Representation System for Semantic Composition

Keh-Jiann Chen CKIP Institute of Information Science Academia Sinica

E-HowNet- a Lexical Knowledge


What is “understanding”?

Conceptual processing vs. string processing

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Lexical Knowledge Representation Semantic Composition and Decomposition


Future researches

What is “understanding”?
Conceptual Processing vs. String Processing What is natural language understanding? Why is conceptual processing so hard?

Conceptual Processing vs. String Processing

Information retrieval
 

E.g. retrieve “土地公” 福德正神 vs. 土地公有、土地公開 土地公開買賣。土地 公開 買賣。 土地公開罵。土地公 開罵。 土地公開罵福德正神很生氣

Word segmentation
 


. phrase. or sentence.What is natural language understanding?   For each word. there is a way to derive its canonical meaning representation? From the meaning representation the associated information and their relations can be accessed.

Why is conceptual processing so hard?  Ambiguities  Speechtextconcept  Semantic opaqueness   Lexicalized concepts:白宮、紅火蟻 Construction meaning and ellipses:我大你三歲  我的年紀比你的年紀大三歲   Metaphors:兩軍廝殺激烈。(Sport? Chess?) Background knowledge: 雞兔同籠 .

. A lexical knowledge representation systems with semantic composition and decomposition capabilities is the first step toward conceptual processing and understanding by computers.

Lexical Knowledge Representation Lexical knowledge Early works E-HowNet  .

Lexical knowledge representation  Words : the smallest meaningful units of a language serve as indices to access various knowledge.  Word : sense1 : grammatical functions semantic knowledge world knowledge sense2 : … sense3 : … .

… 通話‧‧‧) .Granularity of Sense distinction  打:1. beat 4. dial (打電話;通電話;撥電話;打手機;打大哥大 ; 3. play ball 1.2 打棒球 1.1 打籃球 1.3 … 2.

Sense Representation  WordNet approach : A synset is a set of words with the same part-ofspeech and refer to the same concept.  . “ 4-wheeled.  A synset is described by a gloss. usually propelled by an internal combustion engine”. Synsets can be related to each other by semantic relations.

} . motocar} {conveyance. taxicab. taxi. patrol car. hack. automobile. squad car. auto. auto. machine. police car. prowl car} {cab. flexible joint} meronym {motor vehicle. automotive vehicle} hyperonym meronym {doorlock} meronym {car. motorcar} meronym hyperonym hyperonym {car window} {car mirror} {armrest} {cruiser.Example:  Synset :{car. automobile. transport} hyperonym {vehicle} hyperonym {bumper} {car door} {hinge.

5 Relations Relation PoS linked noun/noun.Table 1: WordNet1. verb/verb. enter/exit. ANTONYMY adjective/adjective noun/noun HYPONYMY noun/noun MERONYMY verb/verb ENTAILMENT verb/verb verb/verb CAUSE verb/adjective ALSO SEE DERIVED FROM adjective/adverb noun/noun. verb/verb ANTONYM noun/adjective ATTRIBUTE adjective/noun RELATIONAL TROPONYM ADJ SIMILAR TO PARTICIPLE Example man/woman. beautiful/ugly slicer/knife head/nose buy/pay walk/move kill/die beautiful/beautifully heavy/light size/small atomic/ atomic bomb ponderous/heavy elapsed/ elapse EWN yes yes yes SUBEVENT or CAUSE HYPONYMY yes no yes yes XPOS_HYPONYM PERTAINS TO adjective/adjective adjective/verb no no .

Disadvantages    No information regarding conceptual differences between different synsets Do not provide mechanisms for semantic composition No information for unknown words .

.HowNet :  HowNet describes the following conceptual relations﹕       (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) Hypernymy 上下位關係 Synonymy 同義關係 Antonymy 反義關係 Attribute-host 屬性-宿主關係 Part-whole 部件-整體關係 Event-role事件-角色關係  HowNet uses about 2000 primitives to define concepts.

tour|旅遊:location={~}} 救生艇={ship|船:{rescue|救 助:instrument={~}} .Examples :       僱主={human|人:{employ|僱用:agent={~}} 僱員={human|人:{employ|僱用:patient={~}} 熨斗={tool|用具:{AlterForm|變形狀: result={level|平}} 假期={time|時間:{rest|休息}.{WhileAway| 消閑}} 旅館={Institute Place|場所:{reside|住下.

01 isa|是非關係 V2.1 AlterState|變狀態 .HowNet ontology :     V event|事件 V1 static|靜態 V2 act|行動 V1.0 relation|關係 V2.1 state|狀態 V2.01 AlterIsa| 變是非   … V1.0 AlterRelation|變關係 V1.

Common sense knowledge .

g.patient={tool|用具:{tell|告訴:content={time| 時間}.instrument={~}}}}}  Without considering semantic composition and decomposition.Disadvantages  Representation by primitives degrades precision and readability.{repair|修理: location={~}.instrument={~}}}}.instrument={~}}}}. function words: 僅just DEF={FuncWord|功能詞:emphasis={?}} .possession={tool|用具:{tell|告訴: content={time|時間}.possession={tool|用具:{tell|告訴: content={time|時間}.    老虎tiger DEF={beast|走獸} 鉗子forceps DEF={tool|用具:{hold|拿:instrument={~}}} 鐘錶店watchmaker's shop DEF={InstitutePlace|場所:{buy|買: location={~}.   E.{sell|賣: location={~}.

E-HowNet .

Outline  What is E-HowNet?   Lexical sense representation Compositional semantics   Applications of E-HowNet Future research .

What is E-HowNet? Lexical sense representation Compositional semantics  .

content words and phrases. Near-canonical sense representation. Semantic composition and decomposition capabilities.E-HowNet  E-HowNet is an entity-relation model extended from HowNet for lexical semantic representation. Semantic relations are explicitly expressed in EHowNet representations. .     A uniform semantic representation for function words.

E-HowNet- Sense Representation

Word sense definition- decompose a sense into simpler senses and sense relations are explicitly expressed

果盤 fruit plate
def:{plate|盤:telic={put|放置: location={~},patient={fruit| 水果}}}

玻璃盤 glass plate
def: {plate|盤:material={glass|玻璃}}

圓盤 round plate
def: {plate|盤:shape={round|圓}}

E-HowNet- Sense Representation

Uniform representation for function words, content words and phrases

• •

Preposition: 從
def: location-source={}, def: time-init={}

Conjunction: 因為
def: reason={}

Adverb: 透頂
def: degree={very|很}

Definitions of function words
Function words Content words Relational senses ---------------------------------------- Content senses De的, prepositions, …adjectives, verbs, nouns Conjunctions, adverbs…

Preposition: 從 from
def: location-source={}, • def: time-init={} Conjunction: 因為 because • def: reason={} • •

Noun: 果盤 fruit plate
• def:{plate|盤:telic= {put|放置: location={~}, patient={fruit|水果}}}

Adverb: 透頂 very

Verb:下雨 rain
• def: {rain|下雨}

def: degree={very|很}

Uniform representation
Preposition: 把 ba def: goal={}  Noun: 文章article def: {text|語文}  Verb: 寫好have written def: {write|寫:aspect aspect={Vachieve|達成}}  Phrase: 把文章寫好 The article has been written.

{write|寫:goal={text|語文}, aspect={Vachieve|達 成}}

 E. source ={capital|國都: name={"北京"}. ‘獅子狗Beijing dog’ def1: {狗|dog: source={北京|Beijing}}. source={北京|Beijing}}. location={China|中國}.Sense Representation  High-level representations can be decomposed into primitive representations. def3: {livestock|牲畜: telic={TakeCare|照料:patient={family|家 庭}}:agent={~}}. Extention result: def2: {livestock|牲畜: telic={看家|MindTheHouse: agent={~}}.g. .E-HowNet. quantifier={definite|定指}}}.

The set of primitives has about two thousand elements and organized into taxonomy of entities and relations.   The primitives are adopted from HowNet. . called sememes 義原.Sense Representation  High-level representations can be decomposed into primitive representations.E-HowNet.

sinica.Taxonomy of E-HowNet    All|全 entity|事物  event|事件    state|狀態 act|行動 AttributeValue|屬性值  object|物體    thing|萬物 time|時間 space|空間  relation|關係   Semantic Role|語意角色 function|函數 .

Principles for word sense definitions .

Principles for sense definitions  Use hypernym and prominent properties to define concepts.agentive.  Qualia structure. and constitutive  Use well-defined/primitive concepts and relations to define new concepts. formal. . telic.

and components Formal-the properties to distinguish the object within a larger domain. and color etc. such as its materials. parts.Principles for sense definitions  Agentive-the factors involved in the origin or “bringing about” of the object Telic-the purpose and function of the object   Constitutive-the relations between the object and its constituents.  . such as its shape. magnitude.

agent={~}}}. patient={~}}} .Telic  狗食 dog food   def: {食物|food: telic={feed|餵: target={狗|dog}.patient={~}}} def: { food|食品: telic={feed|餵: target={livestock|牲畜:telic={TakeCare|照 料:patient={family|家庭}.

Agentive  早產兒premature baby   def: {嬰兒|baby: agentive={早 產:patient={~}}} def: {human|人:age={child|少兒}. patient={~}}} . agentive={labour|臨產:manner={early|早}.

辣|hot)} def: {food|食品:material={Liquid|液}.Formal  彩霞rosy clouds  def: {CloudMist|雲霧:color={colored|彩}} def: {湯|soup:taste={and(酸|sour. peppery|辣)}  酸辣湯spicy and sour soup   . taste={and(sour|酸.

Constitutive  草裙grass skirt   def: {裙|skirt:material={草|grass}} def: {clothing|衣物:telic={PutOn|穿戴: instrument={~}.location={leg|腿: whole={human|人:gender={female|女}}}}. material={FlowerGrass|花草}} .

{swallow|嚥下:instrument={~}})}  喉 throat  .Words associated by partwhole relations  腳 Foot  {PartOf(Animal|動物): Telic={walk|走:Instrument={~}} def:{PartOf(mouth|口): telic={or({MakeSound|發聲: instrument={~}} .

position={North(Taiwan|台 灣)}} def: {地區:predication={中立:location={~}}} def: {place|地方:predication={not(engage|從事): content={fight|爭鬥}. instances  台北區 Taipei area  def: {place|地方:quantifier={definite|定 指}.location={~}}}  中立區neutral zone   .Generic concepts{'台北‘}.

Functional compositions  姪女 niece  Def: {daughter(brother(x:human|人))} def: {地方:position={north(west(郊 |suburb))}} def: {place|地方: position= {north(west({edge|邊: whole={city|市}}))}}  西北郊 north west suburb   .

Spatial Concepts  Location adverbs  一路上 throughout the journey  def: LocationThru={route|道路} def: location={all|全}  到處 everywhere  .

Acts  變短   Pos: VH16 def: {change|變:StateFin={LengthShort|短 }}  唱獨角戲   Pos: VA4 def: {act|行動:manner={alone|獨自}} .

experiencer={Ques(human|人)}} .Question Words  誰 who  def: {Ques(human|人)}  誰關心市井小民? Who cares about ordinary people?  def:{關心|care:target={市井小民| ordinary people}.

Question Words  哪兒、哪裡 where  def: location={Ques()}  哪裡漏水? Where is leaking?  def:{漏|leak:theme={水}. location={Ques()}} .

Semantic Restrictions  Preposition: 從 from   def: location-source={place|地方}. def: time-init={time|時間} .

Semantic composition   E-HowNet is a lexical-concept representation system which designed to achieve automatic semantic composition. . and The result of semantic composition becomes a near-canonical conceptual representation.

因為下雨,衣服都濕了 Because of raining.g. manner={complete|整}. aspect={Vachieve|達成}.Semantic composition  E. reason={rain|下雨}} .   Parsing and semantic role labeling: S(reason:VP(Head:Cb:因為|dummy:VA:下雨 )|theme:NP(Head:Na:衣服) | quantity: Da:都 | Head:Vh:濕 |particle:Ta:了) E-HowNet lexical senses: 因為 def: reason={} unification 下雨 def: {rain|下雨} 衣服 def: {clothing|衣物} 都 def: manner={complete|整} 濕 def: {wet|濕} 了 def: aspect={Vachieve|達成}  Semantic Composition: def:{wet|濕: theme={clothing|衣物}. clothes are all wet.

{美|America}) . e. Exp2).g.Unification of Related Expressions  Conjunctive relation    Exp1 and/or Exp2 Semantic composition: and/or(Exp1.中美   中|China and 美|America And({中|China}.

g. Semantic composition: {Exp2: role={Exp1}} e.Unification of Related Expressions  Head-modifier or head-argument relations    Need to identify semantic role of Exp1 if head is Exp2.好|good 學生|student   {學生|student: quality={好|good}} {human|人:quality={nice|良好}.predication={study|學習 :agent={~}.domain={education|教育}}} .

從|from 台北|Taipei  Preposition: 從 from   def: location-source={place|地方}.g.Unification of Related Expressions  Function word as syntactic head   Semantic composition: rel1={Exp2} E. def: time-init={time|時間}  location-source={台北|Taipei} .

Semantic composition  Processing technologies:       Identify senses of new compound words Sense disambiguation Syntactic parsing and semantic role assignment Resolution of anaphoric references Filling gaps Process construction meaning and metaphoric inferences  Derive near-canonical conceptual representation .

 機長機敏地抓獲女搶犯 vs. manner={機敏}} Def:{逮捕:agent={飛機駕駛員}. 飛機駕駛員敏捷的逮捕女強盜  Captain cleverly captured woman who is looting.Semantic composition  Achieves near canonical meaning representation. Syntactic parsing    Def:{抓獲:agent={機長}.patient={強盜: gender={女}}. patient={搶犯:gender={女}}. manner={敏捷}}  Semantic composition and decomposition .

Def: {catch|捉住: agent={human|人:HostOf={Occupation|職位}. predication={manage|管理:agent={~}. patient={human|人:modifier={guilty|有罪}.predication={rob|搶:agent={~}}. manner={clever|靈}}  Def: {catch|捉住: agent={human|人:HostOf={Occupation|職位}.patient={aircraft|飛行器}}}.  It is the first step toward machine understanding. gender={female|女}}.patient={aircraft|飛行器}}}.modifier={official|官}. predication={manage|管理:agent={~}. patient={human|人:modifier={guilty|有罪}.modifier={official|官}. manner={nimble|捷}} . gender={female|女}}.predication={rob|搶:agent={~}}.

Why is E-HowNet a near-canonical sense representation system?        Sense similarity can be measured through taxonomies for entities and relations Functional composition and relational identification Default value and feature inheritance Semantic decomposition Semantic composition by feature unification View point normalization Default reasoning .

000 entries of CKIP dictionary Taxonomy for entities (sememes) and relations Mapping between sememes and WordNet synsets .Current Status of E-HowNet     Coarse-grained sense representation Sense representations for about 80.

Outline  What is E-HowNet?   Lexical sense representation Compositional semantics   Applications of E-HowNet Future research .

understanding.Applications of E-HowNet Meaning representation Conceptual processing • Synonym generation • Disambiguation • Specialization • Generalization(舉一反三) • Association (聯想) • Inference (享受|enjoy 牛排|steak/音樂|music) • Applications: IR. information processing at concept level • • . semantic analysis. machine translation.

Association .

Semantic restriction.Knowledge for Logical Inference     Generalization and Specialization: Taxonomy Sense similarity measure: through semantic decomposition and taxonomy Reasoning: Analogy. world knowledge Inference: Event frame .

patient={fruit|水果}}}  玻璃盤 glass plate 圓盤 round plate def: {plate|盤:material={glass|玻璃}}  def: {plate|盤:shape={round|圓}} .Knowledge for Logical Inference  Analogy  果盤 fruit plate 沙拉盤 salad plate 塑膠盤 plastic plate 方盤 square plate def:{plate|盤:telic={put|放置: location={~}.

g.  S(location:NP(property:Nab:桌子|Head:Ncda:上)| Head:VC33:放| aspect:Di:了| theme:NP(quantifier:DM:這本|Head:Nab:書)) .Machine Translation  e. 桌子上放了這本書。 This book was put on the table. Google translation: Put the table on this book.

Question answering  衣服上的墨水怎麼洗掉? How do you clean ink spots on clothes?  def:{wash|洗掉:patient={ink|墨水 :place={clothes|衣服}}.means={Ques()}}  漂白水可以洗掉墨水。 Bleach may clean ink spots.  def:{wash|洗掉:patient={ink|墨水}. means={漂白水|bleach}} .

Verbs Objects vs. nouns  Words of same semantic class hold particular syntactic properties. Nouns Values (values of attributes) vs. State verbs. .Four major semantic types  Semantic classification may cross pos classification. Nouns Attributes (relations) vs.     Events (acts) vs.

Attributes  Attribute (relation) nouns do not function as modifiers of objects.  e. (Ref: 劉春卉著 現代漢語屬 性範疇研究 巴蜀書社出版。) . *重量|weight + object  Attribute nouns occur only at positions of Np head.g.

Values  Values associate with respective attributes and lead to identify semantic relations. 紅|red 酒|wine color  三兩|3 ounce 肉|meat weight  陳|old 酒|wine 快|fast 車|car Speed Telic={move|移動} Time Agentive={produce|製造} .

食物|food vs.方法|method Pos: Noun Pos: Noun Semantic: objects Semantic: attribute    .Application of semantic types  Disambiguation of transitive Verb+Noun structure  verb objects modifier head 檢驗|inspect + Noun 行李|luggage. 制度|system.

Application of semantic types  Sense and part-of-speech prediction for new compound words  State Verb+ State Verb   Antonym: 明|bright 暗|dark  Attribute Noun Synonym: 高|tall 大|big State Verb State Verb+ object: 紅|red 花|flower  object Noun State Verb+ attribute: 新|new 型|style  value Adj  State Verb+Noun   .

Step 1: Identify semantic relation between A and B to derive relation(A)={B}. B is a modifier or an argument of A.e. i. Note: the possible semantic relations are shown in Table 1.Analytic Morphology    If a morpheme (word) B is a dependency daughter of morpheme (word) A. Step 2: Unify the semantic representation of A and B by inserting relation(A)={B} as sub-feature of A to derive {A|relation(A)={B}}. one一 def: quantity={1} + bowl碗 def: container={bowl|碗}  one bowl一碗 def: container={bowl|碗:quantity={1}}  this這def: quantifier={definite|定指} + 本copy def:{null}  this copy這本 def: quantifier={definite|定指}  . then unify the semantic representation of A and B by the following steps.

Act2) e. 進出  Verb object structure  Act1={試,禁} e. Act2) e.g.Act1+Act2  Conjunctive structure   Synonym: and(Act1. 試喝、禁入 Most results are states (Vaues).g. 打擊 Antonym : and(Act1. Act2={獲、失、動、作、來、去、進來、上 去、起來、…}  Verb result structure   .g.

Agentive. part. …. location. {Obj2: rel={Obj1}} where rel could be Telic. 油 井 槍 彈 Telic={produce|製造} Predication={擊發}  Note: objects are rarely to be suffix or prefix of verbs. . material.Obj1+Obj2  Obj1+Obj2Object Noun    More than 99% are modifier+ head structure.

g.g. 豐富 Antonym : attribute e.Val1+Val2  Conjunctive structure   Synonym: Hypernym(Val1.. Val2) e. Val2={起來、下去…}  Modifier-head structure    Verb result structure   .. 好壞、興衰 Val1=degree value = {大、深、寡、豔、.g. 大好、深紅 Most results are states (values).} e.

M-state. E-state}  Problem: the transitivity of the result VR compound?   Intransitive: 跑累、氣昏 Transitive: 哭瞎、打破 .Act+Value  Act+ValueVR   {Act: result={Value}} Value={P-state.

(See next page) . 靜思 def ={思想: manner={靜}} 快煮 def ={煮: speed={快}}  Note: there is a set of actions which are always nominalized at suffix position.g.Value+Act  Modifier+headAct    {Act: manner={value}} or {Act: Eattri={E-value}} E.

Object or Value+Act (nominal action)  Obj or Val+Action  affairs Action={存、收、考、行、吻、射、改、治 、防、…} {affairs|事務: CoEvent={Act}}  Animal+{叫}  長、安、全壘+{打}  .

Obj+Value  Obj+Shape-Value(形狀量詞)   {Obj: shape={value}} E. 串、粉、捲、圈、桿、棒、管、環、末 、條、塊、團、屑  Obj+color-value color-Value  米白、酒紅 香、臭、腥  Obj+odor-value odor Noun  .g.

炫人 verb  Very few exceptions:  .g. 紅花、富人、昏君 沿路 adv.Value+Obj  Modifier+head object Noun   {object: Attribute={value}} E.

g.  The acts playing the role of prefix of object nouns generally do not play the role of prefix of verbs. . 炒飯、用水、烤肉、吊櫃 Some of examples have ambiguous interpretations.*/   E.Act+Obj  Act+Obj Obj Noun /* It is different from syntactic construction.

g. 星形、西式  Object+ attribute attribute or value     Value+ attributevalue. if all object have the same value. e. Attributes can only modify event nouns.g. E.  重量計、顏色分析 Object+ attribute attribute. e.Compound with attributes   Attributes do not modify object nouns.g. 紅色、快速 Attribute+value Vp.g. 物價 Object+ attribute value. e.色紅、速快 .

telic={hunt|狩獵:instrument={~}.  Great dane|大丹狗 Def=: {dog|狗: place={German|德國}. size={big|大型}. does not provide detail description of a concept. . evaluation={gentle|溫和}.Advantages of E-HowNet • Feature representation is precise and incremental. color={black white|黑白}}}  A pure taxonomy approach. such as WordNet.

agent={~}}.color={黑白}} 2) Animals with black/white colors|黑白色系的動物 :   Zebra|斑馬  def: {horse|馬:color={黑白}. HowNet definitions are very rough. for examples all dogs are defined as: {livestock|牲畜}. .Advantages of E-HowNet Features are criteria for new classifications. predication={eat|吃: patient={bamboo|竹子}.size={small|小型}}  cf. Great dane|大丹狗 is also classified as: 1) Hunting instruments|狩獵工具:   firearm|獵槍  def: {gun|槍:telic={hunt|狩獵:instrument={~}}} trap|陷阱  def: {facility|設施:telic={hunt|狩獵:instrument={~}}} panda|熊貓  def: {beast|走獸:place={China|中國}.

manner={機 敏}} Def:{逮捕:agent={飛機正駕駛}.patient={搶:gender={女}}.Advantages of E-HowNet  Achieves near canonical meaning representation. 機長機敏地抓獲女搶犯 vs.manner={敏捷}}  E-HowNet Expansion → . 飛機駕駛員敏捷的逮捕女強盜 Syntactic parsing     Def:{抓獲:agent={機長}.patient={強 盜:gender={女}}.

patient={aircraft|飛行器}}}. predication={manage|管理:agent={~}. patient={human|人:modifier={guilty|有罪}. predication={manage|管理:agent={~}. patient={human|人:modifier={guilty|有罪}.predication={rob|搶:agent={~}}.modifier={official|官}.patient={aircraft|飛行器}}}. manner={clever|靈}}  Def: {catch|捉住: agent={human|人:HostOf={Occupation|職位}. manner={nimble|捷}} .predication={rob|搶:agent={~}}.modifier={official|官}.Advantages of E-HowNet  Def: {catch|捉住: agent={human|人:HostOf={Occupation|職位}. gender={female|女}}. gender={female|女}}.

in the above example.Advantages of E-HowNet   Multi-level representations Tailor store|裁縫店 def: {store|店:telic={tailor|裁縫:place={~}}}  cf.  .location={~}}} Hownet concepts are defined by primitive concepts. the basic concept InstitutePlace|場所 lost the information of “commerce” in 「店」. HowNet def: {InstitutePlace|場所:{produce|製造: PatientProduct={clothing|衣物}. For instance.

place)]:location={~} .patient={text|語文:{announce|發 表:content={~}}}}} DEF3={[(establishment)]:{[(put.     W_C=公佈欄 W_E=bulletin board DEF={facilities|設施:{put|放 置:location={~}.textual_matter)+(command_language. E-HowNet uses WordNet synsets as description language.Advantages of E-HowNet   E-HowNet is language independent.patient={[(text.denote)]:c ontent={~}}}}} .qu ery_language.set.search_language)]:{[(announce.

WordNet synsets will be an intermediate language.  .Advantages of E-HowNet  E-HowNet did not create a completely new ontology. but accommodates other ontologies.  Links are established between different ontologies.

Outline  What is E-HowNet?   Lexical sense representation Compositional semantics   Applications of E-HowNet Future research .

Difficulties and future research  Semantic representation  Domain specific concepts   Domain terms: 質數|prime number 、二氧化碳 |carbon dioxide … Relative entities:他人|others、外野| out field …   Fine-grained features Aspects and viewpoints .

syntactic structure analysis and semantic role assignment Word sense disambiguation Meaning facet determination  Generic or instance .word segmentation and unknown word identification Sentence parsing.Difficulties and future research  Semantic composition     Word identification.

Difficulties and future research  Semantic composition     Anaphoric references Fine-grained semantic relations and gaps Construction meaning and metaphoric inferences View point normalization    Buy 買: Sell 賣 Borrow 借: Lend 借 Cause 因為: Result 所以 .

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