SPE/!ADC 18623 Operational Efficiency Comparison Between a Deepwater Jackup and a %misubmersible in the Gulf of Mexico
by M.A, Childers, ODECO Inc.
IADCMember S% tint! .—. >opyright SPE/lADC f989,
Drilling Conference

rhis paper was orepared for presentation at the 1989 SPE/lADC Drilling Conference held in New Orleans, Louisiana, February 28-March 3, 1989. r!t’s paper was selected for presentation by a SPE/lADC Program Committee following review of information contained in an abstract submitted by the author(s). Contents of the pap M presenwd, have not bean reviewed by the International Association of Drilling Contractor or the Society of Petroleum Engineers and are subject to correction by the author( Re material, as oreaented, does not necessarily reflect any position of SPE or the IADC, ita officers, or membere. Papers presented at SPE/lADC meetings are subject to publicati ‘eview by Editorial Committees of SPE and the fADC. Permission to copy ia restricted to an abstract of not more than 300 words. Illuatretions may not be copied. The abstract sho mrtain conspicuous ecknwvfedgmenl of where and by whom the paper is presented. Write Publications Manager, SPE, P.O. Box S33S3S,Richardson, TX 75US3-3S?38. Telex, 730989 SPED

ABSTRACT A commonly held i“ndus try viewpoint is that deep water (WD) jackup (250-350 ft Plus a WD) iS the preferred rig type over shallow water semis ubmersible (6OO-1OOO “ft WD) from almost including any viewpoint risk, a nd cost, operational efficiency, potential rig downtime. A time study was various operational with conducted time a thst show from the scenarios jackup/semisubmersible starts to move on casing location to dtill out of surface should on (SEMI) the semisubmeraible average perform the operation in 1.8 to over 4.7 days faster than a deep water well permanent for jackup. Also the the abandonment to moving off location, SEMI on average will be able to accomplish the same in 0.6 to 1.5 plus daye faster Summing the than a deep water jackup. start and finish operation for the well, averare assuming a good , on the SEMI steady, reasonably trouble free operation for both type units should be quicker by With current contract 2.4 to ti.2 daya. day ratea, and coet of wellheads, casing, rental of BOP, etc., a shallow water SEMI cost will generally be less total well than a deep water jackup. INTRODUCTION —— Since the conception of jack-up (JU) and floating type drilling rigs in the mid to the prevailing opinion has late 1950-e, rig will always be been that a jack-up rig assuming preferred over a floating the well. both are capable of drilling Historically jack-ups have hada lower day Illustrations at end of paper —

rate, are simpler units to operate, ar similar to land operations, require les knowledge of marine environment an equipment, and in general “less can g wrong” compared to a floating unit. I water deptha (WD) of less than 200 fee the overall a nd economics operating efficiency of shallow water jack-up generally favora then over a shallow wate semi-submersible (SEMI). However the s called deep water jack-up (DtfJr.r), whic can operate in water depths of 200-30 feet and particularly those from 300-37 plus feet, have become considerably large than earlier designs and have become muc more costly thsn the standard shallow water SE141 available in the Gulf of Mexic Due to experience, the lessening (GOM). of the “mystique” and viewed complexity o floating drilling, and in conjunction wit inherent operational o characteristics both units, it can now be said that i many cases a shallow SEMI water ca operate more with les efficiently, downtime r=, and thus less cost then deep water jack-up. It is the purpose o this paper EC. present a number of point via inherent operating characteristic, risk, economics, etc., for both type unit that demonstrate the above qualitative statement. TECHNICAL RIG TYPE DESCRIPTION AND CAPABILITIES O

to th Of the four rig types avail~ble jack-up, aemi industry, namely, and submerai*ie shi submersible, will on. y dea shape/barge, this papec types because rig with the two former have becom moored shapes ship/barge their motion due to unattractive

and 350”. taking from 4 to 6 hours. can move off of larger well location in the event of a shallow gas or deep well blowout. deep water jack-ups have some motion. the periodically throughout haa occurred world and the GOM. which are very similar but 116 design. because underlined for the latter points. track/guide the accessible if may not be system wellhead is l~~o 20 feet above the water line due . gives description of the general the latter rigs with the smallest being the 82SD and the largest being the Gorilla. factors are easily determined except che latter. The chief variables sre-l-b< rig-s air gap (di”B+ance required leg length.ave pushed the capability of a jack-up to “&nd_past their limits. For barge WD capability is “reduced. preponderance under the Marathon Le Tourneau designs.). day fates accessible. WD or the fall more).. moving weather concerning dependent on on new transit. little water. to preload takes just as long to pull the legs when Another coming off location. reduced because of damage. JACK-UP DESCRIPTION water a nd only been built. (over 60 ft. Another problem to consider is an unstable sea bottom. deep water bigger. rig design and type. less sophisticated. Only a few Super 300-a have been built and just 4 Gorillas have been delivered. 72 deep water jack-up are There numerous designs (nominal rating of 250 ft. and 2 It is rated over 350. most important for an fadependent leg jack-up. jack-ups. The types related 116-c or are majority (approximately 70) with a smattering of 53”s and 300-S. faster mobilization and generally have less cases.but under 400*. mudslide area in which jack-upa cannot be used. One of the most perplexing and sometimes for a deep water unknown risk factors jacl. water depth rating and/or certification Society mandate. require and in many speed. have templates. leg jack-up then an independent usually is not satisfactory since a punch This through will over-stress the legs. All of the above aea bed leg penet!acion. the version of an earlier the designed Bethlehem telescoping leg mat type deep water rig. the 53. and usually results in severe leg damage or total loss of the rig. the Marine Drilling Storm VII. if outfitted with a towing requirements As with the propulsion assist syste%. a jack-up drilling unit is that once it is jacked up and the hull is out of the its” motion.2 OPERATIONAL EFFICIENCY COMPARISONS BETWEEN A DEEP WATCR JACKUP AND A SEMISUBMERSIBLE IN THE GULF OF MEXICO are a >. 82SD. of which only one has been built.be should word general The unit. during the capability to set locations. for leg penetration in length is used order to obtain the the proper preload. 300.-up is just how deep of water can it Numerous times successfully operate. difficult to obtain an exact count because some rigs have Leen retired. cold stacked for many . etc. then preloading of the barge may take 1 to over 2 days with each preload. this possibility individual If exists. have been generally day rates contract a nd the than shallow water SEMIS. WD. i.to high wind and waves. and it requires less equipment of lesser complexity to move the . it exhibits a nd visible is system BOP/wel?head contract. and. two of the Mod SPE 18623 V-s nave GOM Presently. at the lower end of the spectrum for deep . in which even soil bortnga may not always even approximate give exact or information. a nd moving off. generally it is relatively are generally cheaper. leg length never added as originally pianned. independent leg jack-ups. more operation for a jack-up has much ~ng inherent risk due to the more economic required larger weather window and jackrequirements Sea minimum up/jack-down (generally 5 ft or less).. 32 for WD between 250and 3G0°. The actual inventory is probsbly less than that stated. for the recent jack-ups. leg length cutoff in yeas past. Correspondingly. Leg penetrations of 50 to 80 feet are routine in the GOM and it is not Since leg uncommon to go beyond 90 feet. nd submersibles characteristics water (generally less than 80 shallow The chief attraction of f@eC) type Ltflit. are often ambiguous Air gap requirements to and contractor non-standard from contractor even though it may be the same Generally speaking. 116-C. SEMIS generally have more deck space and are less variable deck load capability.e.ears and thus not available. have the capability to drill more wells through a given template.) occur. namely. however. Super Table 1 300. there are exceptions to almost above advantages with the the all of exception of the ability move off location in the event of a blowout. between mean water level to the unders~~ of the barge-s hull) during hurricane and non-hurricane season. the designers requfre that the barge be preloaded with sea water initially as such to “seat” the legs to the maximum depth such that the maximum barge will be able to withstand loading conditions drilling and storm large penetrations If simultaneously. 6 betveen 300. is through” of consideration “punch legs. “leg length taken up by the Jack house/hull length with some small safety iactor (5 ft. water market is the Friede Goldman design The Mod ll-s are L-780 Mod II and Mod V. there are in the approximately 50 jack-ups rated nominally for up to 25o WD. operatora and contractors h. rated for 377 Another big player in the deep ft. some designs more than others as is exhibited by the requirement to have traveling block BOP surface the systems. and the Gorilla classes. if it takes a long time then it usually the barge.

Assumiag a steady operation i would take an average 8. air gap requirement of 46 feet per Table 2. At present there are 40 SEMIS in the GOM of be active or could that are active which 11 are rated at or under 1000” WD.000 feet plus. In !~D the potential storm surge height. then The shallower the water.. certification requiremer. etc. naturally thicker wall thickness would Also wfth thick walled pipe take longer.. and the worst is 14. of the mentioned have a SEMIS rigs. example if a rig such as the Marathon Le 116c with 410 foot of total leg Tourneau length has leg penetration estimated to be 80 feet.q SPE 18623 MARK A. i. DNV. Table 2 outlines data based on a general available industry of congiumerate set of results in one statistics that minimum suggested air gaps as a function and nonof return periods for hurricane the Table 2 drives hurricane seasons. as to calculate an industry standard air gap as a function of WD . of penetration only five welds would be required if the drive pipe is welded together.e. has three (3) basic designs in the GOM . subtracts For and thus WD capability of the rig. SEMI specifically built to be a SEMI was the Ocean Driller in 1963. etc. The best time on average would be approximately 6.demand premium contract rates that makes them non-competitive with jack-ups. height . the greater gap. etc).) together assuming a penetration If seas are excessive during of 200 ft.2 days. and the classification by approve< then society (ABS. The chief of SEMI iS ita characteristic hull” i: which waves “transparent are pass vertical allowed :0 throug. the bigger the drive pipe OD and wall thickness i required to maintain structural stability. Of course a SEMI does not drive 30 inch with a drive hammer but jets the 30 inch in an average drilling A takes of 1-2 hours. In shallow water the percentage of 70% maybe over NW L over wave height whereaa in deep water (over 400 ft.7 days. SEMI returns out of the 30 inch at the sea bed whereas a jack-up must nippla up a 20” or . storm air the required the larger tide. DOE.8 dcya aasuming no major down time and/or .). GENERAL OPERATING COMPARISON Table 3 outlines the necessary operations for a SEMI to move on location and drill to surface casing setting depth in 300 ft of WD. It should be noted that the “best” time has been bettered numerous times. useable leg length discussed. SEMI-SUBMERSIBLES The fir~t SEMI was a converted submersible The first named the Blue Water I (1961). The average ia 11. namely. surge. storm height. all with different motion characteristics or less all are more but in th~ GOM ranges from Their size satisfactory. the Ocean Scout (smallest). however. Generally ODECO minimum WD limitation of approximately 110 to 125 feet depending upon drilling draft resulting from BOP stack height to hull Almost all SEMIS have at least clearance.h the columns thus reducing the excitement force motion of a nd thus the floating the Numerous structure. On a SEMI aasuming 200 ft. to 10. All SEMIS may work in shallow water (under (over units deep water but the 350”) 1500-) and especially the ~nits rated over 2oo(?. however. wave insofar as ~ standard accepted hurricane tide.d.t for adequate air The primary do not hit the main gap is that waves The barge/hull in the jacked up position. the surge for a very large hurricane may only be 5-6 feet. ft. and class Other designs are available (largest). heavily air gap is home that point controlled by the time of year (hurricane and non-hurricane) and return period (10 In turn air gap. mean water level (MWL) varies with water depth.2 days the worst and would be 9. return frequency.>l problems. written into the Operatin& Manual by the designer. Generally. the best is 8. and “small non-hurricane air gaps. in 40 ft WD it naybe Wave crest height over 20 ft. CHILDERS 3 are gap requirements minimum air determined by the designer. as yr vs. astronomical and surge. the deeper the WD. x-ray inspection of welds is often utilized and more time ia expended. If the 30 inch drive pipe is welded together rather than then 42 together via connector$ screwed hours must be added to put the 16 joints (608 ft. from approximately 160 to 400 feet. a 600 feet WD capability with moat of the GOM fleet being rated at 1. we a are comparing “steady” non record breaking operation. SEMI designs have been presented to the industry over the At present ODECO years.000 long con displacement general 2 some giving Table deck f( r dimensions. leg penetrations.000 ton displacement long under with almost 50. deck lofi. this operation then it is difficult t weld 30 inch with wave induced movement of Larger drive pipe diameter with the pipe. to uae {n determining The larger the selected wave air gap. 100 yr. then the rig is only capable of drilling in 233 feet of WD even though it is nominally rated for 300 Nominal WD ratings usually assume feet. or more.5 daya. etc.) and governmental agency (USCG. thus frequency. characteristics apace.3 days. Table 4 shows the time to bring a large deep water jack-up on the same location and drill to the same depth. and hull plus jack house length of 50-1/2 feet. under 25 small. Ocean Traveler the Ocean Voyager clasa. storm question is what the required risk. The footnotea for Table 4 shows some of the areas that may extend the time estimate if a deep water jack-up Is used.) it Unfortunately there Is may only be 55%.

18 3/4” BOP stack whereas the jack-up must usually nipple down the 20/30 inch diverter system and then nipple back well!~ead. 2000 WP.000 WP. . 13 3/81’. per preload 4 to 6 hours addition the jack-up must wait fOr final survey shota before preloading ia started whereaa a SEMI can take approximate shots and then move over as it runs anchors up location at the end of the mooring Once again this means time and operation. Table 5 shows the time estimate for a SEMI to permanently abandon and pull anchors in 300 ft of water depth with an average of 3.000 HP total) of which (approximately tug anchor handling two are generally boats. up onto the 20 inch conductor An additional problem for a jack-up is that if lost returns are a problem while drilling below the drive pipe then a jackup compounds” the problem via additional fluid head ae returnm are taken 80-100 teet above mean water level. Another time consumer is that on a SEMI casing is not run from the mud line up to the cellar deck area whereas on a jack-up it is.Table 6 correspondently shows the same operation for a deep water jackup with an average of 4. the rigs. 74 Tablea 3 through 7 give operational comparison between a deep water jack-up and a SEMI with discussion on pertinent points. Following is a more detailed discussion about operations of specific the two types of unita that are pertinent to the discussion at hand.000 WP. 5000 Wp. Scout class the towing requirements are 25600 HP tugs andlor anchor handling tugs. anchor in the GOM iS that any capable handling boat and crew can work in S-10 maximum the larger if seas-. the rig requires 1-5600 when it is On some occasiona HP tug. Once boat anchor handling can then second release the tow bridle and help run the All this saves remaining four anchora. one boat holds the rig on location while the other anchor initial boat the four handling runs they have been set. and foot predominantly are (MCS) seas combined anchors no t advisable.4 OPERATIONAL EFFICIENCY COMPARISONS BETWEEN A DEEP WATER JACKUP AND A SEMISUBMERSIBLE IN THE GULF OF MEXICO SPE 18623 30 “ annular/diverter system per Mineral Management requirements. The time to moor up a SEMI. the 16. faCtOr ia For SE:41S the only controlling boat the ability Of the anchor handling The experience and crew to work safely. caaing is run on drill pipe and hung off in the subsea wellhead all of which saves additional time and expense. runs tht SEMI its high pressure. Service (MMS ) Once the twenty inch conductor pipe is run. this total operation must be aborted and another type of vessel must be used with significant Large loss of revecue to all concerned. money. Table 7 is a summary of Tables 3 thru 6 a nd shows that on average for the operations discussed the SEN1 will finish the well at a minimum of 3. On a jack-up with a large casing program a number of BOP stacks and wellheads m: required be whereaa on a SEMI all caaing hangers are aet in the 18 3/4” houa~ng and the same BOP stack is used throughout the entire drilling of the well. 16 3/4”. i.2 days less than the jack-up. SPECIFIC POINTS OF COMPARISON Moving on and off Location As previously discussed. 20”. 10. its hull and towing requirement. can run aa little aa 6 to 8 hours but will average 12 to 16 hrs. . 30”. Of course the SEMI has no casing from the sea bed up. and 11” 15.. class Goldman Fried@ & approved Oper. 10. is allowable sea Of major consideration conditions for jacking up and down for a and LeTouneau For. time’ and money.e.000” Wp. Marathon jack-up. A large tension system is alao required to hold up the weight of the BOP and wellheads in addition to supply an over pull for structural stability.2 to 6. Once the well has been finished a nd abandonment operation have commenced.ellheads. Though swells.8 days. deep water jackUPS when pushed to their maximum allowable WD on occasion have moved on to location and found after jacking up and preloading was insufficient lag length that At point the available. which iS For propulsion assist. particularly in shallow water depth. poaaible for two anchor handling boats to tow and moor the rig. A deep water jack-up historically requires 3 to 4 preloads on the average at In cycle. Of course this means that on a SEMI. the anchors. A SEMI has the time saving option to explosively cut casing whereas a jack-up must use caaing cutters and lay down all pipe from the seabed up to the cellar deck/wellhead area. the Ocean Voyager class. It is possible to use five different wellhead and BOP sizes on a jack-up.000 HP to tow safely. depending upon into weather. jack-upa generally require three tugs with a minimum of 4200 HP each or fn excess of 12.6 daya. For the Ocean Traveler rig requires four tugs class. have been run on numerous occasions in The~e are two jackseas above 12 feet. Once surface casing is set the operation of a SEMI and jack-up is more or less the same except for setting casing hangers and riippling down and up different size BOP atacka and w.:ing certification society than five foot Manual suggeata no more down to prevent seas to jack-up or structural and/or jacking system damage. usually For the Ocean the tow package ia smaller. The three tugs are generally required in the event one thus storm and breaks down during a sufficient HP ia avaiiable to hold the rig For a SEMI. 500 WP.

as previously discussed. the addition tanks and other of pneumatic/hydraulfc equipment adda significant weigh:.cem to prevent rig downtime. During non direct these tows. the window must be long enough to jack-down.3% averaged 1. On some occasions. SPE 18623 MARK A. 14 jackups with over 300. sub skid the to requfired are ups the required structure/drill floor back.000 or 15.. The one single advantage that a jack-up has over a SEMI ia repair and change of rams on the BOP stack compared to pulling a SEMI BOP stack to the surface.000 operating hours. seas. the stack swap may even extend to five BOP stacka that must be moved in and out of the cellar desk area at considerable time a nd expense no t to mention the necessity to stack the well head up. If it becomes necessary to move the rig off locstion the SEMI of course can accomplish this readily whereas the jackup cannot. in deep deptha water and heavy rig loading it usually is required. Sometimes in shallow water depth with a certain loading this may not be require. On some occasions. energize pack offs and teat for each casing string. Since the GOM is susceptible to hurricane and the standard industry procedure is to abandon drilling rigs. The rental of additional BOP stacks can be expensive in addition to all the time necessary to Subsea wellhead houafngs can handle them.4% subsea downtime and 0.09%) waiting on iS It weather time. no t uncommon. jack-up. unique Most jack-up rigs. the SEMI has a much lower risk probability and thus cost to the operator ‘than a jack-up. time allowances must be made for preloading the rig in the event of severe weather which would require the rig to jack up. A good preventive maintenance (PM) system is mandatory for subsea equipment sy~. maintained Generally BOP stacks must be removed due to to their weight which would contribute . When jack-ups aove they generally need a weather w“indow that consists of the entire move. It has been Odeco-s experience over the last number of J ears that the ~ SEMI”S have had just about zero (0.5%) of the difference in downtime for the SEMIS was caused by the change out to new 18 3/4’~ BOP stacks and thus start up problems associated with the new subsea system on 4 of the SEMIS. tow to new location. substructure is required how the question aa to there is a well/drive pipe can be held in tension and large to buckle under thus not allowed Though not all jackwave and wind loads.1 to downtime with jack-ups between 0. the SEMI can also move off location where a jack-up. is more or less independent of weather. In the unfortunate or unlikely event of a blowout. especially those that are cantilevered.000 WP) through the entire well whereaa the jackup will have to swap BOP-S generally three or more times. jack-upa will tow in water depths that are jackable in the event weather is a factor. The majority (approximately 0. twenty inch BOP and the 13 5/8” high pressure BOP. namely. A SEMI. In summary aa far as risk during moving operations is concerned. Hurricane Abandonment Well Control and Well Heada . particularly in the winter montila or for an approaching hurricane.. AS SEMIS seen the 1. Though this particular advantage haa been rarely required it still exists in the highly unlikely event that it is required. CHILDERS 5 ups available outside the GOM that have “slow roll” tanks that allow jacking-up and down in higher however. be purchased for three or casing four strings in addition to a tubing hanger if so Thirty desired.4%.~t a jack-up wait days. cut off casing. If akid back of the in deep water. cannot. set slips. particularly in the GOM. has averaged 0.6 to 0. The chief well control advantage of a SEMI over a deep water jack-up ia that the SEMI will use only one size blowout preventer (usually 18 3/4”i 10. inch drive pipe consisting mostly of 1“ wall or thinner is standard with SEMI-S whereaa deep water jack-upa generally require heavy wall 30 or 36 inch for structural strength and stability from the mud line to the wellhead area. Figure 1 shows contractor downtime for both jackups (bottom founded) and SEMIS (floating) that involves up to 8 SEMIS an. downtime. Another very attractive emergency feature of a SEMI is in the event of diverting the well. the SEMI has a advantage. require that the sub-structure and drill floor be akidd’ed back to the tow position for concentric leg loading. th.77% over all for the last 3 yrs. however. tension on the well in deep water must be if the well ia to be saved. ODECO implemented a stringent SEMI as well as PM system In 1984/85 jack-up that has significantly reduced. survey in.. i. the thirty inch annular diverter system.’. completely The primary reason for the complete move comparison is the cost to call out and release tugs which presently cost 2 to 3 times the rig rate. pull legs.vary from 3 1/2” to 5“. particularly if it is a long one. Most subsea BOP stacks have at least one (VBR) thus meeting governmental regulations for tapered drill or test strings. the Ocean Endeavor which did not change ita subsea system. sometimes even over a week to make a move.e. One rig. Generally BOP stacks for SEMI-S are not pulled for rama change with the new advent of variable bore rams (VBR) that . preload and then jack out of the water. and thus reduced deck load capability.

SEMIS on the other hand are somewhat independent of weather in the GOV with the exception being hurricanes. one tug . test equipment. Conversely only a very few jackUps are outfitted with 21 1/41’ 5.. high pressure.000 Wp. 18 to 36 hours ia routine.e. etc. The jack-up haa the advantage of releasing its tug package once the rig has been surveyed in and one preload has commenced.000 WP BOP systems such that that BOP stack must also be rented as with 16 3/4”. 13 5/8”. Downtime and Trouble Time Risk Upon review of Tables 3-7. for the Ocean Scout or the Ocean Voyager the move on coats (Fall. one of the most important consideration is economics. 1988) would be less since tug costs of approximately $1. 15. However? subsea BOP downtime that requires pulling the BOP stack in Odeco”s exptirience is minimal particularly in shallow water in which the BOP stack can be run and/or pulled in short periods of time. i.50014.500 per day or more whereas Shallow water SEMI were contracting for $12.500 per item 9 of Table 9 the SEMI per day. anchor handling tool equipment of appro~imately $1. the tow rate of large jack-ups is approximately half that of the SEMI. If the strings are cemented together cucting all of the casinga simultaneously can take 1 to 2 days. The risks of inducing lost returns on a jack-up are significantly higher when drilling out of drive pipe and conductor casing than a SEMI. the GOM doea not exhibit storm conditions which require a SEMI to shut down.. The hardware costs are outlined as shown with no salvage value aasigned. has less coat to get to surface casing setting depth due to its approximate 4 daya faster operating time. jack-upa in general have more weather down time than SEMIS due to the necessity to nipple up a nd down BOP”S. multi casing GOM well in 260 foot of WD.a SEMI in the GOM is not a factor. It has been Odeco-a experience over the ‘last 3 years that less than 37 hours of downtime has been experienced with the operation of from 3 to 8 SEMIS. often jack-upa must have extended weather windows to move with anything over MCS 5-6 being troublesome. The day rates for riga discussed are for “standard” jack-ups and do not apply for . the SEMI should be able to drill the well for approximately $70.e.100 . 5.~ in the cells? deck a nd some times below the bottom of the hull on a moving and gyrating drive pipe.000. As noted for a 260 foot WD well. 11”. the towing costs could more than offset this savings depending of the tow. upon the distance The 825D and Mod 11 jack-ups are the exception for these clasaes tow at 5 to 7 knots. pull or run in 5 to 8 hours. In addition.000-$1. if the problem requires setting of plugs in the well for well control the tima is even ektended further.500 per day and the jack-up at $11.500 per hour for the jack-up equates to the cost of two anchor handling boats. anchor handling crews. The time neceaaary CO additional time. however. However from surface setting casing depth to ‘total depth the two rigs are approximately equal in time with the day rate advantage shown heavily in favor of the jack-up in the order of $70.. Aa discussed. Another area that may be a concern ia motions on a SEMI. the SEMI was asaumed to contract at $13. to the surprise of many. It has been Odeco”s experience in deep water near the mouth of the Mississippi River that 1-2 days of preloading ia no t uncommon whereas a shallow water SEMI can routinely moor Up in 8 to 16 houra. In round numbers for the well example shown. For the sake of this paper. Basically weather and motion with . Upon P&A the SEMI can routinely pull 2 or 3 strings cemented together whereas a jack-up will preferably pul: each string individually.$1. On the other hand. At the time of writing this paper jack-up drilling rigs capable of operating in 260 foot of water depth were contracting for $11.000 less than a jack-up.e. however. As stated. 15. etc. On the other hand. 110.000.000 WP. In the event of a shorter well differential this would decrease and thus more favorably show the SEMI. i.100 per hour. therefore. 76 Not discounting all the advantages and disadvantages when comparing the two type of units againat each other. risk of time deviation must be discussed. a SEMI has a higher risk of extended downtime due to subsea BOP problems than jack-up since the SEMI must pull the BOP stack to work on the problem. wellheads. the caaing required to extend from the mud line to the wellhead is very expensive. off* a nd betw. however.500 per day. Coats ate not shown for moving on and moving off location.6 OPERATIONAL EFFICIENCY COMPARISONS BETWEEN A DEEP WATER JACKUP AND A SEMISUBMERSIBLE IN THE GULF OF MEXICO Economic Comparison SPE 1862’3 pipelcaaing drive the well buckling of This may take from the sea floor up. Since most if not all GOM jack-up rigs are not outfitted with a 30 inch annular they must be rented. i. The risk of extended preload time versus mooring up a SEMI can be significant. upon pulling the legs if penetrations have been deep (over 60 ft).006 foot. Upon moving on. Tab’e 9 outlines a somewhat typical 12.00. 2 1/2 to 4 knots veraus 5 to 8 knots.een location jack-ups have a much higher risk of downtime than a SEMI due to their greater sensitivity to weather. Due to their nature the two type units use drastically different equipment from the mudline to the bell nipple.000 WP. prepare a SEMI or jack-up for abandonment mentioned are the depths in water not more if the same approximately favorable for a SEMI.

000. which is a very large deep water (3. the deeper the water depth. .000. the more sizes requtred and changea in jack-up BOP-S. almost 3 wells to 1 could be drilled by a shallow water SEMI.. and the shallower the well to be drilled the more favorable the SEMI shall be from an economic standpoint discounting all other advantages and disadvantage of both units. the more leg penetration. 5) In Odeco-s experience the risk of negative deviation from the above conclusions impact the jack-up more because of weather a nd lost returns when compared to a SEMI.000 to 4.000 to of per Contrastingly. a SEMI will drill a well quicker than a jack-up regardless of water depth. The last Gorilla class rig had a reported construction cost of over $80. If Gorilla class . all favor the SEMI .500 ft) SEMI. was .000. 4) With present contract day ratea. the more casing strings. the majority of shallow water jack-ups will be more (less than 200 ft) economical than a SEMI . CHILDER!S 7 the Marathon LeTourneau Super 300”s and Gorilla class or”-the Friede and Goldman Mod V class. 3) With present ‘contract rig day ratee. Conclusions —— 1) Assuming equal conditions. and the more required preloads for the jack-up. comparable downtime/troubletime .juat constructed in Korea at cost of $65.ay rates were applied to this study. In sumcary the deeper the water. $35. 2) In conjunction with item 1. a shallow water SEMI will be more economical a majority of the time than a deep water jack-up (over 200 ft) particularly the very large jack-ups. SPE 18623 MARK A. . 000 day. the Ocean Valiant.000 with a corresponding day rate $45.

80 O 1. Let.052 2. 82-5 D-c .161 3. Let. IIN RIIT iTOH FROM 25 TO 90 FT WO AND FLOAT IN 120 TO 1.900 2.580 4.. 780-v 00ECO o.460 7.. OCEAN TRAVELER CLASS MAY S1. 000 N IA Dimension Length Uidth Hull Depth Variable Drilling Storm Capacities: Drill Water (BBLS) Fuel Oil (BBLs) Tubular S$orage Area (fc ) Liqufd Mud (B BLS) Environmental Criteria (wind/Wave/ Air Cap): ZSO . WITH ADDITION OF LEG LENCTH ‘TO 604-.496 1.747 1.000 17.719 1.000 6.855 5.735 8.b25 3.250 2.200 14.050 3. Gold.000 N1A 120 2. co w m ./6rif50..000 N fA 25(e) 1....43 200 26 270 268 28 297 292 30 180 175 25 228 222 30 202 170 28 366 218 .22.676 1.Water Depth Depth Deck Load: 20 I.972 6.WD ARE 10o/ lT -.-FT.840 1.320 1. Let.“-.840 1.— Hara. Let..800 8.000 ADDITIONAL AREA AVAILABLE ON MAIN DECK.975 1. 304 6. 950 7 000 2 360 8..806 100/38/25 N/A 87!43150 N/A 100/49 NtA 50 100/68/50 80/76/61 100/87/60 82193171 10015414b 100 95/70 100/68/41 100 I68I41 105/93/50 105/93/50 100/110/50 100/110/50 300300350350” Water Water Water Water Depth Depth Depth Depth N/A N IA NJA N1A NIA N/A N 1A NtA NIA NIA 80174157 80174157 (b) N)A 82192168 82192!68 (d) (d) NfA NIA 100/89/65 100/68/411 100/68/41 100 I68I4I loo/681f41 lo5f93150 105/93/50 105!93/50 105/93/50 100/110/70 100/110/70 100/110/70 100/110/70 78135J50 Nlh NOTES: a) b) c) d) e) f) CONTROLLED MORE BY LEG REACTION VIA ECCENTRIC BARGE LOADINC THAN V} RIABLE DECK LOADING WITH ADOITION OF LEG LENGTH TO 515-s VALUES ARE loo/61 /.183 2.Hater 250. V‘ALlfCC 81/55ANll 82/92/68 -.875 1.200 1.406 9.094(8) 6. PIPE RACK AREA ON CANTILEVER ONLY. scout 00ECO O. . . Gorilla Fred. 53 (0.317 1. 556 1.072 6. 150 3...637 13.600 1. 705 2.2S2 1.”--.Titan) Mara..800 3.3 AND A NOMINAL WATER DEPTN OF 450-. 1 16-c Mara.719 3. . VALUES ONLY FOR 328.000 1. Traveler ODECO o.980 2. 100 4. Super 300 Mara. 795 3. Gold.400 7.TABLE 1 BASIC STATISTICS FOR DEEP WATER JACXUPS AND GULF OF MEXICO SEt41-SUB!4ERS IBLES ----- ITEH Mara. 500 4.272(a) 1.980 18.000 5.200 4. 780-11 —— Fred.214 1...825 1. Vcyagsr Nominal WaterDepth Racing: Minimum Maximum Leg Length Jack House Basic (ft) Length (ft) (ft): 207 176 230 200 26 2. Let.(327 3. ARC113(1 .520 2.600 2.200(f) 1.5o.5 323 266 28 45 15 250 361 1/2 22 350 466 51 lBf25 300 410 SO 1/2 20 300(b) 448 60 1/2 20 328(c) 504 71 1/2 12 300 417 43 1/2 17 350 491 56 120 1.

Reps. 5 FT. AIR GAP QQQ 34 37 42 46 32 35 FETCH. W~:ND SPEED FRO!! APPROXIMATELY 160FT TO 400FT. 140 154 181 200 96 103 30 min 97 113 125 138 66 71 WAVE HEIGHT (ft) Creast to Above Trough w 41-44 46-47 51-54 55-60 37-40 42-45 26 28 32 35 23 26 STORM SURGE m. SAFETY FACTOR ADDED. IN OPEN WATER WITH SUFFICIENT WATER DEPTH RANGES *’ CD b) BASED ON GENERALIZED ASSUMPTION THAT CREST OF WAVE WILL BE APPROXIMATELY NO STORM SURGE INCLUDED. REMARKS Reps. 6/1-11/30 6/1-11/30 6/1-11/30 6/1-11/30 11/30-5/31 11/30-5/31 25yr Non Hurr. Reps. PUBLISHED 60% OF TOTAL CREST TO c) NOTE : ABUVE DATA BASED ON VARIOUS SIGHT STUDIES.TABLE 2 GENERALIZED GULF OF MEXICO SIGNIFICANT ENVIRONMENTAL EVENT CONCERNING JACKUP AIR GAP ABOVE MWL + CREST 29 32 37 41 27 30 WIND EVENT 1 —— min 10yr 25yr 50yr 100yr Hurricane Hurricane Hurricane Hurricane 116 118 151 166 80 85 (mph ) Gust . a) WAVES ARE BASED ON 30 MIN. Reps. 2-3 4-5 5 5-6 4 4 MIN. 100yr Non Hurr. Reps. m Q m . WIDELY AVAILABLE GENERALIZED BROAD AVERAGE OF WIND. TRouGH HEIGHT ABOVE MEAN WATER LEVEL (MwL). Reps. WAVE AND SURGE VALUES. AND REPRESENTS A . DATA.

R/O. leak-off test PoOH.3” in C&A deck 0 12 15 Assume only 8pud uud. O.5 36 6 4.5 This tfme may be eliminated if last location 6 rig up during as shown in “best” case. Circ. h POOHwlrunning cool P/U wash tool .5 12 8 & land same. drill pilot 1 1..0 9. R/U.5 8 6 2. cmc h RIO 9 11 7. R/U. .2 s 10 196.2 236. wash stack 6 test stack h L/O wash tOOl 5 6 Depending on cmt job and Gumbo.5 10 7 3. may not need to wash with wash tool. H. s bit P/U 26” hole & O/H to 1300displace opener 6 8 10 If drill 26” hole. Jec in 30” Let C&Aset/stabilize P/U 12-1/4’( bit. on a good. bow and anchor pattern buoyed. TIH.5 42 8 Time ba3ed on offset wells. slug included) pipe 6 Land casing on OP.e. ?.5 RIO. drill No log 0. — 15 7 WORSE 20 9 COMMENTS Location. GhA 30” . i. uud & P. i. run 13 318” ceg. boat. all this time eliminated.5 1. If known non gas area. O. 6 bolt-up same lad 8 5 HOURS AVE. BHA. (surveys Short trip. displfice hole 2. P/U 12 1/4” bit.5 11 3 3 13 May not be necessary s low. take tension up Offload Oper. BRA. 1300” 6 survey Circ. gel. P/U drill Orill to 4500’ hole w/gel 1.O. Log surface Circo circ. cement h RID P/U 17 1/2” bit. H R/U. mud 6 POOH L/O 12-1/4” stabilizers & P. no records set but alsO nO major dOwntime andlor . BHA. Assutie shoe does 3.4TION OR & ILL OUT SURFACECASING IN 300.0 B. 9 6.5 3 3. Avg. H..TABLE 3 SEMI WBHERSIBLETO MOVEON LOC.5 11 13 8. formation. clrc.0 39 1 4. of 2-3 IOg rune & cord. of conductor hole.5 if last jc jets very hole with and to 9 75 to 100 FPH.5 6. not have to be squeezed. TIH.e.8 Above item are based hole problems. O. run 20” csg. final survey & land G6A on cellar 3. R/U.O. hole trip 6 canal. drill out b 10” formation 6 perform leak-off test TOTAL (Hrs) (Oays) 6 — 148.WATER OEPTH OPERATION BEST — Rig Move Run anchors Ballast down.O. hole clean. steady Operation. 26” hole at same ROP. hole clean. load out at anchor run start-up equip. drill out 10” hole clean 6 perform .5 13 7 max.Issemble 6 TIH h circ.

Ocill short Log PiU to trip. BNA.5 14 Assume ZU” BOP 1s 21-1/4” 2000 HP. e. eliminate PIU 12-1/4” bit. ~U.mage. t If of NUL to above rotary (108. N/U csg.cl.3 survey 3 6 1.: I) 2) Compare compuce co floating mud line system securing COSC. 209 B. 10 wellhead. joints remove of 60.Joad Seas. l. h cond.formation if requtred POOH.1s0 mud line circulate sugar water via back-off toO1. rather add 42 hrs (3 hr9 j t) not allowln8 for weather or 5) C“abo a“d!or weak casing due to h18her elevaclon Above item are hole problems. 6 RIO pack 12 8 stack.q T+n . suspension come. 30”.).o. may be uacar to prevent 3) 11 to 13 hrs added on co?pared !J/O of BDP stack and lns Lallat than screwed together. operation.5 39 7 11 7 Ifl 4. 10 9 system. 20 & 13-3/8” estra welders wellhead system should 1 f hurricane buckling and d. i. O. RID. H. FPH. .. R/U. !4/0 Weld N/u 20” 20” .S1”Z & P. C&C. TM. are. CMt 6 RID 2 14 3 15 4 16 Yusc . s.4. minlm”!d of Intermediate casing strin8 fs required. R/U.s 12 B 4. drill out formation & perform leak off Cesc TOTAL (Ifre) (Days) rig. drive 39” and R/D drive equipment ?0 40 50 16 jts. & survey C$rc. due to large head LID t2-ilk”’ stabilizers Cfrc. 3 4 5 Assume no lost retucns compared to f loacer. Length locat ion due PI(J. sec but al sO nO majOr downtime and/Or b) on a good. PUW eluf. and water depth (300-). O... H. Cim.J prf. Generally most operators do not shoe test BOP’sldlvertcr 10 PI(3 17-1/2” 10.3 341. Time based on offset wells. wl. Assume welded mc welded. h csg.? must add cosc of 30. relderrfck b R/U drill floor 20 2 1.5 6 8 10 Avg 75 to !00 FPff. Add 270. co iloater If ion of wellhead.}: LARCE JEEP WAT!R JACK-3P E$Tlff.5 6 3. P/U h O/H co 26” bit 1300- .O.5 pipe and irom mud line to cellar driving hammer cost for a problem in deep deck 33”. 8 hrs.e.cface bit. N/D h cod.ongec if rig BDP handling sys L8n. does not have a %x of 2-3 log runs. NIU 13-SIB” 13-318° wellhead 8 h 10” 6 will be ‘. 4) If 30” is welded rain problems. no records P1lOt and OPeOiW hOle for 20” Caeing takins retUrns at sea flQQr.. run 20” bit. 4-6 hcs per prelead. hole trip pipe h P. drill h perform leak off OUL test 6 7 8 20” drill 450D - assemble (surveys slug & TIH 6 ctrc i. MU & cond.ddd) 3 36 b 9 6 3. TIH. cough cat cut. BOP<s/dfverter 88A. R/U. run 20” 13-3/8” SOP-S. O.foYE ON LOCATIOU 6 DRILL OUT SURF+CE C4S1VG 1!4 300WATSR DEPW. P/u RID.5 11. Cut N/u 32” 30” h weld 39” wellhead & ccst drill pilot hole 3 Penecratio” (200+ 4 12 1: 5 la 13 Rig If Avg up using 75 dcive 2FDJ to 100 pipe tension system.5 1 4 5 9 48 3 2 B AVE. Additional lb” d“e ttme of co lilU ard etc. AISO !40[. —.0 42 8 13 8 16 12 Spot Time good sugar water.5 14.O.F. sI. c. If htgh pressure may need co rent 5000 UP BOP 8Y8 6 add 10-12 hrs co chanse BOP’S to set 16” lntecmedlace string. to 1300. Hove on . Assume shoe does not have to be squeezed. BH. BOP-S & test 11 8 13 10 P/U 12-1/4” bit.H.s 6 Rig can-c jack-up . P.wore than 5-6- Off Joad h eq”lPfaenc !bt possible to lodd on previous to skid back of substructure.9 ft or 18 hrs. OPERATION BEST — Rig 3. baaed shoe of bell can cause lost returns nipple compared to steady. uhlle drlliing oeml submersible 1.W” Hydril x 30” wellhead and test ~ 2. — HORSE OXLME!JTS Preload (XOt necessary for aac type) Jack UP Skid Substructu 30’! csg.4TE TO .

47 lb TNT equiv.7 4 6 1. P/U 13-3/8” 13-3/811 PGOH. teat. assy.1 MaY be eble to use 18-314” running tool. test.sPE 18623 “ TABLE5 S!Q!QI-SUSHERSISLESTINATETO P&A& E PULLANCHORS SING SXPLOSVES U I IN 300. h perf.8 WORSE 15 5 5 5 8 11 11 5 10 4 Could possibly trips). & check for pressure between 13-318° h 20” 500”-550-. cmt. Pinish offload Operator-s equip. POOH P/O cutting spear GIIC. Start pumping up as aeon as 30” clears eea bed.5 3.qsy 6 13-3/8”.000 lbe: weight on plug. out of 33” 6 G6A while pulling anch0r8. spear into AVE. POOH& L/O OP Reduce m“d wt. OIH & set balance plug at 650--450-. weight test. pull up h spot Pull up & test EzStf.0 P/U RTTS 6 CIH CO 500--550” CIH Run RTTS to squeeze. wlschl. Pump up 6 pull anchors TOTAL(Hrs ) (Days) 28 72 3. WOC. to 4400” & set.5 82 . ceg.. 11 3 3 3 6 9 9 cmt assy. pull 10 scds. POOH Pull BOP stack & set back assy. take 2 sets of knifes (2 Spot 150. displace w/sea water. GIH 6 cut a. Sec 15. out of 33” h GbA while pulling anchors.L/D cutting POOH& L/D spear h 13-3/8” Clfl open ended. 13 4 4 4 7 10 10 4 7 3 24 90 3. cmt. Pull W/L OOH. loading operator Separate wellhead hsg. Could run 13-318° running tool. POOH& L/D DP 11 34 3 3 1 9 2 rig iwd 4 7 3 1 18 —— TOTAL(Nrs ) (Days) 65 2. epot cmt plug. Slack off anchor chains.0 107 4. Finish offload Operator-s equip before pumping up. displace w/sea water & POOH Pull BOP stack h eet back BOP stack 11 4 6 M/U explosive charge asay GIH pull Assume approx. CIH cut 16” 6 POOH P/U 16” cutting P/U 30” cutting CIH w/spear 3 5 2 18 —— GIH cut 30” & POOH hsg.WATER OEPTH OPERATION BEST —— GIH wlcmc retainer to 4400” & net. cmt plug POOH w/RTTS & P/U EZSV & set squeeze cmt.4 HOUR8 AVE. TABLB6 S8MI-SUSHERSISLESSTINATETO P&A& C PULL ANCHORSUTTING CASING IN 300.5 10 3 5 8 4 2 24 82.eo run side scan on bottom. 16” 6 33” & pull wellhead Start off load operators equipment. Separate wellhead has. A1.plug above and below 10-3/4” stub. P/U 23” spear. . 13 UORS E 15 5 5 5 2. scab into wellhead Pull wellhead Pul 1 h bolster 6 30” out of sea bed anchors Start pumping up and off equipment. 206’ & pump rig up Slow wellhead 6 pull rig back on location GIH & 10 5 3 28 98 4. IAATER OEPTH OPERATION BEST —— GIH iclcmt retainer pull 10 scda. Also run side scan on bottcm.

GIH w/casing cutter & cut 20” & POOH GIH w/*pear & POOH & lay down 20” GIH w/csg. Lay down 9 10 jtso Check bottom per MMS.5 8 22 Could also try to cut 20 & 30” together. 20 & 30” together. TABLE 7 DEEP WATER JACK-UP ESTIMATETO P&A.5 6 18 4. 5“ aea to pull. offload oper equip/pipe. AND MOVE OFF LOCATION IN 300. Could try to cut 13-3/8. 0. Assume good BOP handling system. 13 WORSE i> 9. test.WOC. If back out casing add IO-14 hrs.5 Must WOC dae to mud line hanger system. . Must weld support arms on 3)”.6 Max. cmt. C m m . cutter 6 cut/pull & LjD ~“ csg 3. Assume cut collars in half. If back out add 8-12 hrs for R/U & R/D of equip.6 20 X5 4./Q DP Reduce mud wt.. to R/D drill floor.0 14 4 7 2.u4 . ..5 1 20 5. GIH & set balance cmt plug at 650~-450”. POOH & I. pull 10 stds.WATER DEPTH OPERATION BEST GIH wicmt retainer to 4400” & set.0 16 5 8 Assume did not have to squeeze. L/D pipe out of derrick & akid in Check jacking system & jack down to water 6 8 10 2 3 4 Must finish offloading before star: to pull legs.5 10 10.6 30 Xo 5.5 12 3 6 1. wt test & POOH Check/testbetween 20”x 13-3/8” N/D 13-5/8” BOP-S & all wellheads GIH w/casing cutter & cut 13-3/8” & POOH GIH w/spear & POOH & lay down 13-3/8° 11 AVE. Pull legs TOTAL (Hrs) (Days) 8 K 3. JACK DOWN.

plus hull to flow line) where the semi takes returns at the sea floor thus eliminatingthe additional fluid head. However.2 8.6 5.0 10. seas.5 13.3 14.7 3.6 0. Note: 1) This is a conservativeP&A for comparisonpurposes. 6’. a semi is only controlledby anchor handling boats and crews which can generallywork in up to I*I2 ft.9 Use connectorson 30”. which recently is not always true.7 . plus air gap.6 11.1 Iv P h A and move off location type 3.5 Weld 30” together.maximum.4 4.7 3.TABLE 8 I SUMMARY OF SEMI VERSUS DEEPWATERJACKUP OPERATION (MOVE ON LOCATIONTO SURFACE CASING AND P&A AND MOVE OFF LOCATION) IN 300 FOOT WATER DEPTH JACK UP CASE I SEMI & DIFFERENCE COMMENTS OPERATION SEQUENCE Spud to leak off out of surface 8.” WOW no Use explosiveson Semi to 30’’/20” and casing jackup 2. 4) Assuming the day rate for the Deepwater Jackup is less than a semi. no WOW KXY POINTS: 1) There is much more of a risk to WOW for moving a jackup than a semi since jackups generally can not go in or out-ater i=as over 5“ to 6.5 4. the deeper che water depth and the shorter the well the more attractive the semi will appear.a semf when drflling out of 30” since returna are taken at the flow line elevation(WD.2 9.3 3.0 3.9 1*2 1. 3) Welding 30” in deep water can be troublesomeand time consumingdepending on sea and weather conditions.6 5.5 0. 8.1 4. 03 1 B m 2 N w . 2) Loat returns maybe a significantproblem for a jackup compared L.8 2.5 3. no wow 11 111 Spud to leak off out of surface P & A and move off location cut cutters on 8.1 Use casing cutters both rigs.2 9.6 3.8 4.8 2.7 0.6 6.6 4.8 1.8 1.

BOlts and Rin8s includes transportation) on surface ft. uell heads after overhaul are If cement of new Val Ue and Casing 18 generally worth scrap value. cran8portation) 21 l/4-5M BOPS. tnen scrap yards charge to dispose of Junk pipe.00/f t. below che 16” csg.) (320 (liner) 27. p: 13. ) (based On a NfA 17.0 : ($163 . Sub Sea Wellheads Suspension Wellhead8 on a 10 day u inimum SEHI COST($) 220. 100 478.680 14. DSAS. ) (320 ($ 46. 4. Drive pipe welding crew mud line to 30” Hydril Time/Cost through for drilling rlg and equipment N 1A on Iocatlon operating day rzte from u oving and performing leak off test.5 days @ $13. WELL ITEM 1. 10. ft.00 ($ ft. 55 dayn to drill the well to (Aasurne this time is based on run pack each 1s 54$. requires: P/U BOP stack.230 $1. wellhead & N/U BOPS for the Jack-Up only (12 hrs. 2. 12 S. worth 18 in .000 6. 3.500/day) TOTAL COST TOTAL S. ) ($13.000 57.500 Semi: Jack-up: days) day8) ($13. out 16” csg.400 55 day8 13. some system.5s0 NIA )ioce: 1) No salvage 1/3 to annulus 1/2 or value” assumed on all items. Jack -!.640 20.) (320 7~.500/day.SPE 1862? TABLE 9 COST COMPARISON BETWEEN JACK-UP ANO SE141-SUBMERSIBLE IN 260WATER OEPTH FOR 12.AVINCS $950.41.01 s.! 5. a 10 daymln imum rental Repair/Replenish 21 l/4-5H BOP Casing 30.) (320 (S 34.100 Semi: C. (2 for csg a Semi. 9. ) (320 8. from : : mud line BOPS: N“/A N!A NIA N.8s0 NIA /fc. 7.000 FT.000 14. ft.250 154.000 8. ) ) ) ) extra cost to go from 52.00 /ft.00 /ft. 30” diverter system and !+f A 7. on ptpe. for str ins).000 N/A NIA rental period.500/day) and move 11.500 cost 24.160 23.500/day) ($11..4 days @ $11. ft. Annular.500/day) ($11.A !41A NfA (C 16” : 11 7/8”: 9 5/8”: 7.6 days left 11 71S” & 7“ tag.6 and (4 (5 pull days) days) ceg. period. However. expendable to Nuts. P&A (cut off locacion 54. rough cut. reduced Not required by 24 hrs.350 $ 6g.00/ft.720 10. Operator to total Jack-Up estimates depth and operations) a total of set 7“ tag.500/day. strings) Hence the Semi (12 hrs/string) time Semi: Jack-Up: (40.4 days .000 Mud Line Surface 30” Diverter System (based include8.000 90. HfA JACK-UP COST($) NIA 70.6 (41.

6c3 0.0 0. l—Contractor downtitne (subsea category only) for jackups and semisubmemibles.31.8 0.9 0.7 CL 1 w. a! 1 0.3 DEC n I 86 Bom-OM JUN FOUNDED I 87 ~A0NTIi5 RIGS DEC (BEGINNING I 87 JUN I 2/86 + 2 LOATING m I 88 RIGS Fig.1 SUBSEA DOWNTIME CATEGORY ONLY . 1.4 1 . m -u m 1- m GQ w *I .40.50.CONTRACTOR ? .21.