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Q.1.

You are appointed as an executive of International patient department handling Medical tourists, What all are the challenges you are facing and what are the limitation of this field in India. Explain [10 marks]
ANS: Medical Tourism Medical tourism is the practice of travelling to other countries to receive medical services, which are sometimes packaged with travel and sightseeing. Challenges and limitations Several issues pose challenge to the growth of medical tourism and which need to be addressed. Currently India faces strong competition from countries such as Thailand, Singapore and Malaysia. Cultural and language barriers Language and cultural barriers can make communication with doctors and other people very frustrating for a person from another country. India has a large number of languages and a high diversity in beliefs, value and culture. The comfort of having a major surgery near home with the family at the bedside is a far cry from the experience in the developing world, where the cultural shock alone can be stressful. Generally there is a fearful state of mind about travelling so far away from home to an unknown place. Communicating with the patients and their families and establishing effective customer relationship is a key challenge. Issues of International Accreditation International accreditation would be an important step in making the hospitals eligible for the coverage with foreign insurers. For example, the JCI seal would enable Indian hospitals to be accredited with US insurers. This in turn would attract customers from other parts of the world. JCI is the international arm of the Joint Commission Accreditation for Hospital Organizations. Similarly UK has its own system of accreditation, the Health Quality Service. Concerns regarding the Quality of Service and Competency of Service Deliverers Medical tourists are anxious and concerned about the about quality of health care services and the qualification and ability of the health care providers. And even the main problem is the huge scarcity of well-trained professional ³Care Providers´. This issue is further aggravated by the fact that most patients and their families are not qualified to judge technical quality and complexity of the variables involved. Hospitals need to focus on indicators to communicate aspects of treatment and care. Negative

Growing Customer Expectations Patient expectations are growing as he or she has more options for high quality criteria. appropriate food and other services would all contribute to the service experience for the patient and his/her attendants.perceptions related to hygiene/sanitation. work pressures and related environment. Doctor should explain the treatment protocols to patients and relatives. Genuine Patient Centric Approach It is necessary to develop a service-oriented team. Comprehensive patient feedback system to guide patients for after care & . There is growing pressure for more personalised services. There needs to be positive. It is the business of managing the total customer experiencean experience where price is transparent but value is opaque. This would require a careful selection procedure. it is necessary to have interpreters and some multi-lingual staff. Focusing on the Functional Outcome.The functional outcome of the service experience needs to be given equal attention. For this it is necessary to have the facilities. Personal caring and warmth is an important factor in enhancing the service experience. This may begin with something like ³door-to-door travel´ and ³stay arrangement´ so that patients can arrange travel documents. suitable programmes should be developed which are based on the study of physiological condition. minimum waiting time or delays for tests and treatment. Doctors and the patients should not be viewed in superior-subordinate roles. A clean and pleasant servicescape. lifestyle. The technical outcome of the service should be excellent. pollution and bureaucracy need to be addressed. Ensuring High Quality Treatment It must be ensured that the basic product that is the quality of treatment of an ailment or injury is of high quality. There is a demand for high responsiveness. Similarly in the case of preventive healthcare. The service employees must be sensitized to the culture and practices of the patientsat least to some extent. Putting the patient in touch with doctor before travelling would also help to alleviate some of the anxiety related to medical treatment. Focus on Two-Way Communication At the very least. equipment and trained and competent staff. Going to the extent of caring for attendant is a must for reassurance. customer ±focused attitude in the hospitals as this is what is going to help to deliver service quality.one which ensures hiring people not only with the right skills and qualifications but also with the right service attitude and then training them suitably.

A dedicated international patients¶ service desk would also help. should be set up. Development of Alternative Therapies The Indian medical tourism and healthcare industry can develop a significant competitive advantage through promotion and packaging alternate therapies such as ayurveda. Transparency can be built by direct contact between hospital/doctors and patients. Also. having a presence on the web could all be used to promote awareness about India¶s strength in medical treatment and preventive healthcare. It is also necessary to have effective complaint or grievance handling system so that negative feedback can be used to improve the service and thereby convert a weakness in to strength. tie-ups with health services in other countries. Proactive follow up after discharge even when the patient forgets must be implemented. if any. travel agencies. opinion leaders and promoting the services with them would help to achieve faster growth. homeopathy and yoga. Promoting the Service The customer needs to be educated about the value of the offerings in a credible manner. should be instituted. It is the satisfied customer who will spread a positive message about India healthcare. India in Medical Tourism ± SWOT Analysis Given below is a SWOT Analysis of the Indian Medical Tourism Industry in its present state: . The industry body Confederation of Indian Industries is already working in partnership with 29 Hospitals with national accreditation across 16 states to work out price band for speciality services. naturopathy. Tie up of with hotels. Eliminating middlemen/travel agents can be an effective strategy for reducing miscommunication. Employer-sponsored programmes for medical care with organizations abroad can be implemented to promote the services. and other related institutions would lead to a better integration of services. For example Kerala has actively implemented initiatives which promote its ancient indigenous therapies on Ayurveda. various sectors of the health care industry are working closely the with tourism ministry to incorporate health care packages under the µIncredible India¶ campaign. Conducting workshops in target countries. Reference of service experience from previous patients is a major factor in building trust. if any. Locating early adopters. Information could be made available at Indian Embassies abroad.solve problems. The international conferences-business channel route can also be used to promote health care services. A comprehensive patient feedback system to guide patients for after care & solve problems.

S.K) _ Fast-paced lifestyle increases demand for wellness tourism and alternative cures _ Shortage of supply in National Health _ Systems in countries like U. cardiovascular. hotels and hospitals _ Customer Perception as an unhygienic country _ No proper accreditation and regulation system for hospitals _ Lack of uniform pricing policies across hospitals THREATS _ Increased demand for healthcare services from countries with aging population (U.STRENGTHS WEAKNESS _ No _ Quality Service at Affordable Cost _ Vast supply of qualified doctors _ Strong presence in advanced healthcare e.g. Malaysia. organ transplants ± high success rate in operations _ International Reputation of hospitals and Doctors _ High confidence level in Indian doctors _ Diversity of tourism destinations and experiences OPPORTUNITY strong government support /initiative to promote medical tourism _ Low Coordination between the various players in the industry± airline operators. U.K. Singapore _ Lack of international accreditation ± a major inhibitor _ Under-investment in health infrastructure _ Lack of proper insurance policies for this sector . Canada _ Reduced/competitive cost of international travel _ Demand from countries with underdeveloped healthcare facilities _ Demand for retirement homes for elderly people especially Japanese _ Strong competition from countries like Thailand.

and can be seen as a result of effective public relations planning. suppliers. Commonly used tools of public relations include news releases.2. person. service. blogs. Public relations involves two-way communication between an organization and its public. It requires listening to the constituencies on which an organization depends as well as analyzing and understanding the attitudes and behaviors of those audiences. or other interested members of the community. while the goal of public relations is generating good will. More recently in public relations. Only then can an organization undertake an effective public relations campaign. employees. services. cause or organization. The effect of good public relations is to lessen the gap between how an organization sees itself and how others outside the organization perceive it. With the creation of social networks. and even Internet radio public relations professionals are able to send direct messages through these mediums that attract the target audiences. conducting research or even focus groups. professionals are using technology as their main tool to get their messages to target audiences. Methods used to find out what is appealing to target audiences include the use of surveys. stockholders. Although advertising is closely related to public relations²as it too is concerned with promoting and gaining public acceptance for the company's products²the goal of advertising is generating sales. Public relations describes the various methods a company uses to disseminate messages about its products.Explain the methods of promoting good public relations [10 Marks] ANS: PUBLIC RELATIONS The methods and activities employed to establish and promote a favorable relationship with the public. and community service programs.Q. but many public relations campaigns include provisions for publicity. Methods. tools and tactics Public relations and publicity are not synonymous. or overall image to its customers. press conferences. Publicity is the spreading of information to gain public awareness for a product. speaking engagements. The point of public relations is to make the public think favorably about the company and its offerings. .

"Press Room" which would have online versions of these documents. or even a person. many organizations may have a website with a link. business. copies of any media clips. public relations is. PR tools have changed so much that some are even suggesting the traditional press release may be dead. Other widely used tools include brochures. etc. Traditional tools include press releases and media kits which are sent out to generate positive press on behalf of the organization. Unlike the traditional tools which allowed for only one-way communication.Tactics are the ways to attract target audiences by using the information gathered about that audience and directing a message to them using tools such as social mediums or other technology. The art of public relations is more than press kits and social media. foursquare (social network). newsletters and annual reports.g.[10] Tools There are various tools that can be used in the practice of public relations. companies are utilizing interactive social media outlets. where their clients are. Facebook. Furthermore companies can join discussions with multiple user identities to create a positive image of the company (e. and receive immediate feedback from their various stakeholders and public. fact sheets. Increasingly. newsletters. digital and social media platforms. Split across three primary channels: traditional. One of the most popular and traditional tools used by public relations professionals is a press kit. What are included would be backgrounders or biographies. organization.) as tools in their public relations campaigns. photographs with captions. LinkedIn. social media outlets allow the organization to engage in two-way communication.[11] The company PR tools have to operate in networks. and social mediums. quantity of positive statements from different users). brochures. press releases (or media releases). such as y y Blogs Social media (Twitter. With the way that the industry has changed. A press kit is usually a folder that consists of promotional materials that give information about an event. media alerts. in its . Another emerging theme is the application of psychological theories of impression management. also known as a media kit.

approach uses stakeholders theory to identify people who have a stake in a given institution or issue. but not all stakeholders are audiences. Previously.purest sense the art of communicating in ways more than just media relations. Such groups claim to represent a particular interest and in fact are dedicated to doing so. An example of this is the American Israel Public Affairs Committee (AIPAC). especially in politics. Targeting public A fundamental technique used in public relations is to identify the target audience. 'PR' often was synonymous in many people's minds for "press release. or public opinion. but the audience is anyone who is likely to donate money. All audiences are stakeholders (or presumptive stakeholders). corporate policy. if a charity commissions a public relations agency to create an advertising campaign to raise money to find a cure for a disease. When a lobby group hides its true . and sometimes." An alternative and less flexible." Today. It can be a general. Or. tools contained within the 'PR' tool box include media relations. the values based social segment could be a trending audience. a spokesperson or client says something to one audience that creates dissonance with another audience or group of stakeholders. more simplistic. Sometimes the interests of differing audiences and stakeholders common to a public relations effort necessitate the creation of several distinct but complementary messages. being whoever someone wants to reach. Marketers often refer to socioeconomically driven "demographics". brand architecture. and to tailor every message to appeal to that audience. recent political audiences seduce such buzzword monikers as "soccer moms" and "NASCAR dads. However. in public relations an audience is more fluid. using all forms of communication techniques in a creative way that delivers practical results. in the new paradigm of value based networked social groups. audience engagement and buzz generation. but it is more often a segment of a population. the charity and the people with the disease are stakeholders. which influences American foreign policy. For example. For example. Lobby groups Lobby groups are established to influence government policy. crisis and issues. such as "black males 18-49". A good elevator pitch can help tailor messaging to each target audience. This is not always easy to do. nationwide or worldwide audience.

A good CRM computer system to manage lists.purpose and support base. Listen to their advice. A good telemarketing agency will work . Good experienced telemarketing staff and managers understand what works and what doesn't for given markets. by the agency and your own staff. and to that ensure your aims. it is known as a front group. It is important to identify a good telemarketing agency. If well-managed. department or agency. which provides an extra incentive for prospective customers to attend. for instance if marketing a new technology or service to architects and specifiers. nor for professional business-to-business campaigns. selling products and services and making appointments for sales staff. follow-up and outcomes. data. are all clearly established and understood. and communications process for enquiry generation follow-up. Generally telemarketing 'scripts' are not a good idea for high quality propositions. telemarketing can be an extremely good and cost-effective method for generating sales enquiries. and where educating customers is appropriate. Telemarketing Using telemarketing staff or a telemarketing agency is a proven method of marketing. Moreover. Considerable care needs to be taken when defining and agreeing the telemarketing 'brief' with the telemarketing staff. types of propositions and products and services. is normally essential for telemarketing is to be successful on any reasonable scale. governments may also lobby public relations firms in order to sway public opinion Seminars Creating an informative seminar and inviting your target audience is an excellent way to educate the market and promote your company and proposition. and good telemarketing agencies will already be using such systems which hopefully will interface with your own systems. This method works especially well in the business-to-business market. It is possible to have certain types of seminars accredited for CPD (Continuous Professional Development) by professional institutes. outline script.

moreover customers generally find scripts. and postal charges. which depend (in the UK) now on the size and shape as well as the weight of the item being mailed. which of course is not always the case) 4. the item(s) to be mailed.best by developing their own approach to meet the broad requirements of a project 'brief' and an outline of what you want to achieve. including 'door-to-door' distribution and telemarketing methods. very impersonal and insulting. The last two stages are often called 'fulfilment'. a mailing list of names and addresses (from your own data-base or names sourced elsewhere) 2. The elements which make up the direct mail process are basically: 1. Consumers and businesses are protected by certain rights relating to direct marketing techniques such as telemarketing. Rigid scripts have the effect of limiting the natural style and capabilities of telemarketing staff. notably: . response rates vary according primarily to the quality of the list. and you must ensure that your activities adhere to these rules. and envelopes or packaging. Direct Mail is generally used to generate a direct response from the recipient and will commonly incorporate a reply or response section within the mailed item. which quickly become robotic and characterless. and how you want to achieve it. Refer to the legal implications (Data Protection Act and Preference Services) in the direct mail section. Direct mail is the process of sending your material (by itself or in a shared mailing with other items) direct to the address of the potential customer by post. Aside from the strength of your proposition. resource or facility to 'stuff' and address or label the envelopes/packaging (assuming you are putting the item in an envelope or packaging. Direct Mail Some of the principles and rules referenced here also apply to other types of direct marketing. if applicable 3.

next reduce it by a factor of 10 (i.e. assuming the campaign is designed to produce responses or enquiries and not sales directly. See the direct mail story for example.. It is therefore important to judge a direct mail campaign first on percentage and quality of response. and even more things that are unknown and unimagined by the campaign manager. the response mechanism. whether a direct mail campaign works well or poorly it's often very difficult to discover what elements need to be changed and how: the proposition. the day and time of delivery. something else? For large ongoing campaigns it is appropriate and cost-effective to conduct follow-up surveys of respondents and non-responders. such as response handling. as accountants say). You then need to take into account the conversion rate (the conversion of responses into sales). and then separately to assess the overall results of the campaign including conversion statistics and sales values. Direct mail is not a precise science. If the figures . A direct mail campaign which produces more than a 2% response is normally considered very successful. IT systems. When you first state your estimated response rate as part of the financial justification for the direct mail campaign. the reliability of the fulfilment. but for smaller initiatives it's rarely costeffective to attempt detailed analysis other than to look for obvious indications of success or failure. re-assess the campaign viability using on one-tenth of your initial response forecast). conversion rates also vary according to factors outside of and after the direct mail activities themselves. Lower than 1% response is more usual. especially when calculating advertising viability and return on investment. sales follow-up. so a planning tip is to be pessimistic (prudent. Aside from the quality of the responses. which is determined by the campaign.y the reliability of the list data (new clean lists obviously perform better than old out-of-date lists) y and how well 'targeted' the list is in terms of your offer (how relevant it is to the recipient). Inexperienced marketeers (and many experienced ones too) tend to over-estimate forecasted response rates for direct mail. the mailing list. There are many things that can go wrong. etc. Like the rest of advertising.

Otherwise display advertising is concerned with image-building and creating awareness. the latter being most common now. As with other advertising methods. Contact the Direct Marketing Association or country equivalent for more information about providers of lists and mailing services. Yellow Pages. Large scale direct mail campaigns are normally best managed via a CRM (customer relationship management) system. which are a less expensive. etc. or whether unlimited use is permitted. All significant publications will be pleased to provide you with their 'Media Pack'. together with lots of information about their readership profile and circulation. and generally lower performing method. If you are trying to generate a direct response from display advertising you may need to feature a coupon of some kind. directories . if appropriate. campaign. and how selective your profiling criteria are. from a few pounds up to several hundreds of pounds per 1. display advertising The taking of advertising space in the editorial sections of magazines or newspapers. If not. into a CRM (customer relationship management) system. using a word-processing program in conjunction with the list of names and addresses on a spreadsheet program. for how much. List prices vary enormously. You can also choose whether to have the list on labels. or whether the list is being actually bought outright. notably the number of times the list can be used (list rental).still show a positive return on investment then your campaign might well be successful. and easy to import. Your own database of existing and past customers will typically produce a significantly higher response than that of a list sourced elsewhere. then it's sensible to re-think the whole thing. as opposed to the classified sections. the use of Free-phone telephone numbers and Free-post addresses all increase response rates. etc . Mailing list prices also vary according to the terms of use. how specific the list is. or on a disk in a common spreadsheet or database format. These days for small businesses it's very easy and cost-effective to do your own or outsource a mailmerge direct mail.000 names and addresses. depending on volume. which gives full details of all the types of display advertising available. Thomsons.local directories.

If you work with a designer be sure to control any fanciful tendencies and keep the message and style to the point. But there is a limit to how many people you can target and access using these methods. be careful to ascertain accurate details of circulation and profile if considering small or unproven publications. Leaflets And Printed Material Brochures and leaflets can be used for a variety of purposes. A good printer can provide examples and costings. Hand-Books And Newsletters Publishing your own information material is potentially very effective. but they don't achieve anything for the business. and costs can be reduced by incorporating relevant supporting advertising from other organisations wishing to be associated with your services and to target your audience. The aim of a brochure is foremost to generate new business through providing information in a way that appeals to the reader. The acronym AIDA (attention interest desire action) should be the basis of its design.These sorts of directories remain very useful for local domestic. Costs of preparation and organisation can be big.) Alternatively you can advertise in a relevant guide book produced by another organisation. and are rarely transparent at the outset so beware. However. and the easiest way to learn what works and what doesn't is to look at other people's material. and can be distributed in different ways. which dramatically increases the chances of getting your message across. Open Days And Exhibitions The advantage of personal contact is that you actually get to talk to your potential customers. Guidelines for Newsletters follow later. (Remember now that electronic media is able to extend the use and potential of newsletters far beyond traditional printed media. Too much spent on a brochure can give the impression that your business is extravagant. Some brochures and leaflets are pleasing pieces of art. Guide Books. so avoid falling into this trap. . consumer and household products and services suppliers. A business telephone line normally gives free Yellow Pages and Thomson's entries under a single classification in your local books Brochures.

Word Of Mouth Personal referral is unsurpassed as an advertising tool. and the systems within which they communicate and socialise. A variety of networking opportunities exist in all sectors and regions. and anywhere that potential customers and influencers gather. keeping in mind the particular target audiences most relevant to your aims. lunches. Always be prepared to speak to others enthusiastically about your business . introduce a friend incentives. It costs nothing and is the most believable type of 'advertising of them all. which can contribute greatly to building a customer-friendly image.the world is full of potential customers. Use your imagination. networking websites. An increasing number of networking communities and services are now to be found on the internet too. and any other mechanism that encourages people to spread the word on your behalf. including trades associations. and more particularly for business-to-business services. breakfasts.Events of this nature do nevertheless offer good possibilities for follow-up PR activity. If your customers are thrilled by the service you give they'll tell their friends. . events. chambers of commerce and trade. clubs. You can encourage word of mouth referrals through the use of discount vouchers and coupons. Encouraging word of mouth referral is therefore a good reason for sustaining excellent customer service and relations. societies. loyalty and 'friends and family' schemes. Networking And Clubs Using business networking methods to develop contacts and introductions is an especially cost-effective marketing method for consumer services and products. Explore these opportunities.

3. and field observations. Quantitative research ³is the controlled. Some issues may not warrant extensive research because they will create little impact on the organization. Qualitative research allows public relations practitioners to ³discover rather than test´ ideas. The practitioner could use information from the focus groups to develop questions for an employee survey (quantitative research). All research requires making tradeoffs among rigor. a public relations practitioner might conduct a series of focus group interviews (qualitative research) to identify possible issues that concern employees. but they are examined in great detail. budget. which can be generalized to larger populations. focus groups. in-depth interviews. The reality is that public relations practitioners must gather the best information possible to make the best decisions possible within the constraints of the situation. and systematic gathering of data´. the degree of accuracy required.Q. Some qualitative research techniques frequently used in public relations include nominal group technique. The purpose of qualitative research is to provide a rich. and timing. Both types of research are valuable. Explain different types of Public relations research [10 Marks] ANS: Types of Public Relations Research There are two types of public relations research: qualitative research and quantitative research. but tight deadlines do not allow for designing and implementing an extensive research program. Other issues may be expected to create a tremendous impact. cost. For example. . timing. the results cannot be generalized to larger populations. especially when used together. Factors that determine which research methods to use include the nature of the research problem. in-depth understanding of how certain people think or feel about a subject. and the importance of the findings to the success of the organization. and can provide critical public relations insights. Qualitative Research Methods Qualitative research involves only a few cases. However. objective.

Similar ideas may be combined into a single category. the researcher may move beyond it to probe deeper into the subject¶s comments. but are expensive to administer. A nominal group technique (NGT) method usually consists of five stages. In stage two. second choice three points and third choice one point. A purposive sample is a ³nonprobability sample in which the researcher selects respondents according to his or her judgment as to their perceived representativeness or usefulness to the research process´. In the fifth stage. a facilitator records everyone¶s ideas in a round-robin fashion. In some cases. the researcher uses a detailed interview schedule with open and closed questions. NGT lacks precision. In the structured interview. Also. the respondent rather than the interviewer guides the course of the interview. but is an effective brainstorming technique and often the first step to additional research. participants vote for the ideas of greatest. First. Although the researcher may have a line of questioning. In stage three. . but only if the entire group agrees to combine traits. The researcher assembles a purposive sample of 10 to 12 people. In-depth interviews also enable interviewers to clarify questions if necessary and present visual materials. In-depth Interviews: In-depth interviews are open-ended interviews. often conducted in person. Face-to-face in-depth interviews yield a high percentage of returns. and idea-generating purposes for market research (de Ruyter.Nominal Group Technique: This research technique has been used for organizational decision-making. a moderator presents the topic and makes sure participants understand the issue. NGT voting includes ranking. and knows in advance what questions to cover. Stage four consists of a group discussion of ideas. The unstructured interview is more informal. 1996). problem-solving. where participants give their first choice five points. They are useful at the formative stages of research . Two types of in-depth interviews are the structured and unstructured interviews. which may bias the findings. each participant works individually to generate ideas. In-depth interviews last from 45 minutes to several hours. Group members typically are somewhat knowledgeable about the topic. where the respondent is encouraged to talk freely. lower response rates are being reported in high-crime areas.

Subjectivity is ³a person¶s communication of his or her point of view´ . Q methodology provides a quantitative means to study a participant¶s point of view or beliefs. Q Methodology: Between Qualitative and Quantitative Q methodology is the scientific study of subjectivity. The public relations practitioner might use focus groups when looking: for a range of ideas and feelings. Public relations practitioners conduct field research whenever they observe or participate in a social behavior and try to understand it. They reveal the range of opinion that exists surrounding a particular subject. Some Q studies are developed around a single participant. One public relations use of field research is observing patterns to see how people work their way through trade shows. plans or policies. materials. There are several types of field observations. to uncover factors that influence opinions. They offer the advantage of probing social life in its natural habitat. and to shed light on quantitative research data already collected. to understand differences and perspectives. behaviors or motivations. The respondent may be asked to sort the Q-sample from ³most unlike me´ (-5) to ³most like me´ (+5). Q-study research usually involves a small number of participants. In a Q study. each respondent sorts a number of statements about a subject (the Qsample) along a continuum. Field observations are used as a data collection activity and theory generating activity. according to a condition of instruction. Field Observations: Field observations are defined as ³a qualitative observation technique that puts you among the public you are studying in a naturalistic setting´. Focus groups can also be used to develop questions for surveys and other quantitative research. ranging from complete participant (where the researcher¶s true identity and purpose are not known) to complete observer (where the researcher observes social processes without becoming part of it). for ideas to emerge from the group.Focus Groups : Focus groups are moderated group discussions involving six to 12 participants. In . The late Republican political consultant Lee Atwater said that focus groups ³give you a sense of what makes people tick and a sense of what¶s going on with people¶s minds and lives that you simply can¶t get with survey data´. or to pilot test ideas.

The average Q-sample has 40 items. talk shows. interviews. within a certain confidence level (how certain they are that the results are correct). regardless of truth.some cases. that the findings hold true not only for those surveyed. previous research. letters to the editor. How strongly each individual ³fits´ a particular factor is indicated by how he or she loads on the factor. Researchers may conclude. And so on. The computer groups people with similar sortings under a common factor. ‡ The media have the responsibility of verifying the truth of all information before broadcasting or publishing. Quantitative Research Methods Quantitative research methods allow researchers to draw statistical inferences about a population. ‡ An unrestricted media is the hallmark of a free society. A researcher conducting a Q study on people¶s attitudes toward the First Amendment might include such statements in the Q-sample as: ‡ The media should have the right to say and print whatever it wants. or how it would be sorted in an ³ideal´ world. Each participant¶s Q-sort is factor analyzed by computer with the other participants¶ Q-sorts. the condition of instruction may be to sort the Q-sample according to how they think someone else might sort it. but also for the entire population within that sample frame. and a variety other sources. Q-sample statements may be culled from media reports. . ‡ Pornography should be outlawed. Each factor represents a particular point of view.

Also.Content analysis provides a means to measure qualitative data quantitatively. number of inches or minutes. Public relations practitioners may be tempted to put a dollar value to media coverage using ³advertising value equivalency. Most public relations researchers do not advocate this method of content analysis for several reasons. there is no known relationship between the two. Surveys: One common quantitative public relations research method is the survey or questionnaire. Additionally. many public relations research firms offer content analysis services. quality of the publication or program. It systematically analyzes the content of communication to determine whether key messages are being communicated to key audiences. and multiplies that by the media¶s advertising rates. and prominence of the company in the story. total circulation of the publications. No research exists to suggest that news stories have an impact equal to advertising. Software such as ATLAS. whether key messages appear. and focus group results. audience type (key audience or general audience). It can be used to analyze documents. product mentions. and instead focus on how coverage helps achieve the organization¶s goals. speeches. key media or general media. such as for content analysis. Possible measurements for content analysis include number of clips. positive versus negative stories. However.ti can help practitioners develop detailed analyses of qualitative data. there is no advertising equivalent for a negative or neutral story. For quantitative data analysis.´ This is a crude calculation in which the practitioner measures coverage by column inches in a publication or seconds on the air. The Institute for Public Relations recommends that public relations practitioners avoid trying to measure what their efforts would equate to in advertising dollars. all non-management employees at XYZ Company who have worked there for less than five years). Some practitioners claim that a story from an unbiased journalist is more credible than a paid advertisement. In order for a survey to have external validity (defined by . the credibility of news media stories varies depending on the subject. SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) is frequently used in public relations research. news articles and television pieces. The survey sample frame defines the particular population under study (for example. interviews.

a researcher might ask a broad questions. In a qualitative study. A larger sample increases both accuracy and costs. this means that every person who falls within the population defined by the sample frame has an equal possibility of being surveyed. and the margin of error and degree of uncertainty with which the researcher can tolerate. including Survey Research System¶s Sample Calculator at Survey questions must be carefully constructed. In random sampling. .Broom & Dozier.´). There are several free online sites to help calculate sample size based on desired confidence level and confidence interval (margin of error). as ³the degree to which a measure is valid for other settings and populations. quantitative research puts limits on respondents¶ choices. The size of the sample depends on budget. Probability samples are drawn in such a way that the researcher knows the probability of selecting any particular sampling element. 1990. Unlike qualitative studies. researchers must draw a probability sample.