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1, Transhumance and Pastoralism (Jun., 1983), pp. 90104 Published by: Taylor & Francis, Ltd. Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/124640 Accessed: 26/10/2010 10:40
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Thesecondary of in exploitation animals the Old World
Introduction In thehistorical ethnographic and western Eurasiaappearsas a mosaicof pastoral record, and in mixed-farming groups which domestic livestock playeda majorrole.Specialised has forms of animalhusbandry havebeenadaptedto a widerange geographical economic of and conditions, fromsteppenomadism large-scale to commercial livestock In of rearing. theperspective prethis is history, however, picture a relatively recent one. Manyof thefeatures which nowappear basic to theOld World economic three four or pattern onlybecamewidespread millennia after thebeginning farming. of In a recentpaper (Sherratt 1981), I drewtogether and archaeological archaeozoological evidenceforthe earlyuse of thesecondary products applications domestic and of animals in the Old World. The hypothesis presented thatdomesticated was livestock first was usedlargely formeat,and onlysomemillennia later milk, for wool,riding, traction packtransport. and The for evidence each ofthese elements varied character nowhere in was and but conclusive, seemed to converge a critical on phase of changein the fourth millennium whichI labelledthe BC, 'secondary products revolution'. The purposeof thisarticleis to present someadditional information whichmodifies and confirms theseconclusions, also to sketch outlines a general and of the modelof thedevelopmentof animalhusbandry from c.6000 to 2000 BC. Manyof theinnovations considered here seem to have emerged restricted in partsof the NearEast,and to havebeen exchanged and disseminated part of the process leading to urbanisation. as Important interactions also with the steppebelt,wherenew ways of life appearedat thistime,and the new occurred features whichwere introduced temperate to Europe caused a revolutionary changein the of character agriculture social systems and there.Despitethe fragmentary nature present of it evidence, therefore, is usefulto consider phenomenon a whole, this as sinceitselements are clearlyinterconnected. datingof these features The will first discussedin a European be and context, then considered partof thepattern development theNearEast. as of in
World 15 Archaeology Volume No. 1
and Transhumance pastoralism
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in Thesecondary exploitation animals theOld World 91 of Use of thescratch-plough (ard) the use of the ploughin agriculture comes from The best evidenceso far for the regular and of of on multiplication such discovery actual plough-marks old land surfaces, therecent of the definition thedateat which offers hope thatthiswilllead to a moreprecise discoveries to The was corpus early of plough-marks traction first impressive animal applied cultivation. most been comprehensively reviewed Henrik wheretheyhave recently fromDenmark, by comes Thrane(1982). A dozen of theseexamples belongto the CordedWareperiodof the third -the TRB culture can millennium but nineteen be datedto theEarlyor MiddleNeolithic BC, to Of the are which belong theEarlyNeolithic of thefourth millennium. these, earliest thefour fivedated to thistimeor theopening phaseof theMiddleNeolithic. C phase,withanother nearDreslette, where squaremetres Snave 175 is the examplefrom Among latter thesplendid Theseexamples be havebeen exposedundera longdolmen-mound. can of criss-cross furrows of on of determinations material thesephasesto c. 3700-3300 BC datedbya series radiocarbon in (see e.g. Bakker1979: 141-5). These fitwell withthedate of c. 3500 BC forfurrows the 1981: and otherevidence below the South Streetlongbarrow surface (Sherratt (Avebury) Fig. 10.8). the In region. theValled'Aosta,from comesfrom circum-Alpine Further welcome evidence of in the Italy,an phase II of the site of Saint-Martin-de-Corleans suburbs Aostain northern site has Neolithic area of plough-marks beenexposedon a ritual beneath cist-graves (Mezzena of datesofc. 2900 bc and 2400 bc (averages are by 1981). The furrows bracketed radiocarbon of a sevendates:Mezzena1981: 32-3), giving calibrated range 3600-3000 BC. Theseshowan a withtheScandinavian dates.Slightly with radiocarbon determinlater, impressive congruence at ation of 2400 bc (= 3000 BC), is the siteof Castaneda themouthof theCalancavalleyin whereanother furrows been exposed has largearea of criss-cross Graubunden, Switzerland, Swisssite,Chur-Welshdorfli, an beneath IronAgecemetery (ZindelandDeluns1980). Another between and and sandwiched layers, Lutzenguetle Neolithic) EarlyBronze (late yieldedfurrows or millennium (ibid.:44). BC so dating thelaterfourth third to of on of the is dependent the preservation old Although occurrence such finds naturally of undermonuments datingto before 3500 BC land surfaces, existence such conditions the offers some controlon thistypeof evidence:and the emerging (e.g. earthen longbarrows) of and from of parts Europeseemsto be a pattern datesbothfor plough-marks figurines several one. convincing evidence paired for draught theform pottery in of iconographic As wellas thecontemporary in 1981: 264-5), thecopper of cart and yoke-models models yokedoxenfrom (listed Sherratt 3500 BC on the 1968: Plate 25) also date to around nearPoznan in Poland (Piggott Bytyn' of were flat evidence theassociated copperaxes. Sincetheox-figures madebya moresophistiin thanwas practised Europeat thattime,it is cated methodof casting lost-wax) (probably from moreadvanced a areasuchas Anatolia. possibility The of thattheywereimports possible from suchcontacts suggested a remarkable is vessel Germany, Oldenburg, north-west by pottery of (Bakker1979: 123). This.evidence longwhichwas clearlybased on a metalprototype for of contacts important theapparently is distance at rapidspread yokedtraction thistime. One moretypeofevidence been for shouldbe noted, sinceithas sometimes usedto argue an for of bonesfrom early the earlier of ox-traction ploughing. is themorphology cattle use This fifth BC on millennium siteof VNdastra thelowerDanubein Romania(Chetieand Mateesco
in of 1973; Mateesco1975). On thebasisof deformation theepiphyses thehumerus femur and it was suggested that the forelimbs subadultanimalshad been subjectedto vertical of further of thisphenomenon it as loads. While compression theresult carrying deserves study, for Thereis thusno reason of be cannotby itself takenas evidence theuse of bovines traction. the to supposethattheploughwas in use in Europebefore mid-fourth BC. millennium There linesof evidence paireddraught for is thusgood agreement amongthevarious (plough-marks, of modelsor drawings oxen and carts, to to paired-ox burials) dateitsintroduction c.3500 BC, with of settlement coinciding a majorhorizon change European in patterns.
Thespread thehorse Europe of in The pattern whichdomestic in horsesspreadthrough their on Europefrom origin the Pontic 1981: 272-3) is proving be a complexone. The first to steppes(Sherratt horsesappeared in in smallnumbers temperate the millennium and arefound Europetowards endofthefifth BC, in graves theTiszapolgdr in of culture eastern Hungary (Bokonyi1978: 25). Theiroccurrence hereat thistimeis significant, it coincides for for withother evidence trans-Carpathian links suchas imported and items(Kaczanowska1980). As Bokonyi typesof flint status (1978: 25) notes, these early horses were or probably 'regarded novelties status as symbols' didnotform and do in thebasisof a local breeding sincethey notreappear Hungary until Baden the population, periodand only in any numbers the Early BronzeAge (Beaker)periodaround2500 BC. in During intervening the period, thelaterfourth earlythird in and horsesseemto millennia, have spreadamongelite groupsin the North Plainthrough between European later contacts TRB and Badencultures. from TRB and related Horsebonesareknown the in contexts central Germany (Muller1978: 204), Czechoslovakia (Peske1982) and Bavaria (Driehaus1960: 88-9); evidence their domestic is of of status theseries antler but themostconvincing objectsrecently of on interpreted Lichardus by (1980) as thecheek-pieces bits.Theseoccuras grave-finds three of settlement Lower in sitesin the north the DDR, on a TRB (Tiefstich) late TRB (Elb-Havel) in finds northern France(probably from Saxony,and as stray S.O.M.). Two moreexamples, in are Bernburg gravesat Barbynear Schonebeck central Germany, illustrated Behrens by in (1981: 13). The objectsare crescentic section and about 20 cm in length, a with single hole theirthickened through mid-section. They resemble the findsfromSredniStog sites like Dereivka nearKiev,where first of the evidence horsedomestication occurs, and haveparallels in somelater,BronzeAge typesfrom periodin whichmorecomplextypesof antler a cheekare known.Experimental has demonstrated pieces use theireffectiveness bits(Lichardus as of 1980: 16-19). At the type-site Ostorf of (Kr. Schwerin, DDR) theyoccurin two graves mature males,in one of whicha pairofsuchcheek-pieces associated was with rich grave-goods including twenty-two arrowheads, stoneaxe, flints, a organic amber and beads,anda miniature amberdouble-axe. bonesof horses (No werefoundin the burials.) Thisevidence suggests that of horses by3000 BC smallnumbers of werebeing keptforriding certain by elements theTRB in population northern central and Europe,shortly after the timeat whichthe ploughfirst cameintouse in these areas. Thisinitial in spreadof horses temperate Europethuscoincides with increasing the openingof corridor the North up of theeast/west in European which thefollowing Plain, Corded Ware and Beakerperiods was to transmit important innovations other to areasof Europe.It is at this
Thesecondary in exploitation animals theOld World 93 of in timethathorses morewidely Europe(e.g. Ireland: Wijngaarden-Bakker van appeared 1974: 345-7), thatthe first horse-burials found(e.g. Grosshoflein-FolliktheAustrian are in Burgenland: Pittioni 1954: 247), and thathorsebonesreachsubstantial on proportions certain sites (e.g. Csepel-Haros nearBudapest:Bokonyi1978). By 2000 BC horsesoccurred on regularly BronzeAge domestic in sites central and available a larger ofthe to Europe, wereprobably part population.
The spread wool-sheep Europe of in in the from The basic problem assessing change basedon plantfibres textiles (linenandbast)to thosemadeof wool is one of differential preservation. survive in alkaline Vegetable fibres only contexts mudsof Neolithic whilewoollenfibres such as the calcareous survive Switzerland, of onlyin acid contexts suchas theoligotrophic peat-bogs northern carbonEurope(although isation maypreserve exceptional examples). of The great finds from abundance textile Switzerland theperiod in from 4000 to 3000 BC (Vogt 1937) showsthatlinenwas widely used in the Neolithic. After time, theCorded this in the Wareand EarlyBronzeAge periods, sharpdeclinein textile remains that suggests it had been largely in On replacedby wool, whichwould not be preserved suchenvironments. the otherhand, thereis abundantevidencefrom northern in Denmark Europe(especially and in the adjacentareas:Hald 1950) thatwoollenclothwas themajortextile use during Bronze The is the Age,from 2000 onwards. problem thusto identify pointin thethird millennium at the which change-over occurred. An important in this is find context the 'SpitzesHoch'tumulus Latdorf at nearBernburg in in central Germany a (DDR), excavatated Klopfleisch 1880. Thiscontained collective by burial withBemburg a (TRB) pots and copperbeads,within circular stonesetting covered oak by of planks.The burning thiswoodencovering carbonised had nearly sixtytextilefragments, whichhavebeenexamined Schlabow(1959). Thesehe described beingof'erstaunlicher by as and of Feinheit', consisting 'feine,langhaarige Schafwolle'--finer wool from Bronze than the Age. However,Dr M. L. Ryder (in litt. April 1981) informs that he examinedthis me 'wool' in 1964, and is of theopinionthatit is flax;andcarbonised Neolithic supposedly flaxin seeds occurred the grave that (Vogt 1937: 43). It seemsmostlikely, therefore, thislatelike fourth-millennium is linen, contemporary textiles. Swiss sample The earliest is fromthe handleof a flint Europeanfindof woollenfibres the wrapping foundin itsleather sheath a peat-bog Wiepenkathen,northern in at in dagger, Germany (Cassau is since of 1935). This fabric particularly interesting, it consisted woollenthreads thathad with others, been interwoven originally the presumably linen,that had not survived acid conditions. Thisis neatly Swissfind(Ruoff1981),in which the paralleled a contemporary by converse obtained:linenfibres interwoven nowvanished with of ones,presumably wool. The Wiepenkathen dagger be datedtypologically can (Lomborg1973) to theearliest phaseof the late Neolithic Period', around2400 BC. Moreover recent a 'Dagger beginning find unpublished wool from Switzerland be datedto c. 2900 BC (P. Petrequin, can of'carbonised pers.comm.). It seemsreasonable, to therefore, suggest thatwool was introduced north-central to Europe sometimein theearlyto mid-third in millennium Ware and (probably a Corded context), was withlinen untilit becamethe dominant used in conjunction textilefibrein the second millennium.
The evidenceset out above thussuggests extended an periodof arounda thousand years, from 500 to 2500 BC, in whichthree c.3 in innovations reached important Europe, theorder: plough, horse, wool.
Theantiquity dairying of One of the mostimportant aboutprehistoric of economies theorigin milking. is questions It of cannotbe assumed thatthis was practised from beginning domestication the 1981: (Sherratt for it olderthanthefirst 275-82); although was probably evidence thepractice, iconographic of whichappears millennium The answer onlycome onlyin Urukcontexts the fourth BC. can froma large number faunalstudiesusingage-and sex-specific of and mortality estimates; although manymoresuchstudies required, are someinitial to results relevant theearly of use milk Europewillbe notedhere. in Sakellaridis (1979) has provideddetailed data on faunal assemblages fromNeolithic and someof thesample sizesaresmall, Switzerland, although someconsistent patterns emerge. In thePfyn and Cortaillod cultures (3800-3500 BC) 40 to 80 percentof thecattle to survived of maturity, whichthemajority werefemale. The lack of adultmalesconfirms they that were not keptas draught animals, thehigh and proportion adultfemales of the of implies possibility as milking wellas breeding somesitesof thisperiod stock.Although onlyproduced immature the animals, very of in highproportions adultfemales certain makethepractice of assemblages milking quite likely.Moreover, pattern this occursas earlyas theRoessenlevelsat EschenLutzenguetle over80 percentof cattleweremorethan2-3 yearsold. A (c.4000 BC), where similar pattern was also noted forovicaprids: Cortaillod populations also contain20-60 per centof adultanimals, female. mostly Thisprecludes their forwool,as predicted, leaves use but wereused formilking. open thepossibility goats,in particular, that (Incidentally, sheepwere regularly as milk used animals northern in the Europeuntil Industrial Revolution, insouthern as Europe today.) It is thus not improbable that milking was beingpractised Europeby in 4000 BC, or evenearlier, the in though use of milk Neolithic to Europeseems be a local rather thana general feature. How does thisfitwithotherindications to theaitiquityof dairying? an earlier as In paper 1981: 276-7) I discussed relevance the restricted the of (Sherratt adult tolerance lactose of in The to (milk-sugar) human populations. ability digest of milk, owingto thepersistence the is enzymelactaseinto adulthood, verylow or absentin Mongoloid, New World, Melanesian, Australoid Khoisanpopulations. theNearEastit is generally withtheexception and In of low, theBedouinof Saudi Arabia.Likewisein Africa, mostNegroid populations exceptpastoralists like theFulani,Himaand Tussiareintolerant lactose.Roughly of theinhabitants the to half of Mediterranean are countries intolerant, the only populations whichthe majority and in of adultscan digestmilkare thoseof north-west Europe.Although practice milking the of has some correspondence withthedistribution lactose-tolerant of individuals, does not depend it on theexistence highlevelsof lactosetolerance thepopulation. use ofmilk of in The products such as yoghurt cheese(in whichthelactoseis broken and downintosimpler sugars) thus is to the likely havepreceded ability drink to milkdirectly. Two selective factors thuslikelyto havebeenresponsible thepresent are for of distribution lactosetolerance. One is theadvantage, under extreme conditions desert on margins withfew
Thesecondary exploitation animals theOld World 95 of in of of alternative foodsources, beingable to consume milk.This doesnot largeamounts fresh in and explainthehighlevelsof tolerance northern Europe,however, an ingenious hypothesis been putforward Flatzand Rotthauwe to accountforthishas recently by (1977). Thisrelates there a deficiency vitamin when of where is of lactoseto thepromotion calciumabsorption D, of in The wouldthusparallel it is beneficial preventing rickets. development lactosetolerance in D the selectiveadvantagefor de-pigmentation areas of low sunlight (since vitamin is With cereal-based andlittle D produced thebodyby UV radiation). in a vitamin from diet, fish in to and liver, and agricultural populations Europewouldhavebeenprone calcium deficiency If bone deformations. milkwas available, there wouldbe a selective for consequent advantage of into adult life whichwould allow it to be consumed the prolongation lactase activity to directly, helping prevent thus rickets. We may therefore suggest that milking was probablypractised Europe by Neolithic in populations,and that selectivepressurein favourof milk-drinking became increasingly withthenorthwards important The for in spreadof agriculture. limited opportunities grazing of theprimary forest wouldhaveinhibited development large the but to herds, theability keep of for livestock milkwould have been valuablein smallscattered smallquantities domestic of and of communities. Enlargement thepastoral sector, thedevelopment larger-scale dairying, of would have dependedon the progress forest clearance and in particular changefrom the horticulture 1980: 316) to a larger small-scale scaleofagriculture. is in thiscontext It (Sherratt of wereimportant. and thatthearrival theplough wool-sheep
in and and millennia BC Transport trade thefourth third the for Havingsurveyed Europeanevidence secondary we exploitation, maynow turnto the NearEast, and in particular transport to which into animals spread onlymarginally prehistoric Europe. Equids the As with paired draught, use of pack animals can be illuminated from the evidence of of A from figurines. group terracottas southern Palestine thefirst is known of indication theuse of the donkey.The earliest from Ghassulian are the (Late Chalcolithic) period,of the fifth millennium whileothers comefrom 1 contexts, EB to Gerzean BC, and equivalent theEgyptian Protodynastic periodsof the fourth millennium Froma Ghassulian BC. context a tombat in withtwo globular is Giv'atoyim a smalldonkey figure containers (pots?baskets?) highon its back (Kaplan 1969). It is paralleled otherfigurines from by Ghassulian ritual centres: bull a 'churns' from 1980: 35), and a woman witha 'churn' herhead, carrying En-gedi (Ussishkin on on and a ramwithconicalvessels its back,from Gilat(Alon 1976). The bestrepresentation of a packdonkey comesfrom EB 1 tombat TelAzor(norfarfrom Aviv) an Tel along with copper a and dagger a predynastic and Egyptian palette (Druks Tsaferis 1970). It carries tallcontainers. two A somewhat of similar broken from rimof a vessel, the figure a donkey, comesfrom Cyprus and belongs theEB 3 periodat theendof thethird to millennium 1981: Fig. 10.11). (Sherratt The contextof these early figurines fromPalestine interesting: Late Chalcolithic is the in Ghassulian culture saw a majorexpansion theNegev Sinai,associated and withan expansion
of tradeand metallurgical of activity (Rothenberg 1970), and the formation linksacrossthe arid partof southemPalestine of withthe cultures predynastic wheremetalobjects Egypt, appear in the Gerzean(Naqada II). These routesbecameincreasingly important the during of periodof formation the Egyptian state.Loaded donkeys of appearon therockdrawings UpperEgypt(Winckler of or 1939), and in Protodynastic representations trade tribute scenes. Egyptian in interest the Levantis indicated the occurrence traded of by objects (and eventhe of on hieroglyph Narmer a sherdfrom in Tel'Erany)and thissphereof influence southern Palestine the parallels interaction zone aroundthe earlyMesopotamian for states,indicated of theoccurrence proto-Elamite on example by tablets theIranian TheseEgyptian land plateau. routes basedon packtransport superseded were from fifth the onwards thedevelopdynasty by mentof effective maritime transport bulktradeby sea (Marfoe and 1981). The scopeof these earlier contacts clearly was on of dependent theexistence domestic used donkeys as packanimals. Faunal evidence showsthatthedonkey was present bothPalestine UpperEgyptat in and least fromthe fourth millennium and the evidence the figurines of onwards, that suggests it came to be important in locallyamongsemi-pastoralist first groups southern Palestine, perhaps in transporting and milk-products, in carrying materials milk and rare from distant extraction sites.The growing demandfrom in expanding populations theNile valley, however, gaveit a broader within expanding the network traderoutes. of of significance Thisspread innovations in transport exampletheuse of thesail,whichalso cameintowider during time: (for use this Sherratt in 1982) took features and an formerly important localniches gavethem international rolein theexpanding relations between early and complex societies their peripheries. The donkeywas introduced theAegeanduring third to the bothat millennium, occurring LernaandinTroyIV (Gejvall1969, 1946),andis thus to likely havespread the widely through NearEast during period.Tracing spreadis complicated, this this however, thedifficulty by of distinguishing of donkeyfromthe remains otherequidswhichwerepresent thisregion. in A further complicating element the probability hybridisation is of between various the equids. Thesecomplexities havebeen comprehensively assessed Juris Zarins by (1976) in a work which is a fundamental on sourceof information thisquestion. to Central histhesis thecontention is thatonagers, hunted occasionally although and wereunlikely havebeendomesticated tamed, to in the same sense as the donkey.However, onager-like equids such as thoseshownpulling on battle-cars the 'standard Ur'might represent of well either with hybrids, or donkeys perhaps evenwithhorses. The use of theonager, both therefore, as a traction riding and animal, seems to be secondary the use of otherequids,and mayrepresent to local attempts extendthe to stock of a rareand valuableimported of speciesby the developing techniques hybridisation with locallyabundant a equid. This raisesthe further questionof the date at which horsesspread theNearEast. The in earliest reported are specimens from Anatoliaand north-west (Late Chalcolithic EBA Iran and from specimens tepeandGeoytepe),though these mayrepresent wildpopulations local Nor?un withinthe natural distribution the species. Apparently of domestichorses appeared at Korucatepe, TroyVI and Servia the onlytowards endof thethird millennium. Therearesome thatdomestic suggestions, however, horses havebeenpresent southern in mayperhaps in Iran the fourth millennium: Zarins(1976) notes identifications Tal i Iblis,Choga Mishand from perhaps Susa, and thepossibility boththebone plaque from that Susa and thefamous protoElamite tablet (Scheil1923: P1.XVII) mayrepresent horses their (or hybrids). in Horsesbecamemorewidespread theNearEast in thesecondhalfof thethird millennium,
Thesecondary exploitation animals theOld World 97 of in of carts and forms solid-wheeled wererefined wayof thecross-bar spoked whenthe earlier by Thisseemsto havetaken wheels intothehorse-drawn chariot. placeon thenorthern of the edge from Iran. Thereare no examplesof bits fertile crescent, Syriaand Anatoliato north-west werecontrolled a nosebandor ring. The further from thisearlyperiod,and the animals by of chariotry placeon thesteppes took with their tradition horsemanship, of development longer from source this thatchariots reached including of thebit.It was probably use Europearound of is of 2000 BC, wheretheir in culture presence shown models spokedwheels theOtomani by witha characteristic of compasseasternHungary and Romania.These are associated style for and on decorated bonework cheek-pieces (?) whip-caps, hassomeanalogies thesteppe. that Professor Piggott (1983) has recently pointed thattheoccurrence features thisstyle out of of in theMycenae around1600 BC probably the shaft-graves of represents arrival thistechnological the complex in Greece,therebyreversing direction a long-held of horizonof 'Mycenean the influence' (Vladar 1973). Such penetration from steppesof chariotry horse-rearing and expertise (withits technical took place in a widearc aroundtheolder vocabulary) probably of civilisations theNearEast in theearlysecondmillennium, where is reflected instance it for of in theappearance Indo-European minorities as themaryannu such (Drower1969).
Camels to of Returning briefly theearlystages urbanisation the fourth in it to millennium,is possible of suggest thatthe domestication the camelcloselyparalleled thatof the donkey, but in a the Bactrianand the Arabiancamel or complementary area. Two species are involved, is there no unambiguous for evidence thedomestic status either of dromedary. animal Although before second the of indications itspresence settlements, on with millennium, together thelong routes overland which came intouse in the fourth millennium theIranian on plateau,suggest thatit was already use as a transport in Tosi (1974) has suggested early animal. an focus use of of theBactrian camelat sites likeShahr-i Sokhta Seistan, in where bones,dung hairhave its and and beeh identified, this area shows close cultural linkswithTurkmenia, wherefigurines that it may have been used as a traction animal(Sherratt suggest 1981: 275; Massonand Sarianidi 1972: plate36; Bulliet1975). Seistan linked is southwards theareaofKerman to and the Makrari, wherethereare further of indications the presence the Bactrian of camel(e.g. Zeuner1955: see nowalso Compagnoni Tosi 1978). and On the othersideof theGulf, Omanpeninsula partof thesameinteraction-sphere the was the are (probably historical Magan),andthere fourth-millennium bonesat HiliandUmm camel whilerepresentations grave-stones thatthespecies on an-Nar, show present thedromedary was (Ripinski1975; Zarins1978). The camelalso occursat Bahrain (Dilmun).It is thuspossible thatdomestication the two speciesoccurred the developing of in zone of long-distance trade on contacts opposite sidesof theGulf, to linked thegrowing urban areaof Mesopotamia. While theinitial of focus camel-domestication havebeeninsomelocalised ofIran, achieved may area it a within expanding the network fourth-millennium routes. of majorsignificance trade Thesetrade routesdid not at thistimeextendto western slow spreadof the Arabia,and the relatively the of nature this dromedary reflect undeveloped hinterland thefirst until may millennium BC. The Bactriancamel,however, seemsto have undergone majordispersal a transport a as animalin the third Camelbonesappearon Harappan millennium. sites(Ratnagar 1981: 173),
sitesin central to and somewhat lateron Andronovo Asia,where they maybe linked drawings of camelspulling cartsin theMinusinsk depression (Bulliet1975: 185). Theymayevenhave intoEuropein thethird millennium: fabrics penetrated way of thePontic by steppes identified have 1956: 60) andcamelbones as camel-hair beennotedat Maikopin theCaucasus (Gimbutas on east in in barrows the Ponticsteppesand at Gurbaneqti of Bucharest Romania(Rosetti axis 1959: 802). It is clear thatthe steppesacted as an important as secondary of dispersal, of animal with forms other secondary exploitation. of the millennia theemergence dispersal saw and In summary, and therefore, fourth third in north south:riding, to threemajormeansof transport beginning threemajorzones from These techniques, the domestic and wheeledvehiclesand pack transport. specieson which the theywerebased,spread and interacted bothwithin NearEast andon itssteppe hinterland.
of The origins secondary animal exploitation Previous sections havereviewed evidence thewidespread for appearance secondary and of uses in millennium How farbackmaythese be and products thefourth BC. innovations traced, what weretheir areasof origin? of The earliest in tiedto restricted areas forms cerealcultivation theNearEastwereclosely of seasonally minimal preparation. soil Neolithic sitesfirst moistsoil (Sherratt 1980),requiring where in environments suchcultivation could takeplace.Expansion proliferated thescattered took place in theEarlyChalcolithic in millennium particularly beyondtheselimits (sixth BC), on two sortsof location.Samarran cultivators the fansof eastern Iraq (on or beyondthe the channels across 200-mm present isohyet) pioneered use of water-spreadingconstructing by braided Hassunafarmers streams (Oates and Oates 1976). At thesametime, expandedon the the few brown The latter area offered steppesoilsof northern (within 200-mm Iraq isohyet). for at and opportunities irrigation; whileprecipitation thattimemayhavebeenhigher, is it Since for likelythatgreater preparation soil wouldhavebeen necessary cereal-growing. cattle for were at that time becomingwidespread lowlandsites,the preconditions traction on the first of cultivation were present. Although representations ploughsoccur in southern Mesopotamia only in the fourth millennium (Sherratt 1981: 266), it is likelythat(as with werefirst within irrigation) ploughs developed Greater Mesopotamia thepreceding in millennia. in Theseconsiderations wouldpointto an origin northern in thesixth fifth or BC. Iraq millennia this Although innovation probably basicelement thespread irrigation-cultivation was a in of on the alluvialplain of Mesopotamia, maynot havebeen widely it used outsidethelowland area. At thisstageit is likelyto have been a localisedfeature cultivation of where systems sufficient numbers cattle were available,and thereweresharpcontrasts the typeof of in animalhusbandry adjacent in For regions. instance, faunal assemblages from Kermanshah the of region western Iran showthatdownto themid-fifth millennium theanimaleconomy BC there basedon meat, was principally juvenile goatandgazelle (Davis 1982). Duringthe Late Chalcolithic (fifth millennium at thesametimeas majoragricultural BC), expansionwas takingplace in the alluvialplain in the Ubaid period,therewas a further of on development animaleconomies thefringes Mesopotamia. Kermanshah economy of In the with of diversified, the appearance cattleand an increase sheep,whichnow becamemore in than important goats(Davis 1982). Moreover, sheepwerenowkeptto a greater and it the age,
Thesecondary exploitation animals theOld World 99 of in is likelythatwool and milkwerebeingused forthe first time.Wool-sheep may havebeen an present thisareafrom earlier in date,sincetheSarabfigurine (Bokonyi1974: Fig.44) seems wool (M. L. Ryder, to indicatethe V-shaped staplesof hairymedium pers.comm.).Woolthe bearing sheepprobably spreadfrom Zagrosto thelowland steppeandsemi-desert margins werealso taking where significant changes In place in the fifth millennium. southern Palestine of and Sinaithecolonisation new areasin theGhassulian associated with similar a was increase of of in the importance sheep,and the infilling the area between Palestine and Egyptwas in in the with important linking Nilevalley developments western Asia. The spreadof new features within fertile the crescent created someofthepreconditions for whichtook place in the fourth urbanisation The conjunction expanding the millennium. of on populations thealluvium using irrigation ploughagriculture, theopportunities and with for in to of long-distance trade,resulted attempts securedirectsupplies metal, stoneand wood. The growing of influence lowlandMesopotamia and Egyptaffected wide hinterland, a as wereestablished resource-rich ofPalestine, and in trading partners colonies areas and Iran, Syria on usingbothriver and with transport theNileand Euphrates land routes donkeys (Palestine) of andcamels(Iran).The sledge, usedsincetheinvention theplough, transformed probably was into the wagonor cart by the addition wheels,as shownin theUruk of by the Sumerians for animals thefirst pictograms (Piggott 1968); and equidswereused as traction timeto pull in battle-cars theEarlyDynastic period. In the larger-scale economiesof lowlandMesopotamia became possibleto support it a of sectorin the interstices the irrigated land. Herdsof dairy cattlewere specialised pastoral areas (as shownby dairying sceneswithreedhuts),whilewool flocks kept in marshy were maintained partly stubble-grazing. by Animal-keeping beganto move(like thecultivation of thie of treecropswhichalso beganat thistime)from sphere subsistence thatofcommodity to basedon woolprovided for and textiles export. production, manufacturing industry Secondary had products becomean essentail of theurban part economy.
Europeand thesteppes of elements secondary animalexploitation had appeared different of The various that in parts theNearEast weredispersed a largescale by thedevelopment long-distance routes on of trade aroundthe primary urbancentres. The process openedup a wider from hinterland, Anatolia the local communities through Caucasusto Iran,in which -Troy,Maikop, Altyn tepe-were The opening of thismountain madepossible contacts. arc further developed wider links by up with the Mediterranean, temperate Europe and the steppes.The spreadof Near Eastem to is Arsenical technologies thiswider and periphery wellillustrated metallurgy. by alloying the millennium Greece, in in mouldappeared the fourth eastern two-piece Europeand thePontic as area,at aboutthesametime thetraction ,complex, equidsandwool-sheep. in Eastern from Aegean, the Europe lay open to contacts two directions: and aroundthe of northem margin the Black Sea; and it seemslikelythatboth routes playeda rolein the of The datingevidencediscussed the first in section appearance thesenew features. suggests element be adopted Europewastheplough, to in thatthefirst with together thecartorwagon. The connections which are evidentin pottery typesbetweenBaden, Ezero and westem Anatoliapresent possibility the thatthisinnovation reachedcentral EuropefromAnatolia.
and and thisis mostlikelyforwool-sheep, certain However, stepperouteis also possible, a forthehorse. for a opportunity an of presented moreimmediate The open landscape thePonticsteppes conditions temperate of than Europe.The scale of animal-keeping did theforested increased and consisted of truesteppeshad been avoided by earlyfarmers, theirnativepopulation domestic cattle(Bibikova 1975). and livestock, mainly living fishing keeping by riverine groups madeincreasing of theinterfluves, use millennium thesepopulations Duringthe laterfourth underroundtumuli.Although not nomadic,this the pit-graves constructing characteristic of the horse,whichwas locally was promoted the use by increasingly pastoralemphasis Caucasiangroups.These and domesticated, the cart whichwas adoptedfromneighbouring to of Asia,and westwards towards steppes central the populations expandedboth eastwards, in Europe. agricultural groups eastern intrude uponsedentary had penetrated is thatsomeof thesegroups millennium, there evidence By the earlythird in where by theysettled mainly areasabandoned local agricultural as faras eastern Hungary, 1982-3). At thesame salination (Ecsedy1979; Sherratt becauseof increasing groups, probably in in Europeshowan increase size (Bokonyi timethe sheep populations thisarea of central to seems have Thisbridgehead their forsecondary use to products. 1974) whichis likely reflect which intotheNorth bothforwool-sheep forthehorse, and spread actedas a pointof dispersal opened werebeing increasingly morainic landscape the areasof this European Plainwhere sandy cultivation. up byplough by Europehad beenconstrained the of economies temperate Up to thispoint,thelivestock of The limitedareas of forest clearancecreatedby Neolithic cultivation. introduction the of in a in millennium madepossible radical change thecharacter land scratch-plough the fourth areasof horticultural systems. larger The small-scale strategy replaced use,inwhich extensive an of madepossible form agriculture fallowand abandonedland created thismoreextensive by bothdairy in cattleand subsequently wool-sheep. an expansion theuse of livestock, including on of had effects in This majortransformation the character Europeanagriculture profound the the which to characterise Bronze was Age. and social structure, beginning pattern economy
Conclusion The development economies of animal exploitation beganas a mosaic thus based on secondary of individual in areas of the Near East. It was a response innovations, mostly the semi-arid especially open to the problemof adapting of to early forms farming new environments, to of Theseinnovations whereit was possible maintain larger quantities livestock. landscapes came together duringthe period of rapid economicchangeleadingto the rise of urban of and weredisseminated theexpansion traderoutes the linking earlystates by communities, with their resource-rich hinterlands. The introduction thesenewelements thePontic of to the steppes accelerated local developusingthe domestic horse.Thiszone becamea majorarea economies, already mentof pastoral of secondary Asiaand bothintocentral carrying new elements the and development dispersal, had into eastern of Europe,livestock-keeping conditions temperate Europe.In the forested been restricted scale by the limited of but in area of grazing; the introduction the plough component. that a pastoral initiated moreextensive a typeof agriculture could support larger
Thesecondary exploitation animals theOld World 101 of in of for The Carpathian centre dispersal steppe elements Europe, Basinactedas an important in of to and itslinks theNorth to Plaincarried advanced European types stock-raisingtheAtlantic millennium BC. seaboard thethird by
Noteon dates All datesin thisarticle calibrated are radiocarbon the dates,following tableprovided R. M. by in Clark Antiquity, 265-6. 49,
Acknowledgments I am grateful manycolleagues to whohavebrought new material myattention, to especially to for JimLewthwaite John and Watson, particularly Roger and Moorey hisfrequent adviceon NearEastern matters. 4.i. 1983 Ashmolean Museum University Oxford of
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A. Sherratt, G. The secondaryexploitationof animalsin the Old World This paper considers the range of evidence for the secondary uses and products of animals: wool and milk. It suggeststhat early farming traction,transport, populations used livestock mainly for meat, and that other applications were explored as agriculturalists adapted to new conditions,especiallyin the semi-arid zone. Innovationsin different partsof the Near East were exchanged and disseminated as part of the process leading to urbanisation.Their dispersal affectedboth the steppe belt, which saw a markedincrease in population, and also temperate Europe, where agriculturewas revolutionisedby more extensive methods of farmingand landscape clearance.