CHAPTER 1

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CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION:
1.1 OUTLINE OF THE PROJECT: 1.1.1 NEED AND IMPORTANCE: The contemporary definition of Organizational Culture includes what is valued; the leadership style, the language and symbols, the procedures and routines, and the definitions of success that characterizes an organization. It is a specific collection of values and norms that are shared by people and groups in an organization and that control the way they interact with each other and with stakeholders outside the organization. Here, organizational values are beliefs and ideas, about, what kinds of goals members of an organization should pursue and the appropriate kinds or standards of behavior organizational members should use to achieve these goals. From organizational values develops organizational norms, guidelines or expectations that prescribe appropriate kinds of behavior by employees in particular situations and control the behavior of organizational members towards one another. In the past 25 years, the concept of organizational culture has gained wide acceptance as a way to understand human systems. From an open system perspective, each aspect of organizational culture can be seen as an important environmental condition affecting the system and its subsystem. Increased competition, globalization, mergers, acquisitions, alliances, and various workforce departments have created a greater need for organizational culture. Thus, it has become an important pattern for the organization's development. Below are important key ingredients of Organizational Culture:

It focuses attention on the human side of organizational life, and finds significance and learning in even its most ordinary aspects.

It clarifies the importance of creating appropriate systems of shared meaning to help people work together toward desired outcomes.

It requires members especially leaders, to acknowledge the impact of their behavior on the organization's culture.
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It encourages the view that the perceived relationship between an organization and its environment is also affected by the organization's basic assumptions.

Organizational culture is possibly the most critical factor determining a organization's capacity, effectiveness, and longevity. It also contributes significantly to the organization's brand image and brand promise.

Organizational Culture creates energy and momentum. The energy will permeate the organization and create a new momentum for success.

Strong/Weak culture: Strong culture is said to exist where staff respond to stimulus because of their alignment to organizational values. In such environments, strong cultures help firms operate like welloiled machines, cruising along with outstanding execution and perhaps minor tweaking of existing procedures here and there. Conversely, there is weak culture where there is little alignment with organizational values and control must be exercised through extensive procedures and bureaucracy. Research shows that organizations that foster strong cultures have clear values that give employees a reason to embrace the culture. A "strong" culture may be especially beneficial to firms operating in the service sector since members of these organizations are responsible for delivering the service and for evaluations important constituents make about firms. Research indicates that organizations may derive the following benefits from developing strong and productive cultures:
    

Better aligning the company towards achieving its vision, mission, and goals High employee motivation and loyalty Increased team cohesiveness among the company’s various departments and divisions Promoting consistency and encouraging coordination and control within the company Shaping employee behaviour at work, enabling the organization to be more efficient

Characteristic of Healthy Organizational structure: Organizations should strive for what is considered a “healthy” organizational culture in order to increase productivity, growth, efficiency and reduce employee turnover and other
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The management can 4 . training. Such cultures possess high employee involvement. as well as price Lower than average turnover rates (perpetuated by a healthy culture) Investment in learning.  To understand how to assess the effectiveness of motivational practices in the organization. strong internal communications and an acceptance and encouragement of a healthy level of risk-taking in order to achieve innovation. 1. organizational cultures that explicitly emphasize factors related to the demands placed on them by industry technology and growth will be better performers in their industries. 2. This study focuses on today's turbulent. It helps the management  To understand the causes of performance problems. performance oriented cultures have been shown to possess statistically better financial growth. 3. Scope of the study: The scope the study involves 1. The management can create the work environment in which their employees will thrive. and employee knowledge Additionally. A variety of characteristics describe a healthy culture. including: • • • • • • • • • Acceptance and appreciation for diversity Regard for and fair treatment of each employee as well as respect for each employee’s contribution to the company Employee pride and enthusiasm for the organization and the work performed Equal opportunity for each employee to realize their full potential within the company Strong communication with all employees regarding policies and company issues Strong company leaders with a strong sense of direction and purpose Ability to compete in industry innovation and customer service. often chaotic.1. Additionally.2.counterproductive behaviour. 4. environment. commercial success depends on employees making use of their talents in full.

policies.  To analyze the impact of culture on the overall performance of the organization. truths. assumptions. and values that operate in organizations.4. Enhance the professional perception of the employees  Foster a team oriented cooperative environment  Enhance employee relationship  Provide constructive feedback to their performance Encourage the resolve of the employees to change the negative behavior pattern 1." Then we help organizations move themselves forward. Organizational culture has been described as "how people behave when no one is looking." Organizations are more than they appear to be on the surface. services. We believe that organizational culture is a primary. and rewards are the ingredients which determine the results in organization. We believe an organization can go only as far as its culture takes it.1." We define organizational culture as the set of shared beliefs. 5 .1. and what it will take to get "there. 1. Behind products.3." get a clear sense of how far they are from where they wish to be. We help organizations get their "cultural bearings. There are of course many other bottom line business reasons to focus on and build organizational culture. if not THE primary determinant of that which separates "champion" from "also-ran" organizations. Problem Definition: One of the most important building blocks for a highly successful organization and an extraordinary workplace is "organizational culture. Objectives of the study: This study involves the following objectives  To analyze the existing culture of the organization and finds its impact on the employees. Focusing on building and sustaining an organizational culture is one way of showing that people are the organization’s most valuable asset.

A sample is called simple random sample if each unit of the population has an equal chance of being selected for the sample. Simple random sample (SRS) is a special case of a random sample. The study is descriptive in nature i. one can only report what has happened or what is happening.5 Research methodology: Research design: A research design is an arrangement of condition for collection and analysis of the data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy in procedure.  To analyze how the employer encourage his employee in the decision making process. When the first unit is selected. To study the employee relationship with their peers  To analyze the employee feel about the organization. It must be noted that the probability of selecting the first element is not to be compared with the probability of selecting the second unit. This includes surveys and fact-finding enquiries of different kinds. Whenever a unit is selected for the sample.1. The main characteristic of this method is that the researcher has no control over the variables. This study involves collection of data from all designations of employees SAMPLING TECHNIQUE Sampling method: The sampling method implemented is the simple random sampling. all the units of the population have the equal chance of selection.  To find out the employee motivational factor. the units of the population are equally likely to be selected. Descriptive research is concerned with describing the characteristics of a particular individual or group. descriptive research. 6 . Thus..e. 1. the research design in case of descriptive study is a comparative design throwing light on all the areas and must be prepared keeping the objectives of the study and the resources available.

Number of responds Percentage = _______________________ x 100 7 . Percentages are used to determine the relationship between the variables. This survey method is used considering the size of the universe and time factor.Population: The universe of the study consists of employees of Bajaj Autos with a total number of 57. in an attempt to avoid time and money being wasted on an inadequately designed project. in order to check the feasibility or to improve the design of the research. therefore. Questionnaire has been designed and personally administered. Tools for analysis: The statistical tools which are used for analysis are the  Percentage analysis Simple percentage refers to a special kind of ratio used in making comparison between two or more series of data. but not on those who will form part of the final sample. Out of the total population data could be collected from 50 persons. also called a pilot study. which helped in improving the standards. is a small scale preliminary study conducted before the main research. A pilot study is usually carried out on members of the relevant population. may not be appropriate for case studies. Pilot studies. Here the pilot study involves the sample of 5 employees. Pilot study: A pilot experiment. They are frequently carried out before large-scale quantitative research. Data are collected through structured Questionnaire. This is because it may influence the later behavior of research subjects if they have already been involved in the research. Sources of Data Collection: This study involves collection of primary data from the employees of Bajaj autos.

Number of respondents

 Chi-square analysis. Chi-square test is a non –parametric test that establishes the independence between variables. It is measured by comparing the observed with those of expected frequencies based on the hypothesis. It is given by,

Ψ2 = ∑ (O-E) 2 / E O- Observed Frequency E- Expected Frequency

1.1.6 Limitation of study:
There are certain limitations in the study. They are as follows • • The attitude of the worker changes from time to time. Hence the result of the project may be applicable only at present We cannot get exact information because some of the employees are reluctant to share the information

1.1.7 CHAPTERISATION: • This entire report is classified into different chapters i.e., from Chapter 1 to Chapter 4. • Chapter 1 consists of Introduction part, outline of the project, need and importance, scope of the project, objectives, research methodology, limitations of this project and the company profile (BAJAJ AUTOS) and the product profile of the company. • Chapter 2 consists of the literature review of the project.
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• Chapter 3 consists of the data analysis and interpretation of the study.

Chapter 4 consists of the Summary and Conclusion part of this study.

1.2 INDUSTRY PROFILE:

The company:
The Bajaj Group is amongst the top 10 business houses in India. Its footprint stretches over a wide range of industries, spanning automobiles (two-wheelers and three-wheelers), home appliances, lighting, iron and steel, insurance, travel and finance. The group's flagship company, Bajaj Auto, is ranked as the world's fourth largest two- and three- wheeler manufacturer and the Bajaj brand is well-known across several countries in Latin America, Africa, Middle East, South and South East Asia. Founded in 1926, at the height of India's movement for independence from the British, the group has an illustrious history. The integrity, dedication, resourcefulness and determination to succeed which are characteristic of the group today, are often traced back to its birth during those days of relentless devotion to a common cause. Jamnalal Bajaj, founder of the group, was a close confidant and disciple of Mahatma Gandhi. In fact, Gandhiji had adopted him as his son. This close relationship and his deep involvement in the independence movement did not leave Jamnalal Bajaj with much time to spend on his newly launched business venture. His son, Kamalnayan Bajaj, then 27, took over the reigns of business in 1942. He too was close to Gandhiji and it was only after Independence in 1947, that he was able to give his full attention to the business. Kamalnayan Bajaj not only consolidated the group, but also diversified into various manufacturing activities. The present Chairman of the group, Rahul Bajaj, took charge of the business in 1965. Under his leadership, the turnover of the Bajaj Auto the flagship company has gone up from INR.72 million to INR. 120 billion, its product portfolio has expanded and the brand has found a global market. He is one of India’s most

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distinguished business leaders and internationally respected for his business acumen and entrepreneurial spirit.

Group of companies:
Bajaj Auto is the flagship of the Bajaj group of companies. The group comprises of 34 companies and was founded in the year 1926. The companies in the group are Bajaj Auto Ltd.
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Bajaj Holdings & Investment Ltd. Bajaj Finserv Ltd. Bajaj Allianz General Insurance Company Ltd. Bajaj Allianz Life Insurance Co. Ltd Bajaj Financial Solutions Ltd. Bajaj Auto Finance Ltd. Bajaj Allianz Financial Distributors Ltd. Bajaj Auto Holdings Ltd. P T Bajaj Auto Indonesia (PTBAI) Bajaj Auto International Holdings BV Bajaj Electricals Ltd. Hind Lamps Ltd. Bajaj Ventures Ltd. Mukand Ltd. Mukand Engineers Ltd. Mukand International Ltd. Bajaj Sevashram Pvt. Ltd. Jamnalal Sons Pvt. Ltd. Rahul Securities Pvt Ltd Shekhar Holdings Pvt Ltd Madhur Securities Pvt Ltd Niraj Holdings Pvt Ltd Shishir Holdings Pvt Ltd Kamalnayan Investments & Trading Pvt Ltd Sanraj Nayan Investments Pvt. Ltd.
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Bajaj Pulsar 220 bags IMOTY award 2007 December September August July June April February January RE GDi autorickshaw launched Bajaj XCD 125 DTS-Si launched DTS-Si engine launched Revamping of Organisational structure Bajaj Pulsar 220 DTS-Fi launched New Bajaj Auto Plant at Pantnagar. Ltd. Ltd.• • • • • • Hercules Hoists Ltd. Hospet Steels Ltd • • • Achievements: 2009 2008 September April August January July June Bajaj Platina 125 DTS-Si upgrade launched Bajaj Pulsar 150 & 180 launched Bajaj XCD 125 DTS-Si islaunched Bajaj XCD 135 DTS-Si largest selling 125cc motorcycle Bajaj Discover 135 DTS-i Upgrade Launched. Bachhraj & Co Pvt Ltd The Hindustan Housing Co. Uttarakhand 200 cc Pulsar DTS-i launched Bajaj Kristal DTS-i launched 2005 11 . Ltd. Jeevan Ltd. Ltd. Ltd. Baroda Industries Pvt. Bajaj International Pvt. Hind Musafir Agency Pvt. Bachhraj Factories Pvt.

December June February Bajaj Discover launched Bajaj Avenger DTS-i launched Bajaj Wave DTS-i launched Key policies: 12 .

The Company will not practice nor support conscious discrimination in any form.Code of contact: Bajaj Auto Limited (herein after referred to as the "Company") hereby adopts the following Code of Conduct for Affirmative Action. The Company does not bias employment away from applicants belonging to disadvantaged sections of society if such applicants possess competitive skills and job credentials.  The Company affirms that its competitiveness is interlinked with the well being of all sections of the Indian society. 13     . The Company affirms the recognition that liersity to reflect socially disadvantages sections of the society in the workplace has a positive impact on business. It further believes that inclusive growth is a component of growth and development of the country. The Company believes that equal opportunity in employment for all sections of the society is a component of its growth and competitiveness.

Amrut Kumar Rath. He will be accountable to the Chairman. In case of equal business offers. This Code of Conduct for Affirmative Action will be put up on the company web-site to encourage applications from socially disadvantaged sections of society. No discrimination of any type will be shown in this process. The Company will maintain records of Affirmative Action. with different and effective features. The Company has nominated Mr.       1. Vice President (HR). the Company will select a business partner belonging to a socially disadvantaged section of society. The Company makes all efforts for upskilling and continual training of all its employees in order to enhance their capabilities and competitive skills. The products are as follows. The Company may have a partnership programme with educational institution/s to support and aid students from socially disadvantaged sections of society.3 Product profile: Bajaj autos have launched various bikes. The Company's selection of business partners is not based on any considerations other than normal business parameters. The Company will make available its learning and experiences as a good corporate citizen in Affirmative Action to other companies desiring to incorporate such policies in their own business. to oversee and promote the Affirmative Action policies and programmes.  Avenger  Pulsar  Discover 14 .

AVENGER: THE COMFORT Feature Forward foot riding posture for driver. Excellent Road holding characteristics. Better road grip and stability while on drive. Advantage posture. Good road holding . Bucket seat for comfort over all Fatigue free driving. Duel foam density seat. Ensuring comfort for driver as Comfort on any kind of road. THE CONVENIENCE Feature Advantage 15 Benefit . drives. well as pillion.broad saddle seat. Better grip available. Low saddle height . Low centre of gravity. Pillion too has been taken care. Special backrest for the pillion.stability. Wide tyres at front and rear. Benefit Comfortable and relaxed riding Strain free ride. Safe and comfortable feeling.

Better to claim conveyance bills. driving/operating/maintenance Get the warning before battery hassles. 3. DC Ignition system advantages : 1. Easy to start due to low trigger start RPM.Push button indicator cancellation.bigger oil 2. 4 stroke DTSi 220 CC engine DTSi technology advantages : Digital twin spark ignition. Benefit Ride that can be enjoyed due to Power packed performance. Good power and pick up. Oil cooled engine . Better fuel efficiency. Low Battery level indicator. Lesser emissions. PULSAR: 16 . Cold startability improved. Tripmeter to record distance travelled. Just push the indicator button Easy to ride without any to cancel. conks off. 2. cooler. THE PERFORMANCE Feature Advantage 1.

Aerodynamic tank flaps. Optimum ignition timing for any engine rpm Digital Biking: Digital C. Bulb free tail lamp assembly tachometer console. ENGINE Feature 4 stoke. All black styling adds to the aggressive and mean Aggressive masked fairing with wolf eyed look.D. Benefit Legendary DTS-i technology with proven track record for more power. Clip-on Handle bar Bigger Carburetor Sporty Look Better Throttle Response means near-zero maintenance.E. Light sensitive digital cockpit for great day headlamps.D tail lamp. DTS-i 150 cc. more mileage &amp. ExhuasTEC (Torque Expansion Chamber) Improves engine torque at low rpm and provides Technology* for the exhaust technology State of the art feature at the heart of abundant latent power at any stage of riding to ensure effortless pulling for any load conditions. Unit. Digital resulting in better throtle response and reduced 17 . ultimate refinement. Back-lit LCD digital speedo & night visibility.09 Ps. Twin slashed L.I. 14.150cc Dtsi STYLE Feature Benefit All Black Engine.

TRICS III. 180cc Dtsi STYLE Feature Split seats. more mileage & ultimate 18 . DTS-i 180-cc. Aerodynamic tank flaps. 17 Ps Benefit Legendary DTS-i technology with proven track record for more power. Kickless start Beefy frame with 1345 mm wheelbase Benefit Mean & Aggressive looks making it more sporty & stylish More strength and high stability with exceptionally tight turning radius ENGINE Feature 4 stoke.E.Twin Spak Ignition. Clip on handle bar. Anti scratch tank pad. Black styling. emissions. Wolf eyed headlamps L. Two piece grab rail.D tail lamp.

temperature based ignition combustion of fuel & air mixture.D. Unit. Clip-on handle bar Benefit Enhances the Sporty & Aggressive look of this aerodynamic machine ENGINE Feature Benefit 4 stroke. Good 19 . Split seats. Digital Twin Spark The most powerful engine of its class giving Ignition engine with India's largest venturi highest output & mileage because of efficient carburettor.I. 21 Ps. Digital resulting in better throtle response and reduced STYLE Feature All Black styling. 3D chiselled logo. Vertical stack twin projector headlamps.refinement ExhuasTEC (Torque Expansion Chamber) Improves engine torque at low rpm and provides Technology* for the exhaust technology State of the art feature at the heart of Twin Spak ignition. 220 cc. TRICS III 220cc Dtsi abundant latent power at any stage of riding to ensure effortless pulling for any load conditions Optimum ignition timing for any engine rpm emissions Digital Biking: Digital C.

even in top gear 20 .mapping. Auto choke startability & better torque DISCOVER EXCITING PERFORMANCE Feature 150-cc DTS-i engine Class-leading torque Class-leading power Class-leading power-to-weight ratio All-down 5-speed gearbox Benefit Ensures efficient combustion for an exceptional combination of mileage and power Unparalleled pulling power in all gears Smoother ride and greater fuel-efficiency over 4speed competition bikes ExhausTEC* Excellent pulling power at low rpm.

Ride Control Switch Helps you maximise fuel efficiency DC Ignition Improves ignition timing EXCITING COMFORT Feature Benefit Rear Suspension . for Nitrox Suspension rider and pillion rider. Front Suspension Long Travel front suspension Electric Start Hassle free starting for quick stop-start in traffic.Excellent comfort on long drives on all terrains. 21 . Auto Choke Sure start in all weather conditions. Battery Charge Indicator Easy monitoring of battery charge status.

It was developed to help clients understand change in organizations and it helps to explain the specific nature of organizational change as the most fundamental of these.CHAPTER II CHAPTER II REVIEW OF LITERATURE THE NATURE OF ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE: This article offers a simple typology of different kinds of change. Introduction: 22 . It also offers some thoughts on the nature of organizational change.

not as a theoretical abstraction. Their work is thus a step towards a more holistic view of organisational life. my masters degree is in organizational consultancy. “a collection of activities that take one or more kinds of input and creates an output that is of value to the customer. Process Processes are the ordered set of activities which are used to generate the outputs of an organisations. Michael Hammer and James Champney define a business process as. In what follows I will say a little more about each—much more than I would expect to say to a potential client. 23 . The reality was usually different.” (1995:35) Hammer and Champney contrast the process way of thinking with a simple task focus. indeed.  Structural change. The initial premise is that there are four kinds of change in organisations:  Process change. where each individual activity is viewed in isolation. Business Process Re-engineering (BPR) was sold as a radical form of organisational transformation. But most people don’t know what that means (and nor did I until I started my MSc) so I often find myself trying to explain. divisions or even firms. By re-ordering the processes to a more natural customer-focused way the hope was that organisations would undergo a step change and move to new ways of working and being. Processes can cut right across structural boundaries such as departments. This article offers a typology of change in organizations. but still being far from exhaustive. but as a way of helping people understand the nature of organizational change.  System change.  Organisational change. if the process can be managed and designed to operate as a seamless whole enormous efficiencies could follow.I usually refer to myself as an organizational consultant. Potential clients are not usually interested in abstract theory and the challenge is to find a reasonably accessible way of describing what I do.

Increasingly these will be facilitated by networked computers. and so on. The same organisation also introduced a new ‘permit to work’ system (safety is crucial) which gave more responsibility to the production workers. and so on. The temptation is to ‘fix’ one or other of the systems so that they get together better. A better perspective on process comes. There are Health and Safety systems such as ‘permit to work’. appraisal and development. Production is continuous throughout the day and year and the new system requires fewer workers but means that each shift only spends one week in five on days.This is not the place to discuss the strengths and weaknesses of BPR but the absence of any reference to people in the definition above is very significant. real change is unlikely. Books on change in organisations often spend chapter after chapter advising on how to change systems but although useful and essential. by considering the interactions between the people who actually interact with one another to deliver the process. recruitment and retention. The chances are that this temptation should be resisted—unless we ask why this situation was allowed to occur. changing systems is unlikely to bring about fundamental change. so much so that IT systems are now the first kind most managers will call to mind. For instance I recently worked with an organisation which re-arranged its shift system for production workers from a six-shift to five-shift system. Systems When most people in organisations speak of systems they are referring to sets of procedures. Each change was made for good reasons but the effect of the two together is that maintenance workers have to wait hours for their permits. In fact. System change in organisations is often not systemic—that is it rarely takes account of the wider implications for the organisation as a whole. But there are also HR systems: reward and recognition. they get frustrated and de-motivated and the state of maintenance at the plant is poor. in my view. Many of these are codified into standards such as ISO 9000. Winograd & Flores’ notion of commitments (1986) is worth exploring further in this context. usually on a one-to-one basis. payroll and finance systems. processes always involve interactions between people. 24 .

this group will have more status and power than that. or from functional divisions to process-focused work teams. an indication of the regularities which arise when groups of people get together in pursuit of a common purpose. which owes much to the work of Maturana & Varela: Organization denotes those relations which must exist among the components of a system for it to be a member of a specific class. Organization Organisation is the most fundamental aspect of a business. Structures will inevitably emerge from the interactions between individuals—these people will usually work together. those will perform others. Vast sums were expended (and often still are) in creating new structures. in modern organisations it is usually imposed from ‘outside’. I will just briefly look at the three key terms in the definition in a little more detail: Relationships The notion of relationship is core to this view of organisation. (1987:47) 25 . Yet although structure will always emerge. The outward manifestation of organisation is what is often known as culture. Traditional ‘expert’ consultants are often very skilled at suggesting appropriate structures for different kinds of organisation in particular environments.Structures Structure is the outward form of organisation. My current working definition of an organisation is a cocreating pattern of relationships. this one will usually adopt a leadership role. A conscious decision is made: perhaps to move from a hierarchy to a matrix. and so on. it can be argued that one of their primary functions is to provide a mechanism to help managers deal with anxiety in organisational life (Hirschhorn & Barnett 1993). charity. public service or any other goal-directed collection of people. How often these projects deliver value for money must be questioned—indeed. these will perform some functions.

is not a simple or predictable process. moves from outside to inside in a way which is sometimes orderly and sometimes turbulent and finally exits into another relatively calm environment (the sink). To the outside observer the whirlpool seems to present a relatively stable and recognisable pattern. Patterns may have a degree of stability but they too are both influenced and influencing in this continuous dance of change. the result of thousands of 26 . as it is often called . Co-creating It is crucial to recognise that the patterns of relationship which make up organisation are not designed or imposed from ‘above’ or ‘outside’.) Pattern I use the word ‘pattern’ to indicate that although the way the networks of relationships occur is completely unpredictable at the micro level there are nevertheless some regularities and consistencies. they are co-created by all the other conversations and interactions which are occurring. Not only can we recognise a whirlpool if we see one but any particular whirlpool has features which persist over time (the Great Red Spot in Jupiter’s atmosphere is a good example).The relationships in human organisations are those which exist moment to moment between the people who are ‘members’ of the organisation and also between them and those who are in the ‘environment’ of the organisation. I believe that cultural patterns are emergent. The metaphor of the whirlpool may help here. the whirlpool is a chaotic system and it is not possible to predict the trajectory of an individual molecule.'culture change'. Changing the Patterns Change in the patterns of organisation . (I therefore do not see human organisations as autopoetic as I understand Maturana and Varela’s use of the term. From the point of view of an individual water molecule all is change and progress—it enters the whirlpool at a specific place (the source). Technically.

Per 1997. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp 82-92. Elisabeth 1973. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler. Hammer. Stuart 1996. Clergy. Denning. Reading. 1993. and Their Own Families. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. NEW INSIGHTS ON ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE Published in Organizations & People Vol. Reengineering the Corporation: A Manifesto for Business Revolution. Mass: Helix. Maturana. Kauffman. 27 . London: Nicholas Brealey. Emergence: From Chaos to Order. May 2000 pp 2-9. Stephen 2001. This article also appears in Organizational Culture: An Introduction. Kübler Ross. London: Shambala. How Nature Works: The Science of Self-Organized Criticality. revised edition. On Death and Dying: What the Dying Have to Teach Doctors. 7 No 2. Hirschhorn. Harmondsworth: Penguin. The Tree of Knowledge: The Biological Roots of Human Understanding. The Psychodynamics of Organizations. Francisco 1987. At Home in the Universe: The Search for Laws of Complexity.individual local-level interactions and that although they can be influenced. Larry and Barnett. these patterns are remarkably resistant to change References Bak. Kathleen et al 2000. Michael and Champney. John H. London: Tavistock. Carole K. James 1995. edited by Nasreen Taher. Whole-Scale Change: Unleashing the Magic in Organizations. 2005. Humberto and Varela. Hyderabad: ICFAI University Press. The Springboard: How Storytelling Ignites Action in KnowledgeEra Organizations. Holland. 1998. Dannemiller. Nurses. Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann.

For example. Although these approaches can be useful I feel that they tend to encourage a rather mechanical view of culture change. This view is seen in those models which try to distinguish different ‘types’ of organisational culture. implying that the change process requires us to somehow shake the organisation out of its current equilibrium so that we can change it while it is unstable and then let it settle into a new equilibrium state closer to our ideal. ‘Role’ (Apollo). ‘Achievement’ or ‘Support’. which they arrange under six different generic headings. we can make organisations change. somehow. Firstly. Kroeber & Kluckhohn in their classic review of culture (1952) report 156 different definitions. the Harrison & Stokes diagnostic invites you to score both existing culture and preferred culture suggesting that once you know where you want to go it is possible to work out a way to get there. ‘Role’.Introduction There are many approaches to culture and even more definitions. this is the conventional approach to culture analysis summarised by Wilkins & Patterson (1985) as: Where do we need to be going strategically as an organisation? Where are we now as a culture? What are the gaps between where we are as a culture and where we should be? What is our plan of action to close those gaps? This classical OD approach is based on two assumptions. that organisations are usually. This notion was best expressed in Kurt Lewin’s famous ‘unfreeze—change—freeze’ model. In the years since they wrote many other definitions have been attempted and still there is no consensus. Indeed the whole notion of a definition of culture may be unhelpful since it may lead us to think of culture as a ‘thing’ or a state which ‘belongs’ to an organisation. One of the best known is that developed by Roger Harrison (Harrison & Stokes 1992) who writes of cultures as being characterised by ‘Power’. that by effective analysis. ‘Task’ (Athena) or ‘Existential’ (Dionysus). Charles Handy developed this idea in a slightly different way in his Gods of Management (1995) with ‘Club’ (Zeus). Of course. in one state or another. and preferably. 28 . And here is the second belief—that. proper planning and appropriate action we can guarantee an outcome.

Culture as emergence According to the anthropologist Mary Douglas. affirming and expressing. It seems to me that the evidence for it is extremely thin—we all know that most change programmes have little lasting radical effect. So perhaps it’s time to look for some alternative perspectives which might offer another approach.Yet this conventional wisdom. in particular by looking at emergence. culture is the result of all the daily conversations and negotiations between the members of an organisation. Indeed. The amazing thing that needs to be investigated is cultural stability. She writes about. espoused by so many managers and consultants. Indeed my own working definition of culture contains this as a key word: Organisation culture is the emergent result of the continuing negotiations about values. "…the admonitions. and moral judgements by which the people mutually coerce one another into conformity. The cultural web A model of culture. whenever and wherever it is found. If you want to change a culture you have to change all these conversations—or at least the majority of them. 29 . meanings and proprieties between the members of that organisation and with its environment. If culture is being created all the time by everybody how is it that we sense it as reasonably stable? I think that we can now begin to answer Douglas’ question by using some of the insights of complexity theory. usually tacitly) about the ‘proper’ way to do things and how to make meanings about the events of the world around them. as Douglas observes. developed by Jerry Johnson (Figure 1). needs to be challenged." (Douglas 1985:xxiii) In this view culture is not imposed from outside but exposed from within. may help to explain the difference between the two approaches. culture is not a static ‘thing’ but something which everyone is constantly creating. In other words. They are continually agreeing (sometimes explicitly. And changing conversations is not the focus of most change programmes. which tend to concentrate on organisational structures or reward systems or other large-scale interventions. any programme which attempts to change culture in a planned way is likely to miss the mark. "…the central issue is not cultural change." (1985:xxii). excuses.

In the first few months things seem to be changing but gradually the novelty and impetus wears off and the organisation settles back into something like its previous configuration. Experience shows us that these initiatives usually have a limited success. systems and processes. consultations. We need a new metaphor. with all the usual communication exercises. The paradigm in the centre is the set of core beliefs which result from the multiplicity of conversations and which maintains the unity of the culture. The reason for this is simple. and so on. A lot of energy (and money) is put into the change programme. The ‘petals’ are the manifestations of culture which result from the influence of the paradigm. Most change programmes concentrate on the petals. 30 . though often overlooked—unless the paradigm at the heart of the culture is changed there will be no lasting change. Practical implications The focus of organisational change interventions moves away from ‘planning change’ and onto ‘facilitating emergence’.Johnson calls his model the ‘cultural web’ though I must admit that it reminds me more of a flower than a web. If we are looking to help a new paradigm emerge we need a new way to think about the role of the change agent—whether external consultant or internal OD specialist. they try to effect change by looking at structures. workshops.

The complex systems approach invites us to work in the system. instead they work towards helping the organisation become ready for its own transformation. treating the woman as a living being not a machine. It implies that the change agent can stand outside the system. In Bak’s terms they help to remove barriers and open up channels so that the system can self-organise to a critical configuration. instead the best we can do is to try to build new connections and relationships so that a process of self-organisation can take place. she recognises the uniqueness of each encounter. Nevertheless I believe that by adopting a complexity perspective we can look at organisational culture and change in completely different ways. But it does not go far enough. We start to realise that organisations cannot be changed according to plan or desire. Then it is just a question of waiting and trying to make sure that the forces for stability do not move it away from the critical state (actually.One possibility is change agent as ‘midwife’. how can you re-engineer or fix an organisation. if you don’t have a full ‘tool kit’? This is the complement of the prevailing metaphor of ‘organisation as machine’ which has been around since the time of Taylor and Fayol (Morgan 1997). They choose to work both formally and informally in organisations helping people have conversations which they might otherwise not have had. The midwife metaphor. My aim is to open some avenues for thought and exploration rather than to present finished work. has the merit of seeing the organisation as a complex self-organising entity to be worked with rather than worked on. on the other hand. Conclusions I have covered a lot of ground in this article and there is much more to say on many of the topics. to give up the illusion that we can comprehend its complexity and to adopt more modest aims. diagnose and understand its working parts and then intervene to redesign it to operate in a more effective way. It seems to work reasonably well: the good midwife develops a personal relationship with the pregnant woman. where change becomes possible. she understands the importance of working with the body’s natural processes. There is no linear plan of campaign. she knows that birth should not be forced but assisted. One approach is that adopted by Patricia Shaw and Bill Critchley (Shaw 1997). it still places the change agent outside the system. I believe that it is possible to influence 31 . Most change agents seem to have a much more mechanical view of themselves—how can you be a good consultant.

to be replaced by intuition and creativity. London: Arrow. Andrew H. San Francisco: Pfeiffer. This is such a different way of working that it is hard for both clients and consultants. References Bak. Charles (1995) Gods of Management: The Changing Work of Organisations. Douglas. We also come to see that the best place for the change agents to be is within the system. New York: Basic Books. Herb (1992) Diagnosing Organizational Culture. 10. London: Flamingo. (1999) "Explaining Complex Organizational Dynamics" Organization Science Vol. Gross & Steve Rayner. Fritjof (1997) The Web of Life: A New Synthesis of Mind and Matter. Dooley. Roger & Stokes. Capra. New York: Columbia University Press. No. Mary (1985) "Introduction" in Jonathan L. The complexity consultant cannot do this and it takes a brave client to be prepared to accept that a complexity approach actually offers a better chance of a favourable outcome than a conventional mechanical proposal. 32 . & Van de Ven. Oxford: University Press. Harrison. Handy. 3 May-June pp. Consultants have been used to offering apparently rational approaches to change which satisfy clients’ needs for certainty and assurance. Geertz. Clifford (1973) The Interpretation of Culture. You can end up feeling very exposed and inadequate but when it works it feels great! I urge you to give it a try. Measuring Culture: A Paradigm for the Analysis of Social Organization. It’s also scary for the consultant. Per (1997) How Nature Works: The Science of Self-Organized Criticality. but that is another article). The old check lists and prescriptions have gone.the outcome even though one cannot determine it. 358-372. Kevin J. working from outside is likely to be far less effective.

more adaptive. Whether it is new product development. harnessing creativity is the key to organisational performance and success in an ever-changing environment. We have come to realise that small causes may have large effects (and vice versa) and that simple actions may have unpredictable and surprising consequences. For the next six years I spent every working day watching a variety of talented film editors and directors creating films for the BBC. For the next fourteen years I watched myself doing the same thing.CREATIVITY IN ORGANIZATIONS: AN EMERGENT PERSPECTIVE: Richard Seel. Yet. Human systems have several more levels of complexity than the basic complex adaptive systems about which we have now learned so much. In this article I will explore creativity as an emergent phenomenon. Both Lewin (1993) and Waldrop (1993) offer accessible introductions to the development of complexity studies. Since then there has been a mushrooming of studies and yet our understanding is still very far from complete. the results of the interactions are both surprising and unpredictable. The ‘agents’—people—are actually very 33 . despite this double dose of simplicity. I will argue that the creative process has something to tell us about emergence and also that the culture in the BBC—certainly in the sixties to eighties—operated in a way which was very supportive of emergent creativity. The systems studied at Santa Fe and other centres usually consist of large assemblies of simple ‘agents’. especially as practiced at the Santa Fe Institute in New Mexico. culture. After I left college I joined the BBC as a trainee assistant film editor. Complexity Over the last thirty years there has been an increasing awareness that nature is rarely simple —at least in the sense of being predictable and linear. provision of innovative services or fundamental creative change resulting in a new. April 2005 More and more organisations are realising that creativity is essential. asking what an organisation might do to help foster and facilitate the creative process. I will illustrate my thesis both by looking at my experience in a creative organisation par excellence: the British Broadcasting Corporation. These agents interact with one another according to small sets of simple rules.

complex systems in their own right and their interactions are not governed by simple rules (though we can sometimes make useful models by assuming that there might be such rules). they can decide to ignore the rules or to make up new ones. diverse and unconstrained there is the possibility of creative and adaptive change. Emergence [Emergence is] the process by which patterns or global-level structures arise from interactive local-level processes. H. in brief. This property of complex systems is perhaps the most significant of all: the seeming inevitability of the appearance of new and unpredictable patterns—a phenomenon known as emergence. Lewes. My work is particularly focused on organisational life: those patterns of meaning and commitment which swirl and dissipate minute-by-minute without ceasing. The effectiveness of these conversations is. the organisation will be doomed to repeat itself until it is so far out of alignment with its environment that it will die. So. controlled or coerced. yet still remains mysterious in many ways. Individuals behave unpredictably and getting consensus can be almost impossible in some circumstances. Emergence cannot be planned or predicted. If not. Human beings have intentionality. Emergence is the key property of complex systems. Yet emergence does not seem to be a completely random thing. a measure of the effectiveness of the organisation. If the conversations are rich. In particular. Yet human systems display many of the properties of complex systems. it will slip out of our reach. I have come up with a tentative list of pre-conditions for emergence in human systems. as soon as we try to grasp or master it. coherent patterns of behaviour can arise from the apparently idiosyncratic interactions of random individuals. This “structure” or “pattern” cannot be understood or predicted from the behavior or properties of the component units alone. (Mihata 1997:31) Jeffrey Goldstein (1999) offers a helpful introduction to the notion of emergence and shows that the term was first used as long ago as 1885 by the English philosopher G. here is a list of some of the things which seem to me to be important in facilitating emergence in organisations (see also Seel 2002): 34 . there are times when it seems more likely than others and many people have struggled to cone up with some sense of the conditions which must be present before emergence can occur. Drawing on much of this work. like the slippery eel. in large part.

Ensure that your culture encourages diversity of opinion. 35 . Quality of Interaction—research by Marcial Losada (Losada & Heaphy 2004) suggests that emergence is more likely to occur if there are significantly more positive than negative interactions within a group or team. Ma: Perseus Publishing. Conclusions The study of emergence in complex systems offers us a useful perspective from which to consider creativity and the conditions which can foster creativity. Both theory and the BBC practice suggest that creativity may be best fostered by creating fairly tightly connected communities of practice (Wenger 1998). approach and attitude. And do not strive for too much efficiency—by removing the possibility of unproductive downtime you also remove waiting time and lose the opportunity to wait for form. Lack of inhibitors—inappropriate power differentials. connected by a number of distant ties between communities. Diversity—if there is not enough diversity in the system if will be hard for different patterns to emerge. Linked: The New Science of Networks. Watchful anticipation—a period of expectant waiting is often necessary to facilitate emergence. encourage space and time for play. Positive intention—a clear sense of purpose can influence the chances of emergence occurring. Cambridge. but hold these lightly so that they can stimulate rather than inhibit emergence. enable a good mix of competition and collaboration in the dissemination of ideas. ideally expressed in the form of stories. too much anxiety or threats to identity can all inhibit emergence. References Barabási. Have clearly stated goals. Rate of information flow—either information overload or too little information flow can make emergence unlikely. Work towards a positive and energetic set of interpersonal relationships. Albert-Laszló 2002. Encourage an egalitarian empowered approach but make sure that the boundaries are clear and explicit.Connectivity—emergence is unlikely to occur in a fragmented world. Good constraints to action—effective boundaries can enhance the possibility of emergence.

“The Persistence of ‘Emergence’” in Raymond A. Lewin. Ca: Sage. 36 . The Poetry of Robert Frost: The Collected Poems. Kevin 1997. Mihata. Roger 1993. Thousand Oaks. Models & Theories pp 30-38. At Home in the Universe: The Search for Laws of Complexity. Lee (eds). Complexity: Life on the Edge of Chaos. Emergence 1:1. Kauffman. Complexity & Sociology: Myths. pp 49-72. Stuart 1996. New York: Henry Holt & Co Goldstein.Frost. Harmondsworth: Penguin. “Emergence as a Construct: History and Issues”. London: Phoenix. Chaos. Sara Horsfall & Mary E. Jeffrey 1999. Eve. Robert 2002.

CHAPTER III CHAPTER III DATE ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION: TABLE NO: 3.NO OPINION NUMBER OF RESPONDENT 1 2 STRONGLY AGREE AGREE 18 22 37 PERCENTAGE 36 44 .1 Understanding organization mission and vision S.

2 Tracking the progress S. followed by 44 % of respondent who agreed.3 4 5 NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL 10 0 0 50 20 0 0 100 INFERENCE From the above table it is clear that 36% of the respondent strongly agrees that they have a clear idea of organization mission and vision.1 Understanding organization mission and vision TABLE NO: 3. followed by 20 % of respondent are neutral.NO OPINION NUMBER OF RESPONDENT 38 PERCENTAGE . CHART NO: 3.

and 14% of the respondents slightly disagree.3 Involvement in work S. followed by 16 % of respondent are neutral.1 2 3 4 5 STRONGLY AGREE AGREE NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL 7 28 8 7 0 50 14 56 16 14 0 100 INFERENCE From the above table it is clear that 14% of the respondent strongly agrees that they track their performance with the organization goal. CHART NO: 3. followed by 56 % of respondent who agreed.NO OPINION NUMBER OF RESPONDENT PERCENTAGE 1 2 3 STRONGLY AGREE AGREE NEUTRAL 50 0 0 39 100 0 0 .2 Tracking the progress TABLE NO: 3.

4 Relationship with other employee S. CHART NO: 3.3 Involvement in work TABLE NO: 3.4 5 DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL 0 0 50 0 0 100 INFERENCE From the above table it is clear that 100% of the respondent are highly involved in their work.NO OPINION NUMBER OF RESPONDENT PERCENTAGE 1 2 3 4 5 STRONGLY AGREE AGREE NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL 32 18 0 0 0 50 40 64 36 0 0 0 100 .

NO OPINION NUMBER OF RESPONDENT PERCENTAGE 1 2 3 4 5 STRONGLY AGREE AGREE NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL 27 14 9 0 0 50 54 28 18 0 0 100 INFERENCE 41 . followed by 36% of respondent just agreed.5 Utilization of skills and ability S.INFERENCE From the above table it is clear that 64% of the respondent strongly agrees that they have a smooth relation with other employee.4 Relationship with other employee TABLE NO: 3.1. CHART NO: 3.

followed by 28% of the respondent who agrees. followed by 34% 42 .From the above table it is clear that 54% of the respondent strongly agrees that their skills and ability are effectively utilized by the organization.NO OPINION NUMBER OF RESPONDENT PERCENTAGE 1 2 3 4 5 STRONGLY AGREE AGREE NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL 12 17 15 6 0 50 24 34 30 12 0 100 INFERENCE From the above table it is clear that 24% of the respondent strongly agrees that the management takes decision after asking the suggestion from the employees.6 Consultation with the employee S.5 Utilization of skills and ability TABLE NO: 3.1. CHART NO: 3. and 18 % of the respondent are neutral.

followed by 30% of the respondent are neutral.7 Strong value for employee suggestion S. CHART NO: 3. CHART NO: 3. and 12% of the respondent disagrees. followed by 68% of the respondent just agrees.7 43 .6 Consultation with the employee TABLE NO: 3.of the respondent just agrees. followed by 12% of the respondent are neutral.NO OPINION NUMBER OF RESPONDENT PERCENTAGE 1 2 3 4 5 STRONGLY AGREE AGREE NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL 10 34 6 0 0 50 20 68 12 0 0 100 INFERENCE From the above table it is clear that 20% of the respondent strongly agrees that there is a strong value for the employee suggestion.

CHART NO: 3.8 Solving of problem 44 . followed by 24 % of respondent who just agreed.NO OPINION NUMBER OF RESPONDENT PERCENTAGE 1 2 3 4 5 STRONGLY AGREE AGREE NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL 38 12 0 0 0 50 76 24 0 0 0 100 INFERENCE From the above table it is clear that 76% of the respondent strongly agrees that the management takes decision for any problem in a justified manner.8 Solving of problem S.Strong value for employee suggestion TABLE NO: 3.

CHART NO: 3. followed by 38 % of respondent who just agreed.9 Response for organizational change S.NO OPINION NUMBER OF RESPONDENT PERCENTAGE 1 2 3 4 5 STRONGLY AGREE AGREE NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL 23 19 8 0 0 50 46 38 16 0 0 100 INFERENCE From the above table it is clear that 46% of the respondent strongly agrees that there is a response for any organizational change. followed by 16 % of respondent are neutral.9 Response for organizational change 45 .TABLE NO: 3.

TABLE NO: 3.10 Adaptation of new work style: 46 .NO OPINION NUMBER OF RESPONDENT PERCENTAGE 1 2 3 4 5 STRONGLY AGREE AGREE NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL 50 0 0 0 0 50 100 0 0 0 0 100 INFERENCE From the above table it is clear that 100% of the respondent strongly agrees that they adopt new work style. CHART NO: 3.10 Adaptation of new work style: S.

followed by 18 % of respondent who just agreed. CHART NO: 3.11 Improving of skills and ability S.NO OPINION NUMBER OF RESPONDENT PERCENTAGE 1 2 3 4 5 STRONGLY AGREE AGREE NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL 41 9 0 0 0 50 82 18 0 0 0 100 INFERENCE From the above table it is clear that 82% of the respondent strongly agrees that they can improve their skills and ability.11 Improving of skills and ability 47 .TABLE NO: 3.

TABLE NO: 3.12 Employee respect in organization 48 .NO OPINION NUMBER OF RESPONDENT PERCENTAGE 1 2 3 4 5 STRONGLY AGREE AGREE NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL 50 0 0 0 0 50 100 0 0 0 0 100 INFERENCE From the above table it is clear that 100% of the respondent strongly agrees that they have respect in the organization and they maintain a dignity. CHART NO: 3.12 Employee respect in organization S.

followed by 24 % of respondent who just agreed.13 Rewards and performance appraisal S. CHART NO: 3.TABLE NO: 3.NO OPINION NUMBER OF RESPONDENT PERCENTAGE 1 2 3 4 5 STRONGLY AGREE AGREE NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL 38 12 0 0 0 50 76 24 0 0 0 100 INFERENCE From the above table it is clear that 74% of the respondent strongly agrees that there is a performance appraisal and rewards for the best employee.13 Rewards and performance appraisal 49 .

14 Management assistance and suggestion 50 . followed by 4 % of respondent are neutral. followed by 34 % of respondent who just agreed.TABLE NO: 3.14 Management assistance and suggestion S.NO OPINION NUMBER OF RESPONDENT PERCENTAGE 1 2 3 4 5 STRONGLY AGREE AGREE NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL 31 17 2 0 0 50 62 34 4 0 0 100 INFERENCE From the above table it is clear that 62% of the respondent strongly agrees that there is a assistance and guidelines from the organization. CHART NO: 3.

15 Tracking_of_progress * Age Crosstabulation Age 25-30 Tracking_of_progress Strongly agree Count Expected Count Agree Count Expected Count Neutral Count Expected Count Disagree Count Expected Count Total Count Expected Count 0 2.2 CHI-SQUARE: TEST-1 The following table shows the cross tabulation of Tracking of performance with organization goals with their Age.0 3 2.5 5 2.4 5 9.0 0 .0 41-50 4 1.5 7 6.2 13 9.5 11 11.2 16 16.0 7 7.0 50 50.6 0 2.0 Above 50 3 .4 0 1.0 31-40 0 2.0 8 8.0 51 .2 0 1.0 Total 7 7.8 0 1.4 17 17.8 3 3. TABLE NO: 3.0 28 28.8 6 6.STATISTICAL TOOL: 3.7 7 2.

764 23.84. 13 cells (81.544 50 df 9 9 1 sided) . H0 is rejected. H1 is selected.520a 41.92 • Since the calculated value (38.520 Tabulated value = 16.16 Chi-Square Tests Asymp. TABLE NO 3.92).520) is greater than tabulated value (16.3%) have expected count less than 5. (2Value Pearson Chi-Square Likelihood Ratio Linear-by-Linear Association N of Valid Cases 36.For chi-square test.000 . From the above chi-square test tabulation Calculated value = 38. H0: Null Hypothesis There is no relationship between the Age and the Performance tracking of the employees. Sig.000 a. H1: Alternative Hypothesis There is relation between the Age and the Performance tracking of the employees. • So there is relationship between the Age and the Performance tracking of the employees. The minimum expected count is . 52 .000 .

17 Tracking of performance * Experience of the employee Crosstabulation Count Experience of the employee Less than 2 yrs Tracking of performance Strongly agree Agree Neutral Disagree Total 2 11 3 1 17 Between 2 .6 yrs 3 8 1 3 15 Between 6 10 yrs 2 4 4 2 12 Above 10 yrs 0 5 0 1 6 Total 7 28 8 7 50 For correlation H0: Null Hypothesis There is no relationship between the Age and the Performance tracking of the employees. H1: Alternative Hypothesis There is relation between the Age and the Performance tracking of the employees 53 .3.3 CORRELATION The following shoes the Correlation of Experience of employee with the performance tracking of employees. TABLE NO 3.

109 .109 .109 which is a perfect positive value.18 Correlations Tracking of performance Tracking of performance Pearson Correlation Sig.TABLE NO 3. H0 is rejected and H1 is accepted.449 50 1 From the above correlation table • The outcome of the correlation of Experience of the employee and their Tracking of performance r = 0. (2-tailed) N Experience of the employee Pearson Correlation Sig.449 50 50 1 Experience of the employee . • • 54 . (2-tailed) N 50 . So there is relationship between the Experience of the employee and their tracking of performance.

CHAPTER IV 55 .

 From the percentage analysis it is found that.  From the percentage analysis it is found that. nearly 36% of the respondent strongly agrees that they have a clear idea of organization mission and vision.  From the percentage analysis it is found that. 56 . followed by 34% of the respondent just agrees. nearly 24% of the respondent strongly agrees that the management takes decision after asking the suggestion from the employees. followed by 28% of the respondent who agrees.1 FINDING  From the percentage analysis it is found that.CHAPTER IV SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 4. followed by 12% of the respondent are neutral. followed by 36% of respondent just agreed. followed by 16 % of respondent are neutral. nearly 14% of the respondent strongly agrees that they track their performance with the organization goal.  From the percentage analysis it is found that. nearly 20% of the respondent strongly agrees that there is a strong value for the employee suggestion. 100% of the respondent are highly involved in their work  From the percentage analysis it is found that. and 18 % of the respondent are neutral.  From the percentage analysis it is found that. followed by 20 % of respondent are neutral. nearly 64% of the respondent strongly agrees that they have a smooth relation with other employee. followed by 30% of the respondent are neutral. nearly 54% of the respondent strongly agrees that their skills and ability are effectively utilized by the organization. and 14% of the respondents slightly disagree. and 12% of the respondent disagrees. followed by 56 % of respondent who agreed. followed by 68% of the respondent just agrees. followed by 44 % of respondent who agreed.

 From the percentage analysis it is found that.  From the percentage analysis it is found that. nearly 46% of the respondent strongly agrees that there is a response for any organizational change.  From the percentage analysis it is found that. followed by 38 % of respondent who just agreed. nearly 82% of the respondent strongly agrees that they can improve their skills and ability. 57 . followed by 18 % of respondent who just agreed. followed by 16 % of respondent are neutral  From the percentage analysis it is found that. followed by 24 % of respondent who just agreed.  From the percentage analysis it is found that. 100% of the respondent strongly agrees that they adopt new work style. followed by 34 % of respondent who just agreed. nearly 76% of the respondent strongly agrees that the management takes decision for any problem in a justified manner. nearly 62% of the respondent strongly agrees that there is assistance and guidelines from the organization. followed by 4 % of respondent are neutral. 100% of the respondent strongly agrees that they have respect in the organization and they maintain a dignity. From the percentage analysis it is found that.  From the percentage analysis it is found that. nearly 74% of the respondent strongly agrees that there is a performance appraisal and rewards for the best employee. followed by 24 % of respondent who just agreed.

58 .  The organization must effectively use the employee’s skills and abilities to have a good overall performance of the organization. SUGGESTION  The organization should make its employee to understand about its Mission and Vision and also about the various goals. So if there is any change.4.  There is a good response from the employee for any organizational culture change.2. Effective using of skills will improve the organization standard and also help in the growth of the employee.  The overall view is that. the organization is having effective organization culture which is been clear from the above feedback. that should be more effective than the present culture. There are some small improvements which the organization should take for the effective growing of the organization. The organization culture is an important factor which lies for the growth and the improvement of the organization and also for the employees.  Before taking any decision the management should consider the suggestions of the employees so that there will be a smooth relation between the management and the employees.

So this concept plays an important role in the organization. From the study it is analysed that the culture followed in the BAJAJ Autos is more effective and there are importance for the employees.3 CONCLUSION This study was designed to find out how the organization culture plays an important role in the organization and also in the behaviour of the employees. The organization has started showing importance to its employees.4. This organization culture has got great important only few decades back. 59 . This will have a great impact on its employees and make them to behave in a justified manner. where in olden days there was no importance. So this organizational culture is a broad concept and all the organization should implement it to have effective growth. which routed them to achieve this position. Nowadays all the organizations are very concern about their culture and the various goals. Effective planning will help them to achieve these goals.

I have a clear idea about my organization mission and vision o Strongly agree o Agree o Neutral o Disagree o Strongly disagree 2. I continuously track my progress against the organization goals o Strongly agree o Agree o Neutral o Disagree o Strongly disagree 3. I have a high involvement in my work o Strongly agree o Agree 60 .APPENDICES: A STUDY ON THE ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE AND ITS IMPACT ON EMPLOYEE’S BEHAVIOUR PERSONAL INFORMATION NAME: DESIGNATION: DEPARTMENT: QUALIFICATION: EXPERIENCE: GENDER: AGE: 25-30 LESS THAN 2 YRS MALE 31-40 Married FEMALE 41-50 Unmarried Above 50 yrs 2-6 YRS 6-10 YRS ABOVE 10 YRS MARITAL STATUS: 1.

I maintain a good relationship with the other employees o Strongly agree o Agree o Neutral o Disagree o Strongly disagree 5. The higher authority will have a consultation with the employees before taking any decision o Strongly agree o Agree o Neutral o Disagree o Strongly disagree 7. My skills and ability are utilized effectively by the company o Strongly agree o Agree o Neutral o Disagree o Strongly disagree 6. If there any conflict occurs the management solve the problem in a justified manner o Strongly agree o Agree o Neutral o Disagree o Strongly disagree 9. There is a good response for any organizational changes o Strongly agree o Agree o Neutral o Disagree o Strongly disagree 10.o Neutral o Disagree o Strongly disagree 4. The higher authority believe that there is a strong value for employees suggestion o Strongly agree o Agree o Neutral o Disagree o Strongly disagree 8. I continuously adopt new and improved ways to do my work o Strongly agree o Agree o Neutral o Disagree o Strongly disagree 61 .

There is a great opportunity for me to improve my skills and abilities in the organization o Strongly agree o Agree o Neutral o Disagree o Strongly disagree 12. the management provide more assistance and suggestions o Strongly agree o Agree o Neutral o Disagree o Strongly disagree 15. The management provides rewards and appraisal for the employee who has done an outstanding performance. The management treat all employees with respect and dignity o Strongly agree o Agree o Neutral o Disagree o Strongly disagree 13. Suggestion 62 . o Strongly agree o Agree o Neutral o Disagree o Strongly disagree 14. If there is any problem faced by the employee.11.

BIBLIOGRAPHY • • www.com www.com Research Methodology – 2002 Edition – C.Kothari Publications • 63 .R.bajajautos.google.

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