Understanding Coal Analysis by Michael Hutagalung on 02/06/08 at 1:30 am | 78 Comments | | How to understand a coal sample analysis?

What is the difference between proximate and ultimate analysis? What is AR (as-received) basis? Is is the same with DAF (dry, ash free) basis? How about AD (air-dried) basis? And what coal ash analysis is all about? Well, it is indeed a long list of questions to answer but the explanation is actually not as twisted as it seems. The main purpose of coal sample analysis is to determine the rank of the coal along with its intrinsic characteristics. Furthermore, these data will be used as the fundamental consideration for future concerns, for instance: coal trading and its utilizations. Coal Properties Coal comes in four main types or ranks: lignite or brown coal, bituminous coal or black coal, anthracite and graphite. Each type of coal has a certain set of physical parameters which are mostly controlled by moisture, volatile content (in terms of aliphatic or aromatic hydrocarbons) and carbon content. 1. Moisture Moisture is an important property of coal, as all coals are mined wet. Groundwater and other extraneous moisture is known as adventitious moisture and is readily evaporated. Moisture held within the coal itself is known as inherent moisture and is analyzed. Moisture may occur in four possible forms within coal: o Surface moisture: water held on the surface of coal particles or macerals o Hydroscopic moisture: water held by capillary action within the microfractures of the coal o Decomposition moisture: water held within the coal s decomposed organic compounds o Mineral moisture: water which comprises part of the crystal structure of hydrous silicates such as clays. 2. Volatile matter Volatile matter in coal refers to the components of coal, except for moisture, which are liberated at high temperature in the absence of air. This is usually a mixture of short and long chain hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons and some sulfur. The volatile matter of coal is determined under rigidly controlled standards. In Australian and British laboratories this involves heating the coal sample to 900 ± 5 °C (1650 ±10 °F) for 7 minutes in a cylindrical silica crucible in a muffle furnace. American Standard procedures involve heating to 950 ± 25 °C (1740 ± 45 °F) in a vertical platinum crucible.

3. Ash Ash content of coal is the non-combustible residue left after coal is burnt. It represents the bulk mineral matter after carbon, oxygen, sulfur and water (including from clays) has been driven off during combustion. Analysis is fairly straightforward, with the coal thoroughly burnt and the ash material expressed as a percentage of the original weight. 4. Fixed carbon The fixed carbon content of the coal is the carbon found in the material which is left after volatile materials are driven off. This differs from the ultimate carbon content of the coal because some carbon is lost in hydrocarbons with the volatiles. Fixed carbon is used as an estimate of the amount of coke that will be yielded from a sample of coal. Fixed carbon is determined by removing the mass of volatiles determined by the volatility test, above, from the original mass of the coal sample. Coal Proximate Analysis The objective of coal ultimate analysis is to determine the amount of fixed carbon (FC), volatile matters (VM), moisture, and ash within the coal sample. The variables are measured in weight percent (wt. %) and are calculated in several different bases. AR (as-received) basis is the most widely used basis in industrial applications. AR basis puts all variables into consideration and uses the total weight as the basis of measurement. AD (air-dried) basis neglect the presence of moistures other than inherent moisture while DB (dry-basis) leaves out all moistures, including surface moisture, inherent moisture, and other moistures. DAF (dry, ash free) basis neglect all moisture and ash constituent in coal while DMMF (dry, mineral-matter-free) basis leaves out the presence of moisture and mineral matters in coal, for example: quartz, pyrite, calcite, etc. Mineral matter is not directly measured but may be obtained by one of a number of empirical formula based on the ultimate and proximate analysis. Proximate Analysis unit (ar) (ad) (db) (daf) Moisture (wt. %) 3.3 2.7 Ash (wt. %) 22.1 22.2 22.8 Volatile Matter (wt. %) 27.3 27.5 28.3 36.6 Fixed Carbon (wt. %) 47.3 47.6 48.9 63.4 Gross Calorific Value (MJ/kg) 24.73 24.88 25.57 33.13 A table is shown above containing an example of proximate analysis data of coal. Conversion from one basis to another can be performed using mass balance equations. The standard practice for proximate analysis of coal may be referred to ASTM D3172-07a or ISO 17246:2005. Coal Ultimate Analysis

Similar to coal proximate analysis, the objective of coal ultimate analysis is to determine the constituent of coal, but rather in a form of its basic chemical elements. The ultimate analysis determines the amount of carbon (C), hydrogen (H), oxygen (O), sulfur (S), and other elements within the coal sample. These variables are also measured in weight percent (wt. %) and are calculated in the bases explained above. Ultimate Analysis unit (ar) (ad) (db) (daf) Carbon (C) (wt. %) 61.1 61.5 63.2 81.9 Hydrogen (H) (wt. %) 3.00 3.02 3.10 4.02 Nitrogen (N) (wt. %) 1.35 1.36 1.40 1.81 Total Sulfur (S) (wt. %) 0.4 0.39 0.39 Oxygen (O) (wt. %) 8.8 8.8 9.1 A table is shown above containing an example of coal ultimate analysis data and showing significant elements only. Conversion from one basis to another can be performed using mass balance equations. The standard practice for ultimate analysis of coal may be referred to ASTM D3176-89(2002) or ISO 17247:2005. Ash Analysis wt.% of ash wt.% of ash Elements (Calculated) (Measured) Na2O 0.35 Na 0.26 MgO 0.48 Mg 0.29 Al2O3 20.0 Al 10.6 SiO 74.1 Si 34.6 P2O5 0.05 P 0.05 K2O 1.1 K 0.92 CaO 0.68 Ca 0.49 TiO2 0.80 Ti 0.48 Mn3O4 0.06 Mn 0.05 Fe2O3 3.25 Fe 2.28 Oxides An analysis of coal ash may also be carried out to determine not only the composition of coal ash, but also to determine the levels at which trace elements occur in ash. These data are useful for environmental impact modelling, and may be obtained by spectroscopic methods such as ICP-OES or AAS. An example of coal ash composition is shown on the right. Beside composition of coal ash, ash fusion point is also one significant parameter in ash analysis. The optimum operating temperature of coal processing will depend on the gas

temperature and also the ash fusion point. Melting of the ashes may cause them to stick to the walls of the reactor and result in a build-up. You might be interested to read an article of coal characterization equipments here, illustrated with photos, including coal proximate analysis, ultimate analysis, and ash fusion point analysis equipments.









U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 1823 Edited by D.W. Golightly and F.O. Simon

Preparation of Coal for Analysis
By F.G. Walthall and S.L. Fleming, II Abstract Bulk quantities of coal weighing 3 to 15 kg are individually reduced to approximately 150 m m (100 mesh) by comminution procedures that minimize contamination by grinding surfaces or by other samples. Seventy grams of each pulverized coal sample is oxidized at 525° C for 36 h to determine the percent ash and to provide ash required for chemical and instrumental analyses.

INTRODUCTION All procedures described in subsequent sections of this bulletin on the chemical and instrumental analysis of coals depend upon the comminution step. The pulverization of bulk coal samples from the field serves both to homogenize the coal, which typically is quite heterogeneous, and to reduce the material to small particles needed for rapid ashing and dissolution. The comminution of a field sample and the splitting of the resulting pulverized sample into portions to be distributed to various laboratories, while minimizing contamination from grinding surfaces, sieves, and other coals, are essential to the success of all subsequent chemical measurements. Thus, the comminution process is of critical importance, and all aspects of the laboratory arrangement and of procedures for grinding coals must be carefully planned (Swaine, 1985). Coals submitted for chemical analysis are first received and prepared by the sample preparation (grinding) laboratory. The typical sizes of individual field samples vary from 3 to 15 kg. The normal preparation procedure requires that each air-dried coal sample pass through a jaw crusher; one subsample (split) of the crushed material (2 to 4 mm, or 5 to 10 mesh) is then taken for the ultimate and proximate analyses, and another split is reduced to approximately 150 m m (100 mesh) by a vertical grinder for chemical analysis. An additional split is kept for archival storage, and the excess sample is returned to the submitter.

Boston. Compressed-air supply. 18. MA.5-cm diameter. 21. NJ. 0. NY. equipment.7 mL) with snap caps. Polystyrene vials (26 mL) with caps. sample spread less than 25 mm deep. 100 mesh. with lids. 17. Spex Industries. Kiln. sides less than 38 mm high. 22. Vertical grinder.Equipment The instrumentation. 19. 23. 7. Porcelain crucibles. Riffle splitter. Inc. 14.. NJ. . 12. NJ. San Francisco. Sieves. 6. 5. Polystyrene jars. model 2X6. 22. Macalaster Bicknell Company. 19. Sturtevant Mill Company. 16. Rochester. 2. the pressure at which the compressed air is supplied should be kept below 0. model 6R (catalog no.) Safety Equipment and Provisions 1. Bico Braun. stainless steel. alumina ceramic plates with aluminum ring. 242-72A). Laboratory coats or coveralls. 8. 21. aluminum ore pan. sealed by plastic bag sealmaster (item 8). 0. Aluminum pans (23 cm circular "pie" pans). Paper cartons. 8. Safety goggles for protection of eyes from small projectiles and dust from grinding machines. 15 ´ 30 cm. 30 ´ 46 cm. 5. Spex Industries. Packaging Aids Corporation. Sturtevant Mill Company. 6 kW. Wire brush. 18. CA. 20. 3. (For safety. 20.8-cm diameter. 3. Mixer-mill. with pans. Jaw crusher. Spatula. Exhaust hoods. 17. Plastic drying pans. Burbank. 11. nylon screen in methacrylate rings. Laboratory balance. 1. 65 to 70 g. Wards Natural Science Establishment. 24. Rolls crusher. stainless steel. 2. Edison. The kiln and balance are included because this laboratory both determines the ash from coal and supplies coal ash to other laboratories for chemical analysis. 13. 15.55 L. model 8000.005 to 500 g. Edison. 120 mL. 8X5. Inc. Polyethylene vials (polyvials.. partially corrugated manganese steel jaw plates. Wax paper. and related items required for the safe operation and maintenance of a grinding laboratory for coal are listed here. MA. Plastic bags. Ear covers (muff type) or inserts for protection from loud noises emitted by grinding machinery. Plastic bag sealmaster. filtered. CA. with hose and nozzle. 3. Boston.EQUIPMENT AND PROCEDURES Sample Preparation (Grinding) Laboratory-. 4. size and location shown in figure 8. Millville. Lint-free paper towels. 10. 9.2 kPa (30 psi). Cleaning sand (clean quartz sand).

3. and injury (especially to the hands) that can be inflicted by the powerful machinery required for grinding of samples. which may include chest X-ray examinations to reveal developing respiratory disorders such as silicosis. and an air-filter mask should be used at all times while operating the crushing and grinding equipment. Explosion-proof switches and light fixtures in grinding laboratory. 5. Safety shoes with protective steel toes. are generally considered to be a good preventive measure.25 kg). Safety Procedures As in all procedures for the comminution of geologic materials. Electrical power to grinding equipment should be switched off before hands or tools are inserted into the machinery. 6. electrostatic sparks. A rapid stream of compressed air. 7. Safety goggles. The following procedure is suggested for the grinding laboratory. The . etc. which contains heavy machinery that is capable of producing significant floor vibrations. 8. ear protection. small projectiles emanating from the grinding process for a sample. Resurface worn ceramic plates that are used on the vertical grinder. Sample Preparation (Grinding) Laboratory--Facilities The grinding laboratory. 4. Plastic gloves. 5. high concentrations of coal dust in air can constitute an explosion hazard. 1. an adequate ventilation system and the complete absence of high-temperature sources (cigarettes. 5. Replace worn drive belts. Identify all grease fittings and keep the fittings capped.4. Moreover. Fire extinguishers (ABC tri-class dry chemical. Maintenance of Equipment Adequate maintenance of equipment basically consists of regular lubrication and replacement of worn components. used in cleaning grinder surfaces. disposable. Lubricate each piece of equipment in accordance with an established schedule that is posted near the device. 6. sparks from electrical switches. the noise of the machinery. flames. Respirator masks with interchangeable paper filters. Periodic medical examinations. precautions must be taken to protect the operator of grinding equipment from dust inhalation. Keep drawings and brochures related to equipment on file for lists of proper replacement parts and for instructions on proper lubrication. should always be directed away from the operator.) are essential for a safe grinding facility for coal. 2. should be located on the ground floor of a building. Replace worn parts on jaw crusher. a laboratory coat. Thus.

however. longer drying times may be required for samples that tend to stick to surfaces during grinding. which have been labeled in the field. Adjacent to the laboratory is an office area (31 m2). Crushing and Grinding The coal sample. Typically. Generally. which is a flowchart that shows the treatment and routing of each sample. The empty plastic bag is placed under the pan for later use.laboratory should have no overhead water plumbing. moisture is readily apparent on these samples. Archives of samples are stored in a separate area of the facility. are removed from the box and necessary recordkeeping is first completed. Special grinding and routing instructions that accompany the sample are noted on a form that also has descriptive information pertaining to the coal. Electrical power for equipment is made available through eight duplex outlets (single phase. in which field samples are received and information concerning each sample is recorded. A sample-drying room (20 m2) is used both for short-term storage and for drying of samples. These and subsequent steps are outlined in figure 9. because the failure. The individual plastic bags. Geological Survey for all grinding procedures on coal is shown in figure 8. Each of these samples is poured into a plastic or aluminum pan. and each of the sample numbers is written on a strip of masking tape attached to the pan. as received from the field. Geological Survey. including fire-sprinkler systems. is pulverized to 150 m m (100 mesh) in a vertical grinder. 110-V alternating current. 220-V alternating current.S. which is intended for chemical analysis and archiving within the U. 20 A) and four outlets providing three-phase. This laboratory occupies an area of 51 m2 and has four specially constructed exhaust hoods that are ducted to a "rotocone" dust collector. 30 A. or the coal powder commonly present in the samples does not move about freely as the container is agitated. and hot and cold tapwater are available at the sink. samples are received in plastic bags that are tightly packed into a cubic box that has a 30-cm edge. This crushed material is then divided into three splits. Fire extinguishers that use carbon dioxide or halonTM are suggested. Description of Procedure 1. or breakup. Samples that need air drying are identified. A water drain is located in the center of the floor. . The second split. The remaining split is returned to the submitter. of such plumbing presents a serious hazard to both the equipment and the operator. 2. Wet samples typically are air dried for one week. The arrangement of the laboratory currently used by the U. The first split is forwarded to a laboratory for standard ultimate and proximate analyses.S. Compressed air is provided at five outlets. consists of 3 to 15 kg of material that first is reduced to a particle size of 2 to 4 mm (5 to 10 mesh) in a jaw crusher.

The simultaneous use of two vertical grinders is recommended. 10. The steps followed in the ashing process are listed here. Samples are taken into the grinding laboratory to be crushed one at a time.3. 70 g of coal is split for hightemperature (525° C) ashing. This practice reduces the possibility of cross contamination. the sample is homogenized by rolling it on a sheet of waxed paper. This arrangement enables a machine operator to pulverize one sample while the previously pulverized sample is being split and the other grinder is being cleaned. while the remainder of the samples are stored on a cart outside the door of the grinding laboratory. Just prior to crushing the first sample. 5.7 mL). and the submitter receives a 140-g portion in plastic bags. and a 15-cm-long plastic bag is filled from split D for return to the submitter.5-g sample for delayed-neutron determinations of uranium and thorium is placed in a polyvial. and the polyvial is filled to within 3 mm of the top. a polystyrene vial (26 mL). 8. Forty sequentially numbered porcelain crucibles (or evaporating dishes) are cleaned and dried prior to ashing the coal samples. All remaining sample is placed in the original plastic bag. 4. Each sample is split by a riffle splitter inside a hood (46 ´ 61 ´ 61 cm). Containers needed for sample splits from the crushing process are cleaned with a stream of air and labeled prior to the crushing procedure. The weight of each crucible. 10. . These individual portions are to be used for ashing and for subsequent chemical and instrumental analyses. which is then resealed and returned to the submitter. After crushing the entire sample. crushed sample is fed into a riffle splitter (fig. is sufficiently constant to make repeated weighings unnecessary for each ashing cycle. A similar method for preparing coal samples is described in the ASTM (1984a) book of standards. Then. 10) to produce splits A and B. A minimum of 100 g of sample from the first split is poured into the container for samples that are intended for ultimate and proximate analyses (fig. splits C and D). 6. the homogeneous. split A). and a snap-cap polyvial (3. the gap between the jaws of the jaw crusher is adjusted to approximately 4 mm. 10. 7. 1. a separate 3. a 140-g split for the ultimate and proximate analyses is placed in a metal can. the paper carton and the polystyrene vial are filled approximately two-thirds full. split B) is fed again into the riffle splitter (fig. Splits must be prepared for five laboratories: a 20-g split for analysis by neutron activation is packaged in a paper carton. The second split (fig. Ashing Procedure Pulverized coal samples are ashed in an electrically heated kiln that can ash 40 samples simultaneously. Split C (fig. approximately 70 g. 10) is distributed into a paper carton (550 mL).

wipe off the plates with a KimwipeTM tissue soaked with acetone. clean the pan with a water-dampened sponge. Blow away loose dust from the pan with a stream of air. generally. Another method for determining ash in coal and coke is described by the ASTM (1984a) book of standards. and the kiln is slowly heated to 200° C. then. 5. as you would in grinding a coal sample. 3. switch on electrical power to the exhaust system. After the crucibles have cooled to room temperature. For the vertical grinder. and again blow away loose material with a fast stream of air from the compressed-air line. d. Blow away loose dust from the plates and pan with a stream of air. Finally. In the work area and hood. and three 6-mm-diameter glass beads are placed in each jar. The crucibles are placed in the kiln. b. the temperature is increased to 525° C and the ashing is completed at that temperature. a. The electrical power to the kiln is switched on. the electrical power is switched off and the kiln and samples are allowed to cool (1 to 2 h). Approximately 70 g of sample is weighed into each crucible. e. After 36 h. After the kiln is operated at 200° C for 1. Remove buildup of sample on the crusher plates with a wire brush. . and the percent ash is calculated. These homogenized samples are provided to the chemical laboratories for analysis. 4. the "crucibleplus-ash" weight is measured for each sample. Cleaning of Work Area and Equipment 1. and the jar is closed.5 h. and dry the plates with a stream of air from the compressed-air line. Remove loose dust on the plates and surrounding area with a fast stream of air from the compressed-air line. 6. For the jaw crusher. c. Pass clean sand through the grinder. 2. and repeat step 3. Finally. These data are recorded. the temperature is increased to 350° C and is maintained at that temperature for 2 h. b. Appropriate records are maintained for the weights of the sample and the crucible and for the sample number or name used by the laboratory. a. Each jar subsequently is placed into a mixer-mill and agitated for 30 s. Make certain that the vents on the hoods are open. 4. a period of 36 h is required. 3. Forty 118 mL polystyrene jars are labeled.a. Ash from each crucible is then transferred into an individual polystyrene jar. Wipe off the plates with a water-dampened sponge.2.

Petroleum products. . and coke: Philadelphia. lubricants.a. c. _______ 1984b. and fossil fuels. coal. 323. Dry the cleaned surfaces with a stream of air. Wipe the inside of the hood and the counter space with a water-dampened sponge. and fossil fuels. D. v. 1984a. p. 298-312.05: Gaseous fuels. v. 4. p. b. v. Petroleum products. p.05: Gaseous fuels. coal. D2013-72(1978) Standard method of preparing coal samples for analysis: 1984 annual book of ASTM standards. Modern methods in bituminous coal analysis: trace elements: CRC Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry. Vacuum cleaning with a cleaner that does not generate sparks is quite appropriate. 401-404. Once each week. Swaine.J. 5. ASTM. thoroughly clean the entire floor with a broom and dust pan.. sect. ASTM. no. 1985. lubricants. 5. sect. D3174-82 Standard test method for ash in the analysis sample of coal and coke from coal: 1984 Annual Book of ASTM Standards. 15. 05. REFERENCES American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). 05. and coke: Philadelphia.

Coal maceral groups. as shown below. It is of higher quality than lignite coal but of poorer quality than anthracite coal. It is considered the lowest rank of coal. and an ash content ranging from 6% to 19% compared with 6% to 12% for bituminous coal. used almost exclusively as a fuel for steam-electric power generation. A maceral is a component of coal or oil shale. Il has been compressed and heated so that its primary constituents are macerals. Lignite has a carbon content of around 25 to 35%. Bituminous coal is an organic sedimentary rock formed by diagenetic and submetamorphic compression of peat bog material. air. and sulfur. Lignite. Bituminous coal or black coal is relatively soft. Examples of macerals are inertinite. The term 'maceral' in reference to coal is analogous to the use of the term 'mineral' in reference to igneous or metamorphic rocks. . which have not been driven off from the macerals. hydrogen.COAL BASICS Coal is a term used to describe a wide range of organic compounds composed of macerals (as opposed to minerals). containing a tarlike substance called bitumen. is a soft brown fuel with characteristics that put it somewhere between coal and peat. a high inherent moisture content sometimes as high as 66%. vitrinite and liptinite. often referred to as brown coal. the rest is composed of water. Coals are often described by their common names instead of maceral type. The carbon content of bituminous coal is around 60 to 80%. names and hydrocarbon potential.

proximate analysis separates the coal into four groups: 1. 2. between 92% and 98%. Groundwater and other extraneous moisture is known as adventitious moisture and is readily evaporated. Coal rank depends on thermal maturity PROXIMATE ANALYSIS Proximate analysis of coal is a simple laboratory method for determining the components of coal. the nonvolatile fraction of coal 4. Anthracite is the most metamorphosed type of coal. Moisture may occur in four possible forms within coal: 1. despite its lower calorific content. or dry ash-free coal. The coal sample is extracted from a core and placed quickly in a canister to preserve as much gas as possible. Moisture held within the coal itself is known as inherent moisture and is analyzed quantitatively. ash. It has the highest carbon content. moisture. obtained when the coal sample is heated (pyrolysis) under specified conditions. dry coal. As defined by ASTM D 121. the inorganic residue remaining after combustion. fixed carbon. and contains the fewest impurities of all coals. as all coals are mined wet. compact variety of mineral coal that has a high luster. pure coal. The term is applied to coals which do not give off tarry or other hydrocarbon vapours when heated below their point of ignition. surface moisture: water held on the surface of coal particles or macerals . Moisture is an important property of coal. consisting of gases and vapors driven off during pyrolysis. volatile matter. The latter term is the most descriptive .Anthracite is a hard. Fixed carbon is also called carbon. 3.dry ash-free is often abbreviated as "daf" or "DAF". Adventitious moisture is removed in the lab by evaporation in air.

These two methods give different results and thus the method used must be stated. from the original mass of the coal sample. except for moisture. Analysis is fairly straightforward. with the coal thoroughly burnt and the ash material expressed as a percentage of the original weight. sulfur and water (including from clays) has been driven off during combustion. Fixed carbon content of the coal is the carbon found in the material which is left after volatile materials are driven off. This is achieved by any of the following methods. American procedures involve heating to 950 ± 25 °C (1740 ± 45 °F) in a vertical platinum crucible. Fixed carbon is used as an estimate of the coke yield from a sample of coal. Volatile matter in coal refers to the components of coal. This is usually a mixture of short and long chain hydrocarbons. which are liberated at high temperature in the absence of air. heating the coal with toluene 2. oxygen. 1. Fixed carbon is determined by subtracting the mass of volatiles. drying in air at 100 to 105 °C (212 to 221 °F) Methods 1 and 2 are suitable with low-rank coals but method 3 is only suitable for high-rank coals as free air drying low-rank coals may promote oxidation. Ash content of coal is the non-combustible residue left after coal is burnt. hydroscopic moisture: water held by capillary action within the micro-fractures of the coal 3. . and some sulfur. this involves heating the coal sample to 900 ± 5 °C (1650 ±10 °F) for 7 minutes in a cylindrical silica crucible in a muffle furnace. aromatic hydrocarbons.2. drying in a minimum free-space oven at 150 °C (302 °F) within a nitrogen atmosphere 3. mineral moisture: water which comprises part of the crystal structure of hydrous silicates such as clays Total moisture is analyzed by loss of mass between an air-dried sample and the sample after driving off the inherent moisture with heat. decomposition moisture: water held within the coal's decomposed organic compounds 4. It represents the bulk mineral matter after carbon. This differs from the ultimate carbon content of the coal because some carbon is lost in hydrocarbons with the volatiles. In Australian and British laboratories. determined above.

data is in Weight % .Example of Proximate Analysis of several coal seams .

density correction. The coal fraction is floated off and the non-coal sinks and is removed. reducing the apparent ash content. Some mineral (ash) in the coal may sink. neutron. CAL. .Well log showing location of coal layers analyzed by proximate analysis. PE. density.75 g/cc. the gas contents can be normalised to reflect true ash contents of the coal cuttings. The crushed material is placed in a liquid with a density of 1. By comparing the ash analysis to the float sink analysis with that from core analysis. Float Sink Analysis is used to separate non-coal cavings from cuttings samples. Log curves are GR.

Vitrinite forms diagenetically by the thermal alteration of lignin and cellulose in plant cell walls. Vitrinite is absent in pre-Silurian rocks because land plants had not yet evolved. the onset of oil generation is correlated with a reflectance of 0.6% and the termination of oil generation with reflectance of 0. These are the same components determined from coal cores or sample chips by proximate analysis. such as shales and marls with a terrigenous origin. It is sensitive to temperature ranges that correspond to hydrocarbon generation (60 to 120°C). High neutron porosity. Vitrinite reflectance was first studied by coal geologists attempting to determine the thermal maturity. and ash. This means that. fixed carbon.Vitrinite is the most common component of coal. and well-sorted sandstones have very low vitrinite content. or rank.1% VISUAL ANALYSIS OF COAL The use of well logs for analyzing coal deposits dates back many years. vitrinite reflectance can be used as an indicator of maturity in hydrocarbon source rocks. Most methods are based on a multi-mineral model which solves for moisture. it is used to study sedimentary organic matter from kerogen. Visual analysis of logs for coal is relatively unambiguous. namely land plants and humic peats. It is also abundant in kerogen. with a suitable calibration. high density .5 to 0. volatile components. Generally.85 to 1. derived from the same biogenic precursors as coals. More recently. It is therefore common in sedimentary rocks that are rich in organic matter. carbonates. evaporites. of coal beds. Conversely.

MATRIX PARAMETERS FOR 3-MINERAL MODEL .2.24 0. varies with clay mineral Carbon 1. neutron.54 160 525 50 164 0.25 80 250 3. COAL ANALYSIS FROM LOGS The use of well logs for analyzing coal deposits dates back many years. Most methods are based on a multi-mineral model which solves for moisture. Both models can be solved by crossplots or the math shown elsewhere in this Handbook.47 0. excludes clay bound water . high resistivity. Some coals are very dirty (shaly) so the gamma ray and resistivity may not trigger. bituminous coal.COAL COMPOSITION DENSMA PHIN DTCMA PE g/cc frac us/ft us/m cu Ash (Quartz) 2.porosity (low density). Thresholds on each curve are used to trigger a coal flag.COAL TYPE DENSMA PHIN DTC DTCMA PE g/cc frac us/ft us/m us/ft us/m Anthracite 1.26 0.00 55 182 1. and ash.2 Varies with coal type (dry.17 Lignite 1.19 + Vbituminous * 1.34 + Vanthracite * 1.60 120 394 0. making a 4-mineral model relatively easy. With this breakdown. and moisture.41 105 345 48 157 0. ash-free value) Water 1.5 Includes clay bound water. and clean gamma ray mean coal. One log analysis model calculates a 3-mineral model from PE.18 . volatile components.47 0.65 0.20 Peat 1.1 Free water or "moisture".14 0. The GR is used to obtain Vclay.16 Bituminous 1. density.65 0.19 0. Three or more flags is a pretty good indication of the presence of coal.1. and anthracite. the coal matrix density can be determined. sonic crossplot methods and solves for the fraction of lignite.25 MATRIX PARAMETERS FOR 3-MINERAL MODEL .8 Could vary if other minerals (eg calcite) are also present Ash (Clay) 2.00 1.47 An alternative method is a 3-mineral model using ash. fixed carbon.00 200 656 0.19 . fixed carbon. and the other parameters follow from this value: 1: DENSMAcoal = Vlignite * 1.60+ 120 394 44 144 0. high sonic. These are the same components determined from coal cores or sample chips by proximate analysis.

so some experimentation and sample descriptions are needed. Data points show that the ash in this coal is mostly clay (log data falls to the right of the quartz point). It can be removed by subtracting clay bound water from the tptal to get the free water answer. the analyst must decide on the correct coal type. . A dry clay model can also be used. not just the free water. but the water term will include the clay bound water. The mineral end points are not firm. If a 3-mineral model is not possible. density sonic crossplot (top right).Density neutron crossplot for coal analysis (bottom left).

CALCULATING COAL PROPERTIES The following equations are found in the coal assay literature and are based on correlations between core analysis values and log data.47 0. Standard 3.39 Vwtr = 0. or Mlith-Nlith crossplots (or equivalent math) are probably more practical when the core data correlations are not available.512 * (1.00) Equations specific to a project area can be obtained by plotting coal assay data versus density log data. DENSma-Uma crossplots.36 0.65 * (DENS . use the following: 6: WTash = Vash * DENSash 7: WTfcarb = Vfcarb * DENSfcarb Ash .10 OR Vash = 0.0 Vash) Moisture (free water): 4: Vwtr = 0.07 0.23 Vfcarb = 0.1. so crossplots of lab ash content (by volume) versus log readings can help pin down these values.15 All proximate analysis results are reported in weight fraction or percent.36 g/cc Vash = 0. Initial results are in volume fractions and are converted to weight fractions by using the density of each component. Content: 2: Vash = (DENS . as shown in the examples at the right. Parameters can be tuned by making your own crossplots. Fixed Carbon (dry coal): 3: Vfcarb = 0.461 Vash Volatile Matter: 5: Vvolatile = 1.0 Vash .DENSMAcoal) / (2. To convert log analysis volume fractions to weight fractions.and 4.mineral models using simultaneous equations.Vfcarb Vwtr Numerical Example: Given: DENSMAcoal = 1.23 Vvolatile = 0.5 DENSMAcoal) OR 2a: Vash = 0.24 DENS = 1.The ash data points may vary with clay type and other noncombustible mineral content.

25 0.36 g/cc Volume Density Weight Mass Fraction Ash 0.00 1.57 0.10 2.24 0.00 0.48 Wtr 0.21 Fcarb 0.00 Rock 1.00 0.31 Volatile 0.24 DENS = 1.36 1.8: WTwtr = Vwtr * DENSwtr 9 : WTvolatile = Vvolatile * DENSvolatile 10: WTcoal = WTash + WTfcarb + WTwtr + WTvolatile Mass fractions are as follows (multiply by 100 to get weight percent): 11: Wash = WTash / WTcoal 12: Wfcarb = WTfcarb / WTcoal 13: Wwtr = WTwtr / WTcoal 14: Wvolatile = WTvolatile / WTcoal Weight percent is often used in reports: 15: WT%ash = 100 * Wash 16: WT%fcarb = 100 * WTfcarb 17: WT%wtr = 100 * WTwtr 18: WT%volatile = 100 * WTvolatile Where: DENS = density log reading in a coal (g/cc) DENSMAcoal = matrix density of a coal (g/cc) DENSxxx = density of a component (g/cc) Vxxx = volume fraction of a component (fractional) WTxxx = weight of a component (grams) Wxxx = mass fraction of a component (fractional) WT%xxx = weight percent of a component (percent) Numerical Example: Given: DENSMAcoal = 1.07 0.37 0.65 0.19 COAL ANALYSIS EXAMPLE LOG .47 1.00 0.

These results can be ca. .ibrated to the proximate analysis from lab measurements. and ash (2nd track from the right). moisture. volatiles.Log analysis of an Alberta Foothills coal using a model for coal composition (fixed carbon.

.Example of coal log analysis results using a 3-mineral model for coal type (lignite. bituminous. Zones outside the coal are analyzed with conventional oil and gas models. anthracite) in right hand track.

500 BTUs-per-pound. and many other chemical and physical properties must be considered when matching specific coals to a particular application. while sub-bituminous coal is generally found in the Western states and Alaska. but other factors also influence the amount of energy it contains per unit of weight. but no two coals are exactly alike. Bituminous coal has a carbon content ranging from 45 to 86 percent carbon and a heat value of 10. Lignite ranks the lowest and is the youngest of the coals. reflecting the progressive response of individual deposits of coal to increasing heat and pressure. Bituminous coal predominates in the Eastern and Mid-continent coal fields.3 billion tons of anthracite reserves in the United States. coal market. and some Gulf Coast states. Bituminous The most plentiful form of coal in the United States. Coal is classified into four general categories. for the most part. but large deposits also are found in Montana.COAL: Ancient Gift Serving by the American Coal Foundation [http://www. or "ranks. and a heat value of nearly 15. found mostly in 11 northeastern counties in Pennsylvania.org] Types of Coal Modern Man We use the term "coal" to describe a variety of fossilized plant materials. There are 7. contain less energy per unit of weight.000 BTUs-per-pound. bituminous coal is used primarily to generate electricity and make coke for the steel industry. between 86 and 98 percent. Most lignite is mined in Texas. Anthracite Anthracite is coal with the highest carbon content.S. though still a small one. anthracite is a very small segment of the U. ash melting temperature. North Dakota. Sub-bituminous . which rank below anthracite and. The carbon content of coal supplies most of its heating value. sulfur and other impurities. A BTU is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water one degree Fahrenheit. mechanical strength.) About 90 percent of the coal in this country falls in the bituminous and sub-bituminous categories. The fastest growing market for coal.teachcoal. (The amount of energy in coal is expressed in British thermal units per pound. Heating value.500 to 15. is supplying heat for industrial processes. Most frequently associated with home heating." They range from lignite through sub-bituminous and bituminous to anthracite.

Secondary hydrogen. the free encyclopedia Coal Sedimentary Rock Anthracite coal Composition Primary carbon sulfur. it is mainly used for electric power generation.300 BTUs-per-pound. ___________________________________________________________________________ Coal From Wikipedia. .Ranking below bituminous is sub-bituminous coal with 35-45 percent carbon content and a heat value between 8. this coal generally has a lower sulfur content than other types.000 BTUs-per-pound. and a heat value ranging between 4.300 and 13. Reserves are located mainly in a half-dozen Western states and Alaska. Although its heat value is lower.000 and 8. 25-35 percent. which makes it attractive for use because it is cleaner burning. oxygen. Lignite Lignite is a geologically young coal which has the lowest carbon content. Sometimes called brown coal.

7 Industrial processes 5 Cultural usage 6 Coal as a traded commodity 7 Environmental effects 8 Economic aspects 9 Energy density 10 Carbon intensity . with smaller quantities of sulfur.4 Gasification o 4.6 Refined coal o 4.1 Hilt's Law 3 Early uses as fuel 4 Uses today o 4. can be regarded as metamorphic rock because of later exposure to elevated temperature and pressure. chiefly hydrogen.2 Coking and use of coke o 4. Coal is composed primarily of carbon along with variable quantities of other elements. such as anthracite coal.nitrogen Example chemical structure of coal Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock normally occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams.5 Liquefaction o 4. oxygen and nitrogen.1 Coal as fuel o 4.3 Ethanol production o 4.[citation needed] Contents [hide] y y y y y y y y y y 1 Formation 2 Types o 2. The harder forms.

Gross carbon dioxide emissions from coal usage are slightly more than those from petroleum and about double the amount from natural gas. is the largest source of energy for the generation of electricity worldwide.4 Major coal importers 13 See also 14 References 15 Further reading 16 External links [edit] Formation Coal begins as layers of plant matter accumulate at the bottom of a body of water.[2][3] Coal. The exception is the Coal gap in the Lower Triassic. although coal is known from most geological periods. where coal is incredibly rare: presumably a result of the mass extinction which prefaced this era.[4] Coal is extracted from the ground by mining. the chemical and physical properties of the plant remains were changed by geological action to create a solid material.3 Major coal exporters o 12. For the process to continue the plant matter must be protected from biodegradation and oxidization. usually by mud or acidic water. This trapped atmospheric carbon in the ground in immense peat bogs that eventually were covered over and deeply buried by sediments under which they metamorphosed into coal.[1] The wide shallow seas of the Carboniferous period provided ideal conditions for coal formation. Over time.1 World coal reserves o 12. which predate land plants: this coal is presumed to have originated from algal residues.2 Major coal producers o 12. either underground by shaft mining through the seams or in open pits. a fossil fuel. Coal is even known from Precambrian strata.y y y y y y 11 Underground fires 12 Production trends o 12. as well as one of the largest worldwide anthropogenic sources of carbon dioxide releases. [edit] Types .

also referred to as brown coal. Additionally. peat is a highly effective absorbent for fuel and oil spills on land and water Lignite. used primarily as fuel in steam-electric power generation. The ice caps were known to be very large. As geological processes apply pressure to dead biotic material over time. it is an important source of light aromatic hydrocarbons for the chemical synthesis industry. the highest rank. Bituminous coal. considered to be a precursor of coal. It may be divided further into metamorphically altered bituminous coal and petrified oil. under suitable conditions it is transformed successively into y y y y y y y Peat.Coastal exposure of the Point Aconi Seam (bituminous coal.[5] Small steam coal (dry small steam nuts or DSSN) was used as a fuel for domestic water heating Anthracite. the light blue represents shallow seas where many of today's coal deposits are found. has industrial importance as a fuel in some regions. when powdered. In this specialized use it is sometimes known as sea-coal in the U. but difficult to ignite and is not so commonly used as fuel: it is mostly used in pencils and. as from the deposits in Pennsylvania Graphite. a harder. . as opposed to deeper waters which gave rise to oil-bearing rocks derived from marine species. is the lowest rank of coal and used almost exclusively as fuel for electric power generation. with substantial quantities also used for heat and power applications in manufacturing and to make coke Steam coal is a grade between bituminous coal and anthracite. glossy. black but sometimes dark brown. In its dehydrated form. often with welldefined bands of bright and dull material. for example. whose properties range from those of lignite to those of bituminous coal are used primarily as fuel for steam-electric power generation. black coal used primarily for residential and commercial space heating. as a lubricant. Pennsylvanian). once widely used as a fuel for steam locomotives. Ireland and Finland.S. technically the highest rank. lowering sea levels extensively by locking up oceanic waters into solid ice. though how large the ice caps became is a matter of debate. dense sedimentary rock. Jet is a compact form of lignite that is sometimes polished and has been used as an ornamental stone since the Upper Palaeolithic Sub-bituminous coal. Believed approximate position of the proto-continents toward the end of the Carboniferous period.

5 4. high-rank coal with significant hydrogen content. .6-5. now termed "liptinite".8 6. (January 2011) Hilt's Law is a geological term that states the deeper the coal. anthracite has < 6% volatiles). Cannel coal (sometimes called "candle coal"). the exact classification varies between countries. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources.0-5.5 >91.0-4.3 0. the deeper its rank (grade). According to the German classification.The classification of coal is generally based on the content of volatiles. coal is classified as follows:[6] Name Braunkohle (Lignite) Flammkohle (Flame coal) Volatiles % 45-65 40-45 C H O S Carbon % Hydrogen % Oxygen % Sulfur % 60-75 75-82 82-85 6.5-89. irrespective of depth.8-5.S.6 5.5-3. while the last class is an approximate equivalent to anthracite. The law holds true if the thermal gradient is entirely vertical. but metamorphism may cause lateral changes of rank.2-2.0 34-17 >9.8 87.5-3 ~1 ~1 ~1 ~1 ~1 ~1 ~1 Heat content kJ/kg <28470 <32870 <33910 <34960 <35380 <35380 35380 Gasflammkohle (Gas flame 35-40 coal) Gaskohle (Gas coal) Fettkohle (Fat coal) Esskohle (Forge coal) Magerkohle (Non baking coal) Anthrazit (Anthracite) Percent by weight 28-35 19-28 14-19 10-14 7-12 85-87.5 <2. is a variety of fine-grained.75 <35300 The middle six grades in the table represent a progressive transition from the English-language sub-bituminous to bituminous coal.0 90.5-91.5 <3. It consists primarily of "exinite" macerals.8 5.2 3.5-90. but more inclusive (the U.0-5.5 4.5-4.8-7.5 4.5 7. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. However.3-4.5 89.8-3.75 2. [edit] Hilt's Law This section does not cite any references or sources.0-3.5 5.8 9.

[12] Evidence of coal's use for iron-working in the city during the Roman period has been found.[edit] Early uses as fuel Further information: History of coal mining Chinese coal miners in an illustration of the Tiangong Kaiwu encyclopedia. and.[11] Coal cinders have been found in the hearths of villas and military forts. particularly in Northumberland. In the west of England contemporary writers described the wonder of a permanent brazier of coal on the altar of Minerva at Aquae Sulis (modern day Bath) although in fact easily accessible surface coal from what became the Somerset coalfield was in common use in quite lowly dwellings locally. where it has been detected as forming part of the composition of funeral pyres. Rhineland. so .[14] Mineral coal came to be referred to as "seacoal" in the 13th century. dated to around AD 400. with the exception of two modern fields. deposits of bituminous coal were used by the Romans for the smelting of iron ore.[13] In Eschweiler. 371±287 BC): Among the materials that are dug because they are useful. the wharf where the material arrived in London was known as Seacoal Lane. they burn like charcoal.[7] Outcrop coal was used in Britain during the Bronze Age (3000±2000 BC). near Chester. 16) by the Greek scientist Theophrastus (c. They are found in Liguria and in Elis as one approaches Olympia by the mountain road. after about AD 1000. where coal from the Midlands was transported via the Car Dyke for use in drying grain. and they are used by those who work in metals. published in 1637 The earliest reference to the use of coal as fuel is from the geological treatise On stones (Lap. and in the Fenlands of East Anglia. those known as coals are made of earth. "the Romans were exploiting coals in all the major coalfields in England and Wales by the end of the second century AD".[10] Evidence of trade in coal (dated to about AD 200) has been found at the inland port of Heronbridge. once set on fire.[10] There is no evidence that the product was of great importance in Britain before the High Middle Ages.[8][9] In Roman Britain.

as the steam engine took over from the water wheel. when underground mining from shafts or adits was developed.[14] Seacoal Lane and Newcastle Lane where coal was unloaded at wharves along the River Fleet.[17] (See Industrial processes below for modern uses of the term. 5/6 of the world's coal was mined in Britain. Without coal.[14] but by the time of Henry VIII it was understood to derive from the way it was carried to London by sea. . coal from Newcastle was shipped to London for the smiths and lime-burners building Westminster Abbey.[18] In 1947.[19] but by 2004 this had shrunk to some 5. there were some 750. Utah. This is the Castle Gate Plant near Helper. however.[16] In 1257±59. are still in existence. In 1700.) These easily accessible sources had largely become exhausted (or could not meet the growing demand) by the 13th century. the development of the Industrial Revolution that led to the large-scale use of coal.[8] The alternative name was "pitcoal.000 miners. but there was little extensive use until the 11th century.000 miners working in around 20 collieries." because it came from mines.[15] Initially the name was given because much coal was found on the shore. having fallen from the exposed coal seams on cliffs above or washed out of underwater coal outcrops. Britain would have run out of suitable sites for watermills by the 1830s.[20] In ancient China. It was.identified in a charter of King Henry III granted in 1253.[21] [edit] Uses today Coal fired power plants provide 49% of consumed electricity in the United States. coal was used as fuel by the 4th century AD.

with further theorized increases in temperature and pressure perhaps resulting in even higher efficiencies. As far as gaseous fuels go. are significantly less efficient and produce higher levels of waste heat. bituminous). However. low energy content types of coal (i.e. More than 40% of the world electricity production uses coal.000 short tons in 2006[22] and is expected to increase 48% to 9. issues which would first have to be worked out before large-scale commercial success is possible with coal. lignite.[27] The emergence of the supercritical turbine concept envisions running a boiler at extremely high temperatures and pressures with projected efficiencies of 46%. and they are also sensitive to sulfur poisoning. this technology has been criticised as being inefficient. is sufficient for many years. risky and costly.[29] The total known deposits recoverable by current technologies. The thermodynamic efficiency of this process has been improved over time.[28] Other efficient ways to use coal are combined heat and power cogeneration and an MHD topping cycle. slow.[25] Old coal power plants.3 million tons in 2006. which is then used to spin turbines which turn generators and create electricity.743. especially "grandfathered" plants. Another option is coal gasification with water. and Global warming Coal is primarily used as a solid fuel to produce electricity and heat through combustion. one idea is pulverized coal in a gas carrier. The furnace heat converts boiler water to steam. such as nitrogen. but may also greatly simplify carbon sequestration. Increasing the combustion temperature can boost this efficiency even further. which may lower fuel cell voltage by introducing oxygen to the fuel side of the electrolyte.[citation needed] Currently these fuel cell technologies can only process gaseous fuels.[26] and in 2008 approximately 49% of the United States' electricity came from coal. as long as they consume oxygen). India produced about 447. A more energy-efficient way of using coal for electricity production would be via solid-oxide fuel cells or molten-carbonate fuel cells (or any oxygen ion transport based fuel cells that do not discriminate between fuels. using 90% of it for generation of electricity. processing and combustion.38 billion tons in 2006. At least 40% of the world's electricity comes from coal. consumption is increasing and maximal production could be reached within decades (see World Coal Reserves. 68. Clean coal technology.Coal rail cars [edit] Coal as fuel Further information: Electricity generation. The USA consumes about 14% of the world total.[24] When coal is used for electricity generation. which would be able to get 60%± 85% combined efficiency (direct electricity + waste heat steam turbine). including highly polluting. below). Coal electricity. World coal consumption was about 6..786.98 billion short tons by 2030.[30] .[23] China produced 2. it is usually pulverized and then combusted (burned) in a furnace with a boiler. Simple cycle steam turbines have topped out with some of the most advanced reaching about 35% thermodynamic efficiency for the entire process. However. while doing nothing about total emissions from mining.7% of China's electricity comes from coal.

and "coal gas".Another efficient and clean way of coal combustion in a form of coal-water slurry fuel (CWS) was well-developed in Russia (since the Soviet Union time). at Marl.[31][32] Both reactors are of cylindrical shape and have a rotating electric arc. As methane gas provided the highest yield. and AVCO Corp in the US. Coke from coal is grey.832 °F) so that the fixed carbon and residual ash are fused together.000 °C (1. Some cokemaking processes produce valuable by-products that include coal tar. light oils. [edit] Coking and use of coke Main article: Coke (fuel) Coke oven at a smokeless fuel plant in Wales. hard. which resembles coke but contains too many impurities to be useful in metallurgical applications. CWS significantly reduces emissions saving the heating value of coal. and so must be treated further to make steel. the alternative route to is direct reduced iron. The cathode is at the cylinder axis. Consequently several references had described both Huls Arc Process and AVCO rotating arc reactor. [edit] Ethanol production The reaction of coal and natural gas was used by a German manufacturer for Buna rubber: Chemische Werke Huls. and porous and has a heating value of 24. low-sulfur bituminous coal from which the volatile constituents are driven off by baking in an oven without oxygen at temperatures as high as 1. The product is cast iron and is too rich in dissolved carbon.6 MJ/kg). where any carbonaceous fuel can be used to make sponge or pelletised iron. The coke must be strong enough to resist the weight of overburden in the blast furnace. Petroleum coke is the solid residue obtained in oil refining. .8 million Btu/ton (29. while the anode is on the circumference. However. which is why coking coal is so important in making steel by the conventional route. Germany. Metallurgical coke is used as a fuel and as a reducing agent in smelting iron ore in a blast furnace. ammonia. then it is forced with coal powder into a vortex passing through the electric arc for few milliseconds. United Kingdom Coke is a solid carbonaceous residue derived from low-ash.

At present. One of the most accepted catalysts is diatomite impregnated with phosphoric acid. Increasing the Specific Energy Requirement (SER) favors acetylene production. while for acetylene: = 301. a mixture of carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen (H2) gas. however. heating. In the past. or upgrading fossil fuels. [edit] Gasification Main articles: Coal gasification and Underground coal gasification Coal gasification can be used to produce syngas. Hydration of ethylene gas producing ethanol is the most important process for ethanol production. [edit] Liquefaction Main article: Coal liquefaction . the safer natural gas is used instead. and cooking.34 kJ/mol. the coal is mixed with oxygen and steam (water vapor) while also being heated and pressurized. government-funded corporation established in 1980 to create a market for alternatives to imported fossil fuels (such as coal gasification). During the reaction. which was piped to customers to burn for illumination.S. This process has been conducted in both underground coal mines and in coal refineries. The Synthetic Fuels Corporation was a U. The corporation was discontinued in 1985. CO + H2O CO2 + H2 High prices of oil and natural gas are leading to increased interest in "BTU Conversion" technologies such as gasification. This technology is currently used by the Sasol chemical company of South Africa to make gasoline from coal and natural gas.Huls Arc Process[33] produced a mixture of acetylene and ethylene gases. Vapor phase process is the preferred one[35] in which ethylene and steam pass over a catalyst. methanation and liquefaction. the syngas is collected at this state and routed into a Fischer-Tropsch reaction. The reaction conditions can be varied to determine the needed product. Alternatively. oxygen and water molecules oxidize the coal into carbon monoxide (CO) while also releasing hydrogen (H2) gas. This syngas can then be converted into transportation fuels like gasoline and diesel through the Fischer-Tropsch process. the syngas is fed into the water gas shift reaction where more hydrogen is liberated. If hydrogen is the desired end-product. making ammonia.4 kJ/mol. As a consequence. (Coal) + O2 + H2O H2 + CO If the refiner wants to produce gasoline. the hydrogen obtained from gasification can be used for various purposes such as powering a hydrogen economy. recent production processes are using conventional heating instead of electric arc. coal was converted to make coal gas. and lower SER is for ethylene: Enthalpy Change for Ethylene:[34] = 127. During gasification.

[edit] Industrial processes Finely ground bituminous coal.[41] include sequestration in their process designs. and then into a liquid. releasing reducing gases at pressure and so preventing the metal from penetrating the pores of the sand. Hydrogenation processes are the Bergius process. executive manager of Sasol Technology. . Germany. by using the FischerTropsch process. If coal liquefaction is done without employing either carbon capture and storage technologies or biomass blending. South Africa and the USA.[40] For most future synthetic fuel projects. is a constituent of foundry sand.Coal can also be converted into liquid fuels such as gasoline or diesel by several different processes. the World CTL Award was granted to Rudi Heydenrich. particularly in China. Alternatively. add to the cost of production.[42] Sea coal can be mixed with the clay lining (the "bod") used for the bottom of a cupola furnace. It is one form of several pre-combustion treatments and processes for coal that alter coal's characteristics before it is burned. If CCS technologies are employed.[39] Coal liquefaction methods involve carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in the conversion process. pre-combustion technology can be used in place of or as a supplement to post-combustion technologies to control emissions from coal-fueled boilers. the coal is either hydrogenated or carbonized. While the molten metal is in the mould the coal burns slowly. The goals of pre-combustion coal technologies are to increase efficiency and reduce emissions when the coal is burned.[36] the SRC-I and SRC-II (Solvent Refined Coal) processes and the NUS Corporation hydrogenation process. Coal liquefaction features intense research work. the World CTL Award rewards an individual who has contributed substantially in the understanding and development of Coal and Biomass Conversion. The coal tar is then further processed into fuels. coal can be converted into a gas first. reductions of 5-12% can be achieved in CTL plants and up to a 75% reduction is achievable when co-gasifying coal with commercially demonstrated levels of biomass (30% biomass by weight) in CBTL plants. Sequestration will.380 °F). coal is coked at temperatures between 360 °C (680 °F) and 750 °C (1. In the direct liquefaction processes. [edit] Refined coal Main article: Refined coal Refined coal is the product of a coal-upgrading technology that removes moisture and certain pollutants from lower-rank coals such as sub-bituminous and lignite (brown) coals. In 2011. Currently all US and at least one Chinese synthetic fuel projects.[37][38] In the process of lowtemperature carbonization. Every year. known in this application as sea coal. It is also contained in mould wash. a paste or liquid with the same function applied to the mould before casting. however. These temperatures optimize the production of coal tars richer in lighter hydrocarbons than normal coal tar. the result is lifecycle greenhouse gas footprints that are generally greater than those released in the extraction and refinement of liquid fuel production from crude oil. An overview of coal liquefaction and its future potential is available. Depending on the situation. Carbon dioxide sequestration is proposed to avoid releasing it into the atmosphere.

[edit] Coal as a traded commodity In North America. It happens as part of First-Footing and represents warmth for the year to come. The trading unit for these contracts is 5.[46] [edit] Environmental effects Main article: Environmental effects of coal .[45] The price of coal increased from around $30. Central Appalachian coal futures contracts are currently traded on the New York Mercantile Exchange (trading symbol QL).00 per short ton in 2000 to around $150.410 t) per contract. Both U.S. dollars and cents per ton. Since coal is the principal fuel for generating electricity in the United States.S.000 tonnes (5.500 short tons).When heated the coal decomposes and the bod becomes slightly friable.S. Some cultures uphold that children who misbehave will receive only a lump of coal from Santa Claus for Christmas in their stockings instead of presents. dollars and cents per ton. easing the process of breaking open holes for tapping the molten metal. Prices further declined to $71.25 as of October 2010. The trading unit is 1. the price per short ton had declined to $111.50. and is quoted in U.[43] [edit] Cultural usage Coal is the official state mineral of Kentucky (even though coal is not a mineral) and the official state rock of Utah. As of October 2008. coal futures contracts provide coal producers and the electric power industry an important tool for hedging and risk management. and are also quoted in U. the IntercontinentalExchange (ICE) has European (Rotterdam) and South African (Richards Bay) coal futures available for trading. It is also customary and lucky in Scotland and the North of England to give coal as a gift on New Year's Day.550 short tons (1.00 per short ton as of September 2008.[44] In addition to the NYMEX contract. states have a historic link to coal mining.

including fly ash. including 2. and of coal mining. arsenic. and arsenic which are harmful to human health and the environment[50] . that contain mercury.800 from lung cancer[49] Generation of hundreds of millions of tons of waste products.Aerial photograph of Kingston Fossil Plant coal fly ash slurry spill site taken the day after the event There are a number of adverse health[47] and environmental effects of coal burning[48] especially in power stations. uranium. bottom ash. thorium. These effects include: y y y y y y y y y y Coal-fired power plants shorten nearly 24. sometimes damaging infrastructure Coal-fired power plants without effective fly ash capture are one of the largest sources of human-caused background radiation exposure Coal-fired power plants emit mercury. and other heavy metals Acid rain from high sulfur coal Interference with groundwater and water table levels Contamination of land and waterways and destruction of homes from fly ash spills such as Kingston Fossil Plant coal fly ash slurry spill Impact of water use on flows of rivers and consequential impact on other land-uses Dust nuisance Subsidence above tunnels. flue gas desulfurization sludge. selenium.000 lives a year in the United States.

6 MJ. So coal power plants obtain approximately 2. and these projects are profitable with an oil barrel price of $40.[54] China is by far the largest producer of coal in the world.S. so of the 6. Estimates of the cost of producing liquid fuels from coal suggest that domestic U.0 kW·h per kilogram of burned coal. The typical thermodynamic efficiency of coal power plants is about 30%. [edit] Energy density Main article: Energy value of coal The energy density of coal.67 kW·h/kg.e.[53] This is probably because China prefers not to be dependent on foreign oil. As oil prices were increasing during the first half of 2009. which causes climate change and global warming according to the IPCC and the EPA. the rest is waste heat. liquid coal lost some of its economic allure in the U.S. due to an increasing need for liquid energy in the transportation sector. With oil prices as low as around $40 per barrel in the U.S. One kilowatt-hour is 3. per units of mass to estimate how much coal is required to power electrical appliances. In China.[52] with the $35 being the break-even cost.[57] An estimated 5 million people work in China's coal-mining industry.0 kW·h/kg²can successfully be turned into electricity. as of December 2008. Coal is the largest contributor to the human-made increase of CO2 in the air[51] [edit] Economic aspects Coal liquefaction is one of the backstop technologies that could potentially limit escalation of oil prices and mitigate the effects of transportation energy shortage that will occur under peak oil. similar to oil sand projects. advantages for indirect coal liquefaction over direct coal liquefaction are reported by Williams and Larson (2003). [59] The energy density of coal can also be expressed in kilowatt-hours.[58] Among commercially mature technologies. 30% of that²2. a greenhouse gas. is roughly 24 megajoules per kilogram.. but will probably be re-vitalized. instead utilizing its enormous domestic coal reserves.67 kW·h of energy per kilogram of coal. with an oil price around $70 per barrel. i. . so the energy density of coal is 6. coal liquefaction projects were given high priority even during periods of oil prices below $40 per barrel.y Release of carbon dioxide. its heating value. the coal liquefaction projects in China were again boosted. This is contingent on liquefaction production capacity becoming large enough to satiate the very large and growing demand for petroleum.[55] It has now become the world's largest energy consumer[56] but relies on coal to supply about 70% of its energy needs. the units that electricity is most commonly sold in. production of fuel from coal becomes cost-competitive with oil priced at around $35 per barrel.

[edit] Underground fires Main article: Coal seam fire . which is . The CO2 released to air for each kilogram of incinerated coal is therefore . the direct CO2 emissions from coal power are 1. but are about 100 times lower.As an example.[60] One should also take into account transmission and distribution losses caused by resistance and heating in the power lines.881 kg CO2/kWh.67 kWh/kg(coal). Coal with a heating value of 6. Estimates for specific emission from nuclear power. depending on distance from the power station and other factors. and wind energy vary.963 kg CO2/kWh for coal power.569 kg CO2/kWh. The same source gives a factor for oil power in the U.S. Energy Information Agency's 1999 report on CO2 emissions for energy generation. of 0. producing carbon dioxide.S.67 kWh per kilogram as quoted above has a carbon content of roughly 80%. Converting this power usage into physical coal consumption: It takes 325 kg (714 lb) of coal to power a 100 W lightbulb for one year. where 1 mol equals to NA (Avogadro Number) atoms. while natural gas has 0. The U. the burning of 1 kg of coal produces about 2 kWh of electrical energy. hydro. with an atomic weight of (12 + 16 × 2 = 44 kg/kmol). Carbon combines with oxygen in the atmosphere during combustion. running one 100-watt lightbulb for one year requires 876 kW·h (100 W × 24 h/day × 365 day/year = 876000 W·h = 876 kW·h).93 kg CO2. which is in the order of 5±10%. This can be used to calculate an emission factor for CO2 from the use of coal power.47 kg/kWh.407 kg/MJ. or about 0. Since the useful energy output of coal is about 30% of the 6. Since 1 kg coal emits 2. [edit] Carbon intensity Commercial coal has a carbon content of at least 70%.[61] quotes a lower emission factor of 0.

which also may resemble the coal burning waste "clinker" or volcanic "scoria".[clarification needed] but it amounts to 2-3% of the annual worldwide production of CO2 from fossil fuels. Lightning strikes are an important source of ignition. and in western North Dakota is called porcelanite. Local people once used this method to mine ammoniac. Pennsylvania (a borough located in the Coal Region of the United States).[68] Clinker is rock that has been fused by the natural burning of coal. A grass fire in a coal area can set dozens of coal seams on fire. The Australian Burning Mountain was originally believed to be a volcano. In the Powder River Basin approximately 27 to 54 billion tons of coal burned within the past three million years. This place has been well-known since the time of Herodotus. This contradicts the ratio of 1:1.[69] Wild coal fires in the area were reported by the Lewis and Clark Expedition as well as explorers and settlers in the area.500 years. Tajikistan. and it continues to burn underground to this day.83 given earlier.[67] At Kuh i Malik in Yagnob Valley. an exposed vein of coal ignited in 1962 due to a trash fire in the borough landfill.[70] [edit] Production trends Coal output in 2005 . the coal continues to burn slowly back into the seam until oxygen (air) can no longer reach the flame front. Fires can cause the ground above to subside. emitting 360 million metric tons of CO2. The reddish siltstone rock that caps many ridges and buttes in the Powder River Basin (Wyoming). some of them very beautiful. and breaking out to the surface can initiate surface wildfires. Coal seams can be set on fire by spontaneous combustion or contact with a mine fire or surface fire. or as much as emitted from all of the cars and light trucks in the United States. coal deposits have been burning for thousands of years.[65][66] In Centralia. located in an abandoned anthracite strip mine pit. when the Russian army invaded the area).[63][64] Coal fires in China burn 109 million tons of coal a year. creating vast underground labyrinths full of unique minerals. Attempts to extinguish the fire were unsuccessful. their combustion gases are dangerous to life. but European geographers misinterpreted the Ancient Greek descriptions as the evidence of active volcanism in Turkestan (up to the 19th century.There are hundreds of coal fires burning around the world. but the smoke and ash comes from a coal fire which may have been burning for over 5.[62] Those burning underground can be difficult to locate and many cannot be extinguished.

However.100. By comparison in 2007.[72] .000. Collective projections generally predict that global peak coal production may occur sometime around 2025 at 30 percent above current production in the best case scenario. particularly in underexplored areas.000 barrels (9.179 quadrillion BTU's. natural gas provided 51. In many cases.100. are continually providing new reserves.064 million tons of proven coal reserves worldwide.000 m3) of oil equivalent per day.[71] This is an average of 18. estimated at 2006 end that there were 909. BP. or 147 years reserves-to-production ratio.800. The United States has the world's largest coal reserves. exploration drilling programs by mining companies. In 2006. in its 2007 report.8 million BTU per short ton. In terms of heat content.000 m3) of oil equivalent per day. United States. or 133. [edit] World coal reserves The 930 billion short tons of recoverable coal reserves estimated by the Energy Information Administration are equal to about 4.A coal mine in Wyoming.075 billion short tons.116 BBOE (billion barrels of oil equivalent). depending on future coal production rates. while oil provided 85.000 barrels per day. some nations haven't updated their information and assume reserves remain at the same levels even with withdrawals. This figure only includes reserves classified as "proven". according to the British Geological Survey.000. companies are aware of coal deposits that have not been sufficiently drilled to qualify as "proven".[citation needed] The amount of coal burned during 2007 was estimated at 7.000 barrels (8. China was the top producer of coal with 38% share followed by the USA and India. this is about 57.

746 6.450 18.5 0. China. coal is mined in over 100 countries. Proved recoverable coal reserves at end-2008 (million tons (teragrams))[73] Country United States Russia China Australia India Germany Ukraine Kazakhstan South Africa Serbia Colombia Canada Poland Indonesia Brazil Greece Bituminous & Anthracite 108. coal has the most widely distributed reserves.5 1.295 157.156 13.945 12.020 . Note the table below.600 40. Russia.500 60.577 0 0 361 380 872 0 2.474 4.351 21.6 0.0 4.501 49. The largest reserves are found in the USA.600 37.9 3.6 0.873 33.709 5. India and Australia.559 3.100 0 13.338 1.500 40.236 1.472 33.020 Percentage of World Total 22.100 99 15. and on all continents except Antarctica.7 0.7 3.699 33.600 30.366 3.500 30.529 4.8 0.520 0 0 SubBituminous Lignite TOTAL 237.528 5.600 1.4 98.770 6.200 4.6 8.100 0 0 16.9 3.700 2.559 0 30.371 1.500 76.200 37.010 114.176 10.904 4.9 7.156 9 6.100 56.400 0 2.618 97.4 12.Continental United States coal regions Of the three fossil fuels.088 62.6 14.105 0 3.8 0.

520 2.853 2.174 1.350 2.100 812 794 600 57115.2 0.369 1.387 2.3 0.660 1.000[74] 530 503 502 500 5.000 30 499 0 500 846 195.239 1.853 1.239 51 0 908 812 794 0 3337.7 1.1 0.070 2.203 1.1 0.366 2.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.613 860.762 484 0 0 190 166 0 0 439 0 300 0 0 0 0 300 2.203 192 0 0 300 33 205 300 0 0 0 1.1 0.170 2 0 529 47 13 0 860 1.1 0.789 200 4 502 0 3.1 0.814 1.1 0.938 100 0.1 0.Bosnia and Herzegovina Mongolia Bulgaria Pakistan Turkey Uzbekistan Hungary Thailand Mexico Iran Czech Republic Kyrgyzstan Albania North Korea New Zealand Spain Laos Zimbabwe Argentina All others Total world 404.1 0.343 1.904 1.900 1.3 0.421 .346 260.3 0.208 1.3 0.211 1.3 0.

6 5.9 244.6 100 % [edit] Major coal exporters Countries with annual export higher than 10 million tonnes are shown.6 % 6.6 244.5 % 5.1 250.8 84.0 45.7 2380.195.6 536.7 114.940.4 86.0 3050. .5 1053.7 587.3 407.[edit] Major coal producers See also: List of countries by coal production The reserve life is an estimate based only on current production levels and proved reserves level for the countries shown.9 145. Production of Coal by Country and year (million tonnes)[75][76][77] Country China USA India EU Australia Russia Indonesia South Africa Germany Poland Kazakhstan Total World 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Share Reserve Life (years) 1722. Countries with annual production higher than 100 million tonnes are shown.4 366.5 973.0 378. data for the European Union is also shown.1 101.8 375.4 428.2 298.7 135.9 204.0 183.6 % 1.4 399.7 201.3 2204.2 195.0 351.8 197.5 3.8 409.2 15.8 162.2 156.3 1008.7 401.7 6.0 478.0 2526.9 163.585.5 326.9 1026.6 % 122 37 56 308 119 2.1 252.886.0 2782.187.4 593.2 217.2 % 4.9 447.3 595.7 % 4.4 202.1 96.2 6.6 1040.9 97. For comparison.0 314.4 638.6 % 972. and makes no assumptions of future production or even current production trends.3 % 3.5 276.5 86.2 6.4 192.4 143.1 6.9 243.5 6.8 159.7 628.8 250.4 207.4 608.8 % 557.6 % 38 245 105 55 186 150+ 17 237.2 247.421.2 1062.1 281.5 385.5 229.3 309.3 5.7 132.9 111.781.8 298.5 146.7 % 1.4 521.0 1992.

4 38.0% 6.4 33.4 78.4 27.7 42.2 94.3 75.6 16.8 51.2 74.9 764.0 107.6 Share 26.5% 3.6 59.4 27.5 25.5 21.5 713.2 103.9% 2.7 27.2 23.0 50.1 151.2 78.8 28.6% .6 75.0 95.9 48.0 55.4 35.0 84.4% 1.4 74.0 228.4 2007 268.1 2007 209.6 60.6 31.2 19.090.3 47.5 261. Imports of Coal by Country and year (million short tons)[81] Country Japan China South Korea 2006 199.5 28.6 255.7 73.7 93.0 1.3% 238.7 14.1 2009 288.3 26.7 56.8 51.8 60.7 68.0 103.1 2008 206.1 31.6 1.9 Share 17.7 6.0 44.9% 6.000.5% 10.5 68.4 142.5 221.9 28.8 20.8% 5.8 11.073.5 107.2 83.0% 12.5 72.4 68.8 131.1 32.4 130.5 30.0 41.1 247.1 2009 182.2 115.4 74.087.3 28.9 75.9 109.5% 24.0 56.4 31.Exports of Coal by Country and year (million short tons)[78][79][80] Country Australia Indonesia Russia Colombia South Africa USA China Canada Vietnam Kazakhstan Poland Total 2003 2004 2005 2006 255.5% 14.3 1.4 1.2 25.6% 2.1 2008 278.5 98.8 100% [edit] Major coal importers Countries with annual import higher than 30 million tonnes are shown.2 85.8 36.0 936.9 112.5% 2.0 192.9 30.7 43.

9 kW/kG approximately. and lignite.1 50. and a high suphur content. Bituminous coal is the most common coal and has moisture content less than 20 %.056. The ranks of coal (from most to least carbon content) are as follows: anthracite.4% 4.2 1. Lignite is brownish black. Bituminous coal has calorific values ranging from 6.2% 4. Bituminous coal often has bands of bright and dull material in it. Lignite is more like soil than a rock and tends to disintegrate when exposed to the weather. Sub bituminous coal is used for generating electricity and space heating. Lignite coal Used almost exclusively for electric power generation lignite is a young type of coal.6 56.7 64.8 kW/kG approximately.063.India Taiwan Germany United Kingdom Total 52.9 55.9 70.8 100% Stove Help & Advice Home The rank of coal is based on the degree to which the orginal plant material has been transformed into carbon and can be seen as a rough indication of how old the coal is: the older the coal the higher the carbon content (generally). bituminous coal.4% 6.9 70. has a high moisture content (up to 45 %).2 76. black coal. Subbitumnious coal has calorific values ranging from 5 . Sub bituminous coal black and contains 20-30 % moisture.6 72.2 7. The coal with the highest carbon content is the best and cleanest type of coal to use.8 29. dense.6 45. .1% 991. Bituminous coal Bituminous coal is a soft.7 49. sub bituminous coal. Lignite has a colorific value of less than 5 kw/kg approximately. Lignite is also called brown coal.8 .7 69.2 48.039.9 42.5 56. Sub bituminous coal Sub bituminous coal is also called black lignite. and space heating. As you move down the coal rank the heat given out decreases and the dirtyness of the fuel and moisture content increases.8 1. Bituminous coal is used for generating electricity.6. making coke.5 1.

the bulk of it is found in Sindh province. . coal. Pakistan has reserves of natural gas.. about 185 billion tons. it is diversified with Mountain Ranges and Fata Fana Forests.80% and 23. The Beauty of the Valleys with great importance for Tourism as well. we would have to ensure higher efficiencies. Baluchistan is the province with resources of Energy like Natural Gas. environmental acceptance. have gained increasing attention. black and lustrous. it will yield sufficient power to make Pakistan selfsufficient in Electrical power. and others Ores like Chromium. the liquefaction and gasification of the world s most abundant fuel i. Country has huge coal resources.e. out of which 3. Anthracite is low in suplhur and high in carbon. The Thar Coal Field. Gypsum and Coal. should it be developed. Coal is one of major energy source which is contributing in world s energy systems with the share of 23. This province is land of Five Rivers on the other end toward the South this province has deserts keeping the buried treasures of nature like Different Ores and minerals. Pakistan s Thar Desert contains the largest coal reserves discovered to date. Punjab and Sindh fulfill the demand of foods with blessing of fertility in the Land. Similarly if we see NWFP our North Province.Anthracite coal Often referred to as hard coal. In case of coal. Pages about coal: Coal is a fossil fuel Makes of coal Types / ranks of coal How coal is formed CO2 comparison of fuels What to do with coal ash Power Production From The Coal Reserves in Pakistan That not Only Fulfill our country Demand But Also Surplus Energy As we all knows that Pakistan has great Geological aspects and God bless our country with strong nation. prolonging its availability and proper replacement for oil and natural gas. Anthracite has a calorfific values of around 9 kW/kG or above.3 billion tons are in proven/measured category and about 11 billion are indicated reserves. anthracite is hard. The Ice that froze on its Hills in the winters on after melting fills the rivers of the Country. It is the highest rank of coal. This is only possible through sustainable development of new coal conversion technologies.000 square kilometers. esteemed nation with four weathers and four provinces and every province has importance. moisture content generally is less than 15 %. will yield over 200 billion ton of coal used to produce electricity. The energy sector requires efficient and clean energy supplies. covering an area of 10. but these will start to diminish by 2010. Coal the black gold is found in all the four provinces of Pakistan.75% of production and consumption respectively. In order to obtain clean fuels.

but these cannot be fully utilized because electricity produced from these sources would be prohibitively expensive. Until sixties. coal has been used as a major source of energy for hundred of years.42% Fixed Carbon (AR) 6. Historically. Zain Ahmed Siddiqee COAL Untapped potential By SHABBIR H.77% Volatile Matter (AR) 23. The fact is that any electricity eventually produced from Thar coal would be at least twice as expensive as that generated from large dams.24% Sulfur (AR) 1. The average power generation cost given the current generation mix of Pakistan is about 6. If the issue had only been power generation than we also have abundant wind and solar resources. The average chemical analyses of the coal samples from the entire Thar coalfield are: Moisture (AR) 46. for the industries.5 cents/kwh. The industrial revolution and enhanced use of electricity was also due to coal. KAZMI July 09 . The fact that higher crude oil price is rendering local industries uncompetitive needs no analytical elucidation.898 Btu/lb Value (Dry) It is also another myth that this project will alleviate the need for hydel electricity. but how to generate electricity at an affordable price. Oil and POL import bill is expected to further increase due to inadequate gas supply and price of crude oil remaining high.15. to switchover from oil and gas to coal.66% Ash (AR) 6.16% Heating 10. the objective cannot be achieved without announcing a comprehensive Coal Policy and investing heavily in infrastructure development. The main problem in electricity sector is not how to generate electricity. Electricity from Thar coal would provide relief to consumers if it can be generated at a cost lower than this average. While the GoP is making efforts to make it obligatory.Thar Coal Composition The rank of Thar coal ranges from lignite-B to sub-bituminous-A with high moisture and low sulfur content. coal was the single largest . 2001 Pakistan spends billions of dollars annually to meet its primary energy requirements.

Coal from Lakhra and Sonda fields of Sindh has relatively higher moisture. production of coal has remained stagnant mainly due to poor demand for the commodity. Cement industry. Since then annual coal production has remained stagnant between 3. Similarly. sulphur and ash contents. COAL PRODUCTION . Therefore. once again there is a shift back to use of coal as a major source of energy. Large discoveries of oil and gas resulted in massive switchover from coal to furnace oil and gas.798 1. having some of the largest and superior quality coal reserves of the world.14 million tonnes in 1989-90.1998. coal was meeting 50 per cent of country's total energy requirement. The indigenous coal reserves vary in moisture.671 1. It assumed new heights in fifties when cement.1996. Therefore.5 million tonnes per annum. During fifties coal constituted 50 per cent of total energy consumption. must also initiate the transition. At present total coal reserves of Pakistan are estimated around 185 billion tonnes.source of primary energy.574 1. Pakistan. Up to mid sixties the major consumers of coal were railways. fertilizer and power plants. Production of coal has remained stagnant in Pakistan mainly due to its low demand/consumption. It is unfortunate that instead of capitalizing on usage of coal and constant improvement in coal technology. According to sector experts production of coal can be increased to 8 million tonnes per annum with the existing resources and infrastructure. while the switchover offers many advantages.681 413 515 425 366 479 454 . Balochistan Punjab (000 tonnes) 1994. Theoretically. Indigenous coal The discovery of coal in Balochistan during the late 18th century led to its commercial utilization mainly by North-Western Railways during the colonial regime. The boom in construction activities in eighties provided new impetus and coal production touched 3. the real issue is availability of coal in large quantities at point of consumption. sulphur and ash contents. Coal mining Coal mining is one of the oldest industries of Pakistan. policy makers chose to encourage use of imported furnace oil. use of coal in other processing industries is also on a constant increase. fertilizer and other process industries became major users of coal. coal is mainly consumed by the brick-kiln sector. The availability of furnace oil and discovery of Sui gas field became instrumental in switching over to these fuels.2 to 3. power generation sector can also become a major user of coal and optimize cost per kwh. carbon. nearly 80 per cent is consumed by kilns. The transition is being facilitated by Clean Coal Technologies and availability of coal at competitive price. the transition should not be difficult. While efforts are being made to shift back to coal for power generation and cement manufacturing. Out of around 3 million tonnes of coal produced annually. Until discovery of natural gas. However. This led to an increase in production from 0. However.1997. Many developed and developing countries have already reverted back to coal.199995 96 97 98 99 00 1.7 million tonnes/annum in 1959 to 1. It is estimated that the share of coal in global electricity generation now exceeds 37 per cent.565 1.4 million tonnes/annum in 1968. As oppose to this. can be the largest beneficiary of this transition. These include lately discovered huge deposits of low sulphur coal at Thar.6 billion tonnes is much superior in quality due to low sulphur content and higher heating value. Other than this.828 1. The local coal fall in the lignite and sub-bituminous categories. cement. Thar coal having an estimated reserves of 184. At present.1995. only Lakhra power plant of WAPDA is based on indigenous coal. being energy intensive.

Main reasons being different mining methods.159 3. there are 23 cement plants with an installed capacity of 16.553 3. One of the reasons for this is poor demand for coal. The payback of this investment can be reduced by achieving higher production.043 3. to coal. it is expensive due to mines being deeper and steeper.278 1. transportation infrastructure requires urgent development to facilitate the coal mining industry to cope with increased demand for coal in future. 'chicken or egg first'. Therefore. The utilization of indigenous coal by cement industry seems attractive simply on the basis of cost per tonne of clinker produced.461 3. is largely dependent on uninterrupted supply of processed quality coal. Rohri. Despite the fact that coal found in Balochistan is superior in quality. Pakistan has not been able to exploit the real benefit of huge reserves of the commodity. Both.Sindh NWFP Total 1. Dadabhoy Cement. This requires heavy capital investment.250 985 42 47 62 54 61 46 3. However. using any type of fuel. The overall mining cost can be reduced by upgrading the present technology used in coal mining. Another important area which needs massive investment is the infrastructure for coal transportation. This also requires incentives for the mining sector to ensure higher coal production.165 1. To produce one tonne of clinker a cement plant uses 850.638 3. capacity utilization is around 63 per cent due to a number of .238 1. According to the Report. Wah.023 1. these units have past experience of using coal and switch back does not pose too problems. demand for coal can be increased by making its use obligatory for cement manufacturing and power generation. The cost of mining per tonne not only varies from province to province but also varies within each province. While railway lines passes through or near the coal fields. should be allowed duty free import of requisite plant and machinery to avoid front loading of the projects. coal from mines is transported mostly by road. At present. In the past.5 million tonnes per annum operating in the country. However. Dandot and Daud Khel cement plants were using coal. According to a report prepared by Experts Advisory Cell of Ministry of Industries and Production cement industry could be the first and the largest beneficiary of this transition. slow and outdated system coupled with limited availability of railway wagons are the key issues faced by the miners and the ultimate coal using industries. Miners are not willing to increase coal production unless there is a demand and processors are not willing to undertake switchover unless there is adequate supply of coal. the coal miners and the coal users. the situation is.000 kcal.166 Though coal mining is undertaken at all the four provinces. According to sector experts. The mining sector in each province is faced with peculiar set of issues ranging from higher cost of production to lack of infrastructure. is in the process of transition and experience has been satisfactory to a large extent. Shift back to coal As stated earlier importance of shift back to coal needs no elucidation. The question is how quickly and efficiently coal can be utilized by the process industries. At present. This has to be done according to a programme whereby cement plants are given three years and power plants are given five years to make the complete transition. use of coal will translate to a net saving of Rs 491 and Rs 415 per tonne of clinker for the cement plants located in the North and South respectively. The switchover. level of application of technology and variations in working depths of mines. Since the heating value of furnace oil is almost double than that of local coal ² a cement plant uses 88 kgs of furnace oil whereas it will use 170 kgs of coal. Demand for coal can be increased by making its use obligatory for various industries. One of cement plants in Sindh. Therefore.

Metting is the smallest field covering only 90 sq. Not only that coal production is low. it is also important to take into account two factors: 1) investment required to by the cement industry to switchover from furnace oil to coal and 2) uninterrupted supply of quality coal at cement plants. kms. Sindh coal The province of Sindh posses around 99 per cent of the total coal reserves of Pakistan. kms. the second factor is very crucial. Geological features indicate that Badin coal field may extend towards Indus East block of Sonda field. the GoP should follow 'carrot and stick policy'. Saying this much. In the past. Based on the total installed capacity.000 sq.5 million tonnes per annum. kms. These are located at Lakhra. in District Thatta. is spread over an area of about 10. establishment of coal processing and distribution companies seems to be a better option ² also offering economy of scale and cost optimization. 3) Ongar Block and 4) Indus East Block. The field comprises of four blocks: 1) Sonda-Thatta Block. Thar coal Incentives According to some sector experts. The Lakhra field in District Dadu. Badin. furnace oil requirement is estimated at slightly less than one million tonnes per annum. Metting and Thar. However. to ensure greater use of coal by various industries. Cement plants can either buy coal in raw form and then process it to suit their demand or buy processed coal from a coal processing and distribution company (on the pattern of existing gas transmission and distribution companies). and coal seams are at a depth of 16 to 240 meters. in District Tharparkar. the industry will be able to save over Rs 5 billion annually. According to the Report this investment has 12 to 18 months payback period and should be a valid reason to undertake the switchover. only because the government refused to supply gas to cement plants. However. one of the largest coal field in the world. Since this switchover is the need of cement . The Sonda field covers 1. Cement industry is highly energy intensive and fuel cost constitute about 30 per cent of the total cost of cement manufacturing. cement industry had switched over from natural gas to furnace oil. kms. Badin field has been discovered recently. If all the cement plants switcheover to coal and capacity utilization remains the same.factors ² higher cost and low offtake being the two main reasons. furnace oil requirement comes to 1. the existing infrastructure is highly inadequate to ensure uninterrupted supply of processed coal to ultimate users. based on the actual capacity utilization. exploration activities are confined to an area around 500 sq. kms. covers an area of over 1. The first option is not economically viable. this time the transition is difficult. Therefore. The coal seams have been developed at the depth of 50 to 150 meters. 2) Jherruck Block. The same policy can now be followed to switchover from furnace oil to coal.309 sq. Cost optimization is the carrot and obligatory use is the stick. Annual production from this field is estimated at about 2 million tonnes per annum. Sonda.822 sq. Handling and using furnace oil is much convenient than coal. However. However. Not only this there will be huge saving of foreign exchange currently being spent on import of furnace oil. The Thar field.

these can be modified or the new multichannel burners can be manufactured by HMC and KSEW under licence agreement with the leading manufacturers. despite decline in some regions. it should provide incentives to the coal miners as well as the cement industry. The Sindh government should also convince the federal government to allow establishment of at least two coal-based power plants of 500MW each at/around Karachi. However. steel production. Coal is mostly used for power generation. Conclusion Crude oil price is expected to remain high due to the policy followed by OPEC. Global scenario World coal consumption. carbon monoxide and other mineral matters. If HMC/KSEW acquire the engineering design. Since Pakistan has no other alternative except to make use of coal obligatory by process industries.industry. sulphur oxides. Japan and many developing countries in Asia. To avoid front-loading of the projects. most of the equipment required to facilitate use of coal can be manufactured locally. the willingness is there but the only apprehension is uninterrupted supply of quality coal at cement plants. The policy should address the following points: * Duty free import of required plant and machinery * Establishment of coal processing and distribution companies * Allocation of funds for upgrading infrastructure * Allocation of special funds for exploitation of Thar coal * Establishment of coal-based power generation plants WORLD COAL CONSUMPTION . This is the need of the hour because KESC has a dependable capacity of 1300MW only as against a peak demand of over 2000MW. half of global coal production is used for power generation. The major environmental aspects that are associated with use of coal are: the formation of pollutants such as fly ash. Since the GoP will be the largest beneficiary of this switchover. the GoP should abolish import duty on coal mining and related handling (transport and storage) equipment and requisite plant and machinery to be installed at cement plants. reduce emissions and waste and make coal environmentally acceptable. However. The countries that have witnessed increase in coal consumption include the United States. Environmental impact The presence of impurities and mineral matters in coal leads to the formation of various pollutants during combustion having adverse environmental impacts when emitted into the atmosphere. nitrogen oxides. According to sector experts. As far as the existing oil-fired burners are concerned. use of coal by utilizing modern technologies does not create the havoc as it used to create in the past. This can be done by following a bidding process based on price per kwh and by following an amended Power Policy. has been on a constant increase. the GoP must announce a comprehensive Coal Policy immediately on the basis of report prepared by the Experts Advisory Cell. cement manufacturing and other process industries. the Clean Coal Technologies have been designed to enhance the thermal efficiency of coal. they can supply the same to entire cement industry at competitive prices. Therefore.

transportation or further processing. Effective preparation of coal. These are costly technologies. There are various technologies globally used for preparation of coal. improves homogeneity of coal. * Coal-Briquetting (CB) technology In this process coal is compacted for use. While Pulverized Fuel technology is in use in cement industry. CONSUMPTION OF VARIOUS FUELS (Per tonne of clinker) Fuel Heating Value Fuel quantity .* World coal consumption is projected to increase to 7. * Coal-Liquid-Mixtures (CLMs) technology These include the coal-oil-mixture and coal-water-mixture. reduces transport cost. other technologies. The various technologies is used for the preparation of coal are:* Pulverized Fuel (PF) technology In this process. * Fluidized Bed Combustion (FBC) technology In this method coal is added to the bed of heated particles and continuous mixing encourages complete combustion at a lower temperature then pulverized fuel technology.4 billion tonnes * China is projected to add an estimated 180 gigawatts of new coal fired power generating capacity (600 plants of 300 megawatts each) by 2020 and India approximately 50 gigawatts (167 plants of 300 megawatts each) * The coal share as a percentage of total energy consumed worldwide for electricity generation is projected to decline from 36 per cent in 1997 to 34 per cent in 2020. is the process of cleaning. though having significant application in power plants and other industries are more expensive. This process is mainly used in power generation and is a costlier method of fuel preparation. The main purpose of briquetting is to convert low grade coal into compact mass having higher calorific value. Source: International Energy Book 2000 COAL BENEFICATION Coal preparation. commonly known as coal benefication. The disadvantage of coal-oil-mixture is that 60 per cent of the total energy is derived from oil. gradation and preparation of uniform coal suitable for commercial consumption. stored and then transported by air to the burner as coal air mixture for combustion. results in less ash production and more importantly reduces emission of toxic gases. improves utilization efficiency. * Coal Gasification (CG) technology In this process coal is brought into contact with steam and oxygen and thermo-chemical reactions produce fuel gas.6 billion tonnes in 2020 * Coal use in developing countries of Asia alone is projected to increase by 2. coal is reduced to fine powder form. prior to use.

Association The following is the information of Coal reserves in Pakistan.700 kcal/M3 Local coal 5.370/tonne Rs 490/M3 Rs 3. surgical instrumen others.000 kcal/kg COST PER TONNE OF CLINKER Fuel Furnace oil Natural gas Local coal (South) Local coal (North) Fuel quantity 88kg 110M3 170kg 170kg Rate 88kg 110M3 170kg Cost Rs 1. Title Date | [Info] Coal Reserves in Pakistan | 2007-11-15 Coal Reserves in Pakistan Coal Reserves in Pakistan The presence of coal deposits in Pakistan was known before independence. carpets & wool.Furnace oil 9. but its econo in 1980. Pakistan is now included as 6th richest nation of the world in respect of estimated resources available in Pakistan exist in all four provinces and in AJK. .001 Rs 539 Rs 510 Rs 586 Rs 11.450/tonne HOME Cyber Business S Pakistani Companies handling Products in Other Core Categ This category includes rice. sports goods.000/tonne Rs 3. all information of miner Pakistan including the following can be found.gsp. 1. Please visit µGeological Survey of Pakistan¶ www.pk .gov. leather/products.700 kcal/kg Natural gas 7.

Mines & Minerals.p 3. Petroleum & Natural Resources Division.gov.pk 4. 18~20.Mineral maps & precious stones 2.Major Economic Mineral Deposits of Pakistan .sindh.pakistan. 2007 organized by Governme gas.. Presentation from µOil & Gas Conference¶ on Feb.com .pk 6. Government of Sindh: www.pk 5.sca. Investment opportunities in Mineral sector: www.Location Map showing the Coal Fields and Coal Occurrences .** Sindh Coal Authority: www.Energy resources map of Pakistan . Ministry of Petrol & Natural Resource: www.com.gov.

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