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EHV Transmission Line Protection Equipment

CSC-101 Numerical EHV Transmission Line Protection Equipment

Fig.1 CSC-101 Numerical EHV Transmission Line Protection Equipment A

Application

The CSC-101 is numerical non-switched reliable high speed protection equipment


which can be used for 220kV and higher voltage transmission lines. The CSC-101 includes
all necessary protection functions for transmission lines. It consists of primary protection
namely pilot protection using distance relay, 4 zones distance protection, 4 stages zero
sequence current protection, inverse time zero sequence current , overcurrent protection,
overvoltage protection, under voltage protection, Automatic reclosure and Circuit breaker
failure protection etc, along with the entire suite of current, voltage protection functions in
economical package.
The integrated functions supply the user a high flexibility so that adjustments can easily
be made to select protection functions Typical functions and arrangement for CSC-101
series are shown in table 1.

Table 1 Typical Functions and Arrangement for CSC-101 Series Equipment

Type
Functions and arrangement
CSC-101A CSC-101B
Distance pilot selectable selectable

4 zones phase phase and phase-earth distance selectable selectable


4 stages zero current selectable selectable
Inverse time zero current selectable selectable
Under voltage protection selectable selectable

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EHV Line Protection Equipment

Over voltage protection selectable selectable


Over current protection selectable selectable
Break failure protection selectable selectable
Automatic reclosure selectable

Features

• Take full advantages of current fault component phase selection, lower voltage phase
selection, negative- and zero-sequence current phase selection, to achieve selective trip
whenever fault occurs at power swing system, weak source system or complex fault
circumstance.
• Schemes of power swing blocking detection: Comparing zero- and
negative-sequence current and taking ∆R/∆T as criterion to detect all kinds of faults
selectively during power swing. According to various systems operating conditions or
different frequency of power swing, adjusting their operation thresholds adaptively to
ensure the primary protection works normally.
• Incorporates the latest high-powered fourth generation hardware system with 32 bit
DSP-MCU combined chip technology, which gives computational intensity and system
control efficiency in a single chip.
• All setting parameters can be input via either the integrated operator and display panel
or a personal computer. The parameters are written into non-volatile memory so that
the setting values remain secure even during interruption of the DC power supply.
• All-important hardware and software components are continuously monitored;
irregularities in hardware and program sequence are detected and alarmed. This
improves the security and availability of the protection system significantly.
• Current, voltage etc can be monitored conveniently through large LCD (Liquid crystal
display).
• The equipment is equipped with 1 serial interface in the front. The serial interface is
suitable for connecting a PC. The PC based software CSPC can be used for convenient
and transparent setting, recording disturbance and evaluation as well as commissioning.
• 2 RS485 and 2 Ethernet interfaces (or 2 electric or fiber Ethernet interfaces, selectable)
are equipped on the rear board. It is convenient to connect to a substation automation
system or to a protection data master unit. These ports support IEC 61850 & IEC
60870-5-103 communication protocols.
• 6 shortcut keys on the front panel, 4 keys for printing all kinds of messages, 2 keys for
switching the setting storage zone.
• The equipment supplies detailed data for the analysis of disturbances as well as for
checking of states during operation. Disturbance event and operation indications
memories are safeguarded against DC power supply failure.
• Outputs, display of indication. Indication (alarm) relays & LEDs meets user
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EHV Transmission Line Protection Equipment
requirements. The storable LED displays are secured against DC power supply failure.

Functions

The following protection functions are integrated:


● 4 zones phase phase and phase-earth distance protection
● 4th zone can be selected for reverse reach
● Communication schemes-PUR, POR & Blocking overreach
● VT fail/Fuse fail supervision
● Residual & Mutual compensation
● 4 stages zero current
● Inverse time zero current
● 2 stages over voltage protection
● 2 stages under voltage protection
● 2 stages directional over current protection
● Breaker failure protection
● Automatic single/three phase reclosure
● Stub protection
● Weak end infeed function & current reversal gaurd
● Broken conductor detection

Mechanical structure

● The enclosure for equipment is 19 inches width and 4U height according to IEC
60297-3.

● The equipment is flush mounted with panel cutout.

● For cabinet mounting the equipment has rear connection terminals.

● The front panel door of the equipment is hinged at the bottom to open vertically downwards.
LCD, LEDs and keys are mounted on the panel. There is a serial interface on the panel.

● Draw-out modules for serviceability are fixed by lock component.

● The modules can be combined through the bus on the rear board. Both the equipment
and the other system can be combined through the rear interfaces.

Fig 6 shows the Flush-mounted enclosure of CSC-101 with panel cutout.

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EHV Line Protection Equipment

Distance protection communication schemes

Distance protection with communication is the primary protection for EHV line. It is
applicable to three kinds of channel pattern: blocking mode, permissive under reach mode
and permissive over reach mode.

● blocking mode

Relay A Relay B

Zone 1

Zone 2

Zone 4 send blocking signal

1 Operation of Zone 4 (Reverse) sends blocking signal to remote end

2 Instantaneous trip if

a) Zone 1 Operation

b) Zone 2 + No blocking Signal from Remote end WITHIN the Permissive Trip
Time

●permissive under reach mode(PUR)

Relay A Relay B

Zone 1 send signal

Zone 2

Zone 1 send signal

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EHV Transmission Line Protection Equipment
1 Operation of Zone 1 sends signal to remote end

2 Instantaneous trip if

a) Zone 1 Operation

b) Zone 2 + Signal from Remote end

●permissive over reach mode(POR)

Relay A Relay B

Zone 1

Zone 2 send signal

Zone 2 send signal

1 Operation of Zone 2 sends signal to remote end

2 Instantaneous trip if

c) Zone 1 Operation

d) Zone 2 + Signal from Remote end

Distance protection (ANSI21)


Both phase to phase distance protection and phase to earth distance protection are
provided in CSC-101. This fast short-circuit protection protects the transmission line and is a
backup protection for the power system. This protection has four settable zones; in addition,
every zone can be switched over via binary settings.
In order to avoiding the maloperation of the distance protection, it is blocked when VT
supply is lost or under fuse failure conditions. The distance characteristic is polygonal (see
fig.2).

● Distance element

Distance protection consists of measuring unit and directional unit.

• Operating characteristics of distance element:

As shown in fig. 2.1, the characteristic is polygonal. RDZ is set R1, R2, R3 (For Zone 1, 2

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EHV Line Protection Equipment

& 3) & similarly XDZ is set X1, X2 & X3.

The polygon is shaped to meet the requirement of (a) Resistive tolerance to high path

fault resistance for short time (b) Improve the ability of avoiding load impedence for long

lines (c) To enhance the ability to prevent the relay from over-reaching at forward faults.

For faults after reclose or manual close, based on the characteristic shown in fig. 2.2, Z3

impedance operating characteristic is added with a small rectangle to ensure that faults near

the bus are cleared fast.

• Directional Unit of Distance element:

Special directional elements are set to resolve dead zone for distance protection when

fault occurs near the bus. For symmetric fault, the memory voltage that is the pre-fault

voltage is used to compare phasor with post-fault current to detect direction. For

asymmetric fault near the bus, negative-sequence directional element is taken as directional

element of distance relay. The operating conditions for distance relay are as below: The

forward directional element operates, and measuring impedance lies within the setting

polygon area.

Fig.2-1 Fig.2-2

Fig.2 Operating characteristics of polygonal distance protection

● Power swing blocking


In 150ms after the sudden-change current startup element operates, or when power
swing startup element or zero-current startup element operates, the executing program will
directly go into the logic part of power swing blocking.
For asymmetric faults detection element, Zero- and negative-sequence current can
distinguish fault from swing. The criterion is described as below.
|I0|>m1|I1| or I 2>m2|I 1|
where m1 & m2 ensures that during power swing, the maloperation of the distance
protection is not caused when external fault occurs under the most disadvantageous
condition of power system but asymmetric fault detection element can operate when
internal asymmetric fault occurs.
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EHV Transmission Line Protection Equipment
For three-phase fault detection element, the method distinguishing fault from power
swing:

Within time τ , if
∆R < K ⋅ ∆R min£¨180°£¬TZMAX £¬τ )
is satisfied, it is determined that

fault occurs in power system.

Within time τ , if
∆R ≥ K ⋅ ∆R min£¨180°£¬TZMAX £¬τ )
is satisfied, it is determined that

swing occurs in power system.


TZMAX is the biggest swing period & K is the PS coefficient.

Zero-current protection
This protection function is a backup protection for the transmission line and the power
system. The protection comprises 4 stages 3I0>. The zero-current protection Function can
be applied via binary settings.

Zero-sequence current direction


Zero-sequence current direction is composed of forward and reverse directional

elements whose operation areas are shown in Fig.3.


. .
Area of forward directional element is 18°≤arg 3 I 0/3U 0 ≤180°
. .
Area of reverse directional element is -162°≤arg 3 I 0/3U 0 ≤0°

lm

forward
81 81

18
3U0

reverse

Fig.3 Operation area of zero-sequence current directional element

● Negative -sequence current direction

With Power swing blocking of distance protection set, negative-sequence directional

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EHV Line Protection Equipment

element is taken as condition of enabling impedance directional element for asymmetric

faults. Operation area is shown in Fig.4.


. .
Area of forward directional element is 18°≤arg 3 I 2/3U 2 ≤180°,
. .
Area of reverse directional element is -162°≤arg 3 I 2/3U 2 ≤0°.
Special setting is not set for negative-sequence directional element of distance

protection that takes 3I0 of zero-sequence directional distance protection as threshold

setting.

lm

Forward
81 81

18
3U2

Reverse

Fig.4 Operation area of negative-sequence directional element

Inverse time zero current protection


The directional element of inverse time zero current protection can be on or off via
binary settings. Its characteristic is written as below

T _ factor
T= + T_INV
3I 0
( )N −1
3I 0 _ INV
3I0 - fault current.
T_factor - time coefficient of inverse time zero current.
N - exponent setting of inverse time zero current.
3I0_INV - current setting of inverse time zero current.
T_INV - delay time setting of inverse time zero current which can meet the requirement
that inverse time zero current co-operates with different protection.
Inverse curves can be obtained according to the following setting
T_factor =0.02 and N =0.14 Standard inverse (IEC Standard)
T_factor =1 and N =13.5 Very inverse

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EHV Transmission Line Protection Equipment
T_factor =2 and N =80 Extremity inverse.

Direction overcurrent protection (ANSI50 51 67)


This protection function is a backup protection for the transmission line and the power
system. The protection comprises 2 stages I>. The overcurrent protection Function can be
applied to via binary settings.

Overvoltage protection Uph-e>


The protection comprises 2 stages Uph-e >. The overvoltage protection Function can be
applied to via binary settings.

Undervoltage protection Uph-e<


The protection comprises 2 stages Uph-e <. The undervoltage protection Function can
be applied to via binary settings.

Breaker failure protection (ANSI 50BF)


In the event of a fault on the transmission line, the transmission line cannot remain on
line if the circuit –breaker is defective and could suffer substantial damage.
Breaker failure protection evaluates current component. Current component includes a
ICBF current setting I>. It can be started by internal protective tripping or external via binary
input.

Autoreclose
CSC-101B protection system is provided with autoreclose whose performance is only to
close the circuit breaker but not to select faulted phase and trip.
Four types of autoreclose mode are provided:
Single-phase autoclose The faulted phase is tripped and then reclosed when
single-phase fault occurs, in the case of a multi-phase fault, three phases are tripped, but
reclosure is not performed.
Three-phase autoclose Three phases are tripped, and then reclosed regardless of
the fault types, whether single-phase fault or multi-phase fault.
Single- and three-phase autoclose Single-phase tripping and reclosure are
performed if a single-phase fault occurs, while three-phase tripping and reclosure are
performed if a multi-phase fault occurs.
Inoperative mode Autoreclose function is out of service, three phases are tripped
regardless of the fault types, but reclosure is disabled. This mode must be set when
autoreclose is not used for a long time.

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EHV Line Protection Equipment

A transfer switch connected to the rear terminals of the device can be used to realize switching
among four types of autoreclose mode.

VT fail/Fuse fail condition

. . .
1) Summation of three phase voltages is not zero and U A + U B+ U C > 7V. It

considered as failure of one phase or two phase;

2) Voltages of all three phase are smaller than 8V and current of any phase >0.04In or breaker
closes (test TWJ). It is considered as loss of three phase.

When any one of the above are met, distance relay will be blocked & alarm will be intiated.

Fault and event recorder


In a protection unit, depending on the parameterization, the instantaneous values are
used. The maximum period of a disturbance recording depends on the memory and
sampling frequency. Within the buffer several disturbance records (up to 8) can be stored
consecutively. The number is dependent on the parameterization and nature of the fault
event data record.
A pre- and post trigger time and the triggering event (disturbance recording start with
activation or trip) are fixed.
The disturbance record data can be transferred to the substation automation system or
to a PC.

On-load measurement
The on-load measured values generated in the unit such as current, voltage, phase
angle, etc. can be displayed at the LCD or by means of a PC.

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EHV Transmission Line Protection Equipment
Technical data
Input circuits Rated current IN 1 or 5A
Rated voltage UN 63.5V or 110V AC
Rated frequency fN 50Hz
Thermal overload capability
In voltage circuit, continuous 1.2×UN AC
In current circuit, continuous 2×IN
≤ 4s 40×IN
≤ 10s 10×IN
1s 70×IN
Power consumption less than 0.5VA
In voltage circuit at UN=110V less than 1VA
In current circuit at IN = 1A less than 0.5VA
at IN = 5A
DC voltage supply Rated auxiliary voltage Uaux 220V DC; 110V DC
Permissible tolerance at rated -30% to +14%
auxiliary voltage
Power consumption
at energized state max. 50W
at quiescent state max. 30W
Pick-up tolerances Current values Less than 3% of set value
Under rated Voltage values Less than 3% of set value
Conditions distance values Less than 3% of set value
Time values Less than 20ms
Binary inputs Binary inputs for 24VDC voltage 7, can be expanded 12;
Current consumption for each 2mA 5mA
input
Binary inputs for 220V(110V)DC 10, can be expanded 12;
voltage
Current consumption for each 1mA 3mA
input

Contacts Potential-free trip/command 36 contacts , expandable


contacts
Switching capacity make
Break 1250VA(AC), 150W(DC)
Permissible current ,Continuous 5A
0.5s 30A
Switching voltage 250V DC
Indication contacts 16
Switching capacity make/break 1250VA(AC), 150W(DC)
Permissible current 5A
Switching voltage 250V DC
Mechanical Housing / dimensions 19 inches, 4U
structure Weight approx. 8kg
Type of terminal Harting module terminal & circuit terminal in
special design
Protection class IP20
Displays LED displays unit front 8
Standards IEC 60255 series & China
standards (GB,DL)
Insulation tests Dielectric voltage test IEC 60255-5,2kV
Impulse voltage test IEC 60255-5,5kV
Immunity tests High frequency test IEC60255-22-1,add.100kHz according to
CHINA standard,

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EHV Line Protection Equipment

Electrostatic discharges class III


electromagnetic field IEC 60255-22-2,class IV
Fast transient disturbances IEC 60255-22-3,10V/m
Power frequency magnetic field
IEC 60255-22-4, class IV (8kV)
Disturbance induced by radio
IEC 61000-4-8,class III
frequency field, Conducted
disturbance of RF, amplitude IEC 60255-22-6,10V/m
modulated
Emission tests Class according with IEC IEC 60255-25
Climatic conditions Permissible ambient temperature
during service -10ºC~+55ºC
during storage -10ºC +40ºC
during transport -25ºC~+70ºC
Humidity class <75%
Mechanical stress Permissible mechanical stress
during service IEC 60255-21-1,class I
during transport IEC 60255-21-2,class I
communication Front port RS-232; CSPC software for interrogation of the
relays, testing etc. from a PC/Laptop
Rear Port
RS-485 & 2 Ethernet ports-Communication with
the substation automation system. Supports
IEC 61850 & IEC 60870-5-103
Setting ranges
Distance protection Resistance(Rz ) 0.01~40Ω(5A) 0.05~200Ω(1A)
(including phase to Reactance(X) 0.01~60Ω(5A) 0.05~300Ω(1A)
phase distance / Time delay T 0.1 to 10s
phase to earth PU & DO Times:
distance) for Z1, Z2, Z3 Shortest tripping time less than 15ms
& Z4 At 0.7 times of set value less than 20ms
Drop-off time approx.40ms
Tolerance
Pickup characteristic Zmin=0.4V/Imeasure
Additional Delay Times ±1% of set value or 10ms
Zero-current Setting ranges
protection Current 3I0> 0.1×IN to 20×IN
Time delay T 0s to 20s
PU & DO Times:
At 1.2 times of set value less than 40ms
Drop-off time I> approx. 40ms
Tolerance
Current pickup I> ±3% of set value or ±0.02IN
Time delays not more than 40ms
Auto-reclosure Setting ranges
Angle Φ 10°~50°
Time delay T 0s to 10s
Times:
Pickup time Φ < ±3%
Tolerance
Pickup Φ < 3%
Time delays not more than 20ms
Direction overcurrent Setting ranges
protection Current I> 0.1×IN to 20×IN
Time delay T to 10s
PU & DO Times
PU At 1.2 times of set value less than 40ms
Drop-off time I> approx. 40ms
Tolerance
Current pickup I> ±3% of set value or ±0.02IN
Time delays not more than 40ms
Overvoltage protection Setting ranges

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EHV Transmission Line Protection Equipment
Voltage Upe> 1 to 120V
Time delay T 0 to 60s
PU & DO Times
Pickup time Upe> approx. 20ms
Drop-off time Upe> approx. 40ms
Tolerance
Current pickup Upe> ±5% of set value or ±0.1V
Time delays not more than 40ms
Undervoltage Setting ranges
protection Voltage Upe< 1 to 60V
Time delay T 0 to 60s
PU & DO Times
Pickup time Upe< approx. 20ms
Drop-off time Upe< approx. 40ms
Tolerance
Current pickup Upe> ±5% of set value or ±0.1V
Time delays not more than 40ms
Breaker failure Setting ranges
Protection Current I> 0.1×IN to 20×IN
Time delay T 0.1 to 5s
PU & DO Times
At 1.2 times of set value Less than 40ms
Drop-off time I> approx. 40ms
Tolerance
Current pickup I> ±3% of set value or ±0.02IN
Time delays not more than 40ms
Drop-off ratio
I> approx. 0.9
On-load Display of values
Measurement for current IA, IB, IC, 3I0, IN
for voltage UA, UB, UC, Ux
P Q etc
for power supply DC+,DC-
Fault recording Instantaneous values IA,IB,Ic,3I0,IAR,IBR,ICR,3I0R,UA,UB,UC,3U0,U
(approx. every 0.833ms at 50Hz) x
2 records of max. 5 secs duration
(adjustable pre & post fault
duration)

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EHV Line Protection Equipment

Selection and ordering data

CSC-101 digital EHV line protection Order No.


equipment CSC-101 0
Distance protected object
No auto-closure function A
Have auto-closure function B

Rated current
1A
5A 1
5

Rated auxiliary voltage


110V DC 1
220V DC 2
Master module type,different hardware
087 K
125 W
Lonworks interface (master mode)
0 0
Lonworks interface (slave mode)
1 1
2 2
Electric internet interface on Master
module
3 3
2 2
0 0
Fiber internet interface on Master module
2 2
0 0
RS485 interface on Master module
1 1
2 2

Operating software CSPC


CSPC Version V1.00E for windows,full version English XXXXXXX
for 10 PC’ s and update for 3 years

Documentation
English Catalog D******: CSC-101 Digital EHV line XXXXXXX
protection equipment (V1.00E)
Manual:CSC-101 Digital EHV line protection XXXXXXX
equipment(V1.00E)

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EHV Transmission Line Protection Equipment
Connection diagram

Figure 5 illustrates the recommended standard connection for line. The permissible
cable length and the TA design (permissible load) are mutually dependent. Recalculation is
advisable as for lengths of more than 100m.

Typical connection
*

c
UA
*

b UB
*

a UC
*

c
*

b
*

a X1 AC
b a
IA’ 1 IA
IB’ 2 IB
*

*
IC’ 3 IC
IN’ 4 IN
5
6
UX’ 7 UX
8
UC 9 UB
UN 10 UA
11
*

Fig 5 Typical connection example for line

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EHV Line Protection Equipment

Dimension drawings in mm

Dimension drawings for CSC-101 used 19 inch (4U) enclosure for panel flush-mounting
and cabinet mounting.

Fig 6 flush-mounted enclosure of CSC-101 with panel cutout

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