor for any industry.000 persons in Pakistan which is more than 1/3rd of all those employed in large scale industries.D.Easy Availability of Capital: It is an accepted fact that modern industrialization is impossible without the large supply of capital.Easy and large supply of capital is an important factor for the localization of any industry.N. Resources were available for its development.The government gave priority this industry made the greatest progress.e. temperate climate is most suitable as it stimulates people to work harder.Means of Transportation: In these days of specialized and diverse trading operations.These means should be easily and quickly available and should also be cheap to minimize cost of production.yarn production and weaving i. 9.77 lac spindles and 4.Pakistan forms the base of world Cotton textile industry.

The Biggest Textile Centre: After the establishment of Pakistan...... 4..Karachi is not located in cotton growing area......16......banking facilities.... In addition to Karachi ..Multan.Lahore.now in every big city of all the four provinces.the biggest centre of cotton textile industry in Pakistan.....Rawalpindi..It had the advantage of availability of capital ......because this industry is export oriented.. @import "/extensions/GoogleAdSense/GoogleAdSense... ...Hyderabad....Anthar..4827..Okara....Tando Adam.......Jh elum...bussiness ability of families which migrated to Karachi.and increase in wages of labour along with the reported fall in its productivity....Khairpur...Looms Working 1989-90.1964-65 the number of factories was more than 120.6465.......5 yds.F..Both production and exports of its products had drastically fallen during these years....Nowshehra...humid climate... Installed Capacity Installed Capacity of Textile Industry ( in thousands) Year..... Cotton Textile Centres: Karachi..........fine labour........Sargodha.8 (July-March) ..Spindles Installed..These are as follows: 1.... .railway and road links with cotton growing areas.Haripur........P: Peshawar.......K...Today we have 200 cotton textile mills in recognized sector.Charsadda.Spindles Working.easy availability of sui gas etc..Pakistan had suffered particularly.. 2..As regards to production of yarn.Harappa.......6141..Looms Installed....15. 3.N...Punjab: Faisalabad.Rahimyar Khan...Bannu...It increased to 14...................4416..this industry faced a severe recession due to both to domestic and international factors...G..css"................15.in 1967-68......Kohat.. ..Tando Mohammed Khan..the first mill named as Valika Cotton Textile Mill was established at Karachi in 1948.. After 1974......Kotri etc....D........Tando Jam...8 1991-92..5569..D.Baluchistan: Quetta... 2) Domestically there were several unfavourable developments..Hazar a..Yet it soon became and is still..Larkana..K...Sheikhupura....cotton textile mills have been set up.......W.....I....Many factors were responsible......The major causes of the crises of the cotton textile industry had been : 1) Tall in demand for the products of this industry in the international market in the face of glut in production in several countries......5195..Lasbela.Although ....Sindh: Karachi......8 1990-91..such as rise in price of cotton due to fall in cotton production.

.overhead traveling cranes and boilers...S.We are now excited from the list of importers in this connection..........Metre): Year.911...... At present .Export orders which are under process have also been received from Bangladesh.....U..The major export markets of Pakistani cotton fabrics are EEC.....233....292..810..332100........Value (Million $) .At present 12 cement plants and 19 sugar plants produced by the complex have been installed.....041.S.839 1990-91 ....65 (B) IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY Introduction: In the first phase of Industralization in Pakistan.Syria...A cement plan has been exported to Bangladesh and 3 sugar plants to Indonesia and Bangladesh....road bulldozers.Quantity(MT) ....240 million............1991-92 ...997 (July-March) Position of Trade: The country is now self-sufficient in varieties of cotton cloth and cotton yarn....294..346615.73...911 1991-92 .axles of wagons......It was soon felt that the establishment of basic industries like Iron and Steel were essential for the economic development of the country.Pakistan heavy engineering industry comprises of the following units: 1.Its annual production capacity is 17.Iran.....1990-91..................587.588 1990-91 ..860....786..248 1991-92 . ........Kenya and ......000 tonnes of various types of complete machines and plants which include sugar and cement plants..486. It was completed in 1970 with the technical and economic assistance of the people's Republic of China involving a total cost of Rs...819 (b) Production of Cotton Cloth (thousand Sq.....Canada and Saudi Arabia.A..1990-91.............the emphasis was on the development of consumer goods industry.861.....782...): Year.Iran....1991-92 Cotton Yarn.....U......Production: (a) Production of Cotton Yarn(thousand Kg.92. Exports(July-March): ..chemical and petro chemical plants... ...A vigorous search for iron ore and other minerals was started..Heavy Mechanical Complex-Taxila: HMC Taxila is one of the most important industries of the 3rd five year plan of Pakistan in the overall scheme of establishing basic and key industries in the country.Production 1989-90 .53 Cotton Fabrics.S.Australia...R..railway wagons.Production 1989-90 .1.

......... Production Performance(000 tonnes): Items................ ....... Employment: The employment level at Pakistan Steel was 23................ ....swiss firm at Landhi in Karachi.......It was completed at a cost of Rs.. 1973..1991. The average capacity utilization in terms of raw steel was 76% during 1991-92. ...billets.1992 compared with 23..when in full production.R........35 Formed Sections..................1991-92(July-March) Coke..................................111.....1013..............S..660 Pig Iron....1............hot rolled sheets/plates..................30......386......32 million in .......712.............296 Cold Rolled Coils.81........audaxles for trucks.heavy Foundry and Forge Project-Taxila: This project was set up with the technical and financial assistance of the people's Republic of China in 1972 and is one of the biggest project of this kind in Pakistan...........It has a production capacity equivalent to 1.48 Hot Rolled Coils....500 million with the economic and technical assitance of U. Installed Capacity: Pakistan Steel is a huge engineering complex and is producing coke......176 Cast Billets........Pakistan Steel Mill (Karachi): The foundation stone of Karachi Steel Mill was laid down on December... 3.... ...--@import "/extensions/GoogleAdSense/GoogleAdSense....pig iron.......1990-91.....................................S...........The completion of the steel mill is a shining milestone which leads the way to a new era of progress in the nation's economy..252.........2............... ..css".............99 Galvanized Coils..........tractors etc.............Azerbaijan..842 as on March 31. Sales Turnover: The sales turnover of Pakistan steel increased from Rs.....42.............................965 on December 31......... 4.................... ........ .............55.... ......Pakistan Machine tool Factory-Landhi: This factory was established in collaboration with a.galvanised sheets etc.....6669 million during July-March 1991-92 as compared with Rs.......jeeps... 2. This biggest industrial enterprise in the country is the precursor of countless economic benefits.....1 million tonnes of raw steel per anum with a built in potential to expand to over 3 million tonnes............. It is planned to provide a metallurgical base to the heavy engineering sector...cold rolled sheets/plates.....6500 million during July-March 1990-91 to Rs.......will be able to fully meet the requirements of heavy castings and forgings of the engineering units of Pakistan.......It is a highly sophisticated engineering facility which is producing transmission components and automobile parts since 1968....Its major products are gear boxes..766 Rolled Billets.......The project.......

(C) CEMENT INDUSTRY Introduction: Cement is one of the vital resources needed by a developing country .00 tonnes. Cement Factory-Rohri.registering an increase of 165% during a period of 10 years. 160.This industry has recorded satisfactory progress in the past because specific raw material of this industry i.Its name was Maple Leaf cement plant.1 million tonnes.the units of cement industries were also nationalized along with other industrial units consequently.July-March.Dalmian Cement Factory-Dandot.in view of the large amount of capital required in this industry.That is why Pakistan can not only become self-sufficient in cement productio.000 tonnes 2.but can also become an exporter of cement. 180.However.Consequently.Zeal Pak cement plant was set up at Hyderabad in 1965 which was later expanded in 3 stages and now has an installed capacity of 108.7 million tonnes to 3.As a result cement had to be imported to meet the domestic demand.Associated Ltd.000 tonnes 4.000 tonnes in 1959-60 increased to 2.Cement Factory-Wah.7 million tonnes in 1969-70 .the production of cement was limited between 2. The demand for cement had been steadily increasing which induced the private investors to further invest in this industry .00.000 tonnes.All cement industries were given under the control of a corporation named "Pak State Cement Corporation".The groeth of this industry is well reflected in the establishment of a number of new cement projects in the country. Impact of Nationalization in 1972: In 1972. 500.with the annual production capacity of 300.the annual production capacity of cement which was 10.Pakistan has so far been producing cement to meet the domestic requirements only.Associated Ltd.gypsum. Review of growth: Position at the time of Establishment: The cement industry is the only industry which was luherited by Pakistan because at the time of independence there were 4 cement factories in the country: 1.The 2nd.e.Dalmian Cement Factory-Karachi.000 tonnes 3. 90.80. First Phase of Development: The investment in the cement industry of Pakistan was initiated by the PIDC with the setting up of 2 cement plants of which 1 was set up at Daud Khel.000 tonnes Total production capacity of all the 4 factories = 4. Performance upto the End of the 6th Plan: .limestone and a particular soil is quite abundant in Pakistan.000 tonnes.1990-91.The cement industry is one of the heavy industries of Pakistan. The Second Phase of Development: The second phase of development of cement industries started during the sixties with the setting up of 3 cement factories in the private sector.

rice and wheat straws.to 6.the production capacity of cement units in the public sector was also expanded during the 5th and 6th five Year Plans.F.Were lying un-utilized and in abundance in the eastern wing.Those projects caused unprecedented increase in the domestic demand for cement in the country and we had to depend on large scale import of cement to meet this increased demand.In addition to that .000 tonnes of cement was imported.7762 1991-92 .P: .12 units with a capacity of 5169 thousand tonnes are in the public sector and 11 units with a capacity of 2966 thousand tonnes are in the private sector.port qasim.jute stalks etc.Before the existence of Pakistan there was no paper industry in our country.Adamjee Paper Mills (Nowshera)N. Production(000 tones): 1989-90.000 tonnes was imported.many paper mills were set up in Pakistan.20.However with the passage of time.the total production of cement increased from 3.42 (D)PAPER INDUSTRY Introduction: Paper was first invented in 100 A.Domestic raw materials like bamboos.7 million tonnes in 1986-87.Two big paper mills were established in East Pakistan which not only made Pakistan self sufficient in writing.the private sector was induced to invest in this industry.31 1990-91 . In view of the steadily increasing demand for cement .the government undertook various development projects for the reactivation of the private sector such as the completion of steel mills.40 million tonnes in 1977-78.in china.while in 1982-83.in 1981-82.7488 1990-91 .expansion of highways. Important Paper Mills: At present.railway lines.Consequently .There were only a few paper mills in the western wing.D.million): 1989-90.construction of new dams.159 1991-92 .8095 (July-March) Provisional Exports(Rs.by the end of the 6th plan.6.After 1971.Out of these.following are the paper mills in our country: 1.development of the under developed regions.In 1978. Installed Capacity: At present 23 cement units are operating in the country with a capacity of 8135 thousand tonnes .printing and wrapping papers but also placed it in a position to export.All the paper requirements were imported from abroad.900.the supply of paper from Bangladesh stopped and we had to depend on imported paper.W.Consequently .

W.The waste of sugarcane (bagasse) is used as raw material which comes from sugar industry .F. Thus the government allowed to set up a number of factors for the manufacturing of tobacco products.Hyderabad Plant Paper(Sindh): A plant of paper has been recently completed at Hyderabad to meet the newspaper requirements which uses the waste of rice as raw material. Imports of Paper and Paper Board: During July-March 1990-91.Nowshera(N.Sukkar.Maripur.P: Wood pulp is used as raw material.Karachi (Landhi.P).There is a hard board industry at Nowshera (N.Packages Industry (Lahore)Punjab: Uses wood pulp as raw material.In the beginning there was no factory for the manufacturing of tobacco products and we had to export most of our tobacco in raw shape and had to import tobacco products from other countries.During the same period in 1991-92 the value of imports stood at dollar 111.Gharoo Paper Mills (Gharoo)Sindh: It uses waste of rice as raw material.the value of paper and paper board imported stood at dollar 99. 4. 5.Mardan.32279 1990-91 .W.so we saved a large amount or foreign exchange.Its producing capacity is 5000 tonnes of hardboard which is mostly needed for packing purposes.Rahwali Paper Mills(Gujranwala)Punjab: It produces hardboard and brown paper.85 million.F.P) Production(Million Nos.88 million.W.Today we have not only become self sufficient in our tobacco to other countries.Mardan)N.Lahore(Punjab). 2.F. (E) CIGARETTES INDUSTRY A large amount of tobacco is being cultivated in various parts of our country and we produce enough amount of tobacco every year. 3. 6.Charsada Paper Mills (Charsada.29887 1991-92 .): 1989-90.(Sindh). There are 25 cigarettes manufacturing units situated at Jhelum Multan.22575 (July-March) .

Power Resources

Introduction Energy is the essential need of the present age.Pakistan is selfsuffitient to the extent of about 67% of its energy supply.The rest is being met through imports,mainly of crude petroleum and deficit petroleum products.The following are the main power resources of our country: 1.Coal 2.Petroleum of Mineral Oil 3.Natural Gas 4.Hydro-Electric Power About 42 % of energy in Pakistan is obtained from oil,35% from Natural gas,12% from hydle power and 4% from coal. (A) COAL Usage: Coal is described as the mother of modern Industry.It is at the back of the rapid Industrial development of the great industrial powers which might not have been possible without its presence. Coal is unique among natural products in the number of uses to which it can be put.The main function of coal is to run the factories ,the locomotives and the steam ships.Supplying heat for domestic purposes is of secondary importance.Apart from these,coal tar,dyes,perfumes,colour films,sewing thread and typewriter ribbons are some of the 200,000 by products derived from coal. Occurrence Coal Mines of the Punjab: 1.Salt Range Mines: The coal found in these areas is of low quality.The main centres of coal in this area are Dandot and Pidh.Besides,some coal is also mined at Ara Katha,Chilaj,Pir Jahania etc.Reserves are estimated at 70 million tonnes. 2.Makarwal Coal Mines: These are second important coal mines of Baluchistan .The coal found here is of poor quality and reserves are small . 3.Degari Coal Mines: The coal found here is of low quality,having more ash and sulphur content.Reserves are estimated at 54 million tonnes. Besides the above mentioned coal mines .Some coal has also been discovered in other areas of Baluchistan such as Pir Ismail,Ziarat,Sinjidi and Kach,but extraction of coal has not been started from those places. Coal Mines Of Sindh: 1.Lakhara Coal Mines:

The coal found here is of inferior quality lignite and has a high moisture content.Reserves are about 22 million tonnes. 2.Meting Jhimpir Coal Mines: The seams of coal are thin and are of poor quality.Reserves are about 28 million tonnes. Besides coal has been discovered in other areas of Pakistan such as Cherat hills.Nowshera in N.W.F.P and at Kotli,Kuiratta,Dandili and Muzaffarabad in Azad Kashmir ,but due to inferior quality and small quantity,mining is uneconomical. Total Reserves: Coal has been the traditional source of energy and its resources are estimated to the tune of 17.77 billion tonnes.

(B) MINERAL OIL OR PETROLEUM Usage: The use of petroleum as a power resource is indispensable.Today,it illuminates the houses and runs ships,locomotives and factories.It is of great significance for automobiles and aeroplanes.As a source of lubricant petroleum has no rival. It provides a number of by-products e.g.gasoline,petrol,diesel oil,kerosene oil,furnace oil,road oil,wax,naphtha,benzine etc.It remaining dust is used in the cement industries.It is also an important raw material for many chemical textile and pharmaceutical industries. @import "/extensions/GoogleAdSense/GoogleAdSense.css"; Occurrence: Punjab 1.Dhurnal oil Field (Dist.Chakwal,Punjab) 2.Meyal Oil Field (Dist.Attock,Punjab) 3.Toot Oil Field(Dist.Attock ,Punjab) 4.Chak Naurange Oil Field (Dist.Chakwal,Punjab) 5.Joya Mir Oil Field(Dist.Attock,Punjab) 6.Dhulian Oil Field(Dist.Attock,Punjab) 7.Khur Oil Field(Dist.Attock,Punjab) 8.Balkasar Oil Field (Dist.Chacwal,Punjab) 9.Karsal Oil Field(Dist.Chakwal,Punjab) 10.Adhi Oil Field(Dist.Rawalpindi,Punjab) 11.Bhangli Oil Field(Dist.Rawalpindi,Punjab) Sindh 1.Laghari Oil Field(Dist.Badin,Sindh) 2.Tando Alam (Dist.Hyderabad,Sindh) 3.Thora Oil Field(Dist.Badin,Sindh) 4.Dhsbi Oil Field(Dist.Badin,Sindh) 5.Khashkheli Oil Field(Dist.Badin,Sindh)

However.8 million tonnes per year.NRL is also processing indigenous crude from new find at Legari-Khashkheli.Ghunghro.Of these . Occurrence: The country is well endowed with natural gas. The production of oil increased from 53.Sono Ghotana Central Lashari Besides the above in Sindh province at Gularchi Bobi Pasakhi.Kunner.during the period July-March .Oil has also been discovered and experimental processes and under progress.Three refineries are operating in the country.Turk.so Attock Oil Company . (b) Dhullian Gas Field: Mineral oil has been discovered at this place in 1937. (C) NATURAL GAS Usage: Natural Gas is an important means of energy.Pakistan Refinery Limited (PRL) and National Refinery Limited (NRL) are located at Karachi and Attock Refinery Limited (ARL) at Rawalpindi.481 barrels per day in 1989-90 to 64.PRL and NRL have refining capacity of 1.This gas field is considered as one of the biggest gas fields of the world and gas is being supplied to different parts of our country from this field through pipe lines. Oil Refining: At present.Panero.348 barrels per day in 1990-91.6.Hali Pota.Badin.Gas is being supplied through a pipe line for the industrial areas around Rawalpindi.Tajedi Nari.It is situated in Sibbi district of Baluchistan. (d) Mari-Sari -Hundi: Mari-Sari-Hundi are also the gas fields from which gas is being supplied for various other purposes and also to three fertilizer factories. (c) Meyal Gas Field(Dist.500 barrels per day.1992 the production declined on an average to 62. Total Reserves And Production: The recoverable reserves of crude oil were estimated at 145.Punjab): Pakistan Oil Field Ltd.Attock .Company discovered both oil and gas at this place in 1968.1992.Punjab) 7.Sindh) 8.In addition to imported crude oil.found natural gas at this field in 1994. .69 million barrels on March 31.Mazari Oil Field(Dist.especially for countries like Pakistan which are deficient in the production of mineral oil and coal.Following are some of the important gas fields: (a) Natural Gas Deposits At Sui: It is the biggest deposit of natural gas in our country.Badin.while searching for more oil.South MAzari (DIst.

the hydro-electric potential of the three western rivers.The water in the 3-km power channel is taken from the Upper Jhelum Canal.92 million cubic meres during the same period in the previous year showing an increase 5.505 billion cubic meres.The Malakand And Dargai Power Stations: They produced electricity from falls in the upper Swat Canal.were installed as part of the Indus Basin Plan and the other four have been added later by WAPDA.While the use of the three eastern rivers has. 2.The Mangla Power Station: This power station will ultimetly have an installed capacity of 1.Matil and Jabo in Sindh and at Makhdompur in Punjab.000 KW.Water is taken back into the canal from the Malakand station to feed the power house at Dargai.the Indus.with the limited purpose of feeding 1860 tube -wells in Gujrat and Sargodha.The scheme was later modified to meet the requirements of the Punjab.joines the Lower Jhelum Canal.19 million cubic mores as against 10932.passed to India.This station was one of the major sources of hydro-electric power before the completion of Mangla and Tarbela.The turbines are fed by a concrete lined tunnel from the 46 metre high dam.as a result of the Indus Water Treaty.58% .000 KW each. Total Reserved And Production: The recoverable reserves of natural gas are estimated at 542.700 KW. .The installed capacity of our units presently in operation 700 MW.5 billion cubic feet of gas per day.000 million watts in ten sets of 100.Following are the main hydro projects of our country: 1.The Tarbela Power Station: When it comes into full operation it will have the largest capacity and generation.Malakand station was completed in 1938 .Attock.with an installed capacity of 16. 3.The country produces about 1. is mostly located in the hilly north-western areas. (D) HYDRO-ELECTRIC POWER The hydro-electric potential of Pakistan.Punjab): Natural gas has also been found at toot and it is being used since 1980.before the completion of Warsak power station. Recently gas has been discovered at Dhabi South Sonoro.where the different lated terrain provides natural sites for dams.The Rasul Project: This project was started in 1946.000 KW in 1952. 5.substantial part of which has now been harnessed.and generation 4.Bukhari.and after passing through the turbine.(e) Toot Gas Field (Dist.the Jhelum and the Chenab has been estimated at 30 million Kw.During the first nine months of 1991-92 the production was 11543.Dargai also has an installed capacity of 80.000 KW.The first three generating sets. and this was to 80. 4.each of 100.The Warsak Power Station: It has six units with a total capacity of 240 MW.Some sites in the plains have also been developed by utilizing fall in rivers and canals.129 MKWHS.

The Shadiwal Power Station: is located on the upper Jhelum Canal near Gujrat.13724 (July to March) @import "/extensions/GoogleAdSense/GoogleAdSense.6.18298 1991-92 .and in the event of a power failure on the main grid.The Nandipur Power Station: It is located on the upper chenab canal.It will have a capacity of about 1800 MW.hydro potential estimated at 60 MW available on the Chashma-jhelum link Canal is also planned for exploitation.css". Minerals .about 7 miles north-west of Gujrat.16925 1990-91 .The Kurram and Garhi Station: These stations are on the irrigation canal taken out from the kurram River . The Kalabagh Hydle Power Station will be built about 12 miles upward from Kalabagh city on River Indus. Future Hydro Plans of WAPDA: Detailed engineering of the Kalabagh Dam Project is in progress.About 40. 9.The Chichoki Mallian Power Station: This station is located on the upper Chenab Canal about 48 km from Lahore.Besides.can be isolated to supply the city.Stage-I of 880 MW is planned to be completed in 1993 and stage-II in 1996.A reservoir at Thal has been planned to firm Tarbela Power by about 200 MW in the low-water months. 8. 7.000 KW of electricity is being produced from this project which is providing the needs of Kohat and Dera Ismail Khan divisions. Energy Generation million Kwh) 1989-90 .

copper and iron etc. Occurrence: Iron ore deposits occur at many localities .The more important are discussed below: KalaBagh Iron Ore: Occurs near Kalabagh in the Surghar Range and near Sakesar in the Salt Range.but these immense potentials remained unexploited over the years. Chighazi Magnitite Deposits: Of various magnitudes have been discovered in Chigai District.The heavy machines and transporting vehicles are all built and run by minerals. Langrial.Galdanian And Abbotabad Ore: Langrial iron deposits are in the vicinity of Langrial village in haripur tehsil.china clay.Now the Government is adopting new policy measures to give a boost to this sector.Minerals are the backbone of modern industry.about 30 kilometers south of Drosh . @import "/extensions/GoogleAdSense/GoogleAdSense.Reserves of high grade ore (56 percent iron or more ) are estimated over 3 million tonnes and of low ore (25.Introduction It has been rightly said that world commerce of today would be impossible without minerals. .38 percent iron) at 20 million tonnes. 1.including rocksalt.about 30 kilometers south of Abbotabad.gypsum.The Galdanian deposits.In order to encourage mineral exploration in the country.have an iron content of 55.65 percent.They are the largest deposits in Pakistan but the ore is of low grade (30.Indeed man today is almost entirely dependant on iron for his civilized existence.The iron content varies widely between 0 and 50 percent .Mining.about 15 kilometers north-east of abotabad have an average iron content of 20 percent. Dommel Misar: Magnitite deposits in Southern Chitral.Today.Iron content yardes from 14.Reserves are estimated at 3 million tonnes.35 percent iron) and of irregular composition.The entire economic activities of a country revolve around this basic material.46 percent.near Dalbandin .Reseves are estimated at about 300 million tonnes.Metallic minerals found in some quantity are chromite antimony.limestone and marble.being a basic industry provides a firm base from the growth in various sectors of the economy.Total reserves in Hazara Distric are estimated to be mere than 100 million tonnes.iron touches man's life from the cradle to grave.css".a mineral coordination board (MCB) was established in 1979 to co-ordinate public sector agencies and the private sector. Iron Ore Usage: Iron tops the list of capital goods and plays a vital role in the economic development of a country. Pakistan is rich in minerals resources. Pakistan has considerable deposits of non metallic mineals.

Bahadurkhel and Karak Salt Deposits: .It was used for making coins and domestic utensils in the past.refrigerators etc.Khanozai and Jang Torgarh are important mines .where the total deposits amount to 10.000 tonnes a year.dyes and in photography.000 tonnes.2. Occurrence: The deposits of copper have been found at Sandak and Amuri in Chaghai districts of Baluchistan.At present copper is not being extracted commercially in our country but it is hoped that in near future we shall be able to produce copper in sufficient quantity with foreign collaboration. Rock Salt and Brine All the rock salt deposits in Pakistan occur in the salt range.Large deposits of chromite occur in the Muslimbagh area of the Zaob valley.Other deposits are in Chagai and Kharan.Present production is 220.000 tonnes a year. Occurrence: Pakistan leads the world in chromite production. 4.Sandak deposits are estimated to be 412 million tonnes. 3.Those are the best known of the chromite deposits in Pakistan and have been extensively exploited . (b) Karcha Mines: The mine has five seams.000 tonnes a year.000-16. Chromite Usage: Chromium is used in the making of stainless steel .000 tonnes. (d) Jatta.Now a days it is used in the manufacture of electric goods. Copper Usage: Copper ranks next to iron in importance because of its many industrial uses. (c) Kalabagh Mines: The seams are irregular and contorted and production is about 12. In addition to the above Peshawar division deposits amount to 14.The most important mines are: (a) Khewra Mines: Khewra is the most extensively worked area with seams attaining thickness of as much as 18 metres.with a maximum thickness of 15 metres and produces 40.high speed tools and precision instruments.telephone wires.00045.

however.Pezu and Mughal Kot. Occurrence: . Limestone Usage: Limestone is the chief raw material of lime .Marli Hills. Salt is also obtained from brine and salt.Although limestone is wide spread.W.W. Occurrence: Limestone deposits constilute a large part of the sedimentary rocks of Pakistan.Nowshera.P) The total reserves of Gypsum found in our country are estimated at about 350 million tonnes.5 million tonnes.Production from this area almost equals that of the Warcha mines.paints.but the amount obtained from these sources is relatively small compared with that of rock salt.glass.plaster of paris.These includes: 1.In Sindh: Mango Pir.F.W. 7.steel etc.Dera Ghazi Khan in Punjab.Various chemicals and fertilizers may be manufactured from this brine.are thought to be very large.and along the Makran and Lasbela coasts large deposits of concentrated brine have been discovered at Dharyala near Khewra. fertilizers and in various other industries.It is also used to regain the fertility of soil in water-logged and salinity areas.soap.Lakes.near Karachi.F.P are the main producers.but some quantity of Gypsum is also found in Bahawalpur (punjab) .Salt is harvested in the Tharparkar area of Sindh and obtained by evaprating sea-water at Mauripur.some areas have more concentrated deposits.F.Dadu and Sanghar districts (in Sindh) .Quetta and Sibi in Baluchistan.In N.The reserves.It is used for the manufacturing of cement.Margalla Hills.P: Kohat.Dera Ismail Khan in (N.Zinda pir. Marble Usage: It is mainly used as a building and decorative stone.In Punjab: Salt Range. Occurrence: Gypsum is in our country is found in a large quantity.Jhelum. 6.cement. 5.Cape Monze.bleaching powder.Rani Pir.In Baluchistan: Loralal and Harnal. 4.Kohat in N. Gypsum Usage: Gypsum is also an important mineral of our country . 2. Total annual production is about 3.paper. 3.Mianwali.

000 tonnes. (c) Nowshera Area Deposits: Pink coloured marble of low quality is found. (a)Peshawar Division Deposits: Good quality marble of white and various other colours in found at two places: a) Shahidmena area and b) Kumbela Knwar area.usually white and of uniform texture is found at two places : a) Gundari Tarko and b) Maneri. Forest Resources and Their Exploitation .6 million cubic feet and reserves of other qualities are estimate about 700 million tonnes.8 million cubic ft. (b) Mardan District Deposits: Best known deposits of marble. The reserves of green marble deposits are about 8.In various parts of our country good quality marble in a wide range of colours is found. A few deposits also appear in Chaghal district of Baluchistan and Muzaffarabad areas of Azad Kashmir.Total reseves amount to 3. (d) Quetta Area deposits: Large deposits of green.80.Pakistan exports marble manufactured items to a large number of countries around the world.yellow and white marble are found total reserves amount to 1.

Fir is used to the making of hardboard.It was about 2. Economic Importance: The trees grown in these forests are of immense help to many industries.Malakand.they do not shed their leaves at a time .Spruce.In Baluchistan. Important Trees: Deodar.rayon.P and Rawalpindi district of Punjab are the main areas covered with coniferous forests. Characteristics: Due to poor rainfall.because according to experts the area under the forests in a country should not be less than 20 to 25 % for a well balanced economy.Chir.Baluchistan Hill Forests: Areas: These forests are found in area of Quetta and Kalat divisions.6 % of the total area.In Pakistan only 4.Abbotabad.which was insufficient for the country's needs.Ghulam Mohammad Barrage and Gudu Barrage and it is likely to improve the future acreage of forrests to some extent.these forests are not dense .Deodar is the main source of limer and is used for building houses and railway sleepers.Besides this the forests department celebrates weeks for tree plantation in the months of spring and rainy seasons.pencil juniper and chilgoza are also found. Characteristics: These forests remain evergreen throughout the year i. and resin industry.F. The Government has taken various steps to increase the areas under forests.5 % of the total area is under forests.Evergreen Coniferous Forests: Areas: These forests are found in the Northern and Western hills such as Chitral.In these areas these forests are found upto about 3000 ft. .Fir are important trees of these forests.They are found in altitudes of 5000 to 10000 feet.Chir is used in the match.e.Kall. Kinds of Forests in Pakistan 1.W.net Introduction At the time of the establishment of Pakistan about 50 lakh acres area was covered with natural or artificial forests.Friendsmania. 2.these forests are found at the height of 5000 ft.Swat.In Baluchistan.Kohistan.The leaves of the trees are mostly of conical shape .Large areas have been reserved for afforrestation in Thal.Manse hra district of N.Dir.During these works people are encouraged to plant more and more trees.two more important .

Shisham and Willow are the main varieties found in these forests.Jhelum.Hazara.Maple and Poplar.Chestnut.Riverian Or Bela Forests: Areas: Narrow belts along the banks of River Indus and its large tributaries are occupied by the riverion forests commonly known as Bela Forests. Important Trees: Babul.Mardan.Juniper. Important Trees: The dominant trees of these forests are Phulai.The trees of these forests shed their leaves at a time when the amount of rainfall and temperature is insufficient in a particular season.rifle butts.Peshawar. Economic Importance: These forests are an important source of timber for the manufacture of furniture .The Bark of Babul is used for tanning purposes.junipers and chestnuts.pencil. Economic Importance: The Shisham wood is mostly used for making high quality furniture.Artificial Forests: Areas: . 4.Oak.Rawalpindi.deciduous Forests: Areas: These forests are found in the districts of Gujrat.Kao.They cover the active flood plains which are inundated almost annually. Characteristics: These forests cover land rising upto an altitude of 3000 feet.The wood of Babul provides firewood and is used for making agricultural implements. Characteristics: These forests are found near the banks of rivers where underground water is available in the flooded areas.Ko hat and in some patches of the Baluchistan plateau. 3.They are usually not very dense.Important Trees: The main trees of these areas include chilgoza.Olea and Chir occur occasionally at high elevations.Walnut.sports goods etc.pines. 5.

6.harwood species such as Shisham.Farash and Bakain.Mulberry and Acasia trees are grown for commercial purposes.The Rakhs: Areas: These forests are found in the Indus valley scaltered far away from human settlements.Ceriopa and Rhizo phoras are some of them.The normal height of trees is 10 feet while in better watered areas the trees rise to 20-25 feet. Economic Importance: The wood of those trees is mostly used for fuel purposes or in the making of cheap furniture. Importance and Uses of Forests .Multan. Important Trees: The main species which are generally found in these forests are Jand.Besides this Chichawatni in Sahiwal.artificial forests are being maitained.Hub delta is also covered with these forests which extend to Runn of Kuch covering an area of about 750. Important Trees: In these forests.Tidal Or Mangrove Forests: Areas: These forests are mostly found in the Indus delta. Important Trees: Some valuable species are being experimented upon in these areas.a few irrigated plantation units have been established . Characteristics: These are mostly shrub forests and the trees are not very tall.In some areas of Punjab and Sindh.Changa Manga forest situated about 40 miles from Lahore is the largest of the irrigation forest plantation.The trees have mostly soft wood which is also used as fodder for animals.Thal and in some parts of Ghulam Mohammad and Guddu barrages.000 acres. 7.Karil. Characteristics: The trees of these forests grow in awampy areas.Lack of fresh water results in shunned growt of trees and in the occurance of limited number of species . Economic Importance: A vital advantage of these forests in that they supply a large amount of firewood.Neem.Avicennta Officanilis.

resins. 7. 2.wood is being used as fuel.The most important thing is that the forests provide oxygen gas for us and consume filthy carbon dioxide. 3.As there is a shortage pf power resources.the coal and oil found in our country is insufficient to meet our requirements. 4.The wood for making furniture and building material is also obtained from forests.sports goods.Besides timber .The forests areas of our country serve as pasture. SHORT QUESTIONS .A large number of fruits that we use are provided from trees.so forests provide hunting facilities for hunters and they get meat and skins from them.etc. 10.paper. 5.camels.but not without forests. 8.In plain areas forest or trees save the banks of canals and rivers from erosion.sheep and goats get their food from them.or forests.So a large population of our country living in rural areas uses wood as fuel and for other domestic purposes.Forests supply the raw material and wood for various industries of our country.Forests help the farmers in saving their crops from strong dual storms. 6.rayon.but for the cattle of farmers living near them."The following is the importance of forests for us: 1.In forests a large number of animals take refuge. 9.In mountainous areas forests help to preserve our agricultural land from the dangers of erosion.Forests keep the climate of the adjacent areas pleasant by getting the moisture through its roots from interior of the earth and spreading it through their branches and leaves.such as matches.According to an agricultural export "A country can live without gold and silver.

the Ravi . and Baluchistan. Ans. 3.Karachi port and Port Qasim. 6.Rainy Season (from July to October) 11. Ans.The plateaus of Pakistan. 4.Quetta and Sialkot dry ports.Area of Pakistan.Sub-tropical continental plateau.The Karakoram.Climatic Seasons of Pakistan.Tropical coast lands. 3.Bolan Pass.Sub-tropical continental highlands.P. or 310403 miles. 2.Important Mountains.Bari Doab.As on January 1. 9.1.Tochi Pass. Ans.Lahore dry port.W.Gomal Pass.Lawari Pass etc. Ans. Ans.Khyber Pass.32 million.Important "Doabs" of Pakistan.Dry ports of Pakistan.the Chenab. 2. Ans.Winter Season (from November to February) 2.km.Koh Safes etc.Sea ports of Pakistan.Area of Pakistan is 796095 sq.The Provinces are Punjab. Ans.Potwar Plateau and Baluchistan Plateau.1. Ans.1992 the population was estimated to be 117.Sub-tropical continental lowlands.F.Administrative Divisions of Pakistan.the local population of Pakistan is 83782000.Passes of Pakistan.Rivers of Pakistan.g.1.Deserts of Pakistan. The land which lies between the two rivers is known as "Doab" e. 4.The Jhelum. Ans. 8.Cholistan Desert.The Suleman mountains.River Kabul. Ans.N.Rachna Doab.Total Population of Pakistan.Sindh.According to the census of March 1991.Climatic regions of Pakistan.Chaj Doab and Sind Sagar Doab.River Bolan etc. 12.The Hindukush.Pakistan comprises of four provinces with Federal Capital Islamabad.Thal Desert. Ans. 7. .River Swat.Summer Season (from March to June) 3. 13.The Himaliyas. 5.Nara Desert and Thar Desert. 10.The Indus. Ans.the Sutlej.

carpets.leather.rice.machineries.fish and their products.gypsum.Jinnah Barrage etc. Ans. Ans.Hyderabad.Mangla dam.Karachi.tea.Cotton.millets(Jawar and bajra).Main Imports of Pakistan. Ans.Guddu Barrage.Woolen Textile Industry.Que tta.paper. . Ans.Wheat.Faisalabad.iron.Rawalpindi.Cotton Textile Industry. Ans.Main exports of Pakistan.Taunsa Barrage.rugs.petroleum.Cotton cloth.grams and tobacco.Gujranwala. 21.Important Dams.rock salt and copper. Ans. 16.Wheat.Barley and Corn. 22.cotton yarn.Sugar Cane Industry. 17.What are the main industries of Pakistan.chromite.What are the main mineral resources of Pakistan. Ans.barley.Cement Industry.Important Barrages.raw cotton.ore.Chashma Barrage. 15.Edible Oil.rice.chemicals and drugs.14.Multan.What are the main industrial centres of Pakistan.Peshawar. 19.Nowshera. Ans.Tarbela dam and Warsak dam.Kotri. 18.Coal. 20.natural gas.Mineral Oil.dyes and colours.Name the main agricultural products of Pakistan.sugar cane.Lahore. Ans.What are the food crops of Pakistan.synthetic textile.Rice .