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Ghulam Abbas

Pakistan

0092 300 900 1533

Energy Crises
Submitted to:

Prof. Nabila Asghar

By: GHULAM ABBAS th Roll Number.280 4 Sem. B.Com. Hons Sec. D.(M)

Ghulam Abbas

Pakistan

0092 300 900 1533

Energy and sources of energy
Energy is the power to change things or in other words we can say that it is the ability to do work. It gives us light it runs our machines it keeps us warm and many other things. In other words we can say that it is impossible to survive without energy in the present time. Moreover

energy also plays a great role in the economic development of a country. a country utilizing all its sources of energy has a better chance to grow economically as compared to a country where the sources of energy are less or not utilized properly. This is because energy has a direct impact on the standard of living of people and industrial side of the country and both of these are a good measure of economic development of a country. If people of a country are having a high standard of living and their industrial side is progressing well (means the exports are greater than the imports) than it is a clear sign that the country is making full use of its resources its growth rate is high.

The main sources of energy in Pakistan (For generating electricity)
A) Conventional sources:
Conventional energy sources are typically fully developed, Non renewable resources It includes;

Ghulam Abbas

Pakistan

0092 300 900 1533

1) Thermal energy 2) Hydel energy 3) Nuclear energy

B) Non conventional sources:
Nonconventional sources may be functional but are still Undergoing development and use renewable resources. 1) Wind energy 2) solar energy 3) Bio gas (energy animal &plant wastes)

A) Conventional sources
Conventional sources of energy are those sources which are ge nerally used In the country for the production of heat, electricity, and power. Pakistan has the following conventional sources of energy that are as follows:

1. THERMAL ENERGY Thermal energy refers to the type of energy in which heat is used to produce energy. Thermal Energy is the oldest type of energy. With all known history available, Wood was always used for heating and cooking. In 2nd world war fossil fuels entered in the form of coal to get the energy, until liquid fuels were discovered and because of their convenience of transportation they took over as major contributors of the energy source. Once the steam engines were invented then the coal or liquid fuel was burnt in the boilers and the heat produces steam which issued to drive electrical generators, or any other mechanical device.

Ghulam Abbas

Pakistan

0092 300 900 1533

Rudolph diesels invention of diesel engine revolutionaries the energy concept and today we see sine the majority of machines moving on diesel engines.

Thermal energy sources in Pakistan
The sources of thermal energy in Pakistan are as following: (i)Coal: Pakistan has huge reserves of coal which can be used to overcome the problem of energy crises in the country. The government of Pakistanis making hectic efforts to introduce the coal usage in the industrial sector. The machinery for these units is totally exempted from import duties and taxes. A coal based power plant of 150MW has been set up in the interior sindh.

(ii) Oil: Oil is one of the most important sources of energy through out the world and its importance is increasing day by day. Many wars are being fought just to get the reserves of the oil...the government of Pakistan is making sincere efforts to find out new oil fields in the country .the policy is to attain self sufficiency in oil because oil as a source of energy is expensive if it is imported from other countries and it greatly increases the import bills of the country. At present the generation capacity of electricity through oil is 12340MW

(iii) Natural gas: Natural gas is also a precious gift of Allah to our country. Huge deposits of natural gas has been discovered in many parts of Baluchistan and sindh. Natural gas is a cheap source of energy in comparison to oil and it can also play a great role in the industrial sector because it is used as a raw material in many industries like fertilizers cement and plastics etc.

Ghulam Abbas

Pakistan

0092 300 900 1533

2. Hydel energy in Pakistan:

In Pakistan Hydel energy is usually generated through waterfalls (dams). there are many dams in the country which play a great role in the generation of electricity for household, business and industrial sector. since independence huge amounts have been allocated for the development of Hydel energy as it is a main source of electricity generation in the country as a result of this the generation of electric power through Hydel energy has been increased from 68MW in 1947 to 6555MW in 2009.

3. Nuclear energy
The importance of nuclear energy as a source of electricity generation is increasing very rapidly throughout the world as many developed as well as developing countries are making use of nuclear energy to generate electricity. the main fuel which is required to run the nuclear reactor is called uranium. with the grace of all mighty uranium is found in excess in Pakistan. at present there are two nuclear electric power generation plants in Pakistan namely Karachi nuclear power plant and chasma nuclear power plant

B)Non-conventional sources of energy
The less developing countries are now developing other renewable sources of energy . these sources are comparatively cheaper to those of conventional sources of energy and these sources have a simplified technology , the non-conventional sources of energy are as follows :

Ghulam Abbas

Pakistan

0092 300 900 1533

(i)Wind energy: Wind energy is a very cheap source of generating power. in windy areas, the windmills can be used for supplying electricity on a small scale the windmill can be used for pumping water for crops, grinding corn, crushing sugar cane,thrashing,cutting of wood etc etc. at present there are four mechanical wind pumpers and one wind power generation system has been set up

(ii) Solar energy: sun provides 170000MW of power to earth on daily basis. the sunshine can also be used a cheap source of energy. many developed countries as well as developing countries are now making use of the solar energy in order to fulfill their energy demand as it is a very cheap and easily available source of energy (iii) Biogas: It is produced from animal and plant wastes although it is a very cheap source of energy but it can not be used on the large scale like the solar and wind energy. However it can be utilized very well in the rural areas. as 72% of our population live in villages they make the best use of this source of energy .

Impacts of these crises on Pakistan:

There are the following impacts of these energy crises on Pakistan: (i)Employment decreased: By the energy crises in Pakistan from last few years, they impacts on the employment rate of Pakistan is that the number of people that are employed are decreased. The dependability of the

Ghulam Abbas

Pakistan

0092 300 900 1533

income is increased, now in one home there are more people to consume than those who earn money (ii)Per capital income decreased: The income earned by each one decreases if there is energy crises in any country , so as we have these crises in our country Pakistan so the larger impact of that was that the income of each individual is decreased . (iii)Foreign debts increase: As these crises also affect on the debts or loans that Pakistan get from the foreign countries, the amount of debts that are owned is increased and in result of that the economy of Pakistan is very much harmed. (iv)GDP is decreased: The gross domestic product (G.D.P) of Pakistan is also decreased because that production is decreased and result to that the earnings of the country are getting lower and lower. (v)Poverty increased: The crises also enhances the level of poverty in the country , as we can see in Pakistan the energy crises made it very hard for those people that living in the country below the poverty line (vi)Literacy rate decreased: The crises also impacts on the literacy rate, as there is less earnings by the people so they leave the education for earning the money, and they focus on earning money so the circle of life is ruined smoothly. For that purpose children leave their education and start earning, hence that decreases the literacy rate of Pakistan.

(vii)Child labor increased: The child labor is also increased with the increase in the crises of power in Pakistan, the children from the very small age start earning and they leave their education for fulfilling the need of their life.

Ghulam Abbas

Pakistan

0092 300 900 1533

(viii)Production decreased: The production sector is very much harmed because of the increase in the crises level of the country , if we look for Pakistan so it is recognized that the industrial sector is effected by the energy crises ,as they are not fulfilling the needs and demands of the public , that further increases the cost on production as well .

Solutions for the energy crises of Pakistan
(i)Pakistan Coal Reserves Should Be Explored: The energy shortage is increasing day by day and the resources of Pakistan are limited and this year we are witnessing increasing of imported fuel bill. This is time that Pakistan should explore all its available resources. We see a limited progress in alternate energy sector. But so far little efforts are being made to explore and use the coal reserves in Sind. This is claimed that coal quality is inferior and having low BTU. This is a challenging task. Today technology and boilers are available That can burn any kind of coal. Therefore all possible measures should be adopted to utilize existing resources. The smaller size power plants near the coal mines which can get direct feed and connect to National Grid will be an ideal configuration. (ii)More dams should be made: To meet the energy crises their should be more dams to be made, and this is not required that they should only be made on large scale, rather they can be on the small scale as well. If their will be dams on small and large scale than they will cover our more part of the production

(iii)Attitude of people should change: The one main thing is that the attitude of the people should be changed, if it will be done so the awareness for the power savage will grow up in the minds of the people, the change in attitude means that people should start saving the power by keeping

Ghulam Abbas

Pakistan

0092 300 900 1533

that view in minds that these are we have very scare resources in Pakistan, (iv)Effective plans for energy should be made: The plans that are made for the reduction of the energy crises should be effective and efficient, this is required that those people that are living in the rural areas should utilize the nonconventional sources of energy and the conventional sources should be used by the urban areas because the urban areas have more Industrial production than rural areas in the country like Pakistan (v)Proper funds to utilize natural resources: The funds that are passed by the government for the utilization of resources are not enough that they meet the requirements of our country, so it is required that proper funds should be allocated for them .most of the people in our government are corrupt and because of that the funds that are allocated in the utilization of the resources is not invested in efficient manner. (vi)New resources should be explored: This is also very important for the country Pakistan that those resources that are gifted to us by nature should be explored effectively; new technology should be used to explore these resources. Keeping these things in the mind that we have resources but they are not utilized and explored efficiently. (vii)More non-conventional sources should be used: For the fulfillment of the crises of Pakistan it is important that more nonconventional sources should be utilized and used. Mostly in those rural areas where they are easily possible because in urban areas we have not that circumstances that can use the nonconventional sources to produce the energy.

Ghulam Abbas

Pakistan

0092 300 900 1533

CONCLUSION
The conclusion which we have made from this assignment is that our country is facing a lot of problems regarding to the energy resources, but yet there are ways by which these resources can be utilized. The entire thing that is needed to be done is that efficient technology, proper funds, government interest and effective plans for utilizing the underutilized resources. If Pakistan will not take steps for the development of energy and power resources than it will have the worse result on the further years.