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AML710 CAD LECTURE 1

Introduction to CAD

Motivation
Principles of CAD / CAM

AML710 – Computer Aided Design


L-T-P – 3-0-2 : 4 Credits
Prerequisites and background
Course Coordinator
Course Webpage
http://web.iitd.ac.in/~hegde/cad
Course Contents
Books and Notes – Typical topics
Course Evaluation
Attendance Policy
Laboratory Practicals
Software tools and Techniques

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Motivation for the Study of CAD
Application of CAD/CAM
• Aerospace

Motivation for the Study of CAD


Application of CAD/CAM
• Aerospace
• Automotive
• Chemical & Process
• Communications
• Computers & IT
• Electrical & Electronics Examples
• Medical & Pharma
• Military & Defence
• Rail & Marine
• Structural & Civil
• Apparel and Textile

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Graphics Pipeline

Real world Object

Modeling Rendering/ Viewing


Transformations Shading Transformations

Geometrical Model Visual Realism Orthographic/


Perspective Clipping

Display Rasterization PROJECTION


Projections

Graphics Pipeline

Theme of the Course


• Starting from geometric concepts we
proceed to compute something in several
steps as:
Geometry -> Algebra -> Algorithm -> Program
Ex: Circle -> implicit/parametric equation->Smith’s
algorithm->computer implementation in C/C++/MATLAB
(OpenGL)
x2 + y2 = 1
x = cos(t) y = sin(t)

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The Geometric Complexity
• As algorithms are an integral part of the
geometry -> Program representations, we
need to think of the complexity involved.
They are:
1. Dimensional Complexity- 1D/2D/3D
2. Analytic Complexity- Polynomials of degree 1,2,3,….
3. Combinatorial Complexity- For example,
searching a sorted array of n elements uses O(log2n) comparisons.

• 4. Continuum to Discrete
• 5. Precision and Errors

What is Design?

• Design, usually considered in the context of applied arts,


engineering, architecture, and other creative endeavors, is
used both as a noun and a verb.
• As a verb, "to design" refers to the process of originating and
developing a plan for a product, structure, system, or
component.
• As a noun, "a design" is used for both the final (solution) plan
(e.g. proposal, drawing, model, description) or the result of
implementing that plan (e.g. object produced, result of the
process). More recently, processes (in general) have also been
treated as products of design, giving new meaning to the term
"process design”

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Some Popular Design Approaches
• User-centered design, which focuses on the needs,
wants, and limitations of the end user of the
designed artifact.
• Use-centered design, which focuses on the goals
and tasks associated with the use of the artifact,
rather than focusing on the end user.
• KISS principle, (Keep it Simple, Stupid), which
strives to eliminate unnecessary complications
• There is more than one way to do it (TMTOWTDI), a
philosophy to allow multiple methods of doing the
same thing
• Murphy's Law (things will go wrong in any given
situation, if you give them a chance)

What is Design?
Design is an Iterative Process (Ohsuga 1989)

Requirement Build Model

Analyse / Evaluate Modify / Refine Model 1

Model 2 Modify / Refine Analyse / Evaluate

Generate information
CAPP for planning and Model n
manufacture

NC / CNC PRODUCT

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The Design Process – An Engineering
Activity
1. Need
2. Concept
3. Modeling and Simulation
4. Analysis – FEM (Geometrical Data)
5. Optimize – Shape / Structure / Topology
6. Evaluate – testing / Inspection / Comparison
7. Communicate – prepare drawings and details

Taking assistance of Computers in Design


1. Manual Design
2. Geometric Models and Graphics
3. Move / Animate / Visualise
4. Use Analysis tools and software
5. Optimize – Maximize / minimize the objective
functions: Structure, Shape, Topology
6. Evaluate – test and check the model
7. Communicate – Drafting and detailing

Generate information Manage/Control Communicate

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Definition of CAD
Computer aided Design is a subprocess of
Design process

Computer Network
Graphics

CAM
CAD Manufacturing CAD

Design Geometric
Engineering Modeling

Computer Aided Design


1. CAD Technology = Design Techniques +
Computers (HW+SW)
2. The CAD Process is the subset of the Design
process
3. The CAM Process is a subset of
Manufacturing Process
4. Integration of CAD and CAM leads to
automation

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Steps in CAM activity
Geometric
Model

Interfacing

CAPP

NC Programs

Inspection

Assembly Packaging

Graphics Standards
Many Graphics Standards have been in use. The real issue
with choosing the standards is portability and device
independence.
• BGI
• GKS
• PHIGS
• OpenGL

A ray tracing
Example