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f

Volume II
C 0 NSID E W AT18NS
& PLANS .r

7
VOLUME I1
TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page
CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION 1

A. Background 1
B. Objectives 1
C . Scope
D. Assumptions
E. S u m m a r y
F. Conclusions
G. Acknowledgements

CHAPTER 11: OUTPOST 9

A. Location 10
B. Design C r i t e r i a 15
C . Construction P r o c e d u r e and. 43
Sc h e dul e
D. Medical R e q u i r e m e n t s 43
E. P e r s o n a l Equipment 46
F. L i f e E s s e n t i a l s Supplies 49
G. Sur fac e T r a n s p o r t a t i o n 57
H . Environmental R e s e a r c h and 53
Support Activities

CHAPTER 111: SPACE TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM 61

A. F l i g h t Mechanics 61
B. Orbital C a r r i e r and Space 81
Vehicles
C. T r a n s p o r t a t i o n SyBtem Integration [ 3 146 ?k
CHAPTER IV: COMMUNICATIONS ELECTRONlCS 175

A. lntroduc tion 175


B . Communications R e q u i r e m e n t s & % 3 180*
C. Surveillance R e q u i r e m e n t s 2 01
CHAPTER V: LAUNCH SITE 207

A. Requirement 207
13. G e n e r a l C r i t e r i a f o r Launch 208
Site Selection
C. Launch S i t e O p e r a t i o n s 209
D. Launch F a c i l i t i e s 214
E. P o s s i b l e E q u a t o r i a l Launch S i t e s 219
F. Christmas Island Versus B r a z i l 229

C H A P T E R VI: PROGRAM LOGISTICS 233

A. Introduction 233
B. Manufacturing C o n s i d e r a t i o n s 233
C . Transportation Considerations 236
D. Movement C o n t r o l 240
E. P e r s o n n e l and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n 2 40
F. Operations and T r a i n i n g 248

CHAPTER VII: RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT 2 61

A. Project Phases 2 61
B. B a s i c and Supporting R e s e a r c h 2 63
C. P r o g r a m R e q u i r e m e n t s , R&D 275
D. R&D, Supporting R e s e a r c h , P r o j e c t 277
HORIZON
E. Supporting Role of Other U. S . P r o g r a m s 278

C H A P T E R VIII: PROGRAM COST AND SCHEDULE 281

A. Outpost c o s t 2 81
B. Orbital Station 2 81
C. V ehicl e s 2 82
D. Payload C o n t a i n e r s 2scc 3 284
E. Launch S i t e and Operation , 286
F. C ommuni c a tion s a n d El e c t r oni c s 2 86
Sys tern
G. P e r s o n n e l T r a i n i n g 288
H. R e s e a r c h a n d Development 2 89
I. P r o g r a m Ma nag e m e n t 2 89
J. S u m m a r y 291

BIBLIOGRAPHY 297

iv
VOLUME11
L E T OF TABLES AND FIGURES
I !.T

Tab1e

11-1 A s t r o n o m i c a l and A s t r o p h y s i c a l Quantities


F o r t h e Moon I .

11- 2 Environmental R e q u i r e m e n t s for Man , .


11-3 Human En gin e e r ing Consider a tion s

11-4 F l i g h t T i m e and Velocity Values for Various


E a r t h -Moon T r a j e c t o r i e s . . ..

11-5 T r a j e c t o r y Data f o r 96-Minute O r b i t 65


.. ..
(SATURN I1 - 3 s t a g e )
. \

I
11-6 T r a j e c t o r y Data f o r E s c a p e M i s s i o n 68 !
i
- .

11-7

11- 8
T r a j e c t o r y Data for E s c a p e from 96-Minute O r b i t

Guidance A c c u r a c y R e q u i r e m e n t s ( 3 v a l u e s )
: 70
80
i
1I
!
i
11-9 Weight S u m m a r y - SATURN I 83 !

;
11-10 Weight S u m m a r y - SATURN I1 . 93 <
f
11-11 Weight S u m m a r y of L u n a r Landing Vehicle . 106 I
i
II-12 Weight S u m m a r y of Orbit-Launched Lunar Vehicle .lo9

11-13 Weight S u m m a r y of the Lunar-Earth Return ' 112,.


Ve hi c l e8

11-14 Main F e a t u r e s of Guidance and C o n t r o l S y s t e m s 120

11-15 Weight S u m m a r y of Typical 12, 000,000-lb ,.' .*-


138
T h r u s t Space C a r r i e r Vehicle
. .
II-16 Data S u m m a r y of SATURN I1 with N u c l e a r
Upper Stage , . . .-. *~
142
1
2
---
Table ' Page

11-17 Data S u m m a r y of SATURN I1 with N u c l e a r 143


Second Stage

11-18 Data S u m m a r y of F-1 C l u s t e r with Nuclear 144


Upper S t a g e s

11-19 S u m m a r y of Vehicle Capability and Limitations '165

II-20 ' S u m m a r y of Weights of M a t e r i a l T r a n s p o r t e d 171


to the L u n a r S u r f a c e (1965-1967)

II- 21 S u m m a r y of Weights Available on t h e Lunar 172


S u r f a c e (8070Rel, 1965 through 1967)

11-22 A r e a s of I n t e r e a t i n Communications and 176


El e c t r onic 8

11-23 Typical System Characteristics 193

11-24 Typical S y s t e m C h a r a c t e r i s tics - L u n a r c o m Link 196


11-25 Typical S y s t e m s C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s - Luna Man 199
P a c k e d Radio I _

II- 26 Typical S y s t e m s C h a r a c t e r i s t i c 8 - L u n a r Net '199


11-27 Typical S y s t e m s C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s - Emergency Link 204

II- 2 8 Vehicle and Payload Production R e q u i r e m e n t s 235

11-29 Orbital C r e w P r i m a r y Skill R e q u i r e m e n t s 243

11-30 R e s e a r c h and Development Schedule and 276


E s t i m a t e of Funding R e q u i r e m e n t s

II-31 O r b i t a l Station C o s t ' I


11-32 Vehicle Cost
282 I
11-33 P a y l o a d Container C o s t

vi

f-z-
,_ .----
1'
I 1
.-
Table '- !Page

11-34 Launch Site C o s t s - '287

11-35 Launch Site Cost - 288

XI-36 Typical Communications Sys t e m C o s t Breakdown 288

11-37 Typical P e r s o n n e l T r a i n i n g Cost I 289

11-38 R e s e a r c h and Development C o s t Breakdown . 290

11-39 P r o g r a m Management C o s t 2 91

11-40 C o st S u m m a r y 293

11-41 S u m m a r y of HORIZON A c c o m p l i s h m e n t s 294


- I

Figure

11-1 Map of Moon with A r e a s of I n t e r e s t f o r Landing 12


Site ( ? Z O O latitudv and longitude)

11-2 E n l a r g e m e n t of L u n a r A r e a of I n t e r e s t with 13
Most P r o m i s i n g Outpost Locations

11- 3 Layout of I r l i tial Construction C a m p 24

11-4 C r o s s - s e c t i o n of Typical Outpost C o m p a r t m e n t s 25

11-5 Overall View of Initial Construction C a m p - . 26


i
11- 6 Typical L u n a r C o n s t r u c t i o n Vehicle 29
4
? 11-7 Layout of B a s i c 12-Man Outpost ' 35

f 11-8 Overall View of 12-Man Outpost 36

11-9 Nuclear Power P l a n t on M o o n (60 kw) . 40

11-10 Schedule f o r Initial Construction C a m p


i 41
'

I 11-ll Schedule f o r B a s i c 12-Man Outpost 42

1
Figure

11-12 Typical L u n a r Suit (2 p i c t u r e s )

11-13 Typical L u n a r S u r f a c e T r a n s p o r t Vehicle , 54

IT-14 Typical E a r t h - M o o n P a r a b o l i c T r a j e c t o r y b4

11-15 A s c e n t T r a j e c t o r y for T r a n s f e r i n t o 96-Minute Orbit 67

11-16 P o w e r e d T r a j e c t o r y for E s c a p e from the Earth 69

11-17 Escape f r o m 96-Minute O r b i t '. 71

11-18 L u n a r Landing Velocity Vector s 72

II-19 Moon-to-Earth Velocity V e c t o r s 73

11-20 L u n a r - E a r t h F l i g h t T i m e vs L a u n c h Velocity 75

11-21 D e c e l e r a t i o n va Angle of R e - e n t r y f o r Earth 76


Atmosphere

11-22 Altitude and A c c e l e r a t i o n vs Time D a b for E a r t h 78


A t m o s p h e r i c R e - e n t r y (ll,000 m / s e c velocity)

11-23 SATURN I .82 .

11-24 SATURN I - Booster


11-25 SATURN I - 2nd Stage

11-26 SATURN1 - 3rd Stage

11-27 SATURN I1

11-28 SATURN11 - Booster

[I-29 . SATURN I1 - 2nd Stage

11-30 - SATURN I1 - 3 r d Stage


:I- 31 SATURN I1 - 4th Stage T
8 , ~ I

viii
Figure Page

11-32 L u n a r Landing Vehicle 105


I ,

11-33 Orbit-Launched L u n a r Vehicle 107

11- 34 L u n a r Landing Vehicle , : 108

11- 35 T y p i c a l O r b i t a l R e - e n t r y Vehicle 111

11-36 SATURN I C a r r y i n g O r b i t a l R e t u r n Vehicle a s a 113


Payload
,
11- 37 L u n a r - Launc hed R e t u r n Vehicle 115

11-38 SATURN I1 D i r e c t L u n a r Landing Vehicle 116


(Manned Caps 111e)

11-37 L u n a r - A s s e m b l e d E a r t h R e t u r n Vehicle 118


,
11- 40 Block D i a g r a m of a Typical Guidance a n d 122
Control Sys tern

I1- 41 Dimensions of Typical T a n k e r Payload 128


(SATURN I )

11-42 L u n a r Landing Vehicle with 6 , 0 0 0 - l b P r o p u l s i o n . 129


Unit a s a Payload

11- 43 Typical Space P l a t f o r m A s s e m b l e d f r o m Empty 133


Containers

11-44 Refueling of Orbit-Launched Space Vehicle 134

XI-45 Dimensions of S p a c e C a r r i e r Vehicle B a s e d on 137


8 x 1.5 Mil Cluster

11-46 SATURN I1 with N u c l e a r 3 r d Stage 139

11- 47 SATURN I1 with N u c l e a r 2nd Stage 140

11-48 F - 1 Cluster Vehicle with Nuclear Upper Stage


7
-
Figure

11-49 C a r r i e r Vehicles - C o m p a r i s o n of Dimension 150

11-50 Typical C a r r i e r Vehicle Development F i r i n g - . ,153


Schedule

11- 51 Typical Space Vehicle Development P r o g r a m 156


( f o r manned applications)

II-52 P r o j e c t HORIZON P e r s o n n e l Space T r a n s p o r t a t i o n 160


Requirements

11- 53 Earth-Lunar Transportation Requirements 163

XI- 54 Earth-Orbit Cargo Transportation Requirements 164

! 11-55 P r o j e c t HORIZON Vehicle R e q u i r e m e n t s and 167


Launching Schedule

I 11-56 Supply Schedule f o r Direct E a r t h to Outpost 17 1


<
r Cargo Flights
i
i 11-57 Earth Complex and L u n a r c o m Links 177
i
f 11-58 Communication Need L i n e s 1962 181
I
!
i 11-59 Communication Need L i n e s 1964 '182
I

!
! 11-60 Typical T r a c k i n g and L u n a r c o m S i t e 184
f
9

i 11-61 E a r t h - B a s ed Communication Complex 186


i
{ 11-62 Outpost to E a r t h P a t h C a r r i e r - t o - N o i s e P o w e r 192
I
! Ra tio - Ca r r i e r F r equ en c e
!
i 11-63 L u n a r Communication Net 197
?
; 11-64 Micro-Module Communication R e c e i v e r 198
1
!
11-65 Radiated P o w e r Required for Lunar - E a r t h TV 202
I
i .
/ 11-66 Schema tic F l o w D i a g r a m of Launch Site 2113
I

X
F’igur e Page

CI- 67 SATURN B o o s t e r R e c o v e r y 212

[I-68 SATURN B o o s t e r F l o a t a t i o n i n t o Well of LSD 213

[I-69 E q u a t o r i a l Launch Complex 215

[I-70 World Wide Site C h o i c e s for a n E q u a t o r i a l 220


Launch F a c i l i t y

II- 71 C h r i s t m a s Island 223

II- 72 P o t e n t i a l S i t e in B r a z i l f o r E q u a t o r i a l Launch 227


Base

II- 73 Schedule for Construction and Development for 230


E q u a t o r i a l Launch B a s e

II- 74 Outpost P h a s es 246

11-75 P r e l i m i n a r y P e r s o n n e l Schedule 247

11-76 P r e l i m i n a r y Orbital Training R e q u i r e m e n t s 2 52

11-77 P r e l i m i n a r y Outpost T r a i n i n g R e q u i r e m e n t s 2 53

11-78 Training Cycle 255

11-79 Organization for R&D ( P r o j e c t HORIZON) 2 62

II- 80 L u n a r Environment R e s e a r c h , Development a n d 2 72


T r a i n i n g C e n t e r (LERDT)

11-81 C r o s a Section Through Main F a c i l i t y at LERDT 273

II- 82 View of F l i g h t S i m u l a t o r and Medical R e s e a r c h 274


Center
P

II- 83 Outstanding A c c o m p l i s h m e n t s V e r s u s T i m e 295 -


(S) G H A B T E K I: INTRODUCTION

A. BACKGROUND

T h i s volume i s the second of two volumes of a p r e l i m i n a r y f e a s i -


bility study f o r the e s t a b l i s h m m t of a lunar outpost b y 1966.' I t d e a l s
with the technical r e q u i r e m e n t s a n d i n d i c a t e s t h e way and m e a n s f o r
the a c t u a l a c c o m p l i s h m e n t of this m i s s i o n ,

This study is a n outgrowth of a s y s t e m s study f o r the SATURN


family of s p a c e c a r r i e r vehicles initiated l a t e in 1958, in which the
e a r t h - l u n a r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n m i s s i o n was p i c k e d a s a typical and m a j o r
job to be a c c o m p l i s h e d by the SATURN vehicle. T h i s m i s s i o n w a s
u s e d f o r optimization of the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s y s t e m without neglecting
other r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r SATURN vehicles which a l s o have b e e n estab-
l i s h e d , s u c h a s the 24-hour communication s a t e l l i t e . Other m i s s i o n s
which a r e expected to b e a c c o m p l i s h e d by the SATURN vehicle h a v e
been c o n s i d e r e d , s u c h a s o r b i t a l r e t u r n v e h i c l e s , advanced p r o p u l -
sion s y s t e m t e s t i n g a n d p l a n e t a r y p r o b e s . A l l of t h e s e m i s s i o n s ,
however, a r e not d i s c u s s e d in this r e p o r t .

The responsibility f o r coordination and editing of this volume w a s


a s s i g n e d to t h e Development Operations Division of t h e A r m y B a l l i s t i c
M i s s i l e Agency ( A B M A ) , by l e t t e r f r o m H e a d q u a r t e r s , A r m y O r d -
nance M i s s i l e Command ( A O M C ) , dated 3 April 1959. This a s s i g n -
m e n t i n t u r n was delegated to the F u t u r e P r o j e c t s Design B r a n c h of
the S t r u c t u r e s a n d Mechanics L a b o r a t o r y by the D i r e c t o r of the De-
velopment Operations Division. Other l a b o r a t o r i e s within the Devel-
opment O p e r a t i o n s Division contributed to this study i n a p p r o p r i a t e
a r e a s of i n t e r e s t and capability. All s e v e n technical s e r v i c e s p a r t i c i -
pated i n this study, with m a j o r inputs f r o m t h e Ordnance C o r p s , Sig-
n a l C o r p s , a n d C o r p s of E n g i n e e r s . T h i s r e p o r t i s t h e p r o d u c t of a
study conducted by a unique technical task forc'e of the D e p a r t m e n t
of the A r m y ,

B. OBJECTIVES

The objective of this volume is to p r e s e n t a p p l i c a b l e technical.


information a v a i l a b l e a t this t i m e , which s u p p o r t s the s t a t e m e n t that
the " e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a l u n a r outpost by 1966 is within the c a p a b i l i t i e s
of the United S t a t e s . I f
C. SCOPE

The s c o p e of this study c o v e r s the design c r i t e r i a and r e q u i r e m e n t 8


of a lunar outpost, its c o n s t r u c t i o n a n d m a i n t e n a n c e , and a summary
of i t s o p e r a t i o n a l a s p e c t s .

The volume f u r t h e r d i s c u s s e s t h e e a r t h - l u n a r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s y s -
t e m f r o m t h e vehicle design, t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s y s t e m i n t e g r a t i o n , a n d
economical point of view.

The s c o p e of this r e p o r t a l s o include8 t h e e a r t h s u p p o r t o p e r a t i o n s ,


including earth-launching a n d s e r v i c i n g f a c i l i t i e s , a s well as t h e c o m -
plet e e a r th-luna r c ommunica tion sy s t e m .

C o n s i d e r a b l e effort has been m a d e to i n t e g r a t e a l l individual re-


q u i r e m e n t s and a c t i v i t i e s into one c o m p l e t e o p e r a t i o n to a c c o m p l i s h
the m i s s i o n of establishing a n d supporting a lunar outpost. This
includes a n e s t i m a t e of the schedule and funding r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r the
complete program.

It is not within the s c o p e of this p r e l i m i n a r y f e a s i b i l i t y study to


f u r n i s h a detailed development a n d o p e r a t i o n a l p l a n f o r t h e a c t u a l
a c c o m p l i s h m e n t of the t a s k . This i s c o n s i d e r e d to be the n e x t l o g i c a l
s t e p a n d w o u l d r e q u i r e a p p r o x i m a t e l y eight months to a c c o m p l i s h .

D. ASSUMPTIONS

The following b a s i c a s s u m p t i o n s have been m a d e f o r the p u r p o s e


of this s t u d y i n the individual a r e a s indicated:

1. L u n a r Operations

a. T h e objective i s l i m i t e d to the e s t a b l i s h m e n t a n d s u p p o r t
of a 1 2 - m a n outpost, although exploitation p o s s i b i l i t i e s a r e d i s c u s s e d .

b. The l u n a r environment w i l l be suitable f o r manned o p e r a -


tions on the s u r f a c e i f t h e personnel a r e p r o p e r l y p r o t e c t e d a n d
e quipped.

C. T h e p r e l i m i n a r y exploration of the l u n a r e n v i r o n m e n t will


b e c a r r i e d out by the National A e r o n a u t i c s a n d Space Agency a n d / o r
Advanced R e s e a r c h P r o j e c t s Agency a s p a r t of the national s p a c e
program.

2
d. Existing n a t u r a l r e E > a r c e s on the moon, which might b e
used during the t i m e period of i n t e r e s t , a r e not taken into consideration.
(Tonnage which might b e utilized during this p e r i o d is c o n s i d e r e d neg-
ligible in c o m p a r i s o n to t o t a l r e q u i r e m e n t s . )

e. No c a v e suitable f o r living o r working q u a r t e r s w i l l be ac-


c e s s i b l e during the t i m e period of i n t e r e s t .

f . A c l o s e d c y c l e l i f e support s y s t e m is not c o n s i d e r e d to b e
available during the t i m e period 1964-1967, which is a c o n s e r v a t i v e
assumption s i n c e a t l e a s t a p a r t i a l s y s t e m is c o n s i d e r e d feasible.

g. P r e f e r a b l y , the sta.y t i m e of a n individual on the moon


should be one y e a r o r l e s s .

2. T r a n s p o r t a t i o n System

a. A l l o r b i t a l o p e r a t i o n s will be c a r r i e d out i n a 96-minute


(307 nautical m i l e s ) equatorial o r b i t of the earth.

b. An e q u a t o r i a l launch s i t e will be developed and funded as


p a r t of this p r o g r a m .

c. An e l a b o r a t e o r b i t a l s p a c e platform in a 96-minute equa-


t o r i a l o r b i t would be of g r e a t utility, but is not m a n d a t o r y f o r conduct
of this p r o g r a m .

d. Orbital operations a r e based on o r b i t a l fueling r a t h e r than


on o r b i t a l a s s e m b l y p r o c e d u r e s .

e. A 24-hour communicztion s a t e l l i t e s y s t e m w i l l be i n o p e r -
ation by 1964.

f. A satisfactor’y ground wcrld network of t r a c k i n g and c o m -


munication f a c i l i t i e s will be i n operation during the t i m e p e r i o d of
i n t e r e s t (1964-1967).

3. C a r r i e r Vehicles

a. The b a s i c c a r r i e r vehicle for this p r o g r a m (SATURN 11)


with optimized upper s t a g e s and high e n e r g y p r o p e l l a n t s c a n soft-
land 6000 pounds of c a r g o on the moon i n one d i r e c t t r i p o r c a n c a r r y
70,000 pounds of c a r g o into the 96-minute ( 3 0 7 nautical m i l e s ) equa- . .

t o r i a l orbit,

3 i
r---------
,L--------? 1
I /
-. .I
b. The development of the high e n e r g y , high t h r u s t e n g i n e s ,
u s e d f o r the SATURN I1 upper s t a g e s , will b e s p o n s o r e d by NASA a n d /
, o r A R P A i n s e p a r a t e p r o g r a m s , T h e i r development will not b e funded
in this program.

c. ‘ T h e t h e o r e t i c a l growth potential i n the f o r m of 50K n u c l e a r


propulsion s y s t e m f o r the t h i r d s t a g e of SATURN I1 h a s not b e e n con-
s i d e r e d f o r the t i m e period of i n t e r e s t . This is a c o n s e r v a t i v e assump-
t i o n s i n c e s u c h a n engine could b e developed by 1966-1967.

d. , Oz/H2 engines will be used f o r the landing m a n e u v e r on t h e


moon. Storable propellants with 300 seconds s p e c i f i c i m p u l s e will
b e u s e d f o r the takeoff m a n e u v e r on the moon.

e. P r e s e n t day m a t e r i a l s have been c o n s i d e r e d throughout


t h i s study with s o m e m o d e s t i m p r o v e m e n t s i n the s t a t e - o f - t h e - a r t
c o n s i s t e n t with the t i m e period of i n t e r e s t .

E. SUMMARY

T h i s volume d e s c r i b e s the technical p r o b l e m s and r e q u i r e m e n t s


as envisioned today f o r the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a 12-man l u n a r outpost
a n d i t s f i r s t y e a r of operation.

A l u n a r environment exploration p r o g r a m , on a s c a l e considerably


l a r g e r than i s known to be c u r r e n t l y planned, m u s t begin by 1962. It
is anticipated that the NASA will s p o n s o r this r e s e a r c h activity. During
t h e p e r i o d 1960 through 1964, the development of the b a s i c c a r r i e r
v e h i c l e s by October 1963 and D e c e m b e r 1964, r e s p e c t i v e l y . By the
end oi 1964 a total of 72 SATURN vehicles should have b e e n launched,
of which 40 a r e expected t o contribute to the a c c o m p l i s h m e n t of P r o j e c t
HORIZON, T h e s e 40 launchings will include s i x l u n a r s a t e l l i t e s ,
eight l u n a r soft landings , seven l u n a r c i r c u m n a v i g a t i o n s , four o r b i t a l
r e t u r n m i s s i o n s , and 15 operational t r i p s f o r the buildup phase. The
p u r p o s e of the initial 25 f i r i n g s will b e the development of the t r a n s -
portation s y s t e m ’ s techniques and p r o c e d u r e s , as well a s that of
obtaining s c i e n t i f i c and engineering environmental information. The
buildup phase begins with the first o r b i t a l flight i n August 1964 and
the f i r s t operational c a r g o d e l i v e r y t o the moon i n J a n u a r y 1965. C a r g o
will be s e n t to the l u n a r c o n s t r u c t i o n s i t e d i r e c t l y f r o m the e a r t h ’ s G U I -
f a c e i n - p a c k a g e s of 6000 pounds e a c h , and via o r b i t in packages of .
48,000 pounds each. The f i r s t manned landing is scheduled f o r A p r i l
1965 and will c o n s i s t of a two-man vehicle with a n i m m e d i a t e e a r t h

4
* r e t u r n capability. The buildup and c o n s t r u c t i o n phase will be con-
tinued without i n t e r r u p t i o n until the outpost i s r e a d y f o r beneficial
occupancy and manned by a t a s k f o r c e of 12 m e n by November 1966.

T h i s buildup p r o g r a m r e q u i r e s 61 SATURN I and 88 SATURN I1


- launchings i n a p e r i o d of 28 months (August 1964 through N o v e m b e r
1966). T h i s r e q u i r e s a n a v e r a g e launching r a t e of 5. 3 p e r month.
The total useful c a r g o t r a n s p o r t e d to the m o o n amounts t o 245 t o n s ,
a s s u m i n g a n a v e r a g e m i s s i o n reliability of 80 percent.

This t r a n s p o r t a t i o n job r e s u l t s i n landing m a t e r i a l f o r the c o n s t r u c -


tion of a l u n a r outpost with a b a s i c s t r u c t u r e weight of 40 t o n s , and a n
additional 205 tons f o r equipment and supplies. Approximately 40 of
t h e s e 205 tons will be r e q u i r e d f o r life e s s e n t i a l supplies.

A total of 6 4 f i r i n g s have b e e n scheduled f o r the f i r s t o p e r a t i o n a l


y e a r of the l u n a r outpost, D e c e m b e r 1966 through 1967, and r e s u l t s
i n a useful c a r g o t r a n s p o r t a t i o n capability of a p p r o x i m a t e l y 133 addi-
tional tons f r o m e a r t h to the lunar s u r f a c e . T h e s e v e h i c l e s a l s o pro-
vide t r a n s p o r t a t i o n of o r b i t <andl u n a r c r e w s to the o r b i t as well as
rotation of the outpost p e r s o n n e l , with a nominal s t a y t i m e of nine
months on t h e moon. An additional six SATURN I and t e n SATURN I1
vehicles a r e a s s i g n e d the m i s s i o n of e m e r g e n c y v e h i c l e s during the
e n t i r e p r o j e c t . With the s a m e a s s u m e d r e l i a b i l i t y , the e m e r g e n c y
vehicles have the capability of t r a n s p o r t i n g an additional 30 tons of
c a r g o to the l u n a r surface.

The a v e r a g e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o s t f o r a one-way t r i p t o the moon


f o r the p r o g r a m p r e s e n t e d h e r e i n is $4250 per pound. This includes
the i n v e s t m e n t in the R & D p r o g r a m and the n e c e s s a r y f a c i l i t i e s . To
s u s t a i n t h e o p e r a t i o n a f t e r 1968 without p o s t expansion and b a s e d on
the s a m e c a r r i e r v e h i c l e s , t h i s figure would b e reduced to approxi-
m a t e l y $1850 p e r pound. By u s e of n u c l e a r o r e l e c t r i c p r o p u l s i o n ,
a f u r t h e r reduction of this c o s t figure t o $400 p e r pound s e e m s f e a e i -
ble by 1975. Early in the p r o g r a m , the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o s t f o r a
round t r i p f r o m the e a r t h to the moon and r e t u r n to e a r t h would b e
a p p r o x i m a t e l y 48 t i m e s that of a one-way t r i p f r o m e a r t h to moon.
This m a y b e reduced t o a f a c t o r of 25 by f u r t h e r development,

The t o t a l p r o g r a m c o s t as outlined i n this r e p o r t w a s e s t i m a t e d


to b e $ 6 , 0 5 2 , 3 0 0 , 0 0 0 over an eight and a half y e a r period. This is a n
a v e r a g e of a p p r o x i m a t e l y $700 million p e r year. T h e s e f i g u r e s are
e s t i m a t e s b a s e d on p a s t e x p e r i e n c e and, while p r e l i m i n a r y , they

5
i
f
r e p r e s e n t the r i g h t o r d e r of magnitude. Though s u b s t a n t i a l , they
should b e c o m p a r e d with t h e annual s a l e s volume of the a i r c r a f t and
m i s s i l e i n d u s t r y of t e n billion d o l l a r s per y e a r , o r t h e annual defense
budget of forty-two billion d o l l a r s p e r y e a r .

Many p o s s i b i l i t i e s a r e recognized a l r e a d y , as t o how the s y s t e m


involved c a n b e f u r t h e r optimized and t h e o v e r a l l p r o g r a m c o s t and
e f f o r t f u r t h e r reduced. The f u l l exploitation of t h e s e p o s s i b i l i t i e s
has yet t o b e r e a l i z e d , and r e q u i r e s additional study beyond’this
p r e l i m i n a r y investigation.

F. CONCLUSIONS

1. The e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a lunar outpost is c o n s i d e r e d to be tech-


n i c a l l y and economically feasible.

2. The payload capabilities of the SATURN f a m i l y , as well irs


t h e i r timely availability, m a k e s i t f e a s i b l e to land the f i r s t two people
on the l u n a r s u r f a c e by Spring of 1965 and have a 12-man p e r m a n e n t
outpost operational by November 1966.

3. T h i s p r o g r a m r e q u i r e s only m o d e s t i m p r o v e m e n t s of the
s t a t e - o f - t h e - a r t and no m a j o r breakthroughs.

4. The probability of s u c c e s s and t h e chance of s u r v i v a l of the .


p e r s o n n e l involved justify i m m e d i a t e initiation of this p r o g r a m .
I

5. It is c o n s i d e r e d to be advisable t o employ a m o r e efficient car-


r i e r vehicle ( p a r t l y n u c l e a r propelled) i n 1970, o r t h e r e a f t e r , any
e x t e n s i o n of the l u n a r p r o g r a m p r e s e n t e d herein.

G. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

T h i s volume is the product of a n integrated study conducted b y a


t a s k force of the Technical S e r v i c e s of the Department of the Army.
I t w a s coordinated and d i r e c t e d by H. H. KOELLE, Chief, F u t u r e
P r o j e c t s Design B r a n c h of the Development Operations Division, ABMA,
a s s i s t e d by F. L. WILLIAMS and other B r a n c h personnel.

T h e individual portions of this r e p o r t w e r e coordinated and c o m -


piled by. six technical working groups headed by t h e individuals indi-
c a t e d below:

6
I.OUTPOST, C h a i r m a n : H. N. LOWE, C o r p s of E n g i n e e r s '
11. FLIGHT MECHANICS, Chairman: R. C. CALLAWAY,
ABMA SUBCOMMITTEE, Guidance and Control: J. H. W.
UNGER, ABMA
111. TRANSPORT ATION SYSTEM INTEGRA TI ON, C h a i r m a n :
F. L. WILLIAMS, ABMA SUBCOMMITTEE, Payload P r e p -
a r a t i o n and Scheduling: CAPTAIN ROBERT MENDENHALL,
Q u a r t e r m a s t e r Corps.
IV. SPACE VEHICLES, Chairman: C. H. BARKER, J r . , ABMA
SUBCOMMITTEE, C a r r i e r Vehicles: H. R U P P E , ABMA
SUBCOMMITTEE, P a y l o a d s : A. WARREN, ABMA
V. COMMUNICATION and SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM, C h a i r m a n :
S . P. BROWN, Signal Corps
VI. COSTAND SCHEDULE: W. G. HUBER, ABMA

The s e n i o r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the individual Technical S e r v i c e s


on t h i s t a s k f o r c e who w e r e assigned the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of coordinating
the w o r k o n t h i s volume with t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e organizations w e r e :

1. Mr. S. P. BROWN, Communications Department, U. S. A r m y


Signal R&D L a b o r a t o r y , F o r t Monmouth, N. J.

2. Colonel R. H. HOLMES, R&D Division, Office, Surgeon Gen-


e r a l , Washington, D. C.

3. Mr. H. N. LOWE, P r o j e c t D i r e c t o r , Office, Chief of E n g i n e e r s ,


Washington, D. C.

4. Dr. W. W. DORRELL, Office of the Chief Chemical O f f i c e r , '


Washington, D. C.

5. Colonel A. H. JACKMAN, A s s i s t a n t Chief of R&E Division,


O f f i c e , Q u a r t e r m a s t e r G e n e r a l , Washington, D. C.

6. Lt. Colonel H. R. DELMAR, Chief T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Office, '


AOMC.

7. H. H. K O E L L E , Chief, F u t u r e P r o j e c t s Design B r a n c h ,
Development Operations Division, ABMA , AOMC.

As a c o n s u l t a n t , Dr. PAUL SIPLE, noted A n t a r c t i c e x p l o r e r ,


n a d e valuable suggestions i n r e g a r d to personnel problem8 and
e a d e r s h i p of s m a l l i s o l a t e d groups under e x t r e m e s of environment.

7
(S) CHAPTER 11: OUTPOST

The l u n a r outpost d e s c r i b e d in this c h a p t e r is a p e r m a n e n t


facility capable of supporting a complement of 12 m e n ( t e m p o r a r i l y 16
men) on a continuing b a s i s . The design p r o v i d e s f o r expansion of t h e
f a c i l i t y as m a y be r e q u i r e d at a l a t e r date.

In designing a l u n a r installation, i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o s u b s t i t u t e
needed r e a l i s m f o r uncontrolled imagination. T h e l u n a r facility h e r e -
in p r o p o s e d i s devoid of g l a m o r ; and i s intended to do only one job and
do t h a t job well. That job i s t o s e r v e the m e n who m u s t s t a k e their
l i v e s on i t s functional adequacy and reliability.

The l u n a r f a c i l i t y will be compatible with t h e c a p a b i l i t i e s and


‘ l i m i t a t i o n s of both the s p a c e c a r r i e r vehicle d e l i v e r y s y s t e m and the
men who m u s t do the c o n s t r u c t i o n work. In the choice of m a t e r i a l s ,
p r o c e s s e s , and techniques, caution h a s been e x e r c i s e d t o s e l e c t only
those which a r e e i t h e r now on hand o r which can be expected, with a
high d e g r e e of confidence, to be available a t the t i m e needed. The
s u c c e s s f u l accomplishment. of t h i s t a s k will not be dependent upon any
technological breakthrough o r upon any development not provided for
in the planned p r o g r a m a s d e s c r i b e d h e r e h . The planned f a c i l i t i e s
a r e expected t o be benefited, and t h e i r cost r e d u c e d , by continuing
p r o g r e s s in the s c i e n c e s . It i s not r e a l i s t i c , h o w e v e r , t o plan such
an expedition and commit c o n s i d e r a b l e r e s o u r c e s s o l e l y on the hope
that d e s i r a b l e , but wholly unpredictable, events will o c c u r within a
given period of t i m e .

The principal function of the outpost will b e t o s u s t a i n i t s inhabi-


tants in a n environment which i s m o r e hostile than a n y h e r e t o f o r e en-
countered by m a n , To do t h i s , the outpost will provide m a n with a n
e a r t h - l i k e a t m o s p h e r e , and at t h e s a m e t i m e it will p r o t e c t h i m f r o m
the l u n a r environment t h a t would otherwise incapacitate o r d e s t r o y h i m ,
C o s t s and t e c h n i c a l f a c t o r s r e q u i r e a u s t e r e planning. On the o t h e r
hand, no n e e d l e s s c o m p r o m i s e will be made with r e q u i r e m e n t s of the
p r o j e c t o r in m a t t e r s e s s e n t i a l t o c o m f o r t of the o p e r a t i n g personnel.
These concepts of design will be apparent in the p a r a g r a p h s below
which deal with t h e specific p r o p o s a l s for the outpost f a c i l i t i e s .
A. LOCATION

1. S i t e R e q u i r e m e n t s

The outpost s i t e s e l e c t e d m u s t s a t i s f y t h r e e b r o a d r e q u i r e m e n t s :
it m u s t b e (1) suitable f o r landing f r o m and d e p a r t i n g for e a r t h , (2)
suitable f o r living in s h e l t e r , and ( 3 ) suitable f o r c a r r y i n g out m i s s i o n s
which d i c t a t e movement o v e r the s u r f a c e .

a. To b e suitable f o r landing, the s u r f a c e a t the s i t e m u s t b e


r e a s o n a b l y l e v e l , without a b r u p t i r r e g u l a r i t i e s i n height which c a n not
b e c o m p e n s a t e d f o r b y the v e h i c l e landing g e a r , and free f r o m s t r e s s e s
t h a t m a y r e s u l t in s l i d e s , s l i p , o r collapse of the s u r f a c e when the
l u n a r vehicle lands. T h i s i m p l i e s that the a r e a m u s t be r e a d i l y
a c c e s s i b l e t o p r e - l a n d i n g mapping. T h e site should also r e q u i r e m i n i -
m u m e n e r g y expenditures ( a n d , consequently m i n i m u m propellant m a s s
e x p e n d i t u r e s ) t o r e a c h . However, if landing s i t e s and e a r t h - r e t u r n
launch s i t e s a r e to b e c l o s e t o g e t h e r , e n e r g y r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r landing
m u s t b e weighted a g a i n s t e n e r g y r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r subsequent r e t u r n
to earth.

b. T o be suitable f o r living i n s h e l t e r , t h e l u n a r s u r f a c e m u s t
b e f r e e of dangerous r e s i d u a l s t r e s s e s which would r e a c t d i s a s t r o u s l y
t o t h e weight of the outpost f a c i l i t i e s o r to t h e a c t i o n of explosives and
construction machinery. Methods m u s t be developed to work t h e l u n a r
m a t e r i a l without e x c e s s expenditure of energy. Communications with
e a r t h m u s t b e p o s s i b l e at all t i m e s ; full visibility of the outpost f r o m
e a r t h would be d e s i r a b l e f r o m a safety view-point. Since at l e a s t p a r t
of t h e outpost f a c i l i t i e s will be s u b - s u r f a c e , the location m u s t b e s u c h
as t o provide a n equable living t e m p e r a t u r e with m i n i m u m d r a i n upon
the outpost power supply f o r heating, Finally, t h e s i t e m u s t provide
e a s y a c c e s s i b i l i t y to the landing s i t e s f o r e m e r g e n c y and n o r m a l supply
v e h i c l e s , while maintaining construction a c t i v i t i e s a t a safe d i s t a n c e .

c. T o b e suitable f o r c a r r y i n g out a c t i v i t i e s of t h e f u t u r e , a s
well a s those h e r e i n d i s c u s s e d , the s i t e m u s t provide expansion
capabilities. It should allow r e a d y a c c e s s to o t h e r a r e a s such a8
launch s i t e s , n e w outposts, and a r e a s of epecial i n t e r e s t o r s i g n i f i c a n c e
T h i s m e a n s that the s i t e m u s t not be located within a c r a t e r n e c e s s i t a t i n g
continuing a s c e n t and d e s c e n t of the rim, o r t r a v e r s e a c r o s s p o s s i b l y
d a n g e r o u s a r e a s . Heights suitable f o r s u r v e i l l a n c e s t a t i o n s , and f o r
s o l a r - e n e r g y installations, e t c . , should be n e a r by; a l s o , a suitable
a s t r o n o m i c a l o b s e r v a t o r y s i t e must be available,

2. L i s t of Sites t o be Considered

Of t h e above r e q u i r e m e n t s , those under 1. a will l i m i t ,the area


of con s i d e r a t i o n t o about t Z O O latitude /longitude f r o m the m e a n optical
c e n t e r of the moon (See Fig. 11-1); the r e q u i r e m e n t s of 1.b and 1. c
f u r t h e r l i m i t consideration to s i t e s in m a r i a , s i n u s , o r o t h e r p t e e u m a b l y
flat a r e a s a n d no too far f r o m the boundary of t h e s e a r e a s . The p r o c e s s
of limitation cannot be c a r r i e d much f a r t h e r a t the p r e s e n t s t a t e of
knowledge of t h e l u n a r s u r f a c e . The initial c h o i c e s f o r e i t e e a r e t h e r e -
f o r e sufficiently n u m e r o u s to allow f u r t h e r selection as mapping and
environmental data a r e improved. The p r i n c i p a l s i t e s that will b e
studied f u r t h e r a r e (See F i g . IJ-2):

a. Sinus Medii ( e . g. S E portion, o r T r i e s n e c k e r )

b. Sinus Aestuurn, n e a r E r a t o s t h e n e s

c. M a r e I m b r i u m , N W of Copernicus

d. M a r e I m b r i u m , NW Shore N E of A r c h i m e d e s

e. M a r e I m b r i u m , N E edge of Apennines

f. Oceanus P r o c e l l a r u n i , n e a r Landsberg

g. P t o l e m a e u s , n e a r Alphonsus

h. M a r e Nubiurn, SE of Alphonsue

i. Mare Imbrium, near Plato

3. Mapping R e q u i r e m e n t s

a. The first i n f o r m a t i o n on the landing site will c o m e f r o m a


study of e a r t h - b a s c d photography a s part of existing r e q u i r e m e n t s in
a s t r o - g e o d e s y . The A r m y Map S e r v i c e ha6 a l r e a d y begun work on a
m a p of the e n t i r e visible l u n a r surface. T h i s m a p is to be of a s c a l e
of 1:5,000,000 with 2,000-foot contour i n t e r v a l s . T h e m a p will b e
m a d e by s t e r e o methods f r o m a l r e a d y existing lunar photographs and
will be c o n s i s t e n t , a s p r e c i s e l y a e possible, to t h e lunar d a t a elrtabliehed
at the rim by D r , Watte of the U. S. Naval Observatory. This map

11
VOLUME I1

TECHNICAL CONSIDERATIONS AND PLANS ( U )

9 JUNE 1959

P R O J E C T HORIZON REPORT

A U. S. ARMY STUDY F O R THE ESTABLISHMENT


OF
A LUNAR OUTPOST
F i g . 11-1. Map of M o o n with A r e a s of I n t e r e s t for Landing Site
(&Zoo Latitude and Longitude)

12
Fig. 11-2. Enlargement of Lunar Area of Interest with Most
Promising Outpost Locations
will b e completed on o r about 1 December 1960. About S e p t e m b e r 1959,
w o r k will begin on a 1: 1 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 s c a l e m a p with 3 0 0 - m e t e r contour
i n t e r v a l s . Instead of s t e r e o methods, analytic m e t h o d s will be used
t o d e t e r m i n e contour s. Existing photography will be supplemented by
special photography w h e r e n e c e s s a r y . Horizontal a c c u r a c y of b e t t e r
t h a n t 100 meters a n d v e r t i c a l a c c u r a c y of less than t 150 m e t e r s a r e
expected. This m a p will b e completed about August 1962.

b. Mapping a t s c a l e s l a r g e r than 1: 1 , 0 0 0 , 000 will r e q u i r e


techniques and photography not yet developed. Such mapping (which
i n c l u d e s selenographic s t u d i e s and construction of relief m o d e l s ) will
b c l i m i t e d t o t h e a r e a s s e l e c t e d f o r consideration as landing a n d e a r t h -
r e t u r n launch s i t e s . A small amount of e a r t h - b a s e d photography will
b e c a r r i e d out f r o m Pic du Midi, Y e r k e s , L i c k , Mt. Wilson, and o t h e r
o b s e r v a t o r i e s . A c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of photography will be accomplish
ed using special c a m e r a s photographing f r o m SKYHOOK- type p l a t f o r m s ,
a s well a s l u n a r circumnavigating and s a t e l l i t e v e h i c l e s .

c. In 1961, SKYHOOK photography will b e supplemented and


eventually r e p l a c e d by photography of t h e moon f r o m an e a r t h - o r b i t i n g
t e l e s c o p e c a m e r a s y s t e m , Resolution at l e a s t a6 good a s t h a t obtained
f r o m an e a r t h - b a s e d 100-inch d i a m e t e r t e l e s c o p e i s anticipated. To
obtain r e s o l u t i o n b e t t e r than t 50 m e t e r s , photography f r o m points
within 500km of t h e m o o n ' s gzrface i s r e q u i r e d . Such photography will
b e provided by l u n a r s a t e l l i t e s and p r o b e s , beginning in o r e a r l i e r than
1962. By 1963, mapping will have advanced sufficiently to allow
attention t o be concentrated on the single p r i m a r y landing s i t e and two
a l t e r n a t e s i t e s . L u n a r soft-landings will place c a m e r a s and seleno-
p h y s i c a l instrumentation on the t h r e e s i t e s , Such investigations will
be c a r r i e d out until the e i t e s have been s a t i s f a c t o r i l y studied and mapped,
T h e U. S. Geological S u r v e y and Y e r k e s O b s e r v a t o r y will p r e p a r e
d e t a i l e d geological s t u d i e s of the s i t e s , a s well as of such o t h e r a r e a s
a s m a y become of i n t e r e s t . Landing s i t e selection and mapping, a t
scales a s l a r g e a s w a r r a n t e d by the photography (probably not l a r g e r
than 1: 10, 0 0 0 ) , together with construction of r e l i e f m o d e l s , relief map8
arid landing-approach photographa, will be completed by D e c e m b e r 1964.

d. As a n i n t e g r a l p a r t of t h e mapping p r o g r a m , m e a s u r e m e n t e
of the e a r t h - m o o n d i s t a n c e will b e made on a continuing b a s i s s t a r t i n g
in July 1959. T h e s e m e a s u r e m e n t e w i l l provide i n f o r m a t i o n on the
s c a l e of the lunar photography, as well as i m p o r t a n t geodetic i n f o r m a -
t ion. A p r e c i s i o n of + 300 m e t e r s using a moon-bounce r a d a r technique
has a l r e a d y been o b t z n e d by the Naval R e s e a r c h L a b o r a t o r y . The
p r e c i s i o n w i l l b e f u r t h e r i n c r e a s e d by landing a t r a n s p o n d e r powered
by s o l a r c e l l s a t a known point on the l u n a r s u r f a c e (probably on Sinus
Medii) i n 1963.

4. Final Sites

At p r e s e n t , t h e r e is a l a c k of sufficiently detailed knowledge of


l u n a r s t r u c t u r e and topography t o p e r m i t s e l e c t i o n of s i t e s f o r landing
and outpost c o n s t r u c t i o n , The s i t e r e q u i r e m e n t s p r e v i o u s l y outlined
s u g g e s t , however, that suitable s i t e s for the outpost e x i s t in t h e
n o r t h e r n p a r t of Sinus Aestuum, n e a r E r a t o s t h e n e s , in the s o u t h e r n
p a r t of Sinus Aestuum n e a r the Sinus Medii, and on t h e southwest
coast of the M a r e I m b r i u m , j u s t north of the Appennies. (See Fig. 11-2).

B: DESIGN CRITERIA
1. A s t r o p h y s i c a l

Significant a s t r o p h y s i c a l data important t o the de sign and


operation of a l u n a r outpost a r e tabulated i n Table U-1. Through the
use of c e l e s t i a l m e c h a n i c s and a s t r o p h y s i c s , it is p o s s i b l e t o d e r i v e
from o b s e r v a t i o n s of the moon m a n y physical quantities. F a c t o r s
influencing the design of a l u n a r outpost a s opposed to a n e a r t h i n s t a l l a -
tion, t h e r e f o r e , have t h e i r origin in combined t h e o r e t i c a l and o b s e r v a -
tional evaluations.

As a p r i m a r y e f f e c t , the moon’s a p p r o x i m a t e 1000-mile r a d i u s


r e s u l t s in a l i m i t e d r a n g e of visibility on the s u r f a c e . For simplicity
in calculations f o r this effect, t h e moon i s considered to be a p e r f e c t
s p h e r e . A m a n s i x feet t a l l has a horizon of l e s s than two m i l e s . Even
from a height of 2 4 , 0 0 0 feet the horizon extends only a l i t t l e m o r e than
100 m i l e s . Taken i n conjunction with the abeence of s t e e p s l o p e s in the
areas under c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h i s m e a n s that a m a n can l o s e v i s i b l e con-
t a c t while s t i l l not f a r f r o m the outpost u n l e s s s p e c i a l p r e c a u t i o n s a r e
taken. In addition to the l a c k of a t m o s p h e r i c propagation enhancements,
communications a r e r e s t r i c t e d due t o this l i m i t e d line of sight visibility.
Special techniques will b e devised t o offset t h e s e disadvantages.

With a s u r f a c e g r a v i t y of 0.162 e a r t h g r a v i t y , a man can lift


-
six t i m e s a s m u c h mass a s he could on e a r t h provided he m a i n t a i n s
a p r o p e r s t a t e of stability and is not unduly handicapped by his l u n a r .
suit. Some m a c h i n e s , such as a power shovel o r dump t r u c k , cannot
f u l f i l t t h e s t a b i l i t y c r i t e r i o n in t h e i r p r e s e n t f o r m of mass d i s t r i b u t i o n ,
TABLE 11-1
AS TR ON OMlC AL AND AS TROPHYSIC& QUANTITIES
FOR T H E MOON
-
D i a m e t e r , true 2160 miles

A p p a r e n t a n g u l a r , at m e a n 31 I 0 5.16'1
d i s t a n c e from Earth

Circumference 6785 m i l e s

Area 1 4 , 6 6 0 , 0 0 0 s q u a r e miles

Volume 5.275 x 109 cubic miles . '

22
Mass 16.20 x 10 pounds
8.10 x 1 0 ~ 9 tons
0.012 e a r t h mass

Specific' g r a v i t y 3.33

Acceleration of gravity a t 5. 31 f t / s e c 2
surface 0.162 e a r t h gravity

E s c a p e velocity at surface 1.479 ' m i l e a / a e c o n d

Orbit, e c c e n t r i c i t y 0.0549

Inclination to ecliptic 5OO8' 3 3"

Inclination to Earth's 18'19' t o 28'35'


equator

Distance f r o m E a r t h , maxi- 252,724 m i l e s


mum

Average 238, a56 m i l e s

Mini mum 221, 475 m i l e 8

Velocity , a v e r age, l i n e a r 0 . 6 3 miles / s econd

Angular 13.1764O p e r day

16
TABLE 11-1 con't

Transit interval, average 24h 50.47m

Month, nodical ( f r o m node to node) 27d. 212220

t r o p i c a l (from equinox to equinox) 27d. 321 582 - ( 2 x 10-6T) d


s i d e r e a l ( f r o m s t a r to s a m e star) 27d. 321 661 - ( 2 x lO-"T) d

a n o m a l i s t i c ( f r o m p e r i g e e to p e r i -
gee) - ,
27d. 594 551 - (14 x 10' 6 T) d
synodical ( f r o m new moon to new
moon) 29d.530 588 - (2 x ~ O - ~ Td )
P e r i o d of node 18.6134 t r o p i c a l y e a r s

L i b r a t i o n in longitude 8' ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y )

i n latitude 6'50' (approximately)

daily 1 O O 2 ' (approximately)

E q u i l i b r i u m point, dynamic 0.85 l u n a r d i s t a n c e

static 0 . 9 lunar d i s t a n c e
10 32.1' ( m e a n )
Inclination, Moon's equator to ecliptic

Albedo 0.07

Brightness (full moon) 0.25 c a n d l e - m e t e r

( a v e r a g e ) visual -12.74 m a g
I '
..
photographic -11.64 m a g

Color index 4-1.10

Temperature, surface, maximum t248' F


. -
minim u m -202' F ..

a t p o l e s , i n l i n e of eight t153O F
TARLE 11-1 cont

s u b - s u r f a c e , m a x i m u m (at equator) -40°F

T e m p e r a t u r e , black-body, at m e a n Lunax 277' R


dis tanc e

body with z e r o conductivity and zero 392O R


rotation

Magnetic field l e s s than 200 g a m m a

Atmosphere, surface l e s s than LO-" Earth


atmospheres

Topography: mountain heights up to 29-30,000 f e e t


c r a t e r rim heights up to 24,000 feet
crater diameters up to 150 m i l e s
c r a t e r side slopes up to 34O

Surface curvature 2.45 f e e t p e r m i l e ,

d : S i d e r e a l day

T: T r o p i c a l c e n t u r y s i n c e 1900

L i k e w i s e , o t h e r m a c h i n e s , s u c h a s the b u l l d o z e r , w i l l h a v e t o b e
weighted to maintain the p o w e r - t o - t r a c t i o n r a t i a , a s will s i m p l e tools
l i k e j a c k h a m m e r s , t a m p e r s , etc. The u s e of explosives w i l l b e
e x t r e m e l y dangerous b e c a u s e the r a n g e of f r a g m e n t s will b e i n c r e a s e d
m o r e than s i x t i m e s ; while p e n e t r a t i o n , which v a r i e s a s the s q u a r e of
t h e velocity, will a l s o b e a m o r e s e v e r e p r o b l e m s i n c e t h e r e i s no
a t m o s p h e r i c d r a g attenuation of velocity. An effect of t h e lunar g r a v i t y ,
which will b e important in the s u r v e y of the s i t e , will be e x p e r i e n c e d in
leveling t r a n s i t s . R a t h e r than r e d e s i g n the bubble v i a l s , it m a y be
n e c e s s a r y to r e s o r t to optical plummets.

T h e t e m p e r a t u r e effects on the moon a r e e x t r e m e l y i n t e r e s t i n g .


T h e moon r o t a t e s about the e a r t h a t the r a t e of about l/Z0 p e r h o u r ,
Since t h e r e i s a l m o a t no a t m o s p h e r e , two points on t h e s u r f a c e a few
inches a p a r t with one lying i n the sunlight and t h e o t h e r i n s h a d e will
be a t t e m p e r a t u r e s s e v e r a l hundred d e g r e e s a p a r t and will r e m a i n s o
f o r h o u r s . If one point is n o r t h of the o t h e r , t h e difference may p e r s i s t
o v e r s e v e r a l e a r t h d a y s . Although h e a t conduction will tend t o equalize
t e m p e r a t u r e d i f f e r e n c e s to s o m e extent, all o b j e c t s on t h e s u r f a c e w i l l .
b e affected - t r a n s m i s s i o n c a b l e s , above- s u r f a c e s t r u c t u r e s , m a c h i n e t y ,
etc. Thomson and Seebeck effects will o c c u r on a l a r g e s c a l e , while
differential t h e r m a l expansion will be j u s t as i m p o r t a n t as t o t a l expan-'
sion. T h e v e r t i c a l t e m p e r a t u r e gradient may b e less than t h e
h o r i z o n t a l , but it will b e cyclic about a m e a n t e m p e r a t u r e of m i n u s 40' F.
Most of the living q u a r t e r s w i l l b e s u b - s u r f a c e i n t h e minus 40°F
environment; but the s u r f a c e connection will h a v e t o allow f o r t h e cyclic
gradient.

T h e n e a r t o t a l a b s e n c e of a n a t m o s p h e r e m e a n s that all the solar


and c o s m i c radiation will come through t o the s u r f a c e . Effects n o t
o c c u r i n g n a t u r a l l y on the e a r t h ' s s u r f a c e will o c c u r as a matter of
c o u r s e on t h e moon's s u r f a c e . One s u c h effect will b e a c c u m u l a t i o n of
c h a r g e on m e t a l s through the photoelectric effect. It m a y be e x p e c t e d
t h a t t h e r e will be s o m e leakage of oxygen f r o m s u i t s and o t h e r e n c l o s e d
s t r u c t u r e s . T h i s oxygen will b e a b s o r b e d to s o m e extent on t h e
e x t e r i o r of the suit o r s t r u c t u r e , w h e r e it will b e converted t o ozone
and ionic oxygen r a d i c a l s b y u l t r a v i o l e t radiation. Retainment at j o i n t s
m a y be a s e v e r e problem.

Vehicles and p e r s o n n e l moving a c r o s s the s u r f a c e of t h e m o o n


will tend to a c q u i r e a c h a r g e j u s t as do moving bodies on t h e s u r f a c e
of the e a r t h . The moon's s u r f a c e i s , however, a n excellent i n s u l a t o r ,
and the charged bodies a r e in a vacuum. Another s o u r c e of n e g a t i v e
c h a r g e i s the s o l a r radiation, Design of the outpost f a c i l i t i e s m u s t
provide for draining of such accumulated c h a r g e . The p r o b l e m is quite
closcly conncctcd with thc g c n c r a l p r o b l c m of providing e l e c t r i c a l
power supply and communications, since the insulating c h a r a c t e r of the
s u r f a c e m e a n s t h a t equipment cannot b e "grounded" to a common z e r o -
potential a s on e a r t h . "Ground" a r r a n g e m e n t s will undoubtedly be m o r e :
complex than on e a r t h but not a s e r i o u s problem.

2. Environmental Requirements

T h e p r i m e r e q u i s i t e in design of t h e l u n a r outpost is t o provide' :


a n environment in which m a n c a n l i v e , and which, in so far as p r a c t i c a l ,
i s . r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of e a r t h conditions. The envirorimental r e q u i r e m e n t s
f o r t h e l u n a r m a n a r e tabulated i n T a b l e XI-2. Maintaining this
.
environment on t h e moon r e q u i r e s c r e a t i o n and c o n t r o l of a n artificial
a t m o s p h e r e i n s p e c i a l s h e l t e r s . A i r conditioning equipment c a p a b l e of

19
1
, - ...--_..L._._.
-,
I
I
TABLE 11-2

ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS F O R MAN

FACTORS LIMITS REMARKS

Oxygen 20.770 Optimum 3 l b / m a n / d a y

Nitrogen 7 8% Optimum. Other substi..


t u t e s will be considered,

I n e r t Gas e8 Optimum

Carbon Dioxide Maximum for continuous


e x p o s u r e , Lower p e r c e n -
tages desirable

Pressure 14.7 p s i Optimum

Humidity 60% Optimum

Temperature 6 ~ O - 6 8 ~ ~Optimum

Radiation 0.1 m r e p / d a ) Optimum t o l e r a n c e ; g r e a t l y


-
i n c r e a s e d l i m i t s p e r m i s si
ble if r e q u i r e d by'situation

Noise 30-40 db Maximum f r o m viewpoint


of c o m f o r t

Carbon Monoxide 5 0 PPm Maximum for continuous e x -


posur e

Water 6 lb/day Maximum. R e c o v e r y not


considered

Food 4 lb/day Concentrated and partially


dehydrated

Light P r o l o n g e d p e r i o d s of a b s o -
l u t e d a r k n e s s to b e avoided

20
removing c a r b o n dioxide, controlling humidity, and maintaining c o m -
f o r t a b l e t e m p e r a t u r e s m u s t be operated continuously. In s e a l e d
s h e l t e r s , s p e c i a l design f e a t u r e s a r e n e c e s s a r y t o p r e v e n t e x c e s s i v e
n o i s e l e v e l s . All t h e s e r e q u i r e m e n t s a r e b a s i c a n d e s t a b l i s h p r i m a r y
c r i t e r i a f o r design of the outpost.
I
3. Human Engineering Considerations

Since man p e r f o r m s c e r t a i n t a s k s a t t h e l u n a r outpost, both i n


s h e l t e r s and in t h e - o p e n , his physical c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and c a p a b i l i t i e s
w e r e c a r e f u l l y considered. T h e s e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r a n a s s u m e d
"standard" man a r e l i s t e d in T a b l e 11-3. Design of s h e l t e r doors;
p a s s a g e w a y s , h e a d r o o m , sleeping a r e a , and a c c e s s t o i n s t a l l e d
f a c i l i t i e s a r e provided f o r this typical individual. V e r y i m p o r t a n t a r e
his capabilities when in a l u n a r s u i t , He b e c o m e s m u c h bigger
dimensionally and volume-wise, moves m u c h s l o w e r , cannot c l i m b o r
s t e p o v e r high p r o j e c t i o n s , i s r e s t r i c t e d i n h i s a r m m o v e m e n t s ,
v i s i o n and lifting capacity, and h a s l e s s stability. In construction a n d
operation of the outpost, t h e s e a r e important f a c t o r s . Mechanical a n d
e l e c t r i c a l d e v i c e s m u s t be designed to b e o p e r a t i v e b y m e n wearing .
lunar suits, ..

4. S p a c e Vehicle D e l i v e r y S y s t e m Influence on Design

In d e s i g n of t h e outpost, m a x i m u m u s e will be m a d e of t h e s e
equipment components which a r e p a r t of t h e incoming s p a c e v e h i c l e s .
Vehicle c a r g o c o n t a i n e r s and propellant tanks will b e u s e d a s far as
p r a c t i c a b l e in c o n s t r u c t i n g the outpost f a c i l i t i e s . Design c r i t e r i a
have been u s e d consistent with the vehicle c a r g o c o m p a r t m e n t being a
m e t a l tank 10 feet in d i a m e t e r , 20 feet i n length, and having a payload
capacity of 6 , 0 0 0 pounds. The b a s i c l i v i n g - q u a r t e r type s h e l t e r at t h e
outpost is designed with d i m e n s i o n s and e x t e r n a l f e a t u r e s equal t o t h e
s t a n d a r d c a r g o tank. Equipment and f a c i l i t i e s will b e built into the
t&k on e a r t h , i n so far as p r a c t i c a l , s o t h a t it m a y b e r e a d i l y con-
* v e r t e d into a livable s h e l t e r on t h e moon. A l s o propellant t a n k s f r o m
the landing v e h i c l e s having configuration similar t o the c a r g o tank will
b e utilized. F o r example, empty propellant t a n k s will b e u s e d f o r
providing storage of bulk supplies which m u s t b e p r o t e c t e d f r o m
m e t e o r i t e s a n d s o l a r radiation. A longitudinal half of a propellant tank
will be u s e d a s the c a r g o bed for a towed trailer, and metal cut f r o m
propellant t a n k s will 6 e r v e as s o l a r shields and m e t e o r i t e p r o t e c t o r s
to equipment which m u s t o p e r a t e i n o t h e r w i s e exposed s u r f a c e l o c a t i o n s .
- - -
TABLE 11-3

H U M A N ENGINEERlNG CONSIDERATIONS

ASSUMED STANDARD MAN


-
MAN height, 72 i n c h e s ; weight, 175 pounds * Inches ' '

E y e height, sitting 33.1

E y e height, standing 67.7


..
Shoulder b r eadth (bibeltoid) 19.1

Hip b r e a d t h , sitting 15.1

A r m s p a n (total) 74.5

Arm r e a c h ( n o r m a l , f r o m w a l l behind him) 36.7 '

Hand b r e a d t h ( p a l m ) 3.69

Knee height, sitting 23.0

P o p l i t e a l height, sitting 18.0

MAN -- i n Lunar Suit with Attachments


Weight (on Moon) 79 pounds

Height, standing 82

Minimum s i z e of opening for n o r m a l p a s s a g e 60 x 30


(Height and Width)

Maximum height of sill f o r n o r m a l p a s s a g e 12

Space required for suit removal 8 4 x 60 x 60


(Height, Width, and B r e a d t h )

Continuous wear of s u i t ( n o r m a l ) 8 hours


(acceptable) 12 hours
( w / caution) 24 hour 8
( emergency) 72 hour s
"Unless o t h e r w i e e noted.
5. F a c i l i t i e s and Supplies Required f o r L u n a r Outpost

a. Advance P a r t y Outpost (nine m e n )

The l u n a r outpost f a c i l i t i e s f o r t h e a d v a n c e p a r t y , which will


b e u s e d for housing d u r i n g the construction of t h e main outpost, will
c o n s i s t of tank-type living q u a r t e r s with u t i l i t i e s s u c h as h e a t , light,
air conditioning and all t h e o t h e r i n t e r i o r e s s e n t i a l s t o provide a n e a r t h -
like environment. T h e f i r s t two m e n and a l s o t h e nine men in t h e
advance p a r t y will l i v e i n the cabin of the vehicle i n which t h e y arrive
until they have completed a s s e m b l y of t h i s advance outpost. It will be '
t h e i r goal t o have the advance p a r t y q u a r t e r s c o m p l e t e d within 15 d a y s
a f t e r a r r i v a l of t h e n i n e - m a n construction c r e w . M a x i m u m allowable
t i m e f o r t h i s t a s k is 30 days. B e c a u s e of the i m p o r t a n c e of t i m e and
a d v e r Be environmental conditions, employment of s p e c i a l d e s i g n and
construction techniques is n e c e s s a r y . T h r e e c a r g o - s i z e tanks, p r e -
f a b r i c a t e d a s living q u a r t e r s , will b e b u r i e d with a t l e a s t t h r e e f e e t of
l u n a r m a t e r i a l c o v e r a g e in a m a n - m a d e t r e n c h . T h e excavation and
backfill will b e accomplished with a multi-purpose c o n s t r u c t i o n vehicle.
T h e s e q u a r t e r s will c o n s i s t of one a i r - l o c k tank a n d two t a n k s for sleeping,
dining, and g e n e r a l living q u a r t e r s . A r r a n g e m e n t s of the f a c i l i t i e s f o r
the advance p a r t y outpost when r e a d y for occupancy could be a s concep-
tually shown in F i g s . I I - 3 , 4, a n d 5.

(1) Power

The b a s i c power supply f o r u s e i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r landing


and during the p r e p a r a t i o n of the advanced p a r t y c o n s t r u c t i o n c a m p will
be a five kw n u c l e a r r e a c t o r . T h e cabin power r e q u i r e m e n t will be
considerably higher after t h e landing vehicle h a s a r r i v e d on t h e l u n a r
s u r f a c e due to operation of the a i r l o c k , heating during t h e l u n a r night,
etc. P o w e r r e q u i r e m e n t s outside t h e cabin include t h a t needed f o r hand
operation of tools and f o r production of hydrogen and oxygen ( e l e c t r o l y s i s
of w a t e r ) f o r the fuel c e l l s powering the m u l t i - p u r p o s e c o n s t r u c t i o n
vehicle.

T h e n u c l e a r power plants which a r e t o be a s s e m b l e d to


provide power f o r c o n s t r u c t i o n of t h e outpost f a c i l i t i e s are r a t e d at 10
k w and 40 kw. After selection of the outpost Bite, craters a r e t o be
'
b l a s t e d ( i f n o convenient o n e s a r e found) f o r the power plants. To
provide radiation shielding, l u n a r m a t e r i a l not l e s s than 12 feet in
t h i c k n e s s is r e q u i r e d , T h e r e f o r e , t h e r e a c t o r c o r e s will b e placed
a t s u b - s u r f a c e l e v e l s or behind mounds. The 10 k w plant can be e a s i l y
FIRST STEP B L A S T I N G COMPLETED

KEY:
I AIR LOCK TANK WIUTILITY a LUNAR SUITS STORAGE
2 LIVING QTRS. 5 MEN, MEDICAL AID
3 LIVING QTRS. 4 M E N MESS
4 10 KW NUCLEAR REACTOR
5 4 0 KW NUCLEAR REACTOR
6 POWER OISTRIBUTION CONSOLE
, 7 OXYGEN SUPPLY, STORAGE TANK 3 3 0 0 LBS.
8 NITROGEN SUPPLY STORAGE T A N K 2300 LBS.

-0

SECTION B-8
SECTION A-A

F i g . II-3. Layout of Initial Construction Camp


AIR LOCK E3 LlVlPJG QUARTERS
yFLEXI BLE Jot NT

AIR CONDITIONING

7-IO'-O"
GRAPHIC SCALE IN FEET

1
P
3 0 3 6

SECTION A*A SECT ION B.B

Fig. LI-4. Cross -Section of Typical Outpost Compartments


F i g . 11-5. Overall View of Initial C o n s t r u c t i o n C a m p
h a n d - c a r r i e d to i t s s i t e , i t s r a d i a t o r a s s e m b l e d and connected, a n d ite
power cable connected t o the cabin. The l a r g e r plant c a n then be
a s s e m b l e d and u s e d t o supplement power f o r c o n s t r u c t i o n equipment.'
When t h e initial living q u a r t e r s a r e completed, the 40 k w plant will
supply power r e q u i r e d f o r occupancy, while the 10 k w plant will e e r v e
as e m e r g e n c y and standby power r e s e r v e .

Nuclear r e a c t o r s w e r e s e l e c t e d a s the b a s i c power


s o u r c e s s i n c e no o t h e r s o u r c e can compete on a pound p e r kw-hour
b a s i s . S o l a r devices might be competitive except f o r t h e 14-day lunar
night and the difficulty of s t o r i n g e n e r g y in e i t h e r f o r m as heat o r as
e l e c t r i c i t y . V a r i o u s m e a n s of converting n u c l e a r heat e n e r g y t o
e l e c t r i c i t y a r e under study at p r e s e n t . It i s unlikely that t h e r m o e l e c t r i c ,
t h e r m i o n i c , o r any o t h e r m e a n s of conversion will b e s u p e r i o r t o t h e
t u r b o - g e n e r a t o r on a weight basis. If m e t a l l u r g i c a l developments
allow v e r y high r e a c t o r c o r e t e m p e r a t u r e s within t h e next few y e a r s , a
closed B r a y t o n power cycle might b e u s e d ; although the m e r c u r y
Rankine cycle p e r f o r m s v e r y adequately at t e m p e r a t u r e s attainable at
p r e s e n t . In the m e r c u r y Rankine cycle, s o d i u m o r l i t h i u m ( r e a c t o r
c o r e coolant), m a x i m u m t e m p e r a t u r e s a r e 1200°F - 1300'F. The
m e r c u r y vapor e n t e r s the turbine at l l O O ° F - 1200°F a n d condenses
a t about 600°F. With t h e s e e a s i l y a t t a i n a b l e t e m p e r a t u r e s , plant
weights a r e about 800 and 1700 pounds and r a d i a t o r a r e a s (one s i d e )
a r e about 150 and 400 s q u a r e f e e t f o r the 10 kw and 40 kw p l a n t s ,
r e s p e c t i v e l y . The r a d i a t o r s a r e not radioactive and a r e e r e c t e d
v e r t i c a l l y above the plant c r a t e r s and p r o t e c t e d f r o m m e t e o r o i d
p e n e t r a t i o n by s h e d s of rough construction. T h i s c a n be a c c o m p l i s h e d
by utilizing m e t a l cut f r o m p a r t s of v e h i c l e s not designed f o r o t h e r
p u r p o s e s . The radiation dosage r a t e s r e c e i v e d by a m a n 50 feet o r
m o r e f r o m the plants will b e well below 300 m i l i r e m per week, the
allowable l a b o r a t o r y dosage. T h e plants can be shut down and
approached for s h o r t p e r i o d s for adjustment and maintenance, and if
p r o p e r l y designed can b e r e f u e l e d without exceeding e m e r g e n c y dose
t o l e r a n c e s , The m a x i m u m c r e d i b l e accident, including c o r e meltdown,
p r e s s u r e v e s s e l r u p t u r e , and g a s e o u s f i s s i o n product r e l e a s e would
not r e q u i r e evacuation of q u a r t e r s . The probability of the o c c u r r e n c e
of such an accident is e x t r e m e l y low, s i n c e t h e s e plants will have t h e
u s u a l s a f e t y devices designed t o prevent high neutron flux, high
t e m p e r a t u r e s , o r a n y other dangerous condition.

The 10 kw and 40 kw power plants will b e a s s e m b l e d


about 100 feet a p a r t and 300-400 feet f r o m the outpost living q u a r t e r s
location. For the e a r l y s t a g e s of construction an external distribution
box containing f u s e protection, e x c e s s load power bleed-off, a n d ,
power f r o m the r e a c t o r s . After the living q u a r t e r s h a v e b e e n located,
the power will b e t r a n s m i t t e d t o a control console l o c a t e d i n the a i r
l o c k tank. T h e console will provide the n e c e s s a r y power f a c t o r
c o r r e c t i o n , f u s e and voltage r e g u l a t o r s , and c i r c u i t monitoring.
T r a n s m i s s i o n cable f r o m t h e r e a c t o r (2-inch d i a m e t e r Teflon insulated
s i l v e r coated a l u m i n u m ) , will be b u r i e d about six i n c h e s beneath the
s u r f a c e . T h i s w i r e will o p e r a t e o v e r a t e m p e r a t u r e r a n g e of -200°F
to +300°F, and when b u r i e d will b e p r o t e c t e d f r o m u l t r a v i o l e t radiation,
which might o t h e r w i s e have a n a d v e r s e effect on c a b l e insulation,
P o w e r a v a i l a b l e within t h e s h e l t e r s will b e 110/220 volt t h r e e - w i r e A C
.(400cycle). A r e c t i f i e r will be installed to c o n v e r t s o m e of the power
to DC. E s t i m a t e s f o r the advance outpost r e q u i r e m e n t s r e v e a l that t h e
peak power r e q u i r e m e n t s will b e 44kw, of which 10 kw A C i s the .
i n t e r m i t t e n t load. A r e c t i f i e r will b e i n s t a l l e d to provide t h e 14 kw--DC
-
power needed f o r b a t t e r y charging and t h e fuel cell e l e c t r o l y s i s
r e qui r e m ent 8.
( 2 ) M u l t i - P u r p o s e Construction Vehicle

E l e c t r i c power will b e provided soon a f t e r a r r i v a l of the


advance p a r t y p e r s o n n e l f o r operation of- a m u l t i - p u r p o s e c o n s t r u c t i o n
vehicle, a s shown in Fig. 11-6. The vehicle i s capable of p e r f o r m i n g
g e n e r a l construction work to include the moving of l u n a r m a t e r i a l ,
excavation of sub- s u r f a c e t r e n c h e s , heavy c a r g o handling, p r i m e
m o v e r functions, and o t h e r mechanical w o r k which m a n a l o n e i n a l u n a r
suit cannot p e r f o r m . T o i n c r e a s e i t s heavy duty w o r k potential, the
light weight vehicle ( 4 5 0 0 pounds), w i l l b e b a l l a s t a b l e up t o twice its
empty weight. It will be powered by two 4 h p e l e c t r i c m o t o r s , one a t
each r e a r wheel. E l e c t r i c power will be g e n e r a t e d by a f u e i c e l l
installed d i r e c t l y o v e r the r e a r a x l e . The vehicle will b e self-loading
by m e a n s of a d i r t bowl located between the f r o n t and rear a x l e . The
wheels will b e a l l m e t a l and four feet in d i a m e t e r with 1- 1 / 2 inch diamond
shaped g r o u s e r s to i m p r o v e t r a c t i o n . The vehicle will be a p p r o x i m a t e l y
15 f e e t long, six feet wide and s i x feet high. It will b e capable o f b e i n g
o p e r a t e d r e m o t e l y by control t r a n s m i s s i o n cableS o r radio. A r e m o v a b l e
p r e s s u r i z e d c a b will be provided for the o p e r a t o r so he may work with-
out a full l u n a r suit.

T h e v e h i c l e w i l l b e capable of a speed r a n g e up to 1-1/2


mph f o r heavy duty work and up to 5 mph f o r c r o s s country o p e r a t i o n ,
Attachments will include f o r k lift a r m s , r o o t e r teeth, t l U 1 dt o z e r b l a d e ,
winch, c r a n e boom and power take-off for o t h e r components s u c h as a

. 28
Fig. 11-6. Typical Lunar Construction Vehicle
-
, \

ground a u g e r . The work capabilities of the t r a c t o r with a bowl capacity


of 43 cubic feet a r e ,?stimated t o be a s f o l l o w s : 480 cubic feet p e r h o u r ,
dozing o v e r a d i s t a n c e of 250 feet; 750 cubic feet p e r h o u r , dozing nnd
s c r a p i n g combination o v e r t h e s a m e distance. T h e s e e s t i r n a t c s a r e
subject t o possible substantial revision a6 m o r e knowledge i s gained of
the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the l u n a r s u r f a c e . Cargo-lift captibility w i l l b e
approximately 4,500 pounds to a two foot height with a 10 foot reach.
As a p r i m e m o v e r , the unit will have a drawbar pull of a p p r o x i m a t e l y
50% of the g r o s s weight plus ballast.

Thc c a r g o containers and q u a r t e r a w i l l be towed b y


m c a n s of a simple t r a i l e r h o d y c o m p r i s e d of an axle yoke a s s e m b l y
fastened t o the \tank. .
Stcel wheels will be t h e scime Gize a s on thc
t r a c t o r f o r m a ~ i m ~ ii rn ~ ~ t ~ r ~ ~ ~ A of ~ ; ( ~ ~ ~ i l Ai n~ eym p t y
~ ncomponents.
propellant tank obzained iron1 or,(: c j f ttic l a n d e d 7;r:hic.les w i l l b e cut
longitudinally i n half with a n electric. p o w e r s a w . This half m o u n t e d i ; ,
t h e axle y o k e ' a s s e m b l y !;ravidez a t r a i l e r f o r t r a n s p o r t of o t h e r pnck~-gr;<!
c a r g o and supplies.

Explosives .*ill b e [:sed t o facilitate excavation of


t r e n c h e s f o r t h e q L a r t e r s 2nd cr;itt:rs f o r the power r e a c t o r s . Special
shaped charges w i l l nl;l.e s;hc.t ha!e$; _?pproxirrtateiyt h r e e feet d e e p .
Shot holes will Le l o a d e d wit! !ii!;I~ e x p l o s i v e c r a t e r i n g c h a r g e s to
l o o s e n m a t e r i a l to a n &pl>rcsiin:Liv: five-foot dept.11 and 14-foot d i a m e t e r
a t the s u r f a c e , T h e ccrAstr;iction v e h i c l e w i l l r e m o v e the loosened
m a t e r i a l f r o m the t r e n c h slid tt:e explosive F a r t e r n repeated to make
t h e t r e n c h d e e p e r . 'Toh u r y t h e Three t a n k c o m p a r t m e n t s and h a v e
tl-.rce feet of m a t e r i a i c o v e r , nimli: i 5 . O O C cubic f e e t of m z t e r i a i ' m c s t
be removed. T h e cci:lst?:\ictir:i1 vc!iicl(- cart r e m o v e this amount in 19
. -
h o u r s and backfill i:.. ;Ili <ic!cijtio:i;:I j::i t i . > u r s , ; . f t t r ~ f i etaiikE have b(;t*:,
installed.

The :;tz;iiard bL:ild:ng liiock fo? t h e q u a r t e r s w i l ! b c


right c i r c u l a r cylintlrical t z n k : ; 1 @ feet i n d\itsi;?t? d i a m e t e r by 20 icict
in length, similar Cr, s i z e and .-,!inpe t 3 t h e c a y g o c o m p a r t m e n t of the
landing vehicle. T h e c e Gtanaard tanks will b e a a e d for both t h c advari,:c
party outpopt and t h e f i n d outpost. They will b e of d o u b l e - w a l l c o n s t r u c -
tion s e p a r a t e d by a o n e - i n c h v d c u u r n epace f i l i e d with an insulating
m a t e r i a l having h e a t t r a n s f e r caeiiicient of 3 x l o - .5 B t u / h o u r s q u a r e
f e e t . Tithnium a l l o y will be 'tided for fabyication of the outer and i n n e r
s k i n s , T h i s m a t e r i z l was zc1,tcTed. b e c z u s c of itc? l i g h t weight, h i g h
t e n s i l e s t r e n g t h , c o r r o s i o n r e s i s t a n c e , and low t h e r m a l conductivity
(about 7% of conductivity f o r applicable a l u m i n u m a l l o y s ) . Metal
floor plates p r e - i n s t a l l e d i n t h e tanks will provide a walkway s i x feet
wide. S i m i l a r plate will be installed a s a ceiling. Space above and
below t h e s e p l a t e s will be u s e d for utilities and s t o r a g e c o m p a r t m e n t s .
The tanks w i l l be joined in s e r i e s a s shown in F i g , 11-5 by m e a n s of
flexible c o n n e c t o r s which will p e r m i t a walk- through p a s s a g e between
tanks. The tanks shown a s living q u a r t e r s will contain i n s t a l l e d
facilities such a s fold away bunks, a n e l e c t r i c d e v i c e f o r food p r e p a r a -
tion and melting i c e , c a b i n e t s f o r p e r s o n a l i t e m s and s h o r t p e r i o d
s t o r a g e of food and w a t e r . A section of the floor decking will be hinged
s o that the passageway to a n y adjacent c o m p a r t m e n t m a y b e s e a l e d in
event of a n e m e r g e n c y . T h e air lock tank will b e s i m i l a r e x c e p t that
one end will be equipped with a six-foot long c h a m b e r in which t h e
p r e s s u r e can be l o w e r e d to about 0. 2 p s i in about 10 minutes. T h i s
m e a n s that approximately 1 / 2 pound of a i r will be l o s t whenever the
outside c h a m b e r door i s opened. Controls will p e r m i t opening the
door only when the p r e s s u r e in the c h a m b e r i s 0. 2 p s i o r l e s s . S i m i l a r l y
the a i r lock door t o t h e i n t e r i o r of the tank c o m p a r t m e n t c a n be opened
only when the c h a m b e r a i r p r e s s u r e i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 14.7 psi.

(a) Q u a r t e r s Heat and Light R e q u i r e m e n t s

The outpost q u a r t e r s will be h e a t e d e l e c t r i c a l l y .


Heat may e n t e r o r l e a v e the i n n e r cylinder by both r a d i a t i o n and con-
duction. The heating r e q u i r e m e n t s a r e low b e c a u s e the radiation l o s s
through the vacuum wall construction will be only 2 5 watts p e r tank and
with the low heat conductivity of titanium and s u r r o u n d i n g l u n a r m a t e r i a l
the construction l o s s will b e about 30 watts. B a s e d on t h e s e calculations
a lower l i m i t of 60 watts and a n upper l i m i t of 600 w a t t s a r e e s t a b l i s h e d .
Heat l o s s e s will be g r e a t e r i n the a i r lock than i n t h e living q u a r t e r s
since one e n d of the lock will be exposed t o the sky a n d will not have
the benefit of covering insulation. Both conduction a n d r a d i a t i o n losses
in the a i r c h a m b e r i f i c r e a s e , and calculations indicatq t h a t the total
h e a t power r e q u i r e m e n t f o r t h e 20-foot long t a n k will be between 200
and 1,000 watts.

Light r e q u i r e d f o r e a c h tank was calculated


according t o the following equation:
illumination x a r e a of room
Lumens = ------------------_------------”----
utilization f a c t o r x maintenance f a c t o r
..

. 31
F o r a ceiling reflectivity of 0.8 and a wall r e f l e c t i v i t y of 0. 6, the
utilization f a c t o r is 0 . 4 and t h e maintenance f a c t o r is 0.8. For a 200
s q u a r e foot and a n illumination l e v e l of 50 foot c a n d l e s , the n u m b e r of
l u m e n s r e q u i r e d i s about 15,000. T h i s m a y b e produced by about 300
watts of e l e c t r i c a l power which u n d e r n o r m a l conditions will satisfy
t h e h e a t loss r e q u i r e m e n t s .

(b) A i r Conditioning

The c r e a t i o n and control of a n e a r t h - l i k e


a t m o s p h e r e m u s t be provided in all s h e l t e r s o r c o m p a r t m e n t s occupied
by man. The s y s t e m m u s t be s i m p l e and r e l i a b l e , while at the s a m e
t i m e i t m u s t embody relatively complex and sophisticated components
such a s a n automatic air a n a l y s i s s y s t e m and a s s o c i a t e d c o n t r o l d e v i c e s .
Without s o m e compensating p r o c e s s , the composition of the a t m o s p h e r e
would soon become incapable of supporting life. C r e a t i o n of such a
compensating p r o c e s s is the objective of environmental control. The
s y s t e m envisioned will provide a n e a r t h - l i k e a t m o s p h e r e with r e g a r d
to p r e s s u r e and composition.

In the advance p a r t y outpost q u a r t e r s , a r e p l a c e -


ment type s y s t e m w i l l b e used in which f r e s h oxygen and nitrogen are
continuously supplied a s r e q u i r e d to r e p l a c e that consumed a n d / o r l o s t ;
c a r b o n dioxide and w a t e r a r e continuously r e m o v e d a s f o r m e d . In t h e
e a r l y s t a g e s of construction and occupancy of the initial outpost,
c h e m i c a l a b s o r b e n t s will b e used f o r carbon dioxide and w a t e r vapor
r e m o v a l . Subsequently, t h i s s y s t e m will b e r e p l a c e d with a r e m o v a l
s y s t e m utilizing the low t e m p e r a t u r e f r e e z e - o u t p r i n c i p l e , o r with a
biological s y s t e m .

Both oxygen and nitrogen w i l l b e t r a n s p o r t e d and


s t o r e d in the liquid s t a t e . This choice i s logical considering the high
d e n s i t i e s (9. 51 pounds/gallons f o r oxygen and 6 . 7 7 pounds/gallons f o r
n i t r o g e n ) , t h e r e a d y availability of both s u b s t a n c e s in the liquid f o r m ,
and payload volume l i m i t a t i o n s . B e c a u s e both s u b s t a n c e s h a v e e x t r e m e l y
0
low boiling points ( - 2 9 7 O F for oxygen and - 3 2 0 F f o r nitrogen a t one
a t m o s p h e r e ) , they m u s t be s t o r e d and shipped i n powder-vacuum
insulated t a n k s , Since evaporation r a t e and s t o r a g e weight- efficiencies
(pound of m a t e r i a l / p o u n d empty container) v a r y i n v e r s e l y with tank s i z e ,
the l a r g e s t possible tank consistent with t h e m a x i m u m p e r m i s s i b l e pay-
l o a d of 6 , 0 0 0 pounds was selected. The s a m e type tank will b e used f o r
both oxygen and nitrogen. Initially the tanks will b e located on the s u r -
face n e a r the living q u a r t e r s and coated with a reflective m a t e r i a l , ,

32
S o l a r radiation will not r e s u l t i n e x c e s s i v e skin t e m p e r a t u r e s or
c a u s e evaporation in e x c e s s of consumption r a t e s . When t i m e p e r m i t s ,
the tanks will b e b u r i e d to p r o t e c t t h e m f r o m m e t e o r o i d s . The liquid
oxygen s t o r e d in t h i s tank will supply nine m e n f o r 120 d a y s . Liquid
nitrogen s t o r a g e will provide nitrogen for initial p r e s s u r i z a t i o n of t h e
t h r e e living c o m p a r t m e n t s and m e e t nitrogen l o s s r e q u i r e m e n t s of u p
to 1 p o u n d / c o m p a r t m e n t / d a y f o r a t l e a s t 200 d a y s ,

T h i s s u r f a c e - s t o r e d oxygen and nitrogen will be


u s e d for t h r e e purposes: ( l j r e c h a r g i n g of l u n a r suit c o n t a i n e r s ; (2)
initial Compartment p r e s s u r i z a t i o n ; ( 3 ) continuous c o m p a r t m e n t l o s s
r e p l a c e m e n t , L u n a r suit container r e c h a r g i n g of both oxygen and
nitrogen will be accomplished by u s e of a s m a l l hand-operated pump
and v a p o r i z e r which p r e s s u r i z e s the liquid to 2, 000 p s i , v a p o r i z e s i t
a t t h i s p r e s s u r e , and t r a n s f e r s i t into empty c o n t a i n e r s . Distribution
to the living q u a r t e r s will b e effected by piping t h e liquid oxygen and
nitrogen f r o m thc s u r f a c e s t o r a g e tanks t o a point inside the q u a r t e r s .
Each s t r e a m will b e v a p o r i z e d , heated t o 70°F, and injected into the
c o m p a r t m e n t on a demand b a s i s . F o r initial p r e s s u r i z a t i o n of living
q u a r t e r s , the liquids will b e regulated through a v a p o r i z e r - h e a t e r t o
give a buildup to one a t m o s p h e r e in about eight h o u r s . T h e h e a t
r e q u i r e m e n t for vaporization is 0. 5 kw f o r oxygen and 1.8 kw f o r nitrogen.
After p r e s s u r i z a t i o n of the c o m p a r t m e n t s , the oxygen and n i t r o g e n
supply w i l l b e regulated t o s a t i s f y the continuous r e p l a c e m e n t r e q u i r e -
m e n t s . Under n o r m a l conditions, the a t m o s p h e r e will b e controlled
with r e g a r d to p r e s s u r e and composition by a fully a u t o m a t i c indicating
and controlling a n a l y z e r . T h i s a n a l y z e r will be capable of m e a s u r i n g
quantitatively oxygen, n i t r o g e n , carbon dioxide, and m o i s t u r e content.
The i n s t r u m e n t w i l l be located in the living c o m p a r t m e n t and will con-
tinuously s a m p l e the a t m o s p h e r e , analyze i t , and t r a n s m i t s i g n a l s to
control v a l v e s and m o t o r s to c o r r e c t a n y d r i f t s i n - p r e s s u r e o r c o m p o s i -
tion.

During t h e initial occupancy of the living q u a r t e r s ,


c a r b o n dioxide and m o i s t u r e r e m o v a l will be accomplished by cycling
the air through a chemical a b s o r b e n t and dehumidifier. A solid l i t h i u m
oxide will provide a carbon dioxide r e m o v a l potential of f r o m 10 t o 14
days. Since this s y s t e m r e q u i r e s the expenditure of a c o n s i d e r a b l e
amount of c h e m i c a l i m p o r t , a c a r b o n dioxide f r e e z e - o u t s y s t e m will be
installed a f t e r the q u a r t e r s a r e occupied.
(4) Ground Support Equipment f o r E a r t h R e t u r n Vehicle

T h e p r e s e n t concept anticipates t h a t t h e f i r s t landing of


two p e r s o n s will b e accomplished in a vehicle capable of r e t u r n i n g t h e m
t o e a r t h . An i m m e d i a t e r e t u r n is considered to be a s e m i - e m e r g e n c y
capability only. In the n o r m a l c a s e , t h i s c r e w would wait until t h e next
g r o u p of nine p e r s o n n e l a r r i v e . T h e l a t t e r g r o u p will assist in checking
out the f i r + r e t u r n vehicle and t h e first two m e n will r e t u r n ' t o e a r t h .
T h e r e will b e a r e t u r n flight e v e r y t h r e e or four m o n t h s during t h e e n t i r e
p r o j e c t , The checkout and launch operation on the l u n a r s u r f a c e will
r e q u i r e special equipment as well as new technique6 a n d p r o c e d u r e s .

The proposed equipment f o r checkout is b a s e d on the


a s s u m p t i o n that t i m e i s not a c r i t i c a l element in the checkout p r o c e s s .
T h e n e c e s s a r y equipment, with a weight r e q u i r e m e n t of s e v e r a l thousand
pounds, d i c t a t e s a development l e a d t i m e of 36 months. Ground handling
equipment r e q u i r e d will be in the 2 , 000-pound r a n g e , An additional
weight allotment of this o r d e r of magnitude should be m a d e f o r tools and
s p a r e p a r t s to m a k e small r e p a i r s possible.

b. B a s i c Outpost (twelve m e n )

The a r r a n g e m e n t of f a c i l i t i e s for t h e b a s i c t w e l v e - m a n out-


post is shown In F i g s . 11-7 and 11-8. C a r g o c o n t a i n e r s s i m i l a r t o t h o s e
u s e d for the advance outpost f a c i l i t i e s will be b u r i e d beneath t h r e e feet
o i l u n a r m a t e r i a l in a trench perpendicular t o the l i n e of the advance
outpost facilities. The b a s i c tank design for living q u a r t e r s and a i r
l o c k s will still be u s e d , the only m a j o r changes being m a d e i n the equip-
m e n t installed. The utilities will be d i s p e r s e d throughout t h e seven
t a n k s reducing congestion which was n e c e s s a r y in the advance outpost.
Two c o m p a r t m e n t s for sleeping q u a r t e r s , each with eight fold-away
b e d s will b e provided. The beds m a y be converted to work benches o r
t a b l e s . Two a i r - l o c k Compartments will be provided, one at e i t h e r end
of the line of tanks. A dining r o o m c o m p a r t m e n t will b e connected
adjacent t o the living q u a r t e r s . T h i s c o m p a r t m e n t will also s e r v e a s a
lounge and r e c r e a t i o n a r e a . In addition to fold-away b e n c h e s and t a b l e s ,
t h e r e will a l s o be two e l e c t r i c d e v i c e s for p r e p a r a t i o n of food, nine
cubic feet of f r e e z e r s t o r a g e at O O F , t h i r t y - t h r e e cubic f e e t of g e n e r a l
s t o r a g e f o r w a t e r and non-perishable foods, and cab i n e t s for u t e n s i l s
and dining equipment. Containers with removable i n n e r l i n e r s will b e
provided for collection of food, kitchen w a s t e s , and c l e a n s i n g s u b s t a n c e s ,
When w a t e r is used f o r cleansing, i t will be collected and t r e a t e d f o r
reuse.

34
- - - I -- - - - ---
- ---. - - ... --..
2 LlVlHG 3 U A S T E R S 6 MEN 2- :
! I I
3 LIVING OUARTEaS 6 U E N
.i ,
,
4 O I N l N G 8 RECREATION R O O M
SA SIGNAL 8 COMMUNICAT(0N i3 5
5
se P N O J E C T OFFICE
8 MEDICAL HOSPITAL
7 AIR LOCK 8 ABLUTION ROOM
8 AIR LOCK 8 U T i l i T Y ROOM
9 BIO SCIENCE LAB.
IO PHYSICAL SCIENCE LAB.
II SPECIAL STORAQE,EXPLOSIVES.
12 CHEMICAL STORAGE
13 CHEMICAL STORAGE
I4 REEFER
I5 FUfURE CLOSED CYCLE SYSTEM
I6 WASTE STORAGE
l7A 60KW GRAPHIC SCALE

C 40KW
KW) REACTORS - w-
20 0 20
-P( FEE-T-
I
~

D IOKW)

F i g . 11-7. Layout '3asic 12-Man Outpost


Fig. 11-8. Overall View of 12-Man Outpost
The fifth i n - l i n e tank contains the f a c i l i t i e s f o r the p r o j e c t
office and s p a c e f o r outpost i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l communications
equipment. T h e r e will b e a n i n t e r c o m s y s t e m with s u b s c r i b e r s e t s i n
e a c h tank for i n t e r n a l c o m u n i c a t i o n . Suitable equipment and i n s t r u -
m e n t cabinets will be provided to house and support t h e v a r i o u s
communication equipment planned f o r inclusion in the outpost. , This
will include t h e l u n a r t e r m i n a l of the l u n a r - e a r t h l i n k , the b a s e station
of the l u n a r V H F net and o t h e r i t e m s . A m o r e complete d e s c r i p t i o n
of the o v e r a l l communications e l e c t r o n i c s y s t e m t o be f u r n i s h e d is con-
tained in Chapter f V of t h i s volume. T h e s e i n s t r u m e n t s and c o n t r o l s
will weigh about 1 , 6 0 0 pounds and a r e sectionalized f o r m a n u a l
installation a f t e r occupancy of the compartment.
--
The project office w i l l be a section of the t a n k l e s s than 10
feet long, with table and a c c e s s o r i e s n e c e s s a r y f o r r e c o r d i n g and
maintaining observational d a t a , the outpost daily j o u r n a l , and o t h e r
records. An e l e c t r i c a l power console a l s o located h e r e will p e r m i t
control of outpost u t i l i t i e s . An a i r - l o c k type door will be p r o v i d e d i n
the exit passageway oi t h i s tank t o the adjoining m e d i c a l l a b o r a t o r y
tank. T h i s door can be closed in event of a n e m e r g e n c y o r a s a
m e d i c a l preventative m e a s u r e .

The m e d i c a l l a b o r a t o r y will b e equipped with a n o p e r a t i n g


table and l a m p , cabinets and a c c e s s o r i e s for s u r g i c a l and m e d i c a l
i n s t r u m e n t s , a s e c u r e medicine cabinet, X - r a y a p p a r a t u s , controlled
r e f r i g e r a t i o n between -4OOI: and t 40°F, and n e c e s s a r y dental i n s t r u -
m e n t s and s u p p l i e s . T h e r e will be a folding bed f o r r e c u m b e n c y of
one pat ien t and a collapsible isolation c h a m b e r having a s e p a r a t e a i r
circulztion s y s t e m f o r t r e a t m e n t of communicable d i s e a s e c a s e s . T h e
tank adjacent to the m e d i c a l l a b o r a t o r y i s a typical air lock tank with
a i r c h a m b e r to the outside which m a y be converted to a s i c k w a r d i f
r e q u i r e d . The medical l a b o r a t o r y will a l s o have f a c i l i t i e s and supplies
n e c e s s a r y for preventive m e d i c a l t r e a t m e n t s and p e r s o n n e l safety,
included will be such i t e m s as s u r v e y m e t e r s f o r radiological m o n i t o r i n g
of w a t e r , food and environment, water disinfectants, i n s t r u m e n t s for
determining b a c t e r i o l o g i c a l quality of water and food, and o t h e r i t e m s
needed to maintain the m e n t a l , physical, and s p i r i t u a l w e l f a r e of all
personnel.

The air lock tank adjoining the m e d i c a l l a b o r a t o r y will serve


as a n ablution room. U r i n a l s , bucket-type toilet f a c i l i t i e s and activated
c a r b o n a i r f i l t e r s f o r odor c o n t r o l will be provided. Urine collected
in,.removable c o n t a i n e r s w i l l periodically c a r r i e d to an

37
outside freezing s t o r a g e location and held for contemplated future p r o -
c e s s i n g . F e c e s and solid w a s t e s a l s o collected i n r e m o v a b l e c o n t a i n e r s
will b e periodically placed in a n outside s t o r a g e tank f o r subsequent
disposal. Bathing f a c i l i t i e s a r e a l s o provided i n t h e air l o c k c o m p a r t -
m e n t next t o the m e d i c a l c o m p a r t m e n t and a l l c l e a n s i n g water will b e '

collected and u s e d for other p u r p o s e s .

When t h e above c o m p a r t m e n t s have b e e n installed and a r e


available f o r occupancy a s living q u a r t e r s , the advance p a r t y will move
into the q u a r t e r s provided in t h i s b a s i c outpost. Two empty tanks of
t h e advance outpost w i l l be converted t o l a b o r a t o r i e s ; one to a bio-
s c i e n c e l a b o r a t o r y and one to a physical s c i e n c e l a b o r a t o r y . T h e air
l o c k tank with its u t i l i t i e s w i l l r e m a i n unchanged. All l a b o r a t o r y
b e n c h e s , cabinets and a c c e s s o r i e s will be p r e f a b r i c a t e d and sectionalized
s o that they will c l e a r a doorway t h r e e feet wide, six feet high. T h e
bio- s c i e n c e l a b o r a t o r y will be equipped for a n a l y t i c a l c h e m i s t r y ,
b a c t e r i o l o g y , m i c r o s c o p y and radiological study and m e a s u r e m e n t s .
T h e r e will be l a b o r a t o r y equipment such a s a m i c r o s c o p e , centrifuge,
i n c u b a t o r , distilling a p p a r a t u s , p h o t o m e t e r s , t i t r a t i o n equipment,
radiological s u r v e y m e t e r s , etc. T h e s e i t e m s a r e r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l
a n d p o r t a b l e , r e q u i r i n g little e l e c t r i c power and no special installation
provisions. An enclosed hood that c a n be evacuated, equipped with
p r o t e c t e d hand holes and mechanical m a n i p u l a t o r s , will be installed.
Into t h i s hood unidentifiable s p e c i m e n s of m a t e r i a l s of unknown toxicity
c a n be introduced for examination, T h e l a b o r a t o r y will a l s o have
f a c i l i t i e s for the containment and c a r e of s m a l l a n i m a l s such as guinea
p i g s which a r e being held f o r observation a n d ' t e s t p u r p o s e s ,

F a c i l i t i e s f o r equipping the physical s c i e n c e l a b o r a t o r y will


be handled s i m i l a r l y to the bio-science l a b o r a t o r y . The f o r m e r will
h a v e f a c i l i t i e s and equipment t o obtain p r e l i m i n a r y information r e l a t i v e
.
to s o m e of the following a r e a s of i n t e r e s t :

(1) P h y s i c a l and chemical c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of selenological


specimens.

( 2 ) I n f r a r e d , visible, u l t r a v i o l e t , X - r a y , gamma r a y , and


cosmic r a y spectroscopy.

( 3 ) Lunar a t m o s p h e r e m e a s u r e m e n t s of p r e s s u r e , density,
m e t e o r o i d b o m b a r d m e n t r a t e and galactic dust,

(4) A s t r o n o m i c a l o b s e r v a t i o n s of the planets and s t a r s ,

__ - ._------
( 5 ) Measurement6 of magnetic field of t h e moon.

( 6 ) S u r f a c e and sub- s u r f a c e t h e r m a l and m e c h a n i c a l


properties.

(7) Determination of l u n a r gravitational constant an,d


s e i s m i c conditions,

The completed b a s i c outpost will c o n s i s t of 10 sub- s u r f a c e


p e r s o n n e l compa'rtments, t h r e e of which will be a i r l o c k s p a r t i a l l y
u s e d f o r s h e l t e r and operation of e s s e n t i a l u t i l i t i e s . The e l e c t r i c a l
power supply will be i n c r e a s e d by addition of one five kw and one 60 kw
n u c l e a r r e a c t o r (See Fig. 11-9) t o the 10 kw and 40 kw power supply
a l r e a d y installed f o r t h e advance outpost. The five kw r e a c t o r , which
initially was placed i n operation f o r power to t h e f i r s t l u n a r p e r s o n n e l ,
will be r e l o c a t e d i f n e c e s s a r y for power input t o t h e b a s i c outpost. T h e
four n u c l e a r r e a c t o r s will provide a flexible supply of power in the
event shutdown of a r e a c t o r i s n c c c s s a r y . In a n e m e r g e n c y , the five k w
r e a c t o r , alone, i s adequate to keep essential life s u p p o r t equipment in
o p e r a t i o n f o r 12 m e n . T h e a i r conditioning equipment f o r the b a s i c
outpost will be identical t o equipment for the advance outpost. In
e m e r g e n c i e s o n e plant will L e capable of handling t h e a i r conditioning
r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r the complr.te outpost.

Ernpty f u c l t a n k s w i l l b e u t i l i z e d for s t o r i n g bulk supplies.


A f t e r one end h a s been removed with an e l e c t r i c s a w , t h e t a n k s will be
c o v e r e d with e x c e s s rnatcrial f r o m previous excavations. T h i s c o v e r a g e
will p r o v i d e m e t e o r o i d protection and insulation f r o m s o l a r radiation.
F o u r of t h e s e t a n k s will be located n e a r the e n t r a n c e r a m p s t o the
q u a r t e r s . Two tanks will ;,ro.Jidc s t o r a g e s p a c e f o r the oxygen and
nitrogen supply; one tank r e f r i g e r a t e d s t o r a g e f o r food and w a t e r , and
one tank s t o r a g e for e x p l o s i v e s and o t h e r such m a t e r i a l s . The t a n k
openings will b e o r i e n t e d and s h a d e s i m p r o v i s e d f r o m s c r a p m e t a l
p l a t e s t o m i n i m i z e reflection of s o l a r radiation into the s t o r a g e areas.
With p r o p e r orientation ( i m p r o v i s e d shade and reflective door t o r e d u c e
s o l a r r a d i a t i o n , and t h e r m a l b a r r i e r s to tank w a l l s ) , food c a n be s t o r e d
in one t a n k a t sub-freezing t e m p e r a t u r e s . The m u l t i - p u r p o s e c o n s t r u c -
tion v e h i c l e , shown in F i g . 11-6, and c a r g o t r a i l e r will t r a a e p o r t the
b u l k ' s u p p l i e s f r o m the vehicle landing s i t e s d i r e c t l y t o the tank s t o r a g e .
The insulated c o n t a i n e r s in which the oxygen and nitrogen are s t o r e d a r e
designed so that four of t h e m may be r e a d i l y p l a c e d in one s t o r a g e tank.
c
0

F i g . 11-9. Nuclear P o w e r Plant on Moon ( 6 0 kw)


C 0 N ST R U C T I0N SC I-1 E D LJ bE
( LUNAR OUTPOST PHASE ONE 1

KEY:
ORGANIZATION: ASSEMBLY OF SUPPLIES 8 SURFACE LAYOUT
EXCAVATING: E LAST1N G, CLEAR IN G & BACK FILLlN G
CONSTRUCTION:SHELTER a STORAGE FACILITJES
INSTALLATION: POWER a EQUIPMENT ... . - .
I .. . .. .

Fig. 11- 10. Schedule f o r Initial C o n s t r u c t i o n Camp


C 0NST Wld C T I0N S C H ED ULE
( LUNAR OuTPosr)

F i g . XI- 1 1 . Schedule f o r Basic 12-Man Outpost


Another tank will be sawed i n half p e r p e n d i c u l a r t o i t s
longitudinal axis. T h i s tank will be placed v e r t i c a l l y on the l u n a r SU.-
f a c e with i t s open end d i r e c t e d upward. L u n a r m a t e r i a l w i l l b e back-
filled a r o u n d the tank t o f o r m walkway-type r a m p s . T h i s tank will b e
u s e d f o r s t o r a g e of solid w a s t e m a t e r i a l s collected. The d i r e c t s o l a r
r a d i a t i o n into the tank will help m a k e w a s t e s s u c h as human f e c e s
innocuous.

C. CONSTRUCTION PROCEDURE AND SCHEDULE

The construction effort f o r e s t a b l i s h m e n t of t h e outpost m u s t


n e c e s s a r i l y be initiated and executed with a l l p o s s i b l e speed a s soon as
the nine m e n a r r i v e . U n l e s s the construction is conducted in a c c o r d a n c e
with a c a r e f u l l y planned p r o g r a m , d i s a s t r o u s d e l a y s and incidents could
o c c u r that would r e s u l t in f a i l u r e of the e n t i r e o p e r a t i o n and annihilation
of all personnel.

The construction i s divided into t h r e e p h a s e s ; the f i r s t ( F i g . 11-10)


to provide minimum esscintial r e q u i r e m e n t s within the s h o r t e s t p o s s i b l e
t i m e ; the second, ( F i g . II- 11) t o expand the e s t a b l i s h m e n t t o a c c o m m o -
d a t e additional p e r s o n n e l , provide additional working s p a c e a n d i m p r o v e
conditions beyond those absolutely e s s e n t i a l f o r e x i s t a n c e ; and the third,
to develop the installation to the point that extended e x p l o r a t i o n s c a n b e
conducted with m i n i m a l support f r o m e a r t h (not c o v e r e d i n detail in t h i s
study).

Once the vehicles containing the m a t e r i a l s , s u p p l i e s , and equip-


ment have been l o c a t e d , it will be n e c e s s a r y to unload a n d a s s e m b l e
the m u l t i - p u r p o s e construction vehicle, the e x p l o s i v e s , and two n u c l e a r
r e a c t o r power plants. With t h e s e e s s e n t i a l s , c o n s t r u c t i o n will p r o c e e d
according to schedules given i n F i g s . 11-10 and 11-11.

The individual operations during t h e construction p h a s e h a v e b e e n


studied v e r y carefully. N o unusual operation is envisioned which can-
not be handled by extending known techniques and s k i l l s . It is c o n s i d e r e d
beyond the scope of t h i s feasibility study to d e s c r i b e ' t h e s e o p e r a t i o n s in
detail.

D. MEDICAL REQUIREMENTS

1. Medical F a c i l i t i e s (Installed)

a. Bio-Science L a b o r a t o r y . This l a b o r a t o r y will be utilized


f o r biological, radiological and c h e m i c a l d e t e r m i n a t i o n s as well as
s e r v e t o m e e t c l i n i c a l and m e d i c a l n e e d s of outpost p e r s o n n e l , In
t h i s r e g a r d it will occupy one c o m p a r t m e n t , with f a c i l i t i e s built i n .
to a c c o m p l i s h t h e t a s k s outlined above. Equipment w i l l b e included
f o r centrifuging, incubation, autoclaving and s t e r i l i z a t i o n , E l e c t r i c a l ,
w a t e r , and exhaust s y s t e m s m u s t be i n c o r p o r a t e d , a s well as provisions
f o r humidity c o n t r o l and waste disposal. An environment of slightly
l o w e r p r e s s u r e than the r e s t of the s y s t e m should be considered in the
design.

b. Medical and Surgical Facility. This f a c i l i t y will be used


p r i m a r i l y f o r t r e a t m e n t of d i s e a s e o r i n j u r y developed at t h e outpost.

Specifically, de sign and c o n s t r u c t i o n should e n c o m p a s s


the u s e of one c o m p a r t m e n t , L a v a t o r y f a c i l i t i e s and such f e a t u r e s a5
snap-on s h e l v e s and t a b l e s a r e envisioned, a s well a s maintenance of
the environment a t t h e e a r t h ' s a t m o s p h e r i c p r e s s u r e . P r o v i s i o n s will
be m a d e for water and waste disposal.

c. Medical Equipment. The m e d i c a l equipment n o r m a l l y


r e q u i r e d to c a r e f o r e m e r g e n c i e s a r i s i n g , plus n o r m a l day-to-day c a r e ,
will a l s o b e provided, B a s i c r e q u i r e m e n t s c a n be l i s t e d a s follows:

Operating table

Basic instrument set

I n s t r u m e n t cabinet

X-ray apparatus

Operating r o o m l a m p

Medicine cabinet ( s e c u r e d )

Controlled r e f r i g e r a t i o n facilitie 5 , l i m i t s between


- 4 0 ° F and t40°F

Medical i n s t r u m e n t supply and d i s p e n s a r y s e t

Medical supply s e t ; field, supplemental supplies

Splint s e t , telescopic splints

44
Surgical instrument supply s e t , c r e w

Surgical instrument supply s e t , individual

Dental i n s t r u m e n t and supply s e t e m e r g e n c y


t r e a t m e n t , field

d. Isolation. It would b e v e r y d e s i r a b l e to have an a r e a f o r


complete isolation of p s y c h i a t r i c patients a n d / o r communicable d i s e a s e
c a s e s . Specifically, t h i s a r e a will be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n the c o m p a r t m e n t
utilized for the s u r g i c a l facility and will provide f o r d i s p o s a l of e x c r e t a ,
recombency of the individual and f o r m a x i m u m s e c u r i t y . In t h i s l a t t e r
i n s t a n c e , provisions w i l l b e m a d e for a door with e x t e r i o r locking d e v i c e ,
and a window which will automatically c l o s e i f t h e p r e s s u r e i n the isolation
c h a m b e r suddenly d e c r e a s e s .

2. Prevention

Detection d e v i c e s w i l l continually m o n i t o r all mechanical s y s t e m s


r e l a t e d to gaseous exchange v i t a l to the closed environment. T h i s
s y s t e m will i n s u r e that water is potable, s a f e , and i n sufficient quantity;
that food i s calorically a n d nutritionally adequate, p e r m i s s i b l y p a l a t a b l e ,
physiologically t o l e r a b l e , and without contamination o r o d o r s offensive
in a closed environment. In addition, all w a t e r and food w i l l b e continually
monitored to a s s u r e that h a r m f u l radioactive m a t e r i a l i s not p r e s e n t ,
L

Another preventative m e a s u r e involves continual s u r v e i l l a n c e of


personnel training disciplines to i n s u r e that adequate preventive m e a s u r e s
a r e taken to p r o t e c t against all environmental h a z a r d s ; e. g . , f u e l s ,
p r o p e l l a n t s , outpost equipment, etc.

F u r t h e r m o r e , continual s u r v e i l l a n c e of r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y and
religious needs is r e q u i r e d to insure that the p e r s o n a l w e l f a r e , m e n t a l ,
physical, a n d s p i r i t u a l needs of e a c h m e m b e r a r e attended. .
Continual monitoring of p e r s o n a l hygiene, sanitation, and w a s t e
dispoal i s c o n s i d e r e d a routine n e c e s s i t y .

3. Treatment

D i s p e n s a r y c a r e and e m e r g e n c y m e d i c a l and s u r g i c a l t r e a t m e n t
will b e conducted in a c c o r d with the b e s t acceptable m e d i c a l d i c t a as
a l t e r e d o r modified b y the c i r c u m s t a n c e s ,

45
E. PERSONAL E Q U I P M E N T

1. L u n a r Clothing Sys tern

a. Metallic Body Conformation Suit. A body conformation suit


having a substantial o u t e r m e t a l s u r f a c e i s c o n s i d e r e d a n e c e s s i t y for
several reasons:

It i s u n c e r t a i n at p r e s e n t that f a b r i c s and e l a s t o m e r s
can maintain a sufficient p r e s s u r e differential without major leakage.

It i s d e s i r a b l e that protection be provided against


m e t e o r o i d impact.

It i s n e c e s s a r y to u s e a highly r e f l e c t i v e o u t e r s u r f a c e
t o m i n i m i z e s o l a r h e a t imputs.

P r o t e c t i o n m u s t be provided a g a i n s t highly a b r a s i v e
c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the l u n a r s u r f a c e .

E a s y cleansing and s t e r i l i z a t i o n a r e d e s i r a b l e .

The e s s e n t i a l e l e m e n t s (indicated in F i g . 11- 12), and t h e i r


c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e a s follows:

(1) Underwear: cotton u n d e r s h i r t ; woolen cushion-sole


s o c k s ; light i m p e r m e a b l e u r i n e and f e c e s c o n t a i n e r s ; cotton u n d e r s h o r t s ;
modified f o r compatibility with s a n i t a r y c o n t a i n e r s .

( 2 ) Main Suit: o u t e r m e t a l l a y e r ; i n n e r a n t i - b r e m s s t r a h -
lung nietallic l a y e r ; s e l f - s e a l a n t , cushioning, i m p e r m e a b l e i n n e r lining;
flexible s h o d d e r , elbow, hip, and knee joints; a r t i f i c i a l hand o p e r a b l e
by c o n t r o l s inside e x t r e m i t i e s of suit a r m s ; t r a n s p a r e n t face p i e c e ;
t h r e e - s e c t i o n construction - h e l m e t , c u i r a s s , t r o u s e r s - the l a t t e r two
s e p a r a b l e into h a l v e s ; insulative dust s h o e s .

(3) T h e r m a l , r e s p i r a t o r y and communications s y s t e m s


r e q u i r e d : Back pack containing c o m p r e s s o r , expansion c o i l s , suit air
pump, s u i t c o m p r e s s e d a i r tank, oxygen tank, r e s p i r a t o r y pump, CO2
a b s o r b e r , power s o u r c e ; radiative h e a t exchanger with connections t o
AC s y s t e m ; i n t e r n a l air distribution s y s t e m ; oxygen m a s k with connec-
tions to e x t e r n a l s y s t e m a n d e x t e r n a l t r i p to lift t h e m a s k a s r e q u i r e d ;
communications antenna i n t e g r a t e d into radiative heat exchanger.

46
- ----
Fig. 11-12. Typical Lunar Suit
P r e l i m i n a r y calculations on the t h e r m a l balance of a n upright c i r c u l a r
cylinder on the l u n a r surface show that the total r a n g e of t h e r m a l load
will be in the r a n g e of -200 t o + 500 k c a l / h o u r , Thus, t h e principal
r e q u i r e m e n t is t o cool r a t h e r than t o heat the man.

b. Lightweight Metallic Body Conformation Suit: F o r the


e a r l y tentative v e n t u r e s of m a n on the lunar s u r f a c e , involving only
s h o r t e x p o s u r e p e r i o d s , the o u t e r m e t a l l i c l a y e r m a y be c o n s i d e r a b l y
r e d u c e d i n thickne s s and weight, and air-conditioning equipment m a y
b e m a r k e d l y r e d u c e d o r omitted, o r "ground" cooling utilized.

c . Inflated F a b r i c Suit: An inflated f a b r i c suit s i m i l a r in b a s i c


d e s i g n to s u i t s c u r r e n t l y under development for e a r t h w e a r w a s con-
s i d e r e d . However, c u r r e n t l y available m a t e r i a l s p e r m i t r e l a t i v e l y
r a p i d e s c a p e of g a s to a n e x t e r n a l high vacuum f r o m a n i n t e r n a l
p r e s s u r e of 10 p s i , a r e difficult to air-condition, and provide no p r o -
tection against m e t e o r o i d s o r ionizing radiation, T h i s g e n e r a l design
would have some advantage for s h o r t period e m e r g e n c y e x p o s u r e
e n r o u t e t o t h e moon o r in tentative p r e l i m i n a r y e x c u r s i o n s on t h e
l u n a r s u r f a c e . T h e r e a r e , of c o u r s e , numerous possible d e s i g n s f o r a
l u n a r s u i t , and c o n s i d e r a b l e effort is r e q u i r e d before a n optimum can
be finalized.

2. Load C a r r v i n g S y s t e m

Slings a n d hooks on the l u n a r s u i t will p e r m i t a man t o lift a


load f r o m the s u r f a c e and c a r r y it a s h o r t distance while steadying it
with h i s a r t i f i c i a l hands. S i m i l a r l y , l a r g e r loads can be c a r r i e d by t h e
c o n c e r t e d effort of s e v e r a l individuals. Loads can be c a r r i e d on the
s h o u l d e r and e l s e w h e r e , s e c u r e d by attachment to the hooks, i f &aced
in position by someone o t h e r t h a n t h e man who will t r a n s p o r t t h e load.

3. Sleeping Equipment

Light sleeping bags of conventional design will be f u r n i s h e d


initially. (Bunks will be among the built-in f u r n i t u r e in the cabin c o m -
partmerits. Electric blankets will b e available when adequate power
sup2ly is a s s u r e d .

4, Dining Equipment

Until w a t e r r e c o v e r y i s established, personal dining equipment


will be expendable, All food will be packaged in individual p o r t i o n s and

48
heated in the package. It can be eaten f r o m t h e p a c k a g e o r f r o m p a p e r
t r a y s coated with GRS latex. T u m b l e r s will b e m a d e of foamed poly-
s t y r e n e . Knife, f o r k , and spoon w i l l b e made of special polystyrene.
When w a t e r r e c o v e r y i s e s t a b l i s h e d , e i t h e r m e t a l o r p l a s t i c non-ex-
pendable dining equipment c a n b e utilized.

5. Hand Tools

Where p o s s i b l e , r e l i a n c e will be p l a c e d upon power t o o l s ,


engineered for u s e in the l u n a r environment. W h e r e hand action h a s
to be employed, l e v e r a g e will be modified t o c o n f o r m to the l o w g r a v i t y
s t a t e . Special hand tools will be fashioned t o m a x i m i z e the capability
of the suited m a n and o v e r c o m e the effect of a n y reduction in flexibility
c a u s e d by the s u i t i t s e l f . T h o s e tools m o s t f r e q u e n t l y r e q u i r e d w i l l b e
c a r r i e d on the outside of the suit.

NOTE: For the purpose of c o m p l e t e n e s s of t h i s study, it i s


n e c e s s a r y to d e t e r m i n e , in addition to the l u n a r suit r e q u i r e m e n t s , t h e
t r a n s p o r t a t i o n r e q u i r e m e n t s for the l u n a r suit from e a r t h to t h e m o o n ,
Realizing that the weight of the suit could v a r y f r o m 50 pounds to 500
pounds depending on t h e design, the following a s s u m p t i o n s h a v e been
made:

( a ) Suit weight - 200 pounds e a c h

( b ) Suit life - 6 months

( c ) S p a r e s - each man will be provided with two complete


s p a r e s u i t s a t all times.

(d) A weight of 100 pounds of suit s p a r e p a r t s and components


w i l l be provided and maintained for each m a n .

F. LIFE ESSENTIALS SUPPLIES

1, Oxygen, Additive, C 0 2 Removal

Oxygen will b e r e q u i r e d at the r a t e of t h r e e pounds p e r m a n p e r


day. In the e a r l y s t a g e s , this w i l l be supplied i n c y l i n d e r s d e l i v e r e d
f r o m t h e e a r t h . A s soon a s p r a c t i c a b l e , p s s i b l y during the second year,
a recycling system will be s e t u p in the s h e l t e r , utilizing algae o r o t h e r
g r e e n plant s y s t e m , which will m a r k e d l y r e d u c e the f u r t h e r r e q u i r e -
m e n t s f o r i m p o r t a t i o n of oxygen. Oxygen i n t a n k s will still be r e q u i r e d
by the individual i n a l u n a r suit ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1/4 pounds p e r h o u r
required).

At p r e s e n t t h e r e s e e m s to be no v e r y u r g e n t r e a s o n to d e p a r t
from u s i n g n i t r o g e n a s the diluent €or oxygen. Any m e c h a n i c a l advan-
t a g e s that m a y be c o n s i d e r e d for helium would b e offset by i t s g r e a t e r
e a s e of diffusion and hence leakage, and by the high d e m a n d s upon
available supplies. ',
Removal of C 0 2 in the r e s p i r a t o r y c i r c u i t of t h e l u n a r suit will
b e by p a s s a g e through an a b s o r b e n t , such a s l i t h i u m oxide. T h e weight
of lithium oxide u s e d approximately equals the weight of oxygen con-
sumed. C 0 2 r e m o v a l f r o m s h e l t e r a i r will b e a c c o m p l i s h e d i n the s a m e
way during t h e e a r l y p h a s e s . When sufficient power f o r r e f r i g e r a t i o n i a
a v a i l a b l e , condensation will b e used o r a biological s y s t e m m a y b e
developed f o r C 0 2 r e m o v a l .

2. Water

At l e a s t t h r e e q u a r t s of potable water p e r m a n p e r d a y will b e


provided. Most of t h e w a t e r output i n e x c e s s of t h a t t a k e n i n by food
and d r i n k w i l l a p p e a r in t h e a t m o s p h e r e . This w a t e r will b e condensed,
collected, and u s e d f o r washing, thus removing the need for a n additional
quantity. Water can a l s o b e r e c o v e r e d f r o m u r i n e and f r o m washing
w a s t e s by distillation. If r e c o v e r e d w a t e r i s r e n d e r e d potable, need
f o r the t h r e e q u a r t s p e r man p e r day will be r e d u c e d o r e l i m i n a t e d .

3. Food
I

F o u r pounds of food p e r man p e r day i s planned f o r the outpost


r a t ion. A l l food will be sent precooked and packaged in individual
portions. It m a y be p r e s e r v e d by heat ("canning"), dehydration, o r
i r r a d i a t i o n , and, when f r e e z e r s t o r a g e f a c i l i t i e s a r e a v a i l a b l e , b y
f r e e z i n g . Foods t o be consumed hot will be heated b y i m m e r s i o n of
t h e package in boiling water. A s the w a t e r inventory builds u p ,
dehydrated foods can be favored to lighten the r e s u p p l y load. When
f a c i l i t i e s p e r m i t grilling o r broiling, uncooked m e a t will be i r r a d i a t e d ,
dehydrated, a n d / o r f r o z e n . Men outside the s h e l t e r will b e provided
with p a s t e foods in collapsible containers o r with shaped solid foods,
e i t h e r of which can b e valved o r locked into the h e l m e t without l o s s of
intern'al p r e s s u r e . It has been d e m o n s t r a t e d that a l g a e c a n be p r o c e s s e d
into acceptable and nutritious food; f u r t h e r development effort in this .
a r e a i s to be expected,

50

. .
P r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e h a s d e m o n s t r a t e d t h e m o r a l e v a l u e s of
f r e s h s a l a d s . Vegetables f o r s a l a d may b e provided b y hydroponic
c u l t u r e , using w a s t e s as n u t r i e n t s , at l e a s t in paTt, and converting CO2
into o2 in the p r o c e s s , a8 with algae. Ultimately, plant w a s t e s a n d
a l g a e can be u s e d t o feed poultry, which t h r i v e i n confinement and a r e ,
r e l a t i v e l y efficient e n e r g y c o n v e r t e r s , producing f r e s h eggs and meat.
Meanwhile, attention will be given t o the use of fish and o t h e r a q u a t i c
a n i m a l s , such as Daphnia and m o l l u s k s , which n o r m a l l y feed o n algae.

4. Sanitary Supplies

An initial inventory of 10 pounds of s a n i t a r y supplies will b e


needed ( e l e c t r i c s h a v e r s , h a i r c l i p p e r s , nail c l i p p e r s , b r o o m s ,
b r u s h e s , towels, plastic pail, etc. ). A portion of t h i s inventory will
r e q u i r e p e r i o d i c r e p l a c e m e n t (detergents, disinfectants, d e o d o r a n t s ,
toilet p a p e r , e t c . ) . This r e p l a c e m e n t rate is e s t i m a t e d at 20 pounds
p e r month, i n c r e a s i n g t o 40 pounds p e r month when t h e population
i n c r e a s e s f r o m 2 to 12 m e n . Most of t h i s i n c r e a s e d allowance is f o r
a disinfecting d e t e r g e n t t o be u s e d on the l u n a r s u i t on each p a s s a g e
into o r out of the s h e l t e r .

5. Medical Supply

Routine medical and s u r g i c a l supplies will amount t o five pounds


p e r month. It i s likely that occasional s p e c i a l supplies w i l l be in
e x c e s s of t h i s quantity. A v e r a g e e x p e r i e n c e f i g u r e s a r e a poor guide
f o r a population of only a few individuals,

G . SURFACE TRANSPORTATION

The e x t r e m e l u n a r environment which so c r i t i c a l l y affects lunar


s u i t design likewise p r e s e n t s m a n y p r o b l e m s i n s u r f a c e v e h i c l e design.
Thc solution to t h e s e p r o b l e m s w i l l r e q u i r e considerable r e s e a r c h ;
m a x i m u m utilization of r e s o u r c e s of o r i g i n a l i t y , skill and e x p e r i e n c e ;
and extensive testing in unique l u n a r environment s i m u l a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s .
T h e m u l t i - p u r p o s e construction vehicle previously d e s c r i b e d has m a n y
possible s e c o n d a r y functions in addition to i t s p r i m a r y function of
installing and maintaining the v a r i o u s outpost components. However,
t h i s vehicle will b e a l m o s t continuously occupied a t t h e outpost s i t e f o r
t h e f i r s t s e v e r a l m o n t h s ; and t h e s e secondary functions s u c h a s c a r g o
r e c o v e r y , exploration, and s u r veillance c a n b e s t b e p e r f o r m e d by an
additional vehicle specifically designed f o r the purpose.

51
-----.._
I
1. L u n a r Vehicle Missions, Weight L i m i t s , Mobility and
Environmental F a c t o r s

A n a l y s i s of outpost t r a n s p o r t r e q u i r e m e n t s indicates a v a r i e t y
of p o s s i b l e vehicle m i s s i o n s including t r a n s p o r t of the initial two-man
p a r t y , c a r g o r e c o v e r y , surveillance, s e a r c h and r e s c u e , ambulance
s e r v i c e and light utility and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e t r a n s p o r t . Approximately two
thousand pounds h a s been s e t a s the limiting weight of vehicle, I

a c c e s s o r i e s , and appurtenances such a s a n i n t e g r a l two m a n closed


environment cab. Analysis of r e a s o n a b l y well founded t h e o r y on
c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the lunar s u r f a c e i n d i c a t e s that no insurmountable
mobility p r o b l e m s exist that would exceed the capabilities of wheeled
equipment. A u x i l i a r y t r a c k kits can be provided to cope with p o s s i b l e
deep l o o s e dust a r e a s . Lunar gravity enhances mobility in that vehicle
t r a c k and wheel contact p r e s s u r e s will be m e r e ounces p e r s q u a r e inch,
and both vehicle power r e q u i r e m e n t s and power s t o r a g e r e q u i r e m e n t s
a r e g r e a t l y r e d u c e d a s compared to earth-based r e q u i r e m e n t s . It i s
e s t i m a t e d that r a t h e r than requiring 2 0 - 2 5 hp p e r ton a s do earth-bound
off-road v e h i c l e s , a 2,000-pound l u n a r vehicle would need only five t o
s i x installed h o r s e p o w e r , and could probably o p e r a t e o v e r a 50- 150
mile r a n g e with about 10 hp hour s power stor age capacity.

The b e s t approach t o meet t h e s e power r e q u i r e m e n t s a p p e a r s to


be u s e of r e c h a r g e a b l e b a t t e r i e s supplying power t o a n e l e c t r i c m o t o r
drive system,

2. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Lunar T r a n s p o r t Vehicle

A s p r e s e n t l y visualized, the l u n a r t r a n s p o r t vehicle will b e a


low silhouette, skeletionized vehicle of light weight m e t a l construction. '-

It will be sectionalized and will have a c h a s s i s of approximately 6 x 6


feet exposed, and enclosed forward s e a t s and c o n t r o l s , and r e a r w a r d
load deck, The p o r t a b l e two-man cab o r s p a c e - l o c k will i n c o r p o r a t e
all e s s e n t i a l life support e l e m e n t s and communications equipment.
Initially, t h e ' v e h i c l e will c o n s i s t p r i m a r i l y of a single axle a s s e m b l y ,
t i l l e r wheel, n e c e s s a r y connecting linkage and s e a t i n g a r r a n g e m e n t for
two m e n . Subsequently, capabilities will be i n c r e a s e d through the
addition of a second and third axle a s s e m b l y , connections, control links
and c a r g o c o m p a r t m e n t s . Each axle a s s e m b l y will include e l e c t r i c
m o t o r s , b a t t e r i e s , control s y s t e m , and heat r e j e c t i o n equipment.
Considering a vehicle of approximately 2 , 0 0 0 pounds o v e r a l l weight
( 3 a x l e ) , load c a r r y i n g ability i s e s t i m a t e d t o be between 1 , 0 0 0 and
6 , 0 0 0 pounds depending on l u n a r s u r f a c e conditions and c a r g o density.

52
It i e e s t i m a t e d t h a t with a total b a t t e r y weight of approximately 500
pounds and s i x each one-horsepower d r i v e m o t o r s , the vehicle c a n
o p e r a t e continuously for a period of 10 h o u r s , and to a r a n g e of
approximately 50 m i l e s .

F i g u r e 11-13 i l l u s t r a t e s a typical conceptual design of a luflar


s u r f a c e t r a n s p o r t vehicle.

H. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND SUPPORT ACTIVITIES

F o r t u n a t e l y , the m e a n s f o r obtaining urgently needed l u n a r


environmental data a r e within n e a r future capabilities , and p r o g r a m s
f o r l u n a r explorations a r e c u r r e n t l y receiving considerable attention.
A r e l a t i v e l y few unmanned l u n a r landinge will b e e s s e n t i a l ; t h e s e will
b e m u l t i - p u r p o s e i n n a t u r e . T h e s e vehiclee will be equipped t o collect
s a m p l e s f o r examination on e a r t h f o r t e l e m e t e r i n g c e r t a i n information
b a c k t o e a r t h , and for depositing on the l u n a r s u r f a c e such things a s a
m a m m a l in l u n a r s u i t , homing b e a c o n s , scanning c a m e r a s , etc. All
of t h i s , along with information obtained by l u n a r and e a r t h s a t e l l i t e s ,
will suffice t o fill the gaps and give completeness to plans for manned
l u n a r exploration and f o r the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a l u n a r outpost. Man
will a r r i v e on the l u n a r s u r f a c e with a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of know-
ledge concerning that body; however, t h e r e will s t i l l be a considerable
amount of knowledge not yet unveiled, F o r t h i s r e a s o n on-Rite study,
d a t a collection, observation, and verification of r e s u l t s obtained by
p r o b e s will b e e s s e n t i a l ,

1. E s s e n t i a l Data R e q u i r e m e n t s

a. Probes

(1) P h y s i c a l

Radiation: E x p o s u r e s occuring f r o m n a t u r a l and m a n -


m a d e s o u r c e s t o b e considered include r a d i a t i o n s f r o m c o s m i c r a y s ,
the Van Allen b e l t s , the sun, n a t u r a l background on the moon,
communications equipment, and n u c l e a r weapons and power s o u r c e s ,
T h e c h a r a c t e r and intensity of c o s m i c radiation and i t s g e n e r a l
biological effect i n the e a r t h ' s a t m o s p h e r e h a s been studied, but i n
s p a c e , knowledge in this a r e a is v i r t u a l l y nonexistent. The Van Allen
b e l t s a r e vaguely outlined. The s i z e , shape, and intensity and the type
of radiation h a s not been established in t e r m s of biological i n t e r e s t ,
Radiation f r o m t h e sun i s g e n e r a l l y understood but the extent of soft

53
-,__ &

,.. ...
r a y s is not known. Nothing is known of the n a t u r a l l y occuring radiation
around and on t h e moon. An evaluation of the s p a t i a l distribution, type,
e n e r g y s p e c t r u m , intensity a n d t i m e of e x p o s u r e , when combined with
biomedical e f f e c t s d e t e r m i n e d by exposing m a m m a l s , will enable the
t o t a l r a d i a t i o n p r o b l e m t o b e e s t i m a t e d within t o l e r a b l e a c c u r a c y , I n
e a r l y p r o b e s t h e s i m p l e s t pos sible i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n , c o m m e n s u r a t e with
t e l e m e t e r i n g d a t a , will be u s e d to m e a s u r e gamma, b e t a , a n d , n e u t r o n s ,
( p r i n c i p a l l y but not l i m i t e d to c o s m i c origin) and the e x i s t e n c e of l o c a l
s o u r c e radiation. In l a t e r p r o b e s , m o r e sophisticzted i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n
will be employed. F o r example, m i n i a t u r i z e d band s p e c t r o m e t e r s w i l l
be u s e d to m e a s u r e the g a m m a e n e r g y s p e c t r u m , to estimate the b e t a
e n e r g y s p e c t r u m , and to m a k e m o r e exact and detailed m e a s u r e m e n t s
of the b e t a and g a m m a d o s e s . Also i n l a t e r p r o b e s , m o r e advanced
i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n will b e employed to m o r e c l o s e l y m e a s u r e the neutron
d o s e and fast neutron s p e c t r u m . Data obtained f r o m the e a r l y p r o b e s
concerning g a m m a , b e t a , and neutron d o s e s will b e used a s a b a s i s 'for
the e x p e r i m e n t a l design of s t u d i e s on other c h a r g e d p a r t i c l e s . T h e s e
m e a s u r e m e n t s will include p r o t o n s , p o s i t r o n s , m e s o n s and o t h e r
radiations p r i n c i p a l l y of c o s m i c origin.

Meteoroid Impact: Measuring t h e extent of e r o s i o n


(using a s t r i p gauge mounted on t h e vehicle) is n e c e s s a r y a s well as
impact on the vehicle m e a s u r e d by. i n t e r n a l d e t e c t o r s r e c o r d i n g hits.
An e l e c t r i c a l l y insulated l a m i n a t e d s t r i p would be mounted on the
vehicle to study penetration.

T e m p e r a t u r e : P r o b e s will be u s e d to obtain a b r o a d -
band indication of the t h e r m a l radiation. T e m p e r a t u r e m u s t b e v e r i f i e d
and this s h o d d be obtained f o r : ( 1 ) the s u r f a c e in full sunlight; in t h e
shaded a r e a s around which full sunlight p r e v a i l s and during l u n a r night;
( 2 ) vehicle component t e m p e r a t u r e s ; ( 3 ) i n t e r n a l vehicle t e m p e r a t u r e s ;
and (4) l u n a r s u b - s u r f a c e t e m p e r a t u r e s with t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n of the
t h e r m a l g r a d i e n t of l u n a r s u b - s u r f a c e to the s u r f a c e u n d e r conditions
of sunlight and d a r k n e s s . A v a r i e t y of solid s t a t e d e v i c e s a r e available
for detection, and t h e s e will b e used with s e l e c t i v e a b s o r b e r s and band-
p a s s f i l t e r s to obtain s p e c t r a l m e a s u r e m e n t s . The evaluation will b e
m a d e i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e environmental t e m p e r a t u r e p r o b l e m and t h e
extent to which v a r i o u s s u r f a c e s a r e heated. T h e range f r o m the
vacuum u l t r a - v i o l e t t o the f a r i n f r a r e d w i l l b e c o v e r e d a t l e a s t t o the
extent that any h a z a r d s a r e involved.

Magnetic Field: A d e t e r m i n a t i o n will b e m a d e a5 to t h e


existence o r non-existence of a magnetic field and i t s magnitude, if ,
existent .
S u r f a c e at Landing Site: The h a r d n e s s and composition
of the surface at the l u n a r landing s i t e w i l l b e d e t e r m i n e d .

S u r f a c e Forms: A study of s u r f a c e f o r m s found in the


l u n a r landing a r e a by high r e s o l u t i o n TV scanning and by s a m p l i n g of
s u r f a c e and i m m e d i a t e s u b - s u r f a c e m a t e r i a l w i l l b e p e r f o r m e d . T h e
roughness of the landing s i t e will a l s o be d e t e r m i n e d a t t h i s t i m e .

S u r f a c e Conductivity: The conductivity, both t h e r m a l


and e l e c t r i c a l , of the l u n a r s u r f a c e m a t e r i a l and s u b - s u r f a c e material
w i l l be established.

Magnetic M a t e r i a l s : A d e t e r m i n a t i o n of t h e o c c u r r e n c e
and concentration of l o c a l magnetic m a t e r i a l will b e m a d e .

A t m o s p h e r i c P r e s s u r e : By the u s e of a modified
o m e g a t r o n , a n attempt w i l l be m a d e to m e a s u r e the atmospheric
pressure.

Atmosphere: Depending upon t h e outcome of a t m o s -


p h e r i c press- m e a s u r e m e n t s , a n a n a l y s i s of the l u n a r a t m o s p h e r e
w i l l be m a d e .

Beacon Planting and Location Techniques ( f r o m earth):


A c c u r a t e d e t e r m i n a t i o n of r a d i o frequency beacon locations will b e m a d e
to p e r m i t soft landings i n a p r e d e t e r m i n e d a r e a .

Ionized L a y e r s a t L u n a r Surface: A d e t e r m i n a t i o n w i l l
be m a d e concerning the existence o r non-existence of ionized l a y e r s
n e a r the l u n a r s u r f a c e a s a n a i d in d e t e r m i n i n g operating r a d i o
f r e q u e n c i e s .of l u n a r communication s y s t e m s .

Radio F r e q u e n c y Propagation: A determination of the


propagation f a c t o r s v e r s u s frequency and d i s t a n c e s will be made.

Photography of the L u n a r Surface: An earth s a t e l l i t e


will be r e q u i r e d f o r l u n a r photography. It will be equipped with a
t e l e s c o p e having a n a p p r o x i m a t e one m e t e r a p e r t u r e and 100-200 m e t e r
e f f e c t i v e focal length with a vidicon c a m e r a and t r a n s m i t t e r . The
c a m e r a will be kept focused a n d d i r e c t e d toward the moon. T h e m i n l m u m
o r b i t a l - a l t i t u d e should be 600 km; 1, 200 km i s d e s i r a b l e . In addition,
s e v e r a l l u n a r s a t e l l i t e s each containing a c a m e r a a t altitudes below
500 km will be used € o r providing m o r e s u r f a c e detail of the landing
s i t e s under consideration.
( 2 ) Biological

E x p e r i m e n t a l Animals: A n i m a l s will p r o v e v e r y useful


t o v e r i f y e x p e r i m e n t a l r e s u l t s and i n s u r e t h a t no u n s u s p e c t e d p r o b l e m s
a r e overlooked. It is conceived that the biological and p h y s i c a l
e x p e r i m e n t s can b e combined t o limit the a c t u a l number of p r o b e s
r e q u i r e d t o a m i n i m u m . M e a a u r e m e n t s and biological effects evalua-
tions of n u c l e a r weapons on animals should be c o n s i d e r e d .

E x i s t e n c e o r Non-existence of Life: The evidence of


life might b e implied b y finding c e r t a i n combinations of c a r b o n and
nitrogen. Indication of the e x i s t e n c e of t h e s e two e l e m e n t s in p r o p e r
combination, lacking a n a c t u a l s a m p l e , could b e found by m e a n s of a
s p e c t r o p h o t o m e t e r . T h e r e is a l s o t h e pos siblity of r u d i m e n t a r y life
having f o r e x a m p l e s i l i c o n r a t h e r thzn c a r b o n a s t h e b a s i c e l e m e n t .

b. On-Site Studies

Although information obtained from unmanned l u n a r p r o b e s


will l a r g e l y d e t e r m i n e the final d e s i g n of equipment f o r u s e by
p e r s o n n e l , m o s t of t h e d a t a initially obtained f r o m p r o b e s will be
extended in p r e c i s i o n and r a n g e by m e a s u r e m e n t s conducted by
p e r s o n n e l of t h e outpost.

(1) P h y s i c a l

T e m p e r a t u r e : D i u r n a l , s e a s o n a l , and latitudinal d i s t r i -
bution of l u n a r s u r f a c e t e m p e r a t u r e will be v e r i f i e d and m e a s u r e d m o r e
precisely .
Luminosity: The intensity of light, both d i r e c t sunlight
and e a r t h light will be d e t e r m i n e d .

Ionizing Radiation: T h e b e t a , g a m m a , n e u t r o n , and


m e a s u r e m e n t s of o t h e r radiations m e a s u r e m k n t s w i l l be v e r i f i e d .

Meteoriods: A g r i d - t y p e s y s t e m can b e u s e d t o study


the incidence, s i z e , penetration, and e r o s i o n effects a t and n e a r the
l u n a r outpost,

Selenography: Initially, a l i m i t e d study will be conducted


t o obtain p e r t i n e n t informa tion concerning the physical f e a t u r e s of tke
moon as it a f f e c t s the outpost. The chemical composition, e l e c t r i c a l
and t h e r m a l p r o p e r t i e s , density, p o r o s i t y , r i g i d i t y and p a r t i c l e s i z e s
of the s u r f a c e m a t e r i a l s a s functions of depth and locale will b e investi-
gated. The variation of s o m e p r o p e r t i e s with t i m e ( p e r h a p s cylic with
l u n a r month) will be r e q u i r e d in o r d e r t o obtain t h e s e v a l u e s as a
function of t e m p e r a t u r e . During the investigations of the l u n a r s u r f a c e
and sub- s u r f a c e , e m p h a s i s will be placed on p o s s i b l e f u t u r e utilization
of s u b - s u r f a c e n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s .

Gravity: The a c c e l e r a t i o n of g r a v i t y on t h e moon will be


verified. This c a n b e accomplished by a g r a v i t y - m e t e r s u r v e y n e a r
the outpost. M e a s u r e m e n t s will be extended f r o m the outpost site as .
opportunity p e r m i t s .

Magnetic Field: T h e e x i s t e n c e o r non-existence of a


l u n a r magnetic field will b e v e r i f i e d and i n v e s t i g a t e d thoroughly.

E a r t h Observations: P r i m a r i l y f o r p u r p o s e of
intelligence, telescope having a 9 0 c m a p e r t u r e o r l a r g e r , with image
intensifier for i n f r a r e d observation of the e a r t h and s k y photography,
can be used.

L u n a r Survey: A l i m i t e d l u n a r s u r v e y will b e conducted


using an established b a s e line. P h o t o g r a m m e t r i c mapping techniques
will b e employed, possibly a l u n a r s a t e l l i t e , with s t a b l e o r b i t , and
continuous p i c t o r i a l t r a n s m i s s i o n will b e employed.

P r e s s u r e and T e m p e r a t u r e : D a t a obtained f r o m t h e
e a r l i e r p r o b e s will b e verified concerning p r e s s u r e a n d t e m p e r a t u r e
and composition of a n y existing a t m o s p h e r e a s functions of height and
time.

( 2) Biological

P s y s i o l o g i c d Reactions: Continuous o b s e r v a t i o n s will


be m a d e concerning m a n ' s working capacity, p s y c h o m o t o r p e r f o r m a n c e ,
c a i d i o - v a s c u l a r function, appetite, s l e e p p a t t e r n s , etc. (Confirmation
of and extension of c h e m i c a l , radiological, and biological probe findings
will be c a r r i e d on with a n i m a l and o t h e r l i f e f o r m s . ) ( E x p e r i m e n t s will
be conducted a f t e r the outposr has been established utilizing s o l a r e n e r g y
f o r food production. Hydroponic, a l g a e and fungal, m o l l u s k , c h e m i c a l
analog of photosynethesis. )
2. Minimum E x p e r i m e n t a l Activities

The f i r s t two m e n to a r r i v e on the moon will obviously have


l i m i t e d investigative capability. T h e r e will be a n u r g e n c y to test a8
m a n y p r i o r a s s u m p t i o n s as possible. An example of what they m a y
a c c o m p l i s h follows:

a. S e n s o r y Observations

(1) Visual

(2) Topography - verification of payload l o c a t i o n s .

( 3 ) T e r r a i n a n a l y s i s and "atmospheric" a n a l y s i s .

( 4 ) Determination of light conditions.

(5) Tactile - T e r r a i n consistency. Temperature gradient.

(6) E q u i l i b r i u m , balance and gravity effects.

b. Equipment and I n s t r u m e n t s

(1) Radiation i n s t r u m e n t s , scintillation c o u n t e r , film badge,


g e i g e r counter.

( 2 ) Telescope

( 3 ) Chemical kit.

(4) Biological kit.

( 5 ) P h y s i c a l s c i e n c e kit, magnetic dip n e e d l e , gyro c o m p a s a

( 6 ) M e t e o r i t e counter.

c. Biologic O b s e r v a t i o n s

Continuing o b s e r v a t i o n s will b e m a d e of physical and


psychical behavior of all personnel. Any change i n behavior will be!
studied as t o i t s relation to specific influences of the c l o s e d s y s t e m
environment and the l u n a r environment. Clinical o b s e r v a t i o n s will be
s e n t back t o t e r r e s t i a l m e d i c a l installations for i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . Within

59
s m a l l e r l i m i t s , actual l a b o r a t o r y e x p e r i m e n t s m a y be c a r r i e d out i n -
the outpost Bio-Science Laboratory. The effect of reduced gravity
upon biological m e c h a n i s m s will be closely o b s e r v e d . Radiation effects,
i f e x i s t e n t , w i l l be skrdied with the u s e of a n i m a l , plant, b a c t e r i a l ,
y e a s t and v i r a l f o r m s of life.

60
( S ) CHAPTER 111: SPACE TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM

The capabilities of s p a c e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n d i c t a t e t o a l a r g e extent


the o v e r a l l p r o g r a m schedule f o r the l u n a r outpost effort. The fol-
lowing p a r a g r a p h s outline those a r e a s of the p r o g r a m dealing with
the s p a c e v e h i c l e s f r o m lift-off to landing on the l u n a r s u r f a c e and,
when a p p r o p r i a t e , until r e t u r n to e a r t h . P r e s e n t e d a r e d e t a i l e d
d i s c u s s i o n s of flight m e c h a n i c s , of the o r b i t a l c a r r i e r and s p a c e
v e h i c l e s , of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s y s t e m integration, and, finally, a n exami-
nation of payload p r e p a r a t i o n and schedules.

A. FLIGHT MECHANICS

1. T r a - i e c t o r i e s in Earth-Moon Space

The t r a j e c t o r y followed by a vehicle traveling between t h e


e a r t h and the moon o r vice v e r s a c a n be divided into t h r e e p h a s e s :
launch o r injection into a free-flight o r b i t , the free-flight t r a j e c t o r y ,
and the braking t r a j e c t o r y for landing o r r e c o v e r y of the e n t r y body.
The f i r s t p h a s e of this t r a j e c t o r y involves taking off f r o m the e a r t h
o r the moon and providing the vehicle with the r e q u i r e d injection
velocity. The t h i r d phase involves d e c e l e r a t i o n o r b r a k i n g the s p e e d
of the vehicle by r e t r o - r o c k e t s o r aerod.ynamic f o r c e s . T h e s e p h a s e s
are d i s c u s s e d i n m o r e detail in a l a t e r portion of this chapter.

In the second phase of the t r a j e c t o r y the vehicle follows the


c o a s t i n g ' o r free-flight path. Usually the e l e m e n t s of the f r e e - f l i g h t
t r a j e c t o r y c a n be computed a s a p e r t u r b e d two-body path which a p p r o x i -
m a t e s a conic section. Whether this conic s e c t i o n is a n e l l i p s e , a
p a r a b o l a , o r a hyperbola depends on the e n e r g y l e v e l o r the i n j e c t i o n
velocity. The t r a j e c t o r y will follow a n elliptical path for low e n e r g i e s
o r injection velocities l e s s than e s c a p e velocity, a parabolic path f o r
the e s c a p e condition, and a hyperbolic path f o r high e n e r g i e s o r v e l o c - .
i t i e s exceeding e s c a p e velocity.

The low-energy o r elliptical t r a j e c t o r i e s give the highest pay-


load capabilities b e c a u s e l e s s velocity i s r e q u i r e d a t injection. How-
e v e r , they a r e s e n s i t i v e to s m a l l deviations i n the injection o r initial
conditions a n d l e a d to long t r a n s f e r o r coasting t i m e s . The high-
e n e r g y t r a n s i t s a r e not a s s e n s i t i v e to s m a l l deviations in the i n j e c t i o n
condition and flight t i m e is much reduced, but they r e s u l t in payload
p e n a l t i e s and higher e n t r y Velocities which r e q u i r e g r e a t e r b r a k i n g energy,
A good c o m p r o m i s e between the conflicting conditions a p p e a r s to b e .
a p a r a b o l i c path with approximate e s c a p e conditions at injection. T o
i l l u s t r a t e the effect of v a r i o u s injection v e l o c i t i e s on the t i m e i n o r b i t
and the unbraked i m p a c t velocity, a number of t r a j e c t o r i e s a r e con-
s i d e r e d : t h e velocity, flight t i m e , unbraked velocity, and the braking
r e q u i r e d for a low-altitude c i r c u l a r l u n a r s a t e l l i t e a r e given i n
Table II-4. The injection angle f o r the t r a j e c t o r i e s is approximately
82O f o r all of the conditions considered. T r a j e c t o r y 4 ( T a b l e U-4)
which i s the c a s e of the p a r a b o l a , w a s s e l e c t e d f o r t h i s study, A
p r o f i l e of a typical parabolic t r a j e c t o r y is plotted in Fig. 11-14.

F o r the minimum lunar flight r e q u i r e m e n t s , w h e r e the objective


is m e r e l y to i m p a c t upon the m o o n ' s s u r f a c e , injection guidance o r
a c c u r a t e c o n t r o l of the initial conditions is adequate. F o r landing
a t a p r e d e s i g n a t e d location on th'e m o o n , including braking during
the t e r m i n a l p h a s e , a m o r e e l a b o r a t e guidance s y s t e m is r e q u i r e d
including m i d c o u r s e and t e r m i n a l capabilities. The maneuverability
during the t e r m i n a l braking phase is l i m i t e d to approximately 20 km;
t h e r e f o r e , m i d c o u r s e guidance m u s t be utilized to give a landing
a c c u r a c y within 20 k m .

The p r o b l e m of timing f o r l u n a r flights is of g r e a t importance.


The c e n t r a l angle f r o m the launch site t o t h e point of l u n a r a r r i v a l
i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2250, which is the S U M of 600 f o r the powered-flight
t r a j e c t o r y plus 165O f o r the f r e e - f l i g h t o r coasting t r a j e c t o r y . The
declination of the moon's o r b i t i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y t18O. To launch
f r o m the Atlantic M i s s i l e Range to the moon r e q u i r e s a n a z i m u t h
between 90° and 1800. F o r a z i m u t h s between 90° and llOo, launchings
a r e s t i l l p o s s i b l e f o r approximately 15 days out of the 28-day period.
T h e l u n a r declination would be negative upon a r r i v a l , At both the
t i m e o'f launch f r o m the e a r t h and the t i m e of a r r i v a l at the m o o n , the .
moon will b e f a r below the horizon of the launch site.

Another type of lunar t r a j e c t o r y which should be mentioned i s


t h e c i r c u m l u n a r t r a j e c t o r y i n which the l u n a r vehicle m a k e s a r e t u r n
flight to the e a r t h . This class.of t r a j e c t o r y p o s e s s o m e guidance
a c c u r a c y p r o b l e m s , especially f o r p r o p e r r e - e n t r y conditions f o r the
r e t u r n t r i p to e a r t h .

2. A s c e n t into 96-Minute O r b i t

T r a j e c t o r y data w e r e calculated f o r a s c e n t to a 96-minute


o r b i t and d i r e c t e s c a p e f r o m e a r t h . The vehicle was a s s u m e d to be

62
- /-
//----
//----

// ---
Table E-4
FLIGHT TIME AND VELOCITY VALUES FOR VARIOUS EARTH - MOON TRAJECTORIES
hjcction Velocity Lunar Impact Braking Requirec
at Altitude of Velocity for Lunar
Trajectory Flight Time Unbraked Satellite
330 km '

(rnIse c ) {rn / s e c) (mI8 e c 1'

Absolute minimum 10,770 10 yeare 2,325 6 47


injection velocity
(perhaps inpoasible)

Minimum vclocity 10,ClO 5 days 2,500 822


f o r direct elliptical
transfer

Two and one-half day . 10,860 2lh days 2,703 1, 027


elliptical transfer
trajectory

Parabolic transfer 2.806 1.208


trajectory

Us able hyperbolic 10,991 41 hours 3, 179 1,501


transfer trajectory

launched v e r t i c a l l y ; and a f t e r approximately t e n seconds of v e r t i c a l


flight, a s m a l l angle of attack was applied t o tilt the vehicle i n the .
d e s i r e d direction. After about 40 seconds of flight t i m e , the angle
of a t t a c k was r e m o v e d and the vehicle followed a z e r o - l i f t t r a j e c t o r y
until f i r s t - s t a g e burnout. During the flight of the upper s t a g e s , v a r i -
o u s v a l u e s of angle of a t t a c k w e r e applied t o give the d e s i r e d conditions
f o r injection into a n o r b i t o r to e s c a p e f r o m the e a r t h .
\

F o r injection into the 96-minute c i r c u l a r o r b i t , o r b i t a l alti-


tude of 568 km (306. 6 nautical m i l e s o r 353 s t a t u t e m i l e s ) , injection
was m a d e via a Hohmann t r a n s f e r ellipse. The f i r s t injection point,
w h e r e the vehicle e n t e r s the elliptical t r a n s f e r o r b i t , o c c u r s a t a n
angle of 9 0 0 with the l o c a l v e r t i c a l and i s the perige'e of the t r a n s f e r
orbit. A velocity of 7929 m / s e c was r e q u i r e d f o r a n a s s u m e d i n j e c t i o n
altitude of 100 s t a t u t e m i l e s (161 km). The apogee of the e l l i p s e o c c u r s
a t the r e q u i r e d o r b i t a l altitude of 568 km f o r the 96-minute orbit.
Re-ignition of the final stage is n e c e s s a r y t o provide a velocity k i c k
of 116 m / s e c at the apogee. Thus , the r e q u i r e d c i r c u l a r velocity of
7580 m / s e c is attained a t the second injection point w h e r e the o r b i t a l
conditions a r e attained f o r the 96-minute orbit.

I t was a s s u m e d that the t h r e e - s t a g e v e r s i o n of SATURN I1


would be u s e d f o r the m i s s i o n of the 96-minute orbit. The t r a j e c t o r y
d a t a f r o m lift-off to the f i r s t injection point is l i s t e d i n Table LI-5.
The velocity, altitude , range on the e a r t h ' s s u r f a c e , a c c e l e r a t i o n ,
F i g . II- 14. Typical Earth-Moon P a r a b o l i c T r a j e c t o r y
TABLE XI-5
TRAJECTORY DATA F O R 96-MINUTE O R B I T
SATURN 1I (3 Stage)

Time Velocity Altitude Range Acceleration Flight Path Dvnamic


rec m/sec km Ian rnteec2 Angle Pressure
deg kglrn’
FLRST STAGE
0
12
0
40
0
.2
0
0
- 2.9
3. a
0
.2 a
. o
98
24 91 1.0 0 4.8 2.3 469
36 155 2.5 0.1 6.0 6.5 1180
48 236 4. 8 0.5 7.5 12.0 2145
60 3 36 8.0 1.4 9.1 18.1 3005
64 373 9.4 1.9 9.8 20.2 31 69
68 41 4 10.8 2.4 10.7 22.2 3252
72 459 12.4 3.1 11.7 ’ 24.3 3117
76 508 14.2 3.9 12.7 26.2 2900
88 681 20.4 7.4 16.2 31.7 1476
103.54 970 30.8 14.7 21.2 37.7 754
103.54 1308* 30. 8 14. 7 54.2
_ _ -
SECONDSTAGE
103.54 1308 30.8 14.7 6.4 54.2 754
108.04 1338 34.0 19.5 6.8 55.7 , 400
120.04 1427 42.9 33.5 8.0 59.6 292
140.04 1606 56.8 60.1 9. a 65.5 67
160.04 1820 69.6 91.6 11.6 70. 5 17.
180.04 2069 81.1 128.2 13. 3 74.6 4
200.04 2354 91.6 170.3 15.1 77.8 1
220.04 2 674 101.1 21 9.1 17. 0 80.2 0
240.04 3035 110.0 274.5 19.1 81.9 0
260.04 3442 118.4 337.5 21.6 83. I 0
280.04 3904 126.6 409.0 24.7 83.9 0
298.84 4400 134.6 485.0 28.2 84.2 0
THIRD STAGE
298.84 4400 134.6 485.0 7.7 84.2 0
320.04 4569 143.2 577.7 8. 3 05.4 0
340.04
360.04
4741
4925
149.7
154.8
- 668.4
762.7
8.9
9.5
86.5
87.4
0
0
400.04 5331 161.4 962.3 io. a 88. a 0
440.04 5793 163.9 1179.2 12.3 89. 8 0
454. E O * * 5979 164.0 1263.9 90.0 0
480.04 6320 163.7 1415.2 14. I 90.2 0
500.04 6612 163.2 1541.2 15.2 90.2 0
520.04 6928 162. a 1673.2 16.5 90.1 0
540.04 7273 162.7 1811.6 18.1 90.0 0
551.11 *** 7479 162.7 1891.7 90.0 0
569.95 7854 162.7 2032.0 20.9 90.0 0

* C o r r e c t e d f o r Earth’s Rotation
** Maximum Summit
*** Minimum Summit o r Injection

..

65
flight-path a n g l e , and dynamic p r e s s u r e a r e given as a function of
flight time. C o r r e c t i o n f o r the e a r t h ' s r o t a t i o n was m a d e at the end
of the first powered s t a g e to c o n v e r t t o a n i n e r t i a l s y s t e m of r e f e r e n c e .
A plot of t h e altitude as a function of r a n g e is given i n F i g . 11-15. Two
s u m m i t points w e r e r e a c h e d i n this a s c e n t t r a j e c t o r y . A m a x i m u m
s u m m i t o c c u r r e d a t a n altitude of a p p r o x i m a t e l y 164 k m a n d a velocity
of less t h a n 6000 m / s e c . A minimum s u m m i t o c c u r r e d a t the injection
altitude of 161 k m (100 s t a t u t e miles) w h e r e the r e q u i r e d v e l o c i t y of
7929 m / s e c was attained. T h i s t r a j e c t o r y s h a p e is c o n s i d e r e d typical
f o r a s c e n t into a s a t e l l i t e orbit.

3. E s c a p e f r o m the E a r t h ' s Surface and 96-Minute O r b i t

a. E s c a p e f r o m E a r t h ' s Surface

The t r a j e c t o r y f o r e s c a p e f r o m the e a r t h ' s s u r f a c e is s i m i l a r


t o t h a t f o r injection into a n elliptical t r a n s f e r o r b i t , except t h a t the
flight path angle d o e s not have to be 9 0 0 with t h e v e r t i c a l . The injec-
tion angle will usually be i n the vicinity of 80° with the v e r t i c a l .
G e n e r a l l y , two s u m m i t points will be r e a c h e d i n the a s c e n t t r a j e c t o r y ,
a n d the f l a t t e r the t r a j e c t o r y shape the m o r e f a v o r a b l e is the payload
capability. T r a j e c t o r y d a t a f o r a typical d i r e c t e s c a p e m i s s i o n a r e
given in Table 11-6. A minimum point o c c u r s a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y 120 km
altitude, and p r e l i m i n a r y calculations show t h a t no a e r o d y n a m i c heating
p r o b l e m s a r e anticipated a t this altitude. F i n a l injection o c c u r s at an
altitude of 330 km with a flight path angle of 80' and at an e s c a p e
velocity of 1 0 , 9 8 4 m / s e c . A profile of this t r a j e c t o r y is plotted in
Fig. 11-16 w h e r e altitude i s plotted v e r s u s r a n g e on the e a r t h ' s s u r f a c e ,

b. E s c a p e i r o m 96-Minute Orbit

Another possibility f o r achieving injection into a n e s c a p e


o r b i t i s t o f i r s t e n t e r a 96-minute o r b i t and then to e s c a p e f r o m this
orbit. T h i s is a situation w h e r e l i m i t e d amounts of payload i n the
f o r m of c a r g o and p e r s o n n e l c a n b e injected into a 96-minute o r b i t ,
and a s p a c e vehicle a s s e m b l e d o r fueled in the o r b i t f o r flight to the
m o o n o r s o m e o t h e r d e s t i n a t i o n i n o u t e r space. Among o t h e r p r o b l e m s ,
rendezvous with the s p a c e station p r e s e n t s s o m e nzvigational p r o b l e m s .
not o r d i n a r i l y encountered. To a c c o m p l i s h t h e o r b i t a l rendezvous
(contact with the s p a c e t e r m i n a l ) , injection into the elliptical t r a n s f e r
o r b i t 'must be a c c u r a t e and have the p r o p e r timing. Detection a n d
c o r r e c t i o n of e r r o r s m u s t be accomplished f o r p r o p e r m a t c h i n g of
t h e s p a c e t e r m i n a l orbit. F i n a l v e r n i e r - t y p e m a n e u v e r s will b e
r e q u i r e d t o obtain contact with the space t e r m i n a l .
Fig. 11-15. Ascent T r a j e c t o r y f o r T r a n s f e r into 96-Minute Orbit

At completion of the fueling and loading of t h e s p a c e v e h i c l e ,


i t will be launched f r o m the 96-minute o r b i t a t the p r o p e r t i m e t o
m a k e connections with i t s next destination s u c h as a lunar outpost s i t e ,
T h e t r a j e c t o r y data f o r e s c a p e f r o m a 96-minute o r b i t a r e l i s t e d i n
Table 11-7, and a profile depiction of t h e s e d a t a is given i n Fig. II-17.
E s c a p e conditions a r e r e a c h e d a t the injection altitude of 1340 km, a - .
flight path angle of 7 4 O , and the e s c a p e velocity of 1 0 , 1 8 2 m / s e c .
This f i n a l e s c a p e t r a j e c t o r y w a s calculated with t h e a s s u m p t i o n of
z e r o l i f t which i s c o n s i d e r e d v e r y n e a r optimum for t h i s type flight
path. It is a well known f a c t that for optimum e s c a p e a p r o g r a m m e d
angle of a t t a c k should b e u s e d s o that a t cutoff t h e r e is z e r o angle of
a t t a c k , and during burning t h e r e i s a v e r y s m a l l inward t h r u s t component,

67
--:.
1 ..._ --
-%
... .
TABLE II-6
TRAJECTORY DATA FOR E S C A P E MISSION
SATURN XI (4 S t a g e )
~~ ~ ~~~ ~ ~ ~~

Time Velocity Altitude Range Acceleration F l i g h t Path Dynamic


nec m/nec kn km rnIaec2 Angle Pressure
deg kg/m2
FIRST STAGE
0 0 0 0 2.9 0 0
12 40 .2 0 3.8 .2 97
24 91 1.0 0 4.8 2.5 4 67
36 155 2.5 .l 6.0 7.1 1178
48 236 4.7 .5 7.5 13.1 21 48
60 336 8.0 1.5 9.1 19. 8 3027
64 374 9.3 2.0 9.9 22.0 3201
68 416 10.8 2.7 10.8 24.2 3291
72 4 61 12.4 3.4 11.8 26.4 31 81
76 510 14.1 4.3 12.9 28. 6 2976
88 6 85 20.2 8.0 16. 4 34.4 2076
103.55 979 30.3 15.9 21.5 40. 8 836
103.55, 1197 30.3 15.9 51.8
SECOND STAGE
103.55 1197 30.3 15.9 6.2 51.8 836
163.55 1698 , 73.0 88.9 10.9 66. 5 9.7
223.55 2514 110.7 205.9 16.6 76. 8 0
283.55 3729 142.7 384.3 24.6 82.2 0
298.85 4126 150.5 442.5 27. 5 82.9 ,o
THIRD STAGE
298.85 4126 150.5 442.5 7.3 82.9 0
322.85 4309 161.4 540.7 8.0 84. 6 0
382.85 4845 177.8 807.1 9.9 88.2 0
422.85** 5269 180.6 1007.6 11.3 90.0 0
502.85 6309 171.1 1452.2 14.9 91.9 0
576.15 7570 153.4 1945.8 20.0 91. 7 0
FOURTH STAGE
576.15 7570 153.4 1945,8 4.8 91.7 0
640.15 7889 140.0 2429.1 5.1 91.6
700.15 8207 127.5 2901.9 5.5 91.1
760.15 8546 120.4 3404.7 5.8 90.5
792.15*** 8735 119.3 3666. I 6.0 90.0
860.15 9160 125.5 4263.0 6.5 88.8
920.15 9562 144.8 4812.6 7.0 87.3
980.15 9997 182.0 5383.5 7.6 85.4
1040.15 10473 243.0 5974.7 a. 4 83.2
1097.79 10984 329.9 6560.5 9.4 80. 6

* C o r r e c t e d for E a r t h Rotation
** Maximum S u m m i t
*** Minimum Summit

68
350

300

250

Altitude
(Irm)

200

150

100

50

0
4
"0 5000 6
1i

00

Fig. 11-16. Powered T r a j e c t o r y f o r E s c a p e f r o m the Earth

4. Landing on the Moon with Midcourse C o r r e c t i o n

The last and probably the m o s t c r i t i c a l p h a s e of the earth-moon


t r a j e c t o r y is the lunar landing. The final touchdown should b e at t h e

69
- \
\
I
TABLE II-7
TRAJECTORY DATA FOR ESCAPE FROM 96-MINUTE ORBIT

Time
(sec)
Velocity
(m/sec)
Altitude
(km)
Range
(h)( m / s e c
Acceler 2i1o n F l i g h t Path
A n gle
(deg)

0 75 80 5 68 0 2.58 90 .
40 7684 568.1 280.3 2. 64 90
80 7791 568.5 564.4 2.69 89.9
120 7900 569. 8 852.5 2.74 89.7.
160 801 0 572.2 1144.5 2.78 89.4
200 81 2 2 576.2 1440.5 2.82 89.1 -.
240 . 8236 582. 3 1740.3 2.85 88.7 ..
2 8'0 8350 590.9 2 044 2.88 88. 3
320 8466 602. 6 2351.3 2.90 87. 7
3 60 85 82 617. 8 2662.2 2.92 87.1
400 8699 637.0 2976.3 2.94 86.5
440 881 7 660.7 3293.6 2.96 85.7
480 8936 689.7 3613. 6 2.98 84.9
520 905 6 724.3 3936 3.00 84.0
5 60 91 7 6 765.2 42 60.4 3.03 83.1
600 9298 812.9 4586.4 3.06 82.1
640 942 1 868.1 491 3.6 3.11 81.0
680 9547 931.4 5241.4 3.17 79. 8
720 9675 1003. 3 5569.3 3.25 78. 6
760 9807 1084.5 5896.7 3.35 77.3
1 800 9943 1175.7 6223.2 3.47 76, 0
840 10085 1277.4 6548.1 3. 6 3 74, 6
852 10130 1310. 3 6646.2 3.69 14.2
8 62 1 0 1 82 1340 672 6 3 . 78 73.9

p r o p e r location and should be v e r y soft in o r d e r not to d a m a g e equip-


m e n t o r i n j u r e personnel. Without braking, the l u n a r i m p a c t velocity
would be a p p r o x i m a t e l y 3000 m / s e c , which is the r e s u l t a n t of the m o o n ' s
velocity a n d t h e vehicle velocity in i n e r t i a l space. The addition of
t h e s e velocity v e c t o r s r e s u l t s i n a n a r r i v a l velocity a t t h e l u n a r s u r -
f a c e which i s always hyperbolic o r a velocity which is a l w a y s g r e a t e r
than.the l u n a r e s c a p e velocity. A simplified s k e t c h of t h e l u n a r land-
ing phase is shown i n Fig. 11-18, F r o m this g e o m e t r y , i t i s a p p a r e n t
that the leading p a r t of the m o o n is favored f o r a landing.

70

-- ..
F i g . 11- 17. E s c a p e f r o m 96-Minute Orbit

The m a n e u v e r a b i l i t y of the landing vehicle will be l i m i t e d during


the braking p h a s e of the d e s c e n t to the l u n a r s u r f a c e . T h i s l i m i t a t i o n
i s due p r i m a r i l y to the l i m i t e d f u e l supply f o r t h i s purpose. Landing
a t the p r o p e r location on the s u r f a c e m u s t b e a function of the combined
action and a c c u r a c i e s of injection and m i d c o u r s e guidance. Only s m a l l
c o r r e c t i o n s t o the flight path and l i m i t e d c o n t r o l of the landing point
will b e m a d e during the braking phase b e c a u s e of l i m i t e d t i m e and
power, D u r i n g this p h a s e the m a x i m u m horizontal m a n e u v e r a b i l i t y
i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 20 k m d i s t a n c e on the m o o n ' s s u r f a c e .

F o r final touchdown both l a t e r a l and v e r t i c a l velocity components


should b e v e r y low to obtain a hovering o r v e r y slowly descending flight
n e a r the s u r f a c e . The propellant penalty f o r t h i s final phase is s m a l l
f o r r e a s o n a b l y s h o r t hovering t i m e s , and the c o n t r o l problem is
simplified. To obtain p r o p e r touchdown a t the d e s i r e d location, v a r i o u s
e l e c t r o n i c a i d s will simplify the problem. One o r m o r e t r a n s p o n d e r s
on the l u n a r s u r f a c e and television playback to the e a r t h could be used '
to a s s i s t i n this operation.

71
__c_____
-/-*,
/A- -
MOON

vehicle velocity with respect t o the Moon

* negative lunar velocity

F i g . 11-18. L u n a r Landing Velocity V e c t o r s


.
A d i r e c t a p p r o a c h to the moon's s u r f a c e f r o m the p a r a b o l i c
or hyperbolic coasting t r a j e c t o r y h a s been a s s u m e d . An indirect
a p p r o a c h i s a l s o possible w h e r e the vehicle f i r s t e n t e r s a c i r c u m l u n a r
s a t e l l i t e o r b i t , Landing on the moon would thus b e m a d e f r o m the low
a l t i t u d e - s a t e l l i t e orbit. F r o m p r e l i m i n a r y investigation i t a p p e a r s
that t h e i n d i r e c t approach would be favorable only if p r o p e l l a n t s f o r
the r e t u r n flight to e a r t h could r e m a i n i n the l u n a r orbit. This approach
is a l s o m o r e difficult f r o m the guidance and control viewpoint,
5. D i r e c t L u n a r - E a r t h Return Flight

a. Trajectory

F o r a r e t u r n t r a j e c t o r y to the e a r t h f r o m the moon, t h e


flight g e o m e t r y will be s i m i l a r to that of a n e a r t h - m o o n t r a n s f e r . At
the final phase of the t r a j e c t o r y the e n t r y is m a d e through the e a r t h ' s
a t m o s p h e r e in the d i r e c t i o n of e a r t h rotation. A sketch of the l u n a r
r e t u r n t r a j e c t o r y is given i n Fig. II-19.

with respect to
the Noon
hyperbolic excess velocity
with respect to the Moon

Fig. XI- 19. Direct Lunar-Earth Return Trajectory

73
In the r e t u r n t r a j e c t o r y the m o s t difficult p r o b l e m s will
probably involve the e n t r y and landing p h a s e s , and a r r i v a l at a p r e -
s e l e c t e d landing location. In o r d e r to land a t the p r o p e r location on
t h e e a r t h , the t i m e of launch f r o m the l u n a r s i t e and the t o t a l flight
t i m e f r o m the e a r t h to the moon m u s t b e c a r e f u l l y c o n t r o l l e d . For
t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s to land on the e a r t h i r r e s p e c t i v e of l o c a t i o n , t h e
l u n a r launch t i m e i s not c r i t i c a l s i n c e the e a r t h a p p e a r s t o be v e r y
n e a r l y fixed i n the l u n a r sky. But f o r spot landing a one-hour e r r o r -
.
in t h e landing t i m e c o r r e s p o n d s to a n e r r o r in landing location of
a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1700 km d i s t a n c e on the s u r f a c e of the e a r t h . However,
a v a r i a b l e lift r e - e n t r y vehicle could have a m a n e u v e r i n g capability
of approximately 2200 km. This c o r r e s p o n d s t o a n e r r o r in t i m e of
1."3 h o u r s which l e a v e s 0. 3 h o u r s allowable e r r o r f o r the launch t i m e
a n d plus or m i n u s one hour f o r allowable e r r o r in the t r a n s f e r time.
T h e s e allowable e r r o r s in t i m e a r e equivalent to a n e r r o r in injection
velocity to plus o r minus 12 m / s e c which i s e a s i l y obtainable. Of
c o u r s e , a m i d c o u r s e guidance s y s t e m will be utilized t o a l l e v i a t e
t h i s problem. Moon-earth flight t i m e s a r e plotted as a function of
l u n a r launch velocity in F i g . 11-20,

b. E n t r y Into the E a r t h ' s A t m o s p h e r e

S e v e r a l s t u d i e s have been published r e c e n t l y which prove


t h a t a t m o s p h e r i c e n t r y with e s c a p e velocity and a e r o d y n a m i c b r a k i n g
is e n t i r e l y feasible. F o r the purpose of this p r o j e c t a p r e l i m i n a r y
study was m a d e f o r high s p e e d e n t r y of a body into the e a r t h ' s a t m o s -
p h e r e and landing on the e a r t h ' s s u r f a c e in o r d e r to obtain a r e p r e -
s e n t a t i v e t r a j e c t o r y . S e v e r a l assumptions w e r e m a d e f o r t h i s study.
T h e e n t r y body was a s p h e r i c a l l y blunted cone with a nose r a d i u s of
25 inches and a half cone angle of 13. 5O. This shape i s s i m i l a r to
t h a t of the J U P I T E R nose cone. F o r v e r y high Mach n u m b e r s , the
d r a g coefficient was a s s u m e d to be 0. 28 and the lift f o r c e coefficient
s l o p e was a s s u m e d 0. 31 p e r radian. The weight was a s s u m e d to b e
8000 pounds, and the r e f e r e n c e d i a m e t e r was 120 inches. Calculations
w e r e m a d e a s s u m i n g a n initial altitude of 100 km, and the ARDC 1956
m o d e l a t m o s p h e r e w a s used, The r e - e n t r y angles mentioned i n this
s e c t i o n of the r e p o r t a r e with r e f e r e n c e to the h o r i z o n t a l plane and
a r e m e a s u r e d downward. The initial velocity a s s u m e d f o r t h e s e
calculations w a s 1 1 , 0 0 0 m l s e c .

A body e n t e r i n g the a t m o s p h e r e of the e a r t h without the


application of lift i s subjected to longitudinal d e c e l e r a t i o n s which v a r y
to a c o n s i d e r a b l e d e g r e e with the angle of entry. The e n t r y angle

74
Fig..II-20. Lunar Earth Flight Time Versus Launch Velocity

75
and t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g maximum d e c e l e r a t i o n t h a t would o c c u r a t
altitudes between 20 and 30 km a r e shown i n F i g , 11-21, The l a r g e
e n t r y angles a r e a s s o c i a t e d with the low altitudes. F o r e n t r y angles
s m a l l e r than a p p r o x i m a t e l y 4. 8 O the e n t r y body will s k i p out of the
0
a t m o s p h e r e . At a n e n t r y angle of 6 the m a x i m u m d e c e l e r a t i o n en-
countered is 17 g , which f o r the p u r p o s e of t h i s study, i s m o r e than
a m a n can withstand for the t i m e p e r i o d involved. This l e a v e s a
d e s i r a b l e e n t r y angle v a r i a t i o n of f r o m 4. 8' to 5. 5O. The altitude
a t which the m a x i m u m d e c e l e r a t i o n o c c u r s is between 25 and 40 km.

By the application of modulated l i f t during the e n t r y p h a s e


of the t r a j e c t o r y , the r a n g e s of e n t r y angle and altitude of maximum
d e c e l e r a t i o n c a n b e broadened and the maximum d e c e l e r a t i o n c a n b e
reduced. F o r a t r a j e c t o r y with a n e n t r y angle of 4O and l i f t - t o - d r a g
r a t i o of 0. 79 i n a downward d i r e c t i o n , a s u c c e s s f u l e n t r y c a n be ob-
tained with a m a x i m u m d e c e l e r a t i o n not exceeding 1. 5 g.

0. 15

0.22

-5
E

x
10-
0.30

04 I I 1 1 I 1
2 4 6 a 10
Angle of R e - e n t r y (defz)

Fig. 11-21. Deceleration V e r s u s Angle of R e - e n t r y Data


f o r E a r t h Atmosphere (at 11, 000 m / s e c v e l o c i t y )

76
---.
_---- .--_.
--
F o r e n t r y angles g r e a t e r than 4 O a n upward l i f t f o r c e w a s
applied during the f i r s t phase to k e e p the m a x i m u m d e c e l e r a t i o n at
a low value. When the t r a j e c t o r y l e v e l s off, a downward l i f t f o r c e
is applied to maintain a constant altitude o r a slightly negative g r a d e
t o r e d u c e the velocity. When the velocity i s r e d u c e d below c i r c u l a r
v e l o c i t y , the lift f o r c e i:s a g a i n changed to a n upward d i r e c t i o n t o
hold the d e c e l e r a t i o n a t a low.leve1.

By applying this technique, it should always be possible to


k e e p the l e v e l of d e c e l e r a t i o n a t a r e a s o n a b l e value f o r e n t r y a n g l e s
up to approximately 8O. In Fig. XI-22, the altitude and d e c e l e r a t i o n
of typical e n t r y t r a j e c t o r i e s a r e plotted a s a function of flight t i m e
for t h r e e e n t r y angles. It c a n be s e e n that the m o s t favorable t r a -
j e c t o r i e s f r o m a d e c e l e r a t i o n viewpoint a r e the ones with e n t r y angles
of approximately 40 to 6'.

c. Aerodynamic Heating

Aerodynamic heating will p o s e a difficult problem d u r i n g


e n t r y into the e a r t h ' s a t m o s p h e r e . T h e r e will b e a high h e a t flow
r a t e f r o m the boundary l a y e r to the s u r f a c e of the v e h i c l e , which is
s o m e w h a t proportional to the vehicle d e c e l e r a t i o n . By maintaining
v e r y low d e c e l e r a t i o n s , the energy flux can be r a d i a t e d a t high w a l l
t e m p e r a t u r e s , but this r e q u i r e s a well i n s u l a t e d vehicle capable of
r e l a t i v e l y high aerodynamic l i f t . This a p p r o a c h a s the only m e a n s
of h e a t r e j e c t i o n i s not c o n s i d e r e d f a v o r a b l e i n this p r o g r a m b e c a u s e
of the l o w e r p a y l o a d - t o - s t r u c t u r e weight ratio. W i t h v e r y high d e c e l -
e r a t i o n s a high heat flow r a t e will b e c r e a t e d o v e r a s h o r t p e r i o d of
t i m e giving a relatively low total heat flow. This h e a t c a n b e d i s s i -
pated by ablation of the s u r f a c e l a y e r s on the vehicle. F o r the s o l u -
tion of the e n t r y p r o b l e m , a c o m p r o m i s e will b e r e a c h e d between
the low d e c e l e r a t i o n t r a j e c t o r y with g r a d u a l t e m p e r a t u r e buildup
o v e r a long p e r i o d , and the high d e c e l e r a t i o n c a s e with a high flow
r a t e f o r a s h o r t period. It i s e s t i m a t e d at the p r e s e n t t i m e t h a t
s u c c e s s f u l e n t r y c a n be accomplished with not m o r e than 15 p e r c e n t
of the weight of the body available f o r ablation type h e a t p r o t e c t i o n
m a t e rial. , L

6 . Guidance and Control Accuracy R e q u i r e m e n t s

R e a l i s t i c guidance and control a c c u r a c y r e q u i r e m e n t s r e s u l t


from a c o m p r o m i s e between t h r e e f a c t o r s a s follows: (1) d e s i r a b l e
o p e r a t i o n a l t o l e r a n c e s , ( 2 ) attainable a c c u r a c y of the G&C i n s t r u m e n t s ,

77
0

Fig. 11-22. Altitude and Acceleration Versus T i m e D a t a


f o r Earth Atmospheric Entry (1 I, 000 m / s e c velocity)

and ( 3 ) possible o v e r a l l vehicle system a c c u r a c i e s . The f i r s t two


f a c t o r s l i s t e d above have been c o n s i d e r e d h e r e in o r d e r t o obtain the
guidance and control a c c u r a c y r e q u i r e m e n t s . The os sible s y s t e m
a c c u r a c i e s , which a r e influenced by e x t e r n a l d i s t u r b a n c e s and c o m -
p r o m i s e s between guidance and propulsion, have not been studied i n
d e t a i l ; however, it i s expected that r e s u l t s of s u c h a study will not
m a t e r i a l l y change the p r e s e n t r e q u i r e m e n t s ,
The d e s i r a b l e and f e a s i b l e guidance and c o n t r o l a c c u r a c y
r e q u i r e m e n t s a r e s u m m a r i z e d in Table 11-8. The t o l e r a n c e s and
a c c u r a c i e s given i n the table a r e 3 1 ~ - v a l u e s * . Unless o t h e r w i s e
s t a t e d , the velocity t o l e r a n c e s a r e equal i n all t h r e e c o o r d i n a t e s ,
t h u s a l s o giving the directiQna1 t o l e r a n c e of t h e velocity v e c t o r s .
Throughout the t a b l e , the e a r t h s a t e l l i t e mentioned is a s s u m e d t o b e
i n a n e q u a t o r i a l , c i r c u l a r 96-minute o r b i t a t about 570 km al!itude.
The injection velocity t o l e r a n c e s a r e b a s e d upon available guidance
and c o n t r o l i n s t r u m e n t a c c u r a c i e s , as well as flight m e c h a n i c s
considerations.

In g e n e r a l , the given launch t i m e a n d injection t o l e r a n c e s would


l e a d to lower a c c u r a c y a t the end of a m i s s i o n than is required. T h i s
v a r i a n c e is taken up by s e v e r a l guidance a n d c o n t r o l c o r r e c t i o n s c h e m e s
s u c h as v a r i a b l e azimuth and pitch p r o g r a m s , m i d c o u r s e and t e r m i n a l
guidance (See 111. E. 5). N o r a d i c a l i m p r o v e m e n t s , with r e s p e c t to
a c c u r a c y of the p r e s e n t l y available guidance and c o n t r o l i n s t r u m e n t s ,
a r e r e q u i r e d to attain the given a c c u r a c i e s a t the end of the v a r i o u s
m i s s i o n s . The proposed i n t e g r a t e d guidance and c o n t r o l s y s t e m s
offer the choice of optimum solutions d u r i n g m o s t p h a s e s of the flights
and a l s o provide f o r frequent r e a d j u s t m e n t of t h e i r p a r a m e t e r s . The
c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the proposed guidance and c o n t r o l s y s t e m s , t h e r e f o r e ,
a p p r o a c h those cif a closed loop s y s t e m during m o s t p h a s e s of the m i s s i o n s
Difficulties a r e expected to a r i s e i n those p h a s e s of a flight which have
open loops and l a r g e possible d i s t u r b a n c e s in the guidance s c h e m e .
F r o m this viewpoint, t h r e e problem a r e a s a r e a p p a r e n t i n connection
with the guidance and control a c c u r a c y r e q u i r e m e n t s : (1) the launch
t i m e t o l e r a n c e s f o r launch f r o m an e q u a t o r i a l e a r t h s a t e l l i t e o r b i t
would be one second, if no c o r r e c t i o n s c h e m e s w e r e employed.
T h e t o l e r a n c e of -! one minute stated i n Table 11-8 m a y be attained
if a suitable c o r r e c t i o n s c h e m e combining a z i m u t h , pitch p r o g r a m ,
and velocity cutoff control is used. Such a guidance s c h e m e r e q u i r e s
f u r t h e r deveiopment. ( 2 ) The l a t e r a l velocity a t touchdown on t h e
l u n a r s u r f a c e m u s t be zero, o r e l s e the landing g e a r m u s t b e d e s i g n e d
to take up any remaining l a t e r a l velocity, ( 3 ) m a n n e d e n t r y upon l u n a r
r e t u r n , p a r t i c u l a r l y with n e a r - e a r t h e s c a p e velocity, r e q u i r e s addi-
tional study. P r e l i m i n a r y w o r k shows that the application of body-lift
during e n t r y could give the r e q u i r e d final a c c u r a c i e s , and f u r t h e r
i n c r e a s e s i n launch t i m e t o l e r a n c e s m a y be feasible.
- ,

* cr : s t a n d a r d variation.

79
Table 11-8
CUIDANC E ACCURACY REQUIREMENTS ( 3 w a l u e s )

Launch Inj ec tion Accuracy Requirements


Mission Time Velocity a t End of Mission R e m a r k s , Assumptions
Tolerance Tolerance Position Velocity Time
~ ~~~

F r o m E a r t h Surface to f 5 min f 3 m/sec i l . 5 km f 5 m/sec Azimuth c o r r e c t i o n a t launch


Lunar Surface, Soft vertically Suitable landing g e a r
Spot Landing T h e l a t e r a l velocity at touch-down i a z e r o

F r o m E a r t h Satellite * l rnin f 3 mlsec i1.5 km *5 m / a e c Launch t i m e tolerance increased to


to L u n a r Surface, vertically given value i f suitable corrections a r e
Soft Spot Landing made
Suitable landing gear
The l a t e r a l velocity a t touch-down i s z e r o
00
0 F r o m Lunar Surface f 3 0 rnin 2 1 2 m/sec t10 km f 3 0 min P r i m a r y Objective: Survival of crew
to E a r t h Surface, altitude Re-entry angle 5.5 t 1.5' a t 100 km
R e - e n t r y with Lift at r e - e n t r y altitude
a n d Aerodynamic a 5 0 0 k m at P a r a c h u t e r e cover y
Braking recovery

F r o m E a r t h Surface 3 5 rnin rt3 m l s e c *30 min i1 m / s e c _f 1 hr Pitch p r o g r a m correction at equatorial


to Rendezyous with launch (t)'5
E a r t h Satellite Remaining 30 m distance may be reduced
by human intervention o r special
guidance equipment

R e - e n t r y f r o m Earth 3.1 min *3 m / s e c 5150 k m Parachute recovery


Satellite Orbit With at
-a
Lift and Aerodynamic recovery
Braking
B. ORBITAL CARRIER AND SPACE VEHICLES

1. C a r r i e r Vehicles - SATURN I and SATURN I1


a. SATURN1

The SATURN I vehicle, shown i n Fig. 11-23, c o n s i s t s of


a c l u s t e r e d b o o s t e r with 1,504,000-pound lift-off t h r u s t , a twin-engine
second s t a g e of about 360,000-pound t h r u s t , and a lox/hydrogen
(02,’H2) t h i r d s t a g e of 30,000-pound thrust. The initial p e r f o r m a n c e
capability of this vehicle, b a s e d on the weights shown in Table 11-9,
is 30,000 pounds net payload in a 96-minute o r b i t and 7500 pounds
net payload to e a r t h e s c a p e velocity. The upper e t a g e s a r e b a s e d on
minimum modification of existing m i s s i l e h a r d w a r e , Additional
p e r f o r m a n c e could be obtained by a r e d e s i g n of t h e upper s t a g e s . The
b o o s t e r itself (Fig. 11-24) is a c l u s t e r e d tank a r r a n g e m e n t with eight
tanks of 70-inch d i a m e t e r c l u s t e r e d around a c e n t e r lox tank of 105-inch
d i a m e t e r . F o u r of the outer 7 0 - d i a m e t e r tanks, located 90’ a p a r t ,
contain lox and the four remaining tanks contain R P - 1 fuel. S t r u c t u r a l
loads a r e c a r r i e d through the c e n t e r lox tank and the four o u t e r lox
tanks. The s t r u c t u r e i s designed f o r r e c o v e r y by p a r a c h u t e with w a t e r
i m p a c t and r e t u r n to launch site by a suitable ship. P r o p u l s i o n i s
provided by eight North A m e r i c a n Aviation H- 1 engines of 188,000-
pound s e a - l e v e l t h r u s t each. T h e propulsion s y s t e m is designed so
that the vehicle flight c a n be continued with one o r even two of the
eight engines not operating, The second s t a g e shown i n F i g . 11-25 is
a modified v e r s i o n of the TITAN booster. The engines a r e the,Aerojet
XLR 87, using l o x - R P a s propellant, with the expansion r a t i o of 15 t o
*
1 and equipped f o r altitude s t a r t . The third stage is a modified 0 / H
2 2
CENTAUR stage. P r o p u l s i o n is provided by two P r a t t & Whitney
RL-10 engines r a t e d a t 15,000-pound t h r u s t each. The t h i r d s t a g e ,
s i z e d f o r 50,000 pounds of propellant, r e s u l t i n g i n a n e a r optimum
staging, is shown i n Fig. 11-26.

b. SATURN11

The second generation SATURN vehicle (SATURN 11) is


b a s e d on a modified SATURN I booster. The b a s i c SATURN II c a r r i e r
vehicle shown i n Fig, II-27 includes a 2,000,000-pound-thrust b o o s t e r ,
i n c o r p o r a t i n g eight 250,000-pound-thrust lox/RP-1 e n g i n e s , a second
s t a g e i n c o r p o r a t i n g two 500,000-pound-thrust H2/OZengines, a t h i r d
s t a g e i n c o r p o r a t i n g two l o b , OOO-pound-,thruat H2/0 e n g i n e s , and a
fourth etage incorporating one 100-pound-thrust H2 O2 engine. ?
81
SAT-&
t R N

200'
I

e-

l
1
c

GE 5 2 - ( - 5 9
9 MAY 1959

F i g . 11-23. SATURN I

82
Table 11-9
WEIGHT SUMMARY SATURN I INITIAL CONFIGURATION
-
96 M I N U T E ORBITAL VERSION

I Stage I 11 IZI

Engine 8 xH-1 2 x LR-89 RL-10

Propellant Oz/RP- 1 02/RP-1 02 /H2

Thrust, lb 8 x 188K 2 x 189.5K 2 x 15K

Isp, s e c 258 (SL) 303 (Vac) 420 ( V a c )

M i s s i l e Diameter, in. 256 120 120

Payload, l b 331, 632 62, 352 30, 320 *


-
Guidance Compartment, lb 500

Guidance & Control, lb


- 500 1,500

Fuselage, Ib 45,000 6, 213 1, 178

Propulsion, l b 22, 400 4, 692 1, 127

Recovery Equipment, lb 6,000


- -
T r a p p e d Propellant, lb 15, 500 1,160 200

Usable Residuals, lb 7, 500 2,150 1,527

Propellant Consumption, lb 750,000 215,000 26,000

S t r u c t u r e Dry Weight, lb 58,500 11, 405 4, 305

S t r u c t u r e Net Weight, lb 80, 000 14, 715 6 , 032

Stage Weight, Loaded, l b 830,000 229, 715 32, 032

Lift-off Weight, lb 1,161, 632 331, 632 62, 352

* Nominal 30, 000 lb


* -
The escape v e r s i o n differs only i n the LLI Stage payload 7, 500 lb instead
i
-
of 30, 320 lb and correspondingly i n lift-off and payload weights.

83
Fig. Ll-24. S A T U R N I - Boortar
85
Fig. I1-25. SATURN I - 2nd Stage
Fig. II-26. SATURN I - 3rd Stage
g9 .
--

120"
D IA. -j I

i
f
F

304'
I!

52.2.59
M Y 1959 t

F i g . 11-27. SATURN I1

91
Although t h e vehicle shown i n Fig, 11-27 i l l u s t r a t e s the f o u r - s t a g e
v e h i c l e , v a r i o u e m i s s i o n s such as low altitude o r b i t (307 nautical m i l e s )
will b e flown with only the f i r s t t h r e e stages!
c
The vehicle d a t a p r e s e n t e d i n Table 11-10 i s b a s e d on n e a r
optimum p e r f o r m a n c e of a f o u r - s t a g e SATURN I1 f o r a n e a r t h - e s c a p e
mission. Optimization studies indicate, however, that f o r a constant
lift-off weight the p e r f o r m a n c e of the vehicle i n c r e a s e s with a reduction
of b o o s t e r propellant loading if the second s t a g e thrust-to-weight r a t i o
is kept constant. This r e s u l t s f r o m the high s p e c i f i c i m p u l s e (420
s e c o n d s ) of the second s t a g e , a s c o m p a r e d to the s p e c i f i c i m p u l s e
(260 s e c o n d s ) f o r the b o o s t e r . The reduction of b o o s t e r p r o p e l l a n t
weight r e q u i r e s considerable i n c r e a s e in the s i z e of the u p p e r s t a g e s
b e c a u s e of the i n c r e a s e d propellant capacity which m u s t be provided
f o r i n the upper s t a g e s , but m o r e i m p o r t a n t , b e c a u s e of t h e l o w e r
s p e c i f i c g r a v i t y of the H /O propellant combination. The i n c r e a s e d
2 2
propellant capacity f o r the upper s t a g e s a l s o r e q u i r e s l a r g e r d r y
weights as well as h i g h e r stage t h r u s t s , both of which a r e not n e c e s -
s a r i l y d e s i r a b l e . I t c a n b e s e e n that if this p r o c e d u r e is continued
( r e d u c i n g b o o s t e r weight and i n c r e a s i n g upper s t a g e weights) the r e s u l t
would become a t h r e e - s t a g e H /O propelled vehicle r a t h e r than a
l o x / R P - 1 b o o s t e r with t h r e e upper stages. T h i s is t r u e i f
propellant distribution by s t a g e s is the only p a r a m e t e r c o n s i d e r e d
f o r vehicle optimization. Considering o t h e r p a r a m e t e r s , s u c h as
vehicle availability, s a f e t y , vehicle g e o m e t r y , development and o p e r a -
tional c o s t , and utilization of existing h a r d w a r e , i t i s r e a d i l y apparent
t h a t the solution would not be a l a r g e t h r e e - a t a g e H 2 / 0 2 vehicle during
t h e r e q u i r e d t i m e period. One boundary condition u s e d for the initial
study of the SATURN I1 was that the b o o s t e r p r o p e l t h e vehicle well
through t h e high dynamic p r e s s u r e portion of t h e a s c e n t t r a j e c t o r y .

The payload capability of the SATURN 11, b a s e d on p r e s e n t


f e a s i b i l i t y studies , i a as follows:

96-minute (307 nautical m i l e e )


o r b i t ( 3- stage): 7 0 , 0 0 0 pounds
E a r t h Escape (4-stage): 26,750 pounds

The SATURN I1 b o o s t e r envisioned is a modified SATURN I


b o o s t e r r e q u i r i n g only m i n o r s t r u c t u r a l modifications due t o the
i n c r e a s e d thrust of the North A m e r i c a n Aviation H-2 engines and the
h e a v i e r upper s t a g e s (Fig. 11-28), The t r a n s i t i o n s t r u c t u r e between
t h e f i r s t and second rtage w i l l , however, r e q u i r e redeaigri due t o the

92
--.-
T a b l e II-10
WEIGHT SUMMARY - SATURN I1 VEHICLE ESCAPE
Stage X II m
I
1v
Engine 8 H-2

Propellant 02/RP- 1 02 /H2. 02 1%

T h r u s t , lb 8 x 250K 2 x 500K 2 x lOOK 1 x lOOK

Isp, s e c 260( s. 1) 4 2 O( vac 4 20 420

M i s s i l e D i a m e t e r , in. 256 256 256 256

Payload, l b 801,673 266,274 93,908 26,750

Guidance Compartment, l b 500

G u i d a n c e & C o n t r o l , lb 500 1, 500

Fuselage, lb 46, 300 26,000 8,400 2,800

Propulsion. l b 22, 500 13, 000 2,600 1,300

R e c o v e r y E q u i p m e n t , lb 4,500

Trapped Propellant, lb 15, 500 4,000 800 400

Usable Residuals, l b 6,500 4, 875 1,585 3,830

P r o p e l l a n t Consumption, l b 650, 000 487,524 158, 461 52,978

S t r u c t u r e Weight, Dry, l b 73, 300 39,000 11, 500 6, loo


S t r u c t u r e N e t Weight, l b 9 5 , 300 47, 875 13, 885 10, 330

S t a g e Weight, Loaded, l b . 745, 300 535,399 172, 366 63, 308

Lift-off Weight, lb 1, 543,123 797, 823 262,424 90,058


I1
NOTE:
o r b i t . A payload of 70, 000 pound8 c a n be c a r r i e d . P a y l o a d a n d lift-off weights
-
T h e o r b i t a l v e r s i o n d i f f e r s i n t h a t only 3 e t a g e s a r e u t i l i z e d f o r t h e 9 6 m i n u t e

have t o be changed c o r r e e p o n d i n g l y .
4

93
Fig. II-28. SATURN II - Booster
l a r g e d i a m e t e r of the second stage. The H-2 engine g e o m e t r y ,
which i s identical to the H - 1 with the exception of a new t u r b o p u m p
and o t h e r s i m p l i f i c a t i o n s , i s s u c h that it c a n b e interchanged with
the H-1 engine.

P r o p u l s i o n i n the second s t a g e s i s provided by two 500 K


0 2 / H engines. This a r r a n g e m e n t a p p e a r s d e s i r a b l e ; h o w e v e r , f o u r
250 d e n g i n e s could be used. The tank s t r u c t u r e i s p r e s s d r e stabi-
l i z e d to c a r r y the u p p e r - s t a g e weights s i n c e t h e p r e s s u r e to m e e t
iurbopump r e q u i r e m e n t s exceeds that r e q u i r e d f o r stabilization. T h e
second s t a g e i s shown in Fig. 11-29. The t h i r d s t a g e i s p r e s s u r e
s t a b i l i z e d f o r the s a m e r e a s o n s as i s the second stage, P r o p u l s i o n
is provided by two 100 K 0 2 / H engines. The s t a g e i s designed t o
the s a m e d i a m e t e r (256 inches? as the o r b i t - t o - m o o n vehicle i n t o o r b i t ,
d e s c r i b e d l a t e r . F o r launching the o r b i t - to-moon vehicle into o r b i t ,
the vehicle will be mounted on the second s t a g e of the t r a n s p o r t v e h i c l e ,
loaded with the propellant n o r m a l l y used i n the t h i r d s t a g e , a n d l a u n c h e d
i n t o the refueling o r b i t utilizing all t h r e e s t a g e s , After refueling the
t h i r d stage which is now i n o r b i t , the orbit-to-moon vehicle continues
to t h e moon. The s t a n d a r d t h i r d s t a g e i s shown i n Fig. LI-30. The
first stage of the o r b i t - t o - m o o n ( t h i r d stage of the b a s i c SATURN
vehicle) i s identical with those used f o r o t h e r m i s s i o n s e x c e p t t h a t the
propellant tank volume is i n c r e a s e d by 1 3 p e r c e n t a n d the f o r w a r d
t r a n s i t i o n s t r u c t u r e i s designed f o r the second s t a g e of the o r b i t - t o -
moon vehicle ( a fourth stage when considering the o r i g i n a l combination
on the l a u n c h pad) which p e r f o r m s the l u n a r landing.

The f o u r t h s t a g e ( 0 2 / H 2 ) i s shown i n F i g . 11-31. T r a j e c t o r y -


shaping r e q u i r e m e n t s and g r a v i t y l o s s e s f o r this s t a g e on the e s c a p e
m i s s i o n m a k e a thrust-to-weight r a t i o of about 1. 2 d e z i r a b l e .

Since the engines proposed for the upper s t a g e s of S A T U R N II


(500,OOCLand 100,000-pound t h r u s t , H 2 / 0 2 ) a r e not now u n d e r a c t i v e
d e v e l o p m e n t , and a c c e l e r a t e d development p r o g r a m f o r e a c h engine
is r e q u i r e d f o r this p r o g r a m .

c. SATURH I1 - L u n a r Landing Vehicle ( D i r e c t )

The l u n a r landing vehicle going d i r e c t l y f r o m the e a r t h ' s


s u r f a c e to the l u n a r s u r f a c e is shown in Fig. 11-32. I t is anticipated
that high-energy p r o p e l l a n t s , which c a n be s t o r e d with m i n i m u m losses
during the 51-hour t r a j e c t o r y t i m e , a r e used for the landing m a n e u v e r ,
The a c t u a l landing technique, employing s o m e h o v e r i n g , and the

- .. . - .. .
! 7
t-

Fig. II-29. SATURN II - 2nd Stage


t
I
I

ii :I
I
-
4:
.O
--
I

I
-
n

39.6'

Fig. 11-30. SATURN XI - 3rd Stage


Fig. U-31. SATURN II - 4th Stage
103
1
I I
52'8"

Fig. U-32. L u n a r L a n d i n g Vehicle

105
I

!
I

i
guidance p r o b l e m s involved] a r e d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r 111. B. 5. T h e r e -
f o r e , only a weight breakdown f o r the c a r g o v e r s i o n i s given i n Table
11- 11. The nominal payload capability f o r a SATURN I1 vehicle i s
6000 pounds.

It should be borne i n mind that e x p e r i e n c e concerning soft


l u n a r landings will b e available f r o m other p r o g r a m s ; e. g. , the
SATURN I soft-lunar landing vehicle, This vehicle c a n l a n d between
about 500-pound payload b a s e d on a landing v e h i c l e u s i n g s t o r a b l e
p r o p e l l a n t s and, under f a v o r a b l e assumptions about 2000-pound
payload using high- e n e r g y propellants.

Table H-11
WEIGHT BREAKDOWN
CARGO VERSION OF LUNAR LANDING VEXICLE DIRECT DELIVERY
(EARTH- MOON)

Engine: & / & 30K T h r u t - L e v e l : (Controllable Thrust)


Payload and Payload Capsule (Including Compartment ) 6 , 000 lb
Guidance and Control 2,000

Allowmce f o r Weight I n c r e a e e s 540


T o t a l S t r u c t u r e (Including Engine /Landing . 2,970
Gear /Hydraulics / E l e c t r o n i c s / E t c . )

Propellant 15,240

T o t a l Weight = E s c a p e Payload of SATURN 11 26,750

2. Orbit-Launched Space Vehicle

F i g u r e 11- 3 3 shows the orbit-launched l u n a r v e h i c l e , a s it


would a p p e a r before leaving the o r b i t and Fig. 11-34 i l l u s t r a t e s the
v e h i c l e which would ultimately land on the moon. The 48,000-pound
payload shown in Fig. 11-34 is a manned e a r t h r e t u r n vehicle. T h i s
is b r o u g h t t o the 96-minute o r b i t by a SATURN I'I vehicle, and is r e -
f u e l e d f r o m o r b i t a l payload packages,

The vehicle is a tandem t h r e e - s t a g e r , the f i r s t s t a g e ( h i g h - e n e r g y )


being utilized to e s c a p e f r o m orbit. The second stage -
a l s o high-energy -
p r o v i d e s f o r the lunar landing, and the third s t a g e , a s t o r a b l e ,
r

F i g . LI-33. Orbit-Launched L u n a r Vehicle

I07
Fig. 11-34. Lunar Landing Vehicle

108
liquid-propellant r o c k e t vehicle, gives m o o n - t o - e a r t h r e t u r n c a p a b i l i t y
A weight s u m m a r y i s given in Table 11- 12.

An a t t r a c t i v e method of getting the orbit-launched vehicle to


o r b i t is t o utilize the f i r s t s t a g e of the o r b i t - l a u n c h e d l u n a r vehicle
in place of the t h i r d stage of the s t a n d a r d SATURN I1 t r a n s p o r t vehicle.
I t is d e s i r a b l e from the p e r f o r m a n c e point of view t o u s e a t h i r d stage
of the orbital-launched lunar vehicle t w i c e , first as a t h i r d stage of
SATURN I1 for t r a n s f e r into o r b i t ; then r e f u e l it and u s e again'for t h e
d e p a r t u r e maneuver f r o m o r b i t . Since the unfueled l u n a r vehicle
weighs 47,500 pounds, approximately 2 2 , 5 0 0 pounds of s t o r a b l e fuel
c a n be c a r r i e d d i r e c t l y into o r b i t i n the final e a r t h - r e t u r n s t a g e t o make
up the 70,000-pound payload capability of the SATURN I1 c a r r i e r v e h i c l e

Table II- 12
WEIGHT SUMMARY OF ORBIT-LAUNCHED LUNAR VEHICLE

rhruet to Leave Orbit, lb 200,000

Weight from Orbit, lb 400,000

Zutoff Weight, lb 160,000


rankage, Engines, e t c . , l b 20,000

[gnition Weight, Lunar Landing, lb 140,000

Cutoff Weight, lb 60,000

rankage and Engines, lb 9 1 000


I'hruat, lb 100,000
Gross Payload, Ib - 51,000
G&C, lb 3,000
Active Payload Package, lb 48,000
Therefore, per round trip,

goo, 000 13.3 successful SATURN I or


30,000

$': ::: = 5.7 successful SATURN I1 vehicle8 are neceaaary.

"hie must be compared t o t h e eight SATURN IIls'mentioned in


paragraph XZ. B. 4.

109. 1

...
Fueling of the l u n a r vehicle includes 2 4 0 , 0 0 0 pounds of 02/Hz
f o r the f i r s t powered phase o r o r b i t a l e s c a p e , 8 0 , 0 0 0 pounds of
O,/H2 f o r the second powered phase o r braking m a n e u v e r , and
1 0 , 0 0 0 pounds of s t o r a b l e fuel f o r the r e t u r n m i s s i o n which b r i n g s
the o r b i t a l take-off weight to 4 0 0 , 0 0 0 pounds.

A l t e r n a t e l y , the e n t i r e orbit-launched l u n a r vehicle could b e


brought into o r b i t by a s t a n d a r d SATURN I1 (utilizing i t s own thi;d
s t a g e ) , ’ fueling completed in o r b i t , then dispatched.

3. O r b i t a l R e t u r n Vehicle

The vehicle f o r s e r v i c i n g a n o r b i t a l s t a t i o n a n d / o r p l a t f o r m
will b e a r e - e n t r y body containing a s t o r a b l e liquid-propellant engine
which f u r n i s h e s the r e q u i r e d i m p u l s e for rendezvous ( o r b i t a l m a n -
e u v e r i n g ) , and r e t r o - k i c k f o r returning. T h e r e - e n t r y body would
contain s e a t s f o r returning m e n , i n s t r u m e n t s f o r communications and
r e - e n t r y m a n e u v e r i n g , and s u r v i v a l equipment, It will be capable of
housing a few m e n f o r s h o r t p e r i o d s of t i m e and s o b e c o m e a t e m p o r a r y
s a t e l l i t e itself. F o r longer p e r i o d s of t i m e and with m o r e m e n ,
additional housing m u s t b e provided, such a s e m p t y p r o p e l l a n t con-
t a i n e r s f i t t e d to s e r v e as living q u a r t e r s . Many of them could b e
a r r a n g e d s o as to provide ideal housing f o r a l a r g e s p a c e c r e w i n
orbit: a s p a c e platform.

The m o s t p r o m i s i n g r e - e n t r y s c h e m e that c a n b e o p e r a t i o n a l
i n t h r e e to f o u r y e a r s a p p e a r s t o b e a b a l l i s t i c r e - e n t r y using body-lift
Although this s c h e m e does not have the f u l l m a n e u v e r a b i l i t y of a glide
v e h i c l e , i t does have sufficient maneuverability t o c o r r e c t f o r r e - e n t r y
d i s p e r s i o n s . This will allow p r e s e l e c t i o n of the landing s i t e within
t h e o r b i t a l p l a n e , with a high d e g r e e of r e t u r n a c c u r a c y . A r e t u r n I

a c c u r a c y of a few m i l e s i s d e s i r a b l e f o r c r e w safety and r e d u c t i o n of ’


ground c r e w s t r e n g t h r e q u i r e d f o r routine r e c o v e r y operations. In
a n e m e r g e n c y , of c o u r s e , t h e r e would be l i t t l e r e g a r d paid to the
landing s i t e location.

A typical o r b i t a l r e - e n t r y vehicle utilizing v a r i a b l e body-lift


is shown i n Fig. 11-35. N o r m a l capability of this vehicle is t e n to
16 men. F o r t r a n s p o r t i n g ten m e n , the vehicle could c a r r y a n addi-
tional 1700 pounds of c a r g o ; and the m e n would have m o r e a p a c e i n
the cabin. A c r e w of ten m e n h a s been r e c o m m e n d e d f o r o r b i t a l
refueling of a m a n n e d - l u n a r - t r a n s p o r t vehicle. The t e n m e n would
b e housed in t h e r e - e n t r y vehicle and i n a n a t t a c h e d , c o n v e r t e d

I
110
-
-
t
.. . ,
i
. .. .. . . . .
Fig. 11-35. SATURN I Carrying Orbital Return Vehicle as a Payload

111
propellant tank, which i e r e f e r r e d to h e r e as l l m i n i m u m o r b i t a l station"
a n d is d i s c u s s e d s h o r t l y i n Chapter 111. B. 9.

The o r b i t a l r e - e n t r y vehicle h a s a configuration s i m i l a r to the


JUPITER nose c o n e , and is controlled during r e - e n t r y by flaps attached
t o the b a s e of the cone. The nose of the vehicle contains i n s t r u m e n t s
f o r guidance and communications, b a t t e r i e s , air bottle8 , and other
heavy equipment with the m e n located i n the m i d and aft s e c t i o n s of
t h e vehicle, The parachutes for r e c o v e r y and the a i r l o c k a r e located
on the aft bulkhead. The o r b i t a l - r e t u r n vehicle a e payload of the
o r b i t a l - c a r r i e r vehicle ie ehown i n Fig. 11-36. The r e t u r n vehicle
shown h a s the r e - e n t r y body r e v e r s e d and a 6K JPL etorable liquid-
propellant stage attached to the noee. Thie i l l u s t r a t i o n ehows the
a e r o d y n a m i c s h r o u d with eecape r o c k e t s , f o r launch and a e c e n t
e m e r g e n c i e s , s t i l l attached.

Since the ehroud and eecape r o c k e t s a r e ueed only f o r a s c e n t


e m e r g e n c i e e , they a r e jettisoned a f t e r eecond-stage ignition i s a s s u r e d .
The c a r r i e r vehicle ehown i s a two-stage SATURN I using the modified
TITAN a s the second stage. The payload h a s the 6K J P L engine f o r
maneuvering and r e t r o - i m p u l s e . The two- stage SATURN I vehicle
with kick c a n o r b i t 21,000 pounds of payload. The t h r e e - s t a g e v e r s i o n ,
if used for t h i s m i s e i o n , could o r b i t 30,000 pounds i n a 307-nautical-
m i l e o r b i t , which would leave approximately 10,000 pound8 of c a r g o
to be d e l i v e r e d t o the o r b i t in addition to the o r b i t a l r e t u r n vehicle
and personnel.

4. Lunar-Launched Return Vehicle


I

T h e r e a r e two promising possibilities f o r r e t u r n to e a r t h f r o m


the moon. One i 8 t o a s e e m b l e a r e t u r n vehicle on the lunar s u r f a c e
f r o m payloads launched directly f r o m e a r t h to moon with SATURN I1
vehicles which r e q u i r e s eight successful d i r e c t SATURN I1 flights.
The o t h e r is t o eue a r e t u r n vehicle which has been brought to the
moon i n one piece b y orbital technique as d e s c r i b e d e a r l i e r . In both
c a e e e , a e t o r a b l e propellant of 300 8ec Isp (vacuum) ha8 b e e n a s s u m e d
f o r the l u n a r take-off maneuver.

The r e t u r r i vehicle w i l l not be e t a g e d , eince the p e r f o r m a n c e


r e q u i r e d t o leave the moon i e r a t h e r low--about equal t o a ballietic
m i s a i l e with a 400-mile range on e a r t h . But b e c a u s e of the v e r t i c a l
r e - e n t r y and aerodynamic braking phase during flight t e r m i n a t i o n ,
a m p l e propellants f o r midcourae c o r r e c t i o n w i l l be c a r r i e d (200 m / e e c ) .
I

ANI

Fig. 11-36. Lunar-Launched R e t u r n Vehicle

113
Total velocity r e q u i r e m e n t 8 :

Launch f r o m Moon 2886 m / s e c

G-LOSS 200 m / s e c

Midcourse 200 m / s e c

Outage and R.eserves 244 m / s e c

3530 m / s e c

The orbit-departing l u n a r landing and r e t u r n vehicle i s shown


a s i t would l a n d on the moon i n Fig. 11-37. Shown i n the i n s e t of t h i s
f i g u r e is the lunar landing vehicle with t h e braking s t a g e and landing
pads. .

C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of this l u n a r r e t u r n vehicle a r e given i n


Table II- 13. An a l t e r n a t e method, to the orbit-launched l u n a r landing
r e t u r n v e h i c l e , of providing a l u n a r - e a r t h manned r e t u r n capability
employing only d i r e c t t r a j e c t o r i e s f o r SATURN I1 as a basic c a r r i e r
v e h i c l e , c a n b e accomplished by l u n a r a s s e m b l y as follows. The
SATURN I1 d i r e c t l u n a r landing capability of 6000 pounds would be
u s e d t o d e l i v e r a r e t u r n capsule t o the l u n a r s u r f a c e , with p e r s o n n e l
if d e s i r e d , a s shown i n Fig. XI- 38. Seven additional flights, each
containing a payload composed of a 600O-po~11d t h r u s t , engine and
s t o r a b l e propellant tank, with 5000 pounds of propellant, a s a p r e -
packaged unit would be d e l i v e r e d to the m o o n , as given i n Table Ii- 13.
The l u n a r landing vehicle's engines and tankage would b e r'eplaced b y
the prepackaged units, resulting i n a vehicle capable of returning the
6000-po~11d c a p s u l e to e a r t h a s shown i n Fig. 11-39.

5. Guidance and Control Svstem

The guidance a n d control ( G & C ) s y s t e m s u s e d for the SATURN I


and I1 v e h i c l e s , and f o r the varioue m i s s i o n s of t h i s p r o g r a m , a r e
combinations of i n e r t i a l , r a d i o - i n e r t i a l , and c e l e s t i a l - i n e r t i a l , using
vehicle-borne and e a r t h - b a s e d c o m p u t e r s i n i n t e g r a t e d s y s t e m s . F o r
s e v e r a l phases of the various m i s s i o n s , t h e guidance eystem will
initially r e l y upon a r a d i o communications s y s t e m (see Chapter IV)
capable of t r a n s m i t t i n g data from the vehicle t o an e a r t h control c e n t e r ,
and c o m m a n d s from the control c e n t e r t o the vehicle, Ultimately, a
530"

- 415"

Fig. LI-38. SATURN II Direct Lunar -ding Vehicle (Manned Capeule)


'EV A
CE 52-8-59
9 MAY 59

Fig. 11- 37. Lunar-Launched Return Vehicle

115
Table TI- 13
WEIGHT S U M M A R Y OF LUNAR-EARTH RETURN VEHICLES

Manned Capsule: 8,000 lb

C a r g o Capsule:
T h r u s t , one engine 6, 000 l b
Engine Weight 420 l b
P r o p e l l a n t Weight 5, 000 l b
S t r u c t u r e , etc., Weight 580 l b

6,000 lb

Comb inat ion of:


1 Manned Capsule
7 C a r g o Capsules give
Launch Weight 50, 000 l b
Cutoff Weight 15, 000 l b

I Orbit Departing Lunar R e t u r n Vehicle

Manned Capsule 8, 000 lb


Thrust 40, 000 lb
Launch Weight 46,500 l b
Cutoff Weight 14, 000 lb

s y s t e m will b e developed, in which the e a r t h - b a s e d g e n e r a l p u r p o s e


c o m p u t e r ( G P C ) i s r e p l a c e d by a vehicle-borne digital u n i v e r s a l
guidance c o m p u t e r with input and output a d a p t e r s t a i l o r e d to the
s p e c i f i c m i s s i o n . A s f a r a s G & C is c o n c e r n e d , the s y s t e m would
then be independent of a communications link t o e a r t h .

The G&C s y s t e m will b e designed f o r a u t o m a t i c o p e r a t i o n ,


without need f o r human intervention during the flight. T h i s f e a t u r e
is e s s e n t i a l , b e c a u s e the m a j o r i t y of the flights will be unmanned;
and the equipment a l s o m u s t continue to function with a d i s a b l e d
c r e w aboard. F o r manned f l i g h t s , however, s o m e d i s p l a y s and o v e r -
riding m a n u a l c o n t r o l s will b e m a d e a v a i l a b l e , in o r d e r to obtain
i m p r o v e d reliability.

The control of the motions of the vehicle about the c e n t e r of


g r a v i t y during the powered p h a s e of flight would b e b a s e d upon '

..
J' -\I d
\\

I \
t
I \
\
I \
I \
I \
\
I: I \ \

Fig* LI-39* L u n a r - A s s e m b l e d E a r t h R e t u r n Vehicle

118
intelligence f u r n i s h e d by the G&C equipment i n the payload o r u p p e r
s t a g e and possibly additional equipment l o c a t e d i n the b o o s t e r s .

F o r the d e s i g n of the G&C equipment, the a s s u m p t i o n will be


m a d e t h a t the following p r e r e q u i s i t e s a r e available:

(a) A c o m m o n t i m e standard.

( b ) A global communications s y s t e m , s u c h as the 24-hour


s a t e l l i t e communications s y s tern, providing communications b e t w e e n
the v e h i c l e s and the e a r t h - b a s e d control c e n t e r (see Chapter IV).

( c ) An e a r t h - b a s e d c o n t r o l c e n t e r , with at l e a s t one GPC that


c a n b e p r o g r a m m e d a c c o r d i n g to the r e q u i r e m e n t s of the v a r i o u s
p h a s e s of flight.

( d ) E a r t h - b a s e d t r a c k i n g s t a t i o n s , suitably a r r a n g e d and
s y n c h r o n i z e d ( s e e C h a p t e r IV).

( e ) Variable settings f o r a z i m u t h , pitch p r o g r a m , and p o w e r


cutoff i n the vehicle and ground support equipment,

( f ) E p h e m e r i s of the e a r t h - s a t e l l i t e in the t r a n s f e r orbit.

( g ) Homing beacon o r t r a n s p o n d e r i n the e a r t h - s a t e l l i t e in the


t r a n s f e r orbit.

( h ) T r a n s p o n d e r s on the moon i n known locations r e l a t i v e to


the s e l e c t e d landing site.

With t h e s e a s s u m p t i o n s , the m a i n f e a t u r e s of the p r o p o s e d G&C s y s t e m s


m a y be s u m m a r i z e d Table 11-14. It i s s e e n that the G & C o p e r a t i o n s
generally c a n b e b r o k e n down into the preflight, injection, m i d c o u r s e ,
and t e r m i n a l p h a s e s . During the preflight p h a s e , the p r e c o m p u t e d
guidance v a l u e s ( a z i m u t h , p i t c h - p r o g r a m , cutoff velocity) a r e played
into the guidance equipment; the laying operations t o line up the i n e r t i a l
platform a r e p e r f o r m e d ; and the s t a r - t r a c k e r s a r e p r e s e t f o r p r o p e r
a c q u i s i t i o n of t h e i r t a r g e t s ( f o r moon, p l a n e t s , s u n a n d / o r o t h e r stars)
The injection phase begins at lift-off. The cutoff equation will b e s o l v e d
f o r the individual t r a j e c t o r y being flown e i t h e r by vehicle-borne equip-
m e n t ( i n e r t i a l guidance c o m p u t e r ) a n d / o r by r a d i o - i n e r t i a l m e a n s a n d
the earth-based GPC. An a c t i v e m i d c o u r s e p h a s e m u s t be employed
to c o r r e c t f o r injection e r r o r s , if the r e s u l t i n g a c c u r a c y of t h e injection

,
TABLE 11-14
MAIN FEATURES OF GUIDANCE AND CONTROL SYSTEM

P h a s e of F l i u h t
~

Mlssion Prefllght Injection Midcourse Tarmlnal


E a r t h S u r f a c e to Lunar Computation of Guidance Values (E) Radio-inertial (E.V) Position f r o m s t a r - t r a c k e r 9. Proportional Navigatlon Basad
S u r f a c e ; Soft Spot- Laying (V.E) I n e r t l a l (V. B) attitude and t i m e ( V ) on Line of Slght and Distance
Landing P r e s e t Guidance Values (V) Radio Tracking (E. V. 8) Beacon (V) T r a n s p o n d e r (M)
P r e s e t S t a r - T r a c k e r s (V) for Ccmputatlon of C o r r e c t i o n Glva Positlon and Velocity
Acquisition of T a r g e t s M a n e u v e r s (E) Relative t o L u n a r Landlng
I n e r t l a l S u p e r v l s l o n of site
C o r r e c t i o n Maneuvers (V) Beacon Resolver (V) Gives
Smoothing Data (E) f r o m L a t e r a l Velocity and
S u r T r a c k e r s (V). Angular Veloclty of Line
Radio T r a c k i n g (E) af Sight
Nose o r T a i l T o w a r d r Inertial Supervlslon of
Sun in F r e e - T l l g h t (V) Braking (V)
Braking Computer (V)
Map Matching a n d l o r TV (A)
E a r t h Satellite to Luna >omputation¶ (E) Inertial ( V ) S a m e a s above S u n s as above
S u r f a c e ; Soft Spot- I r b i t Fixed "Laying" (% E
,') Radio-Inertla1
Landing 'reset Guidance Values (V) (E. V . B)
'reset S t a r - T r a c k e r s (V)
Cor Acqulsltion of Target.

Lunar Surface to Earth ;omputations ( E ) Inertial (V) E s s e n t i a l l y a s above Tracking ( E )


Snrface; Re-entry vrtb -aying (V.M) Radio T r a c k i n g (E)A f t e r F i n a l Angle of Attack and Skin
Lift and Aerodynamic
Braking
'reset Guidance Valuer (V)
'reset S t a r - T r a c k e r s (V)
Acquisition
C e l e s t i a l - I n e r t i a l (V, 8)
Ternparalure - M e t e r s (V)
A c c e l e r o m e t e r s (V)
f o r Acquisition of T a r g e t s LUt and Braking Computar (V)
Deployment of P a r a c h u t e (V)
Rmcovmry Beacon (V)
E a r t h Surface t o :omputation. ( E ) Inertial (V) Radio T r a c l d n g (E.A) Proportional N a d g a t l o n Based
Rendorvous d t h .+ng (V.E) Radlo -1ne r t l a l E a r t h Assisted Corrections on Angular V&locity of Line
E a r t h Satellite ' r e s e t Guidance Valuer (V) ( E , V. A ) (A1 of Slght aod Distance
Beacon (V) T r a n s p o n d e r ( S )
Glve Position and Velocity
Relative t o Satellite
I n a r t i d Supervlslon of
Approach (V)
Approach Computer (V)

Re-entry f r w Earth amputations (E) Inertial (V) Cut- Radio T r a c k i n g ( E . A ) Tracking (E)
S a t e l l i t e Orbit: rtth rbit FLxtd "Laying" ( V . E ) off of Braking Earth Assisted Corrcctlons Angle of Attack and Skin
Mt and A e r o - r e a c t Guidance Values (V) Rocket (A) T e m p e r a t u r e M e t e r s (V)
Dynamic Braldng A c c e l e r o m e t e r s (y)
Lift and Braking Computer (V)
Deployment of P a r a c h u t e (V)
Recovery Beacon (V)

(E) Earth-Baaed equipment. ( M ) Moon-based equipment.


.. ....
- .
-
(S) Sate I11 te b o t o s . (V) Vehicle-borne.
The guidance values a r e azimuth correction, pltch p r o g r a m . cut-off velocity a s
functlons of h e .
p h a s e is not sufficient to give acceptable t o l e r a n c e s f o r the beginning
of the t e r m i n a l phase. F o r the longer flights i n e a r t h - m o o n s p a c e ,
t h i s m i d c o u r s e c o r r e c t i o n could be b a s e d upon position and velocity
i n f o r m a t i o n d e r i v e d f r o m the t h r e e star- t r a c k e r s a b o a r d the vehicle.
T h i s will eventually l e a d to a guidance s y s t e m t h a t i S independent
of v e h i c l e - e a r t h - v e h i c l e communications. Initially, h o w e v e r , r a d i o -
t r a c k i n g and ground computations will b e u s e d extensiGely s o t h a t
v e h i c l e - e a r t h - v e h i c l e communications a r e e s s e n t i a l f o r this guidance
phase.

During the t e r m i n a l p h a s e , the guidance will be " t a r g e t - o r i e n t e d


F o r example, during the powered t e r m i n a l m a n e u v e r in-flights to
o r b i t a l rendezvous and to the l u n a r landing s i t e , line-of-sight i n f o r -
m a t i o n ( r o t a t i o n a l velocity of the line- of - s i g h t and distance) will b e
u s e d to s t e e r a type of proportional navigation c o u r s e , with e s s e n t i a l l y
z e r o differential velocity between vehicle and t a r g e t a t the end of
t e r m i n a l phase. The G & C r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r manned r e - e n t r y f l i g h t s
with s a t e l l i t e velocity, and p a r t i c u l a r l y with e s c a p e velocity f o r e a r t h
r e c o v e r y i n p r e s e l e c t e d a r e a s , will r e q u i r e f u r t h e r development work.
It is expected t h a t s o m e information and e x p e r i e n c e on t h i s p r o b l e m
w i l l be obtained f r o m other p r o g r a m s in the n e a r future.

6 . Guidance and Control System Availability

A typical block d i a g r a m of the proposed G&C s y s t e m i s given


i n Fig. 11-40, This s y s t e m r e l i e s on components that a r e e i t h e r r e a d i l y
available or i n the development stage. Only a l i t t l e fundamental r e -
s e a r c h will be r e q u i r e d ; the development e f f o r t will c o n s i s t m a i n l y
of modifying, adapting, packaging of components into the p r o p o s e d
i n s t r u m e n t s , and integrating these into the c o m p l e t e s y s t e m . In t h e
following, a few of the m o r e important components a r e given that
would r e q u i r e development work of the type indicated.

a. S t a r - T r a c k e r , L a t e r a l Photocell

The s t a r - t r a c k e r and l a t e r a l photocell will b e a n optical .


s y s t e m t h a t employs a semi-conductor photocell a s a s e n s o r . If t h e
i m a g e of the s t a r ( i n the g e n e r a l s e n s e ) is not c e n t e r e d on the s u r f a c e
of the photocell, a n e r r o r signal i s generated i n two ( l a t e r a l ) c o o r d i -
n a t e s ( X , Y ) . The e r r o r signal is fed into two s e r v o d r i v e s which .
k e e p the i m a g e of the s t a r c e n t e r e d on the cell. The angles r e s u l t i n g
f r o m this s e r v o operation a r e relayed to the c o m p u t e r v i a two d i g i t a l
readout e n c o d e r s , T h r e e s t a r - t r a c k e r s of this type will be mounted on
t h e vehicle.
b. Velocity and Attitude Control Computer

By m e a n s of v a r i o u s inputs, the velocity and attitude c o n t r o l


computer s y s t e m will compute and send r e q u i r e d s i g n a l s for the
attitude control. It will a l s o provide a velocity c o m p u t e r s e c t i o n to
i n i t i a t e ignition, swivel, t h r u s t c o n t r o l , and t h r u s t t e r m i n a t i o n of t h e
engines. Main development p r o b l e m s include the d e s i g n of digital
c o m p u t e r and s e r v o r e s p o n s e .

c. Guidance and Approach Computer

Using v a r i o u s i n p u t s , the guidance and a p p r o a c h c o m p u t e r


s y s t e m w i l l compute and send s i g n a l s to the velocity and attitude
c o n t r o l computer. A l s o , i t will evaluate a c c e l e r a t i o n s i n l a t e r a l
d i r e c t i o n s i n o r d e r to d e t e r m i n e the n e c e s s a r y c o r r e c t i o n m a n e u v e r s .
During a p p r o a c h e s , i t will r e d u c e velocity and d i s t a n c e to z e r o s i m u l -
taneously. Main development p r o b l e m s include advanced digital
computer and s e r v o loop design.

d. Guidance and Attitude P r o g r a m m e r

.
The guidance and attitude p r o g r a m m e r s y s t e m will store
precomputed G & C information to attain optimum solutions for the
v a r i o u s p h a s e s of a flight. Thus a " c l o s e - t o - p r e c o m p u t e d t r a j e c t o r y "
m a y be obtained, i n c o n t r a s t to a Q - m a t r i x s y s t e m . The main d e v e l -
opment p r o b l e m s include design of the m e m o r y d e v i c e s and m i n i a t u r i z a t i a n .

e. Stabilized P l a t f o r m

This stabilized platform s y s t e m will c o n s i s t of a c o m p l e t e


t h r e e - a x i s stabilized platform with full f r e e d o m and redundant p r o g r a m
axis i n e a c h coordinate, t h r e e h i g h - p r e c i s i o n a i r b e a r i n g g y r o s , t h r e e
h i g h - p r e c i s i o n a c c e l e r o m e t e r s , t h r e e leveling d e v i c e s , and a re-
circulating a i r s y s t e m . It will maintain a s p a t i a l r e f e r e n c e d u r i n g
the e n t i r e flight, and i t will f u r n i s h s i g n a l s to the c o m p u t e r s f o r
attitude control and guidance. The m a i n development p r o g r a m is ' .
packaging.

f. Attitude C o n t r o l

The attitude c o n t r o l s y s t e m will execute c o n t r o l m a n e u v e r s


by m e a n s of a hydraulic pump a c t u a t o r s y s t e m s t e e r i n g swivel engines
( f o r l a r g e d i s t u r b a n c e s ) , o r by m e a n s of f o u r p a i r s of air nozzles

123

I
providing p r o p o r t i o n a l c o n t r o l of 0 to 30 pounds of t h r u s t p e r a x i s
( f o r s m a l l d i s t u r b a n c e s ) . The s y s t e m will be l o c a t e d in the f o r w a r d
section of the vehicle to s e r v e all phases of flight with one s y s t e m .
Main development p r o b l e m s include adaptation and packaging of
currently available systems.

g. Beacon R e s o l v e r

As p a r t of the o v e r a l l tracking s y s t e m , this beacon r e s o l v e r


will r e c e i v e s i g n a l s and r e s o l y e angles f r o m t r a n s p o n d e r s on the
rendezvous s a t e l l i t e o r on the l u n a r s u r f a c e . It will d e t e r m i n e position
and p o s s i b l y velocity of the vehicle r e l a t i v e to the t r a n s p o n d e r s and
will feed this information into the guidance and control c o m p u t e r s ,

h. Map M a t c h e r

A m a p m a t c h e r would a s s i s t o r r e p l a c e the beacon r e e o l v e t


The i n s t r u m e n t would c o m p a r e p i c t u r e s on the p r i n c i p l e of a r e a
m a t c h i n g , i t s outputs being fed to the guidance and c o n t r o l c o m p u t e r s
during approach. I t could work on a continuous o r i n t e r m i t t e n t b a s i s ,
It a p p e a r s to be possible t o build s o m e logic into the m a p m a t c h e r .
E x t e n s i v e development work will be n e c e s s a r y , p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r the
s e n s o r d e s i g n s , which m u s t b e suitable f o r approach to the b r i g h t
and d a r k l u n a r s u r f a c e .

i. Television

A TV s y s t e m could b e used a s a r e p l a c e m e n t o r to a s s i s t
the beacon r e s o l v e r , o r the automatic m a p m a t c h e r . This equipment
would t r a n s m i t a p i c t u r e back to the e a r t h - b a s e d c o n t r o l c e n t e r , w h e r e
c o r r e c t i v e m a n e u v e r s o r the decision f o r landing could be s u p e r v i s e d
a n d / o r intitated. Development p r o b l e m s include n e a r r e a l - t i m e
t r a n s m i s s i o n of p i c t o r i a l d a t a to a c o n t r o l c e n t e r (possibly on the o t h e r
s i d e of t h e e a r t h , involving a high power broad-band communications
link) , and provision of a l a r g e r power supply s y s t e m a b o a r d the
vehicle a n d / o r a d i r e c t i o n a l antenna a b o a r d the vehicle ( t o t r a c k the
e a r t h ) . Solutions to t h e s e p r o b l e m s a r e known to be costly. The
possibility of hovering c l o s e above the l u n a r s u r f a c e l e s s e n s the
magnitude of t h e s e p r o b l e m s somewhat.
7. System I m p r o v e m e n t s and Vehicle Optimization

I n establishing the i n i t i a l payload c a p a b i l i t i e s f o r the o r b i t a l


and e s c a p e m i s s i o n s f o r SATURN I and 11, i t was f e l t t h a t v a l u e s
used should be c o n s e r v a t i v e and guaranteeable and that they should
r e p r e s e n t "effective payload. I n o t h e r w o r d s , t h e s e f i g u r e s do not
include any i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n o r payload c o n t a i n e r w e i g h t s , n o r do they
r e p r e s e n t a n "on-the-ground" type of t o t a l weight figure. They
include, h o w e v e r , a c r e w and t h e i r p e r s o n a l equipment, if applicable.
F o r this r e a s o n , the v a l u e s of payloads of ap.proximately 3 0 , 0 0 0 pounds
and 7 0 , 0 0 0 pounds f o r o r b i t a l capability of SATURN I and LI and of
27,000 pounds f o r SATURN I1 e s c a p e are used. A c o m p l e t e vehicle
optimization study i s expected to r e s u l t i n i n c r e a s e d payload c a p a b i l i t i e s

In addition to the above noted p e r f o r m a n c e i n c r e a s e s , due


p r i m a r i l y to shifting of p r o p e l l a n t s and staging, i t a p p e a r s that f u r t h e r
p e r f o r m a n c e i n c r e a s e s will b e r e a l i z e d through the u s e of high s t r e n g t h -
to-weight r a t i o m a t e r i a l s , r e - u s e of components, s t a t e - o f - t h e - a r t
development i m p r o v e m e n t s i n components, and in a lengthening of t h e
51-hour e a r t h - t o - m o o n t r a j e c t o r y to a p p r o x i m a t e l y 60 hours. P r e -
l i m i n a r y calculations indicate t h a t the soft landing capability of SATURN
I1 i s i n c r e a s e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y 20 p e r c e n t by lengthening the t r a j e c t o r y
t i m e a like percentage of time.

T h u s , a high probability e x i s t s that a m i n i m u m p e r f o r m a n c e


i m p r o v e m e n t of 20 p e r c e n t o r m o r e might b e r e a l i z e d i n the final
d e s i g n of both the S A T U R N I and SATURN I1 v e h i c l e s , which in t u r n
r e f l e c t g r e a t e r o v e r a l l safety and reliability.

8. Manned Payloads

T r a n s p o r t a t i o n to the l u n a r outpost will r e q u i r e t w o b a s i c


manned c a p s u l e s . These c a p s u l e s , with suitable modifications f o r
s p e c i a l conditions, will s e r v e as round t r i p t r a n s p o r t e r s f o r o r b i t a l
c r e w s and to t r a n s p o r t the outpost personnel to the m o o n ' s s u r f a c e
v i a o r b i t and r e t u r n to the e a r t h ' s surface. Configurations of both
manned c a p s u l e s proposed h e r e a r e b a s e d on t h e p r o v e n 3UPITER
nose cone configuration technology. However, it i s understood t h a t
between the p r e s e n t t i m e and the inception of final c a p s u l e d e s i g n ,
full exploitation will be m a d e of the l a t e s t s t a t e - o f - t h e - a r t a d v a n c e m e n t s
in vehicle r e - e n t r y and r e c o v e r y designs.
Two ways of mounting the c a p s u l e on t o p of the v e h i c l e w e r e
s t u d i e d , f o r w a r d and r e a r w a r d Of t h e s e , the r e v e r s e d cone with
t r a i l i n g edge aerodynamic control s u r f a c e s a p p e a r s m o s t p r o m i s i n g
f o r t r a n s p o r t i n g p e r s o n n e l t o and f r o m t h e o r b i t a l station. A s d i s -
c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r 111. B. 3 , this capsule c a n a l s o s e r v e as one of the
b a s i c e l e m e n t s of t h e m i n i m u m o r b i t a l station. The r e v e r s e position
o f f e r s the m a x i m u m amount of c r e w protection and s a f e t y in the event
of p r e - l a u n c h o r e a r l y lift-off vehicle failure. Aerodynamic c o n t r o l
s u r f a c e s a r e provided to p e r m i t the u s e of body l i f t during the r e - e n t r y
p o r t i o n of flight to lower the maximum d e c e l e r a t i o n s encountered.
In addition, s u c h lift would provide a m a n e u v e r a b i l i t y r a n g e a p p r o a c h -
ing plus o r m i n u s 1500 m i l e s on the e a r t h ' s s u r f a c e .

The i n t e r i o r of the capsule is a r r a n g e d to allow f o r t h e t r a n s -


porting of t e n to 16 m e n into o r b i t and r e t u r n . Living s p a c e is l i m i t e d
to that needed during the a s c e n t and d e s c e n t portion of the flight. On
the o r b i t a l s t a t i o n , additional volume will be provided f o r living q u a r t e r s
An a i r l o c k , jettisonable during r e - e n t r y , i s provided a t the r e a r of the
c a p s u l e f o r e n t r a n c e and e g r e s s . ( D e t a i l s in F i g . 11-35. )

Adequate volume f o r l i f e support e s s e n t i a l s h a s b e e n provided


b a s e d on a consumption r a t e of approximately 450 pounds /man/month.
T h e s e e s s e n t i a l s a r e d i s t r i b u t e d both within the capsule f o r s h o r t - t e r m
u s e and e m e r g e n c y , and i n the attached vehicle payload container f o r
extended o r b i t a l s t o r a g e . T e r m i n a l o r b i t a l r e c o v e r y equipment is
l o c a t e d within c o n t a i n e r s attached to the r e a r s u r f a c e of the capsule.

The c a p s u l e to t r a n s p o r t m e n to the m o o n ' s s u r f a c e v i a t h e


o r b i t a l s t a t i o n and r e t u r n to the e a r t h ' s s u r f a c e i s shown i n Fig. 11-37
a s p a r t of a l u n a r landing vehicle. Capsule configuration is b a s e d on
the J U P I T E R nose cone shape, a s is the t e n - m a n o r b i t a l r e t u r n cap-
s u l e , but h a s additional ablation m a t e r i a l f o r protection during p a r a -
bolic r e - e n t r y . Again the r e v e r s e cone position o f f e r s the g r e a t e s t
c r e w p r o t e c t i o n and safety during landing and p r e - l a u n c h o p e r a t i o n s
and at lift-off. Designed f o r the initial t r a n s p o r t of two m e n , t h e
c a p s u l e d u r i n g l a t e r m i s s i o n s will include provisions f o r t h r e e m e n
and eventually f o u r men. The s p a c e available f o r movement within
the capsule b e c o m e s s m a l l e r as a g r e a t e r number of m e n a r e c a r r i e d ;
but t h i s i s physiologically acceptable during the 51- t o 60-hour flight .
period.
. .
F u l l environmental control is provided, maintaining approxi-
m a t e l y one a t m o s p h e r e p r e s s u r e with oxygen and a n i n e r t gas.

I
T e m p e r a t u r e and humidity will b e balanced and maintained within
t o l e r a b l e l i m i t s . E l e c t r o n i c equipment i s provided for navigation,
voice communications, t e l e m e t r y , and t r a c k i n g beacons.

F o r the second manned l u n a r flight scheduled in J u l y 1965,


the t e n - m a n capsule d e s c r i b e d above will b e used providing t r a n s -
p o r t a t i o n for nine m e n to the l u n a r s u r f a c e . Upon a r r i v a l on the
l u n a r s u r f a c e , t h i s capsule w i l l not have the capability of i m m e d i a t e
r e t u r n . However, pre-packaged b o o s t e r engines m a y be included
i n the r e g u l a r unmanned supply vehicles to p e r m i t buildup of a com-
plete e a r t h - r e t u r n vehicle. By t h i s method, and by utilizing the
e m e r g e n c y 16-man r e t u r n capacity of the c a p s u l e , a capability is
provided to p e r m i t the r e t u r n of all lunar-located personnel a t one
t i m e i n a n emergency.

9. Cargo Payloads

a. SATURN I Vehicle

C a r g o payload to be c a r r i e d into o r b i t by the SATURN I


vehicles w i l l c o n s i s t p r i m a r i l y of propellants f o r orbital fueling of
the manned l u n a r vehicle. Tankage f o r such a c a r g o vehicle, illue-
t r a t e d i n Fig. II-41, i s b a s e d on a n extension of the 120-inch d i a m e t e r
f o r the SATURN I upper s t a g e s . Based on the oxidizer/fuel r a t i o
of 5. 1, the tanks w i l l contain approximately 4750 pounds of liquid
hydrogen and 2 7 , 7 5 0 pounds of liquid oxygen, which i s c l o s e to a
s t a n d a r d CENTAUR tank capacity.

b. SATURN II Vehicle

Two typical c a r g o c o m p a r t m e n t s a r e shown i n F i g s . 11-42


and 11-32 f o r the d i r e c t e a r t h - t o - m o o n m i s s i o n s with SATURN 11. The
f i r s t of these i s shown with a s t o r a b l e - p r o p e l l a n t tank and engine of
6000 pounda which is needed f o r the l u n a r - a s s e m b l e d r e t u r n vehicle
which was shown in Fig. II-39. The second f i g u r e (Fig. 11-32) d e p i c t s
the s t a n d a r d 20-foot-long l u n a r outpost c o m p a r t m e n t a s payload on
the d i r e c t flight. E i t h e r of t h e s e , a s well a s o t h e r , typical config-
u r a t i o n s might b e used.

S i m i l a r l y , the o r b i t a l c a r g o payload f o r the SATURN XI


vehicle will be p r i m a r i l y propellants f o r fueling with some m i s c e l -
laneous cargo. F o r the fueling o p e r a t i o n s , the tankage will be
g e n e r a l l y e h i l a r to that provided in the lunar landing vehicle for the

127
I
I

i II
\ . . - . ,
HOSE

REFUELING
TANKAGE

_ _

58'
1
I

I 2 0" c BASIC STAGE


43' --- DIA TANKAGE
I

T A N K E R VEHICLE
( C O M B I N E D H 10 T A N K A G E )
2 2
G E 52-10-59
9 MAY 1959

F i g . 11- 41. Dimensions of Typical T a n k e r Payload (SATURN I)

128
Fig. II-42 Lunar Landing Vehicle with -, 000-Pound Propulsion
Unit a s a Payload
landing maneuver. A cylindrical s e g m e n t of t h e vehicle u p p e r s t a g e ,
256-inch d i a m e t e r , is capped by a s h o r t conical section.

F o r the SATURN I1 vehicle m i s c e l l a n e o u s c a r g o v e r s i o n ,


the c o n t a i n e r c o m p a r t m e n t will have the s a m e e x t e r n a l configuration
a s the t a n k e r version. Adequate i n t e r n a l b r a c i n g and s u p p o r t will
be provided to allow t r a n s p o r t a t i o n of the 70,000-pound payload i n
approximately 5500 cubic feet.

The b a s i c s t r u c t u r e of the l u n a r landing v e h i c l e will be u s e d


to c a r r y c a r g o f r o m o r b i t to the l u n a r s u r f a c e . I n this i n s t a n c e ,
h o w e v e r , the manned c a p s u l e and e a r t h - r e t u r n vehicle w i l l b e r e m o v e d
and a c a r g o container of s i m i l a r e x t e r n a l configuration will b e sub-
s t i t u t e d , providing a payload on the l u n a r s u r f a c e of 48,000 pounds.

Each fueling c r e w , both initial and s u b s e q u e n t r e p l a c e m e n t s ,


will be provided a two-months supply of life e s s e n t i a l s fox s u s t e n a n c e
throughout the o r b i t a l period.

10. O r b i t a l Space Station and F a c i l i t i e s

a. Station P r o v i s i o n

It i s v e r y likely that a previously c o n s t r u c t e d completely


equipped s p a c e platform will be available in 1965 f o r u s e as housing '

facil.ities and f o r other support for the refueling operation. This could
include: l i f e - e s s e n t i a l supplies and equipment, housing, m e d i c a l c a r e ,
l a r g e s c a l e communications equipment, and e m e r g e n c y supplies.

In the event that a n operational s p a c e p l a t f o r m i n a suitable


o r b i t i s not available f o r u s e by the fueling p e r s o n n e l , it w i l l be nec-
e s s a r y to provide suitable q u a r t e r s on a m i n i m u m f a c i l i t y b a s i s . The
c a p s u l e f o r t r a n s p o r t i n g t e n m e n into o r b i t and r e t u r n i n i t s e l f i s
insufficient f o r extended periods of habitation, and additional living
q u a r t e r s m u s t be provided. Through the u s e of the tankage of the
SATURN I high-energy l a s t stage s u c h additional s p a c e c a n b e m a d e
a v a i l a b l e with minimum o r b i t a l a s s e m b l y and with no additional v e h i c l e
r e q u i r e m e n t s . Although special tanks f o r c o n v e r s i o n t o habitable
q u a r t e r s will weigh slightly m o r e than the s t a n d a r d t a n k a g e , the useful
weight i n o r b i t will be g r e a t e r , Tankage c o n v e r s i o n f o r t h i s dual
purpobe r o l e will be n e c e s s a r y only f o r the i n i t i a l manned o r b i t a l
fueling m i s s i o n s . When r o t a t i o n of t h e fueling cr'ew takes p l a c e , the
a r r i v i n g c r e w and c a p s u l e will utilize the same tank converted q u a r t e r s .

130
In the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the m i n i m u m o r b i t a l s t a t i o n , the
manned o r b i t a l capsule i l l u s t r a t e d in F i g , 11-35 with attached r e - e n t r y
propulsion s y s t e m is detached f r o m the l a s t s t a g e b o o s t e r i n orbit.
By turning this c a p s u l e a r o u n d , the capsule a i r l o c k will be o r i e n t e d
t o w a r d the b o o s t e r payload s e c t i o n and upper p a r t of the boos,ter tankage.
A continuation of the a i r l o c k to provide both e n t r a n c e into the vehicle
f r o m the c a p s u l e and e n t r a n c e f r o m the outside i s attached to the pay-
load Compartment. Once the r e o r i e n t e d capsule i s connected to the
payload c o m p a r t m e n t and the tanks purged of r e s i d u a l p r o p e l l a n t s ,
equipment i s moved f r o m the payload c o m p a r t m e n t into the tanks.
Communications and power monitoring will take place a t the i n s t r u -
m e n t consoles in the r e t u r n capsule. The r e m a i n i n g i n t e r i o r a c t i v i t i e s
will o c c u r within the inhabited tankage/payload c o m p a r t m e n t . As addi-
tional vehicles a r r i v e , the e m p t y tanks will be attached to the e x t e r i o r
of the inhabited station to f o r m both m e t e o r o i d protection and r a d i a t i o n
shielding; i n addition, to providing e x t e r i o r s t o r a g e and minimizing
the e f f e c t of p e r t u r b i n g f o r c e s on the station f r o m p e r s o n n e l move-
ment and equipment operation.

A s t i m e p e r m i t s , the empty propellant tanks m a y b e a s s e m -


bled into a s p a c e platform. A typical configuration of 22 s e t s of tanks
i s shown i n Fig. 11-43.

F o r those m i s s i o n s i n which m i s c e l l a n e o u s c a r g o is c a r r i e d
into o r b i t , the payload c o n t a i n e r will have the s a m e e x t e r n a l configura-
tion a s the propellant container. P r o v i s i o n s will be m a d e within the
payload container to support and s e c u r e the c a r g o , and p r e s s u r i z e d
volume w i l l be provided a s n e c e s s a r y , The payload container including
conical nose w i l l inclose approximately 2000 cubic f e e t with a capacity
up to 3 0 , 0 0 0 pounds.

b, Fueling Operations

The m a j o r i t e m s of equipment n e c e s s a r y f o r propellant


t r a n s f e r in o r b i t a r e manifolds f o r interconnecting t a n k a g e , m e t e r s
f o r f u e l s and o x i d i z e r s , and t r a n s f e r hose with valving and disconnects.
F i g u r e II-44 i l l u s t r a t e s a simplified method of o r b i t a l refueling.
Connection i s m a d e to the l u n a r vehicle through a flow m e t e r and
disconnect valve. In this m e t h o d , the f u e l tanks a r e individually
f a s t e n e d t o the l u n a r vehicle and fuel i s t r a n s f e r r e d f r o m one tank
at a time.

131
IO' DIA.

F i g , II-43. Typical Space Platform Assembledfrom Empty Containers

133
FUELING OF ORBIT LAUNCHED
SPACE VEHICLE

F i g . 11-44. Refueling of Orbit- Launched Space Vehicle


Checkout equipment f o r the o r b i t a l o p e r a t i o n will be similar
to t h a t r e q u i r e d a t the l u n a r outpost; h o w e v e r , t h e weight l i m i t a t i o n s
a r e l e s s c r i t i c a l . A p r e l i m i n a r y e s t i m a t e resulted i n a weight r e q u i r e -
m e n t of a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1 2 , 0 0 0 pounds occupying 600 cubic f e e t which
would allow f o r a complete set plus a n eqyivalent weight f o r a b p a r e
set.

11. T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Sys t e m Growth P o t e n t i-


al

F u r t h e r growth potential (beyond SATURN 11) f o r the t r a n s -


portation s y s t e m depends upon many i t e m s . T h e development of l a r g e r
v e h i c l e s , m o r e advanced propulsion s y s t e m s , such as e l e c t r i c or
n u c l e a r , and i m p r o v e m e n t s i n m a t e r i a l s and p r o p e l l a n t s a r e among
the i t e m s which would contribute to i m p r o v e d growth potential f i g u r e s .

Of the n u m e r o u s p o s s i b l e methods of obtaining l a r g e r payload


capabilities , t h r e e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e examples have b e e n s e l e c t e d as
follows: (1) the development of n u c l e a r upper s t a g e s , o r (2) the devel-
opment of a l a r g e c h e m i c a l propellant vehicle, s u c h as a b o o s t e r with
a c l u s t e r of eight F- 1 engines with a lift-off t h r u s t of 1 2 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0
pounds , and ( 3 ) the development of a s p a c e f e r r y b a s e d on ion p r o -
pulsion which looks v e r y p r o m i s i n g , but only f o r c a r g o t r a n s p o r t a t i o n
b e c a u s e of the long t r a n s f e r t i m e in e x c e s s of 100 days.

Other i m p r o v e m e n t s , not m a j o r but s i g n i f i c a n t , c a n be achieved


in m a t e r i a l s and propellants , and in vehicle optimization. Vehicle
optimization i s d i s c u s s e d in p a r a g r a p h B - 6 above. In the a r e a of
m a t e r i a l s i m p r o v e m e n t , i t a p p e a r s that titanium and b e r y l l i u m m a y
provide substantial i m p r o v e m e n t s in vehicle p e r f o r m a n c e w h e r e t h e s e
high s t r e n g t h - to-weight m a t e r i a l s a r e used extensively i n the upper
s t a g e s of the l u n a r vehicle and i n the r e t u r n vehicle. New p l a s t i c s
m a y provide weight reductions in the ablation m a t e r i a l r e q u i r e d f o r
d r a g type o r b i t a l - r e t u r n and l u n a r - r e t u r n vehicles. Other u s e s f o r
p l a s t i c s might include flexible f u e l t a n k s , s t r u c t u r a l m e m b e r s , and
radiation p r o t e c t ion.

If it is proven that the f u e l - s t o r a g e potentials of the lunar


environment a r e as good as expected, it will b e p o s s i b l e to u s e high-
e n e r g y propellants t o power the e a r t h - r e t u r n v e h i c l e s ; a n d significant
o v e r a l l i m p r o v e m e n t s will then be realized.

Reductions in payload r e q u i r e m e n t s m a y r e s u l t f r o m the


u s e of lunar r e s o u r c e s , but this a r e a c a n b e e x p l o r e d only i n the l a t t e r
p h a s e s of t h e p r o g r a m . If the need a r i s e s f o r a m u c h l a r g e r vehicle
b a s e d only on c h e m i c a l propellants i n the payload c l a s s of 500,000
pounds f o r a 96-minute o r b i t , then s u c h a b o o s t e r could be b a s e d on
a c l u s t e r of eight F-1 engines. The vehicle payloads of s u c h a d e s i g n
a r e a p p r o x i m a t e l y 480 , 000 pounds f o r 96-minute o r b i t , 176,000
pounds t o escape , and 63,000 pounds soft-landed on the moon. The
v e h i c l e shown in Fig. 11-45 h a s b e e n investigated in s o m e detail. Since
it i s a n extension of, r a t h e r than a p a r t of the c a r r i e r s y s t e m used in
e s t a b l i s h i n g the proposed l u n a r outpost, line drawings of individual
s t a g e s a r e not shown; h o w e v e r , the weight s u m m a r y is given in
T a b l e 11-15. The vehicle is subject t o t h e optimization a s p e c t s dis-
c u s s e d f o r the SATURN II vehicle. The b o o s t e r i s a single-tank d e s i g n
with c o m p r e s s i o n loaded tank sections. P r e s s u r e c a r r i e s only about
one-fourth of the longitudinal loads. The second s t a g e h a s a longi-
tudinally stiffened tPnk section. However , l o a d s , except bending, a r e
c a r r i e d by the p r e s s u r e s r e q u i r e d to m e e t the engine net-positive
suction-head r e q u i r e m e n t s . P r o p u l s i o n is provided by f o u r
1,200,000-pound t h r u s t O2/H2 engines o r equivalent. The t h i r d and
f o u r t h s t a g e s a r e s i m i l a r to the second s t a g e i n s t r u c t u r a l concept.
T h i r d - s t a g e propulsion c a n b e one 1 , 200,000-pound O Z / H Z engine ,
and f o u r t h - s t a g e propulsion one 500,000-pound t h r u s t 0 2 / H 2 engine
o r equivalents.
---
- A

4
A projection of the n u c l e a r r o c k e t development p r o g r a m ,
P R O J E C T R O V E R , indicates that useful n u c l e a r engines m a y b e f o r t h -
coming i n t i m e f o r upper s t a g e application in t h e second g e n e r a t i o n
SATURN and the eight F - 1 engine c l u s t e r vehicle. An investigation
h a s been m a d e of the possible growth potential of the p r o p o s e d c h e m i c a l
p r o p e l l a n t b o o s t e r s with n u c l e a r upper stages. The p r e s e n t t r e n d of
development indicates that the evolution of n u c l e a r engines will begin
with a c o n s e r v a t i v e s y s t e m which h a s a low t h r u s t l e v e l and l o w specific
i m p u l s e c o m p a r e d with e s t i m a t e d potentials. If r e a c t o r m a t e r i a l s tech-
nology advances as expected, then the specific i m p u l s e , power d e n s i t y ,
and t h r u s t level would be i n c r e a s e d accordingly. T h e r e f o r e , in o r d e r
that the vehicle growth potential might coincide with a logical g e n e s i s
of n u c l e a r engines , t h r e e applications r e p r e s e n t i n g d i f f e r e n t t h r u s t
l e v e l s and t i m e p e r i o d s a r e considered. T h e s e a r e a s follows: (1)
50,000-pound ( v a c ) t h r u s t nuclear engine f o r the third s t a g e of t h e
SATURN I1 b o o s t e r , ( 2 ) 1. 2 million-pound ( v a c ) t h r u s t n u c l e a r engines
f o r second stage of a modified SATURN I1 b o o s t e r , and ( 3 ) c l u s t e r of .
f o u r 1. 2 million-pound ( v a c ) t h r u s t nuclear engines f o r the second
s t a g e of a n F - 1 c l u s t e r c l a s s booster. A c o a t e d g r a p h i t e r e a c t o r
d e s i g n with a vacuum specific i m p u l s e of 900 seconds is a s s u m e d for ’
e a c h application.

\
!
I
120"

I
4

256"--

360" --

4 38'
I

,
I

I
460"

F - l CLUSTER
GE 52-3-59
9 Y A Y 59

F i g , 11-45. Dimensions of Space C a r r i e r Vehicle Based


on 8 X 1 . 5 Million C l u s t e r

137
TABLE 11-15

WEIGHT SUMMARY

1 2 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 POUND LIFT-OFF THRUST VEHICLE

ESCAPE

Item Stage I stage II Stage !SI Stago I V

Engine 8 F-1

Propellant 021RP-I O2fH2 O2f% 021H2

Thrurt, i b 8 x 1500K 4 x l2OOK 1 x 1200H 1 x 500K

ISp, 8eC 268 (1.1.) 420 (vac) 420 420

Mirrile Diameter, in. 460 460 360 256

Payload, lb 3,944,040 1, 397,700 514,300 175,880

Guidance Comprrtxnent, l b 1,000

Guidance and Control, l b 1,000 2.500

Furelage, lb 173, 180 148,500 52,230 18,700

Propulsion, l b 130,000 78,000 19,500 6,500

Recovery Equipment, l b 29,910

Trapped Propellants, l b 92,000 19,200 4,800 2.000

urabie 'ReddUd8, l b 47,890 22,780 7,980 22,780

Propellant Cwmumption, 11 4,789,120 2,277,860 797,090 284,940

Structure Weight, l b (dry) 333,090 226,500 72,730 28,700

Stage Net Weight, l b 472,980 268,480 85,510 53,480

Stage Weight, l b (loaded) 5,262,100 2.546, 340 883,400 338,420

Liftoff Weight, l b 9,206,140 3,944,040 1, 3 9 1 , 7 0 514,300

Sketches of the three nuclear vehicles along with a breakdow


of weight, design p a r a m e t e r s , and deliverable lunar surface payload
a r e shown in Figs. 11-46, 11-47, and 11-48. Some technical data of
1
t
these vehicles a r e summarized in Table8 11-16, 11-17, and 11-18.

In comparing the relative performance of nuclear upper


staging with chemical propellant upper staging, the three nuclear
vehicles indicate a substantial growth potential over their chemical
propellant counterparte for identical vehicle lift-off weights for pure
cargo flight8 requiring no radiation shielding.
-256"

GE 52-7-59
9 MAY 59

F i g . LI-46. SATURN II with Nuclear 3rd Stage

139
240"
-it-
I
250

GE 52-6-59
9 M A Y 59

F i g . 11-47. SATURN I1 with N u c l e a r 2nd Stage

140
UPPER STAGE

480 F T

0- 7 2 0 " DIA

0 0
00°
GE 5 2 - 5 - 5 9
9 M A Y 59

F i g . 11-48, F-1 C l u s t e r Vehicle with N u c l e a r Upper S t a g e

141
TABLE XI-16

SATURN 2nd GENERATION-VEHICLE with NUCLEAR UPPER STAGE( 5 0 ~ )


Escape -Payload = 45.000 l b
Net Payload landed on m o o n = 16.500 l b

r+ = lsp.go .In r

Chemical Booster ( L o x / W - l ) Chemical 2nd Stage Nuclear 3 r d S t a g e Lunar Landing Vehicle

S a t u r n 2 -8x250K- OxygenlHydrogen Hydrogen OxygenlHydrogen

G r o s o Weight. l b 1.539, 185 642,920 96,480 45.000

Cut-CXf-Weight. l b 742.685 141.300 57.460 19.230

Structural Weight, l b 99.165 44,820 11.750 2.765

Thrunt. l b 2,000.000 800.000 50,000 50.000

Specific Impulse. oec 260 420 vac 900 n c 420 MC

Propellant Weight, l b 796.500 501,620 39.020 25.770

C h a r a c t e r i s t i c Velocity-Increment, ft/sec 6.460 20.540 15.000 11.500

Payload, l b 45.000 16,465

Remarks:
TABLE XI-17

SATURN 2nd GENERATION-VEHICLE with NUCLEAR UPPER STAGE ( 1 , 2 0 0 K )

E s c a p e Payload
Net Payload landed on m o o n
- 135, 000 l b
57,800 l b -
Note: P a r a l l e l Staged Tankage - 47.850 l b s t r u c t u r a l weight w i l l bc
dropped a f t e r Stage U.
v+ = Isp.go.ln r S a m e engine (1.2 xlo6-nuclear) is u s e d for Stage XI.

Chemical Booster ( L o x / R p - l ) Nuclear Upper Stage(8) Applying P a r a l l e l Lunar Landing Vehicle

;i;
Saturn 2 -8 x 250K- 1 t l2OOK -Hydrogen- TANKSTAGING Nuclear -2OOK -Hydrogen
I rl m -
Payload
~ --
C r o s s Weight, l b I , S39, 185 960,000 452.400 135,000

Cut-Off Weight, l b 1.060,OOO 500,000 221.420 90.800

S t r u c t u r a l Weight. l b 100,000 139.880 92.300 33,000


.. . -
Staged Weight, l b 47.580

T h r u s t . Ib 2.000.000 SL 1,200,000 vac 1.200.000 M C 200.000

.- Specific Impulse, r e c 260 SL 900 vac 900 MC 9 0 0 vac

P r o p e l l a n t Weight, l b 479. 185 460.000 224.980 44.200

C h a r a c t e r i s t i c Velocity-Increment, f t / s e c 3,305 18.895 19.910 11,500

Payload, l b 135.000 57.800

Remarks:
T A B S U-18

I
F-1 C L U S T E R VEIUC LE w i t h NUCLEAFL U P P E R STAGES ( T ~ a n d E n g i n e - S t a g i n g )
Note: P A R A L L E L STAGING O F NUCLEAR CONFIGURATION:
Encape Payload
Net P a y l o a d landed on moon - 780.000 Ib
426.500 Lb
T h e t h r e e n o n - e n a i n e t a n k a are j e t t i s o n e d a f t e r burn-out: then the
remainine three o u t b o a r d t a n k s t o g e t h e r with t h e i r engines a r e d r o p p e d
after burn-out; finally the r e m a l n l n g C a n t e r t a n k with one engine continuea
r* = lsp.go. In r a c c e l e r a t e d flight and will ba s e p a r a t e d f r o m the P a y l o a d (whlch is In
this case another r o c k e r - s y s t e m ) .

Chemical Booster (Lox/RP-1) N u c l e a r U p p e r Stages Applying P a r a l l e l T a n k - a n d E n g i n e - S t a g i n g L u n a r L a n d i n g Vehicle


12, OOOK CLASS 8 XI,500K 4 xl. 2OOK 4 x 1. LOOK 1 x 1.200K N u c l e a r 1 . LOOK- H y d r o g e n
7 Tanks 4 Tanks 1 Tank 8 Payload

1. 11 IU IV

G r o a n Weight. lb 9.235.660 3,792,650 2.604.650 i, 254. 150 780.000

Cut-Off Weight. lb 4.446.540 2.712.650 1,524.650 894.150 524,5CO

S t r u c t u r a l Welght. l b 653,890 492,000 384,000 114.000 98.000

S t a g e d Weight. l b 108.000 270.500

Thrust. lb 12,000,000 SL 4,800.000 vac 4,800.000 v a c 1.200.000 v a c 1.200.000 M E

Specific Impulse. s e c 268 900 vac ' 9 0 0 vac 900 vac 900 vac

P r o p e l l a n t Weight. l b 4,789. 120 1,080,000 1.080.000 360,000 255.500

ChAracteristic Velocity-Increment, 6.903 9.108 IS. 504 9.810 11,500


f t f sec

PAylnad. l b 780.000 426,500


The payload weight landed on the l u n a r s u r f a c e with the
SATURN nuclear t h i r d s t a g e vehicle is two t i m e s that of t h e SA'I'URN
c h e m i c a l propellant vehicle. The SATURN with the n u c l e a r second
s t a g e and a n u c l e a r landing s t a g e h a s seven t i m e s the SATURN c h e m i c a l
propellant capacity. A f u r t h e r c o m p a r i s o n indicates that t h e SATURN
n u c l e a r second s t a g e vehicle could d e l i v e r a l u n a r soft landing payload
which a p p r o a c h e s the a l l - c h e m i c a l propellant F- 1 c l u s t e r . The, t r u l y
significant i n c r e a s e in payload with n u c l e a r staging b e c o m e s even
m o r e a p p a r e n t when v e h i c l e s of the F-1 c l u s t e r c l a s s a r e c o m p a r e d .
fn t h i s c a s e , a vehicle with p a r a l l e l nuclear upper staging and a n u c l e a r
landing s t a g e indicates a l u n a r s u r f a c e payload six and one-half t i m e s
that of the a l l - c h e m i c a l - p r o p e l l a n t vehicle. The r e s p e c t i v e l u n a r soft
landing payloads of the t h r e e chemically boosted nuclear v e h i c l e s
d e s c r i b e d above a r e 1 4 , 5 0 0 , 5 8 , 0 0 0 , and 4 2 0 , 0 0 0 pounds as c o m p a r e d
'
with the r e s p e c t i v e a l l - c h e m i c a l propellant vehicle l u n a r payloads of
8000 pounds with the SATURN and 63,000 pounds with the F-1 c l u s t e r .

The payload weights given f o r the n u c l e a r staged v e h i c l e s do


not include a n allowance f o r n u c l e a r radiation shielding. I t is p o s s i b l e
t h a t the s m a l l e s t c l a s s n u c l e a r vehicle should b e unmanned and c a r r y
only payloads which would not be contaminated, s i n c e the shielding
r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r p r ote c ti on might r e p r e s e n t a n a p p r e c i a b l e portion
of the payload weight. F o r the l a r g e r v e h i c l e s , i f i t w e r e d e s i r a b l e
to t r a n s p o r t p e r s o n n e l and c r i t i c a l c a r g o , the shielding r e q u i r e m e n t s
might range f r o m a negligible weight up to the o r d e r of 50 , 000 pounds
depending upon the configuration of the landing stage vehicle and the
amount of t ' f r e e ' t protection o f f e r e d by propellant, s t r u c t u r e , r e t u r n
s t a g e s , etc.

The availability of the 50,000-pound t h r u s t n u c l e a r t h i r d


s t a g e f o r initial flight t e s t s on the SATURN could be r e a s o n a b l y e s t a b -
l i s h e d a r o u n d 1964- 1965 and might be operational by 1966- 1967 in time
to s u p p o r t P r o j e c t HORIZON. The initial flight t e s t of a n u c l e a r
engine with a vacuum t h r u s t l e v e l between one and one and one-half
million pounds, while m o r e u n c e r t a i n , m a y be possible around 1968-
1969, which will b e too l a t e f o r the initial p r o g r a m . It is believed
t h a t the s t a t e - o f - t h e - a r t will b e sufficiently advanced to s u p p o r t a f o u r -
engine c l u s t e r e d a r r a n g e m e n t of n u c l e a r engines , with a t h r u s t of
one t o one and one-half million pounds, i n the e a r l y 1970'8.

. L
C. TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM INTEGRATION
1. T r a n s p o r t a t i o n System Schemes

a. D i r e c t Earth-Moon ( O n e - w a y and R e t u r n M i s s i o n s )

The e a r t h - m o o n - e a r t h d i r e c t technique is a s t r a i g h t -
f o r w a r d method of t r a n s p o r t i n g m e n t o and f r o m the moon. P e r f o r m a n c e
of the SATURN I1 i s such that a m a r g i n a l capability e x i s t s to place
two m e n on the l u n a r s u r f a c e with this d i r e c t method f o r a one-way
t r i p , R e t u r n t o e a r t h would be accomplished by a s s e m b l i n g a r e t u r n
v e h i c l e on the moon m a d e up f r o m eight s u c c e s s f u l flights f r o m the
e a r t h which would supply the propellant and engines needed f o r r e t u r n .
It should b e mentioned, however, t h a t the a s s e m b l y and checkout of
s u c h a r e t u r n vehicle on the moon a p p e a r s to b e difficult as p r e s e n t l y
f o r e s e e n . F o r this r e a s o n , the d i r e c t e a r t h - m o o n flights involve a .
r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e r i s k f o r p e r s o n n e l and h a v e , t h e r e f o r e , been p r o -
g r a m m e d only f o r c a r g o flights during the build-up and e a r l y
o p e r a t i o n a l p h a s e s of this p r o g r a m .

As mentioned above, i n the growth potential d i s c u s s i o n ,


d i r e c t flights with payloads capable of c a r r y i n g e a r t h - a s s e m b l e d r e t u r n
v e h i c l e s will not b e a r e a l i t y until a f t e r the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of the 12-
m a n outpost.

It i s expected that the b a s i c p r o b l e m s of this t r a n s p o r t a t i o n


method will have been solved by p r o b e s and soft-landing vehicles
f r o m o t h e r p r o g r a m s which will p r e c e d e the 1964 t i m e period,

Although the d i r e c t - t r a n s p o r t a t i o n method h a s m a n y


a d v a n t a g e s , s u c h a s minimum t i m e f r o m e a r t h - l a u n c h to lunar-landing,
t h e r e a r e s e v e r a l disadvantages t h a t should be pointed out:

( 1 ) The maximum weight which could be d e l i v e r e d to the


moon a t one t i m e would be only 6000 pounds.

( 2 ) The volume and shape of the payload would be l i m i t e d


s i n c e i t m u s t b e flown on a SATURN I1 through the e a r t h ' s a t m o s p h e r e .

( 3) No i m m e d i a t e e a r t h - r e t u r n capability c a n be provided
f o r personnel.

14.6,
!
b. O r b i t a l Technique

F r o m the preceding p a r a g r a p h , it follows that a l a r g e r


payload capability would e l i m i n a t e l u n a r a s s e m b l y a n d thus s i m p l i f y
the m a n n e d r e t u r n problem. Without using l a r g e r v e h i c l e s , a larger
lunar-landing payload capability c a n be r e a l i z e d during the subject-
t i m e provided only by o r b i t a l a s s e m b l y a n d / o r fueling, A v e h i c l e
i n o r b i t weighing 4 0 0 , 0 0 0 pounds p r o v i d e s the capability to c a r r y a
c o m p l e t e e a r t h - r e t u r n vehicle to the l u n a r s u r f a c e . A s s u m i n g a
m i s s i o n reliability l e v e l of 9 0 p e r c e n t e a r t h - t o - o r b i t , l e s s than s e v e n
SATURN 11 vehicle's a r e n e c e s s a r y to provide the components and p r o -
p e l l a n t s f o r one such vehicle i n orbit. Approximately 0. 75 SATURN 11
m i s s i o n s p e r orbit-launched v e h i c l e a r e r e q u i r e d to s u s t a i n o p e r a t i o n s
a t t h e o r b i t a l station. This saving i n total vehicles r e q u i r e d is
o f f s e t to s o m e extent by o r b i t a l m a n e u v e r s to b e p e r f o r m e d , and
the possibility of only two optimum d e p a r t u r e days p e r month f o r o r b i t
to l u n a r s u r f a c e m i s s i o n s . E a c h of t h e s e optimum days have
15 launch t i m e s ; that i s , one p e r revolution of the o r b i t about e a r t h
with a t i m e limitation in the o r d e r of one minute on the.actua1 launch.
The above launch r e s t r i c t i o n s a r e i m p o s e d f o r flight m e c h a n i c s
r e a s o n s but i m p o s e no r e a l operational p r o b l e m s .

It should b e pointed out that the 400,000 pound o r b i t a l


d e p a r t i n g vehicle weight was c h o s e n b e c a u s e it is the new m i n i m u m
weight r e q u i r e d ( b a s e d o n expected technology during the s u b j e c t t i m e
p e r i o d ) to t r a n s p o r t two m e n t o the moon and r e t u r n them to e a r t h .
T h i s weight, 4 0 0 , 0 0 0 pounds, i s by no m e a n s fixed and could be
changed to provide m o r e o r possibly even l e s s payload capability,

Although the o r b i t a l method of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n to the m o o n


h a s m a n y advantages o v e r the d i r e c t method, t h e r e a r e s e v e r a l d i s -
advantages that should b e mentioned:

(1) A longer t i m e between e a r t h - d e p a r t u r e and moon-landing


is r e q u i r e d .

( 2 ) Additional p e r s o n n e l a r e r e q u i r e d in s p a c e ( o r b i t a l
fueling o r a s s e m b l y c r e w s ) .

( 3 ) The orbiting s t a t i o n would possibly be vulnerable to


attack should a hostile nation w i s h to combat the U. S. l u n a r p r o g r a m ,
:7

It should be noted, h o w e v e r , that the o r b i t a l techniques will


b e r e q u i r e d f o r any ambitious i n t e r p l a n e t a r y m i s s i o n s r e q u i r i n g

147
I

,'
s i z e a b l e payloads s i n c e t h e s e will r e q u i r e o r b i t a l a s s e m b l y o r refueling,
t h u s f u r t h e r justifying its continued development under t h i s p r o g r a m .

c. Combination of Techniques

B e c a u s e of the limitations r e s u l t i n g f r o m the state-of-the-


a r t i n t h e t i m e period of i n t e r e s t (1964-1967), it s e e m s to be m o r e
d e s i r a b l e t o u s e both routes f o r the e a r t h - m o o n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s y s t e m ,
with a p r e f e r e n c e f o r c a r g o t r a n s p o r t a t i o n on the d i r e c t r o u t e ,
and p e r s o n n e l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t o the m o o n v i a orbit. On the o t h e r hand,
the t r a n s p o r t of c a r g o packages l a r g e r than 6000 pounds c a n be
a c c o m p l i s h e d only v i a o r b i t a l r e f u e l i n g , w h e r e a s the d i r e c t p e r s o n n e l
t r a n s f e r , e a r t h - m o o n , should be developed i n the long-run f o r
e m e r g e n c y situations, More f r e e d o m in selecting the route will b e c o m e
a v a i l a b l e by about 1 9 6 7 / 1968 when l a r g e r payload capabilities than
those r e p r e s e n t e d b y the a l l - c h e m i c a l SATURN I1 a r e expected to
materialize.

If the d i r e c t route a n d the v i a - o r b i t route a r e c o m p a r e d


f o r the t i m e period of 1964 through 1967, b a s e d on S A T U R N I1
c a p a b i l i t i e s the advantages and disadvantages c a n be s u m m a r i z e d a5
follows :

( 1) Orbital refueling o p e r a t i o n s a r e c o n s i d e r e d s i m p l e r
than l u n a r a s s e m b l y o p e r a t i o n s , s i n c e m o r e manpower and equipment
c a n be m a d e available for a s i m p l e r job.

( 2 ) The d i r e c t route allows a daily f i r i n g c h a r x e (with


s o m e payload reduction) a s c o m p a r e d to two chances a month f r o m
orbit. This l i m i t a t i o n on possible o r b i t a l launch t i m e s i s not c o n s i d e r e d
s e r i o u s b e c a u s e only one f i r i n g e v e r y t h r e e o r four months i s scheduled.

( 3 ) The payload capability f o r one flight i s l i m i t e d on the


d i r e c t r o u t e and p r a c t i c a l l y unlimited v i a orbital refueling,

( 4 ) The combination of d i r e c t and v i a - o r b i t route o f f e r s


the m o s t p r o m i s i n g schedule f o r the o v e r a l l p r o g r a m , and p r o v i d e s ,
at the s a m e t i m e , back-up capabilities i n e i t h e r c a s e if unforeseen
difficulties should a r i s e with one mode of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n ,

- ( 5 ) P r e l i m i n a r y calculations indicate t h a t the v i a - o r b i t


r o u t e will b e m o r e economical ( u p to 20 p e r c e n t ) than the d i r e c t route.
T h u s , a combined transportation s y e t e m using both modes
of t r a v e l ( d i r e c t route and via-orbit route) wae ueed f o r the
f u r t h e r planning of this program.

2. Transportation Svstem Development

a. SATURN1

The following paragraphs d e s c r i b e the development


sequence envisioned f o r the space t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s y s tem r e q u i r e d for
this p r o g r a m , F i g u r e 11-49 i l l u s t r a t e s the r e l a t i v e s i z e of t h e f i r s t
and second generation SATURN c a r r i e r vehicles as well as the
12,000,000-pound t h r u s t booster. It should be pointed out that only
the SATURN vehicles a r e required to accomplish this program.
Reference i s made to Section B of this chapter w h e r e the individual
building blocks of this transportation s y s t e m a r e d e s c r i b e d i n detail.

The development of the SATURN I ( f i r s t - g e n e r a t i o n


SATURN vehicle) was assigned to the A r m y Ballistic Missile Agency
by the Advanced R e s e a r c h P r o j e c t s Agency on 15 August 1958.
ARPA O r d e r 14-59 authorizes the development of a c l u s t e r e d engine
rocket b o o s t e r , f o r multi-stage application, with a t h r u s t of approxi-
mately 1 , 5 0 0 , 0 0 0 pounds. A subsequent amendment to t h i s o r d e r
approves fabrication of five such b o o s t e r s , as d e s c r i b e d in B. 1 above.
The f i r s t booster will be utilized only f o r captive testing, which is
scheduled to begin i n late 1959. The second and t h i r d b o o s t e r s will
be launched a s single- stage vehicles incorporating a dummy second
stage. The m i s s i o n of the f i r s t two vehicles will be booster develop-
m e n t and f l i g h t demonstration. The final two of the five approved
b o o s t e r s w i l l be flown a s two-stage vehicles incorporating the
s t a n d a r d first-generation second s t a g e , a s previously d e s c r i b e d ,
Again, the objective of the flight w i l l be vehicle development, However,
these flights will have a n orbital payload capability of approximately
15 000 pounds a t a n orbital altitude of 200 navtical m i l e s . A s e c o n d a r y
m i s s i o n of "engineering satellite with orbital recoveryI1 a p p e a r s t o b e
a v e r y promising payload m i s s i o n and will take f u l l advantage of t h e
avail ab1e orbital capability.

The SATURN i s being designed t o i n c o r p o r a t e a b o o s t e r


r e c o v e r y system. A l l boosters a r e to be r e c o v e r e d with the possible
exception of Numbers 3 and 4. Because of the n a t u r e of the s e c o n d a r y
m i s s i o n s of t h e s e vehicles the booster r e - e n t r y Mach number m a y
be too high to p e r m i t successful recovery.

I
!
!
CARRIER VEHICLES

I
i
i
I S A T U R N I1
I
!-
SPTCRN 1

j
429.6'
I

7 7120"
I ,!

304'
' -
I

1
!

- -i._.I i

F i g . 11-49. C a r r i e r Vehicles - C o m p a r i s o n of Dimensions

i.5o
A O M C p r o p o s e d t o A R P A i n F e b r u a r y 1959 a SATURN I
vehicle development p r o g r a m consisting of 16 flight v e h i c l e s including
the f o u r mentioned above. Vehicles 5 and 7 would i n c o r p o r a t e t h e
s t a n d a r d t h i r d s t a g e ( p o s s i b l y excluding t h e d e s i g n r e s t a r t capability),
r e s u l t i n g i n a flight t e s t of a complete t h r e e - s t a g e vehicle. The
p r i m a r y m i s s i o n of these t h r e e will be v e h i c l e development. H o w e v e r ,
a s e c o n d a r y payload m i s s i o n will b e included. I n o r d e r not to unduly
c o m p l i c a t e t h e vehicle m i s s i o n , the flight t r a j e c t o r y might b e l i m i t e d
t o (1) a payload of approximately 2 5 , 0 0 0 pounds i n a low c i r c u l a r
o r b i t ; ( 2 ) a payload of approximately 7000 pounds i n a n elliptical
o r b i t ; a n d ( 3 ) a s p a c e probe type m i s s i o n with t h e s a m e payload.
P r e s e n t planning is f o r a b o o s t e r t h r u s t of 1 , 3 2 0 , 0 0 0 pounds ( 8 x 165K)
f o r the f i r s t s e v e n flights. The d e s i g n s p e c i f i c a t i o n s of the e n g i n e s
a r e 188 000 pounds t h r u s t each. H o w e v e r , f o r t h e i n i t i a l s e v e n f l i g h t
v e h i c l e s , t h e engines will be d e r a t e d to 165,000 pounds e a c h f o r
i n c r e as e d re1iab il i t y.

With the testing of the f i r s t s e v e n v e h i c l e s , the s e c o n d


p h a s e of t h e SATURN I p r o g r a m , prototype t e s t i n g , will begin. By
that t i m e e a c h b o o s t e r engine will develop 188,000 pounds t h r u s t
f o r a t o t a l b o o s t e r t h r u s t of 1, 504,000 pounds. I n c o r p o r a t e d i n the
vehicle will b e the modified TITAN f i r s t s t a g e as the s t a n d a r d
s e c o n d - s t a g e and the r e s t a r t a b l e modified CENTAUR t h i r d s t a g e .
Although the p r i m a r y m i s s i o n of Vehicles 8 through 16 will b, v e h i c l e
development t e s t i n g , a s e c o n d a r y m i s s i o n i n c o r p o r a t i n g v a r i o u s
types of payloads will also b e included. T h e s e nine flights will h a v e
a l m o s t the f u l l m i s s i o n capability of the s t a n d a r d SATURN I v e h i c l e ,
and t h e payload t y p e s will b e l i m i t e d o n l y b y m i s s i o n p r i o r i t y . B a s e d
on the p r e s e n t l y envisioned p r o g r a m , the launching of SATURN I
Vehicle N u m b e r 16 will conclude the m a j o r development p r o g r a m of
the basic three-s t a g e vehicle.

It should be understood that, in addition to t h e flight


s c h e d u l e shown i n Fig. U-50, c o n s i d e r a b l e static f i r i n g a n d e n v i r o n -
mental t e s t i n g will b e accomplished on e a c h s t a g e as well as on all
components.

b. S A T U R N I I

T h e SATURN 11 (second-generation SATURN) vehicle has


been d e s c r i b e d i n d e t a i l in Section B. 1 above. This configuration is
c o n s i d e r e d to be n e a r optimum f o r the SATURN class vehicle and a
n a t u r a l g r o w t h potential u s i n g high e n e r g y c h e m i c a l p r o p e l l a n t s in all
upper stages and r e t a i n i n g the same b a s i c f i r s t - s t a g e booster
configuration with one- t h i r d i n c r e a s e of t h r u s t . In o r d s r t o fulfill t h e
s p a c e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r this p r o g r a m a v e h i c l e of the
SATURN I1 c l a s s is n c e e s s a r y i n o r d e r to keep t h e total. v e h i c l e
launchings t o a r e a s o n a b l e number and m a k e the progSam m o r e a t t r a c t i v e
a s w e l l a s economical.

T h e 250 000 pound thriist €1-2 engine planned f o r u s e in


the SATURN I1 f i r s t s t a g e i s p r e s e n t l y ,j the d e s i g n and p a r t i y i n the
development s t a g e a t NAA Roclcetdyne with initial d e l i v e r y f e a s i b l e
by e a r l y 1962. The H 2 / 0 2 engines contemplated f o r second- and t h i r d -
s t a g e application a r e not a t p r e s e n t u n d e r developixcut. However ]

s e v e r a l p r o p o s a l s f o r l a r g e (up to 5 0 0 , 0 0 0 pound t h r u s t ) H ~ / 0 2engines


have been m a d e by Rocketdyne, A e r o j c t , and P r a t t k Whitricy. With
the a d v a n c e m e n t i n the s t a t e - o f - t h e a r t of r o c k e t engines i n g e n e r a l ,
as well as t h e CENTAUR ( H 2 / 0 2 ) engine d e v e l o p m e n t , i t is believed
t h a t the r e q u i r e d u p p e r - s t a g e SATURN I1 engines could be developed
in sufficient t i m e to m e e t the vehicle development schedule. Develop-
m e n t p r o g r a m s on t h e engines previously mentioned should b e i n i t i a t e d
i n t h e n e a r future. The SATURN I1 f i r s t - s t a g e b o o s t e r s will be d e s i g n e d
f o r r e c o v e r y and will p o s s i b l y utilize the s a m e s y s t e m a s the f i r s t -
generation vehicles.

T h e vehicle development p r o g r a m f o r the SATURN 11


w i l l be s i m i l a r t o t h a t of the SATURN I and follow c l o s e l y behind i t ,
as indicated i n Fig. 11-50. S t r u c t u r a l and "plumbing" c h a n g e s
envisioned to c o n v e r t the f i r s t - g e n e r a t i o n b o o s t e r to a SATURN It
b o o s t e r using the higher t h r u s t engines should p r e s e n t no new m a j o r
problems.

The f i r s t two SATURN I1 flights would c o n s i s t of f i r s t -


s t a g e b o o s t e r vehicles with d u m m y second and p o s s i b l y d u m m y t h i r d -
s t a g e s . The t h i r d and f o u r t h flights w i l l i n c o r p o r a t e a n a c t i v e second
s t a g e and the next two flights a n active t h i r d stage. Since one of
the p r i m a r y m i s s i o n s f o r the SATURN I1 i n this p r o g r a m is l u n a r
s o f t landing, a f o u r t h s t a g e will be r e q u i r e d . The f o u r t h s t a g e
envisioned f o r this m i s s i o n could utilize the CENTAUR engines which
w i l l , by t h e n , be well proven and r e q u i r e l i t t l e o r no development.
T h e l a s t two v e h i c l e s scheduled f o r the S A T U R N II development
p r o g r a m , N u m b e r s 7 and 8 , include, h o w e v e r , a n a c t i v e f o u r t h s t a g e
f o r complete s y s t e m t e s t as w e l l a s o v e r a l l s y s t e m development.

In addition to t h e vehicle development p r o g r a m shown


i n Fig. 11-50 , c o n s i d e r a b l e environmental t e s t i n g will b e a c c o m p l i s h e d

152
- i
1 Vehicle 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1967
I
iI
I
I I
i
1
ma . ii
ma I I P I I
I
SATURN XI
1 s t Stage 8 I
1st and 2nd S t a g e a I

1st. Znd, a n d 3 r d !
Stage
4 Stage Vehicle
DM
I 1
12 Million l b Thrust
Vehicle (8 X 1. 5
m i l l i o n Ib e n g i n e s )
Single 1. 5 million 1
Engine Flight Tee!
12 million l b
1 s t Stage
i
I

I
1 s t and 2nd Stage
1 s t . 2nd. and 3 r d
. I
!
Stage
4 stdgs Vehicle D

Fig. IC-50. Typical C a r r i e r Vehicle Development F i r i n g Schedule

a s well as possible flight testing of upper s t a g e s o r engines on the


SATURN I o r other vehicles.

Section B. 10 d e s c r i b e s the possible application of a


n u c l e a r upper stage f o r the SATURN lI vehicle. However, it h a s not
been included i n the development p r o g r a m b e c a u s e of the uncertainty
of the availability date.

c. 12-Million-Pound Thrust Vehicle

It should be emphasized that the p r o g r a m outlined in


this r e p o r t does not r e q u i r e the development of a 12-million-pound
t h r u s t booster, Such a b o o s t e r , if developed, would have application
i n a lunar transportation s y s t e m . In fact, it would b e v e r y d e s i r a b l e
f o r a n y long range p r o g r a m and would reduce t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o s t s
further. The 12-million-pound booster would utilize eight Rocketdyne
F - 1 engines which a r e p r e s e n t l y in the initial development s t a g e
and scheduled f o r f i r s t d e l i v e r y in 1963. The c h e m i c a l H 2 / 0 2 engines
f o r u p p e r - s t a g e application would be c l u s t e r s of the s a m e engines
u s e d on SATURN 11.

A complete d e s c r i p t i o n of the a l l - c h e m i c a l - p r o p e l l a n t
12-million-pound t h r u s t vehicle i s given in Section B. 10 above,
t o g e t h e r with p o s s i b l e n u c l e a r upper- s t a g e configurations. The
typical development schedule shown on Fig. LI-50 is f o r c h e m i c a l
upper s t a g e s ; h o w e v e r , if the n u c l e a r engine development p r o g r a m
is a c c e l e r a t e d , the possibility e x i s t s of including these s t a g e s i n
1967/1968.

The development s c h e m e shown f o r the 12-million-pound


b o o s t e r p r o v i d e s f o r four flights of a modified S A T U R N b o o s t e r ,
i n c o r p o r a t i n g a n F - 1 engine. The f o u r inner engines would be r e m o v e d
f r o m the SATURN b o o s t e r and a single F - 1 engine installed. The
vehicle would allow flight testing of the F - 1 engine o n a r e l i a b l e
t e s t v e h i c l e and would not r e q u i r e the l a r g e engine t o b e swiveled .
o r gimbaled. In addition, i t would provide a w e l l - p r o v e n b o o s t e r
r e c o v e r y s y s t e m which will enable p o s t - t e s t evaluation of the engine.
Such a n a p p r o a c h would allow extensive flight t e s t i n g on the new
engine a t a r e a s o n a b l e cost.

It c a n be expected that the development and flight t e s t


of the c l u s t e r e d F - 1 b o o s t e r and i t s upper s t a g e s will follow the s a m e
b a s i c sequence a s that of the SATURN development p r o g r a m s d e s c r i b e d
e a r l i e r . This would include two flights of the f i r s t - s t a g e only,
followed by twb flights incorporating a second s t a g e , then a t h i r d , and
finally a f o u r t h s t a g e a s shown in Fig. 11-50.

d. O r b i t a l R e t u r n Vehicle

The development of a manned o r b i t a l r e t u r n vehicle i s


one of the m o s t u r g e n t r e q u i r e m e n t s for this p r o g r a m a s well a s f o r
m a n y o t h e r U. S. s p a c e flight p r o g r a m s . B e f o r e the m o r e complex
manned s p a c e flight m i s s i o n s c a n be a c c o m p l i s h e d , m a n m u s t first
develop the techniques f o r safe p a s s a g e into o r b i t , live i n o r b i t ,
and r e t u r n ' t o the e a r t h ' s s u r f a c e . The development of manned o r b i t a l
r e t u r n techniques i s c u r r e n t l y n e a r the testing stage. The r e c o v e r y
of payloads flown through ballistic t r a j e c t o r i e s into s p a c e was
d e m o n s t r a t e d by the s u c c e s s f u l r e c o v e r y of four J U P I T E R nose c o n e s ,
the m o s t r e c e n t of which contained two p r i m a t e s . The next s t e p s .
will b e additional r e c o v e r y of b a l l i s t i c payloads containing a n i m a l s ;
i n s t r u m e n t e d and a n i m a l o r b i t a l r e c o v e r y ; m a n n e d ballistic r e c o v e r y ;
and, finally, manned o r b i t a l recovery. P r o j e c t MERCURY is the
first phase of the p r o g r a m designed to a c c o m p l i s h m a n n e d o r b i t a l
. flight.
For the p u r p o s e of m e e t i n g the r e q u i r e m e n t s of this
p r o g r a m , however, the n u m b e r of p e r s o n n e l r e q u i r e d i n o r b i t , and
beyond, n e c e s s i t a t e s t h e development of a vehicle l a r g e r than that
envisioned f o r P r o j e c t MERCURY. It is a s s u m e d t h a t c o n s i d e r a b l e
d a t a will be obtained f r o m P r o j e c t MERCURY and o t h e r p r o g r a m s of
a s i m i l a r n a t u r e on the b a s i c r e c o v e r y techniques as well as bio-
m e d i c a l phenomena.

The r e t u r n v e h i c l e , d e s c r i b e d i n d e t a i l in Section B. 3 ,
will have v a r i a b l e high-drag c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and employ t h e ablation
technique f o r h e a t protection. The f i r s t two flights shown (1961) a r e
scheduled as r e c o v e r a b l e engineering s a t e l l i t e s which should yield
valuable d a t a on o r b i t a l r e c o v e r y of l a r g e v e h i c l e s as w e l l as
v a r i o u s engineering phenomena. T h e s e f i r s t two v e h i c l e s will not,
h o w e v e r , have v a r i a b l e lift o r d r a g devices. The v e h i c l e s scheduled
i n 1963/1964 w i l l i n c o r p o r a t e the f u l l v a r i a b l e lift o r d r a g f e a t u r e s ,
and will 6 e the prototype f o r the manned r e t u r n v e h i c l e , the l a t t e r
one o r possibly two containing men.

A typical p r o g r a m f o r the manned r e t u r n vehicle is


shown in Fig. 11-51 combined with l u n a r c i r c u m n a v i g a t i o n , l u n a r
s a t e l l i t e , and l u n a r soft-landing p r o g r a m s to f o r m a n o v e r a l l mutually
supporting and i n t e g r a t e d vehicle and technique development p r o g r a m.
The l u n a r circumnavigation, l u n a r s a t e l l i t e , and lunar soft-landiny,
p r o g r a m s a r e d e s c r i b e d under p a r a g r a p h s e , f , a n d g below.

e. L u n a r Circumnavigation and S a t e l l i t e s

The development r e q u i r e m e n t f o r lunar c i r c u m n a v i g a t i o n


and s a t e l l i t e vehicles is threefold: (1) collect m u c h needed engineering
and scientific information about the moon, (2) p r o v i d e a t r a n s p o r t a t i o n
s y s t e m f o r m a n and i n s t r u m e n t s to the vicinity of the moon and r e t u r n
to earth, ( 3 ) provide v i t a l information on s p a c e navigation, techniques,
and p r o c e d u r e s f o r later lunar landings as well as interplanetary
mis s ions.

T h e v e h i c l e s scheduled f o r lunar c i r c u m n a v i g a t i o n
w i l l utilize the SATURN I as a c a r r i e r v e h i c l e ' t o escape the earth's

I I
196 1 1962 1963 1964

Orbital Return Vehicle


SATURN I R E a11
SATURN I1 II
Lunar Circumnavigation
SATURN I

Lunar Satellite
SATURN I
SATURN I1

Lunar Soft Landing


SATURN I
SATURN I1
Orbital Departing
Vehicle

Fig. a-51. T y p i c a l Space Vehicle Development P r o g r a m

g r a v i t a t i o n a l f i e l d , and will i n c o r p o r a t e a f o u r t h stage f o r m i d -


c o u r s e navigation c o r r e c t i o n on outbound and inbound t r i p s and f o r
t h e t e r m i n a l m a n e u v e r n e a r the moon. The f i r s t four flights will b e
unmanned; a n d , a s s u m i n g the n e c e s s a r y reliability i s e s t a b l i s h e d , ,
the l a t t e r t h r e e flights i n 1964 could b e manned.

All l u n a r s a t e l l i t e s will be unmanned s t a r t i n g with a n


e x p l o r a t o r y and r e s e a r c h s a t e l l i t e utilizing a SATURN I c a r r i e r i n
A p r i l 1962. The l a t e r l u n a r s a t e l l i t e s a r e planned to have a long
l i f e t i m e and will provide communication, navigation, and o t h e r d a t a
to the l u n a r outpost l a t e r in the p r o g r a m .

The manned circumnavigation vehicles will be a l m o s t .


identical to the m o o n - e a r t h r e t u r n vehicles scheduled f o r the l a t e r
p h a s e s of t h e p r o g r a m . This r e s u l t s i n a m i n i m u m n u m b e r of v e h i c l e s
to b e developed and provides higher r e l i a b i l i t y f o r the lunar r e t u r n
vehicle 8 .

f, L u n a r Soft-Landing Vehicle

In conducting this p r o g r a m , a r e q u i r e m e n t e x i s t s f o r the


development of two types of lunar soft-landing vehicles: (1) a vehicle
a s s e m b l e d or fueled in a n e a r t h orbit which departs from t h e r e for
lunar surface, and (2) a vehicle which will depart from the e a r t h ' s
surface, as an upper stage and payload of the b a s i c c a r r i e r vehicle,
and will go directly to the lunar surface. Although the vehicles them-
selves may differ in size and shape, the s a m e basic problems, ,as
well as system equipment requirements, exist in both configurations.
Each wiil require a guidance and control system for injection into the
d e s i r e d trajectory for rnidcourse correction and for lunar landing.
The propulsion s y s t e v required during these t h r e e periods could well
be the same type.

With the advancement in the state-of-the-art in rocket,


propulsion s y s t e m s , and with the advent of new and improved engines
as well as guidance and control s y s t e m s , the m a j o r development pro-
'blem for these vehicles will be integration of components into a s y s -
tem and establishment of techniques and procedures f o r the missions.

With this in mind, it is believed that unmanned soft lunar


landings w i l l f i r s t be accomplished by the direct flight method. This
can be done much e a r l i e r and m o r e economically than via orbit. Con-
siderable data on equipment and techniques will be obtained from lunar
circumnavigation and satellite flights from this and other programs.
With the successful development of the direct earth-moon soft-landing
vehicle, the orbit-departing landing vehicle can be constructed and
will require system test rather than development.

Figure 11-51 shows the launching dates of the eight SATUR!'i


I and 11-boosted direct earth-moon landing vehicles. These d i r e c t
flights will be in addition to those made e a r l i e r on such vehicles as
ATLAS and TITAN boosters. The one vehicle shown in January 1965
will be a system test f o r the orbit-departing soft lunar landing vehicle,
and will contain cargo only. The first manned flight w i l l be i n April
1965 and will provide the two-man crew with a n e a r t h - r e t u r n capability.

'g. Moon-Earth Return Vehicle

The guidance and control system required for the moon-


e a r t h r e t u r n vehicle will be s i m i l a r , if not identical, to the lunar cir-
cumnavigation and lunar satellite vehicle systems which will have been :
developed and w e l l proven by that time. The propulsion system r e -
quired will be a simple one-stage unit previously developed and well
proven on other vehicles. The returning payload compartment will ,

157

I
h a v e b e e n developed and u s e d to s o m e d e g r e e on e a r t h o r b i t a l r e t u r n
flights and will be identical t o the manned, and unmanned lunar c i r -
cumnavigation and e a r t h - r e t u r n capsule. T h e r e f o r e , the r e a l i z a t i o n
of a m o o n - e a r t h r e t u r n vehicle will not n e c e s s i t a t e t h e development
of a new s y s t e m but r a t h e r will be a s y s t e m test.

B e c a u s e of the expense of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t o the l u n a r s u r f a c e ,


and t h e a c t u a l flight testing of a n e a r t h - r e t u r n v e h i c l e on the moon,
the development of the r e t u r n vehicle will be a c c o m p l i s h e d on o r n e a r
the s u r f a c e of the e a r t h . This will m i n i m i z e t h e total c o s t of devel-
opment as well a s m a k e i t f e a s i b l e to a s s u m e t h a t the r e l i a b i l i t y of the
f i r s t m o o n - e a r t h r e t u r n vehicle will b e sufficiently high to justify
m armed r e t u r n .

The f i r s t two m e n a r e scheduled to a r r i v e on the lunar


s u r f a c e in A p r i l 1965. The a r r i v i n g vehicle will have the capability
of i m m e d i a t e r e t u r n to e a r t h if n e c e s s a r y , but i s scheduled t o r e m a i n
until a f t e r the next manned flight a r r i v e s . In addition, it c a r r i e s a
supply of life e s s e n t i a l s and equipment n e c e s s a r y to allow the c r e w
to r e m a i n on the moon f o r 14 days without r e s u p p l y of utilization of
o t h e r existing payloads a l r e a d y on the moon,

h. I n t e g r a t e d T r a n s p o r t a t i o n System Development

The development of the complete s p a c e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s y s -


t e m r e q u i r e d f o r this p r o g r a m involves a i a r g e r n u m b e r of s u b - s y s t e m s
a n d components. The anticipated schedule and expense of the o v e r a l l
t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s y s t e m d i c t a t e s that e v e r y effort b e m a d e t o take f u l l
advantage of e a c h sub-development p r o g r a m . However , this will not
b e allowed to j e o p a r d i z e the reliability of the o v e r a l l s y s t e m , but on
the c o n t r a r y , i t will add to the r e l i a b i l i t y of the f i n a l s y s t e m b e c a u s e
of t h e m i n i m u m number of components used. F o r e x a m p l e , components
f o r the SATURN I guidance s y s t e m will be utilized f o r a l l of t h e m i s s i o n s
and v e h i c l e s d e s c r i b e d e a r l i e r ; engines developed for t h e b a s i c c a r r i e r
v e h i c l e s will a l s o b e used on the s p a c e vehicles; a n adaptation of the
o r b i t a l r e t u r n vehicle will b e used f o r the l u n a r c i r c u m n a v i g a t i o n a s
well a s m o o n - e a r t h r e t u r n .

The combination of Fig. 11-50 and Fig. XI-51 i n d i c a t e s how


the c a r r i e r development flight t e s t s a r e i n t e g r a t e d with the s p a c e
v e h i c l e development schedule. S e v e r a l of the c a r r i e r v e h i c l e s a r e
n o t , h o w e v e r , shown with m i s s i o n s . These will be used f o r o t h e r
m i s s i o n s , s u c h a s communication s a t e l l i t e s , d e e p - s p a c e p r o b e s , and
o r b i t a l supply operations.
3. Transportation Volume Requi r e m ent s

The space transportation s y s t e m envisioned for this p r o g r a m


will utilize both the d i r e c t earth-moon and the e a r t h via e a r t h - o r b i t
t o m o o n methods as mentioned i n Section C. 1 above. For the purpose
of t h i s p r e l i m i n a r y feasibility study, a somewhat a r b i t r a r y division
was m a d e as t o how the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n r e q u i r e m e n t s would be met.
The division is as follows:

a. A l l personnel (going to the moon) would be t r a n s p o r t e d


through orbit.

b. Approximately two-thirds of the c a r g o would be delivered


d i r e c t l y to the moon, and the remaining one-third via orbit.

(1) P e r s o n n e l

The personnel r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r the l u n a r outpost


construction and operation have been d i s c u s s e d in considerable detail
i n Chapter 11. The initial manned landing on the moon will be c o m p r i s e d
of a two-man c r e w that would r e m a i n on the l u n a r surface up to approxi-
m a t e l y four months. This f i r s t c r e w will, however, have a capability
of immediate r e t u r n or of r e t u r n a t any time during the four-month
period. The next manned a r r i v a l on the moon will consist of a r i n e -
m a n c r e w with the m a j o r m i s s i o n of constructing the outpost racilities.
The a r r i v a l and d e p a r t u r e of manned l u n a r vehicles is given in F i g .
II-52. A s shown, t h e r e i s a n accumulated build-up of personnel to
a total of 12 by the outpost operational date of November 1966. D u r i s . g
the initial operational period, scheduled f r o m December 1966 throui 1
December 1967, a complement of 12 m e n will occupy the outpost, with
the exception of a s h o r t period between the a r r i v a l of new personnel
and the d e p a r t u r e of returning p e r s o n n e l , when t h e r e will be up to
16 m e n present.

A s mentioned e a r l i e r i n t h i s s e c t i o n , all personnel


traveling to the moon would do so via an o r b i t a l station. T h e r e f o r e ,
each of the lunar-bound personnel m u s t a160 be t r a n s p o r t e d from the
e a r t h t o the o r b i t a l s t a t i o n In addition to the lunar-bound p e r s o n n e l ,
construction and fueling, and vehicle checkout c r e w s m u s t also be
t r a n s p o r t e d into o r b i t to p r e p a r e the lunar-bound vehicle for flight. ,
Studies indicate that a c r e w of not m o r e than ten well-trained m e n
could adequately handle this task, b a s e d on the type of vehicle8 and
p r o c e d u r e s envisioned. . ,
250 252

ii
Earth t o Eart A
Orbit I

7 u
*
a"

i-r
# Earth 01 it t o Moon
R
1 I
42

26

0 -
r ~ O sN D F M A M J J A S 0 N D1J
7- Moon t o Earth

F M A M J J A S 0 N D J F M A M J J A S O N D
1964 ' 1967

Fig. TI- 52. Project HORIZON Personnel Space Transportation Requirements


The second t y p e , r e q u i r e d f o r b a s i c outpost c o n s t r u c t i o n , m u s t be
d e l i v e r e d by November 1966. P h a s e 3 , f i r s t y e a r of 1 2 - m a n outpost
o p e r a t i o n , r e q u i r e s s t a n d a r d monthly supply of a p p r o x i m a t e l y 20,000
pounds p e r month. T h e s e r e q u i r e m e n t s r e s u l t i n a g r a n d total of
756,000 pounds b y the end of 1967. In addition t o t h e c a r g o flights,
each manned vehicle will provide life support e s s e n t i a l s f o r e a c h m a n
f o r 14 d a y s , as well as l u n a r clothing and a l i m i t e d amount of
p e r s o n a l equipment.

F i g u r e 11-53 i l l u s t r a t e s the a c c u m u l a t i o n of the useful


payload on the moon o v e r t i m e and a l s o identifies the individual s h a r e s .
This a l s o i n d i c a t e s the mode of transportation.

F i g u r e 11-54 p r e s e n t s the total c a r g o which m u s t be


t r a n s p o r t e d f r o m the e a r t h to the orbital station. T h e s e r e q u i r e m e n t s
include the c a r g o payloads bound f o r the moon via o r b i t , and the
n e c e s s a r y weight to d e l i v e r a n o r b i t - to-lunar v e h i c l e (completely
fueled) f o r the c a r g o as well a s manned flights. As indicated in the
f i g u r e , a g r a n d total of approximately 5 , 3 2 0 , 0 0 0 pounds m u s t be
d e l i v e r e d into o r b i t by the end of 1967 to fulfill the r e q u i r e m e n t s of
this program.

A c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of m a t e r i e l , equipment, and


p r o p e l l a n t s will a r r i v e in o r b i t which a r e not c o n s i d e r e d payload. It
is anticipated that a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of this “non-payload” c a n b e
used at the o r b i t a l station. F o r e x a m p l e , the H2 and 0 2 r e s i d u a l s i n
the l a s t propulsion s t a g e could be used f o r fuels i n a n a u x i l i a r y power
supply o r m o t o r ; o r the 0 2 could be used f o r life support. Each m a n n e d
o r b i t a l flight would a l s o contain c a r g o up to 1 0 , 0 0 0 pounds f o r SATURN
I , o r 5 0 , 0 0 0 pounds f o r SATURN 11. Some of this c a r g o capacity will
be utilized f o r life s u p p o r t e s s e n t i a l s f o r the crew. However, o t h e r
c a r g o could b e c a r r i e d and i s not c o n s i d e r e d as p a r t of the 5 , 3 2 0 , 0 0 0
pounds of accumulated payload.

4. Vehicle R e q u i r e m e n t s

a. Vehicle Capabilities and Limitations

The c a p a b i l i t i e s and limitations of the vehicles planned


f o r the operational phase of this p r o g r a m a r e s u m m a r i z e d i n Table 11-19.
A s c a n be s e e n , only two b a s i c c a r r i e r vehicles a r e envisioned,
SATURN I and SATURN 11. B e c a u s e of the l i m i t e d payload capability
of the SATURN I for a d i r e c t soft l u n a r landing m i s s i o n , as c o m p a r e d -

162
F o r the purpose of this study, the l e a s t advantageous
situation has been assumed, that being that no l a r g e manned space
platform o r satellite will be available by 1965, although the likelihood
of one's existing is considered good. In such case, a very unsophisti-
cated, manned , 307-nautical-mile equatorial orbital station w i l l be .
required. This station will be constructed from payload and propul-
sion stages arriving in orbit and will thus be only a minimum cost I
to the program. I f , however, a n orbital station is i n existence, its .
s e r v i c e s and facilities will be used. In either c a s e , the ten-man orbital
c r e w s will be placed into orbit and will r e t u r n to e a r t h in the orbital -
r e t u r n vehicle described in Chapter 111. B. 3. This vehicle, with a ,
capability of up to 16 passengers, will be used f o r transporting both -
the orbital crews and the lunar-bound crews. It has been assumed
that the orbital crew of ten personnel will remain in orbit f o r two
months before returning to earth. Figure 11-52 presents the personnel
transportation requirements from earth to the orbital station during .
the build-up phase and f i r s t year of operation of the lunar outpost.

The total manned space transportation requirements


f r o m August 1964 through December 1967 a r e summarized as follows:

Earth to earth-orbit 252 personnel

Earth-orbit to moon 42 personnel

Moon to earth 26 personnel

( 2 ) Cargo

The detailed cargo requirements f o r the construction


and operation of a 12-man lunar outpost have been described in
Chapter 11. It should be emphasized that the outpost w i l l be construct-
ed of m a t e r i a l taken to the lunar s u r f a c e , and all personnel will be
provided life essentials supplied from earth. It i s expected that min-
e r a l s and other resources will be found on the moon which can and
w i l l eventually be used. However, f o r the purpose of this study, no
lunar r e s o u r c e s a r e depended upon. As mentioned e a r l i e r in this
section, two methods of transportation a r e envisioned for supplying .
the required cargo.

The accumulated cargo can be divided into t h r e e types


to be delivered in a three-phase program. T h e f i r s t type cargo, : '

required to begin construction, must be delivered by July 1965.


1800 .

1600 ,
.
14c4 -
1200

1000

800

600

400

200

J P n A n J J A S O H D J P n A H J J A S O ~ ~
1966 1967

Fig. II-5 3. Earth- Lunar Tr an8 p o r t ation Requir e m e n t B

to the S A T U R N 11, only the l a t t e r vehicle will b e used f o r that specific


mission. In addition to the two basic c a r r i e r v e h i c l e s , only t h r e e
other vehicles a r e envisioned. T h e s e , the o r b i t a l r e t u r n v e h i c l e ,
the o r b i t - l u n a r v e h i c l e , and the l u n a r - e a r t h r e t u r n v e h i c l e - a r e indi-
cated in Table 11-19. T h e r e will be, h o w e v e r , s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t types
of payload c o m p a r t m e n t s , both manned and unmanned, which w i l l b e
used. Also shown on t h i s table a r e the payload c a p a b i l i t i e s of the
individual v e h i c l e s , t h e i r operational d a t e s , and the a v e r a g e expected
reliability during the p e r i o d through D e c e m b e r 1967.

It has been a s s u m e d that the launching r a t e of both SATURN


I and SATURN 11 combined will not exceed eight p e r month f o r t h e
e n t i r e U. S. s p a c e p r o g r a m . This maximum r a t e (eight launchings
p e r month) is not attained until July 1965. Studies indicate that the

163
1
I
6
e Minimum ranrport Requir nentr
for Succc tive Orbit-Luna. Ve h i d e a Tot Payload Capabi
i n C bit (100%
Re 1 bility) 0/
0

/
/ d Accumulated
I in Orbit

//
/'
-u
0

4
$ 1
Y

0
~ A S O N D ~ J F M A M JA JS O N D I F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D
1964 I 1965 1966 1967

Fig. 11-54. Earth-Orbit Cargo Transportation Requirements


Table II- 19
SUMMARY OF VEHICLE CAPABILITY AND LIMITATIONS
Payload Operational
Ekpe cte d *
I
Mis s ion
Vehicle Capability, Availability
Reliability
(lb1

SATURN I
Orbital 30,000 Oct 1963 >90
Lunar Landing 2,000 M a y 1964 80

SATURN II
Orbital 70, 000 Jan 1965 90
Lunar Landing 6,000 Jan 1965 80

Orbital R e t u r n 4,000 May 1964 >95


Vehicle (16 m e n )

-
Orbit Lunar Vehicle 48,000 Apr 1965 90

Lunar - E a r t h 1,000 May 1965 90


Vehicle

*Average expected reliability from operational date through


December 1967.
4

proposed launching r a t e i s well within the production capability and


w i l l not place an undue burden on the nation's economy o r natural
resources.

b. Earth-Moon Direct

As mentioned e a r l i e r , approximately two-thirds of the total


cargo required on the lunar surface i s to be transported directly from
the e a r t h to the moon. Because of the smaller payload capability of
SATURN I and i t s inability to transport certain pieces of hardware,
only SATURN I1 vehicles will be used for this mission. h o r d e r to
m e e t the transportation requirements shown in Fig. 11-53, a total of
73 vehicles is required. This number provides the capability of h1

delivering 324,000 pounds to the moon, taking into consideration a ,

165
I ,
!
! 1
!
v e h i c l e - m i s s i o n reliability of 80 percent, Figu're II-55 gives the
launching schedule f o r the 7 3 vehicles r e q u i r e d , s t a r t i n g i n J a n u a r y
1965 and continuing through D e c e m b e r 1967.

c. E a r t h to E a r t h - O r b i t

The vehicle r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f r o m the


e a r t h to the orbital station c a n be divided into two c l a s s e s : personnel
and cargo.

Considering f i r s t the o r b i t a l - r e t u r n vehicle planned for this


m i s s i o n , i t has the capability of t r a n s p o r t i n g u p to 16 personnel. The
r e q u i r e m e n t f o r the orbital c r e w i s t e n personnel with a s t a y t i m e i n
o r b i t of two months. T h e r e f o r e , one vehicle e v e r y other month would
b e adequate f o r that requirement. However, i n addition t o the o r b i t a l
c r e w , the lunar-bound p e r s c a n e l m u s t a l s o be t r a n s p o r t e d into o r b i t
as indicated in Fig. 11-52. With the exception of the nine-man lunar
outpost construction c r e w scheduled t o go into orbit in July 1965, the
n u m b e r of lunar-bound personnel i s always f o u r o r l e s s and t h e s e
c a n b e e a s i l y accommodated i n the 16-man capsule with the t e n o r b i t a l
personnel. T h e r e f o r e , with the exception of a n additional o r b i t a l
r e t u r n vehicle in July 1965, only one vehicle e v e r y other month (as
shown in F i g . 11-55) will m e e t the manned o r b i t a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n
r e q u i r e m e n t s . The capsule of this additional vehicle, however, will
provide the compartment f o r the nine m e n in t h e i r flight on t o the
l u n a r surface.

Because of the non-availability of the SATURN I1 as well as


t h e higher reliability of the S A T U R N I during t h e e a r l y phases of the
p r o g r a m (1964 through mid 1966), only SATURN I vehicles will be u s e d
until 1967. At that t i m e , SATURN I will be phased out of the p r o g r a m
and SATURN I1 vehicles will p e r f o r m the manned orbital r e t u r n m i s s i o n

Although it would be highly d e s i r a b l e to utilize the SATURN


I1 vehicle exclusively f o r a l l orbital supply m i s s i o n s because of its
7 0 , 0 0 0 pounds of orbital payload, this will not be possible since a n
adequate number of vehicles will not be available. I n addition, the
SATURN 11 i s i n the R&D and e a r l y operational stage phases during
1964 and e a r l y 1965 which will r e s u l t in a lower reliability than the
SATURN I. With this i n mind, the orbital c a r g o t r a n s p o r t a t i o n r e -
q u i r e m e n t has been divided between the two vehicles with emphasis
on the SATURN I and phasing over to the SATURN U exclusively by
J a n u a r y 1967. Assuming a n a v e r a g e vehicle and m i s s i o n reliability

- . 166
Number of ‘ltghtu for DeaiRnated D a t e i
1964 I 1965 1966 I
Vahlcla and Mlsmlon
J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N C J F M A M J J A S ON’C

Lunar Soft Landlnp’ Vchlcle


I
(Direct)
SATURN R 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Z 3 2 3 2 3
I2 3 2 2 3 2 2 3 2 2 3 2 2 73
Earth-Orblt and Return
(Manned) I

I
SATURN I

SATURNU I
1 1 1

I
1 . 1 1 1 1 1 1 I l l 1
‘ I’
~ ~- - ~~

I ‘ I I I
Earth-Orbir (Carso)
SATURN I 1 3 1 3 3 ‘ 4 3 3 2 2 3 2 3 3 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 I1 47
SATURN U 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 3 3 2 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 ) 2 2 2 3 2 2 3 2 2 3 2 2 3 71
1
E m s r g a n c y Vehlclci
SATURN I 1 1 1 1 I ‘ 5 6
SATURN II 1 I 1 1 1 I I 1 10
l 9
9
Orblt-Lunar Soft Landing
(Grio)
1 1 I
E‘ 4

Orbit-Lunar Soft Landlng


(Manned)
1 1 I 1 1 ‘ E 1 1 1 I 10
5
LuMr-Eitth Return 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 a
l I

SATURN I 2 3 2 3 4 5 5 3 3 3 4 3 4 3 3 2 3 1 2 2 1 2 2 1 1 ‘2 69
SATURN II 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 2 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 5 6 6 6!4 5 6 5 6 5 6-5 6 5 6 5 6 160
2 3 3 3 4 6 7 5 5 5 6 6 7 6 5 6 7 6 7 5 7 6 7 6 7 7 7 616 5 6 5 6 5 6 5 b 5 6 5 6 229

Fig.
v
II-55. F’roiect HORIZON
I
Vehicle Reauirements
* and Launching Schedule 0
of 90 p e r c e n t during the e n t i r e operation, the t o t a l n u m b e r of vehicles
r e q u i r e d f o r e a r t h - o r b i t c a r g o m i s s i o n s i s 47 SATURN 1’s and 71
SATURN I I ‘ s , a s is shown i n schedule f o r m on Fig. 11-55.

d. E a r t h Orbit-Moon

The vehicle r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f r o m the o r b i t a l


s t a t i o n to the l u n a r s u r f a c e likewise c a n be divided into two c l a s s e s :
p e r s o n n e l and c a r g o .

The additional c a r g o r e q u i r e m e n t s a r e satisfied with a


t o t a l of four flights with a 48,000-pound capability each. Ten p e r c e n t
of t h e s e payload weights a r e needed f o r the payload container.

The p e r s o n n e l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n r e q u i r e m e n t s a r e s a t i s f i e d
with a t o t a l of t e n f l i g h t s , one of which does not c a r r y a r e t u r n vehicle.
T h e s e vehicles allow the a r r i v a l of 42 p e r s o n n e l and the d e p a r t u r e of
30 during the t i m e p e r i o d of i n t e r e s t , the l a s t one leaving i n J a n u a r y
1968.

e. Moon-Earth R e t u r n

The r e t u r n schedule is shown in F i g . 11-52.

The initial c r e w of two m e n will a r r i v e with the capability


of r e t u r n i n g to e a r t h i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r a r r i v a l o r a t s o m e l a t e r d a t e
a s d e s i r e d . The next manned l u n a r landing w i l l c o n s i s t of nine-man
c o n s t r u c t i o n c r e w and will have no i m m e d i a t e r e t u r n capability. The
following plan is envisioned f o r providing them with a r e t u r n capability.
The t h i r d manned vehicle a r r i v i n g on the moon would contain a c r e w
of four personnel and provide a r e t u r n capability back t o e a r t h f o r
t h r e e of the original nine-man construction crew. At t h i s t i m e , a
total of nine m e n a r e a t the outpost s i n c e the f i r s t t w o m e n have a l r e a d y
departed. On the next t h r e e f l i g h t s , four m e n a r r i v e and t h r e e d e p a r t ;
at the completion of which t h e r e a r e 12 m e n on the moon. With the
r e q u i r e d outpost complement of 12, all succeeding flights would b r i n g
four p e r s o n n e l to the moon and r e t u r n four m e n back to e a r t h as is”
shown i n Fig. 11-52, T h i s r e t u r n operation through 1967 would r e q u i r e
a t o t a l of eight vehicles: the f i r s t r e t u r n i n g two m e n , the n e x t four
v e h i c l e s r e t u r n i n g t h r e e m e n , and the remaining t h r e e v e h i c l e s r e -
turning f o u r m e n as scheduled i n Fig. 11-55. Although it i s not ’shown
on t h e schedule, four m e n w i l l be r e t u r n e d to e a r t h i n J a n u a r y 1968,
using the r e t u r n vehicle a r r i v i n g on the moon i n D e c e m b e r 1967.
f. l n t e g r a t e d Vehicle R e q u i r e m e n t s

I n addition t o the vehicle r e q u i r e m e n t s d i s c u s s e d i n t h e


p r e c e d i n g four s e c t i o n s , i t is believed e s s e n t i a l to include a n addi- .
tional c a t e g o r y of vehicle r e q u i r e m e n t s , t h a t of e m e r g e n c y v e h i c l e s .

It should be understood, h o w e v e r , t h a t the " e m e r g e n c y


vehicles" a r e not added to c o m p e n s a t e for vehicle or m i s s i o n r e l i a b i l i t y :
they a r e i n s u r a n c e for the t i m e l y a c c o m p l i s h m e n t of the p r o g r a m .
In e a c h of the vehicular r e q u i r e m e n t s reviewed above, a n a p p r o p r i a t e
r e l i a b i l i t y f a c t o r w a s used i n computing the total r e q u i r e m e n t s . T h e s e
e m e r g e n c y v e h i c l e s a r e included to c o m p e n s a t e f o r unpredictable
difficulties s u c h as equipment damage by m e t e o r o i d s a t the o r b i t a l
s t a t i o n o r on the moon; accidental d a m a g e of equipment which would
r e q u i r e r e p l a c e m e n t , and to provide a standby for e m e r g e n c y n e e d s
f o r l i f e s u p p o r t e s s e n t i a l equipment on the moon o r a t t h e o r b i t a l
station.

The total vehicle r e q u i r e m e n t s as well as the launching


r a t e s outlined i n Fig. 11-55 a r e c o n s i d e r e d to be f e a s i b l e and w e l l
within the national capability. With the e s t i m a t e d production r a t e s
used i n this study, a total of 355 SATURN 1 ' s and SATURN II's could
be launched by the end of 1967. Of t h e s e 355, only 2 2 9 , l e s s t h a n two-
t h i r d s of the v e h i c l e s , would be r e q u i r e d f o r this p r o g r a m . 'l'his
would l e a v e 8 4 SATURN 1 ' s and 42 SATURN 11's f o r o t h e r p r o g r a m s
s u c h as the 24-hour communication s a t e l l i t e s y s t e m , s p a c e p r o b e s ,
and o t h e r m i s s i o n s as r e q u i r e d .

D. PAYLOAD P R E P A R A T I O N AND SCHEDULING

1. Pavload P r e p a r a t i o n

F i n a l p r e s e r v a t i o n , packaging and packing of c a r g o will b e


a c c o m p l i s h e d at the e a r t h launch site. Unusual methods and p r o c e d u r e s
a r e n e c e s s a r y p r i m a r i l y b e c a u s e of the n e a r p e r f e c t vacuum 3f t h e
lunar environment, and the g r e a t r a n g e of t e m p e r a t u r e on the l u n a r
s u r f a c e . O t h e r phenomena t o be c o n s i d e r e d a r e r a d i a t i o n h a z a r d s ,
m e t e o r i t i c , and m e t e o r o i d i c bombardment. S t e r i l i z a t i o n to p r e v e n t
the introduction of terrestrial o r g a n i s m s to the l u n a r s u r f a c e will
be r e q u i r e d .
The s t o r a g e a n d packing facility will b e staffed f o r and be
capable of a s s e m b l y l i n e production with a f u r t h e r capability of
functioning during e m e r g e n c y situations. It is felt t h a t packing m u s t
b e accomplished a t the launch s i t e f o r added a s s u r a n c e of s a t i s f a c t o r y
condition of packed i t e m s . Quality a s s u r a n c e in a p r o g r a m of t h i s
n a t u r e m u s t be e x t r e m e l y high to p r e c l u d e any possibility of f o r w a r d -
ing damaged o r faulty i t e m s . P r o v i s i o n s will b e m a d e f o r a p p r o p r i a t e
inspection of technical supplies a t the launch site.

2. Typical Loads and Schedules

F i g u r e 11-56 and T a b l e s 11-20 and 11-21 d e m o n s t r a t e plans f o r


scheduling and allotting c a r g o by type and quantity. The d a t a contained
i n t h e s e tables r e p r e s e n t b e s t e s t i m a t e s available a t this time.

A g e n e r a l i z e d schedule is displayed in Fig. 11-56. Construction


equipment and m a t e r i a l s a r e depicted as c o m p r i s i n g the bulk of initial
c a r g o . The s c h e m e f u r t h e r depicts life e s s e n t i a l supplies eventually
r e p l a c i n g construction m a t e r i a l a s the p r i m a r y c a r g o . This i n c r e a s e
i s n e c e s s a r y to build up and adequate r e s e r v e . Detailed supply sched-
uling will p r o c e e d a s additional information b e c o m e s available and
i t e m weights, c u b e s , and configurations b e c o m e stabilized. F u r t h e r
operational planning and finalized vehicle design m u s t a l s o p r e c e d e
detailed supply scheduling.

Packaging will involve a v a r i e t y of methods and m a t e r i a l s ,


Light, flexible m a t e r i a l s ( m y l a r , aluminum f o i l , etc. ) will b e used
.
a s wrapping to m i n i m i z e o v e r a l l weight.

Containers w i l l be c o n s t r u c t e d of lightweight m e t a l s o r p l a s t i c s ,
and will be designed to s e r v e a s c a b i n e t s , t a b l e s , bunks, dining equip-
m e n t , etc. The concept of multipurpose design i n c o n t a i n e r s will b e
exploited. The weight of any containerized package will not exceed
150 earth pounds f o r handling r e a s o n s excepting outsized i t e m s of
unusual configuration.

Human engineering c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n container d e s i g n will


include provision f o r handling by m e n in l u n a r s u i t s , a c c e s s i b i l i t y
within c a r g o c o n t a i n e r , e a s e of moving, identification, e a s e of operation
of f a s t e n e r s and c l o s u r e s , and e a s e of a s s e m b l y into functional units .:
(housing, s t o r a g e , f u r n i t u r e , etc. ). A l l c o n t a i n e r s will be vacuum
packed.

170
CONSTRUCTION 1
lot ' I
I
I
I

J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S OND[J F M A M J 3 A S O N I :
1965 1966 I I967

Fig. 11-56. Supply Schedule f o r Direct Earth-to-Outpost Cargo Flightt


Total Flights 73 -
Total C a r g o 350, 000 pounds -
TABLE 11-20
SUMMARY O F WEIGHTS O F MATERIAL TRANSPORTED TO THE LUNAR SURFACE (1965-1961)

Supplies Outpost S u r p l u s C o n s t r . Mat. Surplus Prop. Total Total Ratio


and Conslruction Second Third Instru. Res. Useful Mal. O!
Equipment Material Class Class (C I C I I) (50%) Payload Landed Useful
(1) (2) (31 ( 4) (5) (6) 1/213/6 Tot. Mat.

A Direct 305,400 99,600 127.610 63,800 116.000 32,850 565.460 115.260 0.729
Route

Via Orbit 172. 800 38.900 19. 500 8, 800 10,000 221.700 250,000 0.887
B Route
(cargo)

Via Orblt 55. 350 78.450 39.200 a. 500 25.000 158.800 206. 500 0.169
C Route
(Peru.)

Scheduled 533,550 99,600 244.960 * 122.500 163. 300 61.850 945.960 1.231.760 0.768
D Mission-
(Total)

Emergency 54,000 18.500 9.200 20.000 4.500 77.000 106.200 0.725


E Direct
Route

F Grand 587.550 99.600 263.460 131,700 183, 300 72.350 1.022.960 1.337,960 ' 0.181
TOUl

Exp. Del. 426.840 19.680 195.970 93,000 130,640 54.280 756.770 985.410 0.768
G Total
Sched.
HiamIons*

Eap. Del. 43.200 14,800 1.360 16.000 3.600 61.600 84.960 0.125
H Emmrgancy
Capab.

TOTAL 470.040 19.680 210.710 105,360 146,640


*Eighty p e r c e n t reliabllity.

!
!
T A B L E 11-21
S U M M A R Y OF WEIGHTS
AVAILABLE ON T H E LUNAR S U R F A C E
(80% Reliability, Excluding E m e r g e n c y Capabflity, I965 T h r o u g h 1967)

A. USEFUL PAYLOADS:

Ltfe Eeaentiala (400 M a n Month, 4500 l b each) 180,000 l b


Outpost Structure 79,680
Outpost Equipment and Supply 180,000
Communication Equipment 8,000
Technical Support 13,000
Surface Vchiclea ( 2 ) 4,000
P e r s o n n e l ( 1 2 Man, 400 l b each) 4,800
Mia c e l h n e ou a 37,040
Usable Structural M a t e r i a l ( E m p t y Container) 195,970
Propellant Residuals 54,280

TOTAL 756.770 lb
-
B. OTHER MATERIAL (SURPLUS)

(I) S t r u c t u r a l Cornponenta and Engines 9 8 , 0 0 0 lb


( 2 ) Guidance, C o n t r o l a n d I n s t r u m e n t E q u i p m e n t 130,640

TOTAL 226,640

T o t a l M a t e r i a l on L u n a r S u r f a c e 985,410 Ib
(Scheduled F l i g h t s , 80 p e r c c n t Reliability,

NOTE: ( a ) Nine v e h i c l e s , e a c h 4 6 , 5 0 0 l b have r e t u r n e d


t o E a r t h during t h i s t i m e period. (418, 500 l b )

(b) Total Weight l o s t ( 2 0 % Rcliability) (246, 350 l b )

( c ) G r a n d T o t a l L u n a r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n capa- (1,650,260 lb)


bility (100% reliability, no e m e r g e n c y )

S t e r i l i z a t i o n will be accomplished b y m e a n s of g a s , c h e m i c a l
disinfectants a n d / o r heat. F o r contingencies, i t i s planned to m a i n -
tain a l l types of outbound c a r g o in s o m e depth a t the launch s i t e ,

In the following t a b l e s , life e s s e n t i a l s (food, w a t e r , oxygen,


and C 0 2 a b s o r b e n t ) a r e caiculated t o be 15 pounds p e r m a n p e r day. .
In addition, a 70-man-month r e s e r v e a t the outpost and a 15-day
r e s e r v e a t the o r b i t a l station a r e planned, Manned vehicles w i l l
c a r r y a 14-day supply.

Tables 11-20 and 11-21 r e p r e s e n t a good s u m m a r y of the total


weights involved. They identify the type of m a t e r i a 1 a s well a s the . .
r o u t e the m a t e r i a l i s taking. A reliability f a c t o r of 100 p e r c e n t as.
w e l l a s - 8 0 p e r c e n t wa8 used. The l a t t e r one is used for p r a c t i c a l
planning. The e m e r g e n c y c a p a b i l i t i e s , are honest and existing

172
capabilities which, however, a r e f o r unforeseen r e q u i r e m e n t s a n d
thus should not be e a r m a r k e d f o r c e r t a i n payload i t e m s ,

T a b l e 11-21 r e p r e s e n t s a n o v e r a l l s u m m a r y of payloads.

173
CHAPTER N: COMMUNICATIONS ELECTRONICS

A. INTRODUCTION

1. G e n e r a l Philosophy

The importance of communications t o the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a


l u n a r outpost cannot be too heavily emphasized. The p r e s e n c e of
h u m a n beings in this p r o g r a m m a k e s communication r e l i a b i l i t y a s s u m e
e v e n l a r g e r importance in view of t h e implications of f a i l u r e . F o r this
r e a s o n , and b e c a u s e of the a c c e l e r a t e d n a t u r e of the o v e r a l l p r o g r a m ,
p o s s i b l e solutions to the many communications p r o b l e m s involved have
b e e n sought using r e l i a b l e a p p r o a c h e s which a r e consistent with the
p r o j e c t e d s t a t e -of - t h e - a r t . E a r l y and continuing r e s e a r c h and develop -
m e n t of a l l i t e m s extending f r o m b a s i c m a t e r i a l s to complete s y s t e m s
a n d s u b s y s t e m s h a s been planned s o t h a t a d v a n c e m e n t s not now f o r e s e e n
c a n b e implemented within the t i m e f r a m e of the p r o g r a m on a continu-
i n g "product improvement" basis.

F r o m a n expedition control standpoint it h a s been c o n s i d e r e d


t h a t instantaneous and continuous voice communication f r o m the l u n a r
s u r f a c e and e n r o u t e vehicle to v a r i o u s c o n t r o l a r e a s on the s u l f a c e of
the e a r t h is e s s e n t i a l . Medical and psychological c o n s i d e r a t i o n s f u r t h e r
s u b s t a n t i a t e this decision. The plan f o r t h e communications portion of
t h i s p r o g r a m h a s , accordingly, followed t h i s r e q u i r e m e n t with full c o g -
n i z a n c e of the global communication a s well as the s p a c e c o m m u n i c a t i o n
f a c t o r s involved.

In designing communications equipment and e l e c t r o n i c comp0nent.s


f o r a l u n a r environment, t h e r e a r e , of c o u r s e , c e r t a i n r e q u i r e m e n t s
t h a t a r e obvious. F o r example, s i z e and weight reduction, r u g g e d n e s s ,
and high efficiency a r e d e s i g n c r i t e r i a which a r e a x i o m a t i c for t h i s
application. However, b e c a u s e of the unique r e q u i r e m e n t s of a manned
l u n a r station, reliability b e c o m e s the p r i m e requisite. Component
f a i l u r e and the resulting p e r i o d of t r o u b l e shooting and r e p a i r m u s t be
m i n i m i z e d to avoid breakdown of critical communication links. Included
as a d e s i g n goal will be t h e r e q u i r e m e n t f o r at l e a s t one year equipment
o p e r a t i o n without the need to r e p l a c e components. T h i s will r e q u i r e
s i m p l i c i t y of mechanical a n d e l e c t r o n i c c i r c u i t design, redundancy of
c r i t i c a l components, and s t r i n g e n t component quality control p r o g r a m s .

Another i m p o r t a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n is t h a t of c a r e f u l h u m a n e n g i n e e r .
ing of equipment to p e r m i t p r o p e r o p e r a t i o n within the physical and psy-

175
chological l i m i t a t i o n s of the l u n a r environment, T h i s will r e q u i r e .
coordination with m e d i c a l , clothing, construction and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n
e x p e r t s to p e r m i t the d e s i g n of communication e q u i p m e n t a s an i n t e g r a l
p a r t of s p a c e s u i t s , s h e l t e r s and vehicles.

2. System Discussion

The a r e a s of i n t e r e s t c o v e r e d in this c h a p t e r a r e s u m m a r i z e d
i n T a b l e II-22. The o v e r a l l communication s y s t e m will provide m e a n s
for i n t e r c o n n e c t i o n of t h e l u n a r outpost a n d s e l e c t e d t e r m i n a l s on
e a r t h . F i g u r e 11-57 d e p i c t s s e v e r a l e l e m e n t s of t h e o v e r a l l communi-
cation p o r t i o n of the p r o j e c t , and i l l u s t r a t e s the b a s i c s c h e m e f o r m a i n -
taining continuous communication with vehicles i n flight and the l u n a r
outpost. Development of the e a r t h communications s a t e l l i t e s y s t e m i s
p r e s e n t l y p a r t of a s e p a r a t e p r o g r a m . The timing of the s a t e l l i t e p r o -
g r a m is c o n s i s t e n t with the o v e r a l l objectives of t h i s p r o g r a m , Where
p o s s i b l e , the e a r t h - b a s e d l u n a r c o m t e r m i n a l s will be l o c a t e d a t o r n e a r
the s a m e s i t e s s e l e c t e d for the ground-based s u r v e i l l a n c e complex, t o
s i m p l i f y the global interconnection problem.

TABLE II-22
AREAS O F INTEREST IN COMMUNICATIONS AND ELECTRONICS
CARTH-BASED COMPLEX
COMMUNICATIONS
1. Lunarcom Terminal
2. Launch Site and Downrange Facilltiee
3. U. S. Control Center
4. Worldwide Communicationa Links between All of Above and
and the Tracking Statione
SURVEILLANCE
1. Ground-Based Surveillance Complex
LUNAR-RASED COMPLEX
COMMUNICATIONS
1. Lunarcom Terminal (vehicle and outpost)
2. VHF Lunar N e t System
3. E m e r g e n c y Link
4. Terminal F a c i l i t i e s
SURVEILLANCE
1 . Survey
2. Homing
3. Warning
24 HOUR EQUATORIAL
SAT E LLlT E
EARTH COMPLEX A N D
\ \ t \
\ LUNARCOM L I N K S

7 v
AX
24 HOUR EQUATORIAL
SAT E LLlT E

.-
-,
.- - 7 --.--
MOON
\
\
':J
/ - t.j

'\, . OUTPOST

>

,4
. J,
' &' 24 HOUR EQUATORIAL 4 TRANSPORT
t8 VEHICLE
SATELLITE

GE 52.12-59 9 M A Y I959

Fig. 11-57. E a r t h Complex and Lunarcom Links


At .the outpost, facilities have been planned to p e r m i t contin-
uously available voice communications among each m e m b e r of the lunar
party, the outpost p r o p e r , and lunar s u r f a c e vehicles. If r e q u i r e d , a
continuous link could be established between a n individual on the lunar
s u r f a c e and the continental U. S. control center. The surveillance f a -
cilities planned will provide a ready means for c a r g o location, pictorial
documentation of the l u n a r environment, and augmentation defense capa -
bilities, i f required.

3. Special Study A r e a s

Although the design philosophy for the e n t i r e communications ,


e l e c t r o n i c s s y s t e m is t o employ proven techniques, it i s recognized
that s p e c i a l study a r e a s e x i s t in which development of specific c o m -
ponents and subsystems is required. Some of t h e s e problem a r e a s ,
which a r e neither all inclusive nor stated in o r d e r of importance, a r e :
power generation and s t o r a g e , long-term reliability, components and
environment, applied microminiaturization technique 6 , and interference.
T h e s e problem a r e a s are diecussed below.

a. Power Sources - While each unit of communication equip-


m e n t will have a euitable power source developed f o r it, t h e r e a r e c e r -
tain g e n e r a l problems which will have to be solved. Development p r o -
g r a m s will be undertaken to i n c r e a s e life and improve ruggedness and
efficiency of continuously fed galvanic batteries, and t o investigate
n u c l e a r and s o l a r regeneration s y s t e m s , Also, a specific regeneration
s y s t e m will be developed f o r use in the outpost. This will s e r v e as a
c e n t r a l location f o r producing H2/02 (electrolysis of water obtained as
f
waste f r o m the fuel cells).

The nickel-cadmium s y s t e m i s the m o s t reliable and v e r s a -


tile r e c h a r g e a b l e s y s t e m available today because of its excellent cycle
life, c h a r g e efficiency, voltage regulation, low-temperature p e r f o r m -
ance and capability of being designed in both sealed and vented con-
structions. In o r d e r to i n c r e a s e the power output p e r unit weight and
volume and to design l a r g e r sealed cells than a r e p r e s e n t l y available,
investigations will be made into reaction mechanism and into b a t t e r y
r a t e r s and electrolytes. T h e p r o g r a m would also investigate the cell
components of the zino-silver oxide (Zn-As75 ) s y s t e m t o i m p r o v e its
cycle live. Both the Zn-Ago and the cadmium-silver oxide (Cd-Ago)
s y s t e m 8 would be studied to develop a sealed-cell design which would
m a k e a rechargeable cell available with higher power output.

17 8

I I
Fuel c e l l s will be designed f o r m o s t of the equipment. How;
e v e r , it a p p e a r s d e s i r a b l e t o investigate the possibility of using the in-
h e r e n t t e m p e r a t u r e differential between the s u r f a c e and subsurface of
the moon for power generation. T h e r e a r e many design problems in-
volved, but initial attention will be directed t o investigating junction
m a t e r i a l s with high conversion efficiencies at v e r y low t e m p e r a t u r e , and
t o obtainink effective heat t r a n s f e r a t hot and cold junctions. Much depends
on information expected to be obtained f r o m the l u n a r p r o b e s on the t h e r m a i
conductivity of the s u r f a c e of the moon and on the depth a t which constant
t e m p e r a t u r e s a r e obtained.

The t h e r m o e l e c t r i c battery, with a radioactive isotope s o u r c e ,


is feasible and d e s i r a b l e w h e r e maxirn.Jm e n e r g y is r e q u i r e d with m i n i -
m u m s i z e at m o d e r a t e power levels. Investigation will be made o f ' m o r e
suitable isotope s o u r c e s for the t h e r m o e l e c t r i c -nuclear b a t t e r y which
have various ranges of'lifetime and power levels. This would be done
in conjunction with a n existing AEC p r o g r a m in this a r e a . The combi-
natioh of these s o u r c e s with m o r e efficient t h e r m o e l e c t r i c ConversCon
m a t e r i a l s will r e s u l t in a t h e r m o e l e c t r i c -nuclear b a t t e r y having thy
advantages of long life, t e m p e r a t u r e independence, and high energy
per unit of weight and volume.

b. Components and M a t e r i a l s - The e x t r e m e s of tempezature,


encountered on the l u n a r s u r f a c e and subsurface, p r e s e n t a formidable
problem in the design of reliable e l e c t r i c c i r c u i t r y operable over even
a portion of the t e m p e r a t u r e range. Specific lunar equipment might
be designed so that the active components a r e b u r i e d beneath the s u r -
0
face, requiring operation in ambient t e m p e r a t u r e s n e a r - 4 0 C r a t h e r
than +20°G. Antennas, antenna-supporting s t r u c t u r e s and many other
s t r u c t u r a l m a t e r i a l s m u s t b e carefully developed, c o n s i s t e n t with the
expected environmental e x t r e m e s .

C. Micro-Module P r o g r a m - Several million d o l l a r s have been


obligated in the initial contractual phase of the micro-module production
program. Through this e f f o r t a wide variety of micro-modules have been
developed suitable f o r adaption to c i r c u i t s ranging f r o m audio to RF
including digital computers and other switching applications. While m o s t
of t h e s e micro-modules will be usable in equipment designed for a l u n a r
outpost, it will be n e c e s s a r y to examine the specific type of c i r c u i t r y
r e q u i r e d and t o c o n s t r u c t experimental models. Overall s y s t e m advan-
tages to be gained by optimum application of micro-modules w i l l be
established in t e r m s of size and weight reduction, i n c r e a s e d reliability

I
through extensive redundancy and the inherently high r e l i a b i l i t y of
a p p r o p r i a t e l y , d e s i g n e d functional micro-modules. Selected develop-
m e n t a l m o d e l s of equipment s u b a s s e m b l i e s will b e c o n s t r u c t e d to demon-
strate the advantages of t h e concept.

B. COMMUNICATION REQUIREMENTS

1. S u m m a r v of A r e a s of I n t e r e s t

The communication r e q u i r e m e n t s of the p r o j e c t c a n logically b e


s e p a r a t e d both by g e n e r a l time f r a m e and a r e a of usage. By 1962,
ground communication support m u s t b e provided (by expanding existing
f a c i l i t i e s in s o m e c a s e s ) a t the launch s i t e , a t the downrange t r a c k i n g
and i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n s t a t i o n s , a t the initial worldwide t r a c k i n g and c o m -
munications s t a t i o n s , and for interconnection a m o n g each, of t h e s e as
well a s links t o the c o n t r o l c e n t e r in the Continental United States. T h e s e
p r i m a r y channels o r "need lines" of communication a r e i l l u s t r a t e d i n
F i g XI-58. T h i s is d i s c u s s e d * i n f u r t h e r detail in Section 2 below.

By the end of 1964, fully i n s t r u m e n t e d worldwide e a r t h - b a s e d


t e r m i n a l s a r e r e q u i r e d f o r communication with vehicles in flight, the
o r b i t a l station, and the l u n a r outpost. The interconnecting links among
e a c h of t h e s e , the world-tracking network and the c o n t r o l c e n t e r will be
expanded considerably. Development of all communication sys terns
r e q u i r e d f o r the l u n a r outpost will be completed and- the multi-channel
24-hour communications s a t e l l i t e s y s t e m ( i n c i r c u l a r e q u a t o r i a l orbit),
which i s c u r r e n t l y under development on behalf of ARPA, will b e inte-
g r a t e d into t h e o v e r a l l s y s t e m , F i g u r e 11-59, which indicates the "need
lines" of communication f o r the 1964 period, is d i s c u s s e d in Section 2.
The i n t e g r a t e d s y s t e m i s shown in F i g u r e 11-57,

Soft landings of both manned and unmanned vehicles a r e scheduled


beginning in e a r l y 1965. This schedule dictates employment of t h e e n t i r e
ground c o m p l e x and all s p a c e and outpost communications s y s t e m s on a
continuing b a s is.

The ground complex buildup, in-flight r e q u i r e m e n t s , outpost


r e q u i r e m e n t s and e m e r g e n c y communications r e q u i r e m e n t s a r e d e s c r i b e d
in d e t a i l i n the following sections.

2. E a r t h - B a s e d Complex - As s t a t e d above, communication f a c i l i - I


t i e s a r e r e q u i r e d f o r a s p a c e vehicle launch s i t e , t r a c k i n g and communi-
cations s t a t i o n s located downrange and worldwide, a n o r b i t a l station, and
i
/

I /
/

--t- I
-’
/
/
/
/
-
SPACE CWPLEX
EARTH-BASED C W L L X

I
1
r
Control
Center 1
Launch and
Dovnrangc
Stations

--- Location a t Later T h e

Fig. II-58. Communication Need Lines - 1962

181
-
i
i
!
A
a
a
World-wide Tracking Station8
Lunar C w r u n i c a t i o n S i t u
yv> Vehicle Lnroutc
24-Hr Canarnication Satellite
-
@ Outport
a Orbiting Space Platform

Fig. LI-59. Communication Need Lines - 1964

182
I
i

. . . _. .
an outpost on the moon. Facilities for intercommunication among each
of these, with space vehicles in flight, and with the U. S. control center
will be provided at3 an integral part of the system.

Figure 11-60 i s an a r t i s t ' s concept of a typical tracking station,


which has a fourfold expansion capability, and i s augmented by t h l \
auxiliary backup communications facilities, lunar communication station,
orbital station and satellite ground link. F o r purposes of discussion, t h a t
portion of the station allied to communications with the lunar outpost or
vehicles in flight i s referred to on the lunarcom terminal.

F o r implementation, this study is divided into two parts, The


target date for completion of the f i r s t part i s the end of 1962 and, for
the second part, the end of 1964. Existing and planned communications,
utilizing known and proven techniques, a r e capable of meeting the general
requirements of this project, Techniques and equipment now under d e -
velopment will, enhance this capability. However, specific r e search and
development programs a r e required in such a r e a s as supercooled maser:;
and parametric devices, transistors with greater power at higher f r e -
quencies, m o r e efficient power sources, wide band tracking feeds, s p e c i a l
anti-jam features, etc. Similar programs either have been initiated or
w i l l be in the near future; therefore, no major "breakthroughs" a r e r e -
quired to provide the required communication capabilities.

a. P a r t One - 1962 Phase


(1) Gene r a1 Consider ations

As indicated in F i g 11-58, Communication Need Lines


1962, f u l l time communications with lunar probe vehicles will be p r o -
vided. The particular stations of the worldwide tracking net whic h a r e
used in this system will be augmented by the necessary additionai c o m -
rnunicatione equipment. Extensive facilities will be provided in the
ground complex for recording telemetry data. H - F (high frequency)
circuits will be used to interconnect ground etations, while Glibmarine
cable and troop-scatter circuits will be used to interconnect downrange
stations, depending upon their relative locations.

Although the world net tracking facility will be available


for initial launchiaga to aid in tracking and communications, i t may not
be advisable to reply solely upon those stations presently selected a s
p a r t of the world net for the l a t e r phases of the project.

i!
8 5 ' ANTENNAS

/
m

TERMINAL SITE
.
-.. . I
ADM I N I STR ATlV E

inh

F i g . 11-60. Typical Tracking and L u n a r c o m Site


--- - ------

c ( 2 ) Launch A r e a

A complete inte communic tion s y s t e m will be p r o -


vided in the launch a r e a . Details will not b e given h e r e b e c a u s e all
t h e s e f a c i l i t i e s a r e s t a n d a r d in nature.

( 3 ) Downrange Tracking and Related Communications

The downrange locations f o r the command guidance


s y s t e m , r e q u i r e d to t r a c k and communicate with the vehicle d u r i n g
i t s powered flight, have been c o n s i d e r e d for the launch a r e a a t B e l e m ,
0 0
B r a z i l o r C h r i s t m a s Island, located a t 2 S and 2 N latitude, r e s p e c -
tively. F o r the f o r m e r location, the r e q u i r e d s y s t e m could c o n s i s t of
integrated tracking stations in Brazil (near-Recife, for example) and at
the .launch area in the Ascension Islands t o eliminate the r e q u i r e m e n t
f o r a shipboard station in the Atlantic Ocean, and in Western Africa
(in the vicinity of L i b e r i a and the F r e n c h C a m e r o o n s , f o r example).
T h i s is shown i n Fig. 11-61. I

If C h r i s t m a s Island i s c o n s i d e r e d a s the launch s i t e ,


t h r e e of the five downrange tracking s t a t i o n s m u s t be shipborne. Under
such c i r c u m s t a n c e s , s u b m a r i n e cable cannot be used, with a resiilting
reduction in reliability.

Each downrange site will include t r a c k i n g f a c i l i t i e s ca-


pable of automatically locking on and t r a c k i n g the beacon t r a n s m i t t e r
f o r the command guidance s y s t e m ; a command guidance t r a n s m i t t e r ;
d a t a p r o c e s s i n g facilities f o r t r a j e c t o r y calculations; and a s s o c i a t e d
communications equipment. The downrange t r a c k i n g stations will b e
interconnected with a multi-channel communication s y s t e m providing
voice, teletype, and data communications on a highly r e l i a b l e r e a l - t i m e
basis. As noted on Fig.71-61, e i t h e r a t r o p o s p h e r i c s c a t t e r r a d i o s y s t e m
o r s u b m a r i n e cable would be used between stations, depending upon t h e i r
r e l a t i v e locations. Tfie l a t t e r , although quite costly, is the only m e a n s
of providing the r e q u i r e d d e g r e e of reliability by 1962.

(4) Worldwide Tracking and Related Communications

During 1960, the ARPA-NASA national ground-based


s u r v e i l l a n c e complex ( a l s o r e f e r r e d to as the "world net") will b e c o m e
o p e r a t i o n a l , and will be available f o r initial launchings. The c o m p l e x
i s c o m p r i s e d of both p r i m a r y and s e c o n d a r y t r a c k i n g s i t e s which are
positioned to provide full -time communications with communications
*

I
\
GBS GROUND BASED SUWEILLAHCE
CCC CONUS COMMAND CENTER
POSSIBLE RADIO RELAY POINT
DOWN RANGE TfUCKING 9 T E
F RADIO- 1962f 1964

I
6@ 90. 100. 120. 140. 16QE 180.W160' 140. PO* 100. 80. 60. 40. 20. W 0* E 20. 40. 60.
. .

11-61. Earth Based Communication Complex


' * I . '3
7
network and is under t h e control of a U.S. c o n t r o l c e n t e r . It is not
likely t h a t the s y s t e m could accommodate thc workload i m p o s e d by a
l u n a r expedition without considerable augmentation. T h e r e f o r e , t o
s u p p o r t t h i s effort, additional tr.acking and communication facilities will
be provided by 1962 to p e r m i t f u l l t i m e communications with l u n a r p r o b e
vehicles. The channel provided to the inflight vehicle w i l l be capable of
accommodating voice bandwidth d a t a t r a n s m i s s i o n s to a n d ' f r o m the U. S .
c o n t r o l center. In addition, t r a j e c t o r y and positional d a t a will b e a v a i l -
a b l e throughout the network including the c o n t r o l center. For t h e 1962
phase, ground i n t e r s t a t i o n communications will be provided by a m u l t i -
channel H - F r a d i o s y s t e m , with its inherent r e l i a b i l i t y limitations.

Although t h i s s y s t e m will not provide t h e d e g r e e of r e l i -


ability needed f o r manned flights, it should be adequate f o r the s c i e n -
tific probes. T h u s , the t r e m e n d o u s cost f o r installation of s u b m a r i n e
cable c i r c u i t s cannot be justified. In t h e 1964 t i m e f r a m e , the m a r i n e .
24-hour r e a l - t i m e communication s a t e l l i t e s should become o p e r a t i o n a l
and c a n b e used t o provide the r e q u i r e d r e l i a b i l i t y and capacity t o s u p -
p o r t the ground s u r v e i l l a n c e complex.

It m a y be advisable to c o n s t r u c t additional p r i m a r y
complexes i n o r d e r to be able to maintain continuous communications
with the outpost and the vehicles enroute, i f more than one vehiclc i s
underway simultaneously. T h e s e facilities will be augmented Lor this
project. Each p r i m a r y will be tied into the n e a r e s t global c o m m u n i c a -
tions s y s t e m t e r m i n a l , and will eventually have a b a s i c c o m p u t e r for
reduction of data f o r t r a n s m i t t a l to other p r i m a r i e s and to the U. S .
complex. Each s t a t i o n will r e q u i r e two 85 -foot p a r a b o l i c r e f l e c t o r s ,
with Az-el (azimuth-elevation) mounts o r equivalent.

E i t h e r a t h r e e - s t a t i o n o r f o u r - s t a t i o n s y s t e m m a y be
used to maintain continuous communications. A possible t h r e e - s t a t i o n
a r r a n g e m e n t m i g h t include Hawaii, Ceylon and E a s t e r n B r a z i l ( n e a r
0
Natal, f o r example); t h e s e stations a r e a l l located within 115-125 long-
itude of e a c h other. A possible four-station a r r a n g e m e n t might include
Hawaii, B r a z i l ( B e l e m , f o r example, at o r n e a r the launching s i t e ) , the
0
Philippines and Kenya. T h e s e stations a r e located within 72-110 longi-
tude of e a c h other. The s e l e c t e d stations, m a n y of which are p r e s e n t l y
proposed as e i t h e r p r i m a r y or secondary s i t e s i n the world net, should
b e located as c l o s e a s p o s s i b l e t o the equator, t o p e r m i t m a x i m u m c o m -
munication time with the o r b i t a l station. T h i s station is cxpected to
o r b i t at a 307-nautical mile altitude (568 km)which s e v e r e l y limits the
s l a n t range.

I
b. Part Two - 1964 P h a s e
{ 1) Gene r a1 Con side rat ions

As indicated in Fig. 11-59] Communications Need Linea


1964, the e a r t h - b a s e d complex will be expanded considerably as c o m p a r -
e d to the 1962 phase. Communications will now be provided f o r in-flight
m a n n e d v e h i c l e s , the manned o r b i t a l s t a t i o n and t h e outpost, as well as
expanded capacity between ground s i t e s and i n c o r p o r a t i o n of the commun-
ication s a t e l l i t e a s a t r a n s m i s s i o n medium. In addition] complete b a c k -
up, o p e r a t i o n a l communications c i r c u i t s ( H - F l i n k s ) will be provided
between all ground stations.

(2) Launching A r e a , Downrange Sites, T r a c k i n g and


R e l a t e d Gommunic ations.

The launch and downrange t r a c k i n g facilities provided


in the i n i t i a l installation a r e adequate t o m e e t the 1964-1965 operations.
However, the ground-based s u r v e i l l a n c e complex will r e q u i r e consider -
a b l e expansion t o simultaneously handle communications f r o m the U. S.
t o s e v e r a l in-flight vehicles (voice and d a t a channels on a full-time
voice channel), and t o the l u n a r outpost ( f u l l - t i m e voice and d a t a chan-
n e l s ) . In addition, positional d a t a r e g a r d i n g a l l of t h e s e t e r m i n a l s will
b e available throughout the complex.

It is anticipated that the r e a l - t i m e communication


s a t e l l i t e s y s t e m will become o p e r a t i o n a l in this t i m e period, and will
be used to provide r e l i a b l e i n t e r s t a t i o n communication. At the p r e s e n t
t i m e , the s a t e l l i t e s y s t e m design i s not f r o z e n a s ' t o total number of
s a t e l l i t e s (i. e. , t h r e e o r f o u r ) o r to location above the earth. Most
probably] the ground i n t e r - a r e a r e p e a t e r s t a t i o n s of the s a t e l l i t e c o m -
munications s y s t e m will be located approximateJy equidistantly, on
land m a s s e s of friendly nations o r under U. S . control. It i s highly
d e s i r a b l e to locate the tracking f a c i l i t i e s , the i n t e r - a r e a r e p e a t e r s ] a n d
the l u n a r communications equipment ( d i s c u s s e d below) within c l o s e p r o x -
i m i t y of e a c h o t h e r , to simplify i n t e r -communications p r o b l e m s and to
r educe lo g i s t i c s r e qui r e m ent 6.

F o r the purpose of t h i s d i s c u s s i o n , both t h e r e a l - t i m e


s a t e l l i t e communication s y s t e m and a n y o r b i t a l station or p l a t f o r m a r e
c o n s i d e r e d p a r t of the e a r t h - b a s e d complex. The vehicle i n flight and
the outpost a r e c o n s i d e r e d to be the s p a c e complex, Since t h e o r b i t a l
s t a t i o n will be i n a r e l a t i v e l y low o r b i t , with v e r y l i m i t e d t i m e i n view
of any ground station, it is proposed to p e r m i t ground communications
with i t f o r a s h o r t p e r i o d d u r i n g each 96-minute orbit as it p a s s e s over
the s e l e c t e d station. The c l o s e r the s t a t i o n is t o the e q u a t o r , the long<:
the time it i s i n view f r o m the o r b i t a l station. It i s , t h e r e f o r e , propc):
ed t o m a k e the launching s i t e the communicating station. If additional
0
ground s i t e s a r e d e s i r e d , such stations as Ceylon (8 N latitude), the
Philippines (15ON latitude) or P u e r t o R i c o (18'N latitude') m a y b e used.

( 3 ) Communications to Space Complex

' Complete and continuous full duplex, r e a l - t i m e voice


and d a t a communications will be provided to the s p a c e p l a t f o r m and the
l u n a r outpost, Communications between the outpost and the l u n a r c o m
t e r m i n a l s will b e d i r e c t "line -of-sight'' t r a n s m i s s i o n when a p a r t i c u l a r
l u n a r c o m t e r m i n a l and t h e moon a r e favorably located (i. e . , in sight
of e a c h other). As the l u n a r c o m t e r m i n a l m o v e s out of s i g h t of the
outpost due to rotation of the e a r t h , communications with the outpost
will b e on a r a d i o r e l a y b a s i s through a n adjacent l u n a r c o m t e r m i n a l
which next "views" the moon, and when r e q u i r e d , through the s a t e l l i t e
r a d i o r e p e a t e r s y s t e m to the control c e n t e r and launching site. All
switching will b e accomplished by the ground-based stations.

(4) Back-up F a c i l i t i e s

It should be emphasized again t h a t complete b a c k - u p


communications c i r c u i t s will be installed and m a d e o p e r a t i o n a l between
all ground s t a t i o n s in the complex and the U. S. control c e n t e r . C<.in-
munications and control p r o b l e m s in the complex will b e simD1ified con-
s i d e r a b l y with the advent of the world-wide communications network v i a
the r e a l - t i m e communications satellite s y s t e m and the group of r a d i o
r e l a y stations on the earth. The backup f a c i l i t i e s will provide a l t e r n a t e
traffic r o u t e s of equal channel-hand1 ing capacity. Thus, the h i g h - f r e -
quency r a d i o l i n k s will s e r v e a s a continuously available back-up f o r the
s a t e l l i t e communication r e l a y system.

('5) Guidance Equipment

E a r t h - b a s ed electronic equipment u s e d f o r c o n t r o l
communications during m i d - c o u r s e guidance and t r a c k i n g is d i s c u s s e d
in d e t a i l i n Chapter I11 k 6 i n this report. F o r p u r p o s e s of c o m m u n i -
cations planning, a r a d a r control s y s t e m h a s been a s s u n ~ e d ,although
Doppler m e a s u r e m e n t techniques may a l s o be applicable. C o n s i d e r i n g
its peak power of s e v e r a l megawatts, the r a d a r site should be l o c a t e d

189
I
I
a s c l o s e a s p r a c t i c a b l e to the r e m a i n d e r of the e a r t h - b a s e d communi-
c a t i o n s c e n t e r ( i . e . , t r a c k i n g station, l u n a r communica$ions station,'
etc. ), T h i s will m i n i m i z e the l o g i s t i c s and i n t e r - c o m m u n i c a t i o n r e -
q u i r e m e n t s of the s y s t e m .

3. In-Flight S y s t e m s

a. B a s i c Considerations

Up to t h i s poinc, the portions of the communication c o m -


p l e x which will provide a global c o v e r a g e have been de'scribed with a n
indication of the operational o r functional m a n n e r in which communi-
cations will be maintained, both with vehicles in flight and with equip-
m e n t on the l u n a r surface. In d e s c r i b i n g this portion of the o v e r a l l
s y s t e m m o r e explicitly, s o m e d i s c u s s i o n i s in o r d e r r e g a r d i n g the
' choice of o p e r a t i n g r a d i o frequencies f o r the l u n a r vehicle and l u n a r
s u r f a c e links.

The operation of such links r e q u i r e s propagation through


t h e e n t i r e a t m o s p h e r e , including the ionosphere, and thus m u s t be
well above the ionospheric penetration frequency a t oblique incidence.
In addition, c o s m i c noise f r o m the g a l a c t i c plane i s a p p r e c i a b l e at f r e -
quencies below about 400 m c s and would reduce the s y s t e m p e r f o r m a n c e
of the l u n a r - t o - e a r t h path. Rotation of the plane of p o l a r i z a t i o n by t h e .
ionosphere ( F a r a d a y rotation) c a n c a u s e pronounced signal fading, but
s i n c e this effect i s i n v e r s e l y proportional to the s q u a r e of the frequency,
it b e c o m e s negligible f o r f r e q u e n c i e s of 1000 mcs and higher and is not
a d e t e r m i n i n g f a c t o r f o r frequencies a s low as 400 mcs. R e f r a c t i o n of
the communication r a d i o wave in both the t r o p o s p h e r e and ionosphere can
be neglected in t h i s application f o r f r e q u e n c i e s above 100 m c s . It, there-
f o r e , a p p e a r s that frequencies above about 400 mc6 a r e b e s t f o r t h i s
application.

Considering now the other end of the frequency s p e c t r u m ,


oxygen and w a t e r vapor absorption of r a d i o frequency power b e c o m e s .
significant at f r e q u e n c i e s above 10, 000 m c s . T h i s s e r v e s t o s e t a gen-
e r a l upper frequency l i m i t of around 10, 000 m c s , which then defines the
optimum r a n g e of frequencies t o the 400 to 10, 000 rncs s p e c t r a .

S e v e r a l o t h e r limitations which have a b e a r i n g on the choice


of frequency also s e r v e t o limit the s p e c t r u m under consideration. The
first is the d e s i r a b i l i t y of keeping the l u n a r - b a s e d equipment simple;
In this regard, it i s d e s i r a b l e that the antenna at the l u n a r end of the %'

19 0
l u n a r - e a r t h link be fixed and r e q u i r e n e i t h e r automatic or m a n u a l
o r i e n t a t i o n to offset the l u n a r l i b r a t i o n s (approximately - t 3. 5’). This
then restricts the beamwidth and, h e n s e , the gain of t h i s antenna.

A second antenna consideration i s t h a t the ground antenna


b e kept to p r a c t i c a l proportions and r e a s o n a b l e cost. C o s t is governed
both by o v e r a l l s i z e and allowable t o l e r a n c e on slewing and pointing
a c c u r a c y . Again, a r e s t r i c t i o n h a s been postulated which in effect
limits the antenna beam-width and gain.

The r e s u l t of the foregoing d i s c u s s i o n as w e l l as c o n s i d e r a -


tion of r e a l i z a b l e s y s t e m p a r a m e t e r s and f a c t o r s consistent with r e l i a b l e
long-life p e r f o r m a n c e a r e indicated on Fig. 11-62. As c a n be seen, the
choice of operating frequency s p e c t r u m h a s b e e n f u r t h e r r e d u c e d to .
a p p r o x i m a t e l y the 400 to 2500 m c s range. F o r the p u r p o s e of defining
typical p e r f o r m a n c e t h a t can b e expected, a nominal frequency of 1000
m c s h a s , t h e r e f o r e , been chosen for the e a r t h - t o - l u n a r vehicle and
l u n a r s u r f a c e communication links.

b. In-Flight R e q u i r e m e n t s

During a typical manned m i s s i o n to the l u n a r s u r f a c e from


the o r b i t a l station, voice communications will be e s t a b l i s h e d and mair.-
tained between the vehicle and the U.S. control c e n t e r o r the launching
site f r o m take-off until completion of the flight. Typical s y s t e m c h a r a c -
t e r i s t i c s f o r the link which would provide this facility as well a s t h e l a t e r
l u n a r link a r e indicated in Tabld 11-23 Communications between e a r t h
and the o r b i t a l station p r i o r to d e p a r t u r e f r o m o r b i t will b e provided by
the f a c i l i t i e s d e s c r i b e d in the p r e c e d i n g sections. During the flight t i m e ,
one of the ground l u n a r c o m s t a t i o n s will be in r a d i o line-of-sight of t h e
vehicle a t a l l t i m e s ; and as the e a r t h r o t a t e s , the communication link
connecting the vehicle to the c o n t r o l c e n t e r will be switched to the next
l u n a r c o m station appearing o v e r the horizon. This link will provide a
command control m e a n s throughout the e n t i r e flight and will a l s o p e r m i t
continuous determination of many f a c t o r s b e a r i n g on the p h y s i c a l alld
psycho’ogical a s p e c t s of manned s p a c e flight f o r prolonged d i s t a n c e s and
times.

One of the s p e c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s which i s evident i n p r o v i d -


ing this communication facility to the vehicle in flight is the r e q u i r e m e n t
f o r a s t e e r a b l e antenna on the v e h i c l e having a m o d e r a t e a m o u n t of g a i n
and directivity. During the m i d c o u r s e unpowered flight p h a s e , the vehicle
m a y be o r i e n t e d t o m i n i m i z e s o l a r heating of the fuel and, as a r e s u l t , the

191
-
ASSUMPTIONS
1. Ground Ani~fmaL i m i t s - e L D i a . 0.5' Bean
LUNARCOM LINK POWER REQUIREMENTS 2. Outpost Antenna Gain L i m i t (24 db, 10')
-36 3. M a s e r on Ground. BOOK N o i a e T e m p
4. outpost P, = 10 w @ 1 kmc. 5 w 63 2 k m c
5. 2 w @.5 k m c , 1 w @ 10 k m c
1 6. Bandwidth (IF) 7 0 kc @ 500 m c
I 9 0 kc @ 10 k m c
7. M i s c e l l a n e o u s Losses = 4 db
-30
i
NOTE: C o s m i c and Galactic
8. Path Length = 2 4 0 , 0 0 0 m i

Noiae T e m p I n c r e a s e
n Rapidly B e l o w 400 m c
0
- 4 4
W I-m I M U M PE~ D B ) * I a
E DESIGN CRITERION
0 BASED ON 10 db
z F. M. THRESHOLD
0
v ,--'*
I-
9
N wU
5P
a.--I2
\
0
n

a - 6

I I I 1 I I
200 300 400 500 1000 2000 3000 5000 IO 0
FREQUENCY M C __
.
. .I

Fig. 11-62. Outpost to Earth Path Carrier-to-Nois e P o w e r Ratio v e r s u s Carrier Frequency


TABLE 11-23
TYPICAL SYSTEM CHARACTERISTICS - LUNARCOM
~ ~ ~-
LINK

! Item
I E a r t h Lunarcom
Station
Vehicle Lunar
outpost
'Power Output in Watts 1
I 10,000 10 10
Antenna C o nf i g u r a t ion 85 feet d i a m e t e r Equivalent to E quival ent to
,paraboloid, Z feet diameter 7 feet diameter
st e e r a b l e paraboloid, paraboloid,
8te erable f i ed
R e c e i v e r Input Noise 80 'K 2700°K 2700°K
Temperature
Margin Above F M 34 db 1 0 db 20 db
Threshold

Type of Modulation-------------------- PCM - FM


Traffic Capacity- - - - --- ---- -- -- - -- - - - - 40 kilobits / s e c , binary;
o r one secure voice channel
Growth Potential- - - - -- - - ------ - - - - -- - - High definition television
with s e c u r i t y from Lunar
0 utpost . ..
vehicle a s p e c t as viewed f r o m a l u n a r c o m s t a t i o n will constantly change.
Consequently, t o be effective the vehicular antenna must b e capable of
being s t e e r e d continuously. This facility, in conjunction with r o l l cor-
r e c t i o n of the vehicle, will p e r m i t e s t a b l i s h m e n t of continuous communi-
c a t ions.

It is anticipated that the power s o u r c e f o r the communication


link d u r i n g flight, and f o r a period of probably 6 to 12 h o u r s after the
first manned soft landing h a s been achieved, will be by s t o r a g e b a t t e r i e s .
T h i s weight h a s been included i n the o v e r a l l payload of the manned cap-
sules. Following t h i s p e r i o d of 6 t o 12 h o u r s , a s o u r c e of a l t e r n a t i n g '
c u r r e n t power will b e available for c o m m d c a t i 0 n s a s w e l l as other
facilities r e q u i r i n g power.

As soon a s p r a c t i c a l a f t e r landing on the l u n a r s u r f a c e , the


initial t e a m of two m e n will i n s t a l l the s e v e n foot d i a m e t e r p a r a b o l i c an-
tenna o r i t s equivalent to provide the needed additional m a r g i n in t h e link
to earth. T h i s antenna could be a collapsed m e t a l l i c coated s t r u c t u r e
which is inflated and filled with a foam-type material which h a r d e n s after
inflation, t h e r e b y providing a rigid s t r u c t u r e . T h e mounting d e t a i l s f o r
this a s s e m b l y will be a n uncomplicated design due t o the absence of such
f a c t o r s a s wind and i c e loading, for example, but c e r t a i n l y m u s t b e con- .
s i s t e n t with the l u n a r environment.

Following installation of the antenna and the provision of


A. C. power, Continuous, r e l i a b l e communications between equiFment
m a y be o p e r a t e d e i t h e r f r o m the vehicle or outpost s h e l t e r s as they
become available.

4. Lunar Based Systems

a. G e n e r a l Considerations

P r i m a r y r e l i a n c e for communications between m e m b e r s of


the l u n a r p a r t y will again be on a r a d i o basis. After the initial landings,
as both f a c i l i t i e s and p e r s o n n e l i n c r e a s e , the r a d i o communication facil-
i t i e s will a l s o expand and w i r e t r a n s m i s s i o n m e d i a will become useful.
Again, t h e choice of o p e r a t i n g f r e q u e n c i e s d e s e r v e s consideration.

In d i s c u s s i n g p o s s i b l e frequency s p e c t r a f o r equipment t o
be o p e r a t e d on t h e l u n a r s u r f a c e , in the t i m e f r a m e of t h i s p r o j e c t ,
s e v e r a l points m u s t be kept in h i n d . F i r s t , the l a c k of a n a t m o s p h e r e
p r e c l u d e s point to point propagation enhancements 6 y r e f r a c t i o n , atmos -
194
p h e r i c s c a t t e r i n g and ionospheric reflections. E s s e n t i a l l y , s u r f a c e
wave propagation with probably s o m e diffraction e f f e c t s will apply,
The u s e of v e r y low, medium, and high f,requencies would probably
be b e s t f r o m a propagation standpoint but the p h y s i c a l s i z e of efficient,
e l e c t r o n i c c i r c u i t r y and the antennas needed a r e not in consonance with
the d e s i r a b l e design f e a t u r e s of this p r o g r a m . In the VHF r a n g e , minia-
t u r i z a t i o n techniques a l r e a d y exist and s o l i d s t a t e device6 with high r e -
liability and s m a l l s i z e have been developed, At h i g h e r r a n g e s of t h e
frequency s p e c t r u m , c i r c u i t efficiency tends t o d e c r e a s e and long-life
active components b e c o m e l e s s available. T h i s v e r y b r i e f s u m m a r y
indicates a p r e f e r e n c e f o r operation of the l u n a r s u r f a c e equipment in
the lower VHF s p e c t r u m . In the d i s c u s s i o n of the v a r i o u s equipment
that follows, o p e r a t i o n at a nominal frequency of 50 m c s h a s been used.

b. L u n a r V H F Net

Initially, communications on the l u n a r s u r f a c e will be l i m i t e d


to small r a d i o equipment i n t e g r a t e d into the. d e s i g n of the l u n a r suits.
T h e s e s e t s will be b a t t e r y powered and, i n addition t o a voice communi-
cation capability, will i n c o r p o r a t e s e v e r a l additional c a p a b i l i t i e s as shown
in Table 11-24. The f i r s t is a capability f o r location of c a r g o v e h i c l e s by
detection and homing on the low power homing t r a n s m i t t e r located in e a c h
c a r g o vehicle. This is d e s c r i b e d i n some d e t a i l i n the s u r v e i l l a n c e s e c t i o n
below. The s e c o n d f e a t u r e i s one which will have application following the
e s t a b l i s h m e n t of the outpost facilities. E a c h of the man-packed s e t s w i l l
have a facility for continuous and immediate reception, on a common
channel. T h i s w i l l p e r m i t b r o a d c a s t type t r a n s m i s s i o n s f r o m the b a s e
outpost.

An example of the type of equipment that will fulfill t h e s e


functions is d e s c r i b e d i n Table 11-25 and Fig. 11-63. The ANIPRC-34
equipment p i c t u r e d t h e r e i s c u r r e n t l y being d e l i v e r e d f o r u s e in both
h e l m e t r a d i o and pouch m o u n t e d , man-packed application. Development
of improved techniques for this class of equipment is now underway in
the c u r r e n t m i c r o - m o d u l e production p r o g r a m . The o r d e r of magnitude
of s i z e reduction is ably i l l u s t r a t e d i n Fig.II-64 f o r the man-packed
equipment. T h e s e s a m e techniques will be applied t o o t h e r a p p r o p r i a t e
lunar-based equipments.

With the planned build-up of f a c i l i t i e s , living q u a r t e r s


and s u r f a c e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n m e a n s at the l u n a r outpost, the r e q u i r e m e n t
f o r g r e a t e r talking r a n g e and different c l a s s e s of equipment will a c c o r d -
ingly i n c r e a s e . Within the t i m e f r a m e of the p r e s e n t p r o j e c t , no u r g e n t

195 .
\
Table 11-24*
TYPICAL SYSTEM CHARACTERISTICS - LUNAR MAN PACKED RADIO
- ~~

P o w e r Output 0 . 2 5 watts

Power Source L
Nickel c a d m i u m b a t t e r y

Life (based on 20% t r a n s m i t / r e c e i v e r a t i o 24 hour 8

O v e r all Weight (including b a t t e r i e 8 ) 6 pounds

Communication Range 500 - 800 y a r d s

Antenna Vertical radiator

4 Includes homing capabileity f o r c a r g o location and p e r s o n n e l safety.


P r o v i s i o n included f o r common channel, b r o a d c a s t type reception.

r e q u i r e m e n t s can be f o r e s e e n for switched communication, and n e t type


operation a p p e a r s s a t i s f a c t o r y and adequate. T h e additional communi-
cation f a c i l i t i e s applicable to this buildup of net f a c i l i t i e s a s well a s t h e
m a n packed-equipment a r e depicted in Fig. 11-63.

This f i g u r e depicts the v a r i o u s equipment which a r e capable


of being netted. The individual in the foreground i s e n r o u t e to the cargo
landing a r e a while maintaining radio contact with the outpost. A l u n a r
vehicle in the i m m e d i a t e background i s in r a d i o c o n t r a c t with the out-
p o s t and one of the l u n z r party. The outpost antenna i s mounted on a
lightweight m a s t to provide g r e a t e r range and b e t t e r coverage, Beyond
the horizon and otherwise out of communication r a n g e of the outpost,
another l u n a r vehicle i s conducting a n extended s u r v e y of the t e r r a i n
while r a d i o contact with the outpost is maintained by m e a n s of automatic,
unattended r a d i o r e p e a t e r stations.

In g e n e r a l , continuously fed galvanic b a t t e r i e s (fuel c e l l s )


will be used to power individual equipment o p e r a t i n g e x t e r n a l to the
outpost p r o p e r . The only exception t o this will b e the man-pack sets
which will u s e s e a l e d nickel-cadmium b a t t e r i e s designed t o supply
enough power to p e r m i t a man to communicate for 24 hours without
r e t u r n i n g to the outpost f o r a b a t t e r y r e c h a r g e , A s i m i l a r situation
F i g . II- 6 3 L u n a r Communication Net
HIGH-DENSITY RECEIVER ' MICR 0-MODULE
IF AMPLIFIER,
' LIMITER
RF AMPLIFIER,
MIXER, CRYSTAL
OSCILLATOR
AUDIO AMPLIFIER,
DISCRIMINATOR

--
// ~ . -
*i
- t

.
Fig 11- 64. Mi c ro -Module C ommunic ati.onRece
TABLE Lz-25
TYPICAL SYSTEM CHARACTERISTICS - L U N A R M A N PACKED RADIO
Power EBtimated
output Type8 of Communication W t Including Special F e a t u r e s
ltem n watts Power Source s Range . Power in
pound.

Man Packed Radio 0.25 Pickel Cadxniurn 500-800 y a r d s 6 Homing feature


Battery for cargo o r Baee
Station location

Vehicular Radio ' 10.0 Nickel Cadmium '5-10 m i l e s 100 Opera$es f r o m


Batt e iy' battery supply
other than vehi-
c u l a r d r i v e power

B a s e Station 00.0 115V/400 CPS 15-30 mile. N/A Include 8 direction


finding capability
for cargo and p e r -
sonnel location

Automatic Repeate 2.0 Fuel Cells 1-3 miles 30 Basic unit capable
of 24-hr operation.
Extended service
possible with s o l a r
cell kit

TABLE LI-26
TYPICAL SYSTEM CHARACTERISTICS - EMERGENCY LINK
ITEM LUNAR BASED EARTH BASED

Power 10 w 100 w

Power Source F u e l Cells 115V AC

Activation T i m e Instantaneous

Estimated Weight 15 pounds 200 pounds

Antenna Dipole Helical A r r a y


( 10 db gain)

Type of Modulation C W (Morse o r Coded Reply


p r e - s e t code) (Acknowledgement)

Nominal Frequency 100 megacycles 100 megacycles

NOTE: B a s i c l u n a r unit capable of s t o r a g e on l u n a r surface, day o r


night, f o r 24 hours. A 20 pound kit, including s o l a r cells
and nickel cadmium s t o r a g e cells, provides indefjnitn, s t o r a g e
including lunar day and night periods.
w i l l e x i s t f o r the fuel c e l l powered equipment, E a c h equipment will be
provided with enough fuel t o l a s t expected o p e r a t i n g time o r a length of
t i m e sufficient to p e r m i t a schedule r e p l a c e m e n t of fuel.

The fuel will c o n s i s t of hydrogen and oxygen s t o r e d under


p r e s s u r e i n liquid f o r m . T h i s will be converted t o w a t e r i n the f u e l
c e l l and the w a t e r will be collected i n a s e p a r a t e c o n t a i n e r a s the w a s t e
product. At t.he s a m e t i m e new fuel i s added to the fuel c e l l , the w a t e r
will be collected and r e t u r n e d t o the outpost f o r r e g e n e r a t i o n b y high
p r e s s u r e e l e c t r o l y s i s into hydrogen and oxygen. A s u m m a t i o n of p e r -
tinent c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r e a c h of the equipments c o m p r i s i n g t h e l u n a r
net s y s t e m is contained in Table 11-25.

c. E m e r g e n c y Communication S y s t e m

One r e m a i n i n g i t e m of communication equipment which is


of v i t a l i m p o r t a n c e t o the individuals who will make n p t h e l u n a r p a r t y
h a s yet t o be discussed. T h i s i s the e m e r g e n c y communication equip-
m e n t which will p e r m i t a n individual to signal that he is i n d i s t r e s s , to
roughly indicate the c a u s e f o r a l a r m , and provide s o m e acknowledge-
m e n t t h a t his m e s s a g e h a s been received, The equipment which h a s been
conceived to fulfill this r e q u i r e m e n t i s outlined in Table 11-26, B a s i c a l l y ,
i t w i l l c o n s i s t of a fuel c e l l powered radio t r a n s m i t t e r and r e c e i v e r , a
collapsible dipole antenna m e a n s f o r sending a number of p r e a r r a n g e d
coded m e s s a g e s o r m o r s e code type signals. A k i t of s o l a r cells a n d
nickel c a d m i u m b a t t e r i e s will be provided to enable the equipment t o be
left on the l u n a r s u r f a c e f o r a p e r i o d of t i m e extending through the two-
week l u n a r night. The p u r p o s e of this kit i s to provide the s m a l l amount
of h e a t needed t o keep the insulated fuel c e l l s a t 2OoC and r e a d y f o r
instantaneous activation a s the power source. T h e s e units will be p l a c e d
a t l i k e l y locations within and without the outpost a n d vehicle e n v i r o n m e n t s ,
r e a d y f o r u s e if needed.

The choice of a nominal frequency of 100 m c s has b e e n b a s e d


p r i m a r i l y on one consideration, that of the l a r g e amount of r e c e i v i n g
equipment n e a r this frequency at points o v e r the e n t i r e e a r t h ' s surface.
.It s e e m s logical that consideration should be given by the U. S. g o v e r n -
ment, i f it has not a l r e a d y b e e n done, to propose a g r e e m e n t on a n i n t e r -
national b a s i s of a common d i s t r e s s frequency f o r s p a c e exploration,
such as the now monitored 490-510 k c s band f o r m a r i t i m e d i s t r e s s calls.

d. Expansion Capability
With stabilization of the l u n a r outpost and the e s t a b l i s h m e n t
of s e m i - p e r m a n e n t outlying a r e a s f o r r e s e a r c h , f u r t h e r exploration,
etc. the use of lightweight field w i r e m a y supply excellent communi-
cation t r a n s m i s s i o n facility. This w i r e will be capable of t r a n s m i s s i o n
without r e p e a t e r s f o r distances of 25 m i l e s , weight not m o r e than 15.
pounds p e r m i l e and be packaged such that it could be payed out by a :
lunar-suited human being. Within the confines of the outpost p r o p e r ,
a m o d e s t a u t o m a t i c data p r o c e s s i n g t e r m i n a l will b e provided for
multi-purpose u s e such as c a r g o cataloging, collection and s t o r a g e of
technical information f o r relaying to e a r t h and conversion of analog
imputs to suitable digital signals. This equipment will be compatible
on a digital b a s i s with the l u n a r c o m link and its a s s o c i a t e d equipment.

F r o m a growth potential standpoint beyond the p r e s e n t p r o -


g r a m , the communication s y s t e m r e q u i r e m e n t s will depend p r i m a r i l y
on the growth p a t t e r n both in personnel s t r e n g t h a n d a r e a of operation
of the outpost, Should explorations t o the far s i d e of the moon be u n d e r -
taken, f o r example, s e r i o u s consideration m u s t be given t o m e a n s , such
as a l u n a r satellite communication s y s t e m , f o r extending the communi-
cation capability p r e s e n t l y considered. A m a r k e d i n c r e a s e in the number
of personnel i n the l u n a r p a r t y will probably justify the expansion of the
lunar outpost facility to a n automatic, switched telephone s y s t e m , F u l l
t i m e T V coverage f r o m the l u n a r surface t o the e a r t h control c e n t e r m a y
become a firm requirement, Fig. II-65 indicates the r a d i a t e d power r e -
quired to provide c o m m e r c i a l quality, television t r a n s m i s s i o n f r o m the
lunar s u r f a c e t o e a r t h o v e r t h e l u n a r c o m facility. F o r purposes of c o m -
parison, the r e q u i r e d power f o r other types of signals has a l s o b e e n i n -
dicated in this figure. T h e s e a r e only a few possibilities; c e r t a i n l y a
g r e a t many m o r e exist. With c a r e f u l , continued planning, and an a c c o m -
panying consistent r e s e a r c h and development p r o g r a m , the g r e a t e s t
possible s u c c e s s in meeting t h e s e e v e r i n c r e a s i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s will be
assured.

C. SURVEILLANCE REQUIREMENTS

1. S u m m a r y of A r e a s of I n t e r e s t

The general surveillance r e q u i r e m e n t s can be s e p a r a t e d into


t h r e e major a r e a s of i n t e r e s t : survey techniques and equipment, homing
methods and equipment, and l u n a r warning capabilities.

F o r s u r v e y s y s t e m s , i t i s proposed t o provide the l u n a r party


with distance - m e a s u r i n g equipment, both visual (e. g. photographic)
and e l e c t r o n i c ranging equipment. Homing f a c i l i t i e s include v a r i o u s
Fig. 11-65. Radiated P o w e r Required for Lunar-Earth TV
location devices, both e l e c t r o n i c and p a s s i v e visual s y s t e m s (e. g.
s p e c i a l f l a r e s ) , for location of objects and human beings. Lunar
warning s y s t e m s will include electronic intelligence r e c e i v e r s f o r
detedtion capability, and radar s y s t e m s . The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e s e
devices a r e s u m m a r i z e d in Table 11-27.

The full surveillance capability would not be provided c o m -


pletely f o r the f i r s t landing party, but will be phased during the project.
The first landing p a r t y will receive equipment closely a s s o c i a t e d with
survival, with getting i m p o r t a n t information b a c k to e a r t h , and with
safety and detecting the p r e s e n c e of other landing parties. The l a t e r
landing p a r t i e s will be concerned with collection of supplies, c o n s t r u c -
tion work, and wider ranging explorations. The m e m b e r s of the p a r t y
will be provided with visual means of communication f o r u s e in c a s e of
b a t t e r y f a i l u r e and t o c o n s e r v e b a t t e r y supplies. Visual signalling could
be in the f o r m of s i m p l e heliographs, a r m signals, o r semaphores.

2. Survey S y s t e m s

During s u r v e y operations, visual observation c a n b e a c c o m p l i s h -


e d by photographic, f a c s i m i l e and television techniques, as w e l l as mini-
a t u r i z e d e l e c t r o n i c ranging equipment. Information gathered will be
compatible with equipment used for t r a n s m i s s i o n t o ground-based stations
via the l u n a r c o m link. The c a m e r a equipment that is employed m a y be of
the Polaroid type, r e q u i r i n g only that the exposed film be p r o c e s s e d within
the controlled environment. This picture will then be scanned by a n e l e c -
tronic scanning device, converted t o digital f o r m suitable f o r t r a n s m i s s i o n
over the l u n a r c o m link, and relayed to the e a r t h stations. It is e s t i m a t e d
that 20 pounds of film provide approximately 4000 pictures. Sufficient
sensitivity will be included in the c a m e r a design t o preclude the use of
flash attachments in the expected bright l u n a r nights. By m e a n s of this
equipment, a p i c t o r i a l documentation of the l u n a r p a r t y ' s e x p e r i e n c e s
will be available on a continuous basis.

The availability of television type t r a n s m i s s i o n s f r o m the lunar


s u r f a c e will follow somewhat l a t e r in the scheduling of activities f r o m
the l u n a r s u r f a c e in view of the c o n s i d e r a b l e ' r a d i a t e d power required.
Approximately t h r e e kilowatts of radiated power i a r e q u i r e d for the tram-
m i s s i o n of c o m m e r c i a l quality pictures o v e r the l u n a r c o m link. The in-
put power r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r this feature place the availability of T V in
a t i m e f r a m e consistent with the establishment of the full outpost facility.
It should a l s o be r e a l i z e d that T V transmissions will not be on a contin-
uous 24-hour per day b a s i s t o the control c e n t e r since this wouid require

203
Table 11- 27
TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS -
LUNAR SURVEILLANCE DEVICES

Item Weight Power Source Special F e a t u r e s


Ob)

SURVEY
Camera 1 Battery High acuity, day/
night capability, ‘ t ;
. 55 shots, 70 nun, .. ..
load

Film P r o c e s s o r t 50 115V/400 cps Provide digital


. I
Scanner Converter signal f o r t r a n s -
I m i s s i o n over the
Lunarcom link

Television Pickup 150 115V/400 cps C o m m e r cia1


& Receiver quality image

Television Power Amp 900 115v/400 cps Provide 3 KW


power at 1 Kmc

Distance Measuring 25 Battery Accuracy 3 p a r t s /


Equipment million $. 1 c m ; maxi-
m u m r G g e 30 km
HOMING
Special smoke f l a r e s , P a r t of Lunar vehicle
Paints, etc.

Homing Beacon Activator 4 Battery o r Supplies a d d r e s s e d


(Manned vehicle o r B s a e 115f400 cps signal f o r cargo vehi-
Station) c l e homing beacon
operation

V H F Homing Beacon 5 Battery W i l l o p e r a t e i n stgndby


(Cargo Vehicle) f o r periods up to 6 monthi
WARNING
Radar 150 ll5/400 cps Range: Vehicles, 2 0 , 0 0 0
yd; walking man, 1000 yd

Electronic Intelligence 60 115/400 cpe Wide band HF, VHF


Re c eiv e r & UHF coverage

204
I
I I
!
i
I

i
a worldwide video relaying capability. T r a n s m i s s i o n s t o t h e U. S.
would e i t h e r be timed t o coincide with radio line of sight conditions
t o a l u n a r c o m s i t e located at a point where video t r a n s m i s s i o n facilities
exist, o r , if time w e r e not a n overriding factor, the t r a n s m i s s i o n s could
be r e c e i v e d at any of the l u n a r c o m s i t e s , s t o r e d on tape and subsequently
forwarded by m e a n s other than a video facility.

A capability f o r reception of T V t r a n s m i s s i o n s a t the l u n a r out-


p o s t f r o m earth. will be provided as required. F r o m a m e d i c a l s t a n d -
point, the psychological stimulus afforded by permitting m e m b e r s of
the l u n a r p a r t y to s e e t h e i r families might well justify the inclusion of
this capability a t a n e a r l y date in the program.

Completely t r a n s i s t o r i z e d , miniaturized, b a t t e r y - o p e r a t e d
electronic ranging o r distance m e a s u r i n g equipment for surveying p u r -
poses will a l s o be provided. One p a r t i c u l a r s y s t e m capable of develop-
m e n t in the time of this p r o g r a m , u s e s C W operation and d e t e r m i n e s
range by utilizing phase information derived from frequency modulation
of the X-band c a r r i e r .

3. Homing Systems

A v e r y important facility that m u s t be available t o m e m b e r s


of the l u n a r party is t h e i r ability to locate c a r g o vehicles quickly and
accurately, bearing in mind the r e s t r i c t i o n s placed on t h e i r movements
by the l u n a r suits. Also, a capability i s r e q u i r e d for directing t h e m to
the outpost following suited ventures on the l u n a r surface. B r i g h t out-
side c o l o r s will be very useful i n this respect.

In addition t o the various visual devices which will be used, a


capability f o r homing on a signal s o u r c e of the p r o p e r frequency will be
provided as p a r t of the VHF man-packed radio contained i n the l u n a r suit.
This device will not only p e r m i t the m a n t o home on c a r g o vehicles, but
a l s o will p e r m i t h i m t o home on the VHF t r a n s m i t t e r a t the outpost, and
thereby provide a radio beacon direction.

It is planned that e a c h vehicle landed on the lunar s u r f a c e will


contain a homing activator r e c e i v e r , operating in the H F region, which,
when p r o p e r l y i n t e r r o g a t e d by an a d d r e s s e d signal, would then t u r n on
the homing t r a n s m i t t e r mentioned above. Since a number of the b a t t e r y
operated homing activator r e c e i v e r s a r e expected to r e m a i n o p e r a b l e f o r
periods of s e v e r a l months during the e a r l y 1965 period prior t o the f i r s t
manned landing, b a t t e r y s a v e r c i r c u i t s with long duty c y c l e s ( e . g. 100 t o

20 5
I
Each manned vehicle will include
1) will be incorporated in the design.
the necessary homing activator transmitter circuitry.

4. Lunar Warnine Systems

. A number of warning devices potentially suitable for use in the


lunar environment have been considered with the conclusion that if ever
required, the r a d a r and electronic intelligence type systems show the
most promise. Although primarily these systems would be used for se-
curity i f future development s o dictate, their value for safety and surviv-
al is apparent. In addition, there i s the added psychological benefit to
the lunar party of being able t o detect and identify rapidly approaching
objects.

Considerable work has already been accomplished in the develop-


ment of s m a l l r a d a r equipment which, with moderate redesign, will be
adaptable t o the lunar environment. These devices w i l l be capable of
providing either an aural or visual a l a r m on a remote operation basis
for distances up t o two miles. An active infrared, anti-intrusion device
will a l s o aid in providing local security. With this device, an active
infrared source i s used in conjunction with retro-directive m i r r o r s .
Range, with the sources considered applicable f o r lunar purposes, is on
the o r d e r of 400-500 yards.

Finally, electronic intelligence receiving equipment capable of


turning extremely wide frequency r a n g e s will be provided to permit mon-
itoring of electromagnetic radiations.

'206
( S ) CHAPTER V: LAUNCH SITE

A. REQUIREMENT
A s u r v e y was m a d e of the two m a j o r U. S . launch s i t e s , the At-
l a n t i c M i s s i l e Range a n d the P a c i f i c M i s s i l e Range t o d e t e r m i n e t h e i r
adequacy to accomplish P r o j e c t HORIZON. The r e s u l t s of t h i s s u r v e y
indicated v e r y c l e a r l y , based on their r e s p e c t i v e future plans a n d f o r e -
c a s t e d capabilities, that neither could handle the launch s i t e r e q u i r e -
m e n t s of this project. Based on this conclusion, as well as o t h e r
technical r e a s o n s which m a k e AMR and P M R undesirable s i t e s , a study
was conducted to determine the m o s t d e s i r a b l e location f o r a new launch
site. Various locations, within the U. S . and outside the continental
l i m i t s , w e r e considered together with technical and supporting c o n s i d e r a -
tions. A s a r e s u l t of this study, i t was determined that a n e q u a t o r i a l
launch s i t e is economically feasible and considered technically d e s i r a b l e
f o r this project. Such a facility would m a t e r i a l l y enhance the capabilities
of the U. S. in s p a c e flight f o r all operations. Considering anticipated
s p a c e flight m i s s i o n s , such a s the establishment of a n o r b i t a l station o r
s p a c e p l a t f o r m , an equatorial communication satellite s y s t e m , a n d other
m i s s i o n s requiring either an equatorial o r b i t o r rendezvous capability,
the desirability f o r a n equatorial launch s i t e is plainly evident. If
P r o j e c t HORIZON was the only m i s s i o n under consideration, i t alone
couid justify a n establishment of an equatorial site. The a c c o m p l i s h -
m e n t of this m i s s i o n f r o m other than an equatorial s i t e could c r e a t e
undesirable technical complications in flight mechanics a s well as in-
c r e a s e the space transportation system cost.
Fueling of orbital-launched vehicles r e q u i r e s p r e c i s e control f o r
rendezvous even in an equatorial orbit. Rendezvous in o r b i t s , o t h e r
than n e a r equatorial, is m o r e complex and costly. E q u a t o r i a l s a t e l -
l i t e s m a y be n e c e s s a r y to maintain uninterrupted communications with
the outpost. Equatorially-launched direct flights f r o m e a r t h t o moon
alone m a y s a v e enough to o f f s e t the fixed installation c o s t s . Also, f o r
the S A T U R N I1 vehicle , p r e l i m i n a r y Computations indicate that d i r e c t
flights c a n be accomplished f r o m non-equatorial s i t e s only during
s e v e r a l periods of t i m e which total, a t m o s t , 1 5 days p e r month. T h i s
would s e v e r l y hinder accomplishment of this p r o g r a m inasmuch a s
r e s c u e and e m e r g e n c y flights would not be possible during at l e a s t half
of the month. It is, t h e r e f o r e , concluded that an equatorial l a u n c h site,
located within 2; ' of the equator, is technically d e s i r a b l e for a p r o g r a m
of establishment of a lunar outpost as d i s c u s s e d h e r e i n . B a s e d on t h i s
conclusion, i t h a s been a s s u m e d that a n equatorial launch site will be '

established as p a r t of P r o j e c t HORIZON, It should be understood, '

207
however, that advances in the state-of-the-art on such i t e m s a s o r b i t a l
rendezvous m a y r e l a x the launch s i t e location r e q b i r e m e n t s to s o m e -
thing g r e a t e r than +2+" f r o m the equator.

B. G E N E R A L C R I T E R a FOR U U N C H SITE SELECTION


Selection of a n equatorial launch site capable of meeting the m i s s i o n
r e q u i r e m e n t s of this p r o g r a m should be based on the following g e n e r a l
crit e ria:
1. Open w a t e r should extend t o about 1500 m i l e s downrange f o r
b o o s t e r r e c o v e r y o r impact of second stage. In the event of a n a b o r t e d
flight, w a t e r is n e c e s s a r y to accomplish e m e r g e n c y recovery. Con-
s i d e r a t i o n should be given to the fact that booster fallout range of
SATURN I is about 300 m i l e s and that f o r SATURN I1 1 0 0 m i l e s . Sec-
ond stage fallout range is about 4000 m i l e s and 1500 m i l e s , respectively,
2. E a s t w a r d launchings should be possible to m o s t fully utilize the
velocity of the earth's rotation.
3 . Site should be of sufficient s i z e to p e r m i t future growth, i. e.
installation enlargement and accomodation of l a r g e r vehicles, Remote
launchings of nuclear powered vehicles require considerable safety
distances, and should be considered.
4. Site should have adequate azimuth t r a v e r s e to p e r m i t daily
launchings. F o r continuous capability f o r a lunar m i s s i o n , 30 d e g r e e s
a z i m u t h t r a v e r s e north and south of e a s t would be d e s i r a b l e f o r the
c u r r e n t SATURN II configuration. In addition, it would be d e s i r a b l e to
be a b l e to accomplish polar f i r i n g s as well,
5. The a r e a downrange should include areas of land, sufficient in
s i z e f o r ins tallation of tracking facilities. Utilization of a l r e a d y existent
facilities downrange would be preferable.
6 . P r o x i m i t y to the U. S. is d e s i r a b l e to reduce construction c o s t s
am d logistic s suppo r t r e qui r em en t s ,
7. An a r e a f r e e f r o m e x t r e m e climatic conditions is e s s e n t i a l in
that "holds" on Borne m i s s i o n s cannot be p e r m i t t e d f o r extensive periods,
Also, c l i m a t e is important i n personnel r e c r u i t m e n t maintenance of the
i n s tallation, and maintaining continuity of operations,
8 . The a r e a selected for the launching s i t e should p r e f e r a b l y be
obtainable for exclusive use by the United States f o r a n extended period
of time. Acquiring the s i t e i n conjunction wiih the U. S. F o r e i g n Aid
P r o g r a m should be considered,
9. T h e s i t e m a y r e q u i r e s e c u r i t y which can b e f u r n i s h e d by a
r e a s o n a b l e s i z e d t a s k f o r c e of the Navy, A i r F o r c e , and A r m y should
the necessity a r i s e .
10. T h e s e a - t r a f f i c i n the ocean a r e a in downrange d i r e c t i o n should
be m o d e s t to r e d u c e i n t e r f e r e n c e with the flight schedule.
Many o t h e r f a c t o r s s u c h as s o i l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , altitude, w a t e r
supply, l a b o r f o r c e s l o c a l construction m a t e r i a l s , p e r s o n n e l r e c r u i t -
m e n t , e t c . m u s t be weighed i n s i t e selection.
In v i e w of the above, a r e a s which w e r e c o n s i d e r e d a r e : t h e far
Pacific, the e a s t e r n c o a s t of Africa, the n e a r P a c i f i c , a n d the e a s t e r n
c o a s t of South A m e r i c a .
The final launch s i t e s e l e c t i o n should be t h e b e s t c o m p r o m i s e of
all f a c t o r s , providing it a f f o r d s the capability of accomplishing the
m i s s i o n under consideration a t the p r e s e n t in t h e m i n i m u m t i m e .

C. L A U N C H SZTE OPERATIONS
1. ReceiDt and S t o r a e e of S u m l i e s
Equipment and supplies utilized a t the launch s i t e a r e of t h r e e
types: (1) those r e q u i r e d f o r delivery to e i t h e r the o r b i t a l station o r the
l u n a r outpost, (2) those r e q u i r e d to s u p p o r t technical o p e r a t i o n s a t the
launch s i t e , and ( 3 ) those r e q u i r e d for community s u p p o r t of t h e l a u n c h
site.
Equipment and s u p p l i e s r e q u i r e d f o r d e l i v e r y to e i t h e r the o r b i t a l
station o r the l u n a r outpost, including the d e l i v e r y v e h i c l e s t h e m s e l v e s
will be r e c e i v e d f r o m the U. S . i n a c c o r d a n c e with e s t a b l i s h e d launching
schedules and loading plans, Such equipment and supplies n o r m a l l y will
not be p l a c e d in s t o r a g e , but will be d e l i v e r e d d i r e c t l y t o the a p p r o p r i a t e
technical s u p p o r t operation f o r a s s e m b l y , checkout, s t e r i l i z a t i o n , and
packaging as applicable p r i o r to launching.
Each t e c h n i c a l s u p p o r t operation will m a i n t a i n sufficient r e s e r v e s
of r e p a i r p a r t s , a s s e m b l i e s , s u b - a s s e m b l i e s , and supplies a s r e q u i r e d
to p r e c l u d e postponement of scheduled launchings due to l a c k t h e r e o f .
Sufficient s u p p l i e s and equipment will be m a i n t a i n e d on hand to p e r m i t
expeditious launching of e m e r g e n c y vehicles. Refinemento of these
p r o c e d u r e s will b e m a d e p o s s i b l e by the g r e a t e r f r e q u e n c y (and c o n s e -
quently m o r e routine n a t u r e ) of the launching.
Equipment a n d s u p p l i e s r e q u i r e d t o s u p p o r t t e c h n i c a l s u p p o r t
o p e r a t i o n s will fall into two categories: (1) Rtandard i t e m s s t o c k e d in
the U, S. u t i l i z h g a depot-type s y s t e m , and (2) ite'ms peculiar t o this
p r o g r a m and p r o c u r e d exclusively f o r u s e at the launch site. Such
equipment and supplies will be delivered d i r e c t l y to the technical sup-
p o r t operation a t the launch site.
A 45-day stockage objective of equipment and supplies (above) f o r
which t h e r e is a f o r e s e e a b l e r e c u r r i n g demand will be maintained a t
e a c h technical support operation. Replenishment requisitions to r e -
place items u s e a w i l l b e submitted on a r e g u l a r basis.
A sufficient r e s e r v e of e s s e n t i a l supplies and equipment for
which a r e c u r r i n g demand cannot b e f o r e s e e n will be maintained by each
technical support operation to preclude possible delay of launchings.
Special requisitions to r e p l a c e i t e m s used will be submitted concurrent-
' l y with the i s s u e of such i t e m s ,
P r o c e d u r e s to be followed f o r the r e c e i p t of t h e s e item's will be
the same as those c u r r e n t l y followed f o r any n o r m a l "ear-marked''
shipment. P r o c e d u r e s to be followed f o r s t o r a g e of t h e s e i t e m s a r e t h e
s a m e as those c u r r e n t l y p r e s c r i b e d for any operational installation lo-
cated in the tropics.
Equipment and supplies r e q u i r e d f o r community support com-
p r i s e s t a n d a r d items, none of which will be r e q u i r e d exclusively f o r
this operation. The receipt, storage, and i s s u e of t h e s e i t e m s will
p r e s e n t no problems that have not been successfully solved at existing
isolated tropical b a s e s .
2. Launch Site Operations
A schematic flow diagram showing typical launching s i t e func-
tional layout and operations is given i n Fig. XI-66. This depicts the
routing of the h a r d w a r e components, propellants, payloads and passen-
g e r s of a s p a c e flight vehicle from a r r i v a l a t the equatorial s i t e up to
t i m e of launching. These p r o c e d u r e s would be e s s e n t i a l l y the s a m e r e -
g a r d l e s s of s i t e location.
The booster is unloaded f r o m s e a t r a n s p o r t b a r g e at dockside.
If it is a booster r e c o v e r e d f r o m a previous launching, it will f i r s t be
t r a n s f e r r e d to a n a s s e m b l y building for rejuvenation. A new booster
w i l l be t r a n s p o r t e d d i r e c t l y to the staging building.
The booster r e c o v e r y s c h e m e which will be u s e d on the SATURN
vehicles is shown in F i g , 11-67. This scheme is a n outgrowth of the
s u c c e s s f u l JUPITER nose cone r e c o v e r y p r o g r a m . The r e c o v e r y s y s t e m
is composed of parachutes and r e t r o - r o c k e t s to lower the impact ve-
locity. Once the booster is in the w a t e r , a modified LSD will be used f o r
the a c t u a l recovery. F i g u r e LI-68 i l l u s t r a t e s the floating of the booster

21 0
OUND o_ECTRK POWER

W N C H PAD fACYUTY-OXDaEA

TR*Q(Ho. TELElr(EfRY, RANG


IMJECTlON ,Q)NTRoC INSTRIMENTATION SITES

? M A Y 5.9

Fig. IT-66. SchcInatic Flow Diagrarri of Launch Site


N
I-.
N

GE-54-6-59
12 MAY 59
Fig. 11-67. SATURN Booster Recovery
Fig. 11-68. SATURN Booster Floatation into Well of LSD
into the LSD. A f t e r loading the LSD will be pumped d r y and the decon-
tamination p r o c e d u r e s can be s t a r t e d during t h e ' r e t u r n voyage to the
launch site dock.
The upper s t a g e s and payloads a r e checked out i n their r e s -
pective a s s e m b l y buildings. The payload building i n c o r p o r a t e s facilitiee
f o r testing components under appropriate environmental conditions, a n d
final s t e r i l i z a i i o n of c a r g o and containers. The vehicle units a r e then
t r a n s p o r t e d to the staging building. H e r e m a t i n g of the booster, upper
s t a g e s a n d payload, is accomplished. Functional checks of the a s s e m -
bled space vehicle, as well as weight and c e n t e r of gravity determina-
tions , a r e completed i n the horizontal position.
After this checkout, the vehicle is disaseembled and the booster
section is t r a n s f e r r e d to the launch pedestal, This is a concrete
s t r u c t u r e 27 feet high a t the center of the launch pad. The f i r s t such
SATURN launch pedestal is c u r r e n t l y under construction at AFMTC.
The v e r t i c a l launching facility or a suitable movable c r a n e is moved
f o r w a r d to hoist the booeter into position, the l a t e r being secured to
the launcher p e d e s t a l by heavy automatic g r a b hooks. After erection of
the booster, the upper s t a g e s and payload a r e hoisted and assembled t o
the vehicle in the v e r t i c a l position.
Checkout operations, including functional checks, overall t e s t s ,
pre-launch checks, calibration and alignment, simulated flight t e s t s
and flight safety t e s t s will be p e r f o r m e d a f t e r a s s e m b l y , during which
p r o c e d u r e s data a r e being r e c o r d e d in a reinforced concrete blockhouse
2700 feet away.

D. LAUNCH FACILITIES #

A typical launch complex is shown i n Fig. II-69. The equatorial


s i t e c o n s i s t s of f o u r launch complexeB of this type f o r a total of eight
launch pads, eight v e r t i c a l s t r u c t u r e s , and four blockhouses. The eight
launch pads a r e a r r a n g e d in a line roughly north to south.
The launch pads a r e l a r g e concrete s l a b s which a r e s p a c e d s o m e
3155 feet apart. At t h e c e n t e r of each pad is the launch pedestal which
will hold the m i s s i l e s e c u r e l y during s e r v i c i n g and will deflect the rockei
exhaust gaeea as r e q u i r e d during firing.
Mounted on the b u n c h pad and adjoining the launch pedestal is the
umbilical tower, a s t e e l m a s t with adjustable arms f o r connections to
the vehicle otager b e f o r e hunch. The blockhouse is located 2700 feet
from both launch podr. It ie a reinforced concrete building in which the
launch countdown ir conducted, The blockhoure i e connected to the
E O U A T O R I A L LAUNCH C O M P L E X '4
(TYPICAL)

KEV
c
$, A - BLOCKHOUSE - 4 F - LAUNCH PEDESTALS
?- 8 -
CABLEWAYS G - UMBILICAL TOWERS
' .C- SERVICE STRUCTURES H - LOX INSTALLATION-
< 0-LAUNCH .7
PAD J - F U f L lNSfALLATlON
E- LAUNCH PAD * 0 K- SKIMMINO dA8IN8

T O L O 4 O I N # N @ C O Y ? L C X IS 0810'

F l g I[ -
Fig. It-6 9. Equatorial Launch Complex

21 5
-
launcher and umbilical m a s t through cableways providing electrical,
pneumatic, hydraulic, and communications s e r v i c e s .
T h e propellant s t o r a g e and t r a n s f e r facilities a r e located between
the pad as indicated in Fig. II-69.
T h e v e r t i c a l launch s t r u c t u r e , rolling on rails, is thought of as being
a s t r u c t u r a l s t e e l checkout facility s e r v i n g each launch pad. Its s t r u c t u r e
includes adjustable platforms which inclose the vehicle during checkout,
and i f used f o r vehicle assembly, provides for two c r a n e s f o r hoisting
the vehicle units. Capacity is 40 tons each with hook heights of 245 feet'
above the launcher. If other m e a n s of hoisting f o r a s s e m b l y a r e avail-
able, the v e r t i c a l launch s t r u c t u r e does not need l a r g e c r a n e s .
In addition t o the description given above the following details a r e
furnished.
1. Launch and Control
a. Launch Facilities: The four launch complexes each include
the following:
Blo ckhous e
1 Staging Building
2 Launch pads with a s s o c i a t e d facilities
2 Service structures
Cableway and amplifier rooms
Lox facility (200, 000-gallon s t o r a g e )
F u e l facility (60, 000-gallon s t o r a g e )
Liquid hydrogen facility (50, 000-gallon s t o r a g e )
High p r e s s u r e gas facility
Roads and utilities within the complex
b. Control F a c i l i t i e s : Instrumentation s i t e s and a control and
operations building of approximately 7 5 , 000 s q u a r e feet in a r e a will b e
provided.
2. Technical Operations
A s s e m b l y and Checkout Buildings: A total of 200,000 s q u a r e
feet will be r e q u i r e d including eight units a s follows: 75 feet x 250 f e e t
assembly and checkout area, 35 f e e t c l e a r height with 60 ton bridge
c r a n e ; 25 feet x 250 feet a r e a f o r shops, l a b o r a t o r i e s , s t o r a g e and
office, E n t i r e a r e a designed to maintain 40% RH a t 80°F.
P a y l o a d Checkout Buildings: A total of 100, 000 s q u a r e f e e t Will
be r e q u i r e d including four units as follows: 100 feet x 2 5 0 feet area with
35 feet c l e a r height and 40 ton c r a n e . Checkout and a s s e m b l y r e q u i r e -
m e n t s include facilities f o r decontamination and sterilization. Design
is for 40% RH at 8 0 ° F i n p r i m a r y a r e a s .
Vehicle Storage: A total of 260, 000 s q u a r e feet w i l l be r e q u i r e d
including 26 units 40 feet x 250 feet. N o c r a n e r e q u i r e d if vehicle s t o r e d
on t r a n s p o r t e r s .
Payload Storage: The total a r e a r e q u i r e m e n t s anticipated a t this
time a r e 23,000 s q u a r e feet.
Technical Shops and T e s t Facility: T h e 50,000 s q u a r e f e e t a r e a
includes 36,000 s q u a r e feet shop a r e a with 60 ton bridge c r a n e , 9, 000
s q u a r e feet tool and s t o r a g e a r e a . On-site maintenance and r e p a i r s of
pads and t o w e r s is a s s u m e d , This facility includes six t o eight vacuum
t e s t c h a m b e r and mechanical equipment area.
Medical L a b o r a t o r i e s and Holding Facility: F a c i l i t i e s totaling
approximately 3 0 , 0 0 0 s q u a r e feet will be provided in connection with
the hospital to m e e t for r e s e a r c h and l a b o r a t o r y needs. In addition,
a holding facility will b e provided adjacent to the hospital for isolation
and c o n t r o l of "in-transit" personnel. The holding facility will provide
secluded living q u a r t e r s , dining, and r e c r e a t i o n facilities for 30 p e r -
sons. A high altitude environment a r e a will b e included i n this facility.
3. SeFvice and Logistical F a c i l i t i e s
Roads: Approximately seven m i l e s of heavy duty roadway, 28
feet in width will be provided between the c a r g o p i e r , the vehicle a s -
sembly, a n d s t o r a g e a r e a , and the launch complexes. This roadway and
the approximately 2 2 0 , 0 0 0 s q u a r e y a r d s of a p r o n a r e a s adjacent t o the
v a r i o u s buildings will be designed for the 1 0 0 ton load of the vehicle
t r a n s p o r t e r . In addition, approximately 58 m i l e s of p r i m a r y and sec-
ondary r o a d s will b e r e q u i r e d exclusive of s t r e e t s in the built-up housing
and community a r e a s .
Sewage T r e a t m e n t Plant: P r i m a r y t r e a t m e n t is c o n s i d e r e d
adequate f o r a s i t e such a s C h r i s t m a s Island. P l a n t capacity of 1. 2
million gallons p e r day will be required.
Waste Incinerator: An e s t i m a t e d 50, 000 pounds of waste p e r day
will r e q u i r e a n 8000 pounds p e r hour plant capacity.
Water Supply: A s o u r c e of 2 . 0 million gallons p e r day will be
developed f r o m s t r e a m s , wells a n d / o r f r o m f r e s h water lagoons as
applicable: F a c i l i t i e s provided will include t r e a t m e n t plant and pumping

21 7 -
stations, approximately 1, 000, 000 gallons elevated s t o r a g e a n d two
12,000 gpm pumping stations with r e s e r v o i r f o r f i r e a n d flushing r e -
I

q u i r e m e n t s in the launch a r e a .
E l e c t r i c Power: T h e estimated requirement f o r the site is
5 6 , 0 0 0 KW. A s t r e a m plant with four 2 0 , 0 0 0 KW units, (one standby),
together with a p r i m a r y distribution system totaling approximately 35
miles is required.
Bulk F u e l Storage: Total bulk s t o r a g e capacity of 8,000,000
gallons will be provided b a s e d on the following r e q u i r e m e n t s :
Power - 1,500,000 gallons p e r month
Technical - 1 , 5 0 0 , 0 0 0 gallons p e r month
Jet F u e l and AVCS - 1 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 gallons p e r m o n t h
Gasoline and m i s c - 500, 000 gallons p e r month
Hydrogen-Oxygen: Since t h e r e will be r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r con-
s i d e r a b l e quantities of liquid oxygen a n d liquid hydrogen a t the e q u a t o r i a l
launch site, facilities w i l l be provided f o r t h e i r generation. These
facilities.wil1 have the capability of generating a n d of pumping f r o m t h e
plant to launch complex s t o r a g e facilities.
P o r t F a c i l i t i e s : E s t i m a t e d r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r handling the . .. . .
n e c e s s a r y incoming supplies and equipment, and b o o s t e r r e c o v e r y
operations include t h e following:
Channel, 200 feet wide, 35 feet deep, 11 m i l e s i n length
D r y C a r g o P i e r , 90 feet x 500 f e e t with two 1 0 0 ton c r a n e s
P O L Wharf 40 feet x 300 feet, and pumping station
I S D Berthing F a c i l i t i e s
S m a l l boat docks
T r a n s i t warehouse, p o r t administration and c a f e t e r i a facilities
Site Work a n d Miscellaneous Utility Items: This i t e m includes
s i t e work s u c h as clearing, grading, etc., construction of s t r e e t s ,
c u r b s , walks, lighting, secondary e l e c t r i c a l distribution, sewage col-
lection, s t o r m drainage, fencing and bulk fuel distribution to the launch
areas.
S e r v i c e Facilities: This includes general administration and
h e a d q u a r t e r s building, f i r e station, s e c u r i t y facilities, g e n e r a l ware-
housing, maintenance shope, b a k e r i e s , laundry, d r y cleaning plant,.
i c e plant, r e f r i g e r a t e d Warehouse and meat cutting m e c h a n i c a l and
e l e c t r i c a l r e p a i r shop, salvage and s u r p l u s p r o p e r t y facilities, signal
office a n d shop, telephone exchange, communication c e n t e r , radio
t r a n s m i t t e r and r e c e i v e r station, photo l a b o r a t o r y and film l i b r a r y ,
m o t o r r e p a i r shops, gasoline station and supporting facilities, exchange
maintenance shop, exchange r e t a i l warehouse, m o t o r pool, and t r a n s -
portation office.
T e m p o r a r y Construction Camp: The construction c a m p w i l l
provide t e m p o r a r y accommodations for 2500 p e r s o n s and Will include
housing, dining, administration, recreation, s t o r e s , dispensary, b a k e r y ,
cold s t o r a g e , g e n e r a l warehousing, laundry, m a t e r i a l sheds , t e m p o r a r y
power, etc.
Airfield F a c i l i t i e s : Includes 200 feet x 1 1 , 4 0 0 f e e t runway, f o u r
helicopter pads, hardstands, taxiways, lighting, navigational a i d s , com-
pass swing base, h a n g a r s , f i r e and r e s c u e station, operations building
a n d control tower, p a s s e n g e r and freight' t e r m i n a l building, p a r t s
s t o r a g e and flammable storage.
4. Housing and Community Facilities
The facilities considered in this p a r a g r a p h , as well as the s e r v i c e
and c e r t a i n logistical facilities discussed e l s e w h e r e , w e r e b a s e d on a
total installation population of 10, 000 including 4600 dependents.
Housing: Includes 2000 f a m i l y units, 3500 bachelor type q u a r t e r s ,
and 1 0 0 s p a c e s f o r t r a n s i t personnel.
Medical: F a c i l i t i e s include a 100-bed hospital on a 200-bed
c h a s s i s a n d a 14-chair Dental Clinic.
Community F a c i l i t i e s : Includes department s t o r e , cafeteria,
gasoline s e r v i c e station, bowling alleys, bank, g r o c e r y s t o r e , chapels
with religious education facilities , c r a f t shops, entertainment w o r k
shops, gymnasium, l i b r a r y , club facilities, swimming pools, bath
houses, post office, theater, dependent schools, and miscellaneous out-
door r e c r e a t i o n facilities.
Support f o r Bachelor Q u a r t e r s : Includes dining, supply, a d - .
m i n i s t r a t i o n a n d m o t o r p a r k facilities, s t o r e s , and gymnasium.

E. POSSIBLE EQUATORIAL LAUNCH SITES I


Of all potential equatorial
- launch s i t e s only those Listed below I
Bufficiently satisfied the g e n e r a l selection criteria to w a r rant d i s CUB 8 ion.
For the g e n e r a l location of s i t e s , s e e Fig. II-70. I
3

1- ....
I .

I
.... 8 0 Y m 1
s

i
F g . 11-70. World Wide Site Choices f o r an Equatorial Launch F a c i l i t a i
i
- ---
- --
F-

, Somalia {Ow latitude)


Located on the e a s t c o a s t of Africa, Somzlia is now a d m i n i s t e r -
-
ed under Italian United Nations trusteeship, but will b e c o m e in-
dependent in 1960. Approximately one hundred s q u a r e m i l e s , south of
the navigable Guiba R i v e r , a p p e a r s suitable f o r a launch s i t e . This
area is on level t e r r a i n , with l i m i t e d rainfall. T h e Guiba River, how-
e v e r , would provide adequate water. Azimuth a n d range h e r e is good
f o r equatorial f i r i n g s but only fair f o r p o l a r f i r i n g s as t h e r e would be
danger of booster fallout on inhabited a r e a s . The r e m o t e location
relative to the United S t a t e s would be a m a j o r disadvantage. Because
of the logistic problem no f u r t h e r consideration is given t o t h i s location.
2. Manus Island (South 2 " latitude)
Manus Island, which l i e s 200 m i l e s to the n o r t h of New Guinea,
is under the administration of A u s t r a l i a under the t r u s t e e s h i p s y s t e m
established by the C h a r t e r of the United Nations. The island is 50
m i l e s long and 20 m i l e s a c r o s s , hilly throughout except the e a s t e r n end
which is relatively l e v e l and swampy. The highest elevations range
f r o m 1500 to 3000 feet in the c e n t r a l region. The island a p p e a r s suit-
able f o r both equatorial and p o l a r m i s s i o n s , but t h e r e would b e danger
of booster fallout o v e r inhabited islands. Manus Island would support
a l a r g e population but h e r e a g a i n the distance f r o m the United States
a n d the problem of logistics support s e e m s to eliminate t h i s location
f r o m f u r t h e r consideration in this report.
3. C h r i s t m a s Island (See Fig. 11-71)

iI The center of this Pacific c o r a l atoll i s approximately l " 5 9 '


n o r t h latitude and 157'30' west longitude, It is approximately 1 6 0
s q u a r e m i l e s in a r e a , of which about 1 0 0 s q u a r e m i l e s a r e usable.
I
Average elevation i s approximately 1 0 feet above 8ea l e v e l with a few
j oand hills 20-40 f e e t high. It is a d m i n i s t e r e d by the B r i t i s h as a p a r t
!
of the Gilbert and E l l i c e Islands Colony; however, the United States
i
a l s o c l a i m s sovereignty. The chief u s e of the ieland in t h e p a s t has
I- been f o r coconut plantations, T h e r e a r e about 60 permanent inhabitants
of the i s l a n d and, at p r e s e n t , t h e r e e x i s t s a B r i t i s h h e a d q u a r t e r e f o r
nuclear t e s t s . The B r i t i s h have maintained a radio station (now in-
cludes daily weather s e r v i c e ) on the island since 1937.
!
i
Transportation distances by water: F r o m New York City -
7300 m i l e s . From LOBAngeles - 2900 m i l e s .
i Climatological and Meteorological Conditions: T e m p e r a t u r e -
'
1
j Minimum 74"; Maximum 91 '.Rainfall - Average annual: 22 inches.
i
i1
Has v a r i e d f r o m 1 0 to 300 inches. Relative Humidity normal. Air - 2
;
{

i
1
-
m o v e m e n t prevailing winds f r o m e a s t and southeast with n o r t h e a s t
in March and May. No h u r r i c a n e s o r s e v e r e s t o r m . Health conditions-
n e a r i d e a l living conditions; f r e e f r o m malaria.
Soil and Foundation Conditions: At a comparatively shallow
depth, a f a i r l y h a r d s t r a t u m of sandstone o c c u r s , still i n f o r m a t i v e
stage. Two t e s t p i t s indicated:
Test 1
Top 8 inches - sandy loam
Next 1 2 inches - 80 p e r c e n t coral, 20 p e r c e n t sand
t
Next 20 inches - 1 0 p e r c e n t c o r a l , 90 p e r c e n t sand
Test 2
Top 1 2 inches - 80 p e r c e n t sandy loam, 20 p e r c e n t c o r a l
Next 1 2 inches - 90 p e r c e n t c o r a l , 1 0 p e r c e n t white sand
Regional F a c t o r s : N e a r e s t city f o r logistic support and f o r

1 n o r m a l "social outlets" is Honolulu, Hawaii (1950 population 497, 000),


1160 m i l e s away.
3
Labor - No s o u r c e of local labor.
Construction m a t e r i a l s - Except f o r sand and possibly c o r a l i

aggregate, all m a t e r i a l m u s t be shipped in.


Food supplies - A l l food m u s t be shipped in.
I
-
Water supply It is believed that a n adequate quantity of w a t e r
c a n be collected j u s t above the sandstone s t r a t u m and f r o m the f r e s h i
water lagoons.
P o w e r and f u e l - P o w e r m u s t be generated locally f r o m i m p o r t e d
fuel.
T r a n s p o r t a t i o n - Dock F a c i l i t i e s . London H a r b o r , a p r o t e c t e d
n a t u r a l h a r b o r on the west s i d e of the island h a s landing facilities,
quays, and s e v e r a l p i e r s . Main h a r b o r entrance h a s a depth v a r y i n g
f r o m 1 2 to 1 8 f e e t (mean tide range about two feet). Anchorage facilities
e x i s t for s e v e r a l c o a s t e r s in the open roadstead off the lagoon in depths
of approximately 100 feet. F o u r mooring buoys (one telephone-equipped)
in the r o a d s t e a d a r e believed to be used by l a r g e v e s s e l s . Landing
facilities consist of over 1 0 0 0 f e e t of wharfage; berthing length 330 feet,
five p i e r s , wharf d e r r i c k , and i n d u s t r i a l t r a c k s on two wharves. I

Channel dredging would be r e q u i r e d for a distance of about 1 0 to 1 2 m i l e s


t o the dock s i t e ,
I

Airfield Facilities: Two existing all-weather runways, one


6890 feet long, the other 5050 feet long, both 200 f e e t wide of two-inch
asphalt on hard-packed c o r a l , would r e q u i r e lengthening and strengthen-
ing to be adequate f o r proposed operational use. Support facilities of
all c a t e g o r i e s would have to be added.
4. B r a z i l (Ref, Fig. 12-72)
A site in the State of Maranhao, B r a z i l w a s s e l e c t e d a f t e r
studying m a p and a i r -photo information of the e n t i r e B r a z i l i a n c o a s t
between 2 " north and 2 " south latitude, (a s t r a i g h t line distance along
'
the c o a s t of about 680 m i l e s ) . Much of this c o a s t a l a r e a is swampland
heavily clothed with mangrove and c o m p r i s e s a s u c c e s s i o n of points o r
p r o m o n t o r i e s s e p a r a t e d by bays o r e s t u a r i e s t h r e e to t e n m i l e s wide as
they m e e t the Atlantic. Along the s h o r e e a s t of the Amazon mouth,
swampland f o r eight to ten m i l e s south of the Atlantic is i n t e r l a c e d with
sizeable s t r e a m s , 20 to 60 feet wide, 1000 feet to 3000 f e e t a p a r t . No
habitation o r f a r m c l e a r i n g s appear in this a r e a .
G o o d high ground e x i s t s west of the North Channel of the Amazon
north of the town of Macapa in the State of Ampa. But from this site
polar launchings would be o v e r land f o r a distance of 200 m i l e s . Launch- !
ings to the e a s t would be o v e r two l a r g e islands (Janaucu, Caviana),
!
known to have s m a l l fishing villages, s o that control of t h e s e delta
i s l a n d s would probably be n e c e s s a r y .
Good high ground o c c u r s a t the e a s t end of the s h o r e l i n e in-
vestigated, n e a r where the 2" south latitude line m e e t s the Atlantic
coast. Photographs show s o m e steep bluffs (height indeterminable)
r i s i n g f r o m the s h o r e , r a t h e r than a l l swamp. Along the s h o r e line
between 2 " 3' and I 40' south latitude launchings would be e n t i r e l y o v e r
O

w a t e r to the n o r t h and to the east. A c c e s s to w a t e r would be f r o m 5 t o


15 m i l e s long depending on detailed selection of the operational a r e a .
This is the s i t e described in g r e a t e r detail h e r e i n .
P r o p o s e d s i t e i s f r o m 1 " 40' south latitude to 2 " 5' south latitude;'
f r o m 4 4 " 30' west longitude to 44" 15' west longitude. Photographs show
m a n y s m a l l c l e a r i n g s (5 t o 30 a c r e s ) of cultivated land. A small town
e x i s t s on the s h o r e of one estuary. Ownership is unknown, a s s u m e d
p r i v a t e plantations. On the 2 " south latitude line, a n e s t u a r y ( B a r r o do
Calhau) a t the mouth of a s m a l l r i v e r (R. A r a p i r a n g a ) has on its north
s h o r e a small town, covering about 0 . 4 of a square mile v a r i o u s l y
called C u t e i r o o r Outeiro. The number of f a m i l i e s (information not
available) which would r e q u i r e r e s e t t l e m e n t e l s e w h e r e is unknown. h .
addition, a considerable number of houses a p p e a r next to cultivated .
a r e a s five to t e n m i l e s out f r o m Guteiro; thesle would probably r e q ~ r e
replacement.

-
%.._I_... I..,...-

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I\
-
.
,
I
.
"".e
C ~ r r l r . r . n A . W

-*.I
'3,.r..-.s.*U-..,o..-
L..l-

.,
.<-

LAND USE STUDY


I"
EOUATORIAL LAUNCH BASE
rian- 71

Fig. II-71. Christmas Island

,'

I
I1
..-

.. ' . :: 1030'
. . . .. \ , , ..: . . .( ..
. . . . . . . . . .. . . ,.r . . .. , .

. .~
. .. .. . '
,.;:
.,, ; +'.
. .. . . . .. .. . - I :..;3 , .

' .. . . .. ::c!l!: !?!. '..

. .

' , .> . >


*;

. .
. . ,. .. ... . . .
. .. , ! , . I

p n t o de Beroordo
r

I
f , r ~
..
, d

I Fig. IT-72. P o t e n t i a l Site in B r a z i l f o r E q u a t o r i a l Launch B a s e ; '*


T r a n s p o r t a t i o n D i s t a n c e s by W a t e r : F r o m New Y o r k C i t y -
3150 m i l e s . F r o m Los Angeles - 5400 m i l e s .
Climatological a n d M e t e o r l o g i c a l Conditions: T e m p e r a t u r e -
Minimum 7 5 " ; Maximum 8 6 " . R a i n f a l l - A v e r a g e annual: 84. 8 inches.
Wettest month: M a r c h (1 8 . 5 inches). D r i e s t month: O c t o b e r (0.4
inches). R e l a t i v e Humidity: 77-87 p e r c e n t through y e a r .
A i r Movement: P r e v a i l i n g winds g e n e r a l l y f r o m n o r t h e a s t and
southeast. N o s t o r m d a t a available.
Health Conditions: High humidity r e s u l t s in d i s c o m f o r t , mildew,
r u s t . World W a r I1 m o s q u i t o - c o n t r o l p r o g r a m , a i d e d b y USA, is being
continued, but m a y not have been effective a t t h i s s i t e , s o malaria
incidence m a y be high.
Soil is fine g r a i n e d to a ' d e p t h of 20 f e e t o r m o r e b e f o r e reaching
bed r o c k , which with adequate d r a i n a g e should p r o v i d e fair t o good
foundation conditions.
Regional F a c t o r s : (Nearby c o m m u n i t i e s ) . Two s i z e a b l e c i t i e s
n e a r e s t the s i t e a r e B e l e m , c a p i t a l of the S t a t e of Para (1950 popula-
tion 225, 218), 380 m i l e s w e s t of t h e s i t e b y w a t e r ; a n d Sao L u i s ,
c a p i t a l of the S t a t e of M a r a n h a o (1957 population 121, 917), 40 m i l e s
s o u t h e a s t of the s i t e by w a t e r . (No good o v e r l a n d connection t o t h e s e
c i t i e s is a p p a r e n t ) .
L a b o r : L o c a l l a b o r , limited, m u s t b e supplemented.
C o n s t r u c t i o n m a t e r i a l s : L i m i t e d l o c a l p r o d u c t s m u s t be sup-
plemented by U. s. i m p o r t e d supplies.
Food Supplies: L o c a l p r o d u c t s m u s t b e s u p p l e m e n t e d by im-
p o r t s f r o m the U. S.
Water Supply: S t r e a m s e n t e r i n g the Atlantic c a n p r o v i d e a m p l e
water. Supply would b e good chemically. Good quality w a t e r is a l s o ~

believed obtainable f r o m wells 50 to 100 f e e t deep,


P o w e r and F u e l : P o w e r m u s t b e g e n e r a t e d l o c a l l y f r o m i m p o r t e d
fuel.
T r a n s p o r t a t i o n : No a i r f i e l d or dock f a c i l i t i e s e x i s t . A n a t u r a l
e n t r a n c e to potential p r o t e c t e d h a r b o r e x i s t s i n the C u m a Bay (Baia de
Cuma). F i f t y f e e t of w a t e r is indicated a t a point 15 m i l e s out f r o m
possible dockage. Channel dredging will be r e q u i r e d f o r t h e b a l a n c e of
the route t o the dock s i t e which is c u r r e n t l y between 1 8 a n d 50 f e e t of
water. ~ -.
---.-.I-
.. - /----.-- -------
-I ---

F. CHRISTMAS E L A N D VERSUS BRAZIL


1. Availability
Negotiations with a f r i e n d l y power, a s s u m i n g a p r i o r i t y s i t u a - ' . -. ,

tion, m i g h t p r o v i d e r i g h t of e n t r y f o r s u r v e y s within 60 days a n d € o r


c o n s t r u c t i o n within s i x months. B r i t i s h plans f o r C h r i s t m a s I s l a n d i n :,
Connection with n u c l e a r t e s t s a n d a n y f a c i l i t i e s planned i n connection ::
with t h e P a c i f i c O c e a n m i s s i l e f i r i n g r a n g e s a r e not known, but will un- 1

doubtedly a f f e c t the negotiations a n d p e r h a p s t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y of this site. f


E x c e p t f o r political c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , no p r o b l e m s i n a t t a i n m e n t of t h e
B r a z i l s i t e a r e f o r e s e e n . Relocations m a y d e l a y a c c e s s t o some a r e a s I.
b u t with c o o p e r a t i o n b y the B r a z i l i a n Government, no s e r i o u s d e l a y s are;.
~
anticipated . i

2. Construction P r o b l e m s
..'.
The t i m e r e q u i r e d f o r mobilization a n d build-up t o s u p p o r t the
c o n s t r u c t i o n e f f o r t will v a r y depending upon the s i t e s e l e c t e d . T h e con- !.
s t r u c t i o n p r o g r a m a s scheduled on the accompanying c h a r t ( F i g . LI-73) ':
is contingent upon r e c e i v i n g a u t h o r i z a t i o n to p r o c e e d with planning a n d :
d e s i g n b y 1 J u l y 1959, obtaining right of en'try f o r s u r v e y s by 1 S e p t e m - .
b e r 1 9 5 9 a n d completion of s i t e negotiations i n t i m e f o r c o n s t r u c t i o n
o p e r a t i o n s to begin on 1 J a n n a r y 1960. C o n s t r u c t i o n c o s t s , facilities .

a n d s c h e d u l e s shown i n t h i s r e p o r t f o r B r a z i l would be quite similar t o .:


t h o s e shown f o r C h r i s t m a s Island.
If C h r i s t m a s I s l a n d is s e l e c t e d f o r t h e l o c a t i o n of the launch

!
I
/--

F-

-
_-
I

Fig. 11-73. Schedule for Construction and Development f o r E q u a t o r i a l Launch Base


a n d o t h e r b a s i c supporting f a c i l i t i e s c a n p r o c e e d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y with
c o n s t r u c t i o n of t h e p e r m a n e n t p o r t f a c i l i t i e s , u s i n g the e x i s t i n g h a r b o r
a n d wharfing.
In the e v e n t the B r a z i l s i t e is c h o s e n , it is e s t i m a t e d t h a t a n
a d d i t i o n a l six m o n t h s c o n s t r u c t i o n time will b e r e q u i r e d t h r o u g h t h e
P h a s e I1 p e r i o d , which p r o v i d e s f o r t a s k l a u n c h capability. ' T h e c o n -
s t r u c t i o n p r o b l e m s initially a r e g r e a t e r in B r a z i l a n d t h e r e is no
s a t i s f a c t o r y a c c e s s to the s i t e by land, s e a o r air t o s u p p o r t e v e n
l i m i t e d o p e r a t i o n s . A b e a c h h e a d o p e r a t i o n with p e r s o n n e l , e q u i p m e n t
a n d materials landed by b a r g e or LST will b e r e q u i r e d until t e m p o r a r y
unloading f a c i l i t i e s c a n b e provided. A i r f i e l d c o n s t r u c t i o n w i l l b e a n
additional e a r l y p r i o r i t y i t e m to s u p p o r t both c o n s t r u c t i o n o p e r a t i o n s
a n d the i n i t i a l launching o p e r a t i o n s . R e l o c a t i o n s a r e e x p e c t e d to d e l a y
a c c e s s to c e r t a i n a r e a s a n d m a y a l s o r e q u i r e additional c o n s t r u c t i o n
as w e l l as m o n e t a r y s e t t l e m e n t s . Although m a n y s m a l l c l e a r i n g s a r e
noted i n a e r i a l photographs, much of the a r e a is d e n s e jungle. Mapping,
s i t e s u r v e y s , a n d o t h e r investigations will r e q u i r e m o r e t i m e . C o n -
s t r u c t i o n o p e r a t i o n s such as c l e a r i n g , d r a i n a g e , s a n i t a t i o n m e a s u r e s ,
a n d r o a d c o n s t r u c t i o n will r e q u i r e a m u c h g r e a t e r e x p e n d i t u r e of e f f o r t
t h a n would b e r e q u i r e d at C h r i s t m a s Island. L i k e w i s e , t h e h e a v y
rainfall, mud, i n s e c t s , m a l a r i a and the hot, h u m i d c l i m a t e w i l l all
c o n t r i b u t e to the g e n e r a l l y unfavorable c o n s t r u c t i o n environment. Not
only will a g r e a t e r expenditure of effort be r e q u i r e d to p l a c e t h e s a m e
a m o u n t of work, but s i t e a n d climatological conditions a r e e x p e c t e d
to p r e s e n t m o r e difficult d e s i g n p r o b l e m s i n c e r t a i n i n s t a n c e s , with a
c o r r e s p o n d i n g i n c r e a s e in design t i m e and c o n s t r u c t i o n . Although all
c o n s t r u c t i o n m a t e r i a l s , equipment and l a b o r w i l l be brought i n initially,
t h e l o c a l potential f o r c o n s t r u c t i o n a n d l o g i s t i c s u p p o r t will b e d e v e l -
loped as r a p i d l y a s p r a c t i c a b l e . P a s t e x p e r i e n c e i n d i c a t e s t h a t B r a z i l i a n
f w o r k e r s l e a r n r e a d i l y but a t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m w i l l be r e q u i r e d t o develop
!an efficient l a b o r f o r c e .

!
[
3. Ope r a t i o n a l C o n s i d e r a t i o n s
C l i m a t i c conditions a t C h r i s t m a s Island will be m o r e f a v o r a b l e
,for s u s t a i n e d o p e r a t i o n s . The B r a z i l s i t e , h o w e v e r , should o f f e r s o m e
f a d v a n t a g e s f r o m the standpoint of tracking. L a n d - b a s e d t r a c k i n g
I
\ s t a t i o n s a r e p o s s i b l e downrange f r o m t h e B r a z i l s i t e , w h e r e a s t r a c k i n g
'ships w i l l be r e q u i r e d i f C h r i s t m a s I s l a n d w e r e s e l e c t e d .

i 4. C o n s t r u c t i o n C o s t s a n d Schedule
C o n s t r u c t i o n c o s t s of the launching f a c i l i t i e s and all s u p p o r t i n g
l a c i l i t i e s shown i n C h a p t e r VIIl a r e b a s e d on the C h r i s t m a s I s l a n d s i t e ,
b e c a u s e t h e y could not b e m a d e available on the Brazil s i t e at this time
1
_---

due to l a c k of information. F a c i l i t i e s totaling $426, 000, 000 f o r design


a n d construction will be located g e n e r a l l y a s shown on the land u s e
study, Fig. II-69. Maintenance a n d operating c o s t s a r e not included.
Excluding r e a l e s t a t e a n d relocation c o s t s , which cannot be
evaluated a t this time, i t is e s t i m a t e d that construction c o s t s in B r a z i l
will be about 10% l e s s . T h i s savings anticipates a reasonably good
supply of l a b o r and the i n c r e a s i n g development of local capabilities,
a n d would b e g r e a t e r except f o r the less favorable design and c o n s t r u c -
tion conditions d i s c u s s e d i n p a r a g r a p h 2 preceding., .

5. Growth P o t e n t i a l
The B r a z i l site a p p e a r s to have the potential for any f o r e s e e a b l e
growth o r expansion of facilities. Conditions a r e , likewise, favorable
f o r a p r o g r e s s i v e i n c r e a s e in l o c a l capabilities for construction and
l o g i s t i c support. As previously d i s c u s s e d , the usable land a r e a on
C h r i s t m a s Island will not exceed 100 s q u a r e m i l e s . While t h i s a r e a i s
sufficient t o accomodate installations s e v e r a l t i m e s as extensive as
planned for this p r o g r a m , it could not accomodate n u c l e a r propelled
.
( b o o s t e r ) vehicles, unless n e a r b y JARVIS Island is u s e d f o r t h i s purpos
6. Conclusions i
Both C h r i s t m a s Island and B r a z i l s a t i s f y sufficiently the g e n e r a l 1
c r i t e r i a f o r s i t e selection to be acceptable f o r a n e q u a t o r i a l launch site.,
i
A f t e r all t h e s e c r i t e r i a a r e c o n s i d e r e d and the c o m p a r i s o n m a d e , a
choice as to which is the b e s t s i t e can be m a d e only a f t e r s o m e r e l a t i v e
i m p o r t a n c e o r p r i o r i t y s c h e m e is s e t up for the various d e s i r a b l e
c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , It i s believed that ultimate s i t e selection will be
governed by c o s t and e a r l y availability.
(S) CHAPTER VI: PROGRAM LOGXSTICS

A. INT RODU C TI ON

The l o g i s t i c a l support f o r P r o j e c t HORIZON h a s been studied i n


o v e r a l l scope a s well as through detailed investigations of ,specific
a r e a s such a s manufacturing considerations, t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o n s i d e r a -
t i o n s , movement control, personnel, and p e r s o n n e l t r a i n i n g , T h i s
c h a p t e r i s devoted to the d i s c u s s i o n of t h e s e s t u d i e s .

T h e l o g i s t i c organization r e q u i r e d to s u p p o r t P r o j e c t HORIZON
will b e l a r g e , in fact l a r g e r than any single known o r proposed
i n d u s t r i a l organization. T h i s leads i m m e d i a t e l y to the conclusion t h a t
m i l i t a r y support will be r e q u i r e d , such a s that u s e d i n the p o l a r
expeditions. The c r i t i c a l i t y of timely d e l i v e r y of equipment a n d s u p p l i e s
n e c e s s a r y to support t h i s type of manned operation l e n d s additional
e m p h a s i s to the r e q u i r e m e n t f o r m i l i t a r y participation. A r e v i e w of
m i l i t a r y supporting capability, together with p r o j e c t r e q u i r e m e n t s ,
shows quite c l e a r l y that adequate l o g i s t i c a l support c a n b e provided
by the v a r i o u s s e r v i c e s i n conjunction with and as p a r t of t h e i r n o r m a l
operations. The d e g r e e of m i l i t a r y support h a s not been p r e s e n t e d , ’ .
since d e g r e e of participation m a y be d e t e r m i n e d by non-technical
d e s i r e s b a s e d on t h e world-wide political situation. However, i n
addition to the previously d i s c u s s e d r e a s o n s for m i l i t a r y support, in
c e r t a i n a r e a s of the p r o j e c t , i t will b e m o r e economical to u t i l i z e
the existing talent, e x p e r i e n c e , and e s t a b l i s h e d capabilities of the
military.

B. MANUFACTURING CONSIDERATIONS

As the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r space p r o g r a m s become g r e a t e r , both in


vehicle s i z e and n u m b e r , production capabilities m u s t be judiciously
utilized. Recovery w i l l play a m a j o r r o l e in reducing t h e n u m b e r of
b o o s t e r r e c o v e r y , the total number of b o o s t e r s needed for t h e 229
scheduled launchings i s significantly reduced to only 73.

Since the d i a m e t e r of the b o o s t e r s and some of t h e upper s t a g e s and


payloads i e 256 i n c h e s , the m o s t economical m e a n s of t r a n s p o r t i n g
t h e s e f r o m t h e manufacturing site to the launch s i t e i s by w a t e r . .
T r a n s p o r t a t i o n of t h e s e l a r g e units by air d o e s not a p p e a r economically
feaeible in t h i s time period. I- _
In view of the above, it would b e e x t r e m e l y d e s i r a b l e to m a n u f a c t u r e
the l a r g e - d i a m e t e r i t e m s n e a r a waterway capable of handling sea-going
ships. Over half of t h e vehicle s t a g e s and payloads r e q u i r e d a r e 2.56
i n c h e s in d i a m e t e r and, t h e r e f o r e , a c c e s s i b i l i t y to w a t e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n
is of m a j o r i m p o r t a n c e in t h e selection of c o n t r a c t o r s for t h i s p r o g r a m .

T a b l e 11-28 shows the n u m b e r of vehicle s t a g e s and payloads which


m u s t b e produced t o support t h i s p r o g r a m . T h e s e production r e q u i r e -
m e n t s a r e b a s e d on t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t of t h e l u n a r outpost and one y e a r
(1967) of operational supply. Continuation of the p r o g r a m beyond 1967
and a n y expansion of the l u n a r f a c i l i t i e s or p e r s o n n e l strength would,
of c o u r s e , add additional r e q u i r e m e n t s .

It has been a s s u m e d that a b o o s t e r would be r e a d y f o r shipment


s i x m o n t h s before t h e scheduled launch d a t e for the f i r s t launch of that
p a r t i c u l a r b o o s t e r . Upper s t a g e s and payload c o n t a i n e r s should be
r e a d y t h r e e months b e f o r e the scheduled launch d a t e . However, the
outlined production r a t e s allow f o r sufficicient s p a r e s of each item t o
be on hand a t t h e launch s i t e for e m e r g e n c y flights a n d f o r r e p l a c e m e n t .
The manned c a p s u l e s a r e r e c o v e r a b l e ; t h e r e f o r e , v e r y few a r e needed,
T h e expendable upper s t a g e s a n d one-way c a r g o payloads r e q u i r e the
l a r g e s t production r a t e s . A t o t a l of 614 v a r i o u s vehicle s t a g e s and 206
payloads a r e needed. P e a k production r a t e s for this p r o g r a m would
o c c u r during the last half of 1965 and slowly decline until the outpost
is completely established.

In reviewing t h e p r e s e n t and projected national manufacturing


c a p a b i l i t i e s , it i s believed that t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s of this p r o g r a m can
b e handled easily. B e c a u s e of the low production r a t e s and small total
n u m b e r of s o m e of t h e components r e q u i r e d , advantage c a n be taken of
t h e s m a l l e r manufacturing f a c i l i t i e s which exist today. Only the i t e m s
with l a r g e total n u m b e r s and high production r a t e s would r e q u i r e the
l a r g e f a c i l i t i e s of our p r e s e n t m i s s i l e p r o d u c e r s . The uti1;:ation of the
c a p a b i l i t i e s of s m a l l m a n u f a c t u r e r s would eliminate the need for l a r g e
new f a c i l i t i e s .

Most of the vehicle s t a g e and payload container a s s e m b l y will b e


a c c o m p l i s h e d at t h e m a n u f a c t u r e r ' s plant. T o m a i n t a i n m a x i m u m :
. flexibility with r e s p e c t t o e m e r g e n c y flight r e q u i r e m e n t s , i t ie d e s i r a b l e
t o l o a d the a c t u a l payload into the c o n t a i n e r s at the launch s i t e . T h i s .
allows for l a a t minute changes in the c a r g o f o r a p a r t i c u l a r mission. ,.

234
Table 11-28
VEHICLE - PAYLOAD PRODUCTION REQUIREMENTS

1963 1964 1965 1966 . 1967


VEHICLES J A S O N D J P H A H J J A S O N D J P H A H J J A S O N D J P H A H J J A S O N D J F H A M J J I S O N D VJUL

SATURN I Booatera 2 3 2 3 2 3 3 18
SATURN 11 Booatera l l l l l l 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 55
SATURN I-2nd S t a g e s 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 . 69
SAnnW I - 3 r d S t a g e a 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 69
SATURN 11-2nd Stagem 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 5 4 3 2 160
SATUIW 11-3rd S t a g e r 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 5 4 3 2 160
SATURN 1 1 - 4 t h S t a g e s 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 83
PAYUMDS

SI - O r b i t a l Package 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 ' . 48
SI - Manned O r b Pack 1 1 1 1 1 1 ,- 6
3 1 1 - O r b i t a l Pack 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 57
SII-Manned Orb Pack 1 1 1 1 4
S I I - D i r e c t Cargo 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 83
Orbit-Lurur Package 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 (I

TVIXL ITMS 3 10 1 3 1 7 1 Y 21 20 22 23 2 6 24 26 2U 22 23 24 23 22 22 I Y 12 b
3 12 15 14 20 21 20 22 23 25 24 24 2C 23 23 23 21 21 2 1 l b d 4 820
T h e r e c o v e r y o p e r a t i o n , involving all b o o s t e r s a n d manned
r e t u r n v e h i c l e s f r o m both the o r b i t a l station and t h e lunar s u r f a c e ,
will r e q u i r e s o m e l i m i t e d f a b r i c a t i o n , a s s e m b l y and check-out
f a c i l i t i e s a t the l a u n c h site. After r e c o v e r y , t h e b o o s t e r s and manned
c a p s u l e s m u s t be subjected t o a rejuvenation p r o c e d u r e which would
involve cleaning, c e r t a i n d i s a s s e m b l y , inspection, r e p a i r of ,damage,
r e p l a c e m e n t of p a r t s , r e a s s e m b l y , inspection, and s t o r a g e until next
r e q u i r e d . A supply of all n e c e s s a r y s p a r e p a r t s m u s t b e on hand so
that the rejuvenation p r o c e s s can continue smoothly without delays.

No m a j o r technical p r o b l e m s can b e envisioned f r o m the manu-


f a c t u r i n g standpoint. It is anticipated that t h e magnitude of rrtissile
and s p a c e vehicle production f a c i l i t i e s in the 1964 to 1967 t i m e period
will be such that t h i s p r o g r a m can b e handled r e a d i l y and b e well
within the national capabilities.

C. TRANSPORTATION CONSIDERATIONS

F r e i g h t t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o n s i d e r a t i o n s both within the United S t a t e s


and f r o m the United S t a t e s to the equatorial launch s i t e m u s t b e governed
b y two distinct c a t e g o r i e s of equipment and supplies. T h e f i r s t c a t e g o r y
will be l i m i t e d to s p a c e v e h i c l e s , vehicle p a r t s , ground support equip- .
ment and components of the l u n a r payload. T h e s e i t e m s , b e c a u s e of
c o s t , production l i m i t a t ions, specialized u s e , and rigid launching
schedules m u s t move via controlled and expedited m e a n s of t r a n s p o r t a -
tion. The second c a t e g o r y will e m b r a c e all the n o r m a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e
and l o g i s t i c a l supplies consigned to the launch s i t e .

1. Within the United S t a t e s

a . SpaEe v e h i c l e s , vehicle p a r t s , ground s u p p o r t equipment and


components of the l u n a r payload.

Space vehicle: The s i z e of the components which r a n g e f r o m


43 feet long x 10 feet d i a m e t e r to 111 feet long x 21 feet 4 i n c h e s in
d i a m e t e r preclude t h e u s e of existing rail, highway and air t r a n s p o r t a -
tion m e d i a on a r e c u r r i n g b a s i s . Since w a t e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s the m o s t
suitable mode i t would b e highly d e s i r a b l e to have the m a n u f a c t u r e r s '
plants s i t u a t e d s o a s to grant r e a d y a c c e s s t o w a t e r f a c i l i t i e s . The
weight of the m i s s i l e s e c t i o n s , 3 , 0 0 0 t o 7 5 , 0 0 0 pounds, is within existing
lifting c a p a c i t i e s of s t a t e s i d e p o r t or equipment t h a t c a n b e obtained .
readily.

236
r
Vehicle p a r t s , ground support equipment and components of
t h e l u n a r payload; T h e s e i t e m s can b e t r a n s p o r t e d v i a all existing
m o d e s . However, it i s felt that b e c a u s e of production l i m i t a t i o n s and
the t i m e consuming testing p e r i o d , p r e m i u m t r a n s p o r t a t i o n w i l l b e
utilized for o t h e r than the initial s u r f a c e m o v e m e n t of ground s u p p o r t
equipment, and s p a r e p a r t s . It will b e n e c e s s a r y for components of
the l u n a r payload to move v i a p r e m i u m t r a n s p o r t a t i o n .

b. A d m i n i s t r a t i v e and n o r m a l l o g i s t i c a l support tonnage c a n


b e t r a n s p o r t e d . v i a all modes. Due t o the long l e a d t i m e for fulfilling
r e q u i r e m e n t s , s u r f a c e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n will b e adequate.

c. P e r s o n n e l : A i r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n is envisioned f o r scientific,
p r o f e s s i o n a l , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , and l o g i s t i c a l support p e r s o n n e l t o provide
all p o s s i b l e productive t i m e both in the United S t a t e s and on site. U n -
skilled and s e m i - s k i l l e d type l a b o r per*sonnel may be t r a n s p o r t e d by
surface means.

2'. United S t a t e s t o Launch Site

a. Surface Transportation

T h e initial portion of the launch s i t e buildup phase m u s t be


supported by a n o v e r - t h e - b e a c h operation. Water t e r m i n a l f a c i l i t i e s
a r e scheduled to b e available i n April 1961. At t h i s t i m e , a p i e r
operation can commence and the o v e r - t h e - b e a c h o p e r a t i o n can be
phased out. Construction tonnage will c o n s i s t of a buildup f r o m 5 , 0 0 0
s h o r t tons monthly in J a n u a r y 1962, continuing until June 1964 then
phasing out.

Space vehicle s e c t i o n s will b e fixed t o t h e i r own wheeled


t r a n s p o r t e r s . Special handling d e v i c e s , equipment and techniques will
b e r e q u i r e d to load and unload. Sections m u s t b e t r a n s p o r t e d on v e s s e l s
modified or c o n s t r u c t e d specifically to handle t h e m . The v e s s e l should
b e capable of s p e e d s of approximately 30 knots to r e d u c e t h e n u m b e r of
v e s s e l s required. P r e s e n t production s c h e d u l e s provide six m o n t h s
l e a d t i m e for the b o o s t e r section in advance of the launching date. I

A s s e m b l y , p r o c e s s i n g , and check-out t i m e r e q u i r e d on t h e s i t e is
one and one-half months p r i o r to the launching d a t e , t h e r e b y allowing
t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t i m e t o consolidate l o a d s and r e a c h destination. P r o d u c -
tion s c h e d u l e s for the other s t a g e s of t h e vehicle provide t h r e e m o n t h s
l e a d t i m e with on-site r e q u i r e d date one and one-half months p r i o r t o
launching. Again, this p r e s e n t s the opportunity for consolidation, with

237
one and one-half months t r a n s i t t i m e available. Following a r e t h e
approximate s t r u c t u r e weights and dimensions of t h e space vehicle
s e c t ions involved.

SATURN I
Length D i a m e t e r S t r u c t u r e Length D i a m e t e r S t r u c t u r e
Weight Weight
Booster 84' 21'4tt 73,400 90' 2 1 '4" 73,300
2nd Stage 73 I 10' 11,400 107' 21'41' 39,000
3rd Stage 43' 10' 3,800 56' 2 1'4" 11, 500
4th Stage 51' 2 1 '4" 5,600
Cargo P a c k a g e 30' 10' 3,000 25' 21'4" 7,000
Manned Orbit 45' 10' 6 , 0 0 0 45' 2 1 '4" 12,000
Package
D i r e c t Flight 36' 10' 12,000
Orbit-Lunar 104' 2 1 '4" 60,000
Manned P a c k a g e

The f i r s t SATURN I booster will be available f o r shipment in


F e b r u a r y 1964 along with a SATURN I o r b i t a l capsule. Production
r a t e s i n c r e a s e during 1964 and the e a r l y p a r t of 1965, with a m a x i m u m
production of 26 units ( s t a g e s or payloads) p e r month in August 1965 and
a g r a d u a l d e c r e a s e i n production through 1966 and the f i r s t half of 1967.
During the e n t i r e p r o g r a m until D e c e m b e r 1967 t h e r e will be a total of
820 units shipped f r o m t h e United States.

Ground support equipment and vehicle s p a r e p a r t s can be t r a n s p o r t e d


initially (one t i m e lift) on a g e n e r a l c a r g o ship. Resupply, comprising
low weight and volume components, will, in all probability, be on an
emergency b a s i s . A i r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n w i l l be n e c e s s a r y .

P r o g r a m m e d v e s s e l sailings will support the e s t i m a t e d monthly


a d m i n i s t r a t i v e tonnage r e q u i r e m e n t s of 2 5 , 0 0 0 s h o r t tons general
c a r g o and 5, 5 0 0 , 0 0 0 gallons of miscellaneous p e t r o l e u m products. This
general c a r g o will b e required on s i t e beginning A p r i l 1964.

Movement of p e r s o n n e l by water is contemplated only for unskilled


and s e m i - skilled type personnel, Dependent s could be scheduled with
t h e s e movements.
b. A i r T r a n s p o r t a t i o n

Scheduled and s p e c i a l m i s s i o n airkift will b e u t i l i z e d f o r


p r i o r i t y m o v e m e n t s of c a r g o and personnel. C a r g o will include
e m e r g e n c y resupply of p a r t s f o r the s p a c e v e h i c l e s and ground
support equipment. In addition, all components of the l u n a r payload
will be p r o g r a m m e d for air movement.

c. F a c i l i t y and Equipment R e q u i r e m e n t s

United S t a t e s f a c i l i t i e s w i l l not be d i s c u s s e d s i n c e existing


s u r f a c e and a e r i a l p o r t s of e m b a r k a t i o n a r e capable of handling the
p e r s o n n e l and tonnage r e q u i r e m e n t s .

Existing s u r f a c e c a r r i e r s such a s LSD's o r e s c o r t a i r c r a f t


c a r r i e r s a r e capable, with modifications, of t r a n s p o r t i n g t h e s p a c e
vehicle sections. However, it i s felt that v e s s e l s capable of speed
of approximately 30 knots, w i l l be d e s i r a b l e s i n c e all o t h e r s p a c e p r o -
g r a m s i n the n o r m a l c o u r s e of p r o g r e s s w i l l r e q u i r e v e h i c l e s of
c o m p a r a b l e s i z e.

The w a t e r t e r m i n a l on s i t e will be capable of d i s c h a r g i n g two


ocean going v e s s e l s simultaneously a t a p i e r 9 0 feet wide and 500 feet
wide and 500 feet long. T h e p i e r will s e r v e a dual p u r p o s e , i. e . ,
handling freight and p a s s e n g e r s . A p e t r o l e u m p r o d u c t s wharf 40 f e e t
wide, and 300 feet long w i l l accommodate ocean going t a n k e r s . W h a r f s
will be available t o handle peak period tonnages and double as n o r m a l
explosive unloading points. The channel w i l l be 35 feet d e e p and 200
feet wide; and a p r o t e c t e d d e e p w a t e r a n c h o r a g e will b e provided.

A segregation and t e m p o r a r y s t o r a g e a r e a to handle c a r g o


moving into and out of the p o r t i s r e q u i r e d . The r o a d - n e t connecting
t h e t e r m i n a l f a c i l i t i e s with the launch c o m p l e x w i l l provide n e c e s s a r y
o v e r h e a d and side c l e a r a n c e s for the vehicle s e c t i o n s ,

A i r t e r m i n a l will be a m o d e r n facility capable of handling


the l a r g e s t existing (1964) type c a r g o and p a s s e n g e r a i r c r a f t .

F a c i l i t i e s and equipment for adm,inistrative m o t o r v e h i c l e


support, receiving and shipping of f r e i g h t and p e r s o n a l p r o p e r t y ,
p a s s e n g e r t r a v e l and aviation support within the s u p p o r t complex w i l l
b e provided a13a n o r m a l operational function. ..

239
D. MOVEMENT CONTROL

T h e p r e s e n t s y s t e m of movement c o n t r o l is adequate for shippments


of c o n s t r u c t i o n , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and l o g i s t i c a l support tonnages. The
n e e d for speed and a c c u r a c y i n the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n of the s p a c e vehicles,
v e h i c l e s p a r e p a r t s , ground support equipment and components of the
l u n a r payload is r e a d i l y a p p a r e n t considering t h e m i s s i o n and individual
i t e m c o s t . A modified T r a n s p o r t a t i o n I n t e g r a t e d P r o c e s s i n g S y s t e m
would f i l l t h e need for expedited and controlled m o v e m e n t s utilizing
s p e c i a l p u r p o s e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n equipment to the m a x i m u m .

E. PERSONNEL AND ADMINISTRATI ON

P r o j e c t HORIZON p r e s e n t s unique r e q u i r e m e n t s in m a t t e r s of
p e r s o n n e l a n d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n j u s t a s m u c h a s it does in t h e technical
a s p e c t s of r e s e a r c h , development o r o p e r a t i o n s . Among t h e m a r e
novel s k i l l s and backgrounds, b r o a d r e q u i r e m e n t s for additional a c q u i r e d
qualifications o r c a p a b i l i t i e s , and p e r s o n n e l m a n a g e m e n t p r o c e d u r e s
designed to g e n e r a t e and implement selection p r o c e d u r e s and m a i n t a i n
. c l o s e c o n t r o l o v e r v e r y special p e r s o n n e l r e s o u r c e s . The p e r s o n n e l
p r o c e d u r e s r e q u i r e d m u s t m e s h s o c l o s e l y and a c t i v e l y with t r a i n i n g
a c t i v i t i e s t h a t i t is difficult to d i s c u s s t h e m s e p a r a t e l y .

Examination of p e r s o n n e l qualification r e q u i r e m e n t s , which will b e


d i s c u s s e d l a t e r , l e a d s t o recognition of r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r e a r l y
s e l e c t i o n , continuous p r o j e c t a s s o c i a t i o n , lengthy t r a i n i n g c o n c u r r e n t
with R & D e f f o r t s , and rotation of p e r s o n n e l a s s i g n m e n t s within the
activity.

A s p r e v i o u s l y noted, a full r a n g e of technical staffing and support


i s r e q u i r e d . However, s p e c i a l s p a c e - p e c u l i a r operational r e q u i r e m e n t s
e x i s t and m u s t b e c l e a r l y identified and t r e a t e d in f u t u r e planning
documents. It m u s t be recognized t h a t all planning f a c t o r s for an
o p e r a t i o n of t h i s magnitude and significance a r e not f i r m , p a r t i c u l a r l y
d u r i n g t h e e a r l y s t a g e s of feasibility d e m o n s t r a t i o n and f o r the
o p e r a t i o n a l as opposed to the purely technical.

At l e a s t in t h e e a r l y s t a g e s of operation of the o r b i t a l station and


t h e l u n a r outpost, a different staffing p a t t e r n will prevail. Individuals
m u s t h a v e a wide range of c a r e f u l l y s e l e c t e d s k i l l s . While t h i s p o s e s
n o i n s u r m o u n t a b l e p r o b l e m s , it d o e s r e q u i r e v e r y c a r e f u l cocrdination
in all p h a s e s of o p e r a t i o n f r o m f i r s t Concept approval until expansion
of o p e r a t i o n s to a considerable d e g r e e a t some yet undetermined date,

240
_____2__
One of the m o s t important non-technical qualifications is p r o p e r
motivation. It is c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the vision t b s e e the i m p o r t a n c e and
significance of t h i s operation, the d e s i r e to p a r t i c i p a t e and to contribute
and the m o r a l courage t o s u s t a i n the individual in those objectives.
Closely r e l a t e d t o the l a t t e r a r e the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of self- confidence
and confidence in the feasibility, desirability, and attainability of p r o -
j e c t objectives. All individuals m u s t have s o m e of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s
of t h e e x p l o r e r , the a d v e n t u r e r , and the inventor m a n i f e s t e d by the d e s i r e
to convert the unknown t o the known, to accomplish for t h e satisfaction
of accomplishment. Conversely, t h e r e a r e motivation f a c t o r s to be
avoided. Among t h e m a r e egotistic d r i v e , thrill seeking, d e s i r e for
p e r s o n a l publicity,and evasion of social responsibility. ,

Another operational r e q u i r e m e n t which a l s o affects both personnel


a s s i g n m e n t p r o c e d u r e s and motivation is that all personnel have a
b r o a d background of knowledge and understanding of -11 a s p e c t s of t h i s
n a t i o n ' s space efforts including development, h i s t o r y , objectives,
p r o b l e m s , etc.

1. P r o j e c t Management

P e r s o n n e l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e planning f o r p r o j e c t management


organization m u s t be undertaken e a r l y in the p r o g r a m . Initial planning
m u s t be generated and executed in careful detail because i t i s c r i t i c a l
in its effect on all other operations. It m u s t cover the e n t i r e project-
p e c u l i a r personnel and administration requirement project-wide not
j u s t within the management s t r u c t u r e . See g e n e r a l d i s c u s s i o n s above
and training discussions below, f o r implications which r e a c h a c r o s s
the e n t i r e project s t r u c t u r e .

A s soon a s p r a c t i c a b l e , the management s t r u c t u r e m u s t be


activated and s t a r t to a s s u m e personnel planning responsibility on a
carefully phased b a s i s .

P e r s o n n e l assigned t o overall management h e a d q u a r t e r s and to


any immediate subordinate United States Agency which have a m a j o r
m i s s i o n in planning o r conducting significant p a r t s of t h i s operation
m u s t have a r a t h e r broad, comprehensive background in planning l a r g e
operations. This experience m u s t be a s s o c i a t e d with considerable back-
g r s u n d knowledge of a l l national efforts in r e s e a r c h and development,
planning, unit activation, t r a i n i n g and deployment of m i s s i l e s ,

241
P r o j e c t r e q u i r e m e n t s should be governing in determination of
lengths of t o u r s of duty. T h e r e i s sufficient latitude within t h e project
to.account f o r a reasonable amount of change of a s s i g n m e n t s , including
o v e r s e a s duty. F o r p u r p o s e s of increasing individual qualifications and
providing a b r o a d e r base of personnel r e s o u r c e s , personnel m u s t be
t r a n s f e r r e d between r e s e a r c h and development a n d operational assign-
ments. Some qualification r e q u i r e m e n t s can be m e t in no o t h e r way.

The effect of project r e q u i r e m e n t s w i l l not be alone t o lengthen


t o u r s of duty. It m a y , i n f a c t , c r e a t e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r many s h o r t
t o u r s of duty to permit personnel to a c q u i r e all of the basic qualifica-
' tions r e q u i r e d .

2. T e r r e s t r i a l Launch Site

P e r s o n n e l and administrative management r e q u i r e m e n t s at the


t e r r e s t r i a l launch site will be a major operation somewhat different in
scope a n d n a t u r e to that found anywhere e l s e in the project. It involves
support of t h e R&D and operational organizations of t h e m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e s ,
c o n t r a c t o r s , o r other d e p a r t m e n t s of government, including all of the
community s e r v i c e s which fall normally i n the personnel and
a d m i n i s t r a t i v e staff a r e a of i n t e r e s t . Details m u s t await m o r e com-
prehensive planning.

P r o j e c t - o r i e p t e d personnel operating at t h i s station w i l l have


r e q u i r e m e n t s for m o r e specialized qualifications. F o r example,
p e r s o n n e l who launch operational vehicles m u s t b e highly qualified in
all of the v a r i o u s technical skills r e q u i r e d for m i s s i l e servicing, check-
out, and firing.

P e r s o n n e l involved in final p r o c e s s i n g of p a s s e n g e r personnel


f o r e i t h e r the orbital station o r the l u n a r outpost m u s t have a wide
range of professional medical qualifications, specifically oriented in
t h e i r application to the psychological and physiological p r o b l e m s of
p r e - d e p a r t u r e isolation/quarantine a n d space t r a v e l . Approximately
two hundred personnel highly skilled in sub-professional, clinical, and
medical technology a r e required in a specialized organization, Medical
L u n a r Staging Pavilion, t o support d i r e c t l y the professional medical
effort in maintaining complete, individual, medical monitoring of all
p a s s e n g e r personnel.

Approximately 175 personnel involved in payload packaging and


p r e p a r a t i o n must have a wide range of skills. For example, t h e i r skill8
m u s t vary f r o m a knowledge of rocket engineering sufficient to p e r m i t
a n operational understanding of effect of payload on rocket d y n a m i c s to
sufficient m e d i c a l o r public health type knowledge to u n d e r s t a n d and
implement the sterilization requirements for space vehicles.

In view of the multitude of p o s s i b l e applications of the t e r r e s t r i a l


launch s i t e t o s p a c e , and possibly n o n - s p a c e , a c t i v i t i e s onl? g r o s s
e s t i m a t e s of p r o j e c t - p e c u l i a r p e r s o n n e l r e q u i r e m e n t s m a y b e m a d e a t
t h i s t i m e . A total of ten thousand a p p e a r s to b e a r e a s o n a b l e g r o s s
e s t i m a t e of totab r e q u i r e m e n t s . Of this t o t a l , p e r h a p s twenty-five
hundred a r e expected to be uniquely qualified p e r s o n n e l involved in .
technical o p e r a t i o n s . The r e m a i n d e r a r e involved in community,
a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o r logistic s u p p o r t o r in t a c t i c a l defense ope r a t i o n s .
R e a l i s t i c a t t r i t i o n r a t e s and r e p l a c e m e n t f a c t o r s a r e not p r e d i c t a b l e a t
t h i s t i m e . In addition to n o r m a l a t t r i t i o n , f a c t o r s such as o p e r a t i o n a l
t r a n s f e r s t o other p r o j e c t - o r i e n t e d a s s i g n m e n t s or to other s p a c e
m i s s i o n s will affect s t r e n g t h s and r e q u i r e m e n t s .

3. O r b i t a l Station

Although the g e n e r a l applications of the o r b i t a l station are


expected to expand with i n c r e a s e d sophistication and technical capability
t o support and s u s t a i n o t h e r o p e r a t i o n s , both p r o j e c t - o r i e n t e d and non-
p r o j e c t o r i e n t e d , d i s c u s s i o n of p e r s o n n e l r e q u i r e m e n t s will b e r e s t r i c t e d
f o r t h e p r e s e n t to those which a r e m i n i m u m - e s s e n t i a l p r o j e c t o r i e n t e d .
Qualitatively, t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s a r e not expected to v a r y s e r i o u s l y
r e g a r d l e s s of whether the o r b i t a l station is m i n i m u m - e s s e n t i a l or
fully-operational. Quantiatively, the r e q u i r e m e n t s will v a r y with e i t h e r
i n c r e a s e d station sophistication and gene ral applicability o r i n c r e a s e s
in n u m b e r s of o r b i t a l stations.

B a s i c qualifications and n u m e r i c a l r e q u i r e m e n t s for a m i n i m u m -


e s s e n t i a l o r b i t a l t e a m a r e given below in T a b l e II-29:

TABLE 11- 29
ORBITAL C R E W
PRIMARY SKILL REQUIREMENTS . 1 ,

SPECIALTY NUMBER : ,.
1. Vehicle C o n t r o l l e r , 2 ?, \.- ’
2. Medical Doctor 1 , - .
I
1
.
~

3. Mechanical Engineer 3 .
4. E l e c t r i c a l Engineer 2 ( I 1
* I

5. Communications Engineer - 1 _.
6 . Rocket E n g i n e e r -1
TOTAL 10
243
The a c a d e m i c r e q u i r e m e n t s for both the o r b i t a l and the lunar
g r o u p s include a u n i v e r s i t y d e g r e e in t h e specialty o r p r i m a r y skill
involved. S e v e r a l y e a r s of p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e , a t a r e a s o n a b l e
technical l e v e l , a r e a l s o r e q u i r e d in t h a t field. T h e combination of
t h e s e selection c r i t e r i a is expected to f a c i l i t a t e c r o s s - t r a i n i n g in r e -
l a t e d s k i l l s . O r a l a n d / o r w r i t t e n t e s t s must be developed and u s e d t o
v e r i f y technical qualifications and capacity to a b s o r b s a t i s f a c t o r i l y
r e q u i r e d c r o s s -training.

P h y s i c a l s e l e c t i o n c r i t e r i a a r e m o r e c r i t i c a l for the o r b i t a l and


the lunar g r o u p s than for #other e l e m e n t s of the p r o j e c t . E a c h s e l e c t e e
m u s t be m e d i c a l l y sound, a l e r t and intelligent, with d e m o n s t r a t e d
physical s t a m i n a and emotional stability. N o m e n t a l m a l a d j u s t m e n t
o r physical m a l f o r m a t i o n capable of producing a functional handicap is
tolerable.

Other p r i m a r y selection c r i t e r i a which apply t o both o r b i t a l and


l u n a r follow:

General - T r a i n e d i n and a m e n a b l e t o group


di s cipline
Marital status - Immaterial

Religious s t a t u s - A t o l e r a n t attitude toward a l l beliefs

Sex - Male

Age - 21 t o 45 y e a r s

Height - Not m o r e ’ t h a n s i x feet

Weight - Not m o r e than 185 pounds

The d u r a t i o n of tour of the o r b i t a l p e r s o n n e l on s t a t i o n is


e s t i m a t e d to b e two months initially. T h i s tour will be followed b y a
six-month t e r r e s t r i a l t o u r . D u r i n g that t i m e , t h e r e will be s o m e l o s s e s
in t o t a l effective c r e w s t r e n g t h due t o s u c h things a s l e a v e o r m e d i c a l ,
r e q u i r e m e n t s . However, the personnel will be u s e d effectively on
p r o j e c t - o r i e n t e d d u t i e s such a s active o r consultant s e r v i c e in:
equipment design or operational c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , p e r s o n a l equipment
r e q u i r e m e n t s , and t r a i n i n g of new personnel. In t i m e , t h e i r s k i l l s
a c q u i r e d d u r i n g o p e r a t i o n s will become p e r s o n n e l a s s e t s i n two s p e c i f i c
ways; rotation t o r e t u r n t o u r s a t the o r b i t a l station o r t r a n s f e r t o l u n a r
outpost duti e s .
244
In o r d e r to m e e t m i n i m u m rotation r e q u i r e m e n t s , four s u c h
c r e w s m u s t be maintained at full s t r e n g t h and engaged in o p e r a t i o n s
o r t r a i n i n g a t a l l t i m e s except for a b s e n c e s s u c h a s n o r m a l l e a v e . If
the m o r a l e h a z a r d of e a r l y r e t u r n to o r b i t b e c o m e s a p r o b l e m , m o r e
c r e w s will b e r e q u i r e d t o account f o r n o r m a l a t t r i t i o n o r o p e r a t i o n a l
transfer s .
4. L u n a r Outpost

Common p e r s o n n e l qualifications which apply to both the o r b i t a l


station and the l u n a r outpost a r e d i s c u s s e d in the foregoing u n d e r
o r b i t a l station.

T h e l u n a r outpost evolves in d i s t i n c t p h a s e s which d i r e c t l y


affect p e r s o n n e l qualification r e q u i r e m e n t s . F i g u r e 11-74 identifies
t h e p h a s e s and t h e i r l e n g t h s . F i g u r e 11-75 identifies individual b a s i c
s k i l l r e q u i r e m e n t s consistent with F i g . 11-74, F i g u r e 11-75 e s t a b l i s h e s
d e p a r t u r e d a t e s and lengths of t o u r s of individuals a t t h e l u n a r outpost.
It a l s o e s t a b l i s h e s total t i m e - p h a s e d p e r s o n n e l r e q u i r e m e n t s a t the
l u n a r outpost. A n a r r a t i v e s u m m a r y of t h e information on t h o s e
f i g u r e s follows.

The life s u p p o r t , exploration and s i t e s e l e c t i o n phase will r e q u i r e


two m e n . T h e i r m i s s i o n s a r e environmental s u r v i v a l , d a t a g a t h e r i n g , .
e s t a b l i s h m e n t of cominunication t o e a r t h , exploration for confirmation
of information previously g a t h e r e d and p e r m a n e n t s i t e selection. T h e y
m u s t have the capability of e m e r g e n c y r e t u r n t o e a r t h . T h e i r p r i m a r y
p r o f e s s i o n a l qualifications should be m e d i c i n e and r o c k e t engineering.

The initial c o n s t r u c t i o n c r e w r e q u i r e s nine p e r s o n n e l d u r i n g


the e a r l y c o n s t r u c t i o n phase. They a r e qualified i n c o n s t r u c t i o n ,
m e c h a n i c a l , e l e c t r i c a l , and communications engineering and' a s t r o p h y s i c s .
During t h i s phase which will l a s t up t o 18 m o n t h s , the number of
p e r s o n n e l on s i t e w i l l i n c r e a s e to a total of 12.

An additional expansion, construction, indu str ial ization pha 6 e


i s r e q u i r e d to add more meaningful capabilitiea a t acceptable c o s t .
Detailed d i s c u s s i o n of t h i s p h a s e i s beyond the s c o p e of this study.
' However, it should b e noted t h a t p e r s o n n e l selection and m a n a g e m e n t
r e q u i r e m e n t s w i l l b e no l e s s c r i t i c a l during t h i s phase.

The t o u r of duty a t the l u n a r outpost will v a r y f r o m 3 t o 12


months. T h i s is a tentative conclusion b a s e d in p a r t upon vehicle

245
OUTPOST PHASES
1965 1966 1967 I
LIFE SUPPORT, EXPLORATION
SITE SELECTION

CONSTRUCT IO N

OPER AT10 N A L
OC C U PANCY

EXPANSION, CONSTRUCTION
IN DUSTR l ALl ZATl ON

Fig. 11-74 Outpost Phases


PRELIM MARY PERSONNEL SCHEDULE
1965 1966 I 1967 I

MEDICAL

G E N E R A L ENGR
MECH E N G R A
MECH E N G R B
CONST ENGR R
CONST ENGR 8
ELEC ENGR A
1
ELEC ENGR B
ASTROPHYSICIST
COM M ENGR
PROJ OFFICER

CH E MOP HY S i Ct ST

ASTRONOMER

BIOLOGIST
I I I I I t
TOTAL MAN POWER

Fig. 11-75 Preliminary Personnel Schedule


availability data and schedules. Ultimate d e t e r m i n a t i o n of m a x i m u m
length of t o u r m a y be psycho-physiological dependent.

The total p e r s o n n e l dispatched t o the l u n a r outpost through 1967


will be approximately 42. Selection and t r a i n i n g of sufficient p e r s o n n e l
t o a c c o u n t f o r a t t r i t i o n will i n c r e a s e this r e q u i r e m e n t ,

F. OPERATIONS AND TRAINING

Operational a s s i g n m e n t and t r a i n i n g of p e r s o n n e l will p o s e s p e c i a l


r e q u i r e m e n t s on p l a n n e r s of all f a c e t s of this operation. Special
p e r s o n n e l management p r o c e d u r e s w i l l be r e q u i r e d t o i n s u r e the
development of sufficient background knowledge by all o p e r a t i o n a l
personnel. V e r y stringent training r e q u i r e m e n t s apply t o all echelons
of t h e proposed p r o j e c t f r o m the top m a n a g e m e n t to the l u n a r outpost.
With the specific a s s i g n m e n t , they v a r y in tim'e available and r e q u i r e d .
To i n s u r e e a r l y r e l e a s e of highly qualified R & D p e r s o n n e l f o r m o r e
advanced p r o j e c t s , application of b e s t qualified p e r s o n n e l t o training
e f f o r t s , and a broadened b a s e of operational capability, p e r s o n n e l
a c t i v e l y engaged i n the t e c h n i c a l e f f o r t s which p r e c e d e a t t a i n m e n t of
o p e r a t i o n a l capability will have t r a i n i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of v a r i o u s
type 8 .

F r o m g r o s s e s t i m a t e s of organizational, p e r s o n n e l and facility


r e q u i r e m e n t s , a detailed, coordinated plan of p r o j e c t - p e c u l i a r o r g a n i -
z a t i o n a l a c t i v a t i o n s , personnel a s s i g n m e n t s , and s p e c i a l i z e d t r a i n i n g
s c h e c u l e s m u s t b e evolved. E a r l y activation and o r d e r l y evolution of
the a c t u a l operational organizations will contribute to t h i s end.

Immediately a f t e r p r o j e c t a p p r o v a l , it will be n e c e s s a r y to s t a r t
s e l e c t i o n and a s s i g n m e n t of personnel to initial c a d r e o r g a n i z a t i o n s ,
O t h e r s m u s t be s t a r t e d on a logical s e r i e s of a s s i g n m e n t s leading
probably to complete individual c a r e e r p a t t e r n s . All p e r s o n n e l will
r o t a t e through some of t h e s e a s s i g n m e n t s during the p r e - o p e r a t i o n a l
p h a s e . T h e rotation a f f e c t s and includes o v e r s e a s a s s i g n m e n t s a s
well a s t h o s e in the United States. It m u s t b e the p a t t e r n f o r initial
a c t i v a t i o n and continued operation of t h e o v e r s e a s e q u a t o r i a l launch
site. Undoubtedly, i t will be n e c e s s a r y t o v a r y the length of individual
t o u r s of duty to a c c o m p l i s h the n e c e s s a r y depth in background t r a i n i n g ,
F o r t u n a t e l y , t h i s m a y b e applied r a t h e r e a s i l y in all e a r t h - b a s e d
organizational e l e m e n t s . However, c r i t i c a l technical s k i l l s a n d
t r a i n i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s govern the manning of t h e o r b i t a l s t a t i o n and t h e
lunar outpost.
243
zc_
A s e c o n d s p e c i a l r e q u i r e m e n t will b e for s e l e c t e d t r a i n i n g of
p e r s o n n e l a l r e a d y qualified i n one s p e c i a l t y , in one o r m o r e o t h e r
s p e c i a l t i e s a t u n i v e r i s i t y o r college l e v e l , o r in t e c h n i c a l o r t r a d e
school work. T h i s type t r a i n i n g is a s p e c i f i c r e q u i r e m e n t f o r the
o r b i t a l s t a t i o n and f o r the l u n a r outpost w h e r e m a x i m u m b r e a d t h and
o v e r l a p i n c a p a b i l i t i e s i s r e q u i r e d i n a m i n i m u m n u m b e r of p 6 r s o n n e l .
T h i s t r a i n i n g m u s t b e p r o j e c t o r i e n t e d a n d not follow s e t a c a d e m i c
patterns.

A t h i r d type of t r a i n i n g , which will supplement t h a t d i s c u s s e d above,


m a y b e a c c o m p l i s h e d b y using t h e p e r s o n n e l s e l e c t e d for t h e o r b i t a l
s t a t i o n and t h e l u n a r outpost a s i n s t r u c t o r p e r s o n n e l for c r o s s - t r a i n i n g
p u r p o s e s in both t h e o r e t i c a l a n d p r a c t i c a l w o r k in the l a t t e r p a r t of t h e
t r a i n i n g cycle. T h i s p r o c e d u r e c o n t r i b u t e s not only t o t r a i n i n g but a l s o
t o development of individual t e a m s , c o l l e c t i v e t e a m w o r k , f u r t h e r
p e r s o n n e l s e l e c t i v i t y , m u t u a l confidence, e c o n o m y , a n d s u r v e i l l a n c e
and judgment of t r a i n i n g p r o g r e s s .

A fourth t y p e of t r a i n i n g which r e q u i r e s s p e c i d i z e d c o n s i d e r a t i o n
f o r t h i s operation i s that of physical f i t n e s s . Civilian o r m i l i t a r y
f a c i l i t i e s can be u s e d f o r t h i s t r a i n i n g .

A fifth t y p e of t r a i n i n g c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o that d i s c u s s e d above is


e n v i r o n m e n t a l t r a i n i n g . T h i s i s the t r a i n i n g which m u s t a s n e a r l y a s
p o s s i b l e adapt the p e r s o n n e l s e l e c t e d for t h e o r b i t a l s t a t i o n and t h e
lunar outpost t o e n v i r o n m e n t a l condit.ions which t h e y will e n c o u n t e r .
Medical p e r s o n n e l will have a m a j o r r o l e , p e r h a p s o v e r a l l r e s p o n s i b i l t y ,
b e c a u s e of the i m p o r t a n c e of both psychological a n d physiological con-
citioning and adaptation. H o w e v e r , an e s s e n t i a l e l e m e n t of t h i s t r a i n i n g
i s involved in the man- equipment relationship. R e g a r d l e s s of what
o t h e r e n v i r o n m e n t a l l a b o r a t o r y equipment m a y be developed, t h e
p e r s o n n e l m u s t t r a i n with e v e r y i t e m of equipment t h a t t h e y will u s e .
during s p a c e o p e r a t i o n s . T h e r e f o r e , e a c h t e c h n i c a l s e r v i c e which
f u r n i s h e s equipment has a p a r t t o play in the conduct of t r a i n i n g .

A facet of e n v i r o n m e n t a l a n d equipment t r a i n i n g which r e q u i r e s


s p e c i a l mention is t h a t of the r o c k e t v e h i c l e s , p e r s o n n e l c o m p a r t m e n t s ,
s p a c e clothing and all a s p e c t s of t h e i r o p e r a t i o n . It m u s t b e a function
of t h e R & D o r g a n i z a t i o n ( s ) t o conduct t h i s p a r t i c u l a r p a r t of t h e t r a i n i n g .
To t h e p e r s o n n e l who a c t u a l l y o p e r a t e i n t h e o r b i t a l s t a t i o n o r the l u n a r
, ' ,
outpost t h i s t r a i n i n g contact w i l l add to a confidence f a c t o r .

249
When viewed jointly with t h e organizational a n d o p e r a t i o n a l con-
c e p t s previously e x p r e s s e d , i t can be s e e n that t h i s t r a i n i n g r e q u i r e -
m e n t of c o n s i d e r a b l e scope and magnitude i s not n e c e s s a r i l y c h a r g e a b l e
t o the subject o p e r a t i o n alone. The total effect of the i n t e g r a t e d o p e r a -
tion i s t o provide a growing, r e t a i n e d , national a s s e t which t o a c e r t a i n
extent i s s e l f - a m o r t i z i n g .

1. P r o j e c t Management

As was noted in the foregoing d i s c u s s i o n of P e r s o n n e l and


A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , a b o v e , the s e p a r a t i o n of d i s c u s s i o n s of p e r s o n n e l
qualifications and t r a i n i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s i s m o s t difficult in unique
o p e r a t i o n s . In f a c t , f r o m the d i s c u s s i o n s of qualifications .of
p e r s o n n e l r e q u i r e d to staff the p r o j e c t office, the i n f e r e n c e m a y b e
d r a w n that to the m a x i m u m extent p o s s i b l e they m u s t be s e l e c t e d upon
t h e b a s i s of e x p e r i e n c e o r previously a c q u i r e d f o r m a l o r on-the-job
training.

Screening and tentative selection of p e r s o n n e l f o r a s s i g n m e n t s


to a l l p r o j e c t a c t i v i t i e s m u s t begin i m m e d i a t e l y upon p r o j e c t approval.
Initial a s s i g n m e n t p a t t e r n s for a n indefinite period m u s t b e e s t a b l i s h e d
i m m e d i a t e l y t h e r e a f t e r . T r a i n i n g a s s i g n m e n t s t o i n c r e a s e background
knowledge m u s t b e a p a r t of t h e p a t t e r n . To a c o n s i d e r a b l e extent
such assignments may also serve to meet current requirements.

Specialized s p a c e t r a i n i n g m u s t be initiated in a m a n n e r s i m i l a r
t o t h a t by which the m i l i t a r y d e p a r t m e n t s a c c o r d e d recognition t o the
r e q u i r e m e n t f o r guided m i s s i l e i n s t r u c t i o n y e a r s ago. T h u s , the
p a t t e r n will be s e t for m e e t i n g follow-on r e q u i r e m e n t s a f t e r initial
s e l e c t i o n and training of p e r s o n n e l , This p a t t e r n will contribute to the
e a r l y attainment of t h e objective that p r o j e c t management a s s u m e full
r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r operations and training.

2. T e r r e s t r i a l Launch Site

Some of the d i s c u s s i o n s u n d e r the foregoing, apply a l s o t o the


t r a i n i n g r e q u i r e m e n t f o r operational launch s i t e p e r s o n n e l ,

Maximum u s e m a y b e m a d e of existing s e r v i c e schools and


c o n t r a c t o r s ' c o u r s e s in training the personnel and units r e s p o n s i b l e
f o r vehicle s e r v i c i n g , checkout, and launching. T h i s will s a v e t i m e a n d
provide previously t r a i n e d school i n s t r u c t o r s o r c a d r e p e r s o n n e l for
o p e r a t i o n a l organizations. The a s s o c i a t i o n will contribute t o r e l i a b i l i t y

2.50
---
of t h e man-equipment t e a m in actual o p e r a t i o n s . T h o s e r e s p o n s i b l e
f o r development of unique functions, f a c i l i t i e s , equipment o r p r o c e d u r e s
will b e d i r e c t l y involved in the t r a i n i n g of p e r s o n n e l i n t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n s .

3. O r b i t a l Station

T r a i n i n g of the o r b i t a l station c r e w is a m o r e comple2 t a s k


than that of t r a i n i n g the t e r r e s t r i a l launch s i t e p e r s o n n e l . T h i s i s d u e
t o the fact that in o r d e r t o have all the s k i l l s r e q u i r e d to a c c o m p l i s h
t h e i r m i s s i o n s , a l i m i t e d n u m b e r of p e r s o n n e l m u s t have e x t e n s i v e
c r o s s - t r a i n i n g , both a c a d e m i c and p r a c t i c a l , beyond t h e i r p r i m a r y
skills.

P r i m a r y s k i l l s w e r e l i s t e d previously a s p e r s o n n e l s e l e c t i o n
c r i t e r i a . Some r e t r a i n i n g m a y b e r e q u i r e d i n p r i m a r y s k i l l s . H o w e v e r ,
m a j o r t r a i n i n g e m p h a s i s m u s t be applied t o c r o s s - t r a i n i n g and t o
development of collective t e a m w o r k and mutual confidence,

An indication of the extent of a c a d e m i c c r o s s - training r e q u i r e -


m e n t s i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n Fig. 11-76. The fact that the r e q u i r e m e n t s m a y
v a r y depending upon previous qualifications and the m a n n e r i n which
p e r s o n n e l a r e a s s i g n e d to t e a m s i s recognized.

To the m a x i m u m extent p r a c t i c a b l e , the o r b i t a l s t a t i o n c r e w


m u s t u n d e r g o p r a c t i c a l training. Except for z e r o - g r a v i t y t r a i n i n g for
o r b i t a l p e r s o n n e l and l u n a r equipment t r a i n i n g for the outpost p e r s o n n e l
m u c h of the p r a c t i c a l environmental training m a y b e conducted j o i n t l y
o r in the s a m e f a c i l i t i e s . F o r convenience, a typical selection-to-
d e p a r t u r e t r a i n i n g cycle f o r both c r e w s will be d i s c u s s e d in 5 below.

4. L u n a r Outpost

F o r the s a m e r e a s o n s a s w e r e d i s c u s s e d f o r t h e o r b i t a l c r e w ,
t h e r e a r e r e q u i r e m e n t s for extensive a c a d e m i c and p r a c t i c a l c r o s s -
t r a i n i n g of all l u n a r outpost p e r s o n n e l .

Both p r i m a r y skill and c r o s s - t r a i n i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s a r e shown


on Fig. 11-77. The e a r l y r e q u i r e m e n t s shown on F i g , 11-77 a r e s i m i l a r
t o t h o s e shown on Fig. 11-76 f o r the o r b i t a l p e r s o n n e l . T h e s i m i l a r i t y
s u p p o r t s the p r e v i o u s l y s t a t e d conclusion that it i s f e a s i b l e and p r a c t i c -
a b l e to combine c e r t a i n of the t r a i n i n g for the two c r e w s . However,
i t should be noted that c e r t a i n of the outpost r e q u i r e m e n t s change w i t h
t i m e to m a t c h changing o p e r a t i o n s ; w h e r e a s , t h o s e of t h e o r b i t a l c r e w
remain m o r e nearly the s a m e .
--25L-----
I- PRIM SPECIALTY
VEHICLE A
C R O S S TRAINING

P
I MECH ENGR A I

I:
MECH ENGR B -
MECH ENGR C P S A P
I ELCT ENGR A I P S

I ROCKET ENGR I I s
PSYCH PHYSICS ASTR MAV MECH ELCT ELCT COMM RKTRY CONST
ENGR MECH ENGR
I ENGR

IN ADD TION,ALL CREW MEMBERS WOULD RECEIVE BASIC COURSES SUCH 1. GEN MED-
ICINE 2. COOKING 3.MATERIALS USE 4. PERSON TO PERSON COMM SETS 5. ENVIRON-
MENTA . SURVIVAL 6. O T H E R
S - SPECIALTY P-PRIMARY A -ADDITIONAL

F i g . LI-76 P r e l i m i n a r y O r b i t a l Tng. R e q u i r e m e n t s
PRELIMINARY OUTPOST TN G. REQUIREMENTS
*
I MEOtCAL I @ P P P P (T)T 'Q. (T>(T) T Ta-
GEN ENGR Z P V P P QlTT T P P TTTBCT) T
MECH ENGR CAI 3 T P P IT T@P P T T T@)T
.MECH ENGR CB) 4 T P P IT T @ P P T T T @ T
CONST ENGR(A1 5 T
- T T P @ T TF!@
CONST ENGR(B1 6 T T T P O T n 3@
: E L E C ENGF? (r 7 T P T T P B P P T T T
ELEC E N G R T 8 ) 8 _T,_P
-- T T P R P P T T T
ASTROPHYS~C~ST 9 TIP P
- P @ T T IT T T
COMM ENGR 10 T P I T T P P . T P '@-.T T

@, MAIN PROF ED NOTE: IN ADDITION, ALL CREW MEMBERS WOULD BE


p ADD PROF ED TRAINED IN 1. GENERAL MEDICINE 2.SURFACE VEHICLE
0 MAIN TNG
DRIVING 3. COOKING 4. OTHER
T ADD TNG
m) 1st MED ONLY

Fig. XI-77. P r e l i m i n a r y Outpost Tng. Requirements


T h e r e is a r e q u i r e m e n t for p r a c t i c a l t r a i n i n g t o include t h e
e r e c t i o n and o p e r a t i o n of equipment u n d e r conditions a s n e a r l y as
p r a c t i c a b l e the s a m e a s t h o s e to be found on the l u n a r s u r f a c e . ,
F o r t u n a t e l y , m o s t of those conditions except prolonged e x p o s u r e to
l o w e r g r a v i t y conditions m a y be c l o s e l y a p p r o x i m a t e d . Weight of
p e r s o n a l equipment r e q u i r e d on the l u n a r s u r f a c e i s expected to
c o m p e n s a t e for much of that e f f e c t . M o r e d i s c u s s i o n on t h i s subject
m a y b e found in the d i s c u s s i o n s of a t y p i c a l o r b i t a l l u n a r t r a i n i n g cycle
in 5 below.

5. Typical T r a i n i n g Cycle - Orbital/Lunar

The training of the o r b i t a l and l u n a r c r e w w i l l be unique in


e v e r y r e s p e c t . It i s expected that a typical t r a i n i n g cycle will consume
a p p r o x i m a t e l y four y e a r s f r o m selection to d e p a r t u r e . A s the l u n a r
outpost b e c o m e s operational and the p e r s o n n e l a s s i g n e d b e c o m e m o r e
s p e c i a l i z e d due to the l a r g e r n u m b e r s a c t u a l l y located at t h e outpost,
it i s anticipated that the length of a typical t r a i n i n g cycle will r e d u c e .
In t h e i n t e r i m , additional personnel m u s t be e n t e r i n g training e v e r y
60 t o 9 0 d a y s in o r d e r to maintain a n available pool of c r e w men. F i g u r e
11-78 r e p r e s e n t s a n e s t i m a t e of the t i m e r e q u i r e m e n t s for the e a r l y
typical t r a i n i n g cycle. E a c h period of the cycle i s d i s c u s s e d of
supporting facility r e q u i r e m e n t s .

I m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r selection, p e r s o n n e l of the o r b i t a l and l u n a r


c r e w s w i l l undergo m e d i c a l p r e p a r a t i o n which m a y r e q u i r e up to 3
months. During t h i s t i m e they w i l l b e given v e r y thorough physical
examinations. C o r r e c t i v e actions s u c h as r e m o v a l of appendix, r e m o v a l
of t o n s i l s , t r e a t m e n t o r r e m o v a l of h e m o r r h o i d s , h e r n i a l r e p a i r , com-
plete dental c o r r e c t i o n s , e t c . will be accomplished a s r e q u i r e d . S o m e
t i m e during t h i s or l a t e r training p h a s e s , p e r s o n n e l of both c r e w s m u s t
be given b a s i c but comprehensive m e d i c a l i n s t r u c t i o n which wi 11 qualify
t h e m to p e r f o r m e m e r g e n c y f i r s t aid in s p a c e environments.

T h e next s t e p in the training cycle i s environmental evaluation.


It is e s t i m a t e d t o r e q u i r e a p p r o x i m a t e l y 6 weeks. The t r a i n i n g and
evaluation will be conducted i n a high-altitude environment. Isolation
and e n d u r a n c e r e a c t i o n t e s t s will be a c c o m p l i s h e d . P h y s i c a l and
emontional s t a m i n a will b e evaluated u n d e r t h o s e conditions and final
s c r e e n i n g of p e r s o n n e l w i l l o c c u r p r i o r to proceeding to the next s t e p
in the t r a i n i n g cycle. S o m e of the m e d i c a l t r a i n i n g mentioned previously
m a y o c c u r d u r i n g t h i s p h a s e . The governing f a c t o r w i l l be facility
location which is d i s c u s s e d l a t e r .
TRAINING CYCLE

MEDICAL EXAM
8 PREPARATION. I '
ENV I R O N M E N T A L
E V A L U A T IO N

A C A D E M I C CROSS-
TRAINING

PRACTICAL
T R A I N ING

MEDICAL
I SO L A T I O N / F I N A L
TRAINING
I

QUARANTINE DEPARTURE

0246810 2 4 6 8 1 0 i2 4 6 8 1 0
I 2 3 4
YEAR YEARS YEARS YEARS
F i g . II-78. T r a i n i n g Cycle
The next step in the training cycle is a n extended period of
a c a d e m i c Cross-training. The re a r e v a r i o u s p r a c t i c a b l e ways t o
accomplish t h i s training. One concept would provide a c a d e m i c training
at selected educational institutions which have p r e p a r e d c o u r s e s
p a r t i c u l a r l y o r i e n t e d to the r e q u i r e m e n t s of t h i s operation. Another
concept would h a v e the personnel s e r v e as faculty m e m b e r s in their
r e s p e c t i v e specialities and teach t h e i r a s s o c i a t e s . Actually, both
concepts m a y b e u s e d t o s o m e extent. B e c a u s e of the amount of c r o s s -
training r e q u i r e d and the t i m e r e q u i r e d for t h e second concept the f i r s t
a p p e a r s m o r e a t t r a c t i v e for the training of e a r l y crews. As manning
l e v e l s in both c r e w s i n c r e a s e with enlarged operations, individual
c r o s s - t r a i n i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s may d e c r e a s e . The second concept then
a p p e a r s m o r e attractive. Being a l e a r n by doing approach, it should
provide s t r o n g motivation f o r r e t r a i n i n g in p r i m a r y specialities. The
second concept is a l s o a t t r a c t i v e in that it might p e r m i t consolidation
of m o r e t r a i n i n g activity in one place a s operations i n c r e a s e . It i s
a l s o a t t r a c t i v e during t h e isolation/quarantine period of this typical
training cycle b e c a u s e of the requirement for s t r i c t control of outside
contacts. In whatever combination the concepts a r e u s e d at a p a r t i c u l a r
t i m e , the objective i s the s a m e , qualification of a l l m e m b e r s of a c r e w
in all the disciplines deemed n e c e s s a r y in t h e i r individual assignments.
Individual qualifications a r e so developed that the b e s t integration into
effective t e a m s is feasible.

Academic c r o s s - t r a i n i n g is followed by a period of p r a c t i c a l


training. T e a m operations a r e emphasized during this period. Aca- .
d e m i c training will be applied t o practical w o r k under environmental
conditions which duplicate as closely a s possible those t o be found in
s p a c e , inclGding the lunar surface. Working a s a t e a m , all personnel
b e c o m e thoroughly f a m i l i a r w i t h and o p e r a t e all equipment to be u s e d
in space. Insofar as possible, the equipment i s used in t e a m duties
just a s it will b e u s e d in space.

For psychological r e a s o n s , the u s e of the space s u i t r e q u i r e s


special attention. All per s o m e 1 m u s t develop the highest confidence
in i t s capabilities. It will maintain internal t e m p e r a t u r e s and
a t m o s p h e r i c control for extended periods and permit e m e r g e n c y con-
sumption of food and drink and p e r f o r m a n c e of e s s e n t i a l body functions
without removal. At the s a m e t i m e , it will impose no prohibitive
r e s t r i c t i o n s on the movement of the w e a r e r .

Throughout t h i s period of training, R&D personnel must con-


tribute d i r e c t l y to thorough indoctrination regarding m a t e r i a l s ,

256
i i

I
I
e q u i p m e n t , p r o c e s s e s and p r o c e d u r e s which they have d e v e l o p e d .
While p a r t i c i p a t i n g in t h e t r a i n i n g a c t i v i t y , R & D p e r s o n n e l m u s t p e r -
form a final c h e c k on e q u i p m e n t d e s i g n and functioning, a n d i n i t i a t e
a c t i o n r e q u i r e d t o c o r r e c t a n y d e f i c i e n c i e s found.

Medical evaluation a n d t r a i n i n g i s a l s o continued t o i n c l u d e


p r a c t i c a l application under e n v i r o n m e n t a l conditions. T h e practical
m e d i c a l w o r k should c o n t r i b u t e to a d v a n c e m e n t of m e d i c a l knowledge
and t o a s s u r a n c e of s u c c e s s of t h e o p e r a t i o n f r o m the point of v i e w
of p e r s o n n e l p e r f o r m a n c e .

Throughout t h e t r a i n i n g c y c l e , c r e w p e r s o n n e l will b e m o n i t o r e d
m e d i c a l l y . They will b e given p e r i o d i c m e d i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n s to
d e t e r m i n e t h e i r physiological and psychological f i t n e s s f o r s p a c e duty.
During the final p h a s e s of t r a i n i n g p r i o r t o d e p a r t u r e f r o m e a r t h , t h e y
will b e i s o l a t e d m e d i c a l l y f o r a p e r i o d of 120 d a y s . The l a s t 30 d a y s of
t h i s p e r i o d will be in complete q u a r a n t i n e e x c e p t for c o n t a c t with
o t h e r s in the s a m e s t a t u s . T h i s p r o c e d u r e is c o n s i d e r e d to p r o v i d e
r e a s o n a b l e a s s u r a n c e that s o m e p e r s o n n e l will not a r r i v e a t a n o ? e r a -
tional s p a c e t e r m i n a l to b e c o m e a f f l i c t e d with a c o m m u n i c a b l e d i s e a s e
which h a s j u s t completed i t s incubation p e r i o d . During t h i s p e r i o d ,
p e r s o n n e l will r e m a i n physically a c t i v e and will continue t r a i n i n g .
T h e faculty- student combination is p a r t i c u l a r l y a t t r a c t i v e i n t h i s
situation.

6. Training Facilities

T h e typical training c y c l e j u s t d e s c r i b e d will r e q u i r e a n u m b e r


of s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g f a c i l i t i e s . A v e r y few f a c i l i t i e s do e x i s t and will
f i l l s p e c i f i c needs. However, the m a j o r i t y of t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s a r e
unique and r e q u i r e new f a c i l i t i e s .

P r e l i m i n a r y medical e x a m i n a t i o n s a n d s c r e e n i n g c a n be p e r -
f o r m e d a t t h e m i l i t a r y h o s p i t a l c l o s e s t t o the individual a t t i m e of
s e l e c t i o n . A s p e c i a l high-altitude f a c i l i t y i s v e r y d e s i r a b l e f o r the
e n v i r o n m e n t a l evaluation. F o r convenience and economy, i t should b e
l o c a t e d n e a r an existing m e d i c a l facility. T h e h i g h - a l t i t u d e f a c i l i t y
p e r m i t s continuous a c c l i m a t i z a t i o n and concur r e n t e n v i r o n m e n t a l
evaluation of physical s t a m i n a and e n d u r a n c e . Location n e a r a n
existing m e d i c a l f a c i l i t y c o n t r i b u t e s r e s o u r c e s r e q u i r e d f o r c o m p l e t e
m e d i c a l evaluation and p r o v i d e s a f a c i l i t y f o r p r a c t i c a l m e d i c a l
training. . . .

257
I
In t h e event that the faculty-student a p p r o a c h to a c a d e m i c
c r o s s - t r a i n i n g is applied d u r i n g advanced s t a g e s of s p a c e o p e r a t i o n s ,
s o m e s p e c i a l provisions for c l a s s r o o m s , l a b o r a t o r i e s , t r a i n i n g a r e a s ,
o f f i c e s , and staff s p a c e s will b e r e q u i r e d . F o r convenience and
economy, t h e s e f a c i l i t i e s should be located a t o r n e a r environmental
a n d / o r p r a c t i c a l t r a i n i n g f a c i l i t i e s . This will p e r m i t m o r e n e a r l y
continuous a c c l i m a t i z a t i o n , c l o s e r integration of a c a d e m i c and p r a c t i c a l
t r a i n i n g , reduction in t o t a l t r a i n i n g t i m e , and joint u s e of s o m e f a c i l i t i e s .
It i s e s t i m a t e d that initially the a c a d e m i c student load would be approxi-
m a t e l y 2 0 0 . However, facility planning should provide for growth
potential.

The p r a c t i c a l t r a i n i n g r e q u i r e s a n environmental facility which


a p p r o x i m a t e s a s closely a s p o s s i b l e the environmental conditions .of
l u n a r or p l a n e t a r y s u r f a c e s . Equipment a t this facility should include
a l a r g e environmental c h a m b e r which i s evacuable t o v e r y low p r e s s u r e s .
T e m p e r a t u r e , lighting, and t h e r m a l radiation l e v e l s m u s t a p p r o x i m a t e
v e r y closely conditions on the l u n a r s u r f a c e . T e m p e r a t u r e control m u s t
e x t e n d t o and include control of a l a y e r of m a t e r i a l s i m i l a r to t h a t expected
on t h e l u n a r s u r f a c e . The t h i c k n e s s of t h i s l a y e r m u s t a t l e a s t provide .
f o r sufficient depth t o p e r m i t p r a c t i c a l e x e r c i s e s i n sub- s u r f a c e c o n s t r u c -
tion and operations. The environmental c h a m b e r m u s t b e l a r g e enough
t o p r o v i d e sufficient s p a c e f o r p r a c t i c a l e x e r c i s e s involving the u s e of
the l a r g e s t f o r e s e e a b l e i t e m s of equipment. Substitute lighter m a t e r i a l s
m a y be u s e d in construction of s p e c i a l training equipment to a s s i s t i n
t h e simulation of the effects of reduced gravity. T h i s facility m u s t p e r -
m i t simulation of expected conditions of d a r k n e s s and isolation. This
i s a r e q u i r e m e n t f o r psychological evaluation a s well a s for training.
Complete environmental i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n i s r e q u i r e d f o r training p u r -
p o s e s . In addition, this facility will s e r v e a s a n engineering t e s t
facility for equipment. In t h i s r o l e , i t m a y r e q u i r e additional s p e c i a l
instrumentation.

P r a c t i c a l t r a i n i n g should a l s o include experiencing the


gravitational f o r c e s and noise l e v e l s to be expected during e i t h e r
l a u n c h or landing. Various n o i s e s i m u l a t o r s have been designed and
u s e d and a r e not expected to b e - a technical p r o b l e m .

T h e ieolation/quarantine /final t r a i n i n g pe riod r e q u i r e s a s p e c i a l


f a c i l i t y which might be d e s c r i b e d a s a small c l o s e d community. The
m o s t logical l o c a l e f o r t h i s f a c i l i t y would be a t the launch s i t e . T h i s
l o c a l e p r e c l u d e s the development of operational p r o b l e m s such a s
q u a r a n t i n e d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . Complete isolation f r o m m e d i c a l and ’
(S) CHAPTER VII: RESEARCH AND D E V E L O P M E N T

A. PROJECT PHASES
P r o j e c t HORIZON h a s been divided into six p h a s e s which i n c l u d e
R&D as well a s o p e r a t i o n a l a s p e c t s of t h e o v e r a l l p r o g r a m . The
s c h e d u l e f o r e a c h p h a s e is i l l u s t r a t e d on F i g . LI-79 a n d d i s c u s s e d below.
P h a s e I - the i n i t i a l f e a s i b i l i t y study w a s c o m p l e t e d on 9 J u n e 1959
a n d is contained i n t h i s two-volume r e p o r t .
P h a s e I1 - the d e t a i l e d development and funding plan will r e q u i r e a
m o r e detailed study with l i m i t e d e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n . T h i s p h a s e w i l l r e -
q u i r e a p p r o x i m a t e l y eight months to c o m p l e t e a n d will c o s t $ 5 . 4
million.
P h a s e ILI - the h a r d w a r e development a n d s y s t e m i n t e g r a t i o n p h a s e
c o n s t i t u t e s the m a j o r i t y of the development e f f o r t . In P h a s e III, all:
S y s t e m s ( s p a c e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , c o m m u n i c a t i o n s , outpost, e t c ) ,
S u b - s y s t e m s ( s p a c e v e h i c l e s , c o m m u n i c a t i o n s , ground and r e l a y
stations, etc),
Components ( r o c k e t engines, communication t r a n s m i t t e r s and
receivers, etc),
S c h e m e s and p r o c e d u r e s ( o r b i t a l r e n d e z v o u s , o r b i t a l fuel t r a n s f e r ,
etc),
r e q u i r e d to a c c o m p l i s h the p r o j e c t objectives will b e developed.
P h a s e I V - the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the l u n a r outpost involves t h e u t i l i z a -
tion of the s y s t e m s and p r o c e d u r e s developed i n P h a s e I1 and is in
a c t u a l i t y a n o p e r a t i o n a l p h a s e of the p r o g r a m . T h e completion of t h i s
p h a s e will a c c o m p l i s h the initial objective of the p r o g r a m , - " e s t a b l i s h
a m a n n e d l u n a r outpost."
P h a s e V - the i n i t i a l p e r i o d of outpost operacion will begin i n
D e c e m b e r 1 9 6 6 and will c o n s t i t u t e the f i r s t c o m p l e t e l y o p e r a t i o n a l p h a s e
of the p r o g r a m .
P h a s e VI - the expansion of i n i t i a l outpost o p e r a t i o n a l c a p a b i l i t i e s
could begin a t any t i m e a f t e r D e c e m b e r 1966. F o r the p u r p o s e of this
study, i t h a s been a s s u m e d to begin in J a n u a r y 1968.

261
PROJECT HORIZON
RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM

t
PHASE ACTIVITY
1959 I lg60
1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968

I Initial Feasibility
Study

'II Detailed Development


6 Funding P l a n

111 H a r d w a r e Development **
& S y s t e m Integration

IV C o n s t r u c t i o n of L u n a r
Base

v I n i t i a l Ope rational
Period

VI Expansion of I n i t i a l
Capabilities

* H a r d w a r e and Systems being developed for o t h e r programs that w i l l have d i r e c t application in


P r o j e c t HORIZON.

** Development r e q u i r e d for expansion of capability.

Fig. II-79. Organization for R&D (Project HORIZON)


B. BASIC AND SUPPORTING RESEARCH
1. Basic R e s e a r c h
N o specific r e q u i r e m e n t is p r e s e n t e d h e r e f o r b a s i c r e s e a r c h ,
that is, r e s e a r c h not d i r e c t e d toward a specific application i n support
of the establishment of a l u n a r outpost. Such a r e q u i r e m e n t would not
be in keeping with generally accepted definitions and understandings of
the r o l e of basic r e s e a r c h . However, it is r e q u i r e d to emphasize the
need f o r m o r e support of b a s i c r e s e a r c h p r o g r a m s by the nation. The
wellspring of fundament,; 1 knowledge, c r e a t e d o v e r the p a s t s e v e r a l
c e n t u r i e s , is rapidly being depleted by expanding technological achieve-
m e n t s of the m i s s i l e and s p a c e age. M o r e t h e o r e t i c a l and experimental
study i n many disciplines is r e q u i r e d to r e p l e n i s h and build up m a n ' s
s t o r e of scientific knowledge.
2. Supporting R e s e a r c h
a. Background
A s used h e r e i n supporting r e s e a r c h e n c o m p a s s e s "those
experiments, studies, and investigations principally applied in nature,
which a r e r e q u i r e d f o r g e n e r a l support of f u t u r e p r o g r a m s . " R e s e a r c h
in this category is not allied with a p a r t i c u l a r development p r o g r a m ;
although, application of knowledge gained to a p a r t i c u l a r future p r o -
g r a m is usually foreseen. The sole purpose of supporting r e s e a r c h is
to provide those advances in the state-of-the-art n e c e s s a r y to i n s u r e
accomplishment of future p r o g r a m s on the d e s i r e d time s c a l e .
The importance of, and even the r e q u i r e m e n t f o r , supporting
r e s e a r c h h a s not yet been fully recognized. Lack of integrated sup-
porting r e s e a r c h p r o g r a m s adequately supported financially i n the p a s t
h a s proven to be a m a j o r factor a d v e r s e l y affecting the t i m e r e q u i r e d to
develop m i s s i l e and space vehicle s y s t e m s today. As space exploration
and m i l i t a r y m i s s i o n s in s p a c e become m o r e comprehensive, supporting
r e s e a r c h r e q u i r e m e n t s i n c r e a s e i n anticipation of implementation of
these m o r e advanced p r o g r a m s . Under p r e s e n t conditions a problem
recognized in advance, normally cannot be studied to the extent d e s i r a b l e
p r i o r to the a s s i g n m e n t of an R & D p r o g r a m encompassing the p a r t i c u l a r
problem or p r o b l e m area. F o r example, the r e q u i r e m e n t f o r t e m p e r a -
t u r e control of the i n t e r i o r of a n orbiting vehicle was recognized well in
advance of the establishment of a n e a r t h satellite development progltam
and, h a d funds been available, could have been r e a d i l y accomplished
p r i o r to the initiation of a specific satellite design. Due t o t h e l a c k of
such a p r o g r a m , in the EXPLORER satellite s e r i e s , f o r example, it
was n e c e s s a r y to conduct a detailed study of t h e t e m p e r a t u r e c o n t r o l

263
p r o b l e m as well a s to e s t a b l i s h a n acceptable d e s i g n within a p e r i o d of
w e e k s . F o r t u n a t e l y , with limited testing, the t e m p e r a t u r e c o n t r o l
s y s t e m developed proved adequate. The c o n s i d e r a b l e effort now being
d i r e c t e d in t h e a r e a of s a t e l l i t e and s p a c e vehicle t e m p e r a t u r e c o n t r o l
h a s r e s u l t e d m a i n l y f r o m the implementation of m o r e c o m p r e h e n s i v e
m a n n e d a n d unmanned s p a c e exploration p r o g r a m s . Admittedly,
m a n y p r o b l e m s a r e of such magnitude that only l i m i t e d and e x p e r i m e n t a -
tion a r e p e r m i s s a b l e p r i o r to implementation of a development p r o g r a m .
F o r example, in the area of h e a t protection for a t m o s p h e r e r e - e n t r y
b o d i e s , development of a s a t i s f a c t o r y ablative s y s t e m f o r the JUPITER
w a r h e a d c o s t approximately 20 million d o l l a r s . Yet, although r e - e n t r y
heating conditions will be m o r e s e v e r e f o r f u t u r e m i s s i l e s y s t e m w a r -
h e a d s a n d o t h e r r e - e n t r y bodies, even now n e i t h e r is the m e c h a n i s m
of ablation fully understood nor is the potential of c e r t a i n suitable ab-
l a t i v e m a t e r i a l s fully known.
Another b r o a d s p e c t r u m of p r o b l e m s , which eventually b e - -
c o m e s c a t e g o r i z e d as supporting r e s e a r c h , first a r i s e s during a
development p r o g r a m . In m a n y i n s t a n c e s , s p e c i a l c a s e solutions a r e
obtained f o r i m m e d i a t e application to the development p r o g r a m . It is
recognized a t the t i m e t h a t additional r e s e a r c h is r e q u i r e d , but m u s t be
d e f e r r e d b e c a u s e of the urgency of the development p r o g r a m . As a n
e x a m p l e , s e r i o u s lubrication p r o b l e m s developed r e c e n t l y in turbo-pump
p r o p e l l a n t feed s y s t e m s operating u n d e r reduced ambient p r e s s u r e s .
A f t e r l i m i t e d study, s a t i s f a c t o r y modifications to these p a r t i c u l a r p r o -
p e l l a n t feed s y s t e m s w e r e made. However, encountering t h i s unfore-
s e e n p r o b l e m during a development p r o g r a m e m p h a s i z e d the need for\
m o r e r e s e a r c h in the a r e a of lubrication under vacuum and n e a r vacuum
--
conditions of s i m p l e m e c h a n i s m s a s well a s high speed d e v i c e s ,
T h e above examples a r e used only to i l l u s t r a t e a n d sub-
s t a n t i a t e the r o l e c l a i m e d f o r supporting r e s e a r c h in the logical and
o r d e r l y evolution of m i s s i l e and s p a c e vehicle development p r o g r a m s .
F o r m a x i m u m dividends, supporting r e s e a r c h p r o g r a m s m u s t b e i n -
t e g r a t e d in those a r e a s of cognition of t h e v a r i o u s developing a g e n c i e s ,
It is a s s u m e d that a p r o g r a m a s comprehensive and c o s t l y
a s t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a lunar outpost will involve a t l e a s t s e v e r a l
m o n t h s f o r decision l e a d t i m e and p r o g r a m implementztion. In the
i n t e r h , until p r o g r a m h p l e m e n t a t i o n , m o r e c o m p r e h e n s i v e f e a s i b i l i -
ty s t u d i e s a r e e s s e n t i a l in all a r e a s by those a g e n c i e s c o n c e r n e d with
t h e m i s s i o n of establishing a l u n a r outpost. Delay in authorization a n d
p r o v i s i o n of funding support f o r t h e s e studies will be r e f l e c t e d d i r e c t l y
i n t h e t i m e r e q u i r e d f o r accomplishment. This r e q u i r e m e n t foy con-
tinuing s t u d y f u r t h e r i l l u s t r a t e s the r o l e of supporting r e s e a r c h as a
foundation f o r future p r o g r a m s . Many of the p r o b l e m s recognized in
this p r e l i m i n a r y study w e r e recognized previously and s t u d i e s conducted
to a v e r y l i m i t e d extent. Had adequate supporting r e s e a r c h funds been
available in the p a s t a considerable number of t h e s e p r o b l e m s would have
been investigated i n detail, At l e a s t m a n y of t h e s e p r o b l e m s would have
been better defined and b e s t approaches to t h e i r solution deter,mined
p r i o r to implementation of a R&D p r o g r a m . L a c k of adequate and
comprehensive supporting r e s e a r c h p r o g r a m s l e a d s to R & D p r o g r a m s
being c a r r i e d out on a "crash" b a s i s . A reasonable a p p r o a c h to
alleviate the c u r r e n t situation would be to provide approximately 10%
additional funding support to R e s e a r c h and Development p r o g r a m s above
d i r e c t p r o g r a m r e q u i r e m e n t s , This would provide adequate supporting
r e s e a r c h to g i v e R&D p r o g r a m s added growth potential, and allow f o r
the long l e a d t i m e initial study and experimentation r e q u i r e d t o p r e p a r e
for f u t u r e p r o g r a m s .
b . Re s ea r ch R e qui r em e ri t s
It wiil be noted that m a n y of the r e q u i r e m e n t s d i s c u s s e l be- '

low a r e s t a t e d in r a t h e r g e n e r a l t e r m s . At the s a m e t i m e , this p:e-


l i m i n a r y study p e r m i t t e d presentation of s o m e r e q u i r e m e n t s in
considerable detail.
( I ) General
Continuing r e s e a r c h , s y s t e m s studies, and detailed
feasibility s t u d i e s a r e r e q u i r e d i n m a n y a r e a s f o r g e n e r a l support of
s p a c e vehicle s y s t e m s developments a n d s p a c e exploration. Included
among the most important of t h e s e a r e a s of long lead t i m e study and
r e s e a r c h are the following: s p a c e vehicle t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s y s t e m s ,
orbital resupply station operations , m i d c o u r s e and t e r m i n 4 guidance,
rendezvous, t r a j e c t o r i e s , low density and high speed aero?.ynamics,
physics , and a e r o b a l l i s t i c s of a t m o s p h e r i c entry, r e c o v e r y techniques,
heat rejection and t e m p e r a t u r e control, s t r u c t u r e s and m a t e r i a l s r e - '

s e a r c h , propulsion and propellants , communications , tracking, data


-'

processing, surveillance, and auxiliary power,


In the following p a r a g r a p h s s o m e of t h e s e r e q u i r e m e n t s
a r e outlined i n scope.
(2) Food and Oxygen
Determination of food c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r u s e i n s p a c e
and l u n a r environment; extension and a c c e l e r a t i o n of p r o g r a m s dealing
with utilization of algae f o r food production (leading ultimately to s e -
lection of an a l g a e s t r a i n optimizing nutritive value, a n d GO2 to O2 . . ,
conversion); determination of m e t h o b to provide a s a f e and r e l i a b l e

2 65
I
n u t r i e n t supply f o r a l g a e , including utilization of c e l l u l o s e ; r e s e a r c h i n
hydroponics t o d e t e r m i n e effects of l u n a r environment on growth of
h i g h e r f o r m s of plant life.
(3) Clothing
M a t e r i a l s r e s e a r c h and p r e l i m i n a r y d e s i g n s t u d i e s for ,

l u n a r environment clothing s y s t e m s ; s t u d i e s of functional p e r f o r m a n c e


a n d s p a c e wounds.
(4) Biological, C h e m i c a l and Radiological
Investigations and study leading to design of l u n a r p r o b e
i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n to m e a s u r e biological, c h e m i c a l a n d radiological
p a r a m e t e r s i n the vicinity of and on the l u n a r s u r f a c e ( p a r t i c u l a t e a n d
e l e c t r o - m a g n e t i c radiation fluxes, and c h e m i c a l and biological p a r a -
m e t e r s will g r e a t l y influence outpost construction and individual
p r o t e c t i v e r e q u i r e m e n t s ) ; toxicity evaluation of p r o p e l l a n t s ; decontami-
nation of l u n a r p r o b e s ; study of contamination preventive m e a s u r e s ;
investigation of m e t h o d s € o r 02 production a n d a t m o s p h e r e r e g e n e r a t i o n
utilizing l u n a r m a t e r i a l s (once composition i s known); a n d study of
non-electronic signalling devices.
( 5 ) Bio-medical R e s e a r c h
T h e r e a r e c e r t a i n bio-medical r e l a t e d to m a n ' s flight
into s p a c e that m u s t b e solved. A g r e a t number of t h e s e p r o b l e m a r e a s
a r c r e c o g n i z e d and t h e i r solution r e s t s upon both b a s i c and applied
r e s e a r c h . It is a s s u m e d that r a p i d advances and s p a c e vehicle develop-
m e n t will soon provide the m e a n s f o r extended human t r a n s p o r t a t i o n
into s p a c e . However, it should be noted with c l e a r e s t attention t h a t
m a n Ts s u r v i v a l and effective p e r f o r m a n c e in accomplishing m i l i t a r y
d u t i e s in the medium of s p a c e i t s e l f , upon o r b i t a l s t a t i o n s , o r o t h e r
e x t r a t e r r e s t r i a l bodies depends solely upon m e d i c a l cognizance of the
biologic h a z a r d s to be m e t and the combined skills of a l l engineering
d i s c i p l i n e s to p r o t e c t a g a i n s t t h e s e h a z a r d s . F o r this r e a s o n , the
opportunity to conduct bio-medical r e s e a r c h in s p a c e m u s t be provided
i m m e d i a t e l y a n d continuously if m a n is to t r a v e l o r b e stationed i n space.
(6) Maintenance of Life in a Vacuum
O u t e r s p a c e i s without a n a t m o s p h e r e f o r all p r a c t i c a l
p u r p o s e s . Man m u s t take h i s e a r t h l y environment with him i n o r d e r to
s u r v i v e . The development of a closed s y s t e m simulating this environ-
m e n t i s mandatory. T h i s involves s o m e c r i t i c a l p r o b l e m s in gaseous
exchange, t e m p e r a t u r e and b a r o m e t r i c p r e s s u r e control, humidity,
nutrition, and human w a s t e disposal. Much p r o g r e s s in b i o - e n g i n e e r i n i
h a s been m a d e , and with continued r e s e a r c h and development, the

2 66
_--
p u r e l y physical a s p e c t s will be solved. Significant p r o g r e s s i n n u t r i - I

tion by the utilization of a l g a e s y s t e m s , m o l l u s k s , and i n s e c t s has a l s o


been m a d e .
(7) Weightlessness
Thus far, biological e x p e r i m e n t s conducted have indi-
cated that little a l t e r a t i o n in physiologic b a s e l i n e s h a s o c c u r r e d to
a n i m a l s in a z e r o - g r a v i t y s t a t e . However, this e x p e r i e n c e i s too
l i m i t e d to extrapolate to the h u m a n exposed t o a prolonged g r a v i t y - f r e e
' state. Data f r o m m a n n e d o r b i t a l s a t e l l i t e s w i l l b e n e c e s s a r y to obtain
d e s i r e d information in this a r e a .
(8) Radiation
The radiation h a z a r d on the moon o r in s p a c e h a s not
been f u l l y defined. P r o b e s , s a t e l l i t e s , and possibly robot e x p l o r e r s ,
as well as experimentation with a n i m a l and o t h e r f o r m s of l i f e w i l l be
n e c e s s a r y to obtain the data r e q u i r e d . T h i s will be a n extensive and
involved study.
(9) M e t e o r i t e s and Meteoroids
This h a z a r d i s yet to be understood. A l a r g e amount of
s t a t i s t i c a l data will have t o b e compiled and evaluated.
(10) Influence of L u n a r o r Space Ecology Upon the E q u i l i b r i u m
of T e r r e s t r i a l Microbiological S y s t e m s and Man
It i s not known, and even speculation i s scanty, j u s t how
the s t a b l i z e d symbiotic relationship of m a n and the m i c r o b i o l o g i c a l
population to which h e i s host will be affected by the s t r a n g e environ-
m e n t of the moon and outer s p a c e . The mutability of life in all it5
f o r m s i s a n inherent factor of life itself, a n d close o b s e r v a t i o n w i l l be
e s s e n t i a l i n o r d e r to d e t e r m i n e the subtlety of such changes and t h e i r
influence, i f any, upon the well being and s u r v i v a l of man.
(11 ) L u n a r Surface T r a n s p o r t a t i o n
Initial effort will be d i r e c t e d toward identifying m a j o r
r e s e a r c h problem a r e a s , establishing r e s e a r c h r e q u i r e m e n t s , c l a r i f y -
ing design concepts, a s s i m u l a t i n g applicable scientific and e n g i n e e r i n g
information, and initiating a n i n t e g r a t e d r e s e a r c h p r o g r a m in l u n a r a n d
p l a n e t a r y s u r f a c e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . P r e s e n t l y f o r e s e e a b l e fields of major
endeavor include r e f r i g e r a t i o n and t h e r m a l power c y c l e s , s t r u c t u r e s '

a n d m a t e r i a l s , air and oxygen s t o r a g e and r e g e n e r a t i o n , sealing and"';


lubrication, radiation, and h e a t rejection, P r o g r a m broadening will' '
p r e c e d e by about one y e a r the availability date of the l a r g e environ- , .
'
m e n t a l r e s e a r c h and training facility d i s c u s s e d l a t e r in this c h a p t e r . '
A l s o a t about t h i s t i m e , studies and e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n with m o r e unique
m e a n s of s u r f a c e locomotion begin. It is contemplated t h a t study of
t h e s e s y s t e m s will e s t a b l i s h r e q u i r e m e n t s for s t a b i l i t y , attitude con-
t r o l , power, and s u r f a c e contact relationships, e t c .

(12) Moon Mapping


A 1:1, 000, 000 s c a l e m a p with 3 0 0 - m e t e r contour i n t e r -
vals should be p r e p a r e d by analytic methods to d e t e r m i n e contours.
P r e p a r a t i o n of s p e c i a l m a p s to support feasibility s t u d i e s b y o t h e r s will
be r e q u i r e d . A s p e c i a l c a m e r a f o r use i n the Skyhook P r o g r a m will be
developed. .This mapping will contribute substantially to o t h e r s p a c e
p r o g r a m s and is e s s e n t i a l to the conduct of this p r o g r a m .
(13) Effects of E n v i r o n m e n t a l F a c t o r s on the P e r f o r m a n c e
of Selected Explosives and Initiator
T h e r e is a g e n e r a l l a c k of data on t h e p e r f o r m a n c e of
conventional explosives under the environmental conditions existing in
s p a c e and on the l u n a r surface. This study w i l l be l i m i t e d to e x p e r i -
m e n t a t i o n designed to e s t a b l i s h the p e r f o r m a n c e and handling c h a r -
a c t e r i s t i c s of the t e s t m a t e r i a l s and to d e t e r m i n e i f m a j o r developments
a r e r e q u i r e d to m e e t t h e needs of this p r o g r a m and o t h e r s p a c e p r o -
grams.
(14) Study of P o w e r Generating S y s t e m s
The power generating s y s t e m s p r o p o s e d f o r this p r o -
g r a m a r e l i m i t e d to n u c l e a r r e a c t o r s a n d fuel c e l l s . T o a s s u r e the .
availability of l e s s expensive power generating s y s t e m s , i t is im-
p e r a t i v e that r e s e a r c h be initiated on o t h e r s y s t e m s including those
employing s o l a r e n e r g y . Advanced e n e r g y s y s t e m s using techniques
such a s o r g a n i c e n e r g y conversion, t h e r m a l e n e r g y s t o r a g e , p y r o -
e l e c t r i c effect, pyromagnetic effects, e t c . , will be investigated. An
i m p o r t a n t r e s u l t of this p r o g r a m will be to provide the b a s i s f o r power
s y s t e m s f o r f u t u r e lunar and p l a n e t a r y stations which will be independent
of e a r t h l o g i s t i c a l support. This continuing r e s e a r c h p r o g r a m will
e s t a b l i s h what s y s t e m s a p p e a r feasible f o r f u r t h e r development and
application .
(1 5) M a t e r i a l and Lubricants
E s s e n t i a l to space exploration p r o g r a m s is continuing
r e s e a r c h i n m a t e r i a l s and lubricants, T h e s e p r o g r a m s should b e s u f -
f i c i e n t l y flexible to be guided by scientific e n v i r o n m e n t a l and engineer-
ing data obtained f r o m t i m e to t i m e f r o m s p a c e exploration p r o g r a m s .
T h e E n v i r o n m e n t a l R e s e a r c h and T r a i n i n g F a c i l i t y d i s c u s s e d l a t e r i n

2 68
this c h a p t e r will b e a valuable t e s t medium supporting the materials
and l u b r i c a n t s r e s e a r c h p r o g r a m s .
(16) Soil Mechanics and Related Studies
.
In t h i s study specific attention will be given to t h e b e -
h a v i o r and p r o p e r t i e s of l u n a r and p l a n e t a r y s u r f a c e m a t e r i a l s . Much
e f f o r t h e r e depends upon the e a r l y s u c c e s s of l u n a r and p l a n e t a r y
p r o b e s . T h i s information is e s s e n t i a l to the l u n a r landing v e h i c l e a n d
outpost construction, a s well as to the development of s u r f a c e t r a n s - ,

po r tation e quipm ent .


(1 7) Liquid Hydrogen Production, Handling, and S t o r a g e '

in S p a c e
Any significant s p a c e p r o g r a m probably will r e q u i r e
launch s i t e production of l a r g e quantities of hydrogen. In addition to
this, the s t o r a b i l i t y of c r y o g e n i c s i n s p a c e environment will have t o
be investigated i n detail. T h e r e i s need for a c o m p r e h e n s i v e r e s e a r c h
p r o g r a m designed to f u r n i s h detailed p r o c e s s information and e s t a b l i s h
f i r m design c r i t e r i a n e c e s s a r y f o r the design and construction of high
tonnage liquid hydrogen f a c i l i t i e s , (including production, s t o r a g e , a n d
distribution equipment).
(18) S y s t e m Studies, Man-Made A t m o s p h e r e
The system suggested herein for man-made atmosphere,
i s sound but r e q u i r e s r a t h e r sophisticated m e c h a n i c a l equipment. It
i s obvious that o t h e r s y s t e m s r e q u i r e study including those that can m o r e
r e a d i l y m e e t the r e q u i r e m e n t s of t h e e a r l y p h a s e s of the outpost con-
s t r u c t i o n and operation of the o r b i t a l station.
(19) E l e c t r i c a l P r o p e r t i e s and Environmental Effects
A study of the e l e c t r i c a l p r o p e r t i e s of d i e l e c t r i c s and
o t h e r m a t e r i a l s in simulated s p a c e environments will b e m a d e . A l s o
contaminating influences of one m a t e r i a l on another and on o t h e r techni-
cal components will be tested. The effect on e l e c t r i c a l p r o p e r t i e s w i l l
be investigated, e i t h e r individually o r in combinations of e n v i r o n m e n t
f a c t o r s including vacuum, s i m u l a t e d s o l a r X - r a y s , t e m p e r a t u r e , short
wavelength, ultraviolet light, n u c l e a r radiations, c h e m i c a l s , and
toxics. Initial r e s e a r c h will be guided b y data c u r r e n t l y a v a i l a b l e on
the e n v i r o n m e n t s of s p a c e , and the l u n a r and p l a n e t a r y s u r f a c e s . D a t a
r e s u l t i n g f r o m this study will b e u s e d to design i m p r o v e d e l e c t r o n i c
components and c i r c u i t s for application in s p a c e exploration,
I t e m s (1) through (19) a r e to be c o n s i d e r e d j u s t as
r e s e a r c h p r o b l e m s picked and l i s t e d a t random to i l l u s t r a t e the need for
r e s e a r c h . T h i s list is by no m e a n s corhplete.
c. Environmental R e s e a r c h and Training F a c i l i t y
To support activities in space and on e x t r a - t e r r e s t r i a l bodies,
it i s e s s e n t i a l that a m a j o r technical facility f o r environmental r e s e a r c h
and t r a i n i n g be constructed at the e a r l i e s t p r a c t i c a b l e date. This facility
would c o n s i s t of t h r e e units located a t two s i t e s ; one of which will p r o -
bably be in the Rocky Mountain a r e a . The facility will support this
p r o g r a m and other s p a c e p r o g r a m s by providing e s s e n t i a l capabilities
which a r e not otherwise available to accomplish r e s e a r c h , testing, and
training. The t h r e e units will b e mutually supporting and a r e d e s c r i b e d
by the titles: (1) R e s e a r c h , Development, T e s t , and Training C e n t e r ,
(2) Flight and Gravity Simulator, and (3) Medical R e s e a r c h and Human
F a c t o r s Center. -_
The f i r s t of these (the principal facility) will be located o n
approximately 1000 a c r e s of land. The site s e l e c t e d should a l r e a d y
have the needed logistical support capabilities and facilities. Con-
s t r u c t i o n of this facility m u s t begin in F Y 1960 i f the schedules of this
p r o j e c t a r e to be m e t . The facility would c o n s i s t of the following: , --
1. H e a d q u a r t e r s and Administration Building, (including an
auditorium and computer c e n t e r )
2. P h y s i c a l and Biological Sciences L a b o r a t o r y and Re- .
s e a r c h Facilities
3. Training and T e s t Building
4. Radiation Laboratory
5, Main Simulator Facility with Mechanical Equipment
6 . P o w e r Plant (Critical), t w o (2) 20, 000 KW units
7. S m a l l Environmental T e s t C h a m b e r s (4)
8. P r o c e s s Building
9. Work Shops with Equipment
10. C a f e t e r i a (includes food p r e p a r a t i o n )
1.1. L o c a l Transportation F a c i l i t i e s (no shop)
12. F i r e and Rescue Station with Equipment
13. Helicopter P a d (all weather)
14. Air-conditioned Warehouee
15. W a s t e Treatment Plant
16. Security Fencing and G u a r d F a c i l i t i e e
17. Family Housing for Student-Trainees Selected for Duty
in Space or on the Lunar Surface (ZOO m e n )
18. A c c e s s Roads and Bridges
19. Marginal Wharf - 500 feet x 60 feet with Approaches
and C r a n e
20. Dredging for Channel and Turning Basin (200 feet x 20
feet Baein) Laboratory and R e s e a r c h Equipment
The above described facility will be available for u s e as
follows: (assuming construction begins in J a n u a r y 1960)
F o r supporting r e s e a r c h July 1961
F o r support of development (as f o r lunar outpost) J a n u a r y
1963
For Training of P e r s o n n e l - J a n u a r y 1964
F i g u r e 11-80 and Figure 11-81 i l l u s t r a t e the universal
facility for lunar environment simulation.
" h e second s i t e will contain the other two facilities; the
Flight 8nd Gravity Simulator, and the Medical R e r e a r c h and H u m a n
Foctorr Center. W h i l e t h o r i t e b a r not yet b e m relected, it i s p r o -
bable that the s i t e will be in Arizona, Colorado, Montana or Wyoming.
T h e principal requirement is to obtain a r i t e offering a v e r t i c a l f a c e
of 3000 o r m o r e feet, with o r without a tower extension. T h e r e -
quiremente for the Flight and Gravity Simulator a r e shown in g e n e r a l
form in Fig. 11-62. T h i e facility will not only simulate space flight
a c c e l e r a t i o n s but will p e r m i t rtudiee of materials and m e n a t r e d u c e d
gravity, simulating conditions on the E a r t h ' s moon, on M a r s a n d o n
Yenue.
The Medical'Research and Human F a c t o r e C e n t e r will m a k e
u r e of the Flight a n d Gravity Simulator aleo and will b e located a d -
j a c e n t thereto. It will be a Physiology R e r e a r c h C e n t e r concerned with
human reaction to s p a c e flight and reduced gravity and with the adaption
changer in m a n at high altitude,
F i g u r e II-82 i l l u s t r a t e e t h i e facility located somewhere in
the Rocky Mountaine.

'271 -,
Fig. 11-80. Lunar Environment Research, Development and Training
Center (LERDT) .b .
N
4
w

F i g , 11-81. Cross Section Through Main Facility At LERDT


Fig. II-82. View of Flight Simulator and Medical Research Center

2 74
C. PROGRAM REQULREMENTS, R & D
As indicated i n Table 11-30, R & D Schedule and E s t i m a t e of Funding
Requirements, the extent of m a n y phases and p r o g r a m s of the o v e r a l l
R&D p r o g r a m dictates that m a n y of these p r o g r a m s b e implemented i n
the v e r y n e a r future. R&D p r o g r a m s will be i n t e g r a t e d and p l a c e d with
a developing agency having p r i m a r y responsibility f o r the p a r t i c u l a r
development i t e m . The r e q u i r e m e n t f o r placing o v e r a l l s y s t e m s respon-
sibility with a single developing agency is well established.
Major system, s u b s y s t e m , and component r e q u i r e m e n t s a r e dis-
c u s s e d a t length in the preceeding chapters. R & D r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r
t h e s e i t e m s a r e shown by f i s c a l y e a r in Table 11-30. Discussion of
these r e q u i r e m e n t s here would be unduly repetitious of m a t e r i a l p r e -
sented in preceeding chapters. However, t h r e e typical examples of t h e
n a t u r e of r e q u i r e m e n t s €0110w.
Food: A logical development p r o g r a m is planned beginning in
F Y 1960 with adaption of conventional foods f o r u s e in o r b i t and on the
l u n a r s u r f a c e , and development of p r o c e d u r e s f o r hydroponic veget-
able gardening a t the outpost. Beginning in F Y 1962, p r o g r a m s will b e
initiated to develop p r o c e d u r e s f o r raising poultry and a n i m a l s on
waste m a t e r i a l s and algae, and develop p r o c e d u r e s for growing, har-
vesting and p r o c e s s i n g algae f o r oxygen and food production. Ultimate
p r o g r a m objective will be to develop a closed cycle ecological s y s t e m .
Clothing and G e n e r a l Supplies: The initial development p r o g r a m t o
provide the f i r s t l u n a r suit should begin immediately a f t e r completion
of the detailed feasibility study. Approximately t h r e e y e a r s p r i o r to
occupation of the outpost, development and engineering of improved
clothing systems should begin. Also, included in this p r o g r a m w i l l be
development of hand tools f o r u s e in the outpost s h e l t e r and the l u n a r
environment.
L u n a r Surface Transportation Vehicle: Design and development of
the lunar s u r f a c e vehicle w i l l begin in F Y 1962. Although s y s t e m s
development f o r motive power cooling and a s p a c e a i r - l o c k , and the I

m a t e r i a l s r e q u i r e m e n t s r e p r e s e n t by f a r the m a j o r p r o b l e m s , the
formulation of vehicle design concepts and configurations studies m u s t
likewise r e c e i v e considerable attention e a r l y in the p r o g r a m . Major '

vehicle 'elements include suspension (including wheels a n d / o r t r a c k s ) ,


c h a s s i s , motive power cooling, a i r supply, space a i r - l o c k , communi- .
cations and c o n t r o l s , Subsequent to completion and s a t i s f a c t o r y l u n a r .
operation of the first generation vehicle, development will begin on a
' l a r g e r second generation 6-man vehicle with g r e a t e r r a n g e and t r a -

ve r s in g capabiliti e s . ..

275
TABLE LI-30
RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT SCHEDULE AND E S T r U A l E O F FUNDING REQUIREMENTS
a --

t
I F:
- - -
Lg61 1962 1963 1964 .945 - .964 1968
- -- -Totrl

, Outpost S y s t e m s a d Equipage
8. Food 4.2 4.1 4.3 3.1 1.1 1b.a
b. C l o U h g and Generrl SuppUem 1.5 4.0 4.0 1.. 0 3.0 i.0 4.0 5.0 26.5
(2nd G e n e r a t i o n S u i t DSV.
begins FY 63)
C. Lunrr S u r f a c e Vehicle 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 2.0 1.5 1.5 7.0
d. S t e l t e r and CornponenL. 9.0 25.0 13.0 6.0 3.0 54.4
e. J n n t d l e d Equipment 0.5 .o.o 25.0 15.0 8.0 3.5 62.0
f . Equip. & P r o c e s s e s , Ahn 0.5 7.0 20.0 10.0 4.0 1.5 43.0
g. Power k D i s t r S y s t e m $0.0 37.0 49.0 31.0 5.0 152.0
h. C o n s t r Equip., T o o h a d 2.0 15.0 15.0 4.0 I. 0 1.0 38.0
suppllcs
4. T e c h n i c a l Equip (Enpr) and

.. All A s s e m b l y T e s t i n g 3.0 6.0 4.0 5.0 3.0 21.0


SATURN Vehicle S y s t e m
a. Vehicle S y s t e m (SATURN n) 10.0 10.0 50,O 40.0 30. 0 0.0 10.0 430.0
b. C a r g o C o n t a m e r s 2.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 2.0 0.5 0.5 20.0
C. O r b l t - L w r Return Y e h i c k 5.0 L5.0 40.0 60.0 20.0 5.0 3.0 2.0 150.0
d. C d d . and C o n t r o l (Injection
Midcourse and T e r m i n a l 1.4 2.0 2.5 2.0 1.3 0.5 9.7
t. Support Equipment
a. E a r t h Daeed 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.8 R4 0.2 4.0
b. O r b i t Based 0.1 0.4 0.4 0.1 0.1 0.1 1.2
c. L r n a r Based 0.5 1.5 1.5 0.3 0.1 0.0 4.0
,. Communications, Tracklng k S u m
a. Earth C a s e d 6.3 11.7 8. 6 4.8 3.6 1.0 0.6 0.3 0.3 37.2
b. Lunar B a s e d 13.6 21.3 12.8 6.1 3.5 1.5 0.9 0.8 0.3 bo. 8
I. Supporting Research
a. General 5.0 48 10.0 0.0 7.0 5. G 5. c 5.0 5. c 58.0
b, M o r e Detailed
(I ) F o o d & Oxygen 0.5 0.7 1.0 1.0 0.75 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 6.0
(2) Clothuap k General
Supplies 2.0 2.0 1.0 1.0 i.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1. C 11.0
(3) CDR 5.0 6. 0 4.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 19.0
(4) Bin-Medical 3.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5. c 5.0 5. c 43.0
(5) Lunar S u r f a c e T r a n s p o r -
tiltion 0.2 0.3 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.2 0.2 3.0
(6) L u n a r Mapping 0.4 0.5 0. I 0.5 0.5 0.1 0.1 0. I 2.3
(7) Explosive. 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.5 0.5 0.5 0. E 0.7 1.0
'(8) P o w e r Generation 0.1 0.7 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5. c 5.0 31.4
(9) M a t c r i r l s and L u b r l u n h 2.0 3.5 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5. c 5.0 35.5
(IO) SOU Mechanics 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.5 0.5 1.C 1.0 4.1
(11) LH2 P r o d . and H a n d l l n p 2.5 2.5 5.0
(12) b n - m a d e Atmospheres 0.6 1.0 1.c 2.0 2.0 2.0 2. c 2.0 12.6
(13) E l e c t r . P r o p e r t i e s nnd
E n v i r o n m e n u l Effacts 0. I 0.1 9. I 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.9
*c, F a c i l l t l e s
(Environmentxi Research
nnd TrrinFng C e n t e r ) 56.1 48.0 9.3 8.0 5.2 126.6
). DetriLed D e v e l o p a n t and Pundkrp
Plan (Includes r e q u i r e d Ilmited
erparlmentrtion and d e t d l a d f c u i
b w mtudies) _
5.4
. - - _I - -- - 5.4
Y A L 37.0 89. I 171.1 i8. 2 z
-
L09.4 62.9
- - 47. 35.1
- 19. i .539.7
..

276 c
D. R & D, SUPPORTING RESEARCH, PROJECT HORIZON
A s mentioned briefly in the introduction of this volume, t h e r e will
be n u m e r o u s p r o g r a m s *which will provide information p e r t i n e n t to
establishment of a lunar outpost. Some of t h e s e p r o g r a m s will provide
g e n e r a l information relating to environment and techniques while o t h e r s
will have a d i r e c t bearing on the o v e r a l l reliability of the vehicle trans-
portation s y s t e m .
Of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t a r e those p r o g r a m s which might employ the
SATURN vehicle for one of the following type m i s s i o n s :
a. O r b i t a l R e t u r n Flights
b. L u n a r Circumnavigation
c. Lunar Satellite
d. Lunar Soft Landing
It is expected that implementation of a typical p r o g r a m of this type
will o c c u r as a n a t u r a l integration of the National Space P r o g r a m r a t h e r
than as a r e q u i r e m e n t of a specific p r o g r a m such as is h e r e i n described.
F i g u r e II-51 l i s t s a total of six orbital r e t u r n flights beginning in
J u n e 1961. Five of these flights a r e p e r f o r m e d with the first g e n e r a -
tion SATURN booster and the sixth flight with the second generation
SATURN. While the minimum orbiting capability of t h e s e vehicles is
3 0 , 0 0 0 and 70,000 pounds of net payload respectively, the r e c o v e r y
package would be limited to that capable of returning the 10-16 m a n
capsule required f o r o r b i t a l operations. P a r t of the r e m a i n i n g payload
would be available for m u c h o r p e r h a p s all of the o r b i t a l r e s e a r c h
described previously.
F u r t h e r r e c o v e r y work will be conducted w i t h the seven SATURN I
l u n a r circumnavigation vehicles. Among other functions, t h e s e
vehicles will be used to provide design data and e s t a b l i s h the r e l i a b i l i t y
of r e t u r n from the vicinity of the moon. The guidance and c o n t r o l
s c h e m e s used in these vehicles will be the s a m e as those on which the
l u n a r outpost vehicle s y s t e m s will be based. This l u n a r circumnavi-
gation phase of the s p a c e p r o g r a m will provide a manned c a p a b i l h y f o r
the f i r s t time.
Additional l u n a r guidance reliability will be established by t h e four '
SATURN I and the two SATURN 11 l u n a r s a t e l l i t e vehicles. The l a r g e
payloads of these vehicles available f o r r e s e a r c h should provide valu-
able information on lunar s u r f a c e f e a t u r e s and mapping. Approxi-
m a t e l y 3 , 0 0 0 pounda c a n be c a r r i e d by the SATURN I a n d about 9,500
. 6 .

,- ..
L

pounde of n e t payload by SATURN 11.

, ,277 \
The f o u r t h s e r i e s of m i s s i o n s shown in Fig. 11-51 a r e the l u n a r
soft landings. T h e SATURN I will have the capability of placing ap-
proximately 1 , 7 5 0 pounds of net payload on the l u n a r s u r f a c e while
the SATURN LI can soft-land approximately 6,000 pounds net payload.
It would b e with this s e r i e s of flights that the guidance and landing
techniques would b e developed which will b e used €or l a t e r manned
flights.
Because of the sizeable payload capability, a n e a r t h r e t u r n vehicle,
c a r r y i n g s a m p l e s of the lunar s u r f a c e m a t e r i a l , would b e entirely
feasible.
The p r e - P r o j e c t HORIZON p r o g r a m d e s c r i b e d above will provide
the experience, reliability and techniques r e q u i r e d to a s s u r e s u c c e s s f u l
establishment of a lunar outpost.

E:. SUPPORTING ROLE O F OTHER U. S . PRQGRAMS


P r o j e c t HORIZON will m a k e full u s e of data obtained and h a r d w a r e
developed in o t h e r U. S . space p r o g r a m s planned during this time frame.
A s examples:
I. NASA sponsored bio-medical experiments have been s u c c e s s -
fully c a r r i e d out. Valuable data h a s been obtained and m o r e is forth- -
coming.
2. P r e l i m i n a r y exploration of space, including the moon is al-
r e a d y underway. Data obtained from all NASA and ARPA space
explorations a r e directly applicable inputs influencing design p a r a -
m e t e r s for the l u n a r outpost p r o g r a m .
3 . Likewise, the Man i n Space p r o g r a m (MERCURY) will furnish
valuable data concerning m a n ' s reactions under c e r t a i n conditions, as
well as valuable vehicle h a r d w a r e data.
4. The AEG will provide nuclear power supplies which a r e e s -
s e n t i a l to the s u c c e s s of the p r o g r a m .
5. High p e r f o r m a n c e engine development p r o g r a m s w i l l i n c r e a s e
the payload capabilities of the l u n a r s p a c e vehicles (SATURN 11),
6. The D i s c o v e r e r and W S 117L p r o g r a m s a r e expected to provide
valuable data concerning the n e a r e a r t h environment a n d r e c o v e r y
techniques.
7 . The ARPA, 24-hour communications satellite, as well as e a r l i e r
p r o g r a m s i n s a t e l l i t e communications, will provide experience and
background in apace communications, guidance techniques a5 well as .
SATURN b o o s t e r development.

. ,278
8 . The IGY satellites have provided e a r l y environmental data'for
preliminary design; and m o r e detailed data w i l l evolve from current
and n e a r future programs,
(S) CHAPTER VIII: PROGRAM COST AND SCHEDULE

T h e intention of this chapter i s t o p r e s e n t a c o s t breakdown by


f i s c a l y e a r for the v a r i o u s p h a s e s of the o v e r a l l p r o g r a m . The c o s t s
given r e p r e s e n t the b e s t p o s s i b l e p r e l i m i n a r y e s t i m a t e s f o r the p r o -
g r a m . They w e r e compiled by government a g e n c i e s , e a c h e x p e r i e n c e d
in i t s r e s p e c t i v e field. The breakdown a s shown i s not a l l - i n c l u s i v e ,
and only the m a j o r c o s t i t e m s a r e outlined.

T h e c o s t s shown a r e those r e q u i r e d f o r the build-up p h a s e and the


f i r s t operational y e a r of the p r o g r a m . Since t h e p r o g r a m is a s s u m e d
to continue, additional funds o v e r and above t h o s e shown would b e r e -
q u i r e d during F Y 1967 and F Y 1968 to provide f o r the continuation of t h e
outpost p a s t 1968.

A. OUTPOST COST

The c o s t of the outpost m a t e r i e l and equipment r e q u i r e d i s e s t i m a - -


ted a t $132 million. This amount, however, does not include the r e s e a r c h
and development funds which p r e c e d e the p r o c u r e m e n t of the h a r d w a r e
which i s actually t r a n s p o r t e d to the l u n a r s u r f a c e . R & D funding r e q u i r e -
m e n t s for t h e lunar outpost a r e d e s c r i b e d in C h a p t e r VII,

The c o s t of the outpost shown h e r e does not include the c o s t of t r a n s -


porting the m a t e r i e l to the l u n a r surface. T h e s e c o s t s a r e c o v e r e d i n
p a r a g r a p h s C (Vehicle C o s t ) and D ( P a y l o a d Container C o s t ) of this
chapter.

As w a s pointed out e a r l i e r in t h i s volume, t h i s c o s t e s t i m a t e is b a s e d


on a 1 2 ~ m a noutpost. Expansion of this facility by e i t h e r additional p e r -
sonnel, f a c i l i t i e s , o r capabilities would add to t h i s e s t i m a t e by i n c r e a s -
ing the initial p r o c u r e m e n t of outpost m a t e r i e l as well as i n c r e a s i n g t h e
vehicle, payload c o n t a i n e r , and launching s i t e c o s t s that a r e d i s c u s s e d
in the l a t e r p a r a g r a p h s of this chapter.

B. ORBITAL STATION

F o r t h i s p r o g r a m , i t will be n e c e s s a r y t o e s t a b l i s h a m i n i m u m s p a c e
station f o r the o r b i t a l fueling operation if a p e r m a n e n t s p a c e station w i l l
not be available when required. The payloads available f r o m the o r b i t a l
m i s s i o n s scheduled a r e s u f f i c i e n t f o r this r e q u i r e m e n t . In the event t h e
o r b i t a l station i s not completed i n time for the e a r l y fueling r e q u i r e m e n t e ,
the fueling c r e w s c a n live and o p e r a t e f r o m the o r b i t a l t r a n s p o r t vehiclee.

2 81
,___4___
The o r b i t a l s t a t i o n will be c o n s t r u c t e d f r o m empty c a r g o and fuel
c o n t a i n e r s that have been d e l i v e r e d into o r b i t and the additonal payload
a v a i l a b l e with the o r b i t a l t r a n s p o r t vehicles. T h e c r e w s will o p e r a t e
f r o m the t r a n s p o r t vehicles during the station c o n s t r u c t i o n phase. The
completed s t a t i o n will include a l l the life support e s s e n t i a l s , e. g. food,
oxygen, s p a c e s u i t s , etc. , and equipment f o r station-to-launching s i t e
and station-to-transport vehicle communications. T h e r e will a160 be
provided s m a l l s p a c e maneuvering vehicles f o r movement outside the
s p a c e station, f o r positioning the fuel c o n t a i n e r s and l u n a r v e h i c l e s ,
f o r the fuel t r a n s f e r operation] and movement between t h e t r a n s p o r t
v e h i c l e and the station.
I

In addition to t h e o r b i t a l station, t h e r e will be two s e t s of o r b i t a l


s u p p o r t equipment r e q u i r e d f o r the fuel t r a n s f e r o p e r a t i o n and the check-
out of the l u n a r vehicle.

The funding f o r t h e s e r e q u i r e m e n t s i s shown i n Table 11-31.

Table 11- 31
ORBITAL S T A T I O N COST

F i s c a l Year
1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 Total

O r b i t a l Station 7.5 7.5 15. 0


>- 0.8 0.8 1.6
1 ment
Total 8.3 a. 3 16.6

C. VEHICLES

T h e funds r e q u i r e d t o m e e t space c a r r i e r vehicle r e q u i r e m e n t s a r e


depicted in Table 11-32. The o v e r a l l vehicle has been l i s t e d by s t a g e s ,
T h e s e r e q u i r e m e n t s a r e b a s e d on the production schedule shown in
C h a p t e r VI ( T a b l e 11-28) and do not include the R & D r e q u i r e m e n t s which
a r e shown in Chapter VII.

Line i t e m s have been included f o r the r e c o v e r y and rejuvenation of


the b o o s t e r s t a g e s f o r both SATURN I and SATURN 11. T h e s e funds
would be u s e d f o r the physical r e c o v e r y , inspection] d i s a s s e m b l y , ,

r e p a i r , r e a s s e m b l y a n d checkout, etc., of the b o o s t e r as well as for.


the r e q u i r e d s p a r e p a r t s ,

2 8 2 ,
It w a s a s s u m e d t h a t no b o o s t e r would be launched m o r e than f i v e
t i m e s and that f r o m t h r e e to s i x months will be r e q u i r e d for the r e j u -
venation cycle. Six months was used f o r the initial m i s s i o n and t h i s
p e r i o d gradually r e d u c e d to t h r e e months as the p r o g r a m p r o g r e s s e d .

A line i t e m is a l s o shown for the vehicle guidance, c o n t r o l , and


i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n equipment r e q u i r e d . T h i s d o e s not include the guidance
and c o n t r o l s y s t e m s r e q u i r e d on the payload c a p s u l e s f o r o r b i t a l r e n d e z -

Table II- 32
VEHICLE COST*
Fiscal Y e a r
Item 1964 1965 1966 1967 Total
~~~

SATURN I Booster L21.5 121.5


Re cove r y and Rejuvenation 66.0 36.0 102.0

SATURN I Second Stage 30.0 37.0 2.0 69.0

SATURN I Third Stage 21.3 26.3 1.4 49.0

SATURN II Booster 87. o 174.0 137.8 398.8


R e c o v e r y and Rejuvenation 2.0 42.0 86.0 80.0 210.0

SATURN T1 Second Stage 32.0 156.0 276.0 176. 0 640.0

SATURN II T h i r d Stage 20.0 97.5 172.5 110.0 400.0

SATURN 11 F o u r t h Stage 3.0 30. 0 36.0 14. 0 83. 0

Guidance, Cont r 01 and 19.0 38.0 35.5 22.0 114.5


bt r u m e nt at ion
TOTAL 401.8 636. a 747.2 402.0 2187.8

*Cost i n millions of d o l l a r s .

vous, l u n a r s o f t landing, e t c . ,
a s it is included under the line i t e m for
the r e s p e c t i v e vehicle concerned.

The a v e r a g e c o s t of a SATURN I vehicle for this p r o g r a m is approxi-

,283
m a t e l y $5. 5 million. T h i s i s f o r vehicle h a r d w a r e and does not include
payloads, t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , o r launching c o s t s . It does, however, include
b o o s t e r r e c o v e r y costs.

Under the s a m e a s s u m p t i o n s , the a v e r a g e SATURN I1 c o s t i s about


$10. 7 million. The higher c o s t p e r vehicle is due p r i m a r i l y to the
l a r g e r s t a g e s and l a r g e r engines and the addition of a fourth stage.

In s p i t e of the considerably higher vehicle c o s t , the SATURN 11 is


a n e c o n o m i c a l i m p r o v e m e n t o v e r the SATURN I s i n c e it c a n d e l i v e r
2 1 / 2 t i m e s the payload to orbit, and m o r e than t h r e e t i m e s the payload
t o the l u n a r s u r f a c e .

Additional vehicles m u s t be p r o c u r e d to support the operational


p h a s e p a s t c a l e n d a r y e a r 1967.

D. PAYLOAD CONTAINERS

Table 11-33 i l l u s t r a t e s the funding r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r the payload


c o n t a i n e r s f o r this p r o g r a m . Six b a s i c c o n t a i n e r s a r e needed, t h r e e
of which a r e r e c o v e r a b l e . Line i t e m s a r e shown f o r each container
type and f o r the r e c o v e r y and rejuvenation w h e r e applicable. T h e s e
c o s t s r e p r e s e n t production c o s t s and do not include the R & D r e q u i r e -
m e n t s shown in C h a p t e r VII.

To avoid duplication of c o s t d a t a , the cost of the actual payload


i s not included. C o s t s given in Table 11-33 a r e f o r the containers onlyy,

The c o s t of the SATURN I and SATURN I1 o r b i t a l c a r g o containers


i s $0. 9 million and $1. 05 million, respectively. T h e s e containers con-
s i s t of fuel tanks o r c a r g o c o m p a r t m e n t s , depending on the mission.
T h e c o s t of the guidance and control equipment and propulsion s y s t e m
r e q u i r e d f o r rendezvous i s a l s o included.

The SATURN I and SATURN I1 o r b i t a l manned vehicle c o s t s a r e


$4. 5 million and $4. 75 million, respectively. The manned capsule
p o r t i o n of those two vehicles i s identical and includes all personnel
equipment, e. g. , s e a t s , oxygen supply, food, etc. , guidance and con-
t r o l equipment, propulsion s y s t e m s for the o r b i t a l and r e t u r n m a n e u v e r s ,
and r e c o v e r y equipment. The SATURN I1 vehicle c o s t s w e r e due to the
additional c a r g o c o m p a r t m e n t available.

The SATURN I1 d i r e c t c a r g o vehicle c o s t s $2. 5 million and includes

2 84
m i d - c o u r s e and t e r m i n a l guidance and c o n t r o l , and a braking s y s t e m
f o r the soft landing operation.

T h e SATURN XI o r b i t t o l u n a r c a r g o vehicle c o s t s $4. 5 million e a c h


and includes the propulsion s t a g e s and guidance and control equipment
f o r the o r b i t to l u n a r and soft landing m a n e u v e r s .

The SATURN I1 o r b i t - l u n a r - r e t u r n vehicle c o s t s $8. 0 million a n d


c o n s i s t s of propulsion s y s t e m s f o r the o r b i t to moon, soft landing, and
r e t u r n to e a r t h m a n e u v e r s . The c o s t a l s o includes guidance and c o n -
t r o l equipment for e a c h phase of operation, r e c o v e r y equipment] and
p e r s o n n e l equipment. The r e c o v e r y and rejuvenation c o s t include t h e
r e c o v e r y operation itself and the n e c e s s a r y r e p a i r to the manned capsule.
The new propulsion stage i t e m i s the c o s t of replacing the u n r e c o v e r e d
soft landing, and r e t u r n propulsion s y s t e m s with a s s o c i a t e d guidance and
c o n t r o l equipment. This c o s t i s $5. 0 million p e r vehicle.

E. LAUNCH SITE AND OPERATION

T a b l e 11- 34 s e t s f o r t h the funds r e q u i r e d to c o n s t r u c t and o p e r a t e


the equatorial launching s i t e needed f o r this p r o g r a m . T h e s e c o s t s a r e
typicaly andJsince
~ ~ ~ --t -m_- a -
__- r
---- thg-GKejpreliminary in nature, mmv
s l__ s ~ o - ~ ~E s tri m-a t eds ai r e~ given - S by~ the
ither
~ follow-
~
ing c a t e g o r i e s : s i t e construction, s i t e operation, ground support e q u i p -
ment, payload packaging, and the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n fcr shipping, not only
s i t e construction m a t e r i a l , but a l s o support s u p p l i e s and vehicle and
payload components.

Table 11-35 shows a typical funding schedule f o r the launching s i t e


construction. Engineering studies m u s t be s t a r t e d the l a s t half of 1959
if the r e q u i r e d facility i s t o be r e a d y i n t i m e to m e e t the f i r i n g schedule,
Actual construction of the s e r v i c e and l o g i s t i c a l f a c i l i t i e s such a s r o a d s ,
a i r f i e l d s , docks, and the t e m p o r a r y c a m p should be s t a r t e d by the end
of C Y 1959. The launching pads and blockhouses would not be s t a r t e d
until m i d 1960. The f i r s t f i r i n g f r o m this s i t e would be in J a n u a r y 1963
a t which t i m e two pads and one blockhouse will b e completed. B a s e d on
this typical schedule, the e n t i r e complex that h a s been outlined would not
be completed until the end of CY 1965 ; however, sufficient f a c i l i t i e s would
be completed in t i m e to m e e t the p r o g r a m f i r i n g schedule.

F, COMMUNICATIONS AND ELEGTRONICS SYSTEM

The c o s t breakdown in Table 11-36 d e p i c t 3 t h e fund6 r e q u i r e d for the


communications and tracking portion of the p r o g r a m . This again is
f o r build-up operational phases only; r e q u i r e d R&D funds w e r e d i s c u s s e d
in Chapter VII.'

Table 11-33
PAYLOAD CONTAINER COST

Fiscal Y e a r *
, Item
1964 1965 1966 1967 Total

SATURN I O r b i t a l C a r g o 21. 6 21. 6 43. 2


C ontaine r

SATURN I Orbital Manned 27.0 27. 0


Vehicle

R e c o v e r y and Rejuvena- 2.0 9. 0 9.0 ,o 21. 0


tion

SATURN I1 D i r e c t C a r g o 7.5 72. 5 90.0 37.5 207.5


Container

SATURN I1 Orbital C a r g o 1. 1 13. 7 33.7 11. 6 60. 1


Container

SATURN I1 Orbital Manned 14. 3 4. 8 19. 1


Vehicle

R e c o v e r y and Rejuvena- 6. 0 6. 0
tion

SATURN I1 Orbit - Lunar , 13.5 9. 0 22. 5


C a r g o Vehicle

SATURN I1 Orbit - Lunar 8. 0 32. 0 40. 0


R e t u r n Vehicle

R e c o v e r y and Rejuvena- 3. 0 4. 5 4. 5 12. 0


tion
New P r o p u l s i o n Stages 10. 0 15. 0 15. 0 40. 0
Total 80.7 170.8 166.5 80. 4 498.4
L o s t in millions of dollars

' '286
Table 11- 34
LAUNCHING SITE COSTS*

CONSTRUCTION COSTS

Launch and Control F a c i l i t i e s 82.7


Technical Operations Facilities ' . 30.9
S e r v i c e and Logistical Facilities 136.3
Hous ing and Community F a c i l i t i e s I ' 103.6
Unforeseen Costs 35.5
Anticipated P r i c e I n c r e a s e Due t o 37.0
Economic Conditions

TOTAL 426.0

OPERATION COSTS (1962 - 1968) 605.0

GR 0 UND SUPPORT E Q U I P M E N T 107.8

TRANSPORTATION COSTS

Launching Site Construction Material 11.9


Supply of Required Liquids 5.6
Support Vehicles 31.4
Vehicles and Payload Containers 8.8
Scheduled and Special Airlift Support 24.6
Loading and Unloading 1.1

TOTAL - 83.4

PAYLOAD PACKAGING 86.9

GRAND TOTAL 1309. 1

1 *Cost in millions of dollars . , ..

2 87
Table 11-35
LAUNCHING SITE COSTS

--- F i e c d Year*

7 ’
1968 T o t a l
1960
- --
1961 1962
-
Construction Coats 80.0 84.0 110.0 69.0 83.0 426.0

Operation Costs 6.8 47.8 81.0 131.9 67.5 605.0

1 1
Ground Support 6.8 25.0 30.0 21.0 5.0 107.
Equipment

Trans port at ion Costs 1.0 2.5 3.4 6.8 16.7 18.6 2.9 83.4

Payload Packaging 2.4 2.6 10.5 19.6 10.4 86.9

TOTAL 81.0 86.5 129.4 151.2 221.2 191.1 85.8 1309.1


-- -
*Cost in milliona of dollars.

f I 1 Fiscal Year
1960 1961 -3- 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968, Total

Ground S y s t e m
Hardware
15.0 15. 9 20.2 ‘ 21.9 29.8 12.2 7.2 4.8 2.6 129.6

Outpost S y s t e m 0.3 0.8 3.4 3.8 3.3 4.8 2.5 1.0 0.8 21.5

1
Hardwar e

Operation and 7.50 7.50 7. 50 10.00 10.00 10.00 12.00 12.00 6.00 82.5
Maintenance

TOTAL 22.8 24.2 31.1 I 35.7 43.1 27.0 I 21.7 10.6 9.4 233.6

I *Cost i n m i l l i o m of dollars.

It w a s f u r t h e r a s s u m e d that communications of sufficient quality


and quantity are available on the o r b i t a l station, However, funds w e r e
included f o r l i m i t e d station equipment as well a s l i m i t e d ground t e r m i -
n a l equipment.

G. PERSONNEL TRALNING

T r a i n i n g of p e r s o n n e l r e q u i r e d f o r this p r o g r a m w i l l amount t o a
significant effort, B e s i d e s extensive, specialized t r a i n i n g f o r the l u n a r
outpost p e r s o n n e l , the o r b i t a l fue,ling c r e w s and the e a r t h launching c r e w s
r e q u i r e d s o m e d e g r e e of s p e c i a l training. Table 11-37 shows the e s t i -
m a t e d c o s t s for this p h a s e of the o v e r a l l p r o g r a m ,

C o s t of r e q u i r e d t r a i n i n g facilities includes s e t s of vehicle and


ground support h a r d w a r e f o r the launching c r e w s a s well a s mock-ups
of t h e flight capsules, Grbital station and lunar outpost f o r the s p a c e -
bound crews. School buildings and q u a r t e r s a r e a l s o included. It
is anticipated that considerable training can be accomplished in e x i s t -
ing facilities and in many of the proposed p r o g r a m R & D t e s t facilities.

Table II-37
TYPICAL PERSONNEL TRAINING COST

F Personnel Training

Orbital Crewo
Lunar Crews
1960
-
-
1961

1.0
0.5
-
Fisc
1961

12.4
4.3
Year*
q%i-

9.0
4.2
5.5
2.7
-
Total

46.7
22.4
Launching and 2.0 5.0 4.0 2.5 25. 0
Checkout Crews

TOTAL 3.5 22.7 17.2 10.7 94.1

Training Facilitie a 7.5 2.0 1.5 20. C

TOTAL 11.0 24.7 18.7 10.7 114. I


- - -
1-~
*Cost in millions of dollars.

H. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

The cost of the r e s e a r c h and development p r o g r a m is r e s t a t e d i n


this c h a p t e r in o r d e r to provide the overall c o s t picture. A detailed
breakdown of the cost was given in ChapLer VII. T h e r e f o r e , Table
11- 38 only s u m m a r i z e s the m a j o r i t e m s in this program.

One significant f a c t which should be noted i s the r e q u i r e m e n t f o r


F Y 1960 funds of approximately $66 million. A s h a s been stated e a r l i e r ,
the successful accomplishment of this p r o g r a m , one the schedule given
in a preceding chapter, depends on e a r l y funding support. The m a g n i -
tude of the R & D effort makes it mandatory that this p r o g r a m be initiated
e a r l y in 1960.

L PROGRAM MANAGEMENT

A p r o g r a m of this magnitude involving s o many different a s p e c t s


would r e q u i r e s o m e type of special management o r coordination group.
This group would a c t as a c e n t r a l p r o g r a m contro1,agency and would
be .responsible for a l l phases of the program. Shown in Table II-39
T a b l e 11-38
RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT COST BREAKDOWN

Item R & D C o s t b. F i s c a l Y e a r i n m i l l i o n s of dollars


196C 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 Total
Outpost S y s t e m and 3.4 79.7 136.6 103. 8 60. 6 21. 6 5.0 5.5 6. 5 422.7
Equipage

SATURN Vehicle 28. 4 92. 0 197. 5 !07. 0 53. 3 16. 0 13. 5 2. 0 609.7
System

Support 0. 9 1. 8 2. 8 2.4 0. 8 0.4 0. 1 9.2


Equipment

S o m m u n i cation, 19. 9 33.0 21. 4 10.4 7. 1 2. 5 1.5 1. 1 0. 6 98. 0


T r a c k i n g , and
S u r ve i l l a n c e

3uppor tin g 22.9 34. 6 41. 8 39.0 35. 9 27. 7 37.1 26. 5 12. 6 268.1
Research
-/- -
Detail Development '5.4- 5.4
and Funding P l a n '- . A .

Tacilitie s. 56. 1 48.0 9. 3 8. 0 5.2 126.6

TOTAL 37.0 z89.1 409.4 371. 1 Y62. 9 68, 2 47.2 35.1 19.7 1539.7
i s the e s t i m a t e d c o s t of this m a n a g e m e n t e f f o r t which i s i n addition t o
the n o r m a l m a n a g e m e n t s t r u c t u r e of the v a r i ous development a g e n c i e s
involved whose o p e r a t i n g c o s t s a r e p a r t of the o v e r a l l development c o s t s .

Table 11-39
r f 1

I *Cost in millions of d o l l a r s . I
J. SUMMARY

T h e p r e v i o u s p a r a g r a p h s of this c h a p t e r have d i s c u s s e d the m a j o r


c o s t i t e m s of the p r o g r a m . T a b l e I 1 - 4 0 s u m m a r i z e s t h e s e c o s t s . T h e
total c o s t of establishing the twelve-man outpost and the f i r s t y e a r of
o p e r a t i o n is slightly o v e r $6 billion. Only in F Y 1964, F Y 1965, and
F Y 1966 i s the annual r e q u i r e m e n t in e x c e s s of $1 billion. T h i s i s d u e
p r i m a r i l y t o the l a r g e vehicle production needed to support the f i r i n g
schedule. Table 11-41 plots t h e funds r e q u i r e d by f i s c a l y e a r . Once the
outpost i s e s t a b l i s h e d the annual funding will d e c r e a s e to a n e a r l y c o n -
s t a n t supply operation cost, If it i s d e s i r e d to expand the l u n a r outpost,
~
of c o u r s e , the d e c r e a s e in funds will not b e of t h e o r d e r shown; however,
s o m e r e d u c t i o n would occur s i n c e a l l the r e q u i r e d development, t r a i n i n g ,
f a c i l i t i e s , etc. , would e x i s t a t that time.

T h e c o s t of the o p e r a t i o n a l phase of this p r o g r a m will be a p p r o x i -


m a t e l y $890 million p e r y e a r . T h e s e funds include the c o s t of t h e r e -
q u i r e d v e h i c l e s , payloads, launch s i t e o p e r a t i o n s , communications,
p e r s o n n e l t r a i n i n g , p r o g r a m m a n a g e m e n t ] and a l i m i t e d amount of r e -
s e a r c h and development. T h i s i s based on 66 f l i g h t s p e r y e a r . If the
n u m b e r of flights c a n be reduced through advance of technology, o v e r a l l
r e q u i r e m e n t s reduction through refinement of e s t i m a t e s , o r u s e of l u n a r *

r e s o u r c e s , the a v e r a g e annual c o s t of maintaining the outpost c a n be


g r e a t l y reduced.

During the operational p h a s e of the p r o g r a m , the launch s i t e will


*
have the capability of firing eight vehicles p e r month (96 p e r y e a r ) , Since
this p r o g r a m r e q u i r e s only about 2 / 3 of that capability, it w a s a s s u m e d
that only the c o s t of this f r a c t i o n would be chargeable t o the p r o g r a m .
F i g u r e 11-83 s u m m a r i z e s the e n t i r e p r o g r a m schedule by plotting
the outs tanding ac c ompl i s hme nt s ve r s u s time. The s e accomplishments
c a n be achieved only through p r o p e r p r o g r a m funding, Any lack of
a s s u m e d support f r o m the financial o r technical standpoint will cause
delays in expected accomplishments.
Table 11-40
COST SUMMARY

Fiscal Y e a r

Item 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 Total

outpost 52. 0 70.0 10. 0 132. 0

Orbital Station 8.3 8. 3 16.6

401.8 636.8 747.2 402.0 , - 2187.8

80.7 170.8 166.5 80.4 498.4

. pzgg Launch Site & Operation 81. 1 86.5 129.4 151.2 221.2 191. 1 182. 8 180.1 85. 8 1309. 1

p tvY Communications & 22. 8 24. 2 31. 1 35. 7 43. 1 27. 0 21.7 18. 6 233.6
Electronics
-
11.0 14. 5 19. 6 24.7 18. 7 10.7 10. 2 4.7 114. 1

@ 289. 1 409.4 371. 1 162.9 68.2 47.2 35.1 19.7 1539.7

p 7-9f P r o g r a m Management 1. 0 2.0 3.0 3.0 3,o 3.0 3. 0 2.0 1.0 21.0

TOTAL 241.8 412.8 595.7 640.9 1007.4 1125.6 1179. 1 7 2 8 . 4 120.6


TABLE ' II-41
SUMMARY O F HORIZON ACCOMPLISHMENTS

195 9 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966


1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4

I
I
1I I
t First Lunar Soft Landing
I
I

First Manned Lunar Circumnavigation t

I I
F i r s t Manned Lunar Landing t

I
First M a n Returned from Moon
I I I
- F U N D I N G BY F I S C A L Y E A R

1200 -

-
-
10-00

BUI LO-UP PHASE

200
200t-

t
-
1 1 I I I I I I I 1

Fig. 11-83. Outstanding Accomplishments V e r s u s T i m e


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Sheffner, Eckfeldt and Spector, The Pepsin-Digest-Residue Amino.
Acid Indeff of Net P r o t e i n Utilization, The Journal of Nutrition,
vol 60, no 1, September 1956.
Sholto, D. W . , Farming on the Moon, 3ournal of the *BE, vol 15, cy 1,
-
J a n u a r y F e b r u a r y 1956.
Slater,' E. T. O., Psychological P r o b l e m s of Space Flight, J o u r n a l
of the * B E , vol 9, cy 1, January 1950.
Space Aeronautics, Detailed Report on San Antonio Space F l i g h t
Symposium, December 1958.
T a y l o r , E l l i s R., Captain USN, P h y s i c a l a n d P h y s i o l o g i c a l Data f o r
Bioastronautics, School of Aviation Medicine, USAF, 18 March
1958.
Thompson, G. V. E . , T h e L u n a r Base, Journal of the * B E , vol 10,
' c y 2, March 1951.
T i s c h e r and Lavery, Food f r o m Algae, A Review of the L i t e r a t u r e ,
Q u a r t e r m a s t e r Food and Container Institute for the A r m e d
F o r c e s , October 1958.
T i s c h e r and Brockmann, F r e e z e - D r y i n g Ups Quality of QM Quick S e r v e
Rations, QM Food and Container Institute f o r the A r m e d F o r c e s ,
1958.
T i s c h e r , R. G., Quick-Serve Meals f o r the A r m y , Food Engineering,
F e b r u a r y 19 57,
T i s c h e r , Wodicka and Bodner, Feeding Systems of the F u t u r e , Q u a r t e r -
M a s t e r Review, J a n u a r y - F e b r u a r y 1957.
USAF School of Aviation Medicine, Mechanisms of Natural Acclimatization,
M a r c h 1956.
Von B r a u n , Ley and Whipple, Conquest of the Moon, Viking, 1953,
Von K a r m a n , T , and H. Dryden, Vistas in Astronautics , Aeronautical
Sciences and Space Flight, Astronautics Division v o l 1,
Whipple, F, L., Astronomy f r o m the Space Station, J o u r n a l of the *BIS '
vol 1 2 J cy 1 , January 1953.

301
Campbell, P. A. , Aeromedical and Biological Consideration of
F l i g h t above the Atmosphere, Journal of the *BIS, v o l 14,
-
c y 1, J a n u a r y F e b r u a r y 1955.
.
C l a r k , Neville P , Capt USN, G. D. Zuidema, J a m e s R. P r i m e ,
Studies of the P r o t e c t i v e Qualities of Clothing Against T h e r m a l
Radiation, WADC Tech Rep 58-578, ASTIA Doc No 206909.
Cooper , L a n g , Holbrook, C e r t a i n Ecological A s p e c t s of a Closed Lunar
B a s e , Rand Corp. , RM-1304, 6 March 1958.
Calloway and Spector, Nitrogen Utilization during C a l o r i c Restriction,
Part I, 11, 111, Journal of Nutrition Vol 56 No 4, 4 August 1955.
Calloway, G r o s s m a n , Bowman and Calhoun, The Effect of P r e v i o u s
Level of P r o t e i n Feeding on Wound Healing and on Metabolic
Response to h j u r y , S u r g e r y , St. Louis, Vol 37, No 6 , June,
1955.
Call6way and Spector, Nitrogen Balance a s Related to C a l o r i c and
P r o t e i n Intake i n Active Young Men, T h e A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l of
Clinical Nutrition, Vol 2, No 6 , November-December 1954.
Galloway, Cole, Spector and Thomas, Nutritive Value of I r r a d i a t e d
Turkey, Part I and II, J o u r n a l of The A m e r i c a n Dietetic Assoc.
Vol 3 3 , No 10, October 1957.
Calloway, Kurtz a n d P o t t s , Some Physiologic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of E s t e r s
of Cetyl Alcohol, Canadian J o u r n a l of B i o c h e m i s t r y a n d Physiology
VOl 37, 1959.
Calloway and K u r t z , The Absorbability of Natural a n d Modified F a t s ,
Food R e s e a r c h Vol 21, No 6, 1956.
Calloway and Spector, Reduction of X-Radiation M o r t a l i t y by Cabbage '
and Broccoli, Proceedings of the Society f o r Experimental
Biology and Medicine, Vol 100, 1959.
Cross, C. A. , The Fundamental B a s i s of Power Generation i n a
Satellite Vehicle, Journal of the *BIS.
F i e l d e r , G i l b e r t , Why Send a Rocket to the Moon, Spaceflight, vol 1,
N o 9, October 1958.
Gerathewohl, S. J. , Steinkamp, G. R., Human-Factors Requirements
f o r Putting a Man in Orbit, P r e s e n t e d 9th International
Astronautical C o n g r e s s , 25-30 August 1958.
Haldane, J. B. S. , The Purification of A i r During Space T r a v e l ,
J o u r n a l of the *BISj vol 14, c y 2, March-April 1955.
Holbrock, R. D. , L u n a r B a s e Planning Consideratione, Rand Gorp. ,
RM-1436, 2 4 F e b r u a r y 1958.
Hodgson a n d T i s c h e r , A Bibliography of Space Feeding P r o b l e m s ,
F o r d Technology, Vol XI11 No 9, 1958.
Huth, J. H. , Food P r e a e r v a t i o n , Rand Corp., RM-1438, 24 F e bkruarv.
,.
1958.

!
Oberth, H . , Menschen i m Weltraum, Econ.
Orbital and Satellite Vehicles Massachusetts Institute of
Technology, 1958.
Ryan, C . , Conquest of the Moon, Viking P r e s s , 1953.
Ruppe, H . , A Survey of the Lunar P r o j e c t , *ABMA, DS-TM-170,
27 F e b r u a r y 1958. (SECRET)
Smith, R, S., A. C. Clark, Exploration of the Moon, Mulier, 1954,
V a l i e r , M. , Raketemfahrt, R. Oldenborere;, 1930.
Vestine. E. H . , P h v s i c s of Solar Lunar Flight, Rand Corp., R M -
1344, 2 4 F e b r u a r y 1959
Wilson, A. G. ,. I n t e r p l a i e t a r y Exploration, Rand Corp. RM-1432,
c y 2c25, 24 F e b r u a r y 1958.
Young, R. S., T r i p Report - Meeting with Dr. Bruno R o ~ s i ,*ABMA,
December 1 9 - 2 0 , 1958.
Young, R. S., 135th Meeting of the A m e r i c a n Association f o r t h e
Advancement of Science ( T r i p Report) 26-31 December 1958.

P a y l o a d Considerations

Adams, C. C . , Nutrition in Space Flight, G e n e r a l Dynamics C o r p , ,


November 1957,
A i r University Quarterly Review, The A i r F o r c e Ballistic M i s s i l e ,
vol IX, No. 3 , 1957.
A r m s t r o n g , C , R., Space Physiology, J o u r n a l of the *BIS, vol 12,
c y 4, ?uly 1953.
A i r University School of Aviation Medicine, R e p o r t s on Space Medicine,
F e b r u a r y I 9 59.
A r m s t r o n g , H, G., P r i n c i p l e s and P r a c t i c e of Aviation Medicine,
Williams and W ifkins, B d t i m o r e, 19 5 2, 3 ed,
Aviation Medical Acceleration Laboratory, The Effects of an Air-to-
A i r Tracking Task, NADC-MA-5807, 2 June 1958,
Benson and P e r y a m , P r e f e r e n c e f o r Foods in Relation to Cost,
J o u r n a l of Applied Psychology, Vol 42, N o 3 , 1958.
B l a i r , J . , Freeze-Dehydration - New Technique Considered for
Military Meat P r e s e r v a t i o n , Activities Report 3 r d Q u a r t e r ,
October 1954,
Bowman, N. J , , The Food and Atmosphere Control P r o b l e m in S p a c e
V e s s e l s , J o u r n a l of the *BE, Vol 12, p a r t 1, c y 3 , p a r t 2,
c y 4, July 1953.
Brockmann, Dehydrated Foods, 134th Annual Meeting of the A m e r i c a n
Chemical Society, Chicago, September 8, 1958. ,
Brockmann, T i m e Requirements f o r P r o c e s s i n g F r e e z e Dehydrated
Foods, 10th International C o n g r e e e of Refrigeration, I

Copenhagen, Denmark, 1 9 - 2 6 August 1959.


r'a n s ~ ot r Vehicles
'I

Advanced P r o p u l s i o n Systems Symposium, 11-13 December 1957.


Callaway, R. C . , P e r f o r m a n c e Evaluation of Typical JUI\TO V
Configurations, *AB-, DSP=TM-13-58. (SECRET)
Dobrin, S., P r o p u l s i o n f o r Moon-Landing Maneuvers, *ABh4A,
M a r c h 1959.
G a r d n e r , Ruppe, and Straly, Comments on P r o b l e m s Relating to the
L u n a r Landing Vehicle, *ABM, DSP-TN-13-58, 4 November
1958.
Hoffman, G. A . , M a t e r i a l s f o r Space Flight, Rand C o r p . , RM-1420,
1 July 1958.
Jordan, W. Y , Theoretical P e r f o r m a n c e and Thermodynamic Working
C h a r t s for the Nuclear Hydrogen Rocket, and Revision Sheets,
*-MA, DSP-TN-6-58, 22 July 1958. (SECRET)
Jordan, W. Y , Nuclear Rocket P r o p u l s i o n - Its Status and Application
and a S u m m a r y of Participating Agencies, *ABMA, DSP-TN-1-58,
30 A p r i l 1958. (SECRET)
J o r d a n , W. Y . , Some Considerations of Nuclear Rocket Propulsion f o r ,
the Second Stage of SATURN, * A B M , DSP-TN-3-59,10 F e b r u a r y
1959. (SECRET)
Koelle, Williams, Huber, G a l l o w a y JUNO V Space Ve h i c l e Develop-
m e n t P r o g r a m , *AE3MA, DSP-TM-11-58, 15 November 1958.
(SECRET)
Koelle, Williams, H u b e r , G a l l o w a y , JUNO V Space Vehicle Development
P r o g r a m ( P h 1 ) Booster Feasibility Demonstration, * m u ,
DSP-TM-10-58, 13 October 1958. (SECRET)
Koelle, Williams, Huber, SATURN S y s t e m Study, * ' A B M , DSP-1-59,
13 M a r c h 1959. (SECRET)
Lang, H. A . , Lunar I n s t r u m e n t C a r r i e r - L a n d i n g Factors, Rand Gorp.,
RM-1725, c y I , 4 June 1956.
P r o p u l s i o n f o r A i r c r a f t and M i s s i l e s , P a r t IV; Rocket Missile and
Advanced Space Propulsion S y s t e m s ; Ad HOC Group on
Propulsion f o r A / C and M i s s i l e s , Office of the A s s i s t a n t
S e c r e t a r y of Defense, 7 April 1958, (SECRET, R E S T N C T E D
DATA) ( U )
R a e t h e r , M. J., Applications of Thermonuclear Reactions t o Rocket
Propulsion, * A B M , DSP-TN-12-58,28 November 1958.
Rocketdyne, R-621P, P r o g r a m Planning E x e r c i s e for the Development
oi an Advanced Rocket Engine, 1 6 September 1957. (SECRET,
RESTRICTED DATA) (U)
R u s s e l l , J, W . , P e r r y , W. R. I The YUNO Family (Weights &
P e r f o r m a n c e s of Rocket Vehisles), *ABMA, D S P - T N - 14-58,
4 D e c e m b e r 1958. (SECRET)
Von B r a u n , W. , E . S t u h l i n g e r , H . H . K o e l l e , ABMA Preoentation to
the National A e r o n a u t i c s and Space Administration, A B U
D - T N - I - 5 9 , 1 5 D e c e m b e r 1958. (SECRET)
Wilcox, E. J. , Psychological Consequences of Space Travel, Journal
of the JIBIS.
Wilson, A. G. , The Space Environment, Rand Gorp., R M -1 4 2 7 ,
24 F e b r u a r y 1958.
Wodicka, Feeding the Army of Tomorrow, E'cccl Tech:ology, v o l XII,
no 12, 1958.
Wodicka, V. 0. , Food Logistics, QuarterxxEter R e v i e w , Xovember -
December 1957.
1 L L T X ~ ~R. S. , Experimental Biology F r o g r t r i i ,
V " * h 3 X L L , 1 5 J a n u a r y 1359.
z. 0-mg and Spector, Physical Performancz :l;cpzcil;; zs.3 L\jLLri;~
7 ,
-t:
Evaluation of Rations by Animal Experirrrentation, The .Lrnerican
Journal of Clinical Nutritions , 1957.

Re-Entry - E a r t h Return

1
i_
-
x .

,._-._-
I
: ~ j n c t o r i e s- Launch Sites
C a r r , R. E., L u n a r Coasting T r a j e c t o r i e s and Addendum, *ABM,
7 April 1958.
C l a r k e , A . G : , Electromagnetic Launching as a Major Contribution
to Space Flight, J o u r n a l of the *BE, vol 9,cy 6 , November 1950.
Gibbons, J. P . , F. T. S h a v e r s , Simulation of F1igl-k Path8 to the
Moon, *ABMA, DC-TN-215, c y 5, 14 M a r c h '1958.
H e r r i c k , S., T r a j e c t o r y Fundamentals, Rand Gorp., RM 1303, 7 March -
1958.
Hoelker , R. F,, Lunar P r o b e F l i g h t Introduction t o Flight G e o m e t r y
and Accuracy, *ABMA, DA-TN-58-58, 22 August 1958.
Hutcheson, J. H., Earth P e r i o d 24 hr Satellites, Rand Coxp., RM-1460,
7 August 1958.
L i e s k e , H. A . , Accuracy Requirements f o r T r a j e c t o r i e s i n the Earth-
Moon System, Rand Corporation, P - 1022, c y 1, 19 F e b r u a r y
1957.
L i e s k e , H. A , , Lunar T r a j e c t o r y Studies, Rand Corp., RM-1293,
26 F e b r u a r y 1958.
L i e s k e , H. A., Circumlunar T r a j e c t o r y Studies, Rand Gorp.,
RM-1441, 25 June 1958.
L i e s k e , H. A , , Lunar Instrument C a r r i e r Ascent F l i g h t Mechanics,
Rand Gorp., RM-1727, c y 22, 4 June 1956. (SECRET)
L i e s k e , H. A., Lunar Instrument C a r r i e r Launch T i m e Tolerance,
Rand C o r p . , RM-1994, cy 57, 4 October 1957. (SECRET)
Oberth, H. , An E s t i m a t e of the Flight T i m e and Accuracy of an Earth
to Moon M i s s i l e Plotted Against the Shut Off Velocity, * A B U ,
1 June 1957.
O'Sullivan, J. J. , Space Flight Ground F a c i l i t y Requirements P r o b l e m s ,
Rand C o r p , , RM-1431, 24 F e b r u a r y 1958.
Rupp e , H., W . H. Straly, Derivation and Calculation of Initial Values
of M o o n Hitting T r a j e c t o r i e s , *,ABM, DSP-TM-3-58, 30 May,
1958.
Rupp e, H. O., Satellite Technology Land Space Navigation, * A B M ,
DSP-TN-9-58, 9 September 1958.
Straly, W . H . , P r o j e c t S u r e r b , * A B M , DSP-TM-9-58, 25 September
1958.
Straly, W . H. Some Comments P e r t a i n i n g to Orbit P l a n e Change
"Dog-Legging:' * A B M , DSP-Internal Note 2, 5 J a n u a r y 1959.
Straly, W. H,, Ruppe, H. O., Some E a r t h to Moon Flight Paths As
Simulated by Analog Computer, *ABMA, DSP-TN-2-58,
1 July 1958.
Swanson, C. D?; Russell, J. W . , D e p a r t u r e Velocities f o r I n t e r p l a n e t a r y
P r o b e s , *ABMA, DSP-TN-2-59, 24 J a n u a r y 1959.