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182 Therefore A(a)Q(a) Hence (c) where kl = cle-2cT and k2

CHAPTER 12.

+ Q(a)AT(a)

- B(a)BT(a)

s -2cQ(a)

v ~ -2cxTP(a)Q(a)P(a)x
= C2.

= -2cxTp(a:)x = -2cV

v ~ -2cV
From the comparison lemma,

IIx(t)1l2

s

lv'vft) s

Vet) s e-2ctV(O)
~vfv(O) ~ {f;_e-ctllx(O)lb

101

12.6 Since P is block triangular, it is nonsingular if and only if [~: ~]

i]

is nonsingular.

By inter-

changing rows, the latter matrix is nonsingular if and only if [~: page 484 that [-::: straightforward. ~] . is. nonsingular. Hence, P is nonsingular.

is nonsingular.

It is argued on

Verifying that P satisfies (12.51) is

X

• 12.7 Let Xl 'I/J - '¢r, X2 ¢, and u o. Augment the state equation with the integrator = [Xl, X2, a"]T. The augmented state model is given by x = Ax + Bu, where A=

=

=

=

a = Xl'

Define

r l

0 1 0 -l/r 1 0

0

01 , 0
The state feedback control

. where l/r

= (l/ro)(v/vo)

and klr = (ko/ro)(v/vo)2.

assigns the closed-loop eigenvalues at -7.5082, -0.7459 to 'ljJ is given by
6(2s 9s2
S3

± 0.4927j. the closed-loop transfer function from '¢r

+

+ 128 + 6

+ 1)

and has a step response with 20% overshoot and 6.4 sec. settling time. A gain scheduled controller can be taken as

Since the scheduling variable is not the reference input, we don't need the modification of Figure 12.4. • 12.8 (a) The equilibrium equations are O=g--X2

k_ m

-

---,-::;-

Loax~ 2m(a+xl)2'

Iss =

(2m

g(a+ r)2) 1/2 Loa

183 (b)
-

Ofl
Cs

ox x=x..
C3

[

Cl

0
0

1

where the positive constants
Cl

Cl

through
C2=-,

are given by = LoaIs8 m(a+r)2 ,
C4

LoaI;s = m(a+r)3 ,

k
m

= L(r)(a + r)2'
CIC5

R cs = L(r)

The characteristic equation
S3

+ (C2 + cs)S2 + (C2C5 + C3C4 - cds -

=0

has a negative coefficient -CIC5' Hence, by the Routh-Hurwitz right-half plane. The equilibrium point is unstable. (c) The linearized system is given by xs =Axs +BuE

criterion, the matrix has eigenvalues in the

where Xli X - Xss, 'Uli 'U - 'Uss, A is given in part (b), and B = [0, 0, IjL(r)]T. It can be verified that. (A,B) is controllable. K is designed to assign the eigenvalues of (A - BK) at -10, -10 ± jlO.The control 'U is given by u = 62.9295(Xl - r) + 4.4432x2 + O.2502(X3 - Iss) + Vss where Vss = Iss = 6.2642. (d) The step response of y and u for yeO) = 0 and yeO) = 0.07 (with other initial states equal to zero) are shown in Figure 12.1. To account for the constraint 0 ~ 'U ~ 15, a limiter is included in the Simulink simulation model. The response is considered feasible only if y belongs to the interval [0,0.1]. Using this criterion, 0.07 is the largest acceptable initial position.
y(O)

=

=

=0

B.--.---.---~--~--.

y(O) 0 =

0.05 0.04

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

0.2

0.4

0.6

O.B

y(O) 0.07 =

y(O) = 0.07

>-0.07

0.06
0.05 0.04'---~---~-~__.J o 0.2 0.4 0.6

7

6 O.B

sL--~--~--~----~ o 0.2 0.4 0.6 O.B

Figure 12.1: Exercise 12.8. (e) Figure 12.2 shows the response for different values of m. These values are the extreme values fot"which

184
y(O)

CHAPTER

12.

= 0, m = 0.1

y(O) = 0.07,

m = 0.1

0.06 0.04 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 y(O) = 0, m = 0.046

o

L-_~

__

~

__

~_~

__

---'

0.2

0.4 0.6 0.8 y(O) = 0.07, m = 0.046

1

1
0.2
0.08 0.06 . >y(O) :::0,

0.4

m :::0.11

0.6

0.8

1 0.12
0.1

0.2

y(O)

= 0.06, m::::

0.4

0.6

0.8 0.11

0.02 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0.06 0 0.2 0.4
0.6

0.8

Figure 12.2: Exercise 12.8. a feasible response is obtained for the given initial position. There is a large steady-state error. (f) The integrator 0- = xi - r is augmented with the state equation. A matrix K = [kl k2 k3 k4] is designed to assign the eigenvalues of 0 1 o 196.2 -0.01 -3.1321 k2 + 12.5284 k3 -40 [ kl
1

0

o

at -8, -lO±jIO,

-12. The control is given by u = 109.8789xI

~]

+ 6.805x2 + O.00025xa + 153.25220"

The step response is shown in Figure 12.3 for the nominal mass and in Figure 12.4 for different values of It is clear that the control achieves zero steady-state error despite the perturbations in m. The transient response is, in general, worse than the design without integral control. For example, in the case m = 0.1 and y(O) = 0, the integral controller has about 60% overshoot, compared with 10% overshoot in the case without integral control.
?n.

The solutions of the following four parts do not repeat the simulations of parts led) and (e). The simulations should show a trend similar to what we have seen before.

185
y(O) =0 0.1r---~-~-~--~

0.1r-~-~-_-~__' 0.06

y(O}=O

0.2

0.4

0.6

O.B

0.2

0.4

0,6

0,8

y(O)

= 0.09

y(O)

= 0.09

0.04 0.02'-----~-~-~---' o 0.2 0.4 0.6

0,8

02

0.4

0,6

0.8

Figure 12.3: Exercise 12.8. (g) Use the observer-based controller . :$=A5:+Bu+H(y-Ox), where 0 = [10 0] and H

4857.7 (h) Use the observer-based controller

=[

9;~.8l

u

= 62.9295(Xl-

r)

+ 4.4432x2 + 0.2502(X3

- Iss)

+ Vs5

assigns the eigenvalues of (A - He)

at -20, -20 ± j20.

i

= Ax

+ Bu + H(y
0 0] Oland

- 05:),

u = 62.9295(XI- r)

where 0 = [

1 °

H=

[2.2405 3.0131 201.2620 60.2870 3.0131 -0.2505

1

+ 4.44325:2 O.2502(xg+

assigns the eigenvalues of (A-HO)

.

Iss)

+ Vss
at -20, -20± .

j20. (i) Use the observer of part (g) and replace X2 and Xg in the control law by their estimates X2 and X3· (j) Use the observer of part (h) and replace X2 in the control law by its estimate X2. (k) For state feedback, we solve the pole placement problem at r = 0.03, 0.05, and 0.07 to assign the closed-loop eigenvalues at -8, -10 ± j10, -12. The resulting feedback gains are
K03
K05

=
=

[-105.4498 [-109.8789 [-115.3518

-5.9167 -6.8050 -7.6934

0.0497 -128.7319] -0.00025 -0.0336 -153.2522] -177.7726

K01

=

J
0.05 0.07

We use linear interpolation to determine K for other values of r:

s, = K03 +

s;

=

K05

(r + (r

~.~;03) (Kos - K03), ~.~;05) (K07 - Kos),

for 0.03 ::; for 0.05 ::;

rs r~

186 yeO) 0, m 0.1 0.1 ...-----.----.---.......------,~---,

CHAPTER 12.

=

=

y(O) :::: .09, m = 0.1 0 0.1

>'0.05

0.4 0.6 0.8 yeO) 0, m = 0.025 0.06,------.....------.---'--....------,

0.2 ,

=

1

O~-~--~---~-~----~
o
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 yeO):;:: .09, m = 0.025 0 1

0.04 >.0.05

0.5 1 yeO} 0, m

=

= 0.115

1.5

2

0.5 1 1.5 y(O) 0.08, m = 0.115

=

2

Figure 12.4: Exercise 12.8. Linear interpolation does not guarantee that K; will stabilize the system at the corresponding value of r. Therefore, we calculate the closed-loop eigenvalues for r = 0.03, 0.035, 0.04, 0.045, 0.05, 0.055, 0.06, 0.065, and 0.07. The eigenvalues, plotted in Figure 12.5, indeed lie in the neighborhood of the desired eigenvalues. By the continuous dependence of the eigenvalues of a matrix on its parameters, we expect the same to be true for other values of r. For the observer, we solve the pole placement problem at r = 0.03, 0.05, and 0.07 to assign the eigenvalues of (A - He) at -20, -20 ± j20. The resulting observer gains are
"

1103 ::::;.

r L

2.1700 2~8.8284.
2.5J571.7247

2.5357 ] 49.4564 ,

Hos =

.

rl

2.2405 201.2620 3.0131

3.0131] 60.2870 -0.2505
r:

,

H07

=

2.3229 170.2966 [ 3.4876

3.4876] 70.7955 -1.7122

We use linear interpolation to determine H for other values of H; H,. H03

+

(r ~.~;03)
Ir - 0.05\

(Hos - H03), (H07 -.Hos),

for 0.03 :$

r

:$ 0.05

Hos;-

l

0.02-)

for 0.05 S r S 0.07

The observer eigenvalues are checked for r = 0.03, 0.035, 0.04,0.045, 0.05, 0.055,0.06, 0.065, and 0.07. and

187

plotted in Figure 12.5.
Regulalor Eigenvalues Observer Eigenvalues

15r---~--------~~--~ 10
<II

20 ~

~

.. .E
~
0>

z-

5

0 -5 -10 -15 '----~----~-~~--_. -14 -12 -10 -8
Real Axis -6

e-

10 0 -10 -20 -30c__,~-~--~~--~-__' -20 -15 -10
Real Axis -5

.E

g.

~

o
T.

Figure 12.5: Exercise 12.8. Closed-loop eigenvalues for different values of

(1) y = X3 = [0, 0, l}x = Cx. It can be checked that (A,C) is observable. Thus, we can design a linear output feedback control law to stabilize the ball at y T. We cannot design an integral controller because one of the conditions of integral control is that the controlled output (Xl in this case) should be measured.

=

• 12.9 (a) The equilibrium equations are
0=
-OIXl -

82TUss

+ 03,

0=

-(}4T

+ (}SXI Uss
b __ 0104 028s

Substituting

Xl

from the first equation into the second one, we obtain
Uss 2

auss

+ b = 0,
T2

where

a __ ~, . 02r

<

°i00 5 48 8

::::> 4b

< aZ

124

Xl

Hence, the quadratic equation has two real roots. To obtain the steady-state value of Xl in the range > 03/201, we choose the real root for which USB < a/2; that is USB = (1/2) [a - ../az - 4bJ. Linearization
SUss
U -028' SS]

ilib . . . at t he chosen equi 1 num pomt res ults i t he matrix A = [-81 sm 0

-

4

It can b' ever illed t hat A' IS

Hurwitz. Therefore, the equilibrium point is exponentially stable. (b) The maximum value of Tis 00iOs/4810z(4) = 298.14. We simulated the step response for increasing values of T in the range 0 ::; r 5 298 and with initial conditions Xl (0) = 03/81 = 0.6667 and xz(O) O. The motor always reached steady state at the desired speed, without Xl violating the constraint Xl > 83/28t = 0.3333. (c) Changes in the rotor inertial change the constants 84 and 05, which are inversely proportional to the moment of inertia. It is clear, however, that multiplying 04 and 85 by the same constant does not affect the steady-state calculation. Simulation confirmed that the motor always reached steady state at the desired speed for 0 5 r 5 298. . (d) Linearization at the desired equilibrium point results in the pair (A, B) where A is given in part (a) and

=

B

= [ ~~~~,.].

The controlled output is y = X2 ::::> C

= [0,

~ 1 = rank
The determinant of this 3 x 3 matrix is given by det(·) = (}ltJSXl
-

[

o~;~
= B5(8s - 20zussr)

1].

8z85ussT

188 Substituting for 'Uss, using its expression from part (a), we obtain dett-) == 8s82Tva2 - 4b the rank condition (12.23) is satisfied. It can be also verified that (A, B) is controllable.

CHAPTER

12.

:f=. O. Therefore,
Now Set A =

[~
algorithm.

~ ), B == [ ~ ] and proceed to design

J(

such that

A - 13K is Hurwitz, using any pole placement

(e) It can be verified that (A, C) is observable. based controller.
Iil

Design H such that A - He is Hurwitz and use an observer-

12.10 (a)
:ih
$2

==

X2

==
=

jj == .6.~(J) [Cm+ M)mgLsin8 - mL cos O(F 1 ~( ,[(m+M)mgLsinxl
U

+ mL(i2

sinO - ky)]

Xl)

-mLcosxl(u+mLx~sinxl-kx4)J

'

X3 X4

==

X4.

== ii = 6~8) [_m2L2g siuO cosO + (1 + mL2)(F
::::
u x1/

+ mL02

sinO - kli)]

A{l

\

[_m2 L2gsinx1

COS Xl

+ (1+ mL2)(u + mLx~sinXl

- kX4)]

(b) Set u

= 0 and

Xi = O.

o= o ::::
o ==
The equilibrium
(e) Take Xl ::; O. Linearization

o

=

:1:2

(m+M)mgLsinxl-mLcosxl(mLx~sinxl-kx4)
X4 -m2r.2gsinxl cos Xl

+ (I + mL2) (mLx;

sin Xl - kX4)

points are. given by (Xi, 0, Xa, 0) where Xl = 0, at x = x and u

±1l", ... , and xa is arbitrary.

== 0 results in the matrix

o rl ~ ~ g. ~ ] o
-Cg

0 0

1

-C4

where the positive constants
Cl

=

em + M)mgL
A(O)

Cl

to

C4.

are given by ,
C2

= a{O)'
ClS+

mLk

Ca

m2 L2g = 6.(0) ,

C4

=

keI

60(0)

+ mL2)

The characteristic equation is given by

s [S3 + C.jS2
From the Routh-Hurwitz criterion, the equilibrium point is unstable. (d) The linearized

C2C3 -

CIC-t]

=0
in the right-half plane. Hence,

we can see that the matrix

has eigenvalues

system is given by Xo

where X,5 = x - X, U6 ~ u, A is given in part (c) and B = [0, -mLjA(O), 0, (1 + mL2)j.6.(0)]T. 'r1t can be verified that (A, B) is controllable. Proceed to design K to stabilize the matrix (A + BK) using any pole placement algorithm.

= Ax,): +Buf,

~-Cfrh~

c.o~--5tr'St~

EXAMPLE 1.6 Short-period aircraft dynamics A sch~m~ti~ di'agram of an airplane is given in Fig. 1.12. To illustrate the effect of parameter variations, we consider the pitching motion of the aircraft, Introduce the pitch angle e. Choose normal acceleration Nz, pitch rate q "" 0,

Figure

1.12

Schematic diagram of the aircraft in Example 1.6.

and elevon angle as state variables and the input to the elevon servo as the input signal u. The following model is obtained if we assume that the aircraft is <!..rigjd body:

oe

01- ~~
~_~ ~

'(Y1

biR- o-c~..Q_

'YY\~d.e..

~~ = [:~: ::: o0

::

1 -a

x+

[~1 1
a

ob:t-o...£1f).e.:::~ btj 0.5-:>0 ~ a;..t:r-~u.e... L3 eJ

4}

G 16

ha-'+'

U

(1.6)

where xT = iJ This model is called short-period dynamics. The parameters of the model given depend on the operating conditions which can be described in terms of Mach number and altitude; see Fig. 1.13, which shows the flight envelope. .
Table 1.1 Parameters of the airplane state model of Eq. (1.6) for different flight conditions (Fe).

(Nz;

8.).

50'f*L"20tltx:..
Fe 1 0.5 5000 -0,9896 17.41 96.15 0.2648 -0.8512 -11.39

Acrct-ajtFe 3 0.9

F4-E
1.5

Fe 2 0.85 5000 -1.702 50.72 263.5 0.2201 -1.418 -31.99 -272.2 -4.90 1.78

Fe 4 35000 -0.5162 26.96 178.9 . -0.6896 -1.225 -30.38 -175.6
-O.87±4.3i

Mach Altitude (feet) all
al2 al3 a21 a22 a23

35000 -0.667 18.11 84.34 0.08201 -0.6587 -10.81 -85.09 -l.8D 0.56

-==-"/ ~
ID J&:~1.. ----7
Co<V'~

c.oV\~~~).

Got-"'&J!.~""-S

f
&_~''1

bl
Al ..l2 ~Ll.~

e
-97.78 1.23

G&'ll/I~/~