ABSTRACT

This project titled “Designing of storage tank for storing furnace oil” gives and insight into the designing of a storage tank for storing furnace oil. Storage tanks are constructed to store huge quantities of various petroleum products. the design of floating roof tank for storage of crude oil. The tank is designed according to API 650 (11TH Edition) Standards. Furnace oil comes under Class B category; hence a cone roof type storage tank was selected. The shell of the tank was designed in the most cost effective manner. The height of the tank is 16m and Diameter is 12 m. Due to stability problem the Height of the tank is restricted. The shell plates were designed according to their availability. The wind guiders are provided for providing stiffness to the shell. The roof was designed according to API 650 Standards. The project deals with the design features of a fixed cone roof namely bottom and annular plates, shell plates, wind girder, cooling water system, roof drain and firefighting equipment. Volatile petroleum products are stored in floating roof tanks. In this project we intend to do

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INTRODUCTION COCHIN REFINERIES LIMITED was incorporated in the joint sector as a public limited company in September 1963 at Ernakulam with technical collaboration and financial participation from Philips Petroleum Company of USA and Duncan brothers of Kolkata. Former Indian Prime Minister Mrs. Indira Gandhi dedicated KRL to the nation on 23 September 1966. The name of the company was changed to Kochi Refineries Limited in May 2000. KRL became a subsidiary company of Bharath Petroleum Corporation limited in April 2002. Philips Petroleum International Corporation was the prime contractor for the construction of our refinery. They entrusted the work to Pacific Procon Limited. Construction work started in March 1964 and the first unit came on stream just after 29 months in September 1966. From the commissioning to date, the refinery under took three expansions in the refining capacity and the installation of secondary processing facilities .The refinery then had a design capacity of 2.5 metric million tons per annum (mmtpa) which was increased to 3.3 mmtpa in 1973. Production of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and aviation turbine fuel (ATF) commenced after this expansion. Mumbai high court was first processed in 1977. Refining capacity was further enhanced to 4.5 mmtpa in November 1984 when a fluidized catalytic cracking unit (FCCU) was added. The secondary processing facilities (fpu, fccu, lpg and gasoline merox unit) with a capacity of processing 1 mmpta VGO was commissioned in 1985. It entered the petrochemical sector in 1989 when an aromatic production facility with a design capacity of 87,200 tons per annum of benzene and 12,000 tons per annum of toluene was commissioned. In Dec 1994, refining capacity was increased to 7.5 mmtpa (150,000 bpsd). A fuel gas de-sulphurisation unit was installed as part of this project to minimize sulphur dioxide emission. A captive power plant of 26.3 MW was commissioned in 1991. An additional captive power plant of 17.8 MW was commissioned in 1998. KRL is now self -sufficient in power

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Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited acquired the Government of India's shares in KRL in March 2001. With this the company has become a subsidiary of BPCL. PROJECTS COMPLETED CEMP PHASE-1 The phase 1 of the capacity-expansion-cum-modernization project (CEMP) that envisaged refinery modifications required to meet BS-II Product Specifications, has met the target. Supply of auto fuels like petrol and diesel confirming to Bharath Stage-II specifications began in April 2005. Rainwater Harvesting Kochi Refinery has one of the largest rainwater reservoirs in the state with a detention pond of 1, 25,000 KL capacity to collect surface run off water from around 8.0 lakhs.sq.m of land. The integrated rainwater harvesting system to collect, conserve and protect rainwater for effective utilization has been constructed and commissioned. The project will enable (i) using rainwater collected from roof- top during the monsoon for the process and drinking requirement and thereby reducing the intake of water from Periyar river, (ii) charging the ground water table using the collected roof rainwater (iii) harvesting around 1, 25,000 KL of rainwater per annum falling on the land area by collecting the surface runoff and thereby augmenting the quality of existing water bodies and to replenish the ground water table. Eco Park The Ecological Park within Kochi Refinery premises spreads over a land area of 5.50 acres with a view to restore the healthy ecosystem, control pollution, develop clean environmental condition and prevent soil erosion. Around 3750 numbers of wide ranges of forest species, ornamental trees, fruit trees and attractive flowering plants along with medicinal herbs have found a place in the Eco Park. Treated effluent water is being utilized to feed the dry land plants. Available resources is also being used to develop scrap land to green belts which in-turn would promote environmental awareness, enhance the environmental quality of region, develop habitat for rare migratory species and also increase tree coverage.

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ONGOING/UPCOMING PROJECTS CEMP PHASE-II PROJECT The object of the project is to upgrade auto fuels i.e. Motor spirit diesel from the present BS-II specifications to Euro-III specification and to increase the capacity of the refinery from 7.5 MMTPA to 9.5 MMTPA. Consent to establish the project facilities have been obtained from State Pollution Control Board and clearance from Ministry of Environment & Forests. The investment clearance for the project has also been obtained. Estimated cost of the project is Rs.2592crores. The major project facilities include revamp of CDU-II for capacity expansion by 2.0 MMTPA, VGO HDS unit, CCR Reformer unit and a GT for power generation. The project is scheduled to be completed by September 2009. Single Point Mooring Project This project is to set up Crude Oil Receipt Facilities (CORF) consisting of Single Point Mooring (SPM) for berthing Very Large Crude Carriers (VLCC). Shore Tank Farm and associated pipelines and facilities. The job is progressing as per scheduling. Pilling jobs for tank foundations are in progress. Orders have been released for Single Point Buoy. SPM Project is scheduled for completion by May 2007.Community development schemes have been activated along with the construction activities of the SPM. As part of its commitment towards community development in the region, KRL has agreed to undertake schemes that include; development of roads, drainage facilities and Fish landing Centre, improvement of Health Care Centers including the deployment of an ambulance at Puthuvypeen, assistance for educational facilities, augmentation of Water supply and street lighting. Gas Task Force The Gas Task Force (GTF) formed by BPCL and erstwhile KRL have been signing Heads of Agreement (HOA) with major industrial customers in the States of Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka. The HOA contains principal terms and conditions viz., term Sheet, for the sale and purchase of Regasified Liquefied Natural Gas (RLNG) between the customer and BPCL. The HOA shall be in force till such time a long term Gas Sales agreement is

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500 TPA. The possibility of transporting and processing some short residue from BPCL-Mumbai Refinery is also being studied. The GTF intends to market the RLNG in the state of Kerala and adjoining areas of the States of Tamil Nadu and Karnataka.entered in between the parties. Propylene Recovery Unit LPG from Fluidized Catalytic Cracking Unit is a major source of propylene and separating this propylene form LPG is a proven route to value addition. the HOA acts as a formal document by which the quantity of RLNG required by the customer is reserved in advance. Ti is anticipated that PLL and would be able to supply RLNG from its Kochi terminal by 2009 end. A detailed feasibility study for refinery bottoms up gradation is being carried out with the help of consultants. Piped Natural Gas (PNG) for domestic use and Regasified Natural Gas (RNG) for industrial/commercial customers whose usage is below 12. A detailed feasibility report on setting up Propylene recovery unit at KRL was prepared with the help of consultants. Delayed coking has been identified as an option for up gradation of refinery residue to value added distillate products. a suitable residue up gradation facility has been found essential for Kochi Refinery. Distribution of Gas in the city of Kochi. The proposed capacity expansion of the refinery by the year 2010 will result in generation of additional quantities of high sulphur heavy residue. The investment approval for the same was received from the KRL Board and action has been initiated for implementation of the project. Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) for automotive sector. amongst major industrial customers whose Gas requirement is more than 12. KARPAGAM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 5 . As the gas availability is limited. FUTURE PLANS In the view of the declining market for furnace oil with high sulphur content and reducing availability/increasing prices of light and low sulphur crudes.500 TPA would be done by a separate Joint Venture Company to be formed by BPCL & GAIL.

KARPAGAM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 6 . The unit was commissioned in 1991. High pressure steam is mainly used for power generation. Power requirements of the entire refinery can be met by the internal generation.e.Water serves for various purposes such as cooling medium for process steam.5 million gallon per day. The supply of plant air and instrument air is done by separate air compressor. CPP-2: The 17. Water is stored in two quarries from where it is pumped to process area and colony after treatment. blowing. COMPRESSED AIR: It is used as instrument air and plant air. Instrument air is required for operating the instruments and plant air is used for general cleaning. low-pressure @ 5kg/cm2. and operating pneumatic tools and other process requirement. medium pressure @ 18kg/cm2 and high pressure having pressure above 18kg/cm2. COOLING WATER: .. UB7 and steam is used for driving the-turbine.UTILITIES Utilities section provides the utilities such as steam.It is generated and consumed in the refinery is classified into three depending on the pressure i. making boiler feed water to produce steam etc. A demineralization plant treats and supplies feed water to boilers and water for process requirement facilities and for power generation also come under this section.Refinery fuel oil is used as fuel for generating high pressure steam in the boiler.It consists of gas turbine for power generation and heat recovery steam generator.Medium pressure and low pressure steam are used for various process requirements.3 MW. Water is received from Periyar river basin. CPP-1: It has capacity of 26. Compressed air and cooling water required for various process units and other facilities in the refinery. Steam. Total consumption of water is about 2. Medium pressure steam is used for driving turbines used as prime movers in the process units and other facilities.8 MW steam turbo generator was commissioned in 1998.

chlorides. magnesium. and sodium. and removal of free carbon dioxide in the decationised water in a mixed bed containing a mixture of cation and anion resins. sulphates. The essential steps followed are: dosing of Na2SO3 to remove excess chlorine. KARPAGAM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 7 . weak base anion exchanger in series. steam is put to use in condensing turbines and for laboratory purpose the dissolved impurities in water are objectionable and complete removal.DEMINERALISATION PLANT The natural water obtained from various sources contains a member of dissolved salts such as bicarbonates. For high-pressure boilers. and nitrates of calcium. filtration through a strong acid cation exchanger. carbonates. The complete demineralization or de-mineralization is carried by passing water through a series of ion exchange beds where all the dissolved ions are removed.

SULPHUR RECOVERY UNIT Petroleum products are finding increasing use in the day to day activities of mankind includes personnel and commercial needs. Coupled with the increasing demand for fuels is the problem of deteriorating quality of air in the environment. One of the largest contributors to the poor quality of air is vehicular exhaust. Due to the increased pressure on the environment from various exhaust gases significant reduction in emissions of SO2 and NO2 are required. There is a general agreement that reducing sulphur content is an effective means of improving air quality. It is in this context that the sulphur recovery unit comes into perspective. The sulphur recovery unit is the process unit setup for the removal hydrogen sulphide from the refinery fuel gas steam. KRL has setup a diesel desulphurization unit of 2 mmtpa capacity to reduce the sulphur content in diesel from 1 weight % to 0.25 weight %. The input of fuel gas to the SRU comes in two streams. High pressure steam comprising of gas from CC discharge, sponge gas from naphtha stabilizer in PU –2 and merge streams from NHDS and KHDS. Overhead non-condensable of visbreaker along with gas from LV1 constitute steam. The high pressure gas steam out of SRU has various consumption points of fuel gas.

LIGHT END FEED PREPATION UNIT A Light End Feed Preparation Unit (LELPU) to supply polybutenes was commissioned in March 1993. BPCL also commissioned a raffinate purification unit for the manufacture of petroleum hydrocarbon solvent in January 1994. BPCL started production of mineral turpentine oil in March 1996 and mixed aromatic solvent in March 1996. The main areas of concern for BPCL are  Water requirement  Crude oil receipt facilities  Pollution control and environment care The organizational structure of BPCL consists of various departments as follows: KARPAGAM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 8

 Manufacturing  Stock and oil department  Maintenance  Technical service department  Projects  Materials & Services  Quality Control  Research & Development  Oil Economics  Vigilance  Power and utilities  Computer and automation  Corporation planning  Marketing  Finance and accounts  Secretarial  Human Resource Management  Security Each department is performing certain specific objectives in coordination with the others in achieving the organizational goals. BPCL'S MISSION • • To strengthen the presence in petroleum refining and marketing of petroleum products and to grow into the energy and petrochemical sectors. To realign orientation of thinking and philosophies to become a market driven and customer friendly organization with focus on total quality management. • To enhance shareholder value and maximize returns through the best use of resources.

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To recognize employees as the most valuable asset of the organization and foster a culture of participation and innovation for employee growth and contribution.

To achieve global standards of excellence through R & D efforts, technology protection. up-gradation, safety management and environmental

To be a major contributor towards community development and welfare of the society at large.

ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY BPCL engaged in petroleum refining activity is committed to: » Strive for continual improvement of the environment performance at BPCL and prevent pollution » Comply with regulatory & legal requirements of oil industry o Respect the interests of customers, employees and other interested parties o Promotion and development of greenery in the surrounding areas

o Select cleaner technologies & avoid environmental degradation o Conserve natural resources and reduce energy consumption o Print and distribute BPCL's environmental policy to all employees and make them available to public o Safe disposal of hazardous waste Our environmental objectives: • • • • • Treatment and disposal of 10000 MT of accumulated oily sludge mechanical recovery of oil by December 2003. Decommissioning of equalization pond at ETP-I by Dec 2002 to reduce fugitive emissions at KRL. De-silting of water channel from outlet `B` to outlet `C` during the year 2002-03. Reduce specific energy consumption of BPCL from the present level. Conducting training programs on ISO 14001 EMS awareness. after

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ISO 14001 The company has been awarded the prestigious ISO 14001 certificate in recognition of the company’s environment management measures. Environment auditors M/s Bureau Veritas Quality International (BVQI) certified that the management system of the company had been assessed and found it to be in accordance with the requirements of the environmental standards ISO 14001. ISO 14001 is an international standard for environment management system, (EMS), issued by the International Organization for Standardization, Geneva. It provides a systems approach to handling the impact of an organization’s activities and the use of its product services on the environment. This standard requires formation of short-term and long-term environmental policy, environmental objectives, and compliance with legislative requirements and addressing significant environmental impacts with solutions. BPCL is the first company in Kerala to get this environment management standard BPCL took the road of quality and responsibility. And it paid rich dividends of goodwill and progress. It was thirty-five years back that BPCL, formerly known as Cochin Refineries Ltd, started as a refinery with a capacity of 2.5 million metric tons per annum. Now we refine more than 7.5 million metric tonnes every year. Its turnover was Rs. 104802 million. Its profit for the year 2002-03 was Rs. 6965 million. We have been paying rich dividends consistently. BPCL AT A GLANCE Location: Ambalamugal in Kochi Refining capacity: 7.5 million metric tonnes per annum Products: LPG, petrol, diesel, kerosene, naphtha, benzene, toluene, LSHS, furnace oil, ATF, specialty solvents, bitumen, rubberized bitumen etc.

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 Kochi – Karur products pipeline project  A mandatory crude oil tankage project KARPAGAM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 12 . The turnover during 2002-2003 was Rs 104802 million.per share (100%) for the year 2002-03 as against Rs. 2.20 per share during 2001-02. The profit before tax was Rs. Government of India has rated our performance for the year 2002-2003 as 'Excellent'. We have been paying rich dividends to our shareholders consistently.6965 million.5 MMTPA to 13. New proposals are:  Capacity Expansion Project (CAPEX) for expanding capacity from 7. The Board of Directors has recommended a Dividend of Rs.6965 million (2002-2003) KRL is the only company in Kerala with a turnover of over Rs.104802 million (2002-2003) Profit before tax: Rs.10000 million.10/.Turnover: Rs.5 MMTPA  500 MW power generation project.

and the construction is on the basis of the product which is to be stored in them. Class C Petroleum: The Liquids that have flash point of 65 degree C and above but below KARPAGAM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 13 . naphtha. Class B Petroleum: The Liquids that have flash point of 23 degree and above but below 65 degree C .crude (Bombay High). blending. low aromatic naphtha. E. FLASH POINT "Flash point" of any petroleum liquid is the minimum temperature at which the liquid yields vapour in sufficient concentration to form an ignitable mixture with air and gives a momentary flash on application of a small pilot flame under specified conditions of test. and jet propulsion-5. precipitation and settling process or as chemical reactor vessels. Petroleum products are classified according to their flash points as follows: Class A Petroleum: Liquids which have flash point below 23 degree C . They are used for intermediate and final product storage in a process plant or for storing petroleum products and chemicals at terminals. They can also be used as process equipment in non-ferrous plants where open top tanks are used for mixing. high speed diesel. Tanks are classified according to their construction.g.INTRODUCTION TO STORAGE TANKS Petroleum storage tank are an indispensable part of petroleum refining industries.: superior kerosene oil. aviation turbine fuel. CLASSIFICATION OF PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Petroleum products are classified on the basis of their Flash Points. high aromatic naphtha. gasoline. light diesel oil.

seal oil. KARPAGAM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 14 .g. Excluded Petroleum: The liquids that have flash point 93 degree C and above.g. low sulphur heavy stock. Liquefied gases including LPG do not fall under this classification but form separate category.93 degree C. plant fuel. E. E. Furnace oil. asphalt.

Floating roof tanks 3. Depending on the service the cone roof tanks will have the following accessories: • • • • • Man ways to go in.TYPES OF STORAGE TANKS I. KARPAGAM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING . at high temperature is fully insulated externally. They are vertical cylindrical vessels having a conical top and made of welded steel plates and used mainly for storing less volatile products. The fixed cone roofs have truss suppOl1S. Floating cum cone roof tanks 4. There are 32 cone roof tanks in KRL at present. Tanks meant for storing products like asphalt. vacuum gas oil etc. Spherical vessels 1. CONE ROOF TANKS Fig:1 cone roof tank The cone roof tanks have fixed roof and are in a sense closed vessels. Cone roof tanks 2.on the shell and roof Vent with flame alerter or mesh roof vents Pressure cum vacuum relief vents with flame arrestor to Gauging datum plate Gauge hatch with reference mark 15 prevent excessive pressure build up of vacuum pulling inside.

• • • • • • • • • Auto gauges Dial thermometer Mixing devices Steam heating coils with inlet and outlet nozzles Product inlet or outlet headers. the inlet header with jet nozzles Gas fired burners with steam heating coil for heating the Water draw Stairway Earthing facilities product (asphalt /LSHS) KARPAGAM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 16 .

FLOATING ROOF TANKS Fig:2 Floating roof tank Floating roof tanks are intended for storing products having high vapour pressure like HSD and gasoline. The roof is supported when it is not afloat by a number of adjustable legs with low and high position. Pump out vents in the roof permit the escape of air when an empty or nearKARPAGAM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 17 . Roofs are pontoon type having enclosed air chambers.2. They have a movable roof that floats on the surface of the tank contents. Thus the vapour space is kept constant and minimum. the roof will be put on high legs to provide space for people to work inside. As long as the pontoons do not leak the roof will not sink. Normally roofs are kept on low legs. When a tank is to be taken out of service for cleaning or repairs. Foam type neoprene seal is used to seal off the clearance between the rim of the roof and the tank shell in these tanks.

(Asphalt /LSHS). Water draw. Outside stairway. A non-return valve on the hose/pipe at the roof end and a gate valve at the bottom prevent escape of oil from the tank in case the hose develops leak. Roof drain. This is done by providing hoses or pipes with swivel joints from the roof to the outside of the tank shell near the bottom. Dial thermometer. There are 51 floating roof tanks in KRL at present. In cases the rainwater does not flow freely through the roof drain it can get into the tank through the emergency drain. Inside stairway. one end if which is hinged at the gauge’s platform at the top of the outside stairway and the other end is free to move on rollers on a runway fixed to the roof as the roof moves up and down To maintain the shape of the tank when it is subjected to wind loads the tank is reinforced with stiffening rings called wind girders.empty tank is filled and the roof is afloat. Gas fired burners with steam heating coil for heating the product. Roof shoe with neoprene seal. Roof drains are provided to drain water that is collected on the roof during rains. Auto gauges (in certain tanks). Gauge hatch with cover and reference mark. Metal conductors over the roof seal to dissipate electric charge to the 18 KARPAGAM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING . The following arc the accessories provided on floating roof tanks: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Man ways to go in . Roof legs and pump-out vents. Access to the floating roof is by an inside stairway. Mixing devices. In certain cases the roof is also provided with an emergency drain having water seal. Inlet pipe header with jet nozzle and outlet. Gauging datum plate. Roof guides to keep the roof in position.on the shell and roof. Gauging platform.

KARPAGAM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 19 .earthing. FLOATING CUM CONE ROOF TANKS They have fixed cone roof in addition to a floating roof and they are intended for storing toxic products having high vapour pressure. So they are stored in floating cum cone roof tanks. • Earthing facilities. There are 13 floating cum cone roof tanks in KRL at present. 3. Products like benzene and toluene are carcinogenic and should be prevented from escaping into the atmosphere. These tanks prevent product from contamination and are used to store class A and class B products.

whichever is more. Enclosure capacity shall be calculated after deducting the volume of the tanks (other than the largest tank) up to the highest of the enclosure. The top flat surface of dykes up to 1m and up to 2m height.  Dyked enclosure should be able to contain the complete contents of the largest tank in the tank farm in case of any emergency. Aggregate capacity of tanks located in one dyked enclosure shall not exceed following values: For a group of floating roof tanks: 120000cu. for excluded petroleum the minimum height of dyke wall shall be 600mm. Brick or stone masonry wall may be provided where space does not permit construction of earthen dykes.  Inter-distance between the nearest tanks located in two dykes shall be equivalent to the largest tank diameter or 30m.0 ve11ical. For a group of fixed roof tanks: 60000cu.LAYOUT OF STORAGE TANKS BASED ON OISD • DYKED ENCLOSURES  Petroleum storage tanks shall be located in dykes enclosures with roads all around the enclosure. top flat surface shall have 1000mm width. However. KARPAGAM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 20 based on spill containment but not . inside.  The height of tank enclosure dyke shall be at least one meter and shall not be more than 2. the capacity of the dyked enclosure should be for containment on tank rupture. However for excluded petroleum.m. The dyke shall not have slope steeper than 1.m. If a group of tanks contains both fixed and floating roof tanks then it shall be treated as a group of fixed roof tanks for the purpose of above limits.0m above average grade level. A free board of 200mm above the calculated liquid level shall be considered for fixing the height of the dyke.5 horizontal to 1.  The dykes should be of earthen construction havl11g trapezoidal cross section.  Pump stations should be located outside dyke areas by the side of roads.

However. B or C petroleum.  Tanks shall be arranged in maximum 2 rows so that each tank is approachable from the road surrounding the enclosure. Class C petroleum should be stored separate enclosure.  Excluded petroleum shall be stored in a separate dyked enclosure and shall not be stored along with class A. to 20000cu. firewalls of 600mm should be provided as explained below:  Any tank having a diameter more than 30m should be separated with fire walls from other tank  Firewalls should be provided by limiting the aggregate capacity of group of tanks within. Tanks located overhead for process considerations shall meet safety distance and shall also have dyked enclosure of RCC construction and provided with drain valves at suitable height for easy operation. Grouping of Tanks  Grouping of petroleum products for storage shall be based on product classification.m. all safety stipulations applicable for class A and/or class B respectively shall apply. Class A and/or class B petroleum can be stored 111 the same dyked enclosure. tanks having capacity 50000cum and above shall be laid in single row. However. General  The tank height should not exceed one and a half times the diameter of the KARPAGAM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 21 . Fire Walls In an enclosure where more than one tank is located. where class C petroleum is stored in a common dyke along with class A and / or class B petroleum.

 Piping from/to any tank located in a single dyked enclosure should not pass through any other dyked enclosure.  The minimum distance between a tank shell and the inside toe of the dyke wall shall not be less than one half the height of the tank Inter distances for tanks/offsite facilities The following stipulations shall apply for the inter-distances for above ground tanks storing petroleum: Inter distances for storage tanks Sl.  No fire water/foam ring main shall pass through dyked enclosure. Piping connected to tanks should run directly to outside of dyke to the extent possible to m1l11mise piping withll1 the enclosures. • the same dyke • KARPAGAM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING Notation 22 Distances given are she!] to shell in .m or where the diameter-of any such tank for the storage of petroleum exceeds 9m.no Item FRT CRT(Class A&B Petroleum) 1 All tanks with diameter 2 upto (D+d)/4 (D+d)/4 (D+d)/6 50m All tanks with diameter exceeding 50m Table:1 • This table is applicable for (D+d)/4 (D+d)/3 (D+d)/4 Class C Petroleum installations where aggregate storage capacity of class A&B petroleum stored above ground exceeds 5000cu.tank or 20m whichever is less.

then Inter-distance between class A/B storage tanks and class C storage tanks shall not minimum of 15m or 0. be less than 6m.50 or d shall be followed.o FRT: Floating roof tank o CRT: Cone roof tank o D: diameter of larger tank in meters o d: diameter of smaller tank in meters • • If the inter-distance (for class A&B) calculated as above is less than 15m. KARPAGAM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 23 .

Sump shall be placed in foundation before bottom placement. KARPAGAM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 24 .5. Annular plates are those bottom plates on which the shell plates rest.2). These plates are lap welded to each other. Annular bottom plates should be capable of withstanding the weight of the shell plates and the appurtenance. The bottom plates develop deep isolated pits which eventually puncture and bottom starts leaking. Bottom plates get corroded rapidly if the fluid is having sea water content (crude petroleum). annular bottom plates shall have a radial width that provides at least 600 mm between the inside of the shell and any lap welded joint in the remainder of the bottom and at least a 50 mm projection outside of the shell. According to API 650 (3. and the foundation shall be compacted around the sump after placement and the sump shall be welded to the bottom. So the proper corrosion allowance should be provided. A neat excavation shall be made to conform to the shape of the draw off sump. DRAW OFF SUMP A draw off sump is provided at the bottom of the tank such that a sl11a'll inclination is given to the bottom plates towards the sump. All bottom plates have a nominal thickness of 6 mm excluding of corrosion allowance specified by the purchaser. The projecting out portion of the annular bottom plates are prone to corrosion at the edges due to accumulation of water between the foundation and the annular bottom plates. The sump shall be put in place. Bacterial corrosion of the bottom plates is generally observed in crude and HSD tanks having high sulphur content. So here also appropriate corrosion allowance should be given.PARTS OF STORAGE TANK BOTTOM PLATES AND ANNULAR PLATES Bottom plates are those plates which are laid at the bottom of the tank.

water drain and rain drain. Internal corrosion in the vapour space is most commonly caused by hydrogen sulphide vapour. 1. SHELL OPENINGS The important shell openings are shell man hole. SHELL Shell is the major portion of the tank which is exposed to the atmosphere. All vertical and horizontal shell joints shall be full penetration and full fusion welds. water vapour and oxygen giving pitting type corrosion. The major problem that may arise is corrosion. Shell joints shall be double welded butt joints.Draw off sump is provided in order to collect the water particles in the oil. shall be provided to the horizontal plates. Wind girders shall be welded to the tank at the location designed. The necessary shell openings such as manholes. Atmospheric corrosion can occur on all external parts of the tank. Welding shall be of the same quality as used for the shell. Here a 600mm dia. yield and suction nozzles. KARPAGAM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 25 . The sump and nozzle are connected by means of an internal pipe. nozzles. Shell plates generally get corroded internally where liquid-vapour is maintained. . drain holes etc. SHELL MANHOLE One manhole is provided to the tank shell at the bottom shell course for the entry of humans into the tank for maintenance or other purposes. This type of corrosion may range from negligible to severe depending on upon the atmospheric condition of the locality. A draw off nozzle is provided on the shell plate to remove the water collected in the draw off sump. manhole is provided.

As per the API standards the other is provided as a 100% Standby. Even though one roof drain is sufficient for proper working two roof drains are provided. WIND GIRDER KARPAGAM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 26 . WATER DRAIN AND ROOF DRAIN Three nozzles for water draw off and two nozzles for roof drain are provided. Roof drain outlets are provided at the opposite sides of the bottom shell course. YIELD AND SUCTION NOZZLES Three yield nozzles and one suction nozzle arc provided for the tank. Suction nozzle is designed according to capacity of the tank and according to place to where the oil is transferred. The three water drains are fixed at 120 degree apart on the bottom shell course. Yield nozzle is provided for receiving finished. These nozzles are also fixed at the bottom shell course. This nozzle is designed according to the velocity of yielding and need for agitation. 3. intermediate or unfinished products into the tank.Fig:3 shell manhole 2.

e. AUTOMATIC TANK GAUGING Automatic Tank Gauging (A TG) is carried to obtain information about the total volume or weight of the product in the tank..Wind girder or stiffening rings are provided on storage tanks to prevent the buckling of tanks against wind loads. SEAL The space between the outer rim of roof and shell should be sealed by an approved sealing device and sea1ing material should be resistant to the stored product and durable against friction due to roof movement. liquid level. Fig:4 seal Foam seals have excellent flexibility and recovery from compression and at the same time permit the roof movement up and down freely with the level of tank contents. tank capacity table. Wind girders are usually constructed as walkways to facilitate the inspection and repair of storage tank. KARPAGAM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 27 . Sealing system should exert sufficient sealing pressure in all directions to prevent any evaporation losses and the arrangement should touch the product during the operation. This information is obtained from four parameters i. average temperature and relative density of individual tank.

Numerous nozzles are fixed into the rings through which water is sprayed to the tank shell at a particular pressure. FOAM SYSTEM KARPAGAM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 28 . Water is supplied to the cooling rings by means of 2 risers which arc placed diametrically opposite to each other. The system consists of rings fitted around the tank.ADVANTAGE'S OF TANK GAUGING 1) Accurate and better inventory control 2) Reduction of work load 3) Tank level is displayed at the tank site and at the central monitoring unit for prompt attention 4) Accurate level measurements even under turbulent product condition 5) Accurate water bottom level detection 6) It can be used in high safety hazards environments 7) Remote repeatability tests COOLING SYSTEM Storage tanks are equipped with water cooling system to bring down the temperature of the tank shell & protect them from damage when a fire hazard occurs to a neighboring tank.

It is a synthetic film forming concentrate and is based on fluorinated surfactants plus foam stabilizers and is diluted with water to a 3% to 6% solution. Low carbon steels are rather soft and ductile and are easily rolled and formed into the various shapes used in fabricating vessels. The foam generally used in modem tanks is AFFF (Aqueous Film Forming Foam).50% KARPAGAM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 29 . hot rolled steel with the following specifications. It is a low carbon.23% 1.) 0. Carbon (max. The ultimate tensile strength is usually between 380Mpa and 450Mpa and the carbon content between 0.Fig:5 foam system Foam for firefighting purposes is an aggregate of air filled bubbles formed from aqueous solutions and is 100ver in density than the lightest flammable liquid. The foam produced with AFFF concentrate is dry chemically compatible and thus is suitable for combined use with dry chemicals. MATERIAL SPECIFICATION FOR STORAGE TANKS The materials used in the construction of storage vessels are usually metals.15% and 0. These steels are also easily welded to give joints of uniform strength relatively free from localized stresses. alloys. It is principally used to form a coherent floating blanket on flammable and combustible liquids lighter than water and prevents or extinguishes fire by excluding air and cooling the fuel it also prevents re-ignition by suppressing formation of flammable vapour. The foam formed acts as 'a barrier to exclude air or O2 and to develop an aqueous film on the fuel surface capable of suppressing the evolution of fuel vapour. It has the property of adhering IO surfaces. providing a degree of exposure protection from adjacent fires. or materials with linings that are suitable for containing the fluid.25%. The material generally used for manufacturing storage tanks in India is IS2062 grade A. clad-metals.) Manganese (max. Where no appreciable corrosion problem exists the cheapest and most easily fabricated construction material is usually hot rolled mild (low carbon) steel plate.

1% Table:3 The minimum tensile strength is 414 Mpa and the minimum yield strength is 241 Mpa KARPAGAM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 30 . The chemical composition is given below: Carbon (max.6 Mpa.048% 0.) Silicon(min.) Sulphur (max.) Table:2 0.) Manganese (max.) Phosphorous (max.03% 1.6 Mpa and yield strength of 247.) Phosphorous (max.40% It has a minimum ultimate tensile strength of 410.Sulphur (max.058% 0. The pipe material used for making roof legs is AI 06 grade B.050% 0.06% 0.) 0.050% 0.) Silicon (max.

distance between two consecutive tanks etc. Height and Diameter For fixing the height and the diameter of the tank. the criterion to be maintained as per API 650 is that the ratio of the total height of the tank to the internal diameter must be less than 1.e. 2. So it comes under class C of petroleum products and has to be stored in a fixed cone roof tank. 1. It also depends on the judgment of the designer. Tank selection The furnace oil is a highly volatile. We selected the diameter as Height of the tank = 14m Diameter of the tank = 36m Here H/D ratio = 14/36=. Height of the tank/Diameter of tank <1.DESIGN OF STORAGE TANK Design and construction of storage tank for storing furnace oil. by studying the H/D ratio of the existing tanks in refinery.5.5 Height and diameter mostly depends upon the space available on the site. H/D<1..5 (Hence condition H/D < 1.3889<1. the flash point of furnace oil is 66ºC.5 is satisfied) KARPAGAM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 31 .5 i.

Cone penetration resistance (CPR) was calculated by determining the number of blows required to attain a 300 mm penetration by test cone. It was tested and certified OK for the construction of the above mentioned tank. Bitumen carpeting KARPAGAM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 32 . The cone penetration resistance is found to vary between 20 and 40 which indicates that the maximum settlement to be less than 100mm which is permitted for large diameters.14*(18*18)*14 = 14243. V=πR2H V = 3.So it is possible according to API 650. Volume.04 m3 BOTTOM PREPERATION Cone penetration test To assess the soil bearing capacity of soil at locations under the bottom plate penetration test was conducted by IIT Madras. (Present tank being of 50m diameter) Soil testing The test sample of soil is collected from various positions of tank bottom and is sent to IIT Madras.

tamping etc. A slope of 1:100 is maintained towards the shell from the core of the tank. KARPAGAM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 33 .Sieved river sand is mixed with 8-10 % volume of Bitumen (80/100 grade) and is laid on the site and consolidation. rolling. are done.

DESIGN DATA Design code: API 650 (11th edition) Diameter: 36 m Height: 14 m Product stored: Furnace oil Specific gravity of product: 0. 20. Heat-Treated. ASTM A537 grade 1 is the Pressure Vessel Plates.000 psi or 345 Mpa) and tensile strength (70. The KARPAGAM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 34 . 8. (Since the thickness of shell plates available in market are of sizes 6. 24 mm etc.000 psi or 485 Mpa) Wind speed: 185 kmph (max) Maximum rain fall intensity: 57 mm in one hour or 254 mm in 24 hours DESIGN OF BOTTOM PLATES According to API 650 standards.95 Corrosion allowance: 2 mm for annual and bottom plate : 2 mm for shell plates : 2 mm for roof plates Design pressure: Atmospheric pressure Material specification: ASTM A537 grade 1 (As per API 650 Table 3. So the bottom plate thickness = 6 + 2 = 8 mm So the thickness of bottom plate is selected as 8mm. bottom plates shall have a minimum nominal thickness of 6mm exclusive of any corrosion allowance. 18. 10. 14.) Bottom plates of sufficient size shall be ordered so that when trimmed at least a 25 mm width will project beyond the outside edge of the weld attaching the bottom to the shell plate. Carbon-Manganese-Silicon Steel and also it has got an acceptable value of yield strength (50.2). 12.95 Design specific gravity: 0.

the shell thickness for a tank of diameter in the range of 36-60 m should not be less than 8 mm. Plates of same width have been welded together to form a course of equal diameter.2. The shell thickness is calculated taking into account the material specification and allowable stresses.60 Mpa KARPAGAM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 35 .3. 2.3.1). (For tank diameter less than 36 m.5m etc. Bottom plate preparation involves shot blasting and Bituminized painting. Yield strength of selected material (IS2062) = 247. the shell thickness should not be less than 6 mm).2. A number of courses are welded together horizontally to form the total height of the tank.commonly available sizes of plates in market are off length 6m to 10 mm and of width I.6.5m. shall be either three-fourth the yield strength or three-seventh the tensile strength whichever is less.6. The course contains a number of vertical joints of length = plate width. The maximum allowable product design stress Sd (API 50 CI.1). shall be either two-third the yield strength or two-fifth the tensile strength whichever is less. DESIGN OF SHELL PLATES Tank is made of plates. According to API 650. the maximum allowable hydrostatic test stress St (API 50 CI. 2m.

70 Mpa Or St = 3/7*Tensile strength St = 3/7*410.Tensile strength of selected material l= 410.60 = 165 Mpa Or Sd = 2/5*Tensile strength Sd = 2/5*410.9 Mpa So Hydrostatic stress is taken as 176 Mpa According to API 650 thicknesses of tanks less than 60 m in diameter is calculated using KARPAGAM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 36 .24 Mpa So design stress is taken as 165 Mpa Maximum allowable hydrostatic stress (St) St = 3/4*yield strength S = 3/4*247.60=185.6=175.6=164.6 Mpa Maximum allowable design stress (Sd) Sd=2/3* yield strength Sd=2/3*247.

Td =4 .3)/St Td = Design shell thickness in mm Tt = Hydrostatic shell thickness in mm D = Nominal tank diameter in m=36 m H = height from the bottom of the course under consideration to the top of the shell. 16. the thickness is found out using variable design point method.6 mm Sd = Allowable design stress=165 Mpa St = Allowable hydrostatic stress=176 Mpa Since the height of the tank is 14 m.1-foot method.9*D*(H-0. Here. 10.9*D*(H-0. This is done by trial and error method. 12. 14. In this method we find out the design shell thickness (td) and the hydrostatic test shell thickness (tt) and the maximum of the two values is taken.3)*G/Sd + CA Tt = 4.3 m (1 ft) above the bottom of each shell course.95 CA = Corrosion allowance in mm =1. I-foot method calculates the thickness required at the design point 0. G = Design specific gravity of the liquid to be stored=0. and if the diameter is above 60 m. 25 mm. It is to be noted that the standard thickness available in market are 6. we have to divide it into a number of courses considering the economic conditions. 20. So here I-foot Method is used. Values of KARPAGAM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 37 .

1st Course Nominal Tank Diameter in meters D Height from bottom of the course under consideration to the top of shell H Design stress to be considered Sd Corrosion Allowance Specific Gravity G Max hyd stress to be considered Td=((4.5.00 0.9*D*(H-0.5 m respectively. 2.00 m m KARPAGAM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 38 .3))/St Max thickness Thickness selected t Width of shell course W Volume of Shell course V1 = 3. 2.5.thickness obtained by calculation are rounded off to the nearest size of the metal plate available in the market.5. From the above formula shell thickness is calculated.00 14.14 *D*W* t = = = = = = = = = = = 194 2. Case 1 We divide the total Height 14 m to 6 courses of 2. Shell thickness.60 13.17 Mpa mm Kg/mm3 Mpa mm mm mm mm m m m3 = = 36.9D(H – 0. We select a number of random cases with varying number of courses and course width. 2.3)*G)/Sd))+CA Tt =(4.80 11. 2.95 208 13. The total weight of the metal used and cost in each case is also calculated to determine the most economical case of shell structure.014 2.80 14 0.00 3. and 2.

14 * D * W * t 3rd Course Nominal Tank Diameter in meters D Height from bottom of the course under consideration to the top of shell H Design stress to be considered Sd Corrosion Allowance Specific Gravity G Max hyd stress to be considered Td=((4.17 Mpa mm Kg/mm3 Mpa m m mm mm m m m3 = = 36.014 2.3))/St Max thickness Thickness selected t Width of shell course W Volume of Shell course V2 = 3.21 10.9*D*(H-0.00 m m = = = = = = = = = = = 194 2.3))/St Max thickness Thickness selected t Width of shell course W Volume of Shell course V3 = 3.9*D*(H-0.9D(H – 0.3)*G)/Sd))+CA Tt =(4.95 208 12.00 0.08 9.08 14 0.012 2.50 3.14 * D * W * t = = = = = = = = = = = 194 2.9D(H – 0.39 Mpa mm Kg/mm3 Mpa m m mm mm m m m3 = = 36.95 208 10.91 12.36 8.3)*G)/Sd))+CA Tt =(4.00 12.00 m m KARPAGAM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 39 .36 12 0.00 0.00 10.2nd Course Nominal Tank Diameter in meters D Height from bottom of the course under consideration to the top of shell H Design stress to be considered Sd Corrosion Allowance Specific Gravity G Max hyd stress to be considered Td=((4.00 3.

9*D*(H-0.83 Mpa mm Kg/mm3 Mpa m m mm mm m m m3 = = 36.9D(H – 0.95 208 8.9D(H – 0.00 m m KARPAGAM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 40 .05 3.3)*G)/Sd))+CA Tt =(4.008 2.20 10 0.00 0.4th Course Nominal Tank Diameter in meters D Height from bottom of the course under consideration to the top of shell H Design stress to be considered Sd Corrosion Allowance Specific Gravity G Max hyd stress to be considered Td=((4.00 0.00 5.00 7.14 * D * W * t = = = = = = = = = = = 194 2.20 6.3))/St Max thickness Thickness selected t Width of shell course W Volume of Shell course V5 = 3.3)*G)/Sd))+CA Tt =(4.50 2.14 * D * W * t = = = = = = = = = = = 194 2.50 2.10 8.05 8 0.3))/St Max thickness Thickness selected t Width of shell course W Volume of Shell course V4 = 3.26 Mpa mm Kg/mm3 Mpa m m mm mm m m m3 = = 36.95 208 6.010 2.9*D*(H-0.50 m m 5th Course Nominal Tank Diameter in meters D Height from bottom of the course under consideration to the top of shell H Design stress to be considered Sd Corrosion Allowance Specific Gravity G Max hyd stress to be considered Td=((4.98 6.

5. 2.3)*G)/Sd))+CA Tt =(4. Shell Thickness 1st Course Nominal Tank Diameter in meters D Height from bottom of the course under consideration to the top of shell H Design stress to be considered Sd Corrosion Allowance KARPAGAM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING = = 194 2.3))/St Max thickness Thickness selected t Width of shell course W Volume of Shell course V6 = 3.00 2.5 and 3.00 0.5.9*D*(H-0.00 14.26 Mpa mm Kg/mm3 Mpa m m mm mm m m m3 = = 36.5 respectively.86 3.95 208 3.50 m m Total Volume V = V1+ V2 + V3+V4+V5+V6 = 17. 1.6th Course Nominal Tank Diameter in meters D Height from bottom of the course under consideration to the top of shell H Design stress to be considered Sd Corrosion Allowance Specific Gravity G Max hyd stress to be considered Td=((4.5.50 2.9D(H – 0. 2.5.00 m m each .00 Mpa mm 41 = = 36.90 8 0.90 1.008 2. 2.14 * D * W * t = = = = = = = = = = = 194 2.07 m3 Case 2 We divide the total Height 14 m to 6 courses of 1.

00 12.37 Kg/mm3 Mpa m m mm mm m m m3 36.50 2.00 0.9D(H – 0.9*D*(H-0.3))/St Max thickness Thickness selected t Width of shell course W Volume of Shell course V1 = 3.51 14 0.95 208 12.80 14 0.33 12.14 * D * W * t 2nd Course Nominal Tank Diameter in meters D Height from bottom of the course under consideration to the top of shell H Design stress to be considered Sd Corrosion Allowance Specific Gravity G Max hyd stress to be considered Td=((4.50 m m 194 2.014 1.9D(H – 0.00 Mpa mm KARPAGAM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 42 .3)*G)/Sd))+CA Tt =(4.3)*G)/Sd))+CA Tt =(4.80 11.95 208 13.50 2.00 m m = = 194 2.014 1.3))/St Max thickness Thickness selected t Width of shell course W Volume of Shell course V2 = 3.37 Mpa mm Kg/mm3 Mpa m m mm mm m m m3 = = 36.60 13.00 11.14 * D * W * t 3rd Course Nominal Tank Diameter in meters D Height from bottom of the course under consideration to the top of shell H Design stress to be considered Sd Corrosion Allowance = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = 0.9*D*(H-0.51 10.Specific Gravity G Max hyd stress to be considered Td=((4.

9*D*(H-0.94 9.50 2.07 6.3))/St Max thickness Thickness selected t Width of shell course W Volume of Shell course V4 = 3.95 208 m m Mpa mm Kg/mm3 Mpa 43 = = = = = = = = = = = = = 36.3)*G)/Sd))+CA Tt =(4.14 * D * W * t 5th Course Nominal Tank Diameter in meters D Height from bottom of the course under consideration to the top of shell H Design stress to be considered Sd Corrosion Allowance Specific Gravity G Max hyd stress to be considered KARPAGAM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING = = = = = = 36.06 11.00 0.14 * D * W * t = = = = = = = = = 0.50 194 2.9D(H – 0.22 12 0.00 8.83 m m Mpa mm Mpa m m mm mm m m m3 .95 208 9.39 Kg/mm3 Mpa m m mm mm m m m3 4th Course Nominal Tank Diameter in meters D Height from bottom of the course under consideration to the top of shell H Design stress to be considered Sd Corrosion Allowance Specific Gravity G Max hyd stress to be considered Td=((4.07 10 0.9*D*(H-0.50 3.Specific Gravity G Max hyd stress to be considered Td=((4.00 0.00 194 2.00 6.3)*G)/Sd))+CA Tt =(4.22 9.012 2.95 208 11.3))/St Max thickness Thickness selected t Width of shell course W Volume of Shell course V3 = 3.9D(H – 0.010 2.

83 6.50 2.3))/St Max thickness Thickness selected t Width of shell course W Volume of Shell course V5 = 3.9D(H – 0.91 4.008 2.14 * D * W * t = = = = = = = 6.26 m m mm mm m m m3 KARPAGAM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 44 .91 8 0.Td=((4.9*D*(H-0.3)*G)/Sd))+CA Tt =(4.

00 0.76 8 0.95 208 4. and 3.39 m3 Case 3 We divide the total Height 16 m to 6 courses of 1. 3.3)*G)/Sd))+CA Tt =(4. Shell Thickness 1st Course Nominal Tank Diameter in meters D Height from bottom of the course under consideration to the top of shell H Design stress to be considered Sd = 194 Mpa = = 36.5.17 Mpa mm Kg/mm3 Mpa m m mm mm m m m3 = = 36.5 respectively.00 m m KARPAGAM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 45 .3))/St Max thickness Thickness selected t Width of shell course W Volume of Shell course V6 = 3.71 4.00 14. 2.5.9D(H – 0. 1.50 m m Total Volume : V1+V2+V3+V4+V5+V6 = 16.5. 2.9*D*(H-0.14 * D * W * t = = = = = = = = = = = 194 2.008 3.00 3.50 3.6th Course Nominal Tank Diameter in meters D Height from bottom of the course under consideration to the top of shell H Design stress to be considered Sd Corrosion Allowance Specific Gravity G Max hyd stress to be considered Td=((4.76 2.

14 * D * W * t = = = = = = = = = = 2.95 208 12.9*D*(H-0.3))/St Max thickness Thickness selected t Width of shell course W Volume of Shell course V1 = 3.00 0.3))/St Max thickness Thickness selected t Width of shell course W Volume of Shell course V1 = 3.80 11.3)*G)/Sd))+CA Tt =(4.95 208 13.58 mm Kg/mm3 Mpa m m mm mm m m m3 2nd course Nominal Tank Diameter in meters D Height from bottom of the course under consideration to the top of shell H Design stress to be considered Sd Corrosion Allowance Specific Gravity G Max hyd stress to be considered St Td=((4.60 13.94 10.94 14 0.00 1.37 m m Mpa mm Mpa m m mm mm m m m3 3rd course KARPAGAM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 46 .014 1.014 1.3)*G)/Sd))+CA Tt =(4.50 2.00 0.14 * D * W * t = = = = = = = = = = = = = 36.9D(H – 0.00 194 2.80 14 0.75 12.9D(H – 0.00 13.9*D*(H-0.Corrosion Allowance Specific Gravity G Max hyd stress to be considered Td=((4.

3))/St Max thickness Thickness selected t Width of shell course W Volume of Shell course V1 = 3.95 208 11.83 Mpa mm Mpa m m mm mm m m m3 0 = m 9.Nominal Tank Diameter in meters D Height from bottom of the course under consideration to the top of shell H Design stress to be considered Sd Corrosion Allowance Specific Gravity G Max hyd stress to be considered St Td=((4.00 m KARPAGAM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 47 .95 208 9.012 2.50 7.50 194 2.00 0.50 3.3)*G)/Sd))+CA Tt =(4.00 11.9D(H – 0.65 9.010 2.14 * D * W * t 5th course = = = = = = = = = = = 194 2.14 * D * W * t = = = = = = = = = = = = = 36.3)*G)/Sd))+CA Tt =(4.9*D*(H-0.39 m m Mpa mm Kg/mm3 Mpa m m mm mm m m m3 4th course Nominal Tank Diameter in meters D 36.00 0.37 9.48 11.0 = Height from bottom of the course under consideration to the top of shell H Design stress to be considered Sd Corrosion Allowance Specific Gravity G Max hyd stress to be considered St Td=((4.9D(H – 0.65 12 0.9*D*(H-0.50 10 0.3))/St Max thickness Thickness selected t Width of shell course W Volume of Shell course V1 = 3.50 2.

00 0.00 6.76 2.50 3.3)*G)/Sd))+CA Tt =(4.95 208 7.00 0.34 5.9D(H – 0.71 4.95 208 4.76 8 0.00 3.25 7.9*D*(H-0.008 3.9D(H – 0.34 8 0.50 194 2.9*D*(H-0.00 2.14 * D * W * t = = = = = = = = = = = 194 2.50 m m Total Volume V1+V2+V3+V4+V5+V6 = 16.3))/St Max thickness Thickness selected t Width of shell course W Volume of Shell course V1 = 3.05 m3 KARPAGAM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 48 .17 Mpa mm Kg/mm3 Mpa m m mm mm m m m3 = = 36.3)*G)/Sd))+CA Tt =(4.14 * D * W * t = = = = = = = = = = = = = 36.3))/St Max thickness Thickness selected t Width of shell course W Volume of Shell course V1 = 3.Nominal Tank Diameter in meters D Height from bottom of the course under consideration to the top of shell H Design stress to be considered Sd Corrosion Allowance Specific Gravity G Max hyd stress to be considered St Td=((4.008 3.71 m m Mpa mm Kg/mm3 Mpa m m mm mm m m m3 6th course Nominal Tank Diameter in meters D Height from bottom of the course under consideration to the top of shell H Design stress to be considered Sd Corrosion Allowance Specific Gravity G Max hyd stress to be considered St Td=((4.

KARPAGAM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 49 .

05 * 9.ECONOMIC CONSIDERATION For selecting the optimum combination we are considering the material cost and fabrication cost for each case Case 1 The total volume of shell plate required = 17.86 lakhs Case 2 The total volume of shell plate required = 16.39* 9.50 = 162.16 = Rs 64.000 So overall material cost of shell plates = 40.50 = 155.71 tonnes KARPAGAM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 50 .16 tonnes Material cost per metric tonne = Rs 40.39m³ The total weight of shell plates = volume*density = 16.07m³ The total weight of shell plates = volume*density = 16.000 * 162.

000 So overall material cost of shell plates = 40.05* 9.71 = Rs 62.05m³ The total weight of shell plates = volume*density = 16.000 = 40.Material cost per metric tonne = Rs 40.000 * 155.99 lakh KARPAGAM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 51 .000 * 152.49 = Rs 60.29 lakhs Case 3 The total volume of shell plate required = 16.50 = 152.49 tonnes Material cost per metric tonne So overall material cost of shell plates = Rs 40.

86 2 6 16.TABLE CASE NO OF SHELL COURSES TOTAL VOLUME OF SHELL PLATE TOTAL MATERIAL COST (lakhs) 1 6 1 64.39 62.05 61.00 SELECTION OF SHELL Here we are selecting case 3 because case 2 and case 1 are more expensive.29 3 6 Table:4 16. KARPAGAM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 52 .

00 mm 14.00 mm 12.00 mm 8.So taking the case 3 conditions : 1st shell course thickness 2nd shell course thickness 3rd shell course thickness 4th shellcourse thickness 5th shell course thickness 6th shellcourse thickness = = = = = = 14.00 mm 8.00 mm KARPAGAM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 53 .00 mm 10.

3.5m 2.5 m 1.5 m 1m KARPAGAM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 54 .5 m 8mm 3m 8 mm 10 mm 12 mm 14mm 14 mm 2.

the minimum radial width is the sum of the projection from outer surface of the shell plate. dimension between the inner surface of the shell plate and lap joint. RADIAL WIDTH OF BOTTOM PLATE Radial width is calculated using 2 methods and the greater value is selected. 1st method According to API 650. KARPAGAM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 55 . lap of the annular and bottom plate and the 1st shell course thickness. since it has to withstand the entire load carried from the shell.A) = 8 mm Here we provide 8 mm thick plate for annular plate.DESIGN OF ANNULAR PLATE As per table 3. So minimum thickness required = 6 + 2.0(C.1 of API 650 the minimum annular plate thickness is 6 mm.

Minimum radial width = minimum projection from outer surface of the shell plate + Minimum dimension between surfaces of shell plate to lap joint + lap of annular and bottom plate + 1st shell course thickness From API 650 standards.95 So radial width = (215*8)/ (14*0.5 )= 471.Maximum design liquid level in m = 12.95)0.5 m G. The minimum projection from outer surface of the shell plate = 65 mm (min50mm) Minimum dimension between inside surface of shell plate to lap joint = 610mm (min600) Lap of annular and bottom plate = 65 mm (standard) 1st shell course thickness =14 mm So required minimum radial width = 65 + 610 + 65 + 14 = 744 mm 2nd method The minimum radial width is given by the formula R = (215tb)/ (HG) 0.thickness of annular plate in mm = 8mm H.63 mm KARPAGAM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 56 .5 Tb .Design specific gravity of liquid to be stored =0.

As per the above 2 methods the greater of required radial width = 754mm KARPAGAM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 57 .

5 = 227.6.7.9.1) D = Nominal tank diameter in meters = 36 m H = Height of tank shell.5 =13.41 = 227mm (approx) (The section is taken as per cl 3.pg 3-44) Centre of lamina = Ʃax/Ʃa KARPAGAM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 58 .6.4(D*t) ^0.4* (36*8) ^0.4(D*t) ^0.5 mm D = nominal diameter of tank =36 m t = shell thickness at the attachment = 8 mm Portion of tank shell to be considered for calculating L=13. Design speed of wind.2 and cl 3. including any free board provided above the maximum filling height = 14 m Section modulus Z = 1426. V = 185 km/hr Section modulus required for primary girder =D2H2/17 * (V/160)2 cm³ (API 650 3.9.7.DESIGN OF WIND GIRDER Basic wind speed It is based on peak guest velocity averaged over a short time interval of about 3 seconds and corresponds to mean heights above ground level in an open terrain.7 of API 650.88 cm³ Portion of tank shell to be considered for calculating L=13.9.

3 cm Section modulus of the above I section Zxx=Ixx/Y Zxx = 66777. Y = 33.3 = 2005.88 cm3 So design is feasible (as per API requirements Zxx should be greater than section modulus Z KARPAGAM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 59 .33 cm3 > 1426. b = 8 mm.57 cm4 Distance from neutral axis to extreme fiber.= (a1x1 + a2x2 + a3x3)/ a1 + a2 + a3 = 333 mm Moment of inertia Moment of inertia (Ixx) = (Ah²+bd³)/12 Ixx = (BD3/12) – [(B-b) (D-d)3/12] {B = 227 mm.33 cm3 Zxx = 2005.57 /33. D = 666 mm. d = 16 mm} =66777.

Requirement of Second wind girder (According to API 650.9. cl3.Figure 8 mm 650 mm 8 mm 227 mm 666 mm Location of Primary Wind Girder The primary wind girder is provided as a walkway at a distance of 1000 mm from the top.1) KARPAGAM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 60 .7.

5 * (185/160)2 = 10.9.2) Where.1 pg 3-40) Transformed shell As per API codes the transformed shell shall be calculated as the change in actual width of each shell course into a transformed width of shell course having a top shell thickness by the equation. (API 650 01.2 = 6 mm KARPAGAM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 61 .9. = 8 .47*t *[(t/d)3]0.47 *8 * [(8/36)³]0.61 m (According to API 650 code 3.5 *(V/160)2 T=Thickness of top shell course =8 mm D = Nominal tank diameter = 36 m HI = 9.Maximum height of the unstiffened shell = Hi=9.3.7. Wtr = transformed shell course in mm W = Actual width of each shell course in mm tuniform = Thickness of top shell course in mm excluding the corrosiom allowance.7.

985226 8680.926965 thickness –CA w mm 3500 3000 2500 2500 1500 1000 Since cumulative transformed width is not greater than maximum unstiffened height an intermediate wind girder is not required( 8.61 ) DESIGN OF FOAM SYSTEM Foam application rate = 5ir/min/m2 as per (OISD166) Foam area = ᴨ D2/4 When D = tank diameter = 36 Foam area = 1017 m3 Total foam flow required = Foam area * 5 lpm = 5087 lpm No of foam makes provided = 4 Foam maker capacity required = 5087/4 = 1272 lpm DIAMETER OF RISER PIPE Capacity of each foam maker = 1272 Maximum velocity allowed = 5 m/s Discharge Q = ᴨd2v/4 KARPAGAM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 62 .1370023 265.848224 8414.86 < 10. Shell No 6 5 4 3 2 1 course Provided mm 6.00 10.848224 697.Tactual = Ordered shell course thickness excluding the corrosion allowance in mm for which Wtr is being calculated.1650429 176.150269 8856.00 6.00 8.00 Table:5 Course width Transformed width wtr mm 3500 3000 1217.7766953 Cumulative transformed width mm 3500 6500 7717.00 12.00 12.

6] BOLTS Number of bolts = 28 mm Diameter of bolts = 20 mm Diameter of hole = 24 mm NOZZLE One yield nozzle and one suction nozzle are provided for the tank. They are fixed in the bottom shell courses. tc = 14mm Thickness of bolting flange tf = 11mm [API 650 table 3. Dc = 820 mm [API 650 table 3. It is enough to provide 600mm manhole.3] Bolt circle diameter. Also three nozzles for water draw off and two nozzles for roof drain are provided. J = 300 mm. the size of nozzle are selected as Yield nozzle size = 200mm Suction nozzle size = 350 mm KARPAGAM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 63 . Db = 756 mm Cover plate diameter.6 mm Diameter of riser pipe provided = 2 inch SHELL OPENINGS MAN HOLE (SHELL) One-man hole is provided to the tank shell at the bottom shell course. Hn = 700 mm [API 650 table 3. tn = 6 mm [API 650 table 3. According to BPCL requirements.=5087 Diameter of riser pipe = (Q * 4)*(ᴨ *V * 60000) = 21. Distance from bottom of tank to centre of manhole. Dimensions required for the manhole according to API 650 Minimum thickness of cover plate.4] Distance from shell to flange face.5] Neck thickness.

tn mm Diameter of reinforcing plate. Do mm Diameter of hole in reinforcing plate Dr Width of reinforcing plate W Distance from shell to flange face. Hn mm Thickness of flange. tn mm Diameter of reinforcing plate. C mm No of holes Diameter of holes mm Diameter of bolts mm (API 650 table 3. Dr mm Distance from shell to flange face. J mm Width of reinforcing plate W Distance from bottom of tank to centre of nozzle.8) 350 12. Q mm Outside diameter of flange.7 222 485 200 590 325 28 345 270 300 8 23 20 Size of nozzle mm Nominal thickness of flange nozzle pope wall. J mm Distance from bottom of tank to centre of nozzle. = C mm No of holes Diameter of holes mm Diameter of bolts mm(API 650 table 3. Do mm Diameter of hole of reinforcing plate.YIELD NOZZLE Size of nozzle mm Nominal thickness of flange nozzle pope wall.5 750 359 915 250 450 35 415 475 12 27 24 KARPAGAM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 64 . D mm Diameter of bolt circle. A mm Diameter of bolt circle. A mm Diameter of raised face. Q mm Outside diameter of flange. Hn mm Thickness of flange.8) SUCTION NOZZLE 200 12.

Q mm Outside diameter of flange.35 7. B mm Minimum internal pipe thickness mm Minimum nozzle neck thickness mm Size of drain hole mm is feasible Nominal thickness of flanged nozzle pipe wall. tn mm Diameter of reinforcing plate. A mm Depth of sump for draw off . Hn mm KARPAGAM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 75 910 450 6.97 171 495 400 275 25 280 216 240 8 23 20 One or two draw off sumps are provided at the bottom plate in order to stop the water content in the product and to remove it Diameter of nozzle for draw off mm Diameter of sump for draw off. Hn mm Minimum thickness of flange. tn mm Diameter of hole in reinforcing plate Dr mm Width of reinforcing plate W Diameter of reinforcing plate.WATER DRAIN Two water drains are provided to the tank. A mm Deameter of raised face.62 10 10. Do mm Minimum distance from shell to flange face. These are fixed at 180 degrees apart on the bottom shell course.97 400 200 275 65 . J mm distance from bottom of tank to centre of nozzle. Do mm distance from bottom of tank to centre of nozzle. Size of drain hole mm is feasible Nominal thickness of flanged nozzle pipe wall. D mm Diameter of bolt circle mm No of holes Diameter of holes mm Diameter of bolts mm DRAW OFF SUMP 150 10.

8) 1.14DH KARPAGAM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 66 .Minimum thickness of flange.61m The cooling water is sprayed on the tank with the help of nozzles on two sets of pipelines around the shell as per the new design aspects.61m Maximum operating height = 14m Design code OISD 116 CALCULATIONS D. The cooling water is sprayed onto the tank with the help of nozzles. Q mm Outside diameter of flange. Total surface area of the tank: 3. INPUT DATA Type of tank: Fixed cone roof Diameter of tank: 36m Height of tank: 14m Height of wind girder from bottom: 10. diameter of the tank = 36m Height below the top wind girder H1=10. D mm Diameter of bolt circle mm No of holes Diameter of holes mm 25 280 216 240 8 23 Distance from Centre pipe to shell m Thickness of Plates in Sump mm Diameter of bolts mm (API 650 t5able 3. Amm Deameter of raised face.5 10 20 DESIGN OF COOLING-WATER SYSTEM Cooling water system is provided with the tank as per OISD codes.

operating pressure of the nozzle is calculated to be between 1.5 kgicm^2.5 to 3.14*36*14=1583m Since OISD specifies a minimum of 3 liters has to be sprayed per minute per unit area of the shell.= 3. the total amount of water required = 1583 * 3 = 4748 lr/min Considering pressure losses in the pipes connecting the rig and the water tank. Ring no:1 Surface area to be cooled by the water from top ring= ᴨ*D*h D = Diameter of the tank =36m H = Distance between the two wind girders = 9m Surface area = ᴨ*36*9 = 1017m^2 Water required = 3*1017 = 3052 lpm Ring no:2 Surface area to be cooled by the water from top ring= ᴨ*D*h D = Diameter of the tank =36m H = Distance between the two wind girders = 9m Surface area = ᴨ*36*9 = 1017.36m2 Water required = 3*1017 = 3052 lpm KARPAGAM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 67 .

8/(1.5 = 50.5mm Deflection angle = 120ᵒ Let the nozzle be provided at a distance of 1m from shell DIAMETER OF FIRST RING Max.4=49.5 kg/cm2 Average flow per nozzle = 3052/50 = 61. Q =3052 lr/min Since water is provided to the ring by two tubes.8 lr/min/nozzle K.14*(36+2)/2.72 Working pressure = 1. Q/4 = 3052/4 = 763 lr/min KARPAGAM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 68 . velocity allowed V =5m/sec Discharge through the top ring.4m on the ring.Selection of nozzles The nozzles are provided around the shell in an identical manner above top set of nozzle .factor of nozzle = flow per nozzle / (working pressure)0.5)0. but just below the secondary wind grider. discharge in one quadrant is calculated as. No. Nozzle is separated by a distance of 2.52 = 51 Orifice diameter = 7. of nozzles per ring = 3.5 = 61.

3mm is required. DESIGN OF ROOF KARPAGAM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 69 . Q/4 = 3052/4 = 763 lr/min Area A = ᴨd2/4 Let d = diameter of the ring Also Q/4 = area * velocity = (ᴨ d2* V)/4 763 = (ᴨ * d2 * 5 * 60000)/4 d = 770.3 mm So pipe of d = 770.3 mm ie a pipe having diameter of 770.Area A = ᴨd2/4 Let d = diameter of the ring Also Q/4 = area * velocity = (ᴨ d2* V)/4 763 = (ᴨ * d2 * 5 * 60000)/4 d = 770. discharge in one quadrant is calculated as.3mm is required DIAMETER OF SECOND RING Discharge through the second ring. Q =3052 lr/min Since water is provided to the ring by two tubes.

005 * 7.roof plates shall be attached to the top angle of the tank with a continuous fillet weld on the top side only.58919 < 2.e. Corrosion allowance should be added with minimum nominal thickness.3mm (0. VISUAL INSPECTION KARPAGAM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 70 . Roof plates shall have a minimum nominal thickness of 5 mm (3/6 inch) 7-gauge sheet .2 1.46 KPA Dead load = 4.2 i.005 * 7.93 MT Live load = 0. INSPECTION PROCEDURE Before commencing the inspection of a tank.17 inch).04919 < 2. all detail given in its history card and records shall be gone thoroughly.85 = 39.supporting roof. 0.2 So the design is feasible The slope of the roof shall be 19 mm in 300mm (3/4 in 12 inch) or graeater.133 = .589 For designing the roof the combination of live load + dead load < 2.43 * 0. Thick roof plates are needed for self.Total weight of roof = ᴨ/4 * d2 * 0. All internal and external structure members have a minimum nominal thickness of 4.85 = ᴨ/4 *36 * 0.46 + 0.

cracking and general deteriorations. following shall be checked: 1. During the visual inspection. mechanical damage. Anchor Bolts Anchor bolts where ever provided shall be checked for tightness. sinking. Platforms and Structural These shall be examined for corroded or broken parts.Visual external inspection of each tank shall be made once a year. 3. Hand rails shall be checked for firmness. In addition to loss of strength caused by loss of metal. Ladder and staircase steps shall be checked for wear and corrosion. treads becomes slippery when the surface is worn. spalling. Roof plates Roof plates shall be inspected for defects like pin holes. Tank pads i) Tanks pads shall be visually checked for settlement. KARPAGAM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 71 . pitting etc. Concrete foundation at anchor bolt shall be checked for cracks. Platform and walkways shall be inspected for thinning. water accumulation areas and general corroded areas. and integrity by hammer testing. Free movement and alignment of wheels on rolling ladder shall be checked. at water accumulated locations. weld cracks. tilting.. These shall also be checked for thinning/bending. 4. 2. blisters and film lifting. 5. Ladder. iii) Slops of tank pad shall be checked to ensure water drainage. Protective coatings Condition of paint shall be checked visual for rust spots. Strairways. ii) Proper sealing of opening between tank bottom and the concrete pad shall be checked (no water shall flow under the tank bottom). Deterioration of bolts is an indication of excessive settlement.

Rim and bleeder vents for floating roof tanks shall be examined for proper working. since the entry of moisture will greatly reduce the insulating properties and may also result in serious un detected corrosion of the tank plates underneath the insulation. Grounding Connection Grounding connection shall be visually checked for corrosion at the points where they enter earth and at the connection to the tank.the insulation and weather proof sealing shall be visually inspected for damage.. Fire Fighting System General condition of fire fighting facilities and sprinkler systems provided on the tank with respect to clogging of spray nozzle. All vents and pressure relieving devices shall be inspected as per the frequency and procedure outline in OSID-Std-132 (Inspection of Pressure Relieving Devices). The total resistance from tank to earth shall not exceed the value given in OSID-Std-137 (Inspection of Electrical Equipment). shall be checked. Cracks in the water proof sealing are apt to occur and wind may enlarge small tears rapidly.6. Vents & Pressure Relieving Devices All open vents. It is suspected that moisture has penetrated through the cracks. 8. flame arrestors and breather valves shall be examined to ensure that the wire mesh and screens are neither torn or clogged by foreign matter or insects. etc. 7. 9. Insulation If a tank is insulated . a small area of the plates shall be uncovered and examined for signs of corrosion. perforation of foam connections.The water proof sealing of the insulation shall be examined every year. The resistance of grounding connection shall be annually before monsoon. 10. Leaks The tanks shall be inspected for any obvious leakage of the product. EXTERNAL INSPECTION KARPAGAM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 72 . Frequency and procedure for checking shall be as per OSID –Std-142 (Inspection of Fire Fighting Equipment). Valves and fitting shall be checked for tightness and free operations.

minimum four readings should be taken. crack. at the weld connections of brackets or other attachments to the tank and fillet welds of shell to the bottom plates. thickness survey shall be done along the staircase and three compass directions.The detailed external inspection of the tank shall be carried out as per the frequency mentioned while the tank is in commission. Tank Shell The tank shell shall be visually examined for external corrosion. The following should be checked/inspected during external inspection. An extensive scanning shall be done if there is an indication of appreciable thickness loss. bulging and deviation from the vertical. External thickness survey shall be carried out all around for the first and second bottom shell courses. KARPAGAM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 73 . For the rest of the shell courses. 1. Accessories and Pipe Connections All nozzles shall be visuall inspected for corrosion / distortion. 2. in welded seams. Tank fittings. Shell wall thickness survey should be carried out using ultrasonic thickness meter. besides the visual inspection. Cracks mostly occur at the welded connections of nozzles to the tank. Thickness measurements shall be taken with ultrasonic thickness meter. seepage. The following minimum requirement for thickness survey is recommended on all tanks: • All the plates of first and second course of the shell thickness should be surveyed. On nozzles of 50 mm and above.

pitting generally observed in the middle courses of shell. The bottom. the bottom shell courses near the annular ring welding joint should be thoroughly checked ultrasonically within 150 mm of the bottom plate. suitable inspection windows shall be provided to facilitate wall thickness survey. thickness survey should be more extensive on middle courses. For tanks having light produces services like gasoline and naphtha. If significant internal corrosion of roof is observed. Bottom plate under dip hatch shall be checked for dents etc. two readings should be taken on each plate. Bottom. In case of eternally insulated tanks.• On the first course. KARPAGAM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 74 . The bottom plates of tank having water at bottom (such as crude oil) shall be inspected visually in details for internal corrosion or pitting. Water Draw-off Water draw-off is subjected to internal to internal and external corrosion as well as cracking. middle and top portion of the plates should be covered. middle and top positions of the plate must be checked. For the tanks which are likely to have water at the bottom. In such cases. One reading shall be near the lower weld joint and other at approachable height. 3 to 4 readings should be taken on each plate diagonally. • On the second course. then top shell courses should be examined for thickness. They shall be visually inspected and hammer tested along with thickness survey as feasible. • Three readings should be taken on one plate on all the courses along the staircase and three compass directions. 3.

The bottom plates where bacterial corrosion may be suspected (such as crude oil and HSD tanks) shall be gauged in more detail. Hardness testing of the rubber lining shall be carried out while inspecting the tank internally. Drain sumps shall be carefully checked for cracks. that is in proper position and it does not have holes or cracks in the rubber lining as evidenced by bulging. or concrete inspection shall be made to ensure that the lining is in good condition. Roof Drains Roof drains on the floating roof can be designed in many ways. They can be simple open drain pipes. Linings When the inside surface of a tank are lined with corrosion resistant material such as sheet lead. 5. pitting. leak in the weld and measured in particular when corrosion at the underside of the tank bottom plate has been suspected or found. swivel joints or flexible hose KARPAGAM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 75 . organic and inorganic coatings. Care shall be taken while cleaning the painted surface so that no mechanical damage takes place. 4. rubber.

The drain lines shall be checked for blockage before pressure test. All swivel joints shall be thickness surveyed and serviced during every outage and individually hydro tested.drains that keep the water from contaminating the contents. Proper functioning of the roof drains shall be ensured otherwise this may lead to sinking or over-turning of the floating roof. KARPAGAM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 76 . After assembly of the roof drain system. In fixed cone roof tanks slope of the roof should be checked and blockages should be removed. complete system shall be hydro tested.

 Wait for the penetrant to enter surface breaking discontinuities. Basic Process  Surface penetration and pre-cleaning. KARPAGAM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 77 .  Applying a visible or fluorescent liquid penetrant to surface.  Removing excess penetrant from the surface.TESTING METHODS 1. Advantages  Easy to apply and cheap.  Applying a developer to the examination surface.  Can be used for any metal.  Interpretation of indication. 2. Disadvantages  Can detect only surface discontinuities.  Interpretation is easier. DYE PENETRANT TESTING  Used for detecting discontinuities open to the surface. MAGNETIC PARTICLE TESTING  Use to detect surface and subsurface discontinuities.

 Permanent magnets can be used for the same.  The discontinuities lying in a direction transverse to the field will cause a leakage flux to develop around it.Basic Process  Magnetic field is included in the specimen.  Power requirement.  Interpretation easy Disadvantages  Can be used only for ferrous metals. Materials Required  Magnetic yoke  Fluorescent iron powder  Backlight source  Both AC and DC current can be used for producing magnetic field. Advantages  Can be used for surface and subsurface discontinuities up to 5 mm. ULTRASONIC TESTING KARPAGAM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 78 .  Residual magnetism is a problem. 3.  Fine magnetic powder is sprinkled on to this will adhere on the vincity of leakage flux.

above 20000 Hz. KARPAGAM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 79 . Basic Process  Ultrasonic wave is propagated through the material.  This method is used to detect all types of defects.  Any change of medium reflects the waves due to change in acoustic impedance.  Radiation is absorbed as it passes through the material.  Defects or change of materials are known by change in acoustic impedance. Ultrasonic waves are sound waves with frequency above the audible range i.  A discontinuity causes a condition of less material of lesser density. RADIOGRAPHIC TESTING  Used to detect all kinds of defects Basic Process  It is a volumetric examinations using X-ray radiation or nuclear radiation that penetrates through the specimen and produces an image on the film. density and atomic number of the material. 4.  Radiographic source can be either X-ray tubes or gamma radiation source.  The reflected waves are detected using cathode ray tube.  The absorption depends on the amount.e.  The image depends on the amount of transmitted rays that strikes the film.  The amplitude and distance in the CRT will give an indication on the type and position of defect.

.  Defect location and positioning is more accurate. Advantages  Any kind of defects can be detected.  Gamma ray sources contain radioactive isotopes of iridium 192 or cobalt 60. wind KARPAGAM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 80 .  Gives a permanent record. The design was based on API 650 codes. shell plates . Our design of tank include all main parts such as fixed supported cone roof . X-ray gives better quality of image. CONCLUSION As per the requirement of BPCL (Kochi Refinery). tank for storing furnace oil was designed.  One of the widely used methods in construction sites. bottom and annular plates .  The operation is likely to be exposed to radioactive radiation and need constant monitoring. Disadvantages  Radiation safely is an area of concern especially in case of gamma ray sources.

girder and the various accessories like foam system and cooling system. KARPAGAM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 81 . The tank meets all required safety standards. The design calculations were verified and necessary corrosion allowances were provided to the tank parts.

REFERENCE • API 650 STANDARDS (11th EDITION) • BOOK OF ABOVE GROUND STORAGE TANKS • API STANDARDS FOR CONE ROOF TANKS • www.bpcl.co.in • OISD 115 KARPAGAM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 82 .

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