There are many types of data networks, including Local Area Networks (LAN) and Wide Area Networks (WAN). The components used to build networks are: a. the media b. end devices that send and receive messages (e.g., computers, VoIP phones) and c. Intermediary devices (e.g., hubs, switches, routers) that move messages among different parts of the network.

2. Most organizations have many LANs that are connected to WANs, and to the Internet, which itself is a series of WANs. 3. Understanding the way Network layers work together to transfer messages is critical because it is the foundation other concepts will be built upon throughout the course. A set of functions must be performed inside each computer or device to move messages through the network. These functions are organized into a set of layers. The idea of layers implies a stack, with one layer on top of another. 4. A Network Model defines these layers and the functions that each performs. The OSI model , and the TCP/IP model are two different models for organizing the layers and their functions, but they are similar in many ways. Each layer has its own language or "protocol" that has rules about how that layer will operate. Layers also have standards to ensure that any two computers that use the same protocol will be able to communicate. 5. The OSI model is the formal reference model, while the TCP/IP model was developed to reflect the implementation of the TCP/IP protocol stack. The TCP/IP model is more important because it is the one most commonly used in practice, as a result of the popularity of the Internet. It is also the most concrete. 6. Each protocol has a protocol data unit (PDU) that is like a grammar or a paper form that the protocol uses to communicate. This "form," called a PDU, is added to the message at each layer in the stack. 7. Every device has a set of addresses - i.e., there are different addresses for different layers in the protocol stack. a. Layer 2 addresses (MAC address) which are used to move messages to the correct end device . b. Layer 3 addresses (IP address) which are used to move message between different parts of the network and to identify the correct end device. IP addresses have two parts: y y c. the network (e.g., the IP number assigned to and the specific computer within that part of the network (e.g., a specific web server or e-mail server within the Google network).

Layer 4 addresses (TCP port numbers) are used to move the message to correct Application layer conversation at the end device (e.g., the Web browser or e-mail software on your computer).

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