1/5/2010 J.

Liang SFU ENSC815 1
ENSC 815
Multirate Signal Processing
1. Introduction
Jie Liang
Engineering Science
Simon Fraser University
JieL@sfu.ca
1/5/2010
J. Liang SFU ENSC815
2
Outline
General Information
History
Course Overview
List of topics
1/5/2010 3
General Information
Website: http://www.ensc.sfu.ca/~jiel/courses/815/index.html
Course list: ensc815-all@sfu.ca
Lectures:
Tuesday, Thursday: 17:30 – 18:50, WMC 2507
Olympic break: Feb. 15 - 26
No class on March 16 and March 18 (conf. trip)
Midterm exam: March 4 (tentative)
Final exam: April 23 (tentative)
Office hour: By appointment.
1/5/2010 4
General Information
Grading:
Assignments: 25%
Midterm exam: 30%
Final Exam: 45%
Assignments: ~5 times
Including some Matlab assignments
Email me your codes
Hand in the rest in class
1/5/2010 5
Policies
http://www.ensc.sfu.ca/~jiel/courses/815/policies.html
Excerptions:
No extension is allowed except for documented
medical reason or family catastrophe.
Late submissions are subjected to 20% penalty for
each calendar day.
No makeup midterm exam. Final exam will be scaled if
you miss the midterm exam due to documented
medical reason.
1/5/2010 6
Main References
P. P. Vaidyanathan, Multirate systems and filter banks, Prentice
Hall, 1992.
Stéphane Mallat. A Wavelet Tour of Signal Processing: The Sparse
Way, 3rd ed. Academic Press, Dec. 2008.
http://www.ceremade.dauphine.fr/~peyre/wavelet-tour
M. Vetterli and J. Kovacevic, Wavelets and Subband Coding,
Prentice Hall, 1995.
Full book online: http://www.waveletsandsubbandcoding.org
All are reserved in the library.
1/5/2010 7
Additional References
David S. Taubman, Michael W. Marcellin, JPEG2000: image compression
fundamentals, standards, and practice, Kluwer Academic Publishers,
Boston, 2002.
G. Strang, T. Q. Nguyen, Wavelets and Filter Banks, Wellesley-Cambridge
Press, Wellesley, MA, 1997.
F. J. Harris, Multirate Signal Processing for Communication Systems,
Prentice Hall, 2004. Online version at
http://proquest.safaribooksonline.com/0131465112################
(Accessible only from SFU campus)
H. Malvar, Signal Processing with Lapped Transforms, Artech House, 1992.
J. Woods, Multidimensional signal, image, and video processing and
coding, Academic Press, 2006.
C. S. Burrus, R. A. Gopinath, and H. Guo. Introduction to wavelets and
wavelet transforms, a primer, Prentice Hall, 1998.
Some classic or latest papers will be studied as well.
1/5/2010 8
History
Efforts from three communities:
Pure and applied mathematics: wavelets
Signal processing: filter banks
Computer vision: multiresolutional analysis
A fundamental problem:
Finding linear expansions of signals
i
i
i
x ϕ α

=
S. of function basis a :
S. space a in signal a :
i
x
ϕ
Questions to be addressed:
Redundancy, Implementations
Performance (application dependent)
1/5/2010 9
History of Wavelets
1910: Haar discovered the Haar basis:
Localized
1807: Fourier discovered the sine/cosine basis
1/5/2010 10
History of Wavelets
1985: Morlet et al. first used
wavelet for geophysical
signal processing
Time domain approach
Use the scales and shifts of a single prototype function to
represent signals
1945: Gabor
Short-time FT via windowing
Around 1990: Meyer, Daubechies et al. discovered
wavelets which form orthonormal bases of square-
integrable and other function spaces
2000: wavelet was adopted by JPEG 2000
Directional wavelets: curvelet, bandlet,
Mallat’s company (Let It Wave): Frame Rate Conversion (24fps 120)
1/5/2010 11
History of filter banks
Subband coding was proposed in 1970’s
First for speech/audio coding
Perfect reconstruction filter banks: 1980’s
Smith, Vetterli, Vaidyanathan, Malvar
1988: Dauberchies established the connection
between wavelets and octave band filter banks
Widely used in speech/audio, image, video coding
1/5/2010 12
History of Multiresolution Analysis
Multiresolution Analysis: coarse to fine approximation
1983: Burt and Adelson developed the pyramid scheme
1989: Mallat established the connection between
pyramid and wavelet
The pyramid approach is used in scalable H.264.
D: downsampling
I: interpolation
1/5/2010 13
Recent Development
Connections with approximations and sparsity became
apparent.
The search for sparsity has taken over the search for
orthogonal bases.
Sparse representation in redundant dictionaries can be
more efficient for
Pattern recognition
Compression
Noise reduction
Inverse problems
Examples:
Superresolution
Source separation
Compressive sensing (2008 TIT Best Paper Award)
1/5/2010
J. Liang SFU ENSC815
14
Outline
General Information
History
Course Overview
Filter banks
Wavelets
Applications
Summary
1/5/2010 15
Overview: Single rate signal processing
Building blocks of traditional single rate digital
signal processing systems:
multiplier
Adder
+
Mul. of
2 signals
x
Delay
1 −
z
Input
Output
Examples:
Filters, Fourier transformers, modulators
1/5/2010 16
What is multirate signal processing?
Definition: Digital transformation of the sampling
rate of signals, or signal processing with different
sampling rates in the system.
New building blocks:
1. M-fold decimator (downsampler): reduces the
sample rate by an integer factor of M
2. L-fold expander (upsampler): increases the sample
rate by an integer factor of L (by inserting zeros)
M
x(n) y(n)
L
x(n) y(n)
¹
¹
¹
´
¦
=
]
¹
}

'
|
=
otherwise. 0,
kL, n ,
) (
L
n
x
n y
( ) Mn x n y = ) (
1/5/2010 17
Advantages of multirate systems
Multirate signal processing (MSP) can offer
many advantages, for example:
Reduced computational complexity
Reduced transmission rate
Reduced storage requirement
Examples: Fractional sample rate conversion
Sample rate of CD audio: 44.1kHz
Sample rate of digital audio tape: 48 kHz
How to convert 44.1kHz data to 48kHz data?
160
x(n)
147 y(n)
filter
An interpolation filter is needed (studied later)
Solution: 48 / 44.1 = 160 / 147
1/5/2010 18
Advantages of multirate systems
We do not have to complete the conversion in one step,
which need longer filter
160
x(n)
147 y(n)
filter
By combining filters and up/down-sampling operators,
multirate signal processing can do much more than this!
10 7
H1
8 7
H2
2 3
H3
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sample_rate_conversion
Improvement: divide and conquer
Divide the task into three stages, with ratio of
10:7, 8:7, and 2:3, respectively.
1/5/2010 19
Filter Bank System
] [n x
) (
0
z H
) (
1
z H
) (
1
z H
M −
P
r
o
c
e
s
s
i
n
g
Analysis Filter Bank
M M
M M
M M
M M
M M
M M
] [
ˆ
n x
) (
0
z F
) (
1
z F
) (
1
z F
M −
Synthesis Filter Bank
A typical filter bank system:
Each filter captures the information of the input in different frequency
subbands
Each subband signal can be processed independently
Quantization, enhancement, denoising, detection,
How to design the filters in this system will be studied in this course
1/5/2010
J. Liang SFU ENSC861
20
Filter Bank System
2 2
2 2
) (n x
) (
0
z H
) (
1
z H
2 2
2 2
) (
0
z F
) (
1
z F
) (
ˆ
n x
2 2
2 2
) (z R 1 −
z
) (
ˆ
n x
2 2
1 −
z
2 2
) ( n x
) ( z E
Efficient implementation of FB:
Operate at lower rate!
Allow fast implementation
1/5/2010 21
Filter Bank Factorization
Different kinds of filter banks:
Perfect reconstruction (PR) or not:
How to design PR FB
Orthogonal vs biorthogonal
Linear phase vs nonlinear phase
Modulated vs non-modulated
Critically sampled, oversampled, or undersampled
Fast implementations using matrix factorizations:
Used in fast DCT and fast wavelets.
1/5/2010 22
Filter Bank Factorization
Cosine modulated filter banks:
All filters are modulated versions of a prototype filter
Used in audio coding (e.g., MP3), communications
1/5/2010 23
Filter Bank System
Audio coding
Human auditory system (HAS) can be modelled by a filter bank, with
different sensitivities in different subbands
MPEG-1 Level 3 (MP3) uses 32 subbands to approximate HAS
Reduce bit rate by quantizing different subbands
MP3 actually further transforms each subband before quantization
Apply different quantization steps to different subbands.
9
bits
9
bits
10
bits
10
bits
10
bits
9
bits
10
bits
11
bits
12
bits
11
bits
12
bits
12
bits
S
o
u
n
d

P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

L
e
v
e
l

[
d
B
-
S
P
L
]
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
-10
5000 10000 15000
Frequency
[Hz]
Peak
Signal
Level
Threshold
of Hearing
www.eee.bham.ac.uk/collinst/music/audiocoding.ppt
1/5/2010 24
Filter Bank System
In fact, the human auditory subbands have different
bandwidths
http://www.waveletsandsubbandcoding.org/
Can be achieved using nonuniform filter bank, or tree-
structured filter bank
1/5/2010 25
A Quick Wavelet Tutorial
Continuous-time wavelet transform:
0 ) ( and real, s, , ) (
1
) (
,
=

=

t
s
t
s
t
s
ψ τ
τ
ψ ψ
τ

= dt t t f s
s
) ( ) ( ) , (
*

ψ τ γ
Wavelet: Scale and translation of a mother wavelet
) (t ψ
Reconstruction:
τ ψ τ γ
τ
dsd t s t f
s
) ( ) , ( ) (
,
∫ ∫
=
Many functions can serve as valid mother wavelets
Different from Fourier transform.
The WT is a 2-D time-scale representation of the signal.
http://pagesperso-orange.fr/polyvalens/clemens/wavelets/wavelets.html
1/5/2010 26
A Quick Wavelet Tutorial
Problems of continuous-time wavelet transform:
Highly redundant, no fast implementations
Discrete wavelets:
Wavelet is scaled and translated in discrete steps
integer. k j, ,
1
) (
0
0 0
0
,









=
j
j
j
k j
s
s k t
s
t
τ
ψ ψ
Note: the wavelet is still given in continuous-time.
S0 is usually 2,
the time-scale space is sampled at discrete intervals.
1. usually is
0
τ
1/5/2010 27
A Quick Wavelet Tutorial
All admissible wavelets are banddpass filters
To cover zero frequency we need infinite number of wavelets
Solution (Mallat): using a low-pass scaling function to replace the
scales from -∞ up to a certain value J.
0 ) ( =

t ψ
By combining the scaling function and the wavelet, we can obtain
the expansion of a signal with finite number of basis functions.
Moreover, combining the scaling function spectrum with the next
wavelet leads to another scaling function two-scale relationship:
1 ) ( =

t ϕ
1/5/2010 28
A Quick Wavelet Tutorial
Daubechies’ design:
1/5/2010 29
A Quick Wavelet Tutorial
Discrete wavelet can be implemented
via iterated filter bank:
This is still continuous-time implementation.
1/5/2010 30
A Quick Wavelet Tutorial
To obtain an implementation with discrete-time
digital filter, we write the signal as
Then using the two-scale relationship,
where
We get
1/5/2010 31
A Quick Wavelet Tutorial
2 2
2 2
] [ n x
) ( z H
2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
This implies the following iterated digital filter bank:
) ( z G
) ( z H
) ( z G
) ( z H
) ( z G
h(n) and g(n) need to satisfy some regularity conditions
So that the iteration converges to good filters.
1/5/2010 32
2-D Wavelets
2-D separable approach:
Resulting 2-D filters
Freq responses
1/5/2010 33
Directional Wavelets
Decompose images along the edges is more efficient:
http://www.cmap.polytechnique.fr/~mallat/papiers/07-
NumerAlgo-MallatPeyre-BandletsReview.pdf
Bandlets:
1/5/2010 34
2-D Wavelets
Non-separable approach:
http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel5/83/4154780/04154787.pdf
1/5/2010 35
Complex wavelets
Redundant representations
Shift-invariant
Dual-tree complex wavelets: Use two separate DWTs
http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel5/79/33042/01550194.pdf
Filters and freq responses
1/5/2010 36
Applications in Communications
Transmultiplexer:
Convertion between TDM
and FDM
By FB theory, we can
eliminate cross-talk.
http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel5/7384/20311/00939098.pdf
1/5/2010 37
Applications in Communications
Digital multitone modulation (DMT):
When channel’s frequency response is considered, we can find
optimal power allocation among different subband channels to
maximize the bit rate.
Principle component FB (PCFB) is the optimal FB.
http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel5/7384/20311/00939098.pdf
of phone line
1/5/2010 38
Applications in Communications
Filter bank precoder:
Communication channel introduces ISI.
Some communication systems such as OFDM
introduce some redundancy to facilitate equalization.
Even blind equalization is possible with FB precoder.
http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel5/7384/20311/00939098.pdf
1/5/2010 39
Applications
Wireless sensor networks
Wireless sensors have limited computing power and battery life
Can use low rate at the sensors, and reconstruct high rate at the
base station
How to design the filter banks for the following tasks:
Multirate signal/spectrum estimation
Ill-posed inverse problems
Multirate time-delay estimation
http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel5/78/30701/01420814.pdf
1/5/2010 40
Applications
Compressed sensing:
A new theory developed in the last few years.
Nyquist sampling theorem states that the sample
frequency must be at least twice of the signal
bandwidth in order to reconstruct the signal
without error
The theory of compressed sensing shows that
many signals can be reconstructed with much less
samples
1/5/2010 41
List of topics:
Filter banks (FB) (Vaidyanathan book):
Fundamentals
Maximally decimated FBs
Paraunitary FBs
Linear phase FBs
Wavelets (Vetterli book):
Discrete-time wavelet bases
Continuous-time wavelet series
Regularity
Sparse Signal Processing (Mallat book):
Frames
Approximations in Bases
Sparsity in Redundant Dictionaries
Inverse Problems (Compressive sensing)

Outline
General Information History Course Overview List of topics

J. Liang SFU ENSC815

1/5/2010

2

General Information
Website: http://www.ensc.sfu.ca/~jiel/courses/815/index.html Course list: ensc815-all@sfu.ca Lectures: Tuesday, Thursday: 17:30 – 18:50, WMC 2507 Olympic break: Feb. 15 - 26 No class on March 16 and March 18 (conf. trip) Midterm exam: March 4 (tentative) Final exam: April 23 (tentative) Office hour: By appointment.

1/5/2010

3

General Information
Grading:
Assignments: Midterm exam: Final Exam: 25% 30% 45%

Assignments: ~5 times
Including some Matlab assignments Email me your codes Hand in the rest in class

1/5/2010

4

Late submissions are subjected to 20% penalty for each calendar day. 1/5/2010 5 .ca/~jiel/courses/815/policies.sfu. Final exam will be scaled if you miss the midterm exam due to documented medical reason. No makeup midterm exam.ensc.Policies http://www.html Excerptions: No extension is allowed except for documented medical reason or family catastrophe.

1995. Vetterli and J. Full book online: http://www. Wavelets and Subband Coding. Dec. Multirate systems and filter banks.fr/~peyre/wavelet-tour M. Academic Press. 3rd ed. http://www. Kovacevic. A Wavelet Tour of Signal Processing: The Sparse Way. Vaidyanathan.org All are reserved in the library. 1/5/2010 6 .ceremade. 1992. Prentice Hall. 2008. Prentice Hall. Stéphane Mallat.dauphine. P.waveletsandsubbandcoding.Main References P.

1997. 2002.com/0131465112################ (Accessible only from SFU campus) H.Additional References David S. 1998. Taubman. Signal Processing with Lapped Transforms. and practice. Online version at http://proquest. Introduction to wavelets and wavelet transforms. Strang. Some classic or latest papers will be studied as well. J. MA. Harris.safaribooksonline. Guo. Academic Press. Artech House. image. Michael W. Nguyen. Q. Burrus. Kluwer Academic Publishers. Prentice Hall. a primer. T. Woods. and H. G. and video processing and coding. 1992. A. Prentice Hall. Wellesley. standards. F. 2004. S. Gopinath. 2006. Malvar. JPEG2000: image compression fundamentals. Marcellin. J. Wellesley-Cambridge Press. Multirate Signal Processing for Communication Systems. Multidimensional signal. Boston. C. 1/5/2010 7 . Wavelets and Filter Banks. R.

History Efforts from three communities: Pure and applied mathematics: wavelets Signal processing: filter banks Computer vision: multiresolutional analysis A fundamental problem: Finding linear expansions of signals x = ∑ α iϕi i x : a signal in a space S. Implementations Performance (application dependent) 1/5/2010 8 . Questions to be addressed: Redundancy. ϕi : a basis function of S.

History of Wavelets 1807: Fourier discovered the sine/cosine basis 1910: Haar discovered the Haar basis: Localized 1/5/2010 9 .

History of Wavelets 1945: Gabor Short-time FT via windowing 1985: Morlet et al. Daubechies et al. Mallat’s company (Let It Wave): Frame Rate Conversion (24fps 120) 10 1/5/2010 . discovered wavelets which form orthonormal bases of squareintegrable and other function spaces 2000: wavelet was adopted by JPEG 2000 Directional wavelets: curvelet. first used wavelet for geophysical signal processing Time domain approach Use the scales and shifts of a single prototype function to represent signals Around 1990: Meyer. bandlet.

Vetterli. video coding 1/5/2010 11 . Malvar 1988: Dauberchies established the connection between wavelets and octave band filter banks Widely used in speech/audio.History of filter banks Subband coding was proposed in 1970’s First for speech/audio coding Perfect reconstruction filter banks: 1980’s Smith. Vaidyanathan. image.

264. D: downsampling I: interpolation 1/5/2010 12 .History of Multiresolution Analysis Multiresolution Analysis: coarse to fine approximation 1983: Burt and Adelson developed the pyramid scheme 1989: Mallat established the connection between pyramid and wavelet The pyramid approach is used in scalable H.

The search for sparsity has taken over the search for orthogonal bases.Recent Development Connections with approximations and sparsity became apparent. Sparse representation in redundant dictionaries can be more efficient for Pattern recognition Compression Noise reduction Inverse problems Examples: Superresolution Source separation Compressive sensing (2008 TIT Best Paper Award) 1/5/2010 13 .

Liang SFU ENSC815 1/5/2010 14 .Outline General Information History Course Overview Filter banks Wavelets Applications Summary J.

Overview: Single rate signal processing Building blocks of traditional single rate digital signal processing systems: z −1 Delay Input multiplier x Mul. of 2 signals + Adder Output Examples: Filters. Fourier transformers. modulators 1/5/2010 15 .

y (n) =  L  0. or signal processing with different sampling rates in the system.  1/5/2010 16 . n = kL. New building blocks: 1.What is multirate signal processing? Definition: Digital transformation of the sampling rate of signals. L-fold expander (upsampler): increases the sample rate by an integer factor of L (by inserting zeros) x(n) L y(n)  n  x   . otherwise. M-fold decimator (downsampler): reduces the sample rate by an integer factor of M x(n) M y(n) y ( n ) = x (Mn ) 2.

1 = 160 / 147 x(n) 160 filter 147 y(n) An interpolation filter is needed (studied later) 1/5/2010 17 .1kHz data to 48kHz data? Solution: 48 / 44.Advantages of multirate systems Multirate signal processing (MSP) can offer many advantages.1kHz Sample rate of digital audio tape: 48 kHz How to convert 44. for example: Reduced computational complexity Reduced transmission rate Reduced storage requirement Examples: Fractional sample rate conversion Sample rate of CD audio: 44.

and 2:3.wikipedia. which need longer filter Improvement: divide and conquer Divide the task into three stages. multirate signal processing can do much more than this! 1/5/2010 18 . 10 H1 7 8 H2 7 2 H3 3 http://en. with ratio of 10:7.org/wiki/Sample_rate_conversion By combining filters and up/down-sampling operators. 8:7. respectively.Advantages of multirate systems x(n) 160 filter 147 y(n) We do not have to complete the conversion in one step.

Filter Bank System A typical filter bank system: x[n ] H 1 (z) H M −1 ( z ) Processing H 0 (z) M M M M M F0 ( z ) F1 ( z ) F M −1 ( z ) M Analysis Filter Bank ˆ x[ n ] Synthesis Filter Bank Each filter captures the information of the input in different frequency subbands Each subband signal can be processed independently Quantization. detection. How to design the filters in this system will be studied in this course 1/5/2010 19 . denoising. enhancement.

Liang SFU ENSC861 1/5/2010 20 .Filter Bank System Efficient implementation of FB: x (n ) H 0 (z) H 1 (z) 2 2 2 2 F0 ( z ) F1 ( z ) ˆ x(n) ˆ x( n) 2 x(n) 2 E(z) z −1 R(z) 2 z −1 2 Operate at lower rate! Allow fast implementation J.

Filter Bank Factorization Different kinds of filter banks: Perfect reconstruction (PR) or not: How to design PR FB Orthogonal vs biorthogonal Linear phase vs nonlinear phase Modulated vs non-modulated Critically sampled. or undersampled Fast implementations using matrix factorizations: Used in fast DCT and fast wavelets. oversampled. 1/5/2010 21 .

MP3).g. communications 1/5/2010 22 .Filter Bank Factorization Cosine modulated filter banks: All filters are modulated versions of a prototype filter Used in audio coding (e..

ppt 1/5/2010 . Sound Pressure Level [dB-SPL] 80 70 60 50 Peak Signal Level 9 9 9 11 12 12 12 11 10 bits bits 10 10 10 bits 40 bits bits bits bits bits bits bits bits bits Threshold 30 20 10 0 -10 5000 10000 15000 Frequency [Hz] 23 of Hearing www.eee.bham. with different sensitivities in different subbands MPEG-1 Level 3 (MP3) uses 32 subbands to approximate HAS Reduce bit rate by quantizing different subbands MP3 actually further transforms each subband before quantization Apply different quantization steps to different subbands.Filter Bank System Audio coding Human auditory system (HAS) can be modelled by a filter bank.uk/collinst/music/audiocoding.ac.

or treestructured filter bank http://www.Filter Bank System In fact. the human auditory subbands have different bandwidths Can be achieved using nonuniform filter bank.org/ 1/5/2010 24 .waveletsandsubbandcoding.

and ∫ψ (t ) = 0 s s Wavelet: Scale and translation of a mother wavelet ψ (t ) Many functions can serve as valid mother wavelets Different from Fourier transform.τ (t ) = ψ( ).τ ) s . Reconstruction: f (t ) = ∫ ∫ γ ( s.τ (t )dsdτ ψ 1/5/2010 25 . The WT is a 2-D time-scale representation of the signal.A Quick Wavelet Tutorial http://pagesperso-orange. τ real.fr/polyvalens/clemens/wavelets/wavelets. s.html Continuous-time wavelet transform: γ ( s.τ ) = ∫ f (t )ψ s*.τ (t )dt 1 t −τ ψ s .

no fast implementations Discrete wavelets: Wavelet is scaled and translated in discrete steps ψ j . 1/5/2010 26 .A Quick Wavelet Tutorial Problems of continuous-time wavelet transform: Highly redundant.   Note: the wavelet is still given in continuous-time. S0 is usually 2. the time-scale space is sampled at discrete intervals. j. k integer.k (t ) = 1  t − kτ 0 s0j ψ j  s0j  s0  . τ 0 is usually 1.

combining the scaling function spectrum with the next wavelet leads to another scaling function two-scale relationship: 1/5/2010 27 . we can obtain the expansion of a signal with finite number of basis functions.A Quick Wavelet Tutorial ψ (t ) = 0 All admissible wavelets are banddpass filters To cover zero frequency we need infinite number of wavelets Solution (Mallat): using a low-pass scaling function to replace the scales from -∞ up to a certain value J. ∫ ∫ ϕ (t ) = 1 By combining the scaling function and the wavelet. Moreover.

A Quick Wavelet Tutorial Daubechies’ design: 1/5/2010 28 .

A Quick Wavelet Tutorial Discrete wavelet can be implemented via iterated filter bank: This is still continuous-time implementation. 1/5/2010 29 .

We get 1/5/2010 30 . we write the signal as where Then using the two-scale relationship.A Quick Wavelet Tutorial To obtain an implementation with discrete-time digital filter.

1/5/2010 31 .A Quick Wavelet Tutorial This implies the following iterated digital filter bank: H (z) H (z) x[ n ] H (z) G (z) 2 2 2 2 2 2 G (z) G (z) h(n) and g(n) need to satisfy some regularity conditions So that the iteration converges to good filters.

2-D Wavelets 2-D separable approach: Resulting 2-D filters Freq responses 1/5/2010 32 .

Directional Wavelets Decompose images along the edges is more efficient: Bandlets: http://www.pdf 1/5/2010 33 .fr/~mallat/papiers/07NumerAlgo-MallatPeyre-BandletsReview.polytechnique.cmap.

org/iel5/83/4154780/04154787.ieee.2-D Wavelets Non-separable approach: http://ieeexplore.pdf 1/5/2010 34 .

org/iel5/79/33042/01550194.Complex wavelets Redundant representations Shift-invariant Dual-tree complex wavelets: Use two separate DWTs Filters and freq responses http://ieeexplore.ieee.pdf 1/5/2010 35 .

org/iel5/7384/20311/00939098. we can eliminate cross-talk.Applications in Communications Transmultiplexer: Convertion between TDM and FDM By FB theory. http://ieeexplore.ieee.pdf 1/5/2010 36 .

we can find optimal power allocation among different subband channels to maximize the bit rate. Principle component FB (PCFB) is the optimal FB.org/iel5/7384/20311/00939098.pdf 1/5/2010 37 . of phone line http://ieeexplore.ieee.Applications in Communications Digital multitone modulation (DMT): When channel’s frequency response is considered.

org/iel5/7384/20311/00939098. http://ieeexplore. Some communication systems such as OFDM introduce some redundancy to facilitate equalization.pdf 1/5/2010 38 .Applications in Communications Filter bank precoder: Communication channel introduces ISI. Even blind equalization is possible with FB precoder.ieee.

org/iel5/78/30701/01420814.ieee. and reconstruct high rate at the base station How to design the filter banks for the following tasks: Multirate signal/spectrum estimation Ill-posed inverse problems Multirate time-delay estimation http://ieeexplore.Applications Wireless sensor networks Wireless sensors have limited computing power and battery life Can use low rate at the sensors.pdf 1/5/2010 39 .

Nyquist sampling theorem states that the sample frequency must be at least twice of the signal bandwidth in order to reconstruct the signal without error The theory of compressed sensing shows that many signals can be reconstructed with much less samples 1/5/2010 40 .Applications Compressed sensing: A new theory developed in the last few years.

List of topics: Filter banks (FB) (Vaidyanathan book): Fundamentals Maximally decimated FBs Paraunitary FBs Linear phase FBs Wavelets (Vetterli book): Discrete-time wavelet bases Continuous-time wavelet series Regularity Sparse Signal Processing (Mallat book): Frames Approximations in Bases Sparsity in Redundant Dictionaries Inverse Problems (Compressive sensing) 1/5/2010 41 .

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