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Reg Par


The Science of

•Who’s Using and
Why, page 240
•Life After ’Roids
page 298

3D H.I.T.
Workout to
Up Your

•See More of Her Inside (She’s Our Hardbody)
•IRON MAN Pro Retro—Full-Page Pics of
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the muscle. \ APRIL 2006 261

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March 2008
Marzia Prince
Back to POF basics with the Arthur Jones–inspired 3D HIT routine.

Ron Harris says bigger isn’t better when it comes to physiques.


Mike Lackner explains the wonders of beta-alanine and why it’s taking the
bodybuilding world by storm.


From the archives, Layne Norton lays out his prescription for
electrifying delts.


Steve Holman explores the research that has produced record-breaking muscle
growth and how to apply the science in the gym.


Ron Harris outlines the contest prep that put him in the winner’s circle.


Gene Mozée remembers the legendary bodybuilder with one of his last
interviews—and plenty of classic photos.


Jerry Brainum’s conclusion on the health-fixer elixir that burns fat.


John Little channels the wisdom of Mike Mentzer. This month: soreness.


The winners of our ’07 event—looking good!


Big full-page photos of our champions—19 years’ worth of awesome muscle.
284 HARDBODY a legend
Marzia Prince reveals her eye-popping, jaw-dropping physique.


Bill Starr’s take on life after steroids.
Reg Park


Marzia Prince and
Gegg Plitt appear
IRON MAN PRO on this month’s


cover. Hair and MUSCLE

19 years of winners makeup Alex SIMPLIFIED
The Science of
Almond. Photo by Hyperspeed
Michael Neveux. STEROIDS
Inset photo of THE TRUTH
•Who’s Using and
Reg Park by Russ Why, page 240
•Life After ’Roids
Warner. page 298

3D H.I.T.
Workout to
Up Your

•See More of Her Inside (She’s Our Hardbody)
•IRON MAN Pro Retro—Full-Page Pics of
Vol. 67, No. 3
Please display until 3/4/08
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C1_Mar2008_F.indd 1 1/3/08 6:33:35 PM

RegPark_312_F.indd Sec6:187

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Get wider wings. Plus, Joe Horrigan’s Sportsmedicine column covers fatigue.

Coach Charles Poliquin on size vs. strength rep ranges.

The zinc enigma and X-treme lean tips and tricks.

John Hansen tells you how to train, eat, sleep and grow.

Dave Goodin discusses getting the ultradry look.

Steve Holman presents a reverse-pyramid primer. 252
234 MUSCLE “IN” SITES The world of
Eric Broser’s Web-site suggestions, reviews and training advice. bodybuilding


Jerry Brainum discusses who uses bodybuilding drugs and why.


Lonnie Teper covers the wild world of bodybuilding.


Ruth Silverman’s picturesque look at all the happenings around the sport.


Bomber Blast with Dave Draper, Gallery of Ironmen (but it’s a woman) and IRON
MAN’s Rising Stars too. 234
Cover controversy, Shredder siting and the Governator meets the Abdominator. Surfing the Web

See more Photos @
See more Video @
In the next IRON MAN:
We delve more deeply into occlusion,
Here are the places that viewers recently or blood-flow blockage, the new fron-
clicked on the most: tieer of muscle growth. New studies
say it works big time—in other words,
clues you can use to get huge. Then
we get your traps rising with an analy-
sis of the best upper-back exercises—it
takes more than just shrugs. Plus, Jerry
>CONTEST >BEHIND- >HOT CLIPS >PDF LIBRARY Brainum checks out low-carb diet-
COVERAGE THE-SCENES Feel your heart Read and/or ing—is it really dead (not on your life),
Get the latest, VIDEOS race when you download some
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Publisher’s Letter Founders 1936-1986:

Peary & Mabel Rader
Publisher/Editorial Director: John Balik
by John Balik Associate Publisher: Warren Wanderer
Design Director: Michael Neveux
Editor in Chief: Stephen Holman
Art Director: T. S. Bratcher

The Legacy Senior Editor: Ruth Silverman

Editor at Large: Lonnie Teper
Articles Editors: L.A. Perry, Caryne Brown
Assistant Art Director: Brett R. Miller

of a Legend Designer: Chester Chin

Mary Gasca, Vuthy Keo, Mervin Petralba
Contributing Authors:
The legacy of Reg Park is worldwide, and it’s a living legacy, manifest Jerry Brainum, Eric Broser, David Chapman,
in the bodies and lives he changed by his example. In 1956 I was in the Teagan Clive, Lorenzo Cornacchia, Daniel Curtis,
eighth grade, and I distinctly remember seeing a photo of Reg in Muscle Dave Draper, Michael Gündill, Rosemary Hallum,
Power. He was doing a front lat spread. I stared at it in amazement, and Ph.D., John Hansen, Ron Harris, Ori Hofmekler,
Rod Labbe, Skip La Cour, Jack LaLanne, Butch
I began to dream of being stronger and more muscular. At the time I Lebowitz, John Little, Stuart McRobert, Gene
weighed 100 pounds and was about to borrow my uncle’s weights so Mozée, Charles Poliquin, Larry Scott, Jim
that I could begin to realize my dream. In a very real sense, my lifelong Shiebler, Roger Schwab, Pete Siegel, C.S. Sloan,
connection with bodybuilding started with that photo. Bill Starr, Bradley Steiner, Eric Sternlicht, Ph.D.,
Fast-forward 25 years, and I’m on the outside deck of World Gym in Randall Strossen, Ph.D., Richard Winett, Ph.D.,
Venice, California, taking exercise photos of Reg and his son, Jon Jon. I’d and David Young
met them through Arnold. Reg had an unmistakable presence, a voice Contributing Artists:
and a demeanor that got your attention—regal yet not aloof. Here was a Steve Cepello, Larry Eklund, Ron Dunn,
Jake Jones
man who’d won everything there was to win in his day but never men-
tioned it. He was just a guy who loved to help people, and he loved to Contributing Photographers:
Jim Amentler, Ron Avidan, Roland Balik, Reg
train. That wasn’t false modesty—it was simply the way he was. Bradford, Jimmy Caruso, Bill Dobbins, Jerry
The last time I saw Reg was at the Arnold Classic in 2007. He greeted Fredrick, Irvin Gelb, Isaac Hinds, Dave Liberman,
me warmly, as if we’d talked the day before, when in fact it had been a J.M. Manion, Merv, Gene Mozée, Mitsuru
year since I’d last seen him and his wife, Mareon. When the emcee ac- Okabe, Rob Sims, Ian Sitren, Leo Stern
knowledged the Parks, the crowd rose as one with a sustained standing Director of Marketing:
ovation—a “goose bumps” moment. Helen Yu, 1-800-570-IRON, ext. 1
When I was a teenager, Reg unknowingly touched me through his Accounting: Dolores Waterman
photos, and last December I had the privilege of attending a tribute to Subscriptions Manager:
him and celebration of his life hosted by Arnold. Speaking about his Sonia Melendez, 1-800-570-IRON, ext. 2
friend and mentor, Arnold said that as a teenager he’d had Reg’s picture E-mail:
taped to his bedroom Advertising Director: Warren Wanderer
ceiling. He also said that 1-800-570-IRON, ext. 1
he wouldn’t be where he (518) 743-1696; FAX: (518) 743-1697
is today without Reg, cit- Advertising Coordinator:
ing the inspiring photos Jonathan Lawson, (805) 385-3500, ext. 320
as well as being invited Newsstand Consultant:
Angelo Gandino, (516) 796-9848
to South Africa after the
NABBA Mr. Universe con- We reserve the right to reject any advertising at our
discretion without explanation. All manuscripts, art
test in 1965. or other submissions must be accompanied by a self-
The three weeks Arnold addressed, stamped envelope. Send submissions to
spent with Reg in South IRON MAN, 1701 Ives Avenue, Oxnard, CA 93033. We
are not responsible for unsolicited material. Writers and
Africa were a turning photographers should send for our Guidelines outlining
point in his life. As Arnold specifications for submissions. IRON MAN is an open
said, “Reg’s influence taught me about ‘I’ and ‘we’.” In observing the love forum. We also reserve the right to edit any letter or
between Reg and Mareon and Reg’s devotion to his children, Arnold saw manuscript as we see fit, and photos submitted have an
implied waiver of copyright. Please consult a physician
what family life—something he didn’t have growing up—was all about, before beginning any diet or exercise program. Use the
and he wanted his life to be that way. He saw, too, that Reg was not only information published in IRON MAN at your own risk.
a bodybuilding champion but also a successful entrepreneur and actor. IRON MAN Internet Addresses:
Reg’s example revised Arnold’s vision of what he could do, and the rest Web Site:
is history. John Balik, Publisher:
The thousands of e-mail condolences Jon Jon Park received from Steve Holman, Editor in Chief:
people around the world bear witness to his father’s legacy. On a per- Ruth Silverman, Senior Editor:
T.S. Bratcher, Art Director:
sonal level, I always say that our only touch with immortality is through
Helen Yu, Director of Marketing:
our children. In this case, Reg Park is immortal because of the way he Jonathan Lawson, Ad Coordinator:
led his life and the way he touched the people he encountered. IM Sonia Melendez, Subscriptions:

26 MARCH 2008 \

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Squats: Don’t Skip ’Em

The argument has Peter Putnam. why he even both-
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Do you absolutely have “There’s something
to squat with a barbell about the squatting
to maximize your thigh motion itself that
development, or can you simply can’t be dupli-
get the job done with cated with anything
Smith-machine squats, else,” he observes.
leg presses and hack “I believe you don’t
squats? I’ve flip-flopped even have to neces-
on the question many sarily go heavy at all
times over the years. to reap the benefits
The number-one rea- of the squat.” That
son most people don’t statement should
squat: a current or previ- set off some bells
ous injury. Either they’re in your head if you
suffering pain in the can’t or won’t squat
lower back or knees to heavy anymore. I can
the point that they can punish my legs just
no longer go heavy with as brutally with three
a bar on their back, or sets of 20 with 225
they avoid heavy squats as I could with 405
out of fear of reinjury. for eight to 10 reps.
My own experience There are also
has been that no matter other methods of
how heavy and intense making lighter weight
my work is on any com- feel heavier, such
bination of other leg as constant-ten-

exercises, I never feel sion “piston” squats,

as if I’ve truly worked pause squats—
my legs unless I’ve squatted. I always believed where you hold the very bottom position for a beat
that if I couldn’t go heavy on squats—for whatever before driving back up—and slow-motion reps. As
reason—I didn’t see the point of doing them. Why a bodybuilder with a very tender lower back that’s
not just do heavy leg presses or something else been injured dozens of times over the past 20
instead? years, I’ve used all of those techniques successfully
Recently, I spoke with ’07 USA light-heavyweight to keep squats in my leg workouts. The kicker is
winner Peter Putnam, an up-and-coming bodybuild- that in many cases the other types of sets stimu-
er who has some serious wheels. Putnam squats lated even more growth than heavy straight sets.
last in his leg workouts for two reasons. First, he So those of you who refuse to get under a dan-
wants to make sure his calves and hamstrings are gerously heavy barbell and squat, try using more
worked as hard as they need to be. He finds that moderate weight to work your wheels. Giving up on
ham and calf work don’t detract from his squats squats completely is probably the worst thing you
anywhere near as much as squatting first saps can do in regard to lower-body training. Find a way
Neveux \ Model: Chris Cook

his energy and performance for hams and calves. to keep this miraculously productive movement that
Second, he squats last so that he won’t be able to simply can’t be replaced or duplicated in your work-
handle as much weight. “It’s just a lot safer for me outs, and I promise that you’ll be glad you did.
to squat with 400 pounds than 600,” he says. —Ron Harris
Looking at his incredible quads, you may ask

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Train to Gain / MASS MOVES
Q: The leadoff exercise for
the triceps sweep workout [in
the e-book X-traordinary Arms]
is lying extensions, or skull
crushers. You describe the best
grip width and how to use an
EZ-curl bar for more long-head
involvement, but I don’t like
dragging a bar over to a flat
bench. Can I use dumbbells for
lying extensions instead of a

A: Magnetic resonance imaging

Neveux \ Model: Sebastian Segal

shows that lying extensions done on a

flat bench with a bar mostly stress the
triceps’ long head, so we classify it as
a sweep exercise. You’d think using
dumbbells would be the same—but
that’s not the case.
With dumbbells your palms face

Get Thee Behind, Satan each other, which forces your upper
arms inward.
That throws
Behind-the-neck pulldowns have acquired such a notorious reputation as more em-
a wrecker of rotator cuffs that you’re as likely to find bodybuilders doing them phasis onto
as you are catching them doing the backstroke in piranha-infested waters or the lateral, or
outer, head, so
trimming their nails with a chain saw. Behind-the-necks can indeed damage
it’s more of a
the rotator cuff muscles to the point where chronic pain severely limits virtually width exercise
anything you do for the upper body. But do they have to be dangerous? Do (see the in-for-
they really have to be consigned to bad-exercise hell? Not necessarily. out/out-for-in
After speaking with both supertrainer Charles Glass and Ms. Olympia Iris rule). The outer
triceps head
Kyle on the subject, I’m convinced that the behind-the-neck pulldown can be
is most no-
a safe and effective exercise for the middle and lower regions of the traps as ticeable from
well as the smaller, “detail” muscles of the upper back, such as the rhomboids, the front when your arms are at your
teres major and minor, and infraspinatus. Having a bit of extra development sides, creating a wide-arm look.
can definitely give you an edge in the rear “relaxed” pose and the rear double- You could try rotating your hands to
a palms-up position once the dumb-
biceps pose.
bells get past the sides of your head
Even if you don’t compete, your back will have a more polished and com- near the bottom of the stroke, but that
plete look. Iris explains how to eliminate the risk, which is really nothing more can be awkward. If you’re after the
than minimizing the external rotation of the shoulder joint. “Don’t pull all the most triceps sweep, use a bar or EZ-
way to the neck,” she advises, “only to the middle of your head. And don’t go curl bar on a flat bench, elbows flaring
out slightly. By the way, the long head
very heavy—I do them toward the end of my back workout and really focus on
is the most massive segment of the
the squeeze.” triceps muscle.
One more tip. Tilt your head slightly forward when you do pulldowns behind —Steve Holman and
the neck. That will let you pull in more or less a straight line downward, so your Jonathan Lawson
shoulders aren’t ever put in the precarious position they’d be in if your hands
and elbows were to travel a few inches to the rear to get around your noggin.
Editor’s note: This is an excerpt
Try doing them at every other back workout near the end for three sets of 12 from the IRON MAN e-zine. You can
to 15 reps with an emphasis on the peak contraction (hold it for a count of subscribe and have it delivered to
two), and see if you notice a difference in the musculature of your upper back your e-mail box free every week. Go
within a couple of months. to
and provide your e-mail address in the
—Ron Harris
upper-left corner of the home page.

30 MARCH 2008 \

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Train to Gain / MATURE MUSCLE

Wider Wings for a V-Taper

Q: I’m 49 years old and have never been able to There once was a notion that the wider you held your hands
get that V-taper. I do have a small waist, but I can’t doing pullups and pulldowns, the wider the back muscles
get my lats to would get. That’s
grow outward. I do true only if your
three sets of 10 By changing the spine has a per-
reps on pullups, long bar for the fect shape, your
pulldowns and V-bar, you’ll be muscles are in
low-pulley rows biomechanically perfect alignment
twice a week and reaching the lats and you have a
because the stretch
have never gotten perfect muscu-
and contraction will
my lats to grow. be enhanced. loskeletal frame.
What am I doing No one has that.
wrong? We all have to
look at our spine,
A: You’re training rib cage, arm
your back too often. I length and so on
say that assuming that to understand
you’re not using any what exercises are
muscle-growth-en- best for maximum
hancing drugs. Work- muscle stimula-
ing any large bodypart tion.
once in an eight-day By changing
cycle is optimal for the long bar for
most men who are the V-bar, you’ll
over 40 and natural. be biomechani-
When I create cally reaching
workouts for clients, the lats because
I ensure that they get the stretch and
plenty of rest after contraction will be
doing the most lever- enhanced. You’ll
age-advantageous attack your outer

Neveux \ Model: Gus Malliarodakis

exercises to failure for muscles instead
each bodypart. Those of struggling with
exercises are based a wide grip and
on an enormous wide bar—which
amount of information both work the
that each person gives inner part of your
me in a questionnaire back as opposed
that took me 20 years to the outer back.
to develop. It asks The form of
clients the measurements of their entire musculoskeletal sys- your genetic musculoskeletal frame indicates what exercises
tem—everything from wrist, knee and ankle circumferences are most biomechanically advantageous. The key in formulat-
to specific information that tells me the shape of their spine ing your lat training lies in understanding how certain exercises
and rib cage and the width and shape of their clavicles, as affect specific muscle groups on you and you only.
well as arm and leg lengths from various joint-to-joint points. I —Paul Burke
apply the information to a database that I’ve compiled over 25
years, which includes more than a thousand male measure-
ments and the optimal exercises for developing each body- Editor’s note: To contact Paul Burke, write to pbptb@
part. That speaks to their potential muscular hypertrophy. Burke has a master’s degree in integrated studies
Let’s say your arm is 35 inches long and you’re 6’3”. You from Cambridge College in Cambridge, Massachusetts. He’s
may have relatively wide shoulders and a relatively robust rib been a champion bodybuilder and
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Train to Gain / HARDGAINER

The Brothers Grimm A bodybuilding

odyssey, part 3

It’s been two months since Yiannis and keep their heels flat on the floor, they couldn’t
Stelios took the two workouts I described keep their lower backs slightly hollow at the
in Part 1 [January ’08]. Previously, the bottom position of the squat and deadlift, and
brothers were subconsciously resigned to they couldn’t keep their knees in the correct
bodybuilding failure. They’d experienced position on the ascent of the squat.
years of little or no progress, although It wasn’t just overall flexibility they were lack-
they kept plugging away in the gym. ing; they lacked symmetrical flexibility, for two
Now, though, they have training purpose, main reasons: First, they never did any flexibility
confidence and know-how—and bodies work. Second, due to some jammed-up mus-
that are ready for effective training. cles as a result of past neglect and injury, each
Even good bodybuilding progress is had greater inflexibility on one side of his body
slow, but slow and steady progress for than on the other. That led to asymmetrical
a few years produces terrific physiques. squatting and deadlifting technique, which kept
Here’s the seven-point plan Yiannis and irritating their backs or knees and preventing
Stelios must follow: the intensity required to build bigger muscles.
From the first week under my direction the
1) Passion and desire for physique brothers stretched every other day for about an
improvement and training—training hour, using a combination of common athletic
regularity is essential. stretches and a few yoga asanas, or postures.
They concentrated on their calves, hamstrings,
2) Appropriate training routines and employing exercises that thigh adductors and hip musculature but covered the rest of
suit each of them. their bodies too.
I had both of them get a few treatments from a chiropractor
3) Correct exercise technique and smooth, controlled rep to correct some structural problems, and I had them get some
speed. soft-tissue therapy from a physical therapist. The combination
of those treatments and six weeks of gradually progressive but
4) Hard, serious training. safe stretching made a big difference. They could squat without
any elevation under their heels other than the thin heel of their
5) Full satisfaction, every day, of the components of recuper- shoes, with their lower backs slightly hollow even at the bottom
ation from training—nutrition, rest and sleep—and the adop- position of the squat and deadlift, with their feet in a wider posi-
tion of a healthful lifestyle. Without their health, the brothers tion in the squat than they were used to and with their knees
can’t train hard and consistently. lined up with their flared feet.
Even with that type of preparation, some bodybuilders have
6) Consistent progression—adding weight to their exercises a body structure unsuited to the squat or the deadlift. Tall, lanky
without any perceived increase in effort to achieve the target people aren’t well-suited to the squat, and people with short
reps and sets and without any compromise on technique legs and arms but long torsos aren’t well-suited to the deadlift.
and rep speed. For example, if Yiannis adds some weight to If you’re truly not suited to the squat even though you’re flexible
an exercise every week or two but each time he perceives enough, try the leg press or parallel-grip deadlift instead. And if
an increase in the effort required, he’ll soon grind to a halt you’re truly not suited to the deadlift, even though you’re flexible
because he won’t be able to add weight. But if he’s able to enough, use the partial deadlift (from knee height) and the back
add a tad of weight on a consistent basis to each exercise extension instead.
without a perceived increase in effort and while maintain- Now the brothers are ready to squat and deadlift, provided
ing correct technique and rep control, he’ll make consistent they use correct technique—that’s another big stumbling point
progress. for most bodybuilders. Even if they’re truly fit for the move-
ments, they can’t progress well on them because they don’t
7) Apply points 2 through 6 with persistence and patience. use correct technique. As a result they repeatedly injure them-
The brothers need to get today right, then tomorrow, then In the future I’ll take you through the brothers’ new workouts,
the following day, then the next and so on. Regardless of and you’ll see the difference in their old and new regimens.
whether it’s a training day, each day will contribute to their —Stuart McRobert
A big part of the brothers’ problems was that they weren’t
capable of hard but safe squatting and deadlifting. Done safely, Editor’s note: Stuart McRobert’s
the squat and the deadlift are great exercises, but if they aren’t first byline in IRON MAN appeared in
done safely, they’re dangerous. They should be done correctly, 1981. He’s the author of the new 638-
or not at all. Because I wanted Yiannis and Stelios to train as page opus on bodybuilding Build Muscle,
effectively as possible and because I would supervise them, Lose Fat, Look Great, available from
they’d be squatting and deadlifting. Home Gym Warehouse (800) 447-0008
When I first saw them train, neither could use correct squat or
or deadlift technique because they didn’t have the required flex-
ibility. As a result, their forward tilt was excessive, they couldn’t

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Where Is Training Fatigue?

All of us who train hard have experienced the burn and potassium. That may sound complicated, but much,
during our toughest sets—the last few reps at the end of much more is taking place when you’re performing, say,
the workout. It seems quite obvious that we can’t do any preacher curls to failure.
more reps because the muscle can’t contract anymore. Central fatigue occurs in the brain and spinal cord.
It doesn’t just feel fatigued; it feels wiped out. So it may Have you ever had a day in the gym where the workout,
seem silly to raise the question, Where is training fatigue? sets, reps or weight just didn’t seem to be happening the
The question isn’t so silly. There’s more than one type way you thought they would? Have you ever had days
of fatigue, and there’s much research into muscle or per- where you had enough sleep and didn’t think you were
formance fatigue each year. You should know about two tired, but the bar just didn’t want to move and the weight
main types of fatigue: peripheral and central. felt heavy with a poundage that you moved for sets the
Peripheral fatigue includes the energy systems in the week before? That may be a sign of central fatigue.
muscle itself. When the muscle consumes all the available We need to keep in mind that strength is a neurological
phenomenon. If a muscle fiber is a little thicker, it is a little
stronger; however, if we can learn to recruit more muscle
fibers, we can be much stronger. Strength is determined
by an impulse starting in the brain, traveling down the spi-
nal cord, spinal nerve root and peripheral nerve to a point
on a muscle known as a motor endplate. From there the
impulse spreads throughout the muscle, and that deter-
mines how many muscle fibers should be recruited and
how fast.
The average untrained person recruits about 53 per-
cent of the muscle fibers. Training increases that thresh-
old. We literally learn to recruit more fibers. The part of
the brain controlling that, the motor cortex, can fatigue as
well. That’s been monitored on studies known as function
MRIs. Once the motor cortex fatigues, there’s less output
to the body or bodypart to continue the same motion.
Some studies have shown that the fatigue can spread to
Neveux \ Model: Dave Goodin

other areas of the brain such as the visual cortex (Ben-

well, Mastaglia and Thickbroom. Reduced functional ac-
tivation after fatiguing exercise is not confined to primary
motor areas. Exp Brain Research; 2006).
Whenever we discuss fatigue, we must bring in the
topic of recovery. The balance between fatigue and re-
covery is what keeps us in the gym. Too much central
fatigue leads to overtraining and a lack of results—or
energy substances, it won’t be able to contract. When even a loss of strength and size. I’ve addressed overtrain-
the by-products of muscle work, such as lactic acid and ing many times over the past 18 years, and I will again.
carbon dioxide, increase to very high levels, the burn For now, if your workouts aren’t working—if your gains
increases, and it becomes very difficult for the muscle to stopped and you tried changing your routine, and you’re
work. getting enough sleep and eating well and are fully hy-
When the muscle is working so hard, oxygen is con- drated—try taking a break from training for a week or two
sumed as well. The contraction of the muscle exerts force and see if you become rejuvenated in the gym.
on the small arteries and veins leading into and out of —Joseph M. Horrigan
the muscle, and they’re compressed as well. That further
interferes with the muscles’ ability to continue to work Editor’s note: Visit for
because their work exceeds the body’s ability to sup- reprints of Horrigan’s past Sportsmedicine columns that
ply them with what they need. When the nerves to the have appeared in IRON MAN. You can order the books,
muscle are stimulated too many times in a short amount Strength, Conditioning and Injury Prevention for Hockey
of time, the peripheral nerve can fatigue too, so it’s dif- by Joseph Horrigan, D.C., and E.J. “Doc” Kreis, D.A.,
ficult for the nerve to keep conducting an impulse without and the 7-Minute Rotator Cuff Solution by Horrigan and
proper rest. Rest enables the neurotransmitters to re- Jerry Robinson from Home Gym Warehouse, (800) 447-
cover and helps reestablish the balance between sodium 0008 or at

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Insulin is a good thing and high- “The X Stack combined with X-Rep almost instantly. Plus, you’ll
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ly anabolic right after you train condition ever in only one month.”
refill spent fuel stores so you’re
because that’s when your muscles —Jonathan Lawson fully loaded for your next workout
are extremely receptive—like (bigger, more powerful muscles;
wrung-out sponges waiting to soak up anabolic nutri- you can feel it working). You train hard; you deserve
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Train to Gain / ROLE MODELS

Who Do You Want to Look Like?

Following the recent—and highly contro-
versial—Mr. Olympia competition, several
Internet sites conducted polls to determine
which of the top five men the readers would
rather look like. The results were supposed
to correlate to how the placings should
have been determined. After all, Mr. Olym-
pia does, theoretically, have the ideal phy-
sique that we all aspire to.
Predictably enough, more people stated
that they would prefer owning a more
shapely and aesthetic physique along the
lines of Victor Martinez, Dexter Jackson or
Dennis Wolf than the sheer bulk of mass
monsters like Jay Cutler and Ronnie Cole-
man. I don’t want to argue over the hows
and whys of those opinions. We all have our own resembling them is pure fantasy. More important,
tastes. What I find slightly disturbing is the whole everyone has a unique genetic blueprint. We can
concept of aspiring to look “just like” any top pro— only do the best we can with the genetics we’ve
and not for the reasons you might think. been born with, and who’s to say that the physique
I have said ad infinitum that the top pros are all we eventually build can’t be great in its own way?
genetic freaks and, for the most part, are all Just because it wouldn’t belong on the Mr.
chemically assisted as well. Unless you Olympia stage doesn’t mean it wouldn’t be
share their rare genetics and have ac- something to be proud of and that people
cess to the same chemicals, the idea of everywhere wouldn’t respect and admire.
Those of you who have put years into
OPTIMAL WORKOUT hard training and good eating probably
already know what I mean. People you
Time to Train meet are often as impressed by your
physique as they would be by any pro’s.
In fact, they may be even more impressed
Many trainees wonder because you have a more attainable look
what time of day is best for a than that of a cartoon-proportioned freak.
workout. Is it morning, noon It’s perfectly fine to draw inspiration from
or night? Research suggests the physiques of the pros and to respect
that peak performance oc-
the hard work they put in to look the way
curs in the afternoon or early
evening because your mus- they do. All I want to get across to you is
cles are warmer from moving that in aspiring to look exactly like them,
all day, your body tempera- you’re doing yourself a disservice. Why
ture is normal, and your heart not aspire to be the most incredibly and
and lungs are functioning
perfectly developed you that you can be?
efficiently. Of course, if early
morning is the only time you That’s a goal you can actually reach. When
can hit the weights, do it. you do, you’ll be pleased to find that it feels
That’s a lot better than trying just as good as looking like a pro. Knowing
to make it to the gym after you reached your ultimate potential feels
work, when it’s crowded and
damn good—maybe even as good as be-
you’re dragging. Do it when
you can get to it. coming Mr. Olympia!
—Becky Holman —Ron Harris

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Smart Training
by Charles Poliquin

Size vs. Strength press, and his pecs are at their limit. He can then go on a
strength cycle. If he does 250 for eight, his max should be
about 320. If he goes on a strength cycle and gets his bench

Rep Ranges up to 360, when he goes back to doing sets of eight, he’ll
be able to handle 280. For that reason his pecs are going to
grow—because he has used enough weight long enough to
stimulate growth.
Q: There’s a recent trend in bodybuilding to do But look at Olympic lifters. They never do more than six
fewer reps than the traditional recommendation.
I’m talking about eight to 10 sets of three reps. Typi-
cally, according to what you used to say, at least,
that’s more or less for strength and not for hyper-
trophy. What are your thoughts?

A: True, it’s best to do higher reps when you’re looking

for hypertrophy in the shortest time. You can definitely
grow on sets of three; it just takes longer for the muscle
mass to come along. You’ll get stronger on that low-rep

Neveux \ Model: Ted Arcidi

system way before you get bigger. The thing is that most
intermediate bodybuilders don’t grow because they’re just
too weak. If you do eight sets of three or cluster training or
some other heavy-load set-and-rep scheme, you use maxi-
mal weights, and your body learns to recruit high-threshold
motor units.
Let’s say a guy can do 250 for eight reps on the bench Powerlifters and weightlifters use low-rep sets,
while bodybuilders tend to use higher reps.
Low reps will hypertrophy muscle tissue; it
just takes longer than using the bodybuilding
standard of eight to 12.

Neveux \ Model: Dave Goodin

42 MARCH 2008 \

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Mitsuru Okabe spent 4 days
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to his sixth win in a row of the
Mr. Olympia. This DVD is shot
in an absolute “you are there”
style. There are no set ups,
no retakes, nothing but the
real Ronnie Coleman. Ronnie
is absolutely focused on his
goal and he lives his life to
make it happen. You will see
him do 800-pound squats,
75-pound dumbbell curls and
an astounding 2250-pound leg
press—almost every 45-pound
plate in the gym! It’s the stuff
of legends. But more than just
the sets, reps and the nutrition,
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Whatever You Need—Wherever You Train™

reps, but they have huge thighs and traps—because they’ve many carbs they need. There’s a difference between a
done it over a long period. What people don’t know is that mouth and a vacuum. Skip a high-carb meal, and you can
muscle grows because it’s easier for muscle to hypertro- save a small African country.
phy than it is to recruit more motor units. It’s basically the 4) You need more a low-carb lifestyle than a low-carb
body’s laziness. If you tap into new motor units and then go diet. Forty to 50 grams per day of good carbs is plenty for
back and do sets of eight with your new max, you’ll grow. most of the population. That’s why there are so many fat
The opposite is also true. Some guys, for example, go dietitians and personal trainers. I recently saw a fitness au-
into the weight room and lift every day, and their lifts thor who’s a legend in his own mind for his dietary counsel-
haven’t improved since Hillary Clinton smiled. I ask them, ing prowess and a record of never healing weight training
“What’s your best for eight reps?” and they say, “I don’t injuries. He’s never met a carbohydrate he didn’t like. No
know, 250.” And I say, “Try training with only eight-rep sets, wonder his waist size exceeds his shoulder girth.
and get that max up to 270. Then go back to heavy train- 5) You need to distinguish between carbs and “neo”
ing.” carbs. Neo carbs were not accessible to cavemen. Did a
So if you haven’t gained strength in a long while, you caveman have access to doughnuts? No. Doughnuts are
have to hypertrophy the fibers. Hypertrophy training is neo carbs. Did a caveman have access to pasta? No. Pasta
actually quite simple—I didn’t say easy. It’s much harder to equals neo carbs. Did a caveman have access to grapes?
make an athlete gain strength on a relative basis—that is, Yes. Grapes are allowable carbs (in some instances).
strength on a pound for pound basis—than to gain mass. 6) Nutrient timing makes a difference. A 200-pound man
The key to hypertrophy training is variety in applying the can stay lean eating 250 grams of carbs a day if he takes 200
loading limits. of them postworkout and spreads the other 50 throughout
the day as low-glycemic carbs. I said, “stay lean,” not get
Q: In your writings you come across as a low-carb
lean. If you want carbs, get lean first. You have to deserve
type of guy. Can you summarize why?
A: How about a list? I’d like to make the following points 7) No one eats enough vegetables. Have you ever heard
regarding low-carb diets. Of course, I could go on and on, of anybody bingeing on brussels sprouts? If you don’t eat
but these are important points to consider: enough veggies, a daily intake of mixed fibers may be in-
1) Carbohydrate intake should be individualized. Some dicated for a short period. If you were to get all nutrition-
people (a minority) simply cannot train for extensive peri- ists to agree only on one thing, it would be that everybody
ods on low carbs. They’re usually gifted for aerobic sports, needs to eat more vegetables.
so I don’t see them anyway. 8) The leaner you are, the more carbs you can eat. That’s
2) Low carb for life is the best solution for at least 75 one of the reasons I insist that my athletes get as lean as
percent of the population. If we banned grains, 90 percent possible as early as possible when they start working with
of the health-care costs would go down. No more triglycer- me.
ides, LDL, C-reactive proteins, low androgens, etc. 9) You can dramatically improve insulin sensitivity.
3) A lot of people are kidding themselves about how When I teach the Biosignature, I give 16 hours of info on

It should be a low-carb lifestyle rather than a low-carb

diet. Forty to 50 grams per day of good carbs is plenty
for most of the population.

44 MARCH 2008 \

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you tear fibers at both ends, and you get super-

Here’s a nasty superset for biceps:
Do four to six reps of close-grip chinups (or
close-grip pulldowns, if you’re not strong enough
to do chinups), rest eight to 10 seconds, and then
do eight to 10 reps of incline dumbbell curls.
Do five supersets, resting approximately two
minutes after each round, and I guarantee you
there will be no way you can bend your elbows
without feeling extreme soreness for at least five
Here’s what’s happening: When you do the
chinups, the origin is at the elbow and the inser-
tion is at the shoulder. Then, when you do the
incline dumbbell curls, it’s the opposite: The
origin is at the shoulder and the insertion is at
the elbow.
Mechanically, you’re doing two extremes, and
you’re inducing fiber damage beyond belief.

Neveux \ Model: Cesar Martinez

For triceps you can superset weighted dips
with overhead extensions. Do five reps of weight-
ed dips, rest eight to 10 seconds, and then do 10
to 12 reps of overhead extensions with a rope
Fixation/insertion attachment. Rest two minutes and repeat. Do a
supersets involve total of five supersets, and you won’t be able to
attacking a muscle at brush your hair for a few days.
both ends, origin and Again, because
insertion. of varying arm
positions in the
two movements,
you have your
that topic alone. Plenty of nutra- elbows below your
ceuticals (i.e., R-form stabilized shoulders in one
alpha-lipoic acid, not the useless movement and
racemic form that everybody sells) your elbows above
and botanicals will improve insulin your shoulders in
sensitivity, and functional tests can the next.
determine which ones would work
best for you. Insulin sensitivity and Editor’s note:
the ability to hypertrophy while Charles Poliquin is
leaning out are very strongly cor- recognized as one
related—much more than androgen of the world’s most
output. successful strength
10) Every fifth day you should go coaches, having
back to eating more good carbs, as coached Olympic
oxidation of branched-chain amino medalists in 12
acids is compromised on low-carb different sports,
diets. The number of good carbs including the U.S.
should be inversely proportional to women’s track-
your percentage of bodyfat. and-field team for
11) Following a low-carb diet the 2000 Olympics.
without getting a high intake of He’s spent years
smart fats is suicidal. Make sure to researching Eu-
eat good sources of omega-3s and/or ropean journals
Neveux \ Model: Derik Farnsworth

supplement them in your diet. (he’s fluent in

English, French
Q: My arms haven’t grown in a
and German) and
while. Anything you can suggest
speaking with
to get me out of the rut?
other coaches and
A: Try fixation/insertion super- scientists in his
sets. In kinesiology, the origin of quest to optimize
the muscle is what’s fixated, and training methods.
the insertion is what moves. If you can somehow superset For more on his books, seminars and methods, visit www.
movements that combine those two opposite functions, Also, see his ad on page 271. IM

46 MARCH 2008 \

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Nutrition With a Get-Big Mission

to Grow
NUTRITION SCIENCE both zinc and protein absorption. Other
nutrients can also block zinc uptake,

The Zinc Enigma such as calcium, iron and large doses

of the B-complex vitamin folic acid.
Most researchers suggest that at
least 25 percent of the world’s popula-
Do hard-training athletes need more, and does it raise testosterone? tion is at risk for zinc deficiency, al-
though most of those people live in
A supplement popular with many other athletes are deficient in zinc poor Third World countries. Zinc is
bodybuilders is known as ZMA. That’s an and magnesium. When you consider required for growth and devel-
acronym for its primary ingredients—30 that vital minerals activate more than opment, as well as for immune
milligrams of zinc, 450 milligrams of mag- 300 important enzyme systems in the function, cellular DNA repair,
nesium aspartate and 10.5 milligrams body—including the ones involved reproduction, vision, taste and
of vitamin B6, or pyridoxine. The B6 is with protein and carb uptake, hormone brain function. Most forms of cancer
added because it participates as a co- release and fat oxidation—it’s not hard involve damage to cellular DNA, and
enzyme in reactions involving the uptake to understand why being deficient in zinc is required for enzymes that repair
and absorption of the mineral content. either or both hampers muscular gains DNA damage. Another way zinc helps
The suggested dose for ZMA is three and athletic progress. protect against cancer is through in-
capsules taken just before sleep—the The human body contains two to teraction with superoxide dismutase, a
magnesium is a sleep aid. three grams of zinc, of which 0.1 per- major antioxidant that blocks the nox-
According to the developer of ZMA, cent is replenished daily by food. Red ious effects of free radicals known to
many hard-training bodybuilders and meat is the most reliable food source. damage cells and initiate cancer.1
Poultry and fish, Various diseases impair zinc uptake,
common staples including those associated with alco-
of bodybuilding holism, such as liver cirrhosis. Stress
diets, are inferior can lead to enhanced zinc excretion. A
sources. One study potentially deadly genetic disease called
showed that adult acrodermatitis enteropathica is marked
men whose primary by an impairment of intestinal absorp-
protein sources are tion of zinc. Signs of zinc deficiency
fish and chicken include lack of growth, impaired immu-
had insufficient zinc nity, dermatitis, poor healing of wounds
intake. Women often and hair loss, with black hair often
shun red meat, turning reddish brown. Zinc may also
which places them help prevent dementia, although higher
at higher risk for both amounts of zinc are also found in some
zinc and iron defi- demented older people.
ciencies. Just as zinc deficiency is a problem,
While zinc exists so is zinc overload—usually the result of
in plant foods, some supplement overkill, though the effects
natural substances in are generally subtle. The recommended
those foods interfere daily intake of zinc for adult men is 11
with zinc absorp- milligrams, eight for women. Vegetar-
tion—phytates in ians require an additional three to four
whole grains and milligrams daily because natural ele-
Neveux \ Model: Peter Putnam

lignins in flax, for ments in vegetables and grains interfere

example. Overcook- with zinc uptake. Pregnant and nursing
ing protein results in women also require about the same
what chemists call amount of additional zinc.
a Maillard reaction, Like most minerals, zinc follows a
which interferes with bell curve: Too much is as bad as too
48 MARCH 2008 \
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This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.
little. Too much zinc leads to hormone. the studies. The authors suggest that
an imbalance between zinc Without it, for those not deficient in zinc, taking
and copper, resulting in an ex- nitric oxide ZMA won’t affect testosterone levels.
cess excretion of copper. The declines, They further suggest that the ZMA
effects of a copper deficiency which effect on pH, as well as the increased
include a type of anemia and a adversely urinary flow, may prove a problem for
decline in protective high-den- affects some people, citing the 30-milligram
sity-lipoprotein cholesterol, and hormone dose, which is close to the suggested
a serious copper deficiency function tolerable safe daily dose of 40 mil-
could lead to a breakdown and blood ligrams. Since zinc is an ingredient in
of the aorta, the large artery flow to many other supplements bodybuilders
leading out of the heart, be- exercising use, such as meal replacements and
cause copper is required for muscles. vitamin-and-mineral capsules, that calls
the synthesis of collagen, which So for caution on the part of supplement
strengthens blood vessels. can ZMA users. On the other hand, since stud-
While having sufficient aid your ies show that fish and chicken aren’t
zinc is vital for the func- bodybuild- reliable sources of zinc, bodybuilders
tion of immune cells known ing efforts? If you who eschew red meat may benefit from
as T cells—which, among other know the effects of zinc deficiency, some type of zinc supplement.
things, protect against viruses the benefits of a supplement like ZMA Two other factors to consider are
and tumor formation—getting seem clear. Suppose, however, you get that only about 20 percent of a zinc
too much zinc works in reverse, enough zinc in your diet—would ZMA supplement is absorbed under the best
impeding immune reactions still prove beneficial? conditions (25 percent is absorbed from
in the body. Taking as little as 80 A recent study compared the effects food). Other minerals, such as calcium
milligrams of zinc daily will have an of taking the suggested three-capsule and iron, speed zinc excretion. The
immune-suppressing effect in most dose of ZMA to those of taking a pla- other mineral in ZMA, magnesium, is
people. It concentrates in the prostate cebo.4 The subjects were 14 healthy, also far more likely to be lacking in a
gland, and one study found that con- exercising young men whose baseline typical bodybuilding diet. So a sup-
sistently taking 100 milligrams of zinc or daily zinc intake averaged between plement such as ZMA may prove
more daily led to a 290-percent in- 11.9 and 23.2 milligrams. useful for many people. Just
crease in the risk of metastatic prostate A study published in 2000 showed don’t depend on it to raise your
cancer. Even taking only 53 milligrams that semiprofessional athletes who took testosterone too. —Jerry Brainum
of zinc daily can impair copper status in the suggested dose had a 30 percent
the body. Plus, while not having enough increase in plasma testosterone and
zinc impairs blood-platelet aggregation, a corresponding increase in muscular References
which leads to increased bleeding time, strength compared to athletes not tak-
1 Ho, E. (2004). Zinc deficiency, DNA
having too much increases the risk of ing the supplement. In the new study,
internal blood clotting, which is linked to however, those taking ZMA had no rise damage and cancer risk. J Nutr Bio-
heart attack and stroke.2 in testosterone or its urinary metabo- chem. 15:572-78.
2 Hughes, S., et al. (2006). The ef-
From an athlete’s point of view, zinc lites. The pills were analyzed and found
status can either help or hinder. Low to contain no trace of pro-hormones, fect of zinc supplementation in humans
zinc intake is associated with impaired although they did meet label specifi- on plasma lipids, antioxidant status
muscle function, reduced strength and cations. Other effects of ZMA in the and thrombogenesis.J Amer Coll Nutr.
a greater propensity to fatigue pre- subjects included a rise in urinary pH, 25:4:285-91.
3 Lukaski, H. (2005). Low dietary zinc
maturely during exercise. Among the or alkalinity, and a doubling of urinary
enzymes activated by zinc is carbonic flow over the eight-week study. The decreases erythrocyte carbonic anhy-
anhydrase, needed for the metabolism increased urine flow was likely related to drase activities and impairs cardiorespi-
of carbon dioxide. So if you’re too the rapid excretion of zinc in the sub- ratory function in men during exercise.
low on zinc, the enzyme’s activity is jects taking ZMA. Am J Clin Nutr. 81:1045-51.
4 Koehler, K, et al. (2007). Serum
impaired, which messes with your While the authors noted that the
breathing and would result in premature training level of the subjects was infe- testosterone and urinary excretion of
exercise fatigue.3 Zinc also works with rior to that of the subjects in the 2000 steroid metabolites after administration
various anabolic hormones, including study, both groups had similar zinc and of a high-dose zinc supplement. Eur J
testosterone, insulin, IGF-1 and growth testosterone measures before and after Clin Nutr. 1-6: In press. \ MARCH 2008 49

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Food Facts
That can affect your
workouts, weight and wellness

Chocolate for
your teeth? Re-
searchers at Tulane
University discov-
ered that theobro-
mine, a compound
in cocoa beans, is
better than fluoride
for hardening tooth
enamel and fighting decay.
have lots of
quercetin, a

Neveux \ Model: Gus Mallarodakis

that reduces
in the same
manner as
aspirin. That
means onions can do good things for
healing joint pain as well as cardiovas-
cular health.
Seaweed may make junk food

Watered-Down Fat healthier. How? By increasing its

fiber content. In a study done at the
University of Newcastle in the United
Now water can get you leaner Kingdom, scientists added seaweed
to white bread for the health-boosting
effect. Let’s just hope it doesn’t make
Your muscles are about 70 percent water—reason enough to get plenty toast smell like a fish
of it during the day. Here’s another: Water also ramps up your metabolism. market.
Researchers conducted a study to test its thermogenic effects, meaning its Oil taken in with
meals, whether
conversion of fat calories into heat. Seven men and seven women, average
as fish oil cap-
age 27, drank 500 milliliters, or about sules or salad
half a quart, of cold water. That caused dressing, has
a metabolic increase of 30 percent over been shown to
boost absorption of
resting status. The increase occurred
some antioxidants
within 10 minutes, reaching a maximum and phytochemicals in vegetables by
at 30 to 40 minutes after the subjects as much as 10 percent. Take a few
drank the water, and it lasted for more fish oil capsules with every meal.
than an hour. It led the authors to suggest
that drinking just a little more than a quart can help
Neveux \ Model: Tom Voss

of water a day would augment energy you sleep

expenditure by 200 kilojoules a day. That’s better. The
mineral helps
like taking 50 milligrams of ephedrine
the body
three times a day, which would give you produce
an increased energy expenditure of 320 melatonin, a
kilojoules. Granted, that adds up to only chemical in the brain that helps you
relax. Try taking 200 milligrams with
about 100 extra calories burned daily, but it does add to weight loss (J Clin
Endocrinol Metab, 88:6015-6019; 2003). —Becky Holman
—Becky Holman

50 MARCH 2008 \

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Creatine Timing and Loading For the best muscle


The research on creatine continues to point to its amaz- resulting in the least urinary
ing effectiveness and versatility. One recent study examined excretion and greatest reten-
the absorption effects of creatine when it was an ingredient tion. That implies that if you
in a drink and in two types of food bars.1 The bars contained slow creatine absorption, you’ll
either protein retain more of it.
or beta-glucan, Another study compared
a soluble fiber the usual creatine-loading regi-
found natu- men—five grams of creatine
rally in oatmeal four times daily—with a more
and barley. frequent intake, one gram 20
The dose of times a day.2 Nine subjects
creatine was got the usual five-gram load
two grams in at three-hour intervals, while
all cases. The those getting the one-gram
subjects got dose got it every 30 minutes.
it three times Both regimens lasted five
daily for one days. The results: The smaller
week in one creatine dose resulted in less urinary excretion than the larger
form, then one, which led to higher creatine retention. The authors con-
took it in an- cluded that taking smaller doses of creatine more often, or
other form for possibly using a timed-release form of the supplement, would
a week—that bring better results.
is, one week —Jerry Brainum
liquid, then
protein bar, then beta-glucan bar. References
The absorption of creatine was slowed eightfold by the
beta-glucan bar and fourfold by the protein-and-creatine bar. 1 Deldicque, L., et al. (2007). Kinetics of creatine ingested as
Interestingly, all forms of creatine were completely absorbed, a food ingredient. Eur J Appl Physiol. In press.
contrary to some advertising claims that most dietary cre- 2 Sale, C., et al. (2007). Urinary creatine excretion follow-
atine is largely degraded in the gut. The greatest effect was ing supplementation with 4x5 g day or 20x1 g day of creatine
observed when creatine was combined with the beta-glucan, monohydrate for 5 days. J Sports Sci. 25:249.


Berry Good Memory Low Carb or Low Fat?

We’ve all Maybe neither is
had short-term best for long-term
memory lapses weight loss. Univer-
(“Where did I put sity of Pennsylvania
those keys?”). scientists found that
Blackberries may extreme changes in
help. Anthocy- diet, like lowfat or
anin, a phyoto- low-carb regimens,
chemical they trigger the release
contain, has been of stress hormones
shown to improve in the brain. That,
memory. The in turn, causes anxiety, which can lead to binge
compound ap- eating. Carb reduction is a good strategy for los-
pears to help protect and rebuild brain cells, and ing weight, but don’t get carried away. Balance is
in older folks it’s been shown to actually reverse best if you want to maintain your ripped physique.
age-related memory decline. —Becky Holman
—Becky Holman

52 MARCH 2008 \

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to Grow

Recent Relevant Research Food news and

supplement science

Not to blindside you with too much science, but here’s

the lowdown on some recent work from the ivory tower.
First off, anyone who thinks that merely drinking sugar-
containing sports drinks is enough, think again. Drinking
a sports drink before, during or after exercise is about as
effective as entering the UFC’s Octagon after taking ballet
lessons. Yep, it just ain’t enough.

A carb-and-protein blend better than carbs.

A study looked at whether resistance exercise perfor-
mance and postexercise muscle damage were altered
for those drinking a carbohydrate-and-protein beverage.
Thirty-four male subjects completed three sets of eight
repetitions at their eight-repetition maximum to fatigue.
They did, in order, high pulls, leg curls, standing over-
head presses, leg extensions, lat pulldowns, leg presses
and bench presses. In a double-blind manner they
drank 355 milliliters of either a carb-and-protein bever-
Neveux \ Model: Daniele Seccarecci

age or a placebo (electrolyte and artificial sweetener) 30

minutes prior to exercise: 177 milliliters immediately prior
to exercise, 177 milliliters halfway through the exercise
bout and 355 milliliters immediately following exercise.
Those on the carb-and-protein drink experienced re-
duced muscle damage and soreness.1

A creatine-aminos-and-protein combo is bet-

ter than carbs. Researchers compared a drink fective than carbohydrates alone for improving anaerobic
containing creatine, amino acids and protein to a carbo- power production.2
hydrate placebo on body composition, strength, muscular
endurance and anaerobic performance before and after Protease supplement works. What about the use
10 weeks of resistance training. Fifty-one men were ran- of enzymes? Scientists studied the effect of a protease
domly assigned to either the test drink or the placebo and supplement on delayed-onset muscle soreness. They
performed two 30-second Wingate anaerobic tests (which discovered that a protease supplement may be useful for
is one painful bike exercise) to determine peak power and reducing strength loss immediately after eccentric exercise
mean power. They found that the test drink was more ef- and for aiding in short-term strength recovery.3

ANTIOXIDANTS —Jose Antonio, Ph.D.

Editor’s note: You can listen to Dr. Jose Antonio and

Fruit Salad Synergy Carla Sanchez on their radio show Performance Nutrition,
Web and podcast at
Dr. Antonio is the CEO of the International Society of Sports
When we eat fruit,
Nutrition— His other Web sites include
most of us grab a,, www
single apple or ba- and www.JoseAntonioPhD.
nana for a blast of
healthful antioxidants,
but eating a few fruits
together may be bet- References
ter. Mixing fruits, as in 1 Baty, J.J., et al. (2007). The effect of a carbohydrate and
fruit salads, appears
protein supplement on resistance exercise performance,
to boost antioxidant
hormonal response, and muscle damage. J Strength Cond
reactions more than
Res. 21:321-9.
eating individual fruits 2 Beck, T.W., et al. (2007). Effects of a drink containing
alone. Sure, it’s easier to peel a banana than to get out
creatine, amino acids, and protein combined with ten weeks
the knife and cutting board, but if you take the time to
of resistance training on body composition, strength, and
dice up lots—more than one serving—and put your salad
anaerobic performance. J Strength Cond Res. 21:100-4.
in the fridge, you’ll have it for convenient snacking. 3 Beck, T.W., et al. (2007). Effects of a protease supple-
—Becky Holman
ment on eccentric exercise-induced markers of delayed-onset
muscle soreness and muscle damage. J Strength Cond Res.

54 MARCH 2008 \

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X-treme Lean Tips and Tricks

The following fat-burning tips 3) Think of
are from the e-book X-treme Lean carbs as
by Steve Holman and Jonathan
Lawson. For more information visit

Neveux \ Model: Marvin Montoya Getting fewer
carbs at a
1) No-carb or meal than the
extremely low- energy you
carb diets are a need before
bad idea. They can your next meal
cause everything can force your
from low energy body to burn stored bodyfat for fuel.
to flat muscles to impaired workout 4) Always include plenty of carbs—
performance to depression to ill and protein—in your postworkout
health. meal, and have it immediately
2) Carb stack, if possible. Eating following a workout. If you don’t,
the majority of your daily carbs in the your muscle repair and growth may be
morning can increase fat burning later impaired. Shoot for 60 grams of fast
in the day. carbs and 40 grams of fast protein,
like whey.
5) Never eat carb-only meals.
Eating combination meals of carbs,
protein and fat slows down the
Carbo Countdown speed at which glucose enters
your bloodstream. In other words,
What’s your optimal intake?
combining carbs with other foods
A no- or very-low- can prevent insulin surges that can
carb diet isn’t right increase bodyfat storage—as long as
for most people. The you don’t eat too much at one sitting.
Each meal should be no more than
question is, How
350 calories, except postworkout.
many carbs per
day do you need? 6) Try to choose natural carbs—
Carbs are energy, so like fruits and vegetables—over
it depends on your processed carbs like candy and
daily expenditure.
cake. Processed carbs are calorie-
and carb-dense. They can stop
The human body
fat burning and cause fat storage
stores 300 to 400 grams of carbs as glycogen because of the excess energy they
in muscle tissue and the liver. A weight workout supply. Getting your carb allotment
may deplete 100 grams of that, cardio another from processed carbs as opposed
50 to 100 grams. Your brain runs on glucose to fruits and vegetables can also
as well, so 150 to 200 grams of carbs on train- cause health problems due to lack of
ing days should be about right to force your vitamins, minerals and phytonutrients.
body to dip into its fat stores for energy. Just to 7) Get 20 to 40 grams of protein at
make sure, get your carbs in the morning and/ each of your five to six meals a
or around your workout. day. That will ensure that the muscle-
—Becky Holman building blocks are readily available and signal your body that it’s A-okay
to add more muscle.

56 MARCH 2008 \

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Train, Eat,
Muscle-Training Program 101
From the IRON MAN Training & Research Center

by Steve Holman and Jonathan Lawson Photography by Michael Neveux

ometimes a death in the family can have some positive ramifications. We’re not
talking about a big inheritance, although that’s not a bad thing. We’re referring more to
reflection and the insights that can result. For example, we were saddened by the loss
of Arthur Jones, creator of Nautilus machines and the father of
high-intensity training; however, his passing caused us to reflect on the
birth of 3D Positions of Flexion—because our favorite mass-building
protocol sprang from many of Jones’ muscle-building concepts.
You may have seen Steve’s ode to Arthur in the December ’07 edition
of this series. He remembered Jones’ impact on him and his early
“POF incorporates specific exercises so that the target muscle
is trained at three distinct points along its range of motion—mid-
range, stretch and contracted. That has a direct correlation to Jones’
Nautilus training principles. For example, he designed the pullover
machine so that it trained the full-stretch and complete-contracted
positions of the lats, while the Nautilus pulldown trained the muscle’s
midrange position. I dissected and then adapted that full-range con-
Arthur Jones.
cept to standard equipment, including barbells and dumbbells, for
every bodypart—and my muscle gains took a giant leap.”
Recalling how well Steve’s muscles responded to the early POF programs has sparked us
to morph the heavy/light program we’ve been using for the past eight weeks into 3D HIT. It’s
a triple-hit high-intensity-training routine for each bodypart, with only one work set in each
of the three position (that’s three work sets total for each muscle). It’s simple, basic POF with X
Reps and a few other X-hybrid techniques to ensure optimal fiber activation in a single set.
That’s reduced our time in the gym considerably—for example, our leg workout on Tuesday
takes about 45 minutes. The quad routine is squats (midrange), sissy squats (stretch) and leg
extensions (contracted)—simple, basic POF—one work set for each.

62 MARCH 2008 \

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Models: Steve Holman and Jonathan Lawson \ MARCH 2008 63

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w w w. I ro n M a n M a g a z i n e . c o m
Train, Eat, GROW
Here’s a review of our current
split before we continue:

Week 1
Monday: Chest, lats, triceps, abs
Tuesday: Quads, hamstrings,
lower back
Wednesday: Delts, midback,
biceps, forearms
Thursday: Off
Friday: Chest, lats, triceps, abs
Weekend: Off (with cardio)

Week 2
Monday: Delts, midback, biceps,
Tuesday: Quads, hamstrings,
lower back
Wednesday: Chest, lats, triceps,
Thursday: Off pump—doing the work set
for 12 to 15 reps, which extends the proper warmup,
Friday: Delts, midback, biceps, tension time. which usually in-
forearms Our new program is a boon to cludes doing two
Weekend: Off (with cardio) recovery. Training four days a week to three progres-
with one work set in each position sively heavier sets
of flexion for each bodypart is a nice for each midrange
Week 3 change, but is it enough to spur movement. Back
new growth? The hard- to squats: We
Repeat Week 1 est part is getting the
muscle-building job
done in one set. For
We work legs only once a week, example, the key
And, as in our last program, we exercise in
still substitute regular deadlifts for the quad
whichever back routine is called for routine
on Friday. That gives us residual leg is squats,
work at the end of the week as well which we
as a heavy back blast. We follow the do first.
anabolic acceleration we get from We try to
Model: Jamo Nezzar

deadlifts with one or two sets of a hammer

direct back exercise—pulldowns if it into our
it’s lat day; machine rows if it’s mid- heads that
back day. we get
So we’re off the heavy/light pro- one shot
gram and on to 3D HIT—every at making
exercise is heavy to at least positive it count,
muscular exhaustion; however, so no quit-
there’s much more recovery time ting the set
and not as much systemic stress early.
because we’re doing fewer work One of One of the keys to getting the muscle-building job done
sets than in our previous program. the keys in one work set is getting a proper warmup. Occlusion, via
We do get so-called light work on to making continuous-tension isolation exercises, can help.
the contracted-position exercise to it count is
end each bodypart with a flushing getting a

64 MARCH 2008 \

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Workout 1: Chest, Lats, Triceps, Abs
do a warmup set for 10 reps, add weight

Workout 1
Smith-machine incline presses (X Reps) 1 x 9-12
and do a second for eight reps, add
High cable flyes 1 x 12-15
Bench presses (X Reps) 1 x 9-12
weight again and do six reps. Then we
Flyes (X Reps) 1 x 9-12 attack our work set.
Wide-grip dips (X Reps) 1 x 9-12 We’re not sure if Jones would’ve ap-
Low cable flyes 1 x 12-15 proved, but we’ve talked to bodybuild-
Chins 1 x 9-12 ers who used to train with the Mentzer
Parallel-grip pulldowns 1 x 9-12 brothers, and Mike and Ray, who were
Machine or dumbbell pullovers 1 x 9-12 fervent HIT advocates, did extensive
Rope rows 1 x 12-15 warmup sets before their Heavy Duty
Lying extensions (X Reps) 1 x 9-12 work sets during their competitive
Overhead dumbbell extensions years. The same for Skip La Cour, who
or cable pushouts 1 x 9-12 used minimal work sets to exhaustion
Pushdowns or kickbacks (X Reps) 1 x 12-15 preceded by many subfailure warmup
Incline kneeups 1 x 12-15 sets—and that wasn’t just to make the
Flat-bench leg raises 1 x 10-15 heavy set safe.
Tri-set Getting the muscle as warm as pos-
Ab Bench crunches 1 x 10-12 sible simply makes sense—not only
Twisting crunches 1 x 10-15 from an anti-injury standpoint but
End-of-bench kneeups 1 x 9-12 from a muscle-stimulation standpoint
as well. In our e-books we’ve discussed
Workout 2: Quads, Hamstrings, Calves, Lower Back the blood-pressure-cuff study that
Workout 2

produced a 20 percent increase in

Leg extensions (warmup) 1 x 12-15 strength after blood flow was blocked.
Squats 1 x 9-12 The cuff was put on the upper arm for
Sissy squats 1 x 9-12 two minutes, and when it was removed,
Leg extensions (X Reps) 1 x 12-15 the trainees were stronger on wrist curls
Walking lunges 1 x 10-15 than when they were tested without the
Stiff-legged deadlifts 1 x 9-12 blockage—20 percent stronger. That
Leg curls 1 x 12-15 shows you that an influx of blood is
Knee-extension leg press calf raises necessary to get a muscle to contract
(X Reps) 1 x 12-15 with max force, which in turn triggers
Leg press calf raises (X Reps) 1 x 12-15 maximum hypertrophic stimulation.
Machine standing calf raises A comprehensive warmup mimics the
or one-leg calf raises (X Reps) 1 x 15-20 occlusion effect by pushing blood into
Seated calf raises (X Reps) 1 x 10-15 the muscle after each lighter set.
Hyperextensions or In fact, it’s one reason postactivation
Nautilus lower-back machine (X Reps) 1 x 10-15 is so effective. That means alternating a
big, compound exercise with a continu-
ous-tension isolation movement for the
Workout 3: Delts, Midback, Biceps, Forearms same target muscle, then resting after
Workout 3

Seated laterals/upright rows (X Reps) 1 x 9-12 each set, not in preexhaustion fash-
One-arm cable laterals ion—sorry, Arthur—for example, bench
or incline one-arm laterals (X Reps) 1 x 9-12 presses and cable crossovers. Many
Forward-lean laterals 1 x 12-15 trainees actually get stronger on each
Smith-machine presses (X Reps) 1 x 9-12 succeeding set of the compound exer-
Bent-over laterals 1 x 12-15 cise when they alternate it with a con-
Machine rows (X Reps) 1 x 9-12 tinuous-tension isolation move, resting
V-handle cable rows 1 x 9-12 after each exercise. You can apply the
Bent-arm bent-over laterals 1 x 12-15 postactivation method to your warmup.
Dumbbell shrugs 1 x 12-15 If you have trouble getting suffi-
Dumbbell curls 1 x 9-12 ciently warmed up with lighter sets of
Incline curls 1 x 9-12 a compound exercise—bench presses
Concentration curls or in this case—we suggest substituting
one-arm spider curls 1 x 12-15 a higher-rep set of a continuous-ten-
Incline hammer curls 1 x 9-12 sion isolation movement for one of the
Tri-set warmup sets. You could do two progres-
Behind-the-back wrist curls 1 x 12-15 sively heavier warmup sets on bench
Rockers 1 x 15-20
presses—50 percent and 80 percent of
Forearm Bar reverse wrist curls 1 x 8-10

Note: Where X-Reps are designated, usually only one set or

Friday Workout phase of a drop set is performed with X Reps or an X-Rep hybrid
technique from the e-book Beyond X-Rep Muscle Building. See
Deadlifts (substitute for back workout) 1 x 9-12 the X-Blog at for more workout details.

66 MARCH 2008 \

Free download from
Train, Eat, GROW Mike Mentzer,
your work weight—then a 12-rep pioneer. 3D HIT
set of fairly light cable crossovers, merges many of
using only the bottom two-thirds of his ideas with
the stroke for max occlusion. Rest a an efficient
minute as the blood surges into your multiangular
pecs, and then attack your work set attack, Positions of
of bench presses. It will give you Flexion.
much better pec-fiber activation.
You’ll feel it, believe us.
Small details like that can make a
huge difference in mass gains, es-
pecially when you’re doing only one
work set for each exercise. We’ll have
more on 3D HIT next month.

Note: Our latest e-book, X-

traordinary Arms, is available at It includes biceps and
triceps specialization routines for
width, peak and sweep plugged into
our 3D HIT program.

Balik \ Model: Mike Mentzer

Editor’s note: For the latest on X
Reps, X e-books and the X-Blog train-
ing and supplement journals, visit The training e-
books are shown below. IM

X-traordinary Workouts — X-ceptional Results!

The Ultimate Mass Workout. Beyond X-Rep Muscle 3D Muscle Building. X-traordinary Muscle-
This is the original X-Rep Building. More on X Reps Positions-of-Flexion mass Building Workouts. The big
manual. Includes the and X-hybrid techniques, training. Includes the 20- 10 mass-program arsenal.
ultimate exercise for each including X Fade and pounds-of-muscle-in-10- Includes Heavy/Light, 20-
muscle and workouts. Double-X Overload. weeks size surge program. Rep Squat, Power Pyramid.
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Naturally Huge
by John Hansen, Mr. Natural Olympia

Train, Eat, size. If you

stimulate the
muscle with the
proper intensity

Sleep, Grow and feed it the

correct nutri-
tion, however,
you can get
Q: I’m 40 years old, 5’9” and 187 pounds (not very
bigger after the
lean) and have been trying to build muscle for four
age of 40.
years. I managed to gain 22 pounds in the first few
years of training by mainly increasing my protein
muscle begins
and calories, but in the past 18 months there have
with your work-
been no gains. I’ve tried bulking up with calories
outs. If you’re
and got pretty big—mainly fat—but after dieting
overloading the
that off over three months,I was back down to the
muscle with
size I’d been before bulking. Does my age prevent
enough stress,
me from gaining more muscle, or does my lack of
it will have no
sleep prevent it? I average about five hours a night
choice but to re-
on weeknights because of my job. I’ve been trying
spond by grow-
Mike Mentzer’s high-intensity training for the past
ing. The trick is doing the best exercises using a training
few months. What’s your opinion of that type of
method in which the intensity is progressively increased
training? I’m trying it to improve recovery.
without overtraining.
A: Building muscle in your 40s is definitely more chal- The best and most effective exercises are the basic ones
lenging than it was in your 20s or 30s. Your testosterone done with barbells and dumbbells. It’s hard to beat squats,
and growth hormone are down, so it’s not as easy to add barbell rows, deadlifts, bench and incline presses, overhead
presses, dips, barbell curls and the like. They force the mus-
cles to work extremely hard, which creates growth. That’s
the first step toward getting the muscles bigger—overload
Building muscle
them with a heavy resistance using the best exercises.
in your 40s is
Exercises like squats and deadlifts are also great for
definitely more
releasing testosterone in the body. Because of the energy
challenging than
output required, the body releases greater amounts of
when you were
testosterone in response to the stress. That’s why it’s impor-
younger, but it
tant to include them in your program. It’s also important to
can be done if
use heavy weights that will really challenge you to do the
you pay attention
exercise in good form for six to eight reps.
to the details.
You said that you’re using Mike Mentzer’s training pro-
gram to increase your recovery and recuperate fully from
each workout. That’s very important and a big factor in
getting the muscles to grow. It’s also important to make
sure that each workout is progressively harder than the
last. Progressive resistance forces the muscles to grow in
response to the continued stress placed upon them.
You can increase the intensity by using more resistance
(going heavier) or doing more reps with the same weight
(keeping them in the growth-producing six-to-10 range).
Another way is to use some type of high-intensity tech-
nique such as drop sets, forced reps or supersets.
I like to pick one progressive-training method (increas-
ing resistance, increasing reps or using a high-intensity
technique) and make each workout progressively harder
for a cycle of eight to 10 weeks. For a week or two after the
conclusion of that cycle I either(continued
perform lighter workouts
on page 102)
or take off a complete week in order to let my body recover
before starting another cycle.
Mike Mentzer’s Heavy Duty training method is basically
the same philosophy: increase intensity progressively at
each workout and allow the muscles enough time to rest

74 FEBRUARY 2008 \

Free download from
adding fat. You’ll figure out what works for you and how to
eat in order to have more energy, more strength and more
size. That will also help you if you want to diet to get more
cut. By knowing what you’re eating and drinking every day,
you’ll have a better idea of what to cut back on in order to
get more ripped without losing size.
One final word of advice. You’re right to think that you
need more than five hours of sleep per night. If you can’t
get enough sleep on the days you work and work out, make
sure you take a one-to-two-hour nap on the days you don’t
train and catch up on your sleep on the weekends.
Train three to four days a week if you’re trying to gain
mass. By cycling your carbohydrate intake and getting
enough sleep on your rest days, you should be able to over-
come the long hours you spend at work and get enough
sleep to help you recuperate and grow.

Q: I know that you’ve written about cycle training

in the past, and I know that bodybuilders like Frank
Zane and Arnold cycled their training to avoid burn-
out. With that in mind, I’ve done some research, and
the best ideas I’ve found come from Shawn Ray. He
used to cycle his workouts to gain mass and shape.
He divided his training into three cycles. Each cycle
lasted three months or so. During phase 1 he divid-
ed his body into three parts:
Day 1: Back, biceps and abs
Day 2: Chest, triceps and calves
Day 3: Rest
Day 4: Thighs and shoulders
Day 5: Rest
He used four exercises each for back and thighs,
three for chest and shoulders and two for biceps,
Mike Mentzer’s training system preserves recovery but is triceps and calves. He used basic exercises only, like
too limited to stimulate most muscle groups to their full barbell rows, bench and incline presses, deadlifts,
potential. squats and military presses. He did four sets per
exercise for six to 10 reps. During phase 2 he added
in between workouts to fully recover. The difference is that a shaping exercise to the mix; for example, concen-
Mentzer believed in working the muscles with very low tration curls for biceps, lunges for legs and cable
volume; that is, very few sets. crossovers for chest. Because of the added volume
I also believe in performing only a moderate number he divided his body into four parts:
of sets when training for size and strength, but I think you Day 1: Shoulders, biceps and abs
have to do a certain number of exercises in order to fully Day 2: Legs and calves
develop each muscle. The back, for example, needs at least Day 3: Rest
three or four exercises to develop all areas. You could never Day 4: Chest, triceps and abs
fully train the back or other large muscle groups with only Day 5: Back and calves
one or two exercises. Day 6: Rest
As for your diet, you were on the right track in the begin- He did five exercises each for back and thighs,
ning when you increased the amount of protein and carbs four for chest and shoulders and three for biceps
to add more muscle mass. Now you need to get more spe- and triceps. He still did four sets per movement and
cific about what you’re eating. I recommend that you count eight to 12 reps per set.
every calorie and every gram of food you take in every day What I’d like you to do is create routines that I can
so you can determine exactly how many calories and how follow that are consistent with Ray’s parameters.
much protein, carb and fat you need to gain muscle with- I know it’s a big job, but I also know that you’re the
out adding too much bodyfat. best source for natural bodybuilding information. I
I like cycling my carbohydrate intake to achieve that think that cycle training might take my physique to
goal. By eating more carbohydrates on training days and the next level and enable me to win.
then cutting back on the days when you don’t train, you’ll
be less likely to put on bodyfat. Most bodybuilders who are A: I like the idea of cycle training, and I think the way
trying to gain weight and get bigger eat a lot of calories and Shawn Ray designed his program is very good. He was
extra carbohydrates every day, but if you’re trying to add doing the same thing that Frank Zane and Arnold did when
muscle only without gaining fat, you should watch your they prepared for the Mr. Olympia each year, gradually
carbs on your rest days. building up the intensity in order to reach peak condition
By writing everything down each day, you’ll be more at the end of the year.
aware of what your body needs to gain muscle without Those champions were smart enough to know that you

76 MARCH 2008 \

Free download from
Squats 4 x 6-10
can’t train all out every week of the year without eventually
Leg curls 3 x 6-10
burning out. They would hold back on their training at the
Stiff-legged deadlifts 3 x 6-8
beginning of the year, gradually increasing the intensity
Total sets: 13
and volume of their workouts until they reached peak con-
dition at the end of their yearlong training cycle.
My recommendation to you as a natural bodybuilder By keeping the sets low and the focus on increasing your
would be to keep the sets slightly lower and the training strength by using more resistance each week, you’ll be in-
cycles shorter. That will enable you to use heavier weights creasing your muscle mass without overtraining. You’ll also
and increase your muscle mass without burning out. be able to train heavier each week and put everything into
Twelve weeks of training heavy and hard are pretty tough each workout because of the low volume and emphasis on
just the basic exercises.
If you did three eight-week cycles focusing on the
basic exercises done for low reps and low sets, you could
build substantial size and strength after 27 weeks of train-
ing—three eight-week cycles with one week of rest after the
conclusion of each cycle.
When your contest is 12 to 16 weeks away, you can do
what Shawn did: Start training your body over four days
instead of three and add another exercise to each train-
ing session to create more shape and separation in your
You could add leg extensions or lunges for your legs,
seated cable rows and one-arm dumbbell rows for your
back, flyes for your chest, upright rows for your delts and so
on. That would add a little more volume to each workout
and would increase the intensity. At this point in the year
you should be much stronger and bigger than you were at
the beginning of the first cycle.
Shawn gave each muscle group five days’ rest during
phase 1 of his training, but he increased that rest time to
six days for phase 2. I agree with that strategy, and I recom-
mend the same training split.
During your size cycles, you could train two days on/one
day off/one day on/one day off to give each muscle group
five days of rest. When the contest or the end of your peak-
ing season gets closer—12 to 16 weeks out—you could train
your body over four days using the two-days-on/one-day-
Shawn Ray. off/two-days-on/one-day-off cycle. Here’s an example of
how you could split it up:
Mass Cycle
Day 1: Chest, arms, calves
Day 2: Abs, legs
Day 3: Rest
Day 4: Delts, back, calves
Day 5: Rest
Repeat cycle
Peaking Cycle
Day 1: Chest, triceps, calves
on the body, and you might begin to regress if you try to go Day 2: Abs, legs
heavier each week for that many weeks. Day 3: Rest
I think you can keep the total sets for each bodypart be- Day 4: Delts, traps, calves
tween eight and 12 by focusing on the basic exercises. Even Day 5: Back, biceps, abs
the bigger muscle groups can be trained with the basic Day 6: Rest
movements for a moderate number of sets to increase the Repeat cycle
muscle mass and strength. Here’s an example of an off-sea-
son workout for back and legs: Editor’s note: John Hansen has won the Natural Mr.
Olympia and is a two-time Natural Mr. Universe winner.
Visit his Web site at You can
Wide-grip chins 3 x 6-10
write to him at P.O. Box 3003, Darien, IL 60561, or call toll-
Barbell rows 3 x 6-8
free (800) 900-UNIV (8648). His new book, Natural Body-
Deadlifts 3 x 6-8
building, and new training DVD, “Real Muscle,” are now
Total sets: 9
available from Home Gym Warehouse, www.Home-Gym.
Thighs com or (800) 447-0008. IM
Leg presses 3 x 8-12

78 MARCH 2008 \

Free download from

Shredded Muscle
by David Goodin

Getting the altogether for the final three weeks, even rubbing
Preparation H on my thighs. Nothing seems to work.
Please tell me what to do.

Ultradry Look A: The first thing that we have to get straight is the dif-
ference between bodyfat and water retention. It sounds to
me as if you’re not getting your bodyfat low enough. Some
people (like me) are lucky enough to have bodyfat distrib-
Q: I was looking at your photos from the ’07 Team uted very evenly over our entire bodies. Others might store
Universe. You were ripped to shreds from head to more bodyfat around the midsection (typical for men) or
toe. In fact, in all of the contest photos of you that on the thighs and hips (typical for women). Bear in mind
I’ve seen over the years, you’re always fully ripped. that when you retain fluid, you retain it all over your body,
I seem to hold water in my lower body, particu- not just in one bodypart. I bet I’ve heard a million times,
larly in the thighs and glutes. How do you get your “Oh, he’s holding water in his lower abs,” or “She’s just
legs to have that chiseled, ultradry look? I’ve tried holding some water in her glutes and hams.” That’s B.S.
everything: dehydration, dropping squats from When everything else is ripped and certain areas are still
my precontest leg workout, dropping leg training soft, that means there’s still a thin layer (or sometimes a
not-so-thin layer) of bodyfat in the soft area. It’s be-
cause that’s where your body has more fat cells, and
it’s the last place that all the fat is going to come off.
Acknowledging the difference between a thin
layer of bodyfat and water retention will make a
humongous difference in your bodybuilding suc-
cess. If you’re ripped to shreds most of the time and
end up softer for a day or so but the next day are
ripped again, that’s water retention. If you’re not
quite there—just a little soft (or a lot soft) every day,
even if it’s just one part of your body, that, my friend,
is a layer of bodyfat still hanging on. You must stay
strict on your diet and diligent with your cardio until
you’re ripped everywhere. Then you’re ready.
Whoever came up with the idea that dropping
squats will make your legs more defined should
have the sh#* slapped out of them. If your goal is to
lose muscle size in your lower body, by all means
drop the squats. Ditto for dropping leg training the
last three weeks. If you don’t use that
The idea that if you muscle, you’re gonna lose it. Defini-
stop squatting and/or tion is all about how thin you can get
stop training legs your skin—or, in other words, how
weeks before a show, low you can get your subcutaneous
your legs will be more bodyfat. True, you don’t want to do an
defined is absolutely all-out leg workout the last couple of
ludicrous! days before you compete (you don’t
want your legs to be tired and sore
when you go onstage), but if you don’t continue
to work your lower body hard, you’re going to lose
muscle. That will make your skin looser and make
you appear softer at a given bodyfat percentage
because your skin is no longer stretched tightly over
the muscle.
The idea that if you stop squatting and/or train-
ing legs weeks before a show, your legs will be more
defined is absolutely ludicrous. It won’t make your
skin any thinner; it will just make your lower body
less muscular and your skin less tight. Take a look
at my photos from the ’07 Team Universe. I trained
Roland Balik

legs hard on the Sunday before the show. Normally,

I’d have trained them on Monday, but the prejudg-

Free download from

If you dehydrate yourself, most of the water will come from
muscle cells and blood volume, leaving you flat and unable to get
a pump.
ing was on Friday evening. I also did whole-body workouts, retention. If you’re willing to work and diet hard enough
including legs, on the morning of the prejudging and the and smart enough to get your bodyfat to minimal levels all
morning of the finals. If squatting or training legs really over, your skin is going to be paper thin, and you’ll look as
made one’s legs softer, I would have been dead in the water. if you were chiseled in stone. If you allow a layer of bodyfat
Okay, that really got me fired up. Now for the dehydra- to remain, no harebrained last-minute scheme is going to
tion issue. If you’re taking anabolic steroids or exogenous make you shredded. My best advice is to be ready early. If
testosterone, you probably need to go ahead and order you do that, you’ll be ripped to shreds at showtime.
some prescription diuretics from your local drug steroid Train hard; stay natural.
dealer and dehydrate yourself to get that superhard, thin-
skin look. If you (like me) aren’t using any bodybuilding Editor’s note: See Dave Goodin’s new blog at
drugs, then dehydrating will leave you flatter and softer Click on the blog selection
with less vascularity. Muscle tissue is almost 75 percent in the top menu bar. To contact Dave directly, send e-mail
water, blood is about 83 percent water, adipose tissue is to IM
only about 25 percent water, and bone
is approximately 22 percent water.
If you dehydrate yourself, most of
the water will come from muscle cells “Schiek products are a CUT above the rest. Train with the best quality gear!”
and blood volume. Dehydration will Jay Cutler, Mr. Olympia
leave you flatter due to less muscle vol- k out at
Chec website om
ume, and your skin won’t be stretched new .schiek.c
as tightly, which will make you appear
smaller—because you’re softer. With
the loss of blood volume, you’ll have
a hard time getting a pump, and your
you get what you pay for!
vascularity will be less pronounced.
Along with looking less muscular and
less vascular, you’ll greatly increase
your chance of cramping up onstage.
I’ve been battling the dehydration
myth with natural bodybuilders for
years. To have the thinnest skin pos-
sible, you have to diet away all the
bodyfat. At the last minute you can take
measures to avoid retaining water on
contest day. That means avoiding high-
sodium foods and foods that you have
slight allergies to and taking a mild an-
tihistamine just in case you’re exposed
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hand and were actually drinking it on
the evening before the show. Most scientific research
suggests that weight belts can
Now for the last ridiculous notion— help prevent back injuries!
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difference between bodyfat and water \ MARCH 2008 85

Free download from
Steve Holman’s

Critical Mass
by Steve Holman

Reverse-Pyramid Q: In your heavy/light pro-

gram you call for reverse pyra-
mids on heavy day. They sound
like drop sets. Is there a rest

Primer between sets, and if so, how

long? You reduce the weight on
each successive set, so is a rest

A: Yes, a rest is necessary because

of the specific mass-building char-
acteristic you’re attacking with the
method. Reverse pyramids are a
way to achieve max force, so you
rest 2 1/2 to three minutes between
sets. You reduce the weight enough
to get the listed number of reps.
After two warmup sets the first
work set is only five reps, which
primes the nervous system for the
lighter sets to follow. With the heavy
weight you actually trick the ner-
vous system into firing more fibers
on the lighter set.
After the rest you take a reduced
poundage and get seven to eight
reps. Rest, reduce the weight again
one last time, and then crank out
a third work set of nine reps with X
Technically, the seven-rep set
may not be necessary; you could go
from a five-rep set to a nine-rep set.
Because most trainees don’t warm
up enough or don’t focus enough
on their warmup sets, however,
the seven-rep set is a good way to
ensure max force on the final set of
nine. If you’re recovery challenged,
you may want to try the heavy/light
program with only two work sets on
your midrange exercise.
[Note: The heavy/light program
is discussed and outlined in the e-
book X-traordinary Muscle-Building
Workouts, available at]

Q: First I’d like to say, I love

your training articles and e-
books. One problem I have
is that most of your training
is designed for hardgainers,
which I am not. I weigh 380
pounds and stand 6’10”. I’m at
about 37 percent bodyfat, so
I carry about 137 pounds of
fat. The good news is that my
lean body mass is around 250
pounds. My question is, Should

88 MARCH 2008 \

Free download from
I concentrate on losing fat and then build back the weights and higher
muscle later? I’m a true ironhead and can’t imagine reps. Remember, the
not lifting—I love it too much. What would be the goal is longer tension
best course of action? time and max occlu-
sion so blood rushes
A: Thanks for the compliments regarding my articles and into your quads at
e-books. I’ve worked with people in your situation, and the the end of the set.
first thing I tell them is that they shouldn’t neglect building That finishes off the
muscle—continue to work out to add solid lean mass—but muscles with a nutri-
don’t concentrate on only low-rep sets. I’m guessing you’re ent-packed blood
very strong, so your inclination is probably to do more bath, kick-starting
power-oriented workouts. That’s okay on a few sets, but anabolism. Of course,
higher reps and/or drop sets and supersets are important squats are the best Fat folks should build muscle for a
because you need to go for muscle burn at every workout. mass builder because metabolic kick, but they should also
The burn triggers growth hormone release, and GH is a you can generate go for the burn to churn out extra GH.
very potent fat burner. So is testosterone, which lower-rep max force. But for the
sets will help with. unique muscle-building characteristics of tension and oc-
Whatever workout program you choose, make sure you clusion, leg extensions get the job done better.
get rep-range variance and muscle burn at every session. All of the above goes for the pec deck as well. Just don’t
For example, you could do your big, midrange exercise, like overstretch. Stretch is important, but machines restrict
bench presses, for low to medium reps like seven to nine freedom of movement, so stay in a comfortable range on
and your more isolated work (contracted-position exercises every rep. Cable crossovers or cable flyes can provide the
like pec deck flyes or crossovers) with higher reps, like 12 stretch-overload benefits for the pecs, but the freedom of
to 15, or drop sets. A drop set is two sets done back to back movement they allow can limit that effect—it’s easy for you
with descending weights. For example, do a set at which to lose tension in the target muscle.
you reach exhaustion at about 10 reps, reduce the weight The Smith machine is probably the most dangerous
and immediately do another set to exhaustion, reaching it of the three because of the way trainees use it. If you do
at around six to eight reps. Yes, it does burn—but as I said, Smith-machine squats as your first exercise on a power-ori-
you want that. ented routine, you’ll tend to bounce out of the bottom. Bad
As for cardio, your blood is clear of glucose after you idea. On the other hand, if you do Smith-machine squats
train with weights, so that’s the best time to tap into fat with your feet forward as a transition exercise between
stores with low-intensity work on a treadmill. Do a me- quads and hamstrings, your quads will be fatigued, and
dium-pace walk for 30 minutes after each of your weight your poundage will be lighter. You’ll also have to control
workouts. Also try to do some walking or other cardio-ori- your reps to feel your hamstrings working.
ented activity on your off days. The more calories you burn The bottom
outside the gym, the better. line is that, yes,
it’s safer to train
Q: I just read in [one of those general men’s maga- for functional
zines] that most weight machines are dangerous. In strength with
fact, it listed the top 10 machine exercises to avoid, little regard for
including leg extensions, pec decks and Smith-ma- muscle size. If
chine squats. Many of your programs include those your goal is im-
movements, so I’m wondering what your response pressive hyper-
is. Did you see the article? trophy, however,
you’ll have to go
A: Yes, I saw it, and believe it or not, I agree with it—if out on a limb
what you’re after is some functional strength with minimal and use some
Neveux \ Model: Mark Perry

risk of injury and no interest in impressive muscle size. The exercises that
workout in that article featured a lot of bodyweight exer- can be danger-
cises for conditioning. That’s great if you’re an older guy ous. Just make
trying to maintain your 14-inch arms. Unfortunately, if you them as safe as
want maximum muscle size, workouts like that won’t do you can. Keep in
it. You have to attack every muscle with the three facets of mind that any
growth—max force, stretch overload and continuous ten- weight-bearing The Smith machine: joint jacker or
sion—and some machine exercises can help you accom- exercise is dan- muscle maker?
plish that efficiently. gerous—even a
For example, to get the most effective continuous-ten- so-called ergonomically correct bodyweight exercise like
sion effect in your quads, leg extensions are best. Yes, you pushups. You just have to use your head and minimize the
could use nonlock squats, but that can be awkward, and risks. Controlling every rep is a good place to start.
it’s very easy to lose tension on your quads. Not so with leg
extensions. Once you start repping, the tension builds with Editor’s note: Steve Holman is the author of many
no way to derail it—unless you rest at the bottom, which
Neveux \ Model: Robert Hatch

bodybuilding best-sellers and the creator of Positions-

you shouldn’t. And don’t let your knees bend past 90 de- of-Flexion muscle training. For information on the POF
grees. That can overstress the joint. Blocking blood flow, or videos and Size Surge programs, see the ad sections
occlusion, has been shown to boost size and strength sig- beginning on page 116 and 296 respectively. Also visit
nificantly, and leg extensions do it best for quads. for information on X-Rep and 3D
Is the machine dangerous? It can be, but that’s why I POF methods and e-books. IM
suggest you do it last in your quad routine and use lighter \ MARCH 2008 89

Free download from
A Bodybuilder

Is Born
Episode 32
Bigger Isn’t Better;
Better Is Better
then art class. Thursday? Ooh, boy,
by Ron Harris I’m totally booked: play practice,
Photography by Michael Neveux tae kwon do—don’t even mention
Friday because that’s gymnastics

ur schedules had not from four to seven. We’re looking at
been meshing well lately. middle of next week at the earliest.
Randy’s being a car I’ll have to get back to you on that.”
salesman and my being a I even had to make an appointment
parent meant that we had very little with my 10-year-old daughter’s
free time. When I was a kid, keeping assistant to tuck her into bed one
myself amused was my responsibil- night.
ity. Anything requiring money or my Yes, we have to keep our kids very
being driven anywhere was out of busy because we can’t possibly let
the question. As far as my mom and them play outside. When I was a
dad were concerned, I had food in kid, we would be gone for hours,
my belly and a roof over my head; riding our bikes over into the next
their job was done. I recall want- ZIP code, but now we fear that if we
ing desperately to enroll in a local lose sight of Junior for two minutes,
karate school, but my parents were he’ll wind up on the side of a milk
too cheap to pay the $10 a month. carton. When I was a kid, milk car-
Oh, how times have changed! We tons were just for drinking milk out
think nothing today of paying for of. We hadn’t yet been brainwashed
all manner of classes, lessons and by scary TV news into thinking there
sports activities after school and on was a serial killer lurking behind
weekends. Kids today are so busy, every telephone pole.
they actually need Palm Pilots and Randy and I barely met to train
little daily planners to keep all their together anymore, as he worked
commitments straight. You can see out at six in the morning, an hour
them earnestly coordinating meet- before I rolled out of bed to serve a
ings on their cell phones while they sugar-packed breakfast to the kids.
try to trade Yu-gi-Oh cards. Trouble was, the New England was
“Tuesday? No good, I have CCD,

92 MARCH 2008 \

Free download from
Model: Gregg Plitt \ MARCH 2008 93

Free download from
A Bodybuilder Is Born

Bodybuilding is
body sculpting.
Train to get your
weak bodyparts
in line with your
stronger ones.
Darrem Charles,
’07 Olympia

Model: Greg Smyers

Dexter Jackson,
’07 Olympia

coming up in 10 weeks, and he still him.

needed a lot of work on his posing. “Yeah, and look—you’re already
Hitting shots between sets was showing a good six-pack, some
one thing. Nailing your quarter serratus and very respectable sepa-
turns and finding exactly the right ration overall for 10 weeks to go,” I
way to position yourself in the pointed out. “Right on schedule to
mandatory poses to highlight your be in killer shape.”
strengths and steer attention away “What am I going to be onstage,
from your flaws was quite another. 185?” he cried desperately.
So at least once a week, usually “Maybe. So what?”
around nine o’clock, we met for Randy stopped posing to grab
posing practice. As so often hap- a quick drink and wipe his sweaty
pens with first-time competitors, brow with a black gym towel that
Randy was seriously considering probably hadn’t been washed in
bailing out of the show. Wouldn’t quite some time. The dried white
you know it, it was once again salt stains from his sweat reminded
a matter of feeling too small. me a little of the Shroud of Turin. I
Women ask whether they look fat. squinted but couldn’t make out the
Bodybuilders have the opposite face of Jesus.
concern. We’re forever worried “So that’s too small. I knew I
that we’re shrinking. Eventually, I should have waited until I was big-
imagine, we’d be battling ants over ger to do a show.”
crumbs and using matchsticks to “How big do you have to be, then,
build a little log cabin to live in. huh? 220? 260? 300 pounds ripped?
“I’m already down to 199. What Bigger is always better. Is that what
the hell?” he wailed when we finally you think?”
got together. He was looking for Randy shrugged. “Look at Ronnie
sympathy. He should have known Coleman. He’s almost 300 pounds
better. If he wanted nurturing, he ripped, and he’s the best in the

should have gotten Oprah to coach world.”

94 MARCH 2008 \

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A Bodybuilder Is Born
“Best in the world according to a men who outweighed him by 40 to ing and in general looking pain-
few guys in blue blazers that judge 50 pounds—Lee Haney and Dorian fully constipated, you smiled with
the Mr. Olympia every year, sure. Yates—in very controversial close smooth confidence. We were at that
But if you asked a lot of fans which calls each time. Even though he was point in the practice session.
body they preferred, 300-pound often pressured to put on more size, “Quarter turn to the right,” I
Ronnie or smaller, more sculpted he always remained true to the ide- called out, and Randy obeyed.
guys like Dexter Jackson, Darrem als he had for physical perfection. “Legs,” I reminded him, as he had
Charles or Ahmad Haidar, you’d be Shawn’s belief was that bigger wasn’t the very common novice habit of
surprised how many people don’t better. Better was better.” tensing his upper body but letting
find the mass monster ‘freakazoid’ We ended every session with his legs relax.
look attractive. one-minute holds of each of the “So what, Ron, are you telling me
“Shawn Ray put it best in a recent quarter turns and the seven man- not to train for size?”
conversation I had with him, the datory poses. It was grueling, and I was impressed that he could
first time we’d talked since the early Randy was usually shaking like a even talk at this time, since he had
’90s, as a matter of fact. He took a leaf and gritting his teeth with effort to be exhausted. “Of course not.
lot of flak for not putting on much to maintain the poses. Neverthe- You definitely need to train for size,
size in the 13 years he competed less, it was an effective technique but not just for the sake of sheer
as a pro, only about 10 pounds. my friend Rob Fleischman had put size. You want to have an aesthetic
I ought to know. I was one of his me through for a recent show. Once physique: a small waist, a nice taper,
critics. But in those 13 years he was you had gone through it a few times, good overall shape and proportion.
top five in the Mr. Olympia contest you could stand onstage and make I know right now you want to be a
12 times in a row and was runner- it all look effortless. While everyone pro bodybuilder, but you might very
up on three different occasions to around you was grunting, grimac- well change your mind soon. Things

Shawn Ray, ’90 IRON MAN Bob Paris, ’89, Neveux


96 MARCH 2008 \

Free download from
A Bodybuilder Is Born
Men like Steve
Reeves, Arnold,
Serge Nubret,
Frank Zane,
Lee Labrada
and Bob Paris
had physiques
that even the
average person
could appreciate
and admire. The
guys now are
just too big.
“Hey! Stay in the front double-bi-
ceps. We’re going to hold the poses
for two minutes from now on so you
can really make it look effortless.”
“You’re such an a-hole,” he sput-
tered, shaking and probably about to
cramp up.
Model: Gregg Plitt

“Three minutes each pose!” I

shouted. I know Luke Skywalker
wasn’t such a wise-ass with Yoda.
“And if you mouth off like that
again”—I reached into my bag, then
have really changed. Men like Steve “You’re still not getting it. I’ve told started snapping pics with my digital
Reeves, Arnold, Serge Nubret, Frank you many times that your shape camera—“I will post these on the
Zane, Lee Labrada and Bob Paris and overall proportion are very Web as a thread called ‘My boy Randy
had physiques that even the average good. I’d give my left nut for a waist is gonna kick all your sorry asses at
person could appreciate and ad- and hips as small as yours. My hips the New England.’ Okay, front lat
mire. The guys now are just too big. look more suited to childbirth than spread.”
They don’t even look real anymore, bodybuilding. You might stand next The cramp hit just as he was going
and the size-for-the-sake-of-size to some guy who’s technically big- into the pose. It was his calf, oddly
mentality has resulted in big guts, ger and thicker because he weighs enough. “You wouldn’t dare,” he
giant butts and bodies that some- the same as you do and is shorter, whimpered.
times look more like big mutated but he might have a big old belly, a I smiled my impish smile. “You
lumps of meat than a thing of beau- wide waist, clunky joints and so on. know I would. I’d find it quite hilari-
ty. People wonder why bodybuild- If it was only about size, we could ous, actually.”
ing is a small cult sport compared diet down a lot of powerlifters and “What kind of coach are you?” he
to football and baseball. They don’t World’s Strongest Man competi- demanded accusingly.
realize it’s turned into a freak show. tors and have them winning all the “You’ll thank me someday,” I as-
Front double-biceps.” bodybuilding shows. But bigger sured him. “Here’s hoping with a nice
“The thing is, he said, going into does not mean better.” new car or something. Either that
the pose, “I know I’m going to look Randy stared at me. “Hello?” or you’ll come looking for me with
small compared to the other light “What?” I responded casually. a shotgun. I’ll probably be retired in
heavies at the show. It’s embarrass- “Next pose?” and he started going Miami Beach by then anyway under
ing, that’s all.” into a front lat spread. an assumed name, so good luck.” IM

98 MARCH 2008 \

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102 MARCH 2008 \
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Why Beta-Alanine Is Taking the

Bodybuilding World by Storm

by Mike Lackner
done more? that have been broken down
The intense burning sensa- during intense training. They

ou’re sweating pro- tion is what you strive for during also perform many other func-
fusely. Rep number your sets. It lets you know that tions. In the case of L-carnosine,
six was tough, and you’re working as hard as you one of those functions is to help
now number seven should; however, the acids that you keep going when the burn
is fighting you every inch of create that feeling cause the is about to set in. L-carnosine
the way. The fire in your heart muscles to tire and energy levels is a dipeptide, meaning that it’s
can hardly overcome the burn to rapidly decline, forcing you to made up of two amino acids,
in your muscle. The biggest end a set before you intend. The beta-alanine and histidine. The
competition of your career is key to prolonging the set is to beta-alanine plays the major
Neveux \ Model: Derek Farnsworth

approaching, and succumbing increase the training threshold. role in forming L-carnosine, and
to fatigue and pain is not an If the buildup of acids within the amount of L-carnosine your
option. Repetition number eight the muscle could be buffered, body can produce is limited by
defeats you—the barbell stops energy levels could be maxi- the amount of available beta-
at the halfway point, and the in- mized, and you could compel alanine.
tense burn and exhaustion force the muscles to complete those Just in case you’re planning
you to quit. Against your will extra couple of growth reps on to make an appearance on the
you had to get help from your each set and push your gains to game show “Jeopardy,” you
spotter. If only you could have the next level. More muscle in may be curious as to why many
pushed it a little bit further. You less time. You need something amino acids have an L in their
give the motionless barbell a de- to buffer lactic acid. That some- name. The L amino acids are in
fiant stare and think about your thing is beta-alanine. the family of alpha amino acids,
perfect nutrition program and which have all of their amino
the fact that your energy levels To “L” and Back and carboxyl groups attached to
are the best they’ve ever been. the same carbon atom, forming
So why is the muscle fatiguing As many of you already know, their molecules in an L shape. In
when you know you could have amino acids help repair muscles a beta amino acid the defining \ MARCH 2008 103

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104 MARCH 2008 \
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atom group is attached to the car- In order to force your body to in the muscle continues to drop,
bon atom next to the one to which add muscle, you must move large and the muscle becomes more and
the carboxyl group is attached. amounts of weight and perform ex- more fatigued.
Although beta-alanine is found in plosive movements. Ballistic train- You can’t avoid that process when
many proteins, the body doesn’t use ing and recruitment of type 2 fibers training intensely, but you can mini-
it to form structural proteins. The are therefore mandatory. If you can’t mize it. Luckily for us muscleheads,
only naturally occurring beta amino maintain the intense workout for the lab coats have found a way to
acid, beta-alanine is broken down very long, you won’t be able add deter excessive buildup of acid in
into acetic acid (vinegar) during the mind-blowing amounts of muscle the muscles during extreme work-
metabolic process and acts as a buf- mass in the shortest amount of outs. Research shows that L-carno-
fer in the muscle to combat fatigue. time possible. The key is to be able sine takes up the H+ ions that cause
The body’s capacity to construct to keep those type 2 muscle fibers pH to decrease and lead to fatigue.
beta-alanine is limited to some firing as many times as possible Supplementing with beta-alanine
degree, so if you don’t eat enough of without stopping. or L-carnosine and increasing their
the right foods to get your required Type 2 muscle fibers are anaero- presence in blood causes more H+
quantity, you’ll need to supplement bic, so they must generate energy in ions to be absorbed, and thus pH
with it. The fact that IRON MAN a hurry without the luxury of using balances will remain higher as well
readers are hardcore lifters means oxygen. When energy is used for ATP as muscle energy levels. L-carno-
that they train with optimal inten- synthesis in that manner, positively sine studies have shown that it only
sity and need much more beta-ala- charged hydrogen ions (H+) are benefits power-type activities. Rais-
nine than the average individual. created as part of the energy release ing blood levels of L-carnosine by
Supplementation is a necessity. from glycolysis. The muscles’ pH supplementation with beta-alanine
balance is disturbed as acid by- will help you get a couple more reps
Fibers and Fatigue products saturate it. As the muscle during an explosive movement, but
is continually forced to increase its it won’t help you when you’re doing
L-carnosine (beta-alanyly-L-histi- intensity and work, more and more aerobic exercise.
dine) isn’t exactly a recent discovery. H+ ions are formed, the pH balance
It’s been known to the scientific
community since 1900, but not
until 1995 did the public become
aware of L-carnosine’s ability to
affect exercise performance. L-car-
nosine actually breaks down into
beta-alanine and histidine and gets
absorbed by the muscle. Then the
two substances combine and re-
form into L-carnosine—nothing like
taking the long route. Even though it
may appear to be inefficient, L-car-
nosine enables you to achieve new
strength and power by keeping you
from succumbing to fatigue.
The muscles consist of different
types of fibers that serve diverse
purposes. Slow-twitch, or type 1,
In order to
fibers can contract for an extended
number of cycles while creating
force your
modest force, and fast-twitch, or body to add
type 2, fibers can contract rap-
idly and powerfully but fatigue muscle,
Neveux \ Models: Justin Schlak and Christian Boeving (top)

very quickly. L-carnosine is most

abundant in type 2b fibers, which
you must
contain double the amount found
in type 1 fibers, The 2bs contract
move large
with the greatest speed of all the amounts of
type 2 fibers and make for the most
explosive muscle movements. As a
weight and
matter of fact, a muscle can’t con-
tract optimally unless it enlists type
2 fibers. The problem is, while speed explosive
and power are fine and dandy, type
2 fibers tire too soon. movements.
Free download from
Saturation Studies
The majority of studies on L-
carnosine have been done with
Optimal times
animals. One of the studies that
did use human subjects included
to take two
sprinters, 800-meter runners, of the doses
rowers and marathon runners.
Muscle biopsies revealed that the
would be
sprinters and rowers had much
more L-carnosine in their bod-
directly before
ies, which illustrates that power- and after a
based exercises have an effect on
the amount of L-carnosine used workout, since
by muscle. The 800-meter and
marathon runners did not display
you’ll also
any statistically significant eleva-
tion in L-carnosine compared
take higher-
to subjects who did not train at glycemic
all. The study demonstrates that
the different stresses of power-
type muscle actions influence
the amount of L-carnosine in the
at the same
muscle. Further, it shows that time.
muscle does use L-carnosine
to buffer fatigue-causing activi-
ties. Another study showed that
muscle L-carnosine was highly cor-
related to peak power output during
sprint cycling.
Researchers who fed subjects a
combination of beta-alanine (10
milligrams per kilogram of body-
weight) and histidine (12.5 milli-
grams per kilogram of bodyweight)
for 30 days observed an increase of
13 percent in participants’ muscle
L-carnosine. Some studies, however,
have shown that supplementing
with larger amounts of beta-alanine
and histidine increases muscle L-
carnosine by as much as 60 percent.
In one experiment researchers gave
rats a diet that contained just under
2 percent L-carnosine and saw an
increase of up to 500 percent in
the rats’ muscle L-carnosine. That
tells us that L-carnosine can be
increased by supplementation. In
most studies that used beta-alanine
only, subjects took three or four
doses of 400 or 800 milligrams in
an eight-hour period for 10 weeks,
after which the average increase in
intramuscular L-carnosine was 80
Neveux \ Model: Derik Farnsworth


How Much?
Having been around gyms for a
long time, I can already see the light-
bulbs flash- (continued on page 110)

106 MARCH 2008 \

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Neveux \ Model: Alex Azarian \ MARCH 2008 107

Free download from
(continued from page 106) ing.
Don’t fall into the more-is-better
trap. It’s always important to
be responsible when supple-
menting. There hasn’t been
a great deal of research done
on L-carnosine, especially in
human subjects who were given
large doses for long periods. In
one study, parathesis, which is
a tingling feeling of pins and
needles, was reported by those
using a dose of 50 milligrams
per kilogram of bodyweight of
L-carnosine—much as an oral
dose of niacin affects many
people. Another study found no
significant difference in muscle
L-carnosine levels when sub-
jects got doses of 3.2 grams per
day compared to doses of 6.4
grams per day. Definitely con-
sult your physician before sup-
plementing with L-carnosine or
We’ve seen that when L-
carnosine is taken in, it breaks
down into beta-alanine and
histidine and that the amount
of L-carnosine your body can
manufacture is dependent on
beta-alanine. L-carnosine as a
complete compound is more
expensive than its elements
beta-alanine and histidine in
their pure (continued on page 114)

Neveux \ Model: Todd Smith

110 MARCH 2008 \

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(continued from page 110) form.
In the event that your budget
is very limited and you must
choose between the two, it
would be better to supplement
with beta-alanine alone than
histidine alone. That’s because
histidine is used in many protein
synthesis reactions, and supple-
menting with it would only
cause more amino acid competi-
tion. Beta-alanine, on the other
hand, isn’t used in protein syn-
thesis, and all of it would go to
developing L-carnosine.
When supplementing with
beta-alanine, there’s no spiking
effect. Beta-alanine’s influence
on muscle carnosine appears
to be time dependent. It should
be taken in three to four small
doses each day. Optimal times
to take two of the doses
would be directly before and
after a workout, since you’ll
also take in higher-glyce-
mic carbohydrates at the
same time. The simpler
carbohydrate will cause
insulin levels to spike
slightly, and insulin
drives amino acids
into the muscle. With
more beta-alanine
driven into muscle,
your body can use it
to produce greater
amounts of L-car-
Why should
you supplement
with beta-alanine?
Well, maybe you
you want the benefit
of being able to per-
form more reps, recover more
quickly between reps and re-
cover better from training. Don’t
allow yourself to be defeated by
the soreness and fatigue that
come from acid buildup in the
muscle. Supplement with beta-
alanine to extinguish the burn-
ing inside the muscle. Those
Neveux \ Model: Christian Boeving

extra couple of repetitions on

each set will add up to a lot more
muscle over time. IM

114 MARCH 2008 \

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118 MARCH 2008 \

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Keys to Building
Electrifying Delts
by Layne Norton
Photography by Michael Neveux

any bodybuilders
have great phy-
siques. A lot of them
are huge, how-
ever—so huge, people often say,
“They don’t need to get any big-
ger.” Even so, the deltoids are one
muscle group that everyone could
use a little more of.
A wide shoulder structure is the
first thing that identifies you as a
bodybuilder. Having big shoulders
makes your waist look smaller, makes
your lats look bigger and makes your
upper body as a whole look better.
Unfortunately, the deltoids can
be quite stubborn. A few genetically
blessed people have wide shoulders
with naturally round deltoids, but
the majority of us have to bust our
asses to get bigger shoulders. When
I first got serious about bodybuild-
ing, I already had a good base. I had a
big chest and big arms; however, my
body looked much like a ruler. I had
no delts; that is, they didn’t stand out
at all from my arms.
I knew that if I wanted to have
any hope of making it in the sport, I
would have to drastically widen my
shoulders. I tried many different rou-
tines and half-assed my way around
the gym doing it. In the end it took
me doing quite a bit of research and
experimentation to find a program
that worked. \ MARCH 2008 119

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Dissecting the Delts
Let’s get down to the nitty-gritty
science behind the shoulders. The
deltoid complex is unique, as it can
move in almost any direction. As a
result, many different exercises can
be used to stimulate the muscle
fibers in many ways. The deltoid is
composed of three heads: the ante-

Neveux \ Model: John Cowgill

rior, or front, delt; the posterior, or

The deltoid complex is unique, as it can move in

almost any direction. As a result, many different
exercises can be used to stimulate the muscle fibers
in many ways, and to maximize growth you must
work each of the three heads: anterior, or front;
medial, or middle; and posterior, or rear.

firm believer barbells. When you use a barbell,

in isolating your hands are locked into one
each delt head position, which hinders your range
with a specific of motion. Not only does it place
exercise in more stress on your joints, but, in
order to maxi- my opinion, it also takes away fiber
mize growth; stimulation because of the limited
however, it’s range. Don’t take my word for it,
also key to though. Try doing a shoulder work-
include a good out with barbell presses and one
compound with dumbbell presses. I guarantee
movement for that you’ll feel a difference in fiber
building over- stimulation.
rear, delt; and the medial, or middle, all size and strength. Here are the two shoulder rou-
delt. To stimulate muscle fiber In terms of compound move- tines I use. Note that I do warmup
and maximize growth, you must ments for the shoulders, I believe sets for all exercises and that I do all
do exercises for each head. I am a that dumbbells are far superior to the work sets listed to failure.

120 MARCH 2008 \

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Workout 1 believe that the number of muscle
fibers you can stimulate is directly
Seated dumbbell proportional to how far you can
presses 2 x 6-12 stretch and how well you can con-
Arnold presses 2 x 6-12 tract a muscle. (Why do you think
Dumbbell bent-over calves and forearms are problem
lateral raises 2 x 6-12 bodyparts for so many people? They
Braced one-arm have limited ranges of motion.)
lateral raises 2 x 6-12 For example, on seated dumbbell
presses you should lower the dumb-
Workout 2 bells until they touch the tops of
(Preexhaustion) your shoulders and then press them
overhead, moving up and together
Cable lateral until they touch at the top, and on
raises 2 x 6-12 lateral raises you should raise the
Seated dumbbell dumbbells as high as the top of your
presses 2 x 6-12 head and slowly lower them back
Upright rows 2 x 6-12 down to the sides of your thighs.
Cable bent-over
lateral raises 2 x 6-12
Repetition Cadence
I alternate these work-
outs every four weeks and Each repetition should be done in
work all exercises through controlled fashion. The most I ever
a full range of motion. I use on lateral raises is 30-pound
dumbbells, but I see people who
weigh 50 pounds less than I do using
45-pounders on the same exercise.
How do they do it? They swing the
weight. If I used momentum and
swung the weight, I could do lateral
raises with 55 to 65 pounds in each
hand. So why don’t I do it? I want to
get big, and I’m not going to let my
ego get in the way of that.
If you’re using momentum and
swinging the weight, you aren’t stim-
ulating jack. And if you don’t stimu-
late many muscle fibers, you won’t
grow. When I do lateral raises, I
slowly lower the weights—usu-
ally I resist as hard as I can—
and it can take six full seconds
to lower the weights.
To raise the weights, I use
my shoulders, not momen-
tum. I quickly lift the weights
through the positive part of the
rep, but I do it with control. All ex-
ercises should be done in that slow,
controlled fashion. On most of my
exercises the positive portion of the
repetition takes about two seconds
while the negative portion takes
six to eight seconds. True, I use less
weight than many people in the
Developing the rear- gym, but I’m also bigger than most
of those guys. So take heart and use
delt head will create
lighter weights.
more fullness in the
muscle and create a
wider-shoulder look.

122 MARCH 2008 \

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No Cheating! using momentum, as they virtually are a smaller and weaker bodypart
eliminate all cheating. Here’s how to than the shoulders, so they fre-
It’s very easy to cheat on shoul- do them. quently fatigue before the shoulders
der exercises and use other parts Take a dumbbell in one hand, on presses.
of the body to assist in lifting the and, using the other arm to stabi- Undoubtedly, if you feel your
weights. If you’re serious about lize yourself on a bar or a seat, lean shoulders can still do more, you’re
muscle growth, you’ll avoid that. As away from whatever you’re holding missing out on some fiber stimula-
I said, many people cheat on lateral onto. Now simply lift the dumbbell tion. To remedy that, you preex-
raises by moving their entire upper in a lateral raise. Note that you won’t haust them. Do a couple of sets of
body to get the weight up (it’s actu- be able to use the rest of your body an isolation exercise to failure, and
ally quite comical to watch). Braced to help you lift the weight. your shoulders will be “prefatigued”
laterals will help keep you from and stimulated before you bring in
Preexhaustion the triceps, ensuring that the muscle
fibers will get more stimulation.
In workout 2 you’ll
also note that I do Shoulder Do’s and Don’ts
cable raises before
dumbbell presses. If Do:.
you’re wondering why • Use heavy weights that you can
in the hell I would put control.
an isolation exercise
before a compound • Work through a full range of
exercise, the answer motion.
is, to better stimulate • Use isolation exercises in con-
muscle fibers—with junction with compound move-
preexhaustion. ments.
Have you ever done
shoulder presses and • Work in a slow and controlled
felt as if you could do
more reps but you Don’t:.
failed to get them • Cheat when lifting the weight.
because your triceps
gave out and you • Lift the weight quickly and in an
couldn’t lock out the uncontrolled manner.
weight? That happens • Use more weight than you can
quite frequently; it is handle in a controlled manner.
Braced one-arm laterals enable normal. The triceps
you to attack the important • Use more weight just to be a
medial-delt head without
cheating. • Use any other part
of your body to lift the

Editor’s note:
Layne Norton has a B.S.

Layne Norton.
Neveux \ Model: Derik Farnsworth

in biochemistry and is a Ph.D. can-

didate in nutritional science. He’s a
professional drug-free competitive
bodybuilder in the IFPA and NGA.
His Web site is
For more of his articles visit IM

124 MARCH 2008 \

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Model: Toney Freeman \ Photo Illustration by Brett Miller

130 MARCH 2008 \

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The Science of
Muscle Size
Applying Hypertrophic Research to Make
Record-Breaking Gains
by Steve Holman Photography by Michael Neveux

uscle growth—and we’re talking giant leaps
in size—should be a lot easier for most
bodybuilders to achieve. After all, hyper-
speed hypertrophy happens in the lab with
specific scientific applications. For example, there’s
the animal study that triggered a 300 percent increase
in muscle mass in only a month with a specific type of
overload (more on that coming up). Did you get that? A
triple-size muscle rise in 30 days! (Imagine your biceps
and triceps doubling or tripling in size in one month.
Holy crap!) Then there are the Japanese scientists who
got an 800 percent increase in size over standard-train-
ing results using a specific method (more on that com-
ing up too).
Are you getting excited? You should be if you’re into
packing on more muscle as quickly as possible because
these types of phenomenal muscle gains provide clues
you can use to get huge! \ MARCH 2008 131
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Muscle Size Simplified
Mysteries of Muscle
Growth Solved three points of attack
for each muscle, and
The mysteries of muscle growth each of those points,
seem to perplex every generation of or positions, produces
bodybuilders—so much so, in fact, specific—and often
that most quit out of frustration, dramatic—anabolic
overtrain into oblivion—as in zero and hypertrophic stim-
gains—or resort to dangerous drugs uli, as dictated by scien-
just to maintain a halfway decent tific research. (Regular
amount of size. It doesn’t have to be IRON MAN readers will
that way, at least for most trainees recognize this as Posi-
who have average, or even slightly tions of Flexion, or POF,
below-average, genetics. It’s not but as you’ll see, new
that difficult to pack on some major research has evolved
mass—if you know precisely what that system into a more
to do in the gym to mimic what effective mass-building
scientists have done in the lab to method.)
create an extreme anabolic environ- With POF you use
ment. It all comes down to three up to three exercises
things: exercise selection, intensity for each bodypart,
and recovery. Let’s focus on exercise chosen for their unique
choice first so that you can go to the mass-building effects:
gym and pull the get-bigger trigger midrange moves for
at every workout. That’s where ana- maximum force, stretch
bolic acceleration starts. moves for stretch over-
load and contracted
Model: Toney Freeman

3D Muscle Morphing moves for continuous

tension and occlusion.
No, you don’t need special (See the “Hypertrophy
glasses. It’s “3D” because there are Hierarchy” on page 134

Model: Toney Freeman

132 MARCH 2008 \

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Muscle Size Simplified
resistance to a point on the stroke
Hypertrophy Hierarchy where the target muscle is semi-
stretched, such as near the bottom
Midrange Exercise = Max Force of an incline press, and power out
eight-inch partials to enhance force
Stretch Exercise = Stretch Overload generation and activate more fast-
twitch growth fibers. This technique
Contracted Exercise = Continuous Tension and Occlusion circumvents nervous system failure
so you continue to fire high-thresh-
Stretch old motor units.
Stretch. In the introduction I
mentioned the animal study that
got a 300 percent increase in muscle
mass in only one month. The
only form of muscular stress that
was used in that experiment was
progressive-stretch overload. The
scientists gradually increased the re-
sistance on a bird’s wing in a stretch
position over the course of a month
Midrange Contracted of “workouts.” The scientists believe
that extreme muscle growth oc-

for a more visual representation.)

Midrange. These exercises are,
in most cases, the compound moves
that engage a number of muscle
groups at once—the big, multijoint
exercises. The muscle teamwork
that occurs on compound move-
ments means that you can over-
load the target muscle with heavy
poundages (think squats or dead-
lifts). They not only overload the
target but also help jack up anabolic
hormones like testosterone when
you go heavy and push to exhaus-
So the keys to the anabolic ability
of these mass boosters are muscle
teamwork and max overload,
which enable you to optimize force
production because of the heavy
poundages you can use. Generat-
ing max force elicits the anabolic
cascade that builds the fast-twitch
muscle fibers—the fibers with the
most potential for growth. If you
don’t generate enough force and
don’t strive to increase it, you don’t
trigger a size increase in those
fibers. It’s that simple; however,
extreme size is much more—a lot
more—than just developing fast-
twitch fibers, as you’ll see.
Examples of midrange exercises
include close-grip bench presses
(triceps), chins (lats) and squats
Supercharger: X Reps. When
you reach exhaustion on a set, at
about rep eight or nine, lower the

134 MARCH 2008 \

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exercises, like sissy
squats for quads
and pullovers for
lats, have unique
including anabolic
hormone release
in the target

Model: Omar Deckard

Model: Steve Kummer

Arnold Schwarzenegger and

Tom Platz (far right) used
stretch-overload techniques
to get extraordinary anabolic
adaptation. For example,
Arnold’s bottom-range dumbbell
flyes for pecs.

cured due to hyperplasia, or

fiber splitting: “Using this ap-
proach produced the greatest
gains in muscle mass ever re-
corded in an animal or human
model of tension-induced
overload, up to 334 percent
increase in muscle mass with
up to a 90 percent increase in
fiber number!” (Antonio and
Gonyea. Med Sci Sprts Exerc.
25:1333-45; 1993). been linked to anabolic
In other words, the researchers hormone release inside
are saying that a lot of the triple- muscle tissue. Obvious-
size muscle gain was due to fibers ly, they are very special
multiplying rather than expanding. hypertrophic stimula-
But do you really care how it hap- tors.
pened? You just want it to happen Arnold knew that in- He did a lot of donkey calf raises, a
to your muscles—now!—and that stinctively. Remember how he used stretch-position move, emphasizing
means using progressive-stretch to do his dumbbell flyes, emphasiz- the bottom range of the stroke at the
overload at almost every workout. ing the bottom stretch and never end of sets, and his calves became
Mild freehand stretches or yoga- coming up more than about half- monstrous. Was part of that due to
party routines won’t do it; you have way? He used heavy dumbbells and hyperplasia? Hmm.
to have an overload component, targeted the area of muscle elonga- Tom Platz, a legendary body-
which means weights (think heavy tion, driving through the pain of builder who was known for his
dumbbell flyes). Like midrange stretch overload. Could that be one freaky quad development, used to
exercises, stretch-position moves reason his pecs grew to enormous do a combination of hack and sissy
generate considerable force. Bonus: proportions? Oh, he brought his squats; at exhaustion he would
Stretch-position exercises have also calves up with stretch overload too. move to the sissy squat bottom, \ MARCH 2008 135

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Muscle Size Simplified

Ronnie Coleman and Jay Cutler emphasize the


stretch position of many exercises. Has it triggered

fiber replication and enhanced their ability to get
stretch position and pulse abnormally huge? Scientific studies say yes. (lats) and sissy squats
for as many partials as he (quads).
could stand. Could the Supercharger: Dou-
extreme stretch overload be a ble-X Overload. This is similar
reason his quads moved into to what Jay Cutler does on many
the freak-physique category? of his exercises—a single, double
It’s possible; and remember that or quadruple hitch at the semi-
this happened during a time stretch point of every rep. For
when steroid use was minimal. example, on overhead triceps
Interesting!—if you’re into extensions you lower the ’bells
building extreme muscle size, to full stretch behind your head,
that is. drive up about eight inches,
Today you see Ronnie Cole- lower to full stretch again, then
man and Jay Cutler emphasizing drive overhead for a full rep. You
muscle-stretch overload in their can use one or more of those
programs. Watch any of their partials between reps to more
DVDs and notice the attention thoroughly tax the key stretch
to muscle elongation with heavy position.
weights. Coleman often does Contracted. Blocking blood
only the bottom, stretch portion flow to a muscle, called occlu-
of an exercise, adding a distinct sion, has been shown to do
explosion at muscle elongation, tremendous things for muscle
while Cutler double or triple strength and size. It may be an
hitches at the point of stretch on adaptation effect created by
a lot of his exercises. choking off fuel and nutrient
Examples of stretch-posi- delivery. One study, which was
tion exercises include overhead reported on in the Journal of
extensions (triceps), pullovers Strength (continued on page 140)

136 MARCH 2008 \

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You can see
why the biggest menting with
bodybuilders kaatsu, or
include techniques.
They got a
continuous- predictable,
paltry 7 per-
tension sets in cent increase
in quadriceps
their routines— cross-sectional
area in four
they force blood months with
standard train-
out of the muscle ing, but when
they used oc-
and create mass- clusion, they
and-strength- got an 8 per-
cent increase
increasing in cross-sec-
tional area—in
occlusion effects. only two weeks!
That’s right,
better results
in about one-
eighth the time—two weeks

Model: King Kamali

as opposed to 16 weeks. That’s
about an 800 percent increase
in gains when blood flow was
impeded. Wow! You can see
why the biggest bodybuilders
include continuous-tension sets
in their routines—they force
blood out of the muscle and cre-
ate those mass-and-strength-
increasing occlusion effects.
Giving the target muscle no
rest during a set produces the
blood-flow-blocking effects.
Why does blocking blood
flow produce such spectacular
increases in muscle size and
strength? Part of it may be due
to the incredible rush of blood
to the bodypart once blood
flow resumes and the develop-
ment of endurance components
like capillary beds and cell
mitochondria. Scientists have
suggested that the bodypart
bloodbath that occurs after oc-
clusion can produce everything
from upgraded release of heat
shock proteins to alterations in
(continued from page 136) Condition- a 20 percent strength increase over muscle calcium metabolism (cal-
ing Research (15:362-366; 1997), the subjects who didn’t use the cium contributes to contraction) to
applied it to subjects’ forearms by blood pressure cuff. Yes, 20 percent! greater recruitment of fast-twitch
placing a blood pressure cuff on (If we were talking bench press, muscle fibers. Interesting—and
their upper arms for two minutes. and your max was 250, a 20 percent exciting—especially when you do
The cuff was then removed, and increase would have you benching the math: Let’s see, a conservative 8
the subjects did wrist curls. Results: 300 pounds—instantly!) percent increase in quad size times
Those who had their blood flow What about muscle size? Japa- 12 months—holy cow! That’ll dou-
impaired prior to exercise showed nese scientists have been experi- ble-size your thighs in a year!

140 MARCH 2008 \

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Muscle Size Simplified
As I said, the keys to creating other anabolic hormones, like
occlusion in the gym are continu- testosterone (triggered by mid-
ous tension—no target-muscle rest range exercises), to make them
during a set—and resistance in the much more potent. (Bonus: GH
contracted position, where blood also helps you incinerate body-
is “wrung” out of the muscle. That fat at a far greater rate.) Whew!
usually means single-joint isola- Are you starting to see all of the
tion exercises (like leg extensions) anabolic benefits of contract-
done for higher reps. Those exer- ed-position exercises and their
cises are also notorious for igniting unique characteristics?
muscle burn, which in and of itself Examples of contracted-
is anabolic—it’s directly linked to position exercises include
growth hormone release, as verified pushdowns (triceps), stiff-arm
by a study published in the Cana- pulldowns (lats) and leg exten-
dian Journal of Applied Physiology sions (quads).
(22:244-255; 1997). That connec- Supercharger: Higher
tion may have something to do reps or drop sets. You want
with higher blood lactic acid levels, to extend the tension time, so

Model: Tomm Voss

which are partially responsible for doing continuous-tension exer-
muscle burn. Or it may be the oc- cises in the 12-to-15-rep range
clusion effect—or both. GH is im- will make them more effective.
portant because it synergizes with You can also do two medium-

Examples of
and leg
Model: Will Harris

142 MARCH 2008 \

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Muscle Size Simplified
rep sets back to back. For example, compound exercises with almost no you missed them, you can see them
on leg extensions use a weight that stretch-position moves. Then for the at
causes you to reach exhaustion at second five weeks he shocked his A good example of how and why
about rep nine; then reduce the muscles using full 3D POF routines this program worked so well is his
weight and immediately do another for every bodypart, hitting each two-phase biceps workout. During
set, reaching exhaustion at around muscle with midrange-,
rep six. With either method you will stretch- and contracted-
elicit a full pump. On drop sets you position work—but only
also get more of those hard end-of- one or two work sets of
set reps that hit the high-threshold each.
motor units, but you get a brief rest His results were aston-
between the sets as well. Which is ishing, especially in that
better? Neither. They are different. second five weeks, when he
Use them both. introduced stretch-over-
load exercises. No, he didn’t
3D Results get a 300 percent increase
in mass like the subject in
That’s a lot of information, but the bird study, but he did
what should filter through to you is gain 20 pounds of muscle
the three-pronged approach to sci- over the course of that
entific muscle building—midrange, 10-week experiment—and
stretch and contracted movements. that’s with no steroids (he
There’s a specific 3D biceps example is a lifetime drug-free ath-
coming up, but first let’s talk about lete). Jonathan’s before and
Model: Jonathan Lawson
results. The most dramatic example after photos from that ex-
of 3D POF’s power that we’ve wit- periment appeared in last
nessed occurred in the early ’90s month’s IRON MAN (Febru-
when it was first tested on Jonathan ary ’08, Train, Eat, Grow). If
Lawson in the 10-Week
Size Surge protocol. He The occlusion effect of contracted-
used a basic routine for position exercises develops the
the first five weeks, mostly capillary beds and mitochondria in
muscle tissue. It also encourages the
release of growth hormone.

144 MARCH 2008 \

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Muscle Size Simplified
The first exercise was switched facets of muscle growth with preci-
to cable curls because it’s impos- sion and efficiency. It’s anabolic
sible to do X Reps on regular barbell acceleration. We’ve had reports of
curls—it’s a leverage-shift problem. even better gains than Jonathan’s

Also note that you do fewer sets due from 3D POF users. Heck, I’m 48
to the higher intensity on the years old and making some of the
Jonathan’s second routine. Does it work? best gains of my life with the above
19-plus- Jonathan still uses variations tactics and fast workouts. Try the
inch arm. of those 3D POF routines new-and-improved 3D biceps rou-
today, and he’s pushed his tine, taking each nonwarmup set to
arm measurement to more exhaustion and beyond, and you’ll
the first five-week phase he only than 19 inches—despite wrists that feel it working. Could you add 1 1/4
did barbell curls (midrange) and measure only seven inches. Most inches to your arms in a few weeks,
concentration curls (contracted), for experts say that a seven-inch wrist as Jonathan did? Give it a shot.
one to two works sets each, hitting indicates a fairly small bone struc- You’ve got nothing to lose—and
arms once a week, on Wednesday. ture that won’t support a lot of mass. loads of muscle to gain!
(He trained his back, chest and delts Jonathan’s arm measurement says Editor’s note: For more info
twice a week, on Monday and Fri- otherwise. on Positions of Flexion and
day, which provided residual arm 3D POF is a simple concept based Jonathan’s complete 10-week
work, so he was getting some arm on real science that attacks all the size-building program, visit
work three days a week.) Remember
that the first five weeks constituted Positions-of-Flexion training IM
the anabolic-primer stage, with few, is based on real science that
if any, stretch-position exercises. attacks all the facets of muscle
For his second five-week phase he growth—from max force to
moved to full 3D POF programs for stretch overload to tension and
every bodypart. So for biceps he did occlusion.
barbell curls, incline curls and con-
centration curls every four or five
days. Note the addition of incline
curls, a key stretch-overload move-
ment. He did only one to two work
sets of each exercise—usually four
or five total sets for biceps.
Jonathan put a full 1 1/4 inches
on his arm measurement in that
10-week span, and he didn’t add fat;
in fact, he lost one inch off his waist.
Here is the full 3D POF biceps pro-
gram he used (by the way, it was one
of Arnold’s favorite biceps routines,
although Arnold used more volume
because of genetics and, um, well,
other advantages):

Midrange: Barbell or
dumbbell curls 2 x 7-9
Stretch: Incline dumbbell
curls 1-2 x 7-9
Contracted: Concentration
curls 1-2 x 7-9

Applying the intensity super-

chargers discussed above, that new
program would look like this:

Midrange: Cable curls

(X Reps) 1 x 7-9
Model: Omar Deckard

Stretch: Incline dumbbell

curls (DXO) 1 x 7-9
Contracted: Concentration
curls (drop set) 1 x 9(6)

146 MARCH 2008 \

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The Long,

154 MARCH 2008 \

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Long Road to

How I Finally Won a Bodybuilding Contest

by Ron Harris
Photos courtesy of Ron Harris

If you’ve been reading IRON MAN for a while, you’re

probably familiar with my name. It was in this maga-
zine back in 1992 that I was first published, and I have
continued writing for IM ever since. I also do a lot of
writing for other magazines, and in fact it has been
my full-time job for more than seven years now. Over
the past 15 years I’ve written so many articles about
how someone became a champion bodybuilder that
I lost count a long time ago. That happens when you
turn out 200 manuscripts a year. Being a competitor
myself since 1989, I always wished for my own vic-
tory to write about. It took nearly two decades and
more than 20 contests, but in August 2007 I finally did
it: I won the light-heavyweight and overall titles at the
NPC Natural Colonial Cup. \ MARCH 2008 155
Free download from
Long Road to VICTORY
The Little Bodybuilder
That Could Finding the Best Diet
I was really never meant to be
for You
good enough as a bodybuilder One thing you will notice
to win contests. Most guys like about my contest diet is that I
me give up on that goal sooner don’t eliminate carbs. The zero-
or later and decide either to carb diet has become very popu-
compete just for the love of it lar recently, but I don’t feel it’s for
and accept that they will never everyone. Personally, I believe
win or to train to look and feel that carbs are very important
good and forget about getting both before and after training.
onstage. Not me. I am just too Your workouts are better, you get
stubborn. Way back in 1988 I a good pump, and you replace
sent some photos of myself to the lost glycogen and start recov-
Ellington Darden, Ph.D., whose ering for the next workout. Even
training books had been moti- on days when I didn’t weight
vating me since I’d discovered Gaspari and Lee Labrada. train, I would still have a small
them the previous fall. A week or so “Forget it; you don’t have the amount of carbs in the form of
later I dialed up Nautilus headquar- genetics,” he bluntly informed me, an apple or a cup of strawberries
ters and somehow got him on the pointing out various structural flaws after my cardio session. When I
phone. Seizing my stroke of luck, I and the fact that my muscle bel- stop eating carbs, I lose muscle,
implored Darden to rate my poten- lies weren’t long enough to carry an and I suspect that happens to a
tial, expressing my desire to be a pro extreme amount of mass. I thanked lot of other bodybuilders. Drug-
bodybuilder like my heroes Rich him for his time and his honesty, assisted bodybuilders seem to
do better on zero carbs because
the drugs act to maintain their
muscle mass. Natural bodybuild-
ers don’t have that ace in the
hole. Experiment with different
types of diets and find one that is
both effective for you and doesn’t
make you feel like death warmed
over. It’s true that there’s always
going to be a certain amount of
suffering and sacrifice involved
in getting ripped, but it shouldn’t
be so bad that you feel like stay-
ing in bed all day.

but inside I was seething. I’ll show

him, I said to myself. He wasn’t the
first or the last person to tell me I
was wasting my time, and each one
only fueled my determination.
Only after moving to the Los
Angeles area in 1991 and being
immersed in the bodybuilding in-
dustry thanks to my job with ESPN’s
“American Muscle” (now defunct)
did I finally begin to understand
that extraordinarily gifted genetics
as well as large amounts of steroids
played major roles in the physiques
of the men I wanted to look like.
Since I obviously wasn’t a genetic
freak and had no intention at that
time of ever using steroids, I low-
ered my expectations.
Though standing on the Mr.
Olympia stage wasn’t in the cards,

156 MARCH 2008 \

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My Contest Diet*

7:15 a.m.: 1 whole egg, 6 egg whites, 1 cup rolled oats, a few strawber-
ries or 1/2 sliced apple, 1 scoop Parrillo Hi-Protein powder (15 grams
9 a.m.: Weight train
10 a.m.: BCAA powder, 5 grams glutamine
10-10:45 a.m.: Cardio
10:45 a.m.: 60 grams whey protein, 50 grams Gatorade, 50 grams waxy
maize, 5 grams creatine, 10 grams glutamine
12 p.m.: 2 turkey breast burgers, 1 small sweet potato, 1 large raw carrot
2:30 p.m.: 60-gram protein shake (Muscle Milk Lite and Parrillo mix),
1/2 cup unsalted nuts
4 p.m.: 12 ounces salmon, 1 medium sliced cucumber
7 p.m.: 60-gram protein shake and nuts (see 2:30 feeding)
9 p.m.: 5 whole eggs, large green salad, 1 tablespoon natural peanut
1 a.m.: 35-gram protein shake
4 a.m.: 35-gram protein shake
Supplements: Parrillo Performance Hi-Protein, Optimized Whey, Liver
Aminos, Essential Vitamin, Essential Mineral-Electrolyte, Advanced
Lipotropic, Creatine Monhydrate, Evening Primrose Oil, Bio C, Natu-
ral E-Plus, Higher Power L-Glutamine; Gaspari Halodrol Liquigels and
Novedex XT; Cytosport Muscle Milk Light; NOW Super Enzymes; ginger
root; Nature’s Best Zero-carb Isopure (whey protein); Sci Fit Kre-Alkalyn
and BCAA powder; Nutrex Lipo 6; Biotest Hot Rox Extreme; Species Nu-
trition Lipolyze; Labrada Nutrition Lean Body RTD (occasionally)

On days when I don’t weight train, my first meal is whole eggs, and I
have a whey shake and an apple after cardio. Then every meal is either
protein and veggies or a protein shake and some nuts.
*This was the diet from 16 weeks out until four weeks out, at which point
the only change I made was to cut my carb intake in half.
MAN Naturally events held in Los
—R.H. Angeles, Las Vegas and again in Los
In 2000 I moved back to Boston
I knew I could still at least win a the years, and eventually a pat- with my wife and two children, who
contest if I continued to train hard. tern emerged. Whether there were had come along in 1994 and ’99,
Being fortunate enough to have two guys or 10 guys in my class, I and in 2002 I began competing in
access to many of the top minds inevitably took second place. It was nontested NPC events for the first
in the industry, such as Steve Hol- beginning to look as if I was butting time. I did the New England three
man, John Parrillo and dozens more my head against a wall. No matter times and the Massachusetts Cham-
throughout the ’90s, I became far how good I looked, there was bound pionships twice, taking second in
more educated about proper train- to be someone else who looked the heavyweights on three of those
ing and nutrition. Slowly but surely, better. Obviously, that was negative occasions, and I even flew back out
my physique grew and improved. thinking, and I tried my best to stay to Southern California to place—
My gains were never dramatic, but positive. I had to believe that as long you guessed it, second—as a light
as I tell others who get discouraged, as I refused to give up and contin- heavy at the tough Orange County
every little bit adds up over time to ued to do everything possible to im- Muscle Classic.
eventually make a substantial differ- prove my physique, my day would After the ’05 New England I was
ence. When I started training at age come. There were many times when really starting to think it was time
14, I weighed only about 95 pounds. I struggled with the idea that fate to bow out gracefully and move on.
By age 23 I was up to 230, albeit was conspiring against me. Guys Preparing for competitions is so
carrying more bodyfat than I should whom I had beaten would go on to time consuming and forces one to
have been. win other shows, or they might have be so self-absorbed that I just didn’t
already won other shows. I began think it was the best thing for me as
Time to Hang It Up? competing in the ANBC, but by the a husband and father. I hadn’t quite
mid-’90s I had switched to the NPC. made up my mind to quit, but I was
I competed fairly regularly over My first three NPC shows were IRON on the verge.

158 MARCH 2008 \

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Coming Clean—for Good

I’m writing about this for the first
time here in IRON MAN because
this is where I began my writing
career. Much of my early writing
focused on natural bodybuilding
and railed against steroids, and all MIND BLOWING ENERGY
of my competitions from 1989 until
1995 were drug-tested. I had every
intention of remaining drug-free,
but eventually my curiosity (and
cynicism) got the best of me. In late
1996, a couple months after I turned
27, I did my first cycle of steroids.
Some guys Though I stopped for almost two
can take small years toward the end of the decade,
amounts of I used them in regular intervals off
drugs and get and on until February 2005, when 888.519.9300 SANN.NET
absolutely I was 36 years old. I never used
huge. Others growth hormone, but I did use plen- Int: 805.988.0640
can take plenty ty of regular steroids like test, Deca, AVAILABLE AT THESE AND OTHER
of steroids Equipoise, trenbolone, Winstrol and FINE RETAILERS:
and make Dianabol.
only moderate My results were okay but noth-
gains. ing spectacular. What many people
don’t realize is that just as some

Free download from

My Training Program

L, B, C Rotation: L = legs; B = biceps and back; C= chest, shoulders and triceps

Train on Monday, Tuesday, Thursday and Friday, following the sequence—L1, B1, C1, L2, B2, C2 and so on.

L1 L2 L3
Hack squat calf raises Leg press calf raises Seated calf raises
Standing leg curls (RP) Lying leg curls (RP) One-leg leg curls (RP)
Adductor machine (RP) Adductor machine (RP) Adductor machine (RP)
Squats (1 SS) Hack squats (1 SS) Smith machine squats (1 SS)
Leg presses (WM) Leg presses (WM) Leg presses (WM)

B1 B2 B3
Dumbbell spider curls (RP) EZ-curl bar curls (RP) Hammer Strength curls (RP)
One-arm cable reverse curls (1 SS) Pinwheel curls (1 SS) Dumbbell hammer curls (1 SS)
Standing cable curls (WM) Cable curls (WM) Standing cable curls (WM)
Undergrip pulldowns (RP) Rack chins (RP) Hammer Str. Iso pulldowns (RP)
Cable pullovers (WM) Cable pullovers (WM) Cable pullovers (WM)
Hammer Strength seated rows (RP) Barbell rows (RP) One-arm dumbbell rows (RP)

C1 C2 C3
Incline dumbbell presses (2 SS) Arnold presses (2 SS) Hammer Str. flat presses (RP)
Cable crossover (2 SS) One-arm dumbbell laterals (WM) Cable crossovers (2 SS)
Hammer Strength presses (RP) Hammer Str. incline presses (RP) Smith-machine front presses (RP)
One-arm laterals (WM) Cable crossovers (2 SS) One-arm laterals (WM)
Decline skull crushers (RP) Hammer Strength dips (RP) Cable pushdowns (RP)

RP= rest/pause, SS = straight set, WM= widowmaker

I got rid of all the stuff people respond to training by grow-

I had and started over ing more than others, so, too, is
again, doing it all natu- there a sliding scale when it comes
rally after several years to how effective steroids are. Some
on the dark side. guys can take small amounts of
drugs and get absolutely huge. Oth-
ers can take plenty of steroids and
make only moderate gains. That was
me. Whether I was on or off, the dif-
ference was usually about 10 to 15
pounds of muscle and water.
Eventually, I began to give seri-
ous thought to getting off the drugs
for good. There were many reasons.
First and foremost, I worried about
long-term effects on my health and
longevity. More and more body-
builders were dying or coming down
with serious illnesses. I had lost my
own dad to cancer when I was 16.
Did I really not want to see my own
kids grow up, get married and have
children of their own? And for what?
So my muscles could be a little
bigger, and I could lift a little more
weight in the gym?
I also couldn’t ignore the legal
issues. People I knew were getting
into big trouble. I had never been
arrested in my life, and the last thing
I needed as a respectable citizen
was to go to jail. Plus, I was spend-
ing a few thousand dollars a year on

Free download from

For the first
time in more
than 20 years
of training, my
workouts were
structured to
the last detail
and always
had a clear

drugs, money that should have been D.C. Training YOUR SYSTEM WITH POWER
invested in my home and family. A few months after I got off the INDUCING N.O. SUBSTRATES*
Finally, I was sick of having to juice, I finally took the plunge and VASOFLOW FORCES COLOSSAL
dodge the issue and tell people it started D.C. training, which I had MUSCLE PUMPS AND RAPID
was none of their business when been on the fence about for a cou- INCREASES IN MUSCLE BELLY SIZE*
they asked me if I used. What kind of ple of years. I was fortunate enough
role model was I to my kids and my to have the guidance of its creator, VASOFLOW VASOFLOW IGNITES
readers? I got rid of all the stuff I had Dante Trudel, in the beginning. He ROAD MAP VASCULARITY RESULTING
and started over again, doing it all helped design my programs and of- IN ENHANCED NUTRIENT DELIVERY*
naturally after several years on the fered suggestions and changes while VASOFLOW IS SCIENTIFICALLY
dark side. I decided I would com- monitoring my progress. PROVEN TO RADICALLY ELEVATE BLOOD
pete again in a tested show, though I For the first time in my more than LEVELS OF POLYAMINES, GROWTH
didn’t know where or when. 20 years of training, my workouts HORMONES AND INSULIN*
In the meantime I had to be off were structured to the last detail *These statements have not been evaluated by the
drugs at least a year to qualify for and always had a clear goal. I al- FDA. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat,
any tested shows and also had to ways knew exactly which exercises cure or prevent any disease.
readjust mentally and physically I would do on a given day, and the
after depending on the extra boost mission was simple—to beat my
that steroids had imparted. One last numbers. That meant I had to ei-
note I need to add is that to all of ther do more reps than last time I
you who feel let down by a man who had performed a particular exer-
once championed natural body-
building having turned to steroids,
cise or, if I had exceeded the rep
ranges indicated, use a little more
888.519.9300 SANN.NET
I am truly sorry. My use is nothing I weight. I trained on Mondays, Tues- Int: 888.519.9300
am proud of, but it does feel good to days, Thursdays and Fridays using
tell the truth at last. I felt I owed that a three-way split, so whatever I AVAILABLE AT THIS AND
to you all. worked on Monday got hit again on OTHER FINE RETAILERS:

Free download from

Long Road to VICTORY
As I forced
myself to gain
strength in
many exercises,
I saw new size
gains, even in
bodyparts like
arms that had
seemingly hit
their genetic
limit. I was
making real
to my physique
for the first
time in years
and doing it

Friday. the first time in years and doing it train drug-free. I was pleasantly
D.C. isn’t for everybody, but it drug-free. By the end of 2006 I had surprised to see not one but three
was exactly what I needed at exactly been training D.C. style for half a tested events on the schedule for
the right time in my training ca- year, and the results were so satis- 2007. The first was in April and thus
reer. I had been at a plateau of size factory that I set a goal of compet- too soon for me to prepare prop-
and strength for a very long time. ing—and winning—for 2007. I just erly. The last was in late October,
Even in the years I used steroids, I needed to find a show. which was longer than I wanted to
would get to a certain point and no wait. The middle one was in August,
further. What I needed was a sys- Sweet, Sweet Victory| though, which was perfect. The kids
tematic approach aimed at increas- would be out of school, I could tan
at Last
ing strength. Dante believes that a out on my pool deck, and I would be
stronger muscle becomes a bigger In January ’07 NPC District Chair- in shape for the whole summer. The
muscle, and I found it to be true in man Dave Follansbee released the clincher was the name—the Natural
my case. As I forced myself to gain schedule of events in New England. Colonial Cup. My first contest, in
strength in many exercises, I saw I had spoken with him several times 1989, was called the Colonial Clas-
new size gains, even in bodyparts about promoting natural shows in sic. I took that as an omen that this
like arms that had seemingly hit the area, as I felt they could provide was the show I had to do.
their genetic limit. I was making real viable options for myself and many I started cleaning up my diet in
improvements to my physique for other NPC athletes who choose to mid-January, weighing 233 pounds.

162 MARCH 2008 \

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Without the
drugs my waist
came down to
32 inches, the
holding a little over
smallest it had
200 pounds. The
been in 10 years.
final weeks were all
about fine-tuning
and dialing in.
I weighed in at the
show at 194 pounds.
Though it was the
lightest I had been
in more than a de-
cade, my improved
proportions and
V-taper, as well as
the muscle maturity
resulting from all the
additional years of
heavy training, gave
me the illusion of
looking bigger. I won
my class and then
swept the overall
with a perfect score
in each case. The
most intense feel-
ing I experienced
was actually relief.
I knew from past experience that After all those years
a longer, more gradual diet would of trying my best and coming up
help me maintain as much muscle short, when I finally won, I felt as if a
mass as possible. It also meant I tremendous weight was being lifted UP TO 6 TIMES FASTER
wouldn’t have to go crazy on the off of me. THAN DEXTROSE FOR
cardio. I started out at 30 minutes
four times a week and never did We Are All Winners
more than 45 minutes a day, six or MACRONUTRIENTS
seven days a week. My machines Of course, I was a winner all along
of choice were the Treadmaster by because I was improving every Replenish glycogen at
Nautilus (a hybrid of a treadmill and year. That’s what bodybuilding is all lightning fast speed.*
a stepper), the Precor elliptical run- about. Your most important op-
ner and the Stepmill. ponent is you. That said, it still felt Deliver BCAA’s at an
Another muscle robber in the wonderful to be the last man stand- unsurpassed rate.*
past for me had been overtraining. ing onstage that day, as it validated
In my enthusiasm to win, I would all my years of hard work and per- Ideal for strength and
add exercises and sets to my work- sistence. At so many contests over endurance sthletes.
outs and thrust myself right into the years I had envied “that guy.”
catabolism. Now that I was dieting There was almost always that one
Unparalleled during
without the muscle-maintaining guy who was so good that everyone carb-up right before
benefit of steroids, it was more knew he was going to win. At last I contest.*
critical than ever to avoid that pit- got to be that guy.
fall. Since I was training D.C. style, What’s next for me? I’m all done *These statements have not been evaluated by
the FDA. This product is not intended to
that was not an issue. I followed the with competing, at least for a couple diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.
same brief, intense workouts that I of years. I will be 40 in the fall of
had in the off-season and gave my 2009, so maybe I will come back to
body plenty of time to recover. compete in both the masters and
By June I was looking my best open divisions at another tested
ever and gaining confidence by event. In the meantime, working
the day. When I was on steroids, in the sport I love and enjoying my
my midsection would bloat to the
point where even when I was dieted
family and my health will be all I
888.519.9300 SANN.NET
down, my waist still measured 36 Int: 805.988.0640
inches. Without the drugs it came Editor’s note: For more on Ron
down to 32 inches, the smallest it Harris, visit www.RonHarrisMuscle AVAILABLE AT THIS AND
had been in 10 years—and I was still .com. IM OTHER FINE RETAILERS:

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204 MARCH 2008 \
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Tonic in a
Part 2
The Health-Fixer
Elixir Helps Burn Fat
and Build Muscle Too
by Jerry Brainum lowers serum and liver cholesterol.
It stimulates cholesterol excretion
in the bile, helping regulate the only
Part 1 described tea’s effects on way the body eliminates excess
metabolism and its cancer-preven- cholesterol. In a recent experiment,
tion characteristics. This time we’ll rabbits were fed diets containing ex-
look at its cardiovascular and brain- cess cholesterol for two weeks, then
building effects, plus ways it can supplied with green tea for another
help burn bodyfat. four weeks. The green tea lowered
blood cholesterol by 60 percent and
The Cardiovascular LDL by a whopping 80 percent. LDL
liver-receptor activity increased
Effects of Tea
by 80 percent. The green tea also
An initial event in cardiovascular lowered cholesterol synthesis in the
disease involves the oxidation of animals.2
low-density lipoprotein, the so- Hamsters have been used in some
called bad cholesterol, which is the clinical studies. When hamsters are
primary carrier of cholesterol in the fed a high-fat diet that mimics high-
blood. In vitro, or test-tube, studies fat human diets, their cholesterol
show that green tea inhibits LDL soars. When the hamsters get green
oxidation. EGCG, the primary anti- tea in their diet, however, it doesn’t
oxidant in green tea, is more potent soar, evidently because of increased
at inhibiting LDL oxidation than to- bile excretion and decreased ab-
copherol, a.k.a. vitamin E, is. Black sorption of dietary fat.3
tea—in much larger doses—also A high-fat meal leads to increased
Neveux \ Model: Alex Azarian

inhibits LDL oxidation. Green tea oxidant production in the blood,

prevents the proliferation of smooth causing blood vessels to stiffen and
muscle in the walls of arteries that constrict, hampering blood flow.
causes arterial narrowing.1 A recent trial tested the impact of
Animal studies, such as those green tea on that dynamic. Ten
done with rats, show that green tea healthy volunteers ate meals con- \ MARCH 2008 205

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Tonic in a Teapot

Researchers attribute tea’s Inflammation is a cornerstone of

Studies show stroke-protective properties cardiovascular disease. Most heart
to its stimulation of nitric oxide attacks and strokes are initiated by
that the EGCG metabolism. a clot that blocks blood flow in an
already occluded artery. A recent
in tea acts as a impact of tea on the lining, or endo- study of healthy nonsmoking men,
thelium, of blood vessels also helps aged 18 to 55, randomly assigned
natural inhibitor guard against hypertension. Clinical them to either a group drinking
trials of tea intake in human sub- black tea or a placebo group.8 After
of angiotensin- jects, however, have failed to rep- six weeks those in the tea group had
licate those results. One reason for significantly reduced tendency to-
converting the discrepancy may be that most of ward internal blood clotting, along
the human studies involved subjects with lower levels of the inflamma-
enzyme, or ACE, who did not (go figure) have high tion-related C-reactive protein.
blood pressure.5 Stroke, too, is linked to high blood
which is associated On the other hand, an eight-year pressure. A clinical investigation
longitudinal study of 1,500 middle- of 5,910 women aged 40 and over
with high blood aged people in Taiwan found that found that the incidence of stroke
those who drank more than 20 was 5.5 times higher for women
pressure. ounces a day of green or oolong who didn’t drink green tea than for
tea for more than a year showed a those who drank five or more cups
taining 79 percent fat, and some 65 percent reduced risk of hyper- daily.9 An investigation of 7,730 men
of the group also drank black tea. tension. Those who drank no tea found a 33 percent risk reduction
Drinking the tea mitigated much of showed no risk reduction, and the for stroke among tea drinkers but
the adverse blood vessel reaction to beneficial effects of drinking tea not among those who didn’t drink
the high-fat meal. Another study of didn’t show up for a year.6 Studies tea. Researchers attribute tea’s anti-
302 men and 210 women in Japan show that the EGCG in tea acts as stroke properties to its stimulation
found an inverse relationship be- a natural inhibitor of angiotensin- of nitric oxide metabolism, which
tween drinking green tea and ath- converting enzyme, or ACE, which is prevents formation of internal clots
erosclerosis in the men, though not associated with high blood pressure. and helps regulate blood pressure.10
in the women.4 Drugs that act specifically on ACE
Hypertension, or high blood pres- are used to treat high blood pres- Can Tea Save Your Brain?
sure, is a major risk factor for heart sure. Studies using rats as subjects
attacks and strokes. In vitro studies demonstrate that green tea inhibits Several studies point to tea’s pro-
show that tea has vasodilation ac- the intestinal absorption of sodium, tective effects on brain function.
tivity, which would be expected to which would also lower blood pres- They show that drinking tea leads to
lower blood pressure. The favorable sure.7 a rapid increase in alertness and in-

206 MARCH 2008 \

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observed an
upgrade in gene
activity linked
to memory and
learning as well
as a decrease in
genes linked to
a hallmark
of the brain
identified in
such diseases as
Alzheimer’s and

formation processing. When drunk to enhance the benefits of epicat- in the study, however, was directly
throughout the day, tea may prevent echins on brain function. injected into the mouse brains; a
a decline in mental performance. Elsewhere in lab-coat land, add- comparable oral dose of EGCG in
While tea contains caffeine, a recog- ing green tea to the diet of mice humans would be 1,500 to 1,600
nized brain stimulant, its impact on significantly delayed memory re- milligrams.
brain function isn’t caffeine-related. gression, which told researchers that Stress fosters brain degeneration,
An experiment with rats found green tea protects brain neurons.12 and tea can alleviate it—particu-
that those that had tea in their diets Another study found that black and larly black tea, which contains the
exhibited improved learning abil- green teas inhibited the breakdown amino acid theanine and its precur-
ity—at least as far as traversing a of the neurotransmitter acetylcho- sor, theaflavin, in greater quantity
complicated maze was concerned.11 line, which the brain requires for than are found in green tea. A study
The rats on tea also experienced less memory and learning and which reported in the journal Psycho-
oxidation in the hippocampus, the is deficient in Alzheimer’s patients. pharmacology found that men who
seat of learning and memory in the Doctors currently treat Alzheimer’s drank black tea four times a day for
brain. with drugs such as Exelon and Ari- six weeks had 47 percent less cor-
A study published recently in the cept, which inhibit the activity of tisol, a stress hormone, than men
Journal of Neuroscience found that acetylcholinesterase, the substance who drank a tea substitute. The tea
a combination of epicatechins and that degrades acetylcholine. Green drinkers also reported a greater feel-
exercise led to beneficial changes tea also blocked the production of ing of relaxation after performing
in the section of the brain involved beta amyloid, a protein superabun- tasks designed to increase stress.
in learning and the formation of dant in the brains of Alzheimer’s Theanine is known to help relax
memory. Researchers observed patients.13 the brain. It reduces anxiety and
an upgrade in gene activity linked Scientists from McGill Univer- stress without the side effects asso-
to memory and learning as well sity found that green tea prevented ciated with drugs used for the same
as a decrease in genes linked to neurons exposed to beta amyloid purpose. Studies show that theanine
inflammation, a hallmark of the from being destroyed. Mice prone to increases alpha waves, brain waves
brain degeneration identified in a rodent version of Alzheimer’s had that indicate increased relaxation
such diseases as Alzheimer’s and 54 percent less beta amyloid than but without losing alertness. Studies
Parkinson’s. Exercise was also found untreated mice. The green tea used done with (continued on page 212) \ MARCH 2008 207

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Tonic in a Teapot
(continued from page 207) athletes Test-tube studies show that tea
show that they perform best when
alpha waves dominate the left interferes with the formation of new
side of their brains. Creative peo-
ple tend to produce more alpha fat cells, which emerge when your
waves when faced with a problem
to solve. body is loaded up with a critical
Theanine can be absorbed
into the brain, where it modifies mass of fat.
the activity of such brain neu-
rotransmitters as serotonin and
dopamine, leading to improved
memory, learning ability and
relaxation. Theanine can even
negate some of the overstimula-
tion produced by caffeine. Three
to four cups of green tea provide
60 to 160 milligrams of theanine,
and it maximizes in blood be-
tween 30 minutes and two hours
after drinking. A 2003 study found
that theanine activates gamma
delta T cells, immunity cells that
are the first line of defense against

Tea and Bodyfat

One of the most effective natu-
ral fat-reducing supplements was
the combination of ephedrine
and caffeine. The United States
Food and Drug Administration
removed ephedrine from sale
three years ago, based on dubious role in releasing fat from fat cells,
reports of adverse health effects. and by working synergistically with
Since then, purveyors of various caffeine to stimulate bodyfat loss.
“fat-burning” supplements have Thermogenic activity, however,
scrambled to come up with suitable is only part of the story. Look at
replacements. Little or no research how green tea affects fat diges-
confirms the effectiveness of most tion. It inhibits both gastric and
ephedrine stand-ins. Green tea, pancreatic lipase, the primary
however, is special. fat-digesting enzymes, leading to a
Most people think green tea helps 37 percent reduction in the break-
reduce excess bodyfat thermogeni- down of long-chain triglycerides,
cally, as indeed it does. Test-tube a.k.a. dietary fat. The fat you eat
studies show that it interferes with needs to be emulsified, or degraded
the formation of new fat cells, which into smaller particles, before lipase
emerge when your body is loaded can act on it. Green tea interferes
up with a critical mass of fat. The with that activity, which further
fat cells already present undergo lowers fat absorption and uptake. It
hyperplasia, splitting to form new also attacks a primary fat-synthesis
fat cells. That’s why fat is so hard to enzyme, appropriately called fatty
lose. acid synthase. Green tea may even
Green tea has multiple ther- help regenerate and protect the
mogenic properties. It increases beta cells of the pancreas, where
the release of CCK, a gut hormone insulin is synthesized, thus indi-
linked to decreased appetite. It also rectly guarding against both diabe-
increases the power of the thermo- tes and pancreatic degeneration.14
genic hormone norepinephrine, Rat-based studies show that
chiefly by attacking COMT, the main green tea inhibits enzymes in the
enzyme that halts norepinephrine’s intestine that break down sugar

212 MARCH 2008 \

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and starch, thus limiting glucose
uptake and insulin release. A clinical
About now you’re thinking there’s
>The Greatest
trial of 49 men and 11 women found a screw loose somewhere. How can
that taking the tea-extract equiva-
lent of four cups of green tea daily
stimulating insulin release be a
good thing if insulin release is linked
lowered glycosylated hemoglobin, a to bodyfat synthesis?
measure of long-term blood glucose
It comes down to green tea’s role
as an efficiency expert. The fact
In The World
Some of the properties of green that green tea potentiates insulin
tea are subtle. As you would expect,
a high intake of the sugar fructose
sounds bad until you realize that
upregulation equals improved in-
Will Be At The
is linked to insulin resistance, and sulin efficiency, which is different
we’ve seen that green tea attacks in-
sulin resistance and glucose uptake.
from merely increasing the volume
of insulin that’s pushed into the
Here comes the subtle part, be- blood. In other words, less insulin is
cause, conversely, green tea upregu- secreted, but it does more work be-
lates several genes that stimulate cause of the presence of green tea,
glucose uptake and insulin signal- which means there’s less bodyfat in
ing in cells, thereby blocking—yes, the offing.

really—the negative effects of fruc- You get a picture of how it all
works from a study in which sci-
Green tea can improve insulin efficiency,
entists fed rat subjects either a
so less insulin is secreted. What’s
released does more work, however, and
that can lead to less bodyfat accrual.



...Will You?
Neveux \ Model: John Cowgill

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Tonic in a Teapot

Neveux \ Model: Greg Smyers

214 MARCH 2008 \

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high-fructose diet or the same diet
supplemented with green tea. The
The subjects were 10 healthy young
men, average age 25, who ranged
rats that got the green tea had de-
creased insulin resistance, which
was linked to the increased—that is,
from lean to moderately overweight.
For six weeks they took two cap-
sules of 1) green tea extract plus 50
>Don’t Miss
more efficient—behavior of GLUT-
4, a cellular glucose transporter.17
milligrams of caffeine, 2) 50 mil-
ligrams of caffeine or 3) a placebo. the 19th Annual
Other studies have also demonstrat- The men getting the green tea had a
ed that drinking green tea lowers far higher energy expenditure than
elevated blood glucose, a hallmark those getting either the caffeine or
of prediabetes.18 placebo and tended to use more fat
To take advantage of green tea’s calories than those who took the
effect on insulin, avoid using it with placebo—all of which demonstrated
milk or cream. Research proves that that the thermogenic effects of
50 grams of milk lower green tea’s green tea extend beyond its caffeine
insulin potentiation by 90 percent.19 content.
One study examined the effects Another study examined the
of green tea and caffeine on energy effects of drinking oolong tea.21
expenditure and fat oxidation.20 Twelve men drank one of the fol-

Tea increases the power of the

thermogenic hormone norepinephrine,
chiefly by attacking COMT, the main
enzyme that halts norepinephrine’s role
in releasing fat from fat cells.

February 16, 2008
Los Angeles
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imPro_r3-2008thirdAd02.indd 1 12/4/07 2:10:40 PM
Tonic in a Teapot
1) Water
2) Full-strength tea
3) Half-strength tea
4) Water containing 270 mil-
ligrams of caffeine

Fat oxidation was 12 percent

higher when subjects drank
the full-strength tea instead of
Another study found that
when subjects drank enough
tea to supply 600 milligrams of
tea catechins, they decreased
their visceral, or deep-lying,
fat in the gut.22 That’s big
health news, as visceral
A study of mice showed that fat is the most active and
dangerous fat in the body,
green tea increased exercise linked to cardiovascular
disease and diabetes. The
endurance from 8 to 24 percent. antiangiogenic effects of
green tea appear to lower
and prevent excess fat
deposition.23 A recent study of
Japanese men and women who had
large visceral fat deposits found that
12 weeks of drinking tea containing
583 milligrams of tea catechins re-
sulted in a significant drop in blood
pressure, bodyfat and LDL.24

Green Tea and Your Body

Just as it affects bodyfat, so also
does green tea appear to affect body
composition. Scientists investigated
the tea-drinking habits of 1,103 sub-
jects, 473 of whom had drunk tea
once or more per week for at least
six months. 25 Habitual tea drinkers
for more than 10 years underwent
a 19.6 percent reduction in bodyfat
percentage, and a 2.1 percent reduc-
tion in waist-to-hip ratio compared
to what those who didn’t drink the
tea experienced. Conclusion: Long-
term tea intake may promote bene-
ficial changes in body composition.
Some scientists suggest that tap-
ping into fat stores more efficiently
would increase exercise endurance
by sparing limited glycogen stores
Neveux \ Model: Dave Dorsey

in muscles. A study of mice showed

that green tea increased exercise
endurance. The mice were put to
swimming exercise, and the ones
that were fed green tea extracts had
not only greater endurance but also

216 MARCH 2008 \

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green tea offered protection against studies show beneficial effects of tea
oxidative-induced stress in exercis- against alcohol intoxication, insect
ing animals, especially in the liver stings, kidney stones and cataracts.
and kidneys.27 Drinking tea may offer protection
against skin cancer.28 Tea suppresses
But Wait! There’s More! the activity of tyrosinase, the en-
zyme that converts the amino acid
The primary green tea anti- tyrosine into melanin, the primary
oxidant, EGCG, inhibits histamine skin pigment.29 That means it may
release by up to 90 percent in rat- be useful in preventing overproduc-
cell cultures. That implies green tea tion of melanin, which occurs in
is anti-allergenic, since histamine pregnant women. It also means that
is released during allergic reac- drinking it before going in the sun
tions and accounts for many allergy may minimize the tanning reaction.
symptoms. Mice studies show that On the other hand, the anti-inflam-
green tea also produces anti-inflam- matory properties of green tea may
matory effects against arthritis, and minimize sunburn.
One study even human studies show that
it may blunt joint degen-
suggests that eration.
Tea extracts offer pro-
drinking green tection against many types
of bacteria, including the
tea can nudge the infamous H. pylori, which
causes ulcers. Tea is ac-
growth of human tive against salmonella,

shigella, candida (yeast)
and other bugs. In the
Green tea’s anti-
increased fat burning. The higher
intestine, green tea acts
as a probiotic, stimulating
inflammatory properties
the tea intake, the greater the endur-
ance, from 8 to 24 percent. The au-
the growth of beneficial
bacteria. Tea also kills the
may minimize sunburn
thors suggest that a human athlete
weighing 165 pounds would need
bacteria in the mouth that
cause both cavities and as well as offering
to drink about four cups of green gum disease, the major
tea to replicate the effects shown in cause of tooth loss. Tea protection against skin
the mice. A single dose of green tea inhibits the influenza
didn’t have much effect; long-term virus, as well as an enzyme cancer.
consumption did the trick.26 Anoth- that is complicit in spread-
er study involving rats showed that ing HIV in the body. Other
Neveux \ Model: Lena Johannessen \ MARCH 2008 217

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Tonic in a Teapot
Since tea inhibits the enzyme hormones as testosterone, estrogen, reconvert each other back into anti-
5-alpha reductase, it blunts conver- leptin, insulin and IGF-1, though oxidants. Besides, the amount of tea
sion of testosterone into dihydrotes- the fact that it was injected directly you’d have to drink to worry about
tosterone; DHT is the root cause of into the rats is significant. You’d toxicity is so great that you shouldn’t
such maladies as acne and male- have to drink 12 cups of tea in one worry. Isolated cases of liver failure
pattern baldness.30 One study even hour to approach lab-rat-equivalent in human patients have been pub-
suggests that drinking green tea can intake.33 lished, but nearly all other studies
nudge the growth of human hair.31 show that green tea is remarkably
Rat-based studies show that large Green Tea Side Effects safe and beneficial.
amounts of green tea, amounting
to 5 percent of the animals’ diets, The principal problems related to References
decreased thyroid hormone activity; overconsumption of black or green
however, rats are more sensitive to tea involve caffeine, aluminum and 1 Locher, R., et al. (2002). Green

substances that affect the thyroid iron. Black tea has the highest caf- tea polyphenols inhibit human
than humans are. The amount of tea feine content, followed in order by vascular smooth muscle cell
lab rats get isn’t likely to be drunk by oolong tea, green tea and fresh tea proliferation stimulated by native
humans. leaf. The average cup of green tea low-density lipoprotein. Eur J
Green tea inhibits aromatase, the contains 32 milligrams of caffeine, Pharmacol. 434:1-7.
enzyme that converts testosterone compared to the 100 to 200 found in 2 Bursill, C., et al. (2007). A

into estrogen.32 coffee. green tea extract lowers plasma

Its EGCG Aluminum is a cholesterol by inhibiting cholesterol
has been problem because synthesis and upregulating the
found to of its asso- LDL receptor in the cholesterol-fed
lower ciation with rabbit. Athersclor. 193:86-93.
levels Alzheimer’s 3 Chan, P.T., et al. (1999).

of such disease and Jasmine green tea epicatechins are

other mala- hypolipidemic in hamsters fed a
dies. Black tea high-fat diet. J Nutr. 129:1094-1101.
contains six 4 Sasazuki, S., et al. (2000).

times more Relation between green tea

aluminum than consumption and the severity of
green tea. On coronary atherosclerosis among
the other hand, Japanese men and women. Ann
aluminum is not Epidemiol. 10:401-408.
very bioavailable 5 Hodgson, J.M. (2006). Effects

and is poorly of tea and tea flavonoids on

absorbed from endothelial function and blood
foods, includ- pressure: A brief review. Clin Exper
ing tea. Tea may Pharmacol Physiol. 33:838-41.
bind to free iron, 6 Yang, Y.C., et al. (2004). The

which is a potent protective effect of habitual tea

oxidant of blood consumption on hypertension. Arch
LDL, but that Intern Med. 164:1534-40.
can be overcome 7 Kreydiyyeh, S.I., et al. (1994). Tea

simply by adding extract inhibits intestinal absorption

lemon to tea or of glucose and sodium in rats. Comp
drinking it when Biochem Phram Tox Endocrin.
you’re not eating 108:359-65.
iron-rich foods 8 Steptoe, A., et al. (2007).

or supplements. The effects of chronic tea

Several re- intake on platelet activation
ports have sug- and inflammation: A double-
gested that tea blind placebo-controlled study.
catechins can Atherosclerosis. 193:277-82.
be toxic because 9 Sato, Y., et al. (1989). Possible

they convert into contribution of green tea drinking

pro-oxidants. habits to prevention of stroke.
Conversion is Tohoku J Exp Med. 157:337-43.
common with 10 Fraser, M.L., et al. (2007). Green

most other an- tea and stroke prevention: Emerging

tioxidants, and evidence. Comp Ther Medic. 15:46-

they tend to 53.

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11 Haque, A., et al. (2006). Long- effect of green tea extract powder and caffeine in increasing 24-
term administration of green supplementation on glucose hour energy expenditure and fat
tea catechins improves spatial abnormalities. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1-6. oxidation in humans. Am J Clin
cognition learning ability in rats. J In press. Nutr. 70:1040-50.
Nutr. 136:1043-47. 16 Cao, H., et al. (2007). Green 21 Rumpler, W., et al. (2001).
12 Unno, K., et al. (2007). Daily tea polyphenol extract regulates Oolong tea increases metabolic rate
consumption of green tea catechin the expression of genes involved in and fat oxidation in men. J Nutr.
delays memory regression in aged glucose uptake and insulin signaling 131:2848-2852.
mice. Biogerontology. 8:89-95. in rats fed a high fructose diet. L 22 Nagao, T., et al. (2001). Tea
13 Okello, E.J., et al. (2004). In Agric Food Chem. 55(15):6372-8. catechins suppress accumulation
vitro anti-beta-secretase and dual 17 Wu, L.Y., et al. (2004). Green of body fat in humans. J Oleo Sci.
anti-cholinesterase activities of tea supplementation ameliorates 50:717-28.
Camellia sinensis L. (tea) relevant to insulin resistance and increases 23 Diepvens, K., et al. (2007).

treatment of dementia. Phyto Res. glucose transporter-4 content in a Obesity and thermogenesis related
18:624-27. fructose-fed rat model. Eur J Nutr. to the consumption of caffeine,
14 Chakravarthy, B.K., et al. (1982). 43. ephedrine, capsaicin, and green
Functional beta cell regeneration in 18 Gomez, A., et al. (1994). Anti- tea. Am J Physiol Regul Integ Comp
the islets of the pancreas in alloxan- hyperglycemic effect of black Physiol. 292:R77-R85.
induced diabetic rats by EGCG. Life tea (Camellia sinensis) in rat. J 24 Nagao, T., et al. (2007). A green

Sci. 31:2693-2697. Ethnopharmacol. 45:223-226. tea extract high in catechins reduces

15 Fukino, Y., et al. (2007). 19 Moon, H.S., et al. (2007). bodyfat and cardiovascular risk in
Randomized controlled trial of an Proposed mechanisms of humans. Obesity. 15:1473-83.
epigallocatechin-3-gallate for anti- 25 Wu, C.H., et al. (2003).

obesity. Chem-Biol Interactions. Relationship between habitual

The principal 167:85-98.
20 Dullo, A.G., et al. (1999).
tea consumption, percent bodyfat
and bodyfat distribution. Obes Res.
problems Efficacy of green tea extract 11:1088-95.
rich in catechin polyphenols 26 Murase T, et al. (2004). Green
related to tea extract improves endurance
capacity and increases lipid
overconsumption oxidation in mice. Am J Physiol
of black or green Regul Integ Comp Physiol.
27 Alessio, H.M., et al. (2002).

tea are related Consumption of green tea protects

rats from exercise-induced oxidative
to caffeine, stress in kidney and liver. Nutr Res.
aluminum and 28 Katiyar, S., et al. (2000). Green

tea and skin. Arch Dermat. 136:989-

iron. 94.
29 No, J.K., et al. (1999). Inhibition

of tyrosinase by green tea

components. Life Sci. 65:241-46.
30 Alexis, A.F., et al. (1999).

Potential therapeutic applications of

tea in dermatology. Int J Dermatol.
31 Kwon, O.S., et al. (2007). Human

hair growth enhancement in vitro

by green tea epigallocatechin-3-
gallate (EGCG). Phytomed. 14(7-
32 Satoh, K., et al. (2002).

Inhibition of aromatase activity

by green tea extract catechins and
their endocrinological effects of oral
administration in rats. Food Chem
Toxicol. 40(7):925-33.
33 Kao, Y.H., et al. (2000).

Modulation of endocrine systems

and food intake by green tea EGCG.
Endocrinol. 141:980-87. IM \ MARCH 2008 219

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224 MARCH 2008 \
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Heavy Duty
The Wisdom of Mike Mentzer

getting sore was necessary and you fibers per square inch, he has in his
by John Little didn’t get sore, what would you do— calf muscles—not to his training
try to get sore? The only proper way approach. He doesn’t train his calves
The Value of Muscle to gauge the success of any workout at all because he doesn’t want them
Soreness is by the standard of strength in- to become bigger, but if you were
creases. If you’re stronger at the next looking at his calves simplistically,
Q: I don’t seem to get sore the workout, a positive change obvi- you’d have to conclude that his “not
day after I train to positive fail- ously occurred in the muscle. As you training” has resulted in his produc-
ure. I’m wondering if I should continue to grow stronger and eat ing calves that would be the envy of
change my exercises or the way adequately, you’ll grow larger.” Steve Reeves.
I perform them, as I think I If you’re underweight, proper
should feel some soreness, just How Much Muscle Heavy Duty training will very
to know that my muscles did quickly get you to the muscular
Can I Gain?
some work. bodyweight that your genetics will
A: Soreness, as Mike Mentzer Q: How much muscle can I permit. Ultimately, however, your
pointed out, indicates a feeling gain over the course of a year? genetics will determine how much
only—not necessarily growth stimu- I know Mike had many clients muscle you can gain. I recall speak-
lation—and it’s certainly not the who gained 20 to 30 pounds ing with renowned personal trainer
sine qua non of having a productive over a span of several months, Drew Baye ( about
workout. According to Mike: and I’d sure like to do the same. the amount of muscle he gained
“Achieving soreness is no indi- A: While Mike did have many while training on Mike’s Heavy Duty
cation that you had a successful clients who gained 20 to 30 pounds program during his college years.
workout. The only time I ever got of muscle over the course of several Here’s what he had to say:
sore was upon resumption of train- months, the size that your muscles “When I was in college, I started
ing after an extended layoff. If get- will ultimately reach is a matter reading Mike Mentzer’s articles in
ting sore was necessary, somehow, dictated almost entirely by genet- his Heavy Duty column in IRON
to build big muscles, I never would ics. At my strength-training center MAN, and I just dropped all the
have been Mr. Universe. Feelings— (Nautilus North Strength & Fitness high-volume stuff and everything
Balik \ Model: Mike Mentzer

especially soreness, which is still a Centre in Bracebridge, Ontario, else I’d been doing. I went to one of
mystery—tell you little or nothing Canada) we have a client who is 64 his programs that had me training
about the success of a workout. No years old and has 18 1/2-inch calves. only twice a week, following a rou-
one knows what causes soreness He’s had them since he was 16 years tine that he’d outlined in one of his
or what significance it may have; it old. That speaks to the muscle fiber columns.”
just hurts. And if you thought that density, or the amount of muscle I asked Drew about the results \ MARCH 2008 225

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Heavy Duty

he’d gotten while on other training muscle in six months, as Drew did, But as a matter of fact, the growth
programs. He said he’d made “little then Heavy Duty training will bring process is probably even slower
or no meaningful progress and [was] out your genetic potential. If, how- than you realize. Many bodybuild-
just grossly overtraining.” On Mike’s ever, your bodyweight is more sta- ers’ dietary indiscretions, as well as
program, however, he “was able to bilized—that is, you’re not grossly the training errors they make, are
go from the low 150s and not much underweight—or if you don’t have the direct result of a failure to realize
definition to a fairly lean 180 to 182 the genetics to grow 30 pounds of just how slow the growth process is.
pounds over a period of maybe a muscle, then you’ll still grow bigger If a bodybuilder expects to gain a
half year or so.” and stronger muscles but to some pound of muscle a week or a pound
I like Drew’s response because measure less than those whose a month and he’s not seeing those
there’s been a lot of nonsense going genetics are better suited to it. gains, then he’s going to become
around, particularly in Internet chat Mike pointed out during a semi- hysterical and begin training more
rooms, that building strength, as nar I attended in 1981 that for the often, increasing his protein intake
Mike advocated, has nothing to do average bodybuilder a five-to-10- and so forth. If, however, you can
with building muscular size—which pound gain of muscle per year is ac- develop a firm grasp of how slow the
is false on its face. Drew’s abil- tually an excellent rate of progress. process of muscle growth is, then
ity to build 30 pounds of muscle According to Mike: it’s my firm belief that you’ll be less
over six months as a result of what “Anybody with any training expe- inclined to commit a lot of the ri-
was essentially a “strength-build- rience has recognized that adding diculous dietary and training errors
ing” program belies it. If you have muscle tissue beyond normal levels that bodybuilders fall prey to.
the genetics to gain 30 pounds of is a seemingly impossible process. “Just how slow is slow? We can all

“If you can develop a grasp of how slow the

process of muscle growth is, then it’s my
firm belief that you’ll be less inclined to
commit a lot of ridiculous dietary and train-
ing errors that bodybuilders fall prey to.”

Balik \ Model: Mike Mentzer

226 MARCH 2008 \

Free download from
can stress the
body and is a
direct result
of impatience.
muscle growth
is a very slow



Neveux \ Model: Cesar Martinez


agree that gaining even 10 pounds
of muscle a year is a tremendous
year. At 10 pounds a year, in five
years you’d gain 50 pounds of mus- GROW.
achievement. Not 10 pounds of cle, enough to transform an average
bodyweight, mind you—that’s 165-pound adult male into a 215-
easy—10 pounds of pure muscle. It pound Mr. Olympia. In fact, the vast
isn’t a whole hell of a lot, but look majority of Mr. Olympia competi-
at it over the long term, five years, tors weigh under 215.
which is how you have to look at “Suppose we can gain 10 pounds
your bodybuilding career. Nobody of muscle in one year. We still don’t
ever became Mr. America in one think in terms (continued on page 230)

Free download from

Heavy Duty

As Mike repeatedly pointed

out, you must train intensely to
stimulate your muscles to grow
bigger and stronger and then
give your body adequate time to
recover and overcompensate. That
Neveux \ Model: Cesar Martinez
can be anywhere from four days
for a beginner to 10 days or longer
for a more advanced trainee.

(continued from page 227) of a year, or less than half an ounce—not weigh yourself. You should gauge
blocks of a year, or blocks of five enough to register on a scale. Yet your progress by your appearance.
years. We think about daily prog- how many of you weigh yourself “Think of how minuscule 12
ress, daily workouts and so forth. every day looking for gain? If you are grams of muscle gained per day
So if you think 10 pounds of muscle seeing weight gains every day, then is—assuming you’re gaining those
growth in one year is slow, it’s unbe- you’re not gaining muscle. 10 pounds of muscle per year. Yet
lievable how slow that growth is on “What are you gaining? Fat. If you when we don’t seem to be gaining
a daily level. could gain 10 pounds of muscle a fast enough, we increase our train-
“On a daily level, 10 pounds of year—something most of us are in- ing time, increase our intake of
muscle over 365 days works out to capable of—you’re not going to see protein and so forth. Those things
.027 pounds of muscle gained per even a one-pound gain per month. don’t hasten the growth process;
day, which is the same as 12 grams, So it’s almost ridiculous to ever they slow it down.”

230 MARCH 2008 \

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Heavy Duty

As Mike repeatedly pointed

out, you must train intensely to
stimulate your muscles to grow
bigger and stronger and then
give your body adequate time
to recover and overcompensate.
That can be anywhere from four
days for a beginner to 10 days
or longer for a more advanced
trainee. The rest is up to your
genetics. Let’s have Mike weigh
in again on the matter:
“I’m not suggesting that
everyone who buys my books
and/or tries a Heavy Duty, high-
intensity-training program will
actualize his potential in one
year or less. I’ve learned through
conversations with those who
have read my books that they
don’t always fully understand the
theory’s proper, practical appli-
cation. With a valid theoretical
approach to training, progress
should be immediate, continu-
ous and worthwhile all the way
to the full actualization of one’s
potential. The actualization of
potential, too, is a genetically
determined trait. So some will
reach their upper limits in a mat-
ter of a few months, some within
a year and others over a slightly
longer period.”

Editor’s note: For a complete

presentation of Mike Mentzer’s
Heavy Duty training system,
consult his books Heavy Duty
II, High Intensity Training the
Mike Mentzer Way and the
newest book, The Wisdom of
Mike Mentzer, all of which are
available from Mentzer’s official
Web site, www.MikeMentzer.
John Little is available
for phone consultation on
Mike Mentzer’s Heavy Duty
training system. For rates and
information, contact Joanne
Sharkey at (310) 316-4519 or at, or see
“With a valid theoretical approach to training, the ad on the opposite page.
Article copyright © 2008, John
Balik \ Model: Mike Mentzer

progress should be immediate, continuous and

worthwhile all the way to the full actualization Little. All rights reserved. Mike
of one’s potential. The actualization of potential, Mentzer quotations provided
too, is a genetically determined trait.” courtesy of Joanne Sharkey and
are used with permission. IM

232 MARCH 2008 \

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Eric Broser’s

Muscle “In” Sites

If you find something on the Web that IM readers should know about, send the URL to Eric at

If you recognize the name Nancy Georges,
it’s because she’s been on the fitness scene for
many years. In fact, Nancy competed in the
inaugural Fitness America Pageant in 1989
after spotting a poster of Cameo Kneuer (sis-
ter of none other than former Ms. Olympia
Cory Everson), who was the reigning Ms. Na-
tional Fitness at the time. “I thought she was
gorgeous, and naturally I wanted to compete
right away. What a great way to mesh my ath-
letic background with my passion for model-
ing,” says Nancy. In 1991 she was victorious
at both the Ms. Fitness USA and Ms. National
Fitness, making her an industry celebrity. In
great demand, she traveled all over the globe
to give seminars about fitness and inspiring
others to pursue a more healthful lifestyle.
After a long sabbatical from the stage Nancy
returned to fitness competition—as ever con-
sistently presenting one of the best physiques
in the sport—only to find that the routine
round had outgrown her abilities. After sev-

eral frustrating contest outings she turned to figure com-

petition, which was far more suited to her strengths.
In ’07 Nancy earned her IFBB pro card at the North
American Figure Championships, making yet another
dream become a reality. Says Nancy, “There is nothing
quite like this hobby. Where else can you get all made up
in gorgeous makeup, wear beautifully styled swimsuits,
be tan and have bodyfat in the single digits and make
new friends who have similar interests, all the while
inspiring and educating the newbies on what is possible
when you put your mind and your heart to work for a
goal.” Nancy, who feels more fit and energetic now than
she did when she was 20, plans to compete for years to
come while helping as many people as possible along
the way. Her site offers motivational and educational
CDs, personal training, hypnotherapy, figure coaching,
posing assistance and her special “Stage Might” work-
shops. She has a beautiful photo gallery and a constantly
updated journal to let her fans know what’s going on in
her life. If you’re a figure or fitness competitor in need
of an awesome Internet presence, Nancy also offers her
services as a Web-site designer—that’s one multitasking
figure beauty! At 5’9” and 145 pounds of sleek, perfectly
proportioned muscle, she’s also one who will be bringing
home many more trophies in the years to come.

234 MARCH 2008 \

Free download from
If you’re a true fan of bodybuilding, fitness
and/or figure competition and every aspect of
the industry that encompasses those sports,
certain Web sites should be at the top of your fa-
vorites list. is definitely one of them.
You can spend hours a day on the site and never
see the same thing twice. There are videos, arti-
cles, contest results, gossip columns, interviews
and more. Best of all, is always up to
date with the latest happenings, unlike similar
sites, which are often months behind. In addi-
tion, the Getbig discussion board is one of the
largest and most heavily trafficked of any on the
Web, with almost 19,000 members and close to
1.5 million posts on thousands of topics. Many
of the IFBB’s elite frequent the Getbig boards,
enabling you to interact with great champions
and industry insiders. Seriously, I could write a book about Getbig; however, it would not only take up too
much space but also cause me to miss my next meal (and that just can’t happen). So do yourself a favor:
Stop by and see why it’s known as the Web’s number-one source of American bodybuilding and
fitness info.

>Book Review: IRONMAN’s Ultimate

Guide to Arm Training
On a recent trip home to New York I made sure Aftershock, One Rep Per Set, Heavy Duty and
to book a flight on Jet Blue because of the little more. You’ll also find the routines used by such
TV sets they have on the back of every seat. I greats as Sergio Oliva, Bill Pearl, Larry Scott and
can usually find a decent movie or a few good even Arnold himself. My favorite sections of the
sitcoms to help pass the time, as I find flying ex- book are about EMG studies designed to test
tremely boring. On that particular flight, however, I the effectiveness of various biceps and triceps
never even put my earphones on. Instead I spent exercises, the results of which can tell us what
my time reading IRONMAN’s movements are the most ef-
Ultimate Guide to Arm Train- fective arm builders. The
ing—half on the flight going tome is stuffed with inspiring
and the other half returning. photographs of some of the
Normally, I don’t like reading world’s best bodybuilders
on airplanes, but this book flexing and posing, as well
was filled with material that as demonstrating every arm
kept my interest from begin- exercise that is discussed. It’s
ning to end. I even skipped an excellent read for trainees
the little bag of peanuts they of all levels, and especially for
offer, which is usually my guys and gals looking to get
only pleasure while flying “an arm up” on the competi-
(unless, of course, there is tion. You can get a copy from
a pretty gal seated next to Home Gym Warehouse, (800)
me). For those who are into 447-0008 or www
building sizable guns, I highly Or if you re-
recommend this book. It’s ally want to save some bucks,
filled with unique arm-blast- get it free by subscribing to
ing programs like Compound IRON MAN. See page 145. \ MARCH 2008 235

Free download from
Eric Broser’s

>Net Results Q&A Q. I just finished my first week of FD/FS

The Power/Rep Range/Shock innovator answers your training, and I’ve never experienced such
questions on training and nutrition. muscle soreness before. I’m about to start my
second week and want to know if I can use
Q. I’m extremely ectomorphic. My goal is to something like Advil to offset the pain a bit.
gain as much bulk as possible, but I don’t want
to get too fat. I weigh about 155 and wish to A. The “FD” in FD/FS stands for “fiber damage.”
get to 185 in the next year. Should I be doing The training methods that this program employs (ec-
cardio along with my weight training? centric emphasis and stretch under tension) are meant
to cause microtrauma—i.e., damage—in the muscle
A. I was in a very similar situation when I first fibers, which in turn will cause you to feel quite sore—
started, although I was even skinnier, if you can believe sometimes for days on end. It’s the muscle damage
that. I weighed a paltry itself, however, that turns on your body’s anabolic ma-
125 pounds when I first chinery through the activation of satellite cells, which
wrapped my hands around will eventually divide, multiply and fuse with existing
a barbell. In other words, I muscle fibers, making them bigger and stronger.
feel your pain. If you were to take a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory
I’d have to say no, you drug such as Advil to decrease muscle soreness, you’d
shouldn’t do any cardio at also decrease your body’s response to training by in-
this time. As you’re an ec- terfering with the very repair and healing process that
tomorph struggling to add causes muscles to hypertrophy. In other words, take
muscle and bodyweight, the pain if you want to gain. Drop that bottle of Advil
the last thing you want to and slowly back away. FD/FS training is definitely not
do is burn more calories
and increase your al-
ready racing metabolism
through cardio. You want
every calorie you eat to
be pointed toward muscle
repair and growth, even if
you store a little bodyfat
Neveux \ Model: Greg Smyers

along the way.

The best way to avoid
adding too much adipose
tissue while gaining size
is to make sure that you
eat a relatively clean
high-calorie diet. Try to
get the bulk of your calories from steak, eggs, milk,
chicken, fatty fish, protein powders, rice, pasta, pota-
toes, whole-grain breads, fruits and vegetables. While
the occasional pizza, ice cream and pancakes won’t
Neveux \ Model: Dave Perry

hurt you, make foods like that the exception and not
the rule.
Another point about cardio and the ectomorph is
that, in my experience, those with your body type tend
to have more limited recovery ability than most—not
so much in regard to individual muscles as systemic
recovery. That means overtraining is more of a con-
cern than with other body types. Thus cardio on top for the faint of heart or for those who shy away from
of weight training is not a good idea for us naturally discomfort. It’s a method for those who enjoy pain
skinny types (at least in the early bulking stages), as too while training and look forward to even more in the
much exercise will make too great an inroad into our days after.
recovery ability, which will all but bring muscle gains to It’s important to follow the nutritional guidelines of
a screeching halt. the program closely and to get as much rest and sleep
My advice is to train hard and heavy no more than as possible after each workout. While the fiber damage
four days per week, eat at least six clean, high-calorie serves as the trigger for muscle growth, you must give
meals per day and sleep seven to nine hours every your body everything it needs to complete the healing
night. That’s your simple yet reliable equation for mus- process from A to Z if you expect maximum results.
cle growth. IM

236 MARCH 2008 \

Free download from
Bodybuilding Pharmacology
by Jerry Brainum

Who Uses
Bonds’ Major League home-run record of 73 season hits
with awe, but that view was subsequently tainted by ru-
mors of Bonds’ extensive anabolic drug use. The fact that
such drugs are commonplace in baseball and many other

Bodybuilding sports is overlooked by the public and even sportswriters,

who should know better. Some jump to the inane con-
clusion that without drugs, Bonds would have been just
another mediocre ballplayer. Still, using drugs to attain ath-

Drugs and letic success is antithetical to the tenets of fair play in sport.
One obvious solution to the dilemma would be to legalize
anabolic drug use in sport, but that’s not likely.

Why In the case of teenagers, drug use is alarming because

teens are not yet mature either physically or mentally, and
some believe that steroids can have unusually dangerous
effects on the young. Reports of teens committing suicide
after using anabolic steroids have led adults to equate
If you were to believe reports in the popular media, youthful steroid abuse with the use of hard dugs, such as
you’d think athletes and teenagers were the primary users cocaine and heroin. Indeed, steroids are often character-
of anabolic drugs. The recent publicity about elite athletes’ ized as gateway drugs—that is, they tend to encourage the
use of illicit anabolic drugs—by track star Marion Jones and use of life-threatening controlled substances.
baseball’s Barry Bonds, for example—underscores the no- Lost in all the adverse publicity is the fact that the larg-
tion that steroid use is rampant in high-end sports. Alarm- est population using anabolic drugs is neither professional
ing reports pointing to widespread use of anabolic drugs by athletes nor teenagers but—according to a survey pub-
teenagers suggest that steroid use may be endemic in that lished in the Journal of the International Society of Sports
population too. Nutrition—white male professionals, average age 29.1
Athletic cheating through the use of drugs is repugnant The researchers recruited 1,955 male subjects through
to the majority of sports fans. Many initially viewed Barry the Internet as well as bodybuilding magazines and mass

240 MARCH 2008 \

Free download from
Bodybuilding Pharmacology
by Jerry Brainum

Who Uses
Bonds’ Major League home-run record of 73 season hits
with awe, but that view was subsequently tainted by ru-
mors of Bonds’ extensive anabolic drug use. The fact that
such drugs are commonplace in baseball and many other

Bodybuilding sports is overlooked by the public and even sportswriters,

who should know better. Some jump to the inane con-
clusion that without drugs, Bonds would have been just
another mediocre ballplayer. Still, using drugs to attain ath-

Drugs and letic success is antithetical to the tenets of fair play in sport.
One obvious solution to the dilemma would be to legalize
anabolic drug use in sport, but that’s not likely.

Why In the case of teenagers, drug use is alarming because

teens are not yet mature either physically or mentally, and
some believe that steroids can have unusually dangerous
effects on the young. Reports of teens committing suicide
after using anabolic steroids have led adults to equate
If you were to believe reports in the popular media, youthful steroid abuse with the use of hard dugs, such as
you’d think athletes and teenagers were the primary users cocaine and heroin. Indeed, steroids are often character-
of anabolic drugs. The recent publicity about elite athletes’ ized as gateway drugs—that is, they tend to encourage the
use of illicit anabolic drugs—by track star Marion Jones and use of life-threatening controlled substances.
baseball’s Barry Bonds, for example—underscores the no- Lost in all the adverse publicity is the fact that the larg-
tion that steroid use is rampant in high-end sports. Alarm- est population using anabolic drugs is neither professional
ing reports pointing to widespread use of anabolic drugs by athletes nor teenagers but—according to a survey pub-
teenagers suggest that steroid use may be endemic in that lished in the Journal of the International Society of Sports
population too. Nutrition—white male professionals, average age 29.1
Athletic cheating through the use of drugs is repugnant The researchers recruited 1,955 male subjects through
to the majority of sports fans. Many initially viewed Barry the Internet as well as bodybuilding magazines and mass

240 MARCH 2008 \

Free download from
mailings. The survey featured 291 questions about patterns to take steroids to get high, which strikes me as an odd
of drug use, where the drugs were obtained, which drugs question to have asked. Clearly, anyone who’s read enough
were the most popular and beneficial, side effects, user about steroids to know which drugs to use also knows they
profiles. Most of those who responded to the survey—as can’t alter consciousness—unless you include depression
you might not expect—were professional men earning when steroid use ceases.
above-average incomes. They Notably absent
were competitive and highly was a desire to
motivated people. One pos- compete in any type
sible weakness of this type of of contest, includ-
study is that more educated ing bodybuilding.
people, especially those with Only a minority
Internet experience, are more expressed interest in
likely to respond. Despite bodybuilding com-
that possible flaw, the study petition. In fact, the
answers matched previous majority were not in-
responses from other surveys volved in any sports
and seemed truthful. activity whatever.
The researchers rated the A rather surprising
effectiveness of 15 anabolic finding was that
steroid drugs. The most com- nearly 85 percent
monly used were testoster- had never competed
one injections, Dianabol and in bodybuilding.
Deca-Durabolin. The respon- While most of the
dents rated single and multi- younger respon-
ester (such as Sustanon) dents were highly
testosterones and trenbolone interested in gaining
as the most effective. Dosages more muscle mass,
ranged from 200 milligrams older respondents
to 5,000 milligrams per week, mentioned a strong
with an average of 500 to desire for significant
1,000 milligrams weekly. Also The reasons for using anabolic drugs range from more fat loss, something
popular were thermogenic, muscle mass and strength to enhanced appearance. that many past 40
or “fat-burning,” drugs, such
Lower bodyfat and more confidence also made the list. can relate to.
as clenbuterol and thyroid Nearly all respon-
drugs. Many also added dents began using
growth hormone, IGF-1 and steroids as adults.
insulin. Other drugs were used to offset possible side ef- Most had used them for an average of 5 1/2 years, rang-
fects, such as Clomid, Nolvadex and Arimidex, all of which ing from one to 43 years of cycling steroids. They reported
work to minimize estrogen-related side effects from the training an average of 11 years, working out four to five
steroid use. days a week. They also reported eating high-protein diets,
More than half the drugs used by those who participated half saying that they ate more than six to 10 daily serv-
in the survey used were obtained from Internet sites. Other ings of high-protein foods. They claimed they avoided
sources included friends or training partners, physicians’ fried foods and limited saturated fat intake, as well as
prescriptions and foreign countries—a pattern typical of sugar. Slightly more than a quarter said they took in large
drug use by professional bodybuilders and athletes. amounts of milk. Most admitted that they didn’t get the
As for the reasons for using anabolic drugs, most re- minimum of three to five servings of fruits and vegetables
ported wanting increased muscle mass and strength and daily.
enhanced appearance. Others listed increased confidence The majority of respondents reportedly used steroids
and bodyfat loss as goals. Nearly all users denied wanting for six months out of the year, with the longest continuous

The researchers rated the effectiveness of 15 anabolic

steroid drugs. The most commonly used were
testosterone injections, Dianabol and Deca-Durabolin.
Dosages ranged from 200 milligrams to 5,000
milligrams per week, with an average of 500 to 1,000
milligrams weekly. Also popular were thermogenic, or
“fat-burning,” drugs, such as clenbuterol and thyroid
drugs. \ MARCH 2008 241
Free download from
Jerry Brainum’s
Bodybuilding Pharmacology

The current focus on pro athletes and teens may

be just plain irrelevant because it ignores the
largest group of drug users—young white male
cycle being 12 weeks. Significantly, they obtained nearly effects. A respondent who declares having cycled anabolic
all the drugs needed for their cycles in advance, and each drugs for 43 years could hardly fit in the “healthful” catego-
cycle was thoroughly planned. ry, nor could the respondent who uses 5,000 milligrams a
While most expressed willingness to seek medical super- week—more than many pro athletes use. Reports of insuf-
vision and others obtained blood lab work, the consensus ficient intake of fruits and vegetables (less than three to five
was that medical professionals were not good sources of servings daily) are particularly troubling, since those nu-
information about anabolic drugs. Respondents felt that trients offer both health benefits and potential protections
public opinion of steroid dangers was overblown and inac- impacts against anabolic drug-related side effects.
curate and that opinion was promulgated by medical pro- In fact, mention of side effects was notably lacking in
fessionals who could not be trusted. the otherwise ostensibly complete survey. You might start
The authors, who included a lawyer experienced in thinking that nearly any anabolic drug use is totally safe, as
steroid-related cases, noted that many of those arrested as long as you use other drugs to counteract side effects and
dealers may have been users caught engaging in the com- cycle off now and then. Maybe so, for some, but it’s axiom-
mon practice of acquiring a stock of drugs in advance of a atic that others will suffer idiosyncratic medical reactions.
cycle. It may have looked like dealing even when that was Potential side effects are based on time and usage: The
not what was going on. Meanwhile, the authors also imply longer you use the drug in a quantity required to produce
that the current focus on pro athletes and teens may be just desired effects, the greater the risk of incurring adverse
plain irrelevant because it ignores the largest group of drug health effects. Another point that should go without saying:
users—young white male professionals. Only the dose determines the poison, meaning that any
I’m not buying into some assertions that the survey drug that is effective can also produce negative and unex-
makes. One is that most respondents are well-read on pected effects.
drug use and are careful to avoid health problems and side No medical professional or scientist can reliably predict
the long-term effects of consistent use of anabolics. Short
cycles of such drugs have largely proved innocuous for
most users, but no one can predict what’s up the line for
those who use them for long periods. Current research says
that nearly all side effects disappear when the drugs are
stopped, but there are always exceptions.
I’ve studied anabolic drug use for decades, and I’m mys-
tified by those who use drug regimens comparable to those
of professional athletes when they have no motivation to
compete in an organized sport. At least you can make sense
of athletic use—maybe not morally but in terms of the
athletic benefits that anabolics confer. Ironically, I’ve inter-
viewed countless professional bodybuilders and other ath-
letes who bemoan their use of anabolic steroids and other
drugs but feel that they’re a necessity for staying competi-
tive. Many have confided that they would love to get off the
drugs and intend to do so pronto when their competition
days are over. Contrary to public belief, they’re not cavalier
about anabolics. They express concerns about their future
health and are fully aware of the attendant risks attendant
of extensive long-term anabolic drug regimes.
Using drugs when you have no intention of competing
does nothing except gratify ego. That’s particularly true
when you consider how much progress you can make
even if you use no drugs. The notion that you can use large
amounts of anabolic drugs risk-free is a gamble.

1 Cohen, J., et al. (2007). A league of their own: Demo-

graphics, motivations and patterns of use of 1,955 male
For more drug insight, see Bill Starr’s “Life After adult non-medical steroid users in the United States. J Int
’Roids,” beginning on page 298. Soc Sports Nutr. 4:12-17. IM

242 MARCH 2008 \

Free download from
246 MARCH 2008 \
Free download from
Mike Davila and Jennifer Jo
Clifton, ’07’s Fittest Couple
by David Young at the ’06 Europa, where Mike won
Photography by Steven Elliott Hendrix
the Hot Male Bod Model Search and
JJ won the Hot Female Bod Model

ike Davila and JJ (Jen- Search. “After the show,” Jennifer
nifer Jo) Clifton cre- said, “the two of us were being pho-
ated quite a fire when tographed separately by everyone,
they stepped onstage but people wanted photos with the
in Pasadena for the ’07 Fittest Cou- two of us together. Out of nowhere
ple competition. The stage was filled some girl says, ‘Wow! You two look
with worthy pairs, but the future great together; ya’ll should date!’
firefighter and the hot hairstylist “I believe the two of us thought
grabbed attention immediately. that sounded pretty good. I then
They’d met several months earlier invited him to go out with my fam-
Contest Photography by Jerry Fredrick \ MARCH 2008 247

Free download from
248 MARCH 2008 \
Free download from
ily and friends for beer and pizza
(my favorite cheat meal after a
show). Ever since that evening
we’ve been inseparable.”
They decided to train together
for the IRON MAN FitExpo ’07
Fittest Couple contest—and it
was stressful. As Mike put it:
“We put ourselves through a
very strenuous program, and
that can be very tough on a
relationship. But we did it, and it
brought us closer.”
Let’s find out more about this
perfect pair.
DY: What are your re-
spective ages, heights
and weights?
JJ: I’m 26 years old and
5’3”. In the off-season
my weight is 125 to 130
pounds; for competitions I
lean out to 115 pounds. under his
MD: I’m 22 years old; I wing. He helped
weigh 185 off-season, 167 me with my training, food
for a show. I’m 5’11”. intake and supplements. I was 19 at
DY: How long have you the time. He’s a big part of why I am
been training? where I am today.
MD: I’ve been training DY: Bodybuilding involves a
since high school because lot of discipline, and discipline
of football. I got into body- is fueled by motivation. What
building two years ago. keeps you motivated for your
JJ: I’ve been training seri- training and diet?
ously for three years. JJ: I like to keep a vision of the
DY: How did you get lifestyle as well as the benefits that
started in bodybuilding I get from training hard—at least
and fitness? that’s how I stay motivated. The
JJ: I began working with lifestyle itself is very rewarding. We
my trainer, Wade Causey, both agree that we feel our best
three years ago, just for fit- mentally and physically when
ness and conditioning. Then we’re on top of our game. Also, I
one day he said, “JJ, you’d be look at all the other fitness and
a great fitness competitor; figure models and that inspires
you ought to give it a try.” me—people like Monica Brant
I didn’t take him too seri- and Jamie Eason.
ously at first, but the more I MD: JJ definitely keeps
thought about it, the more I me motivated. She’s one of
kept thinking, Why not give
“You need the most dedicated people
it a shot? So I began training to figure out I’ve ever met. I see how
like a bodybuilder for a year what your dedicated she is, and I get
and entered the Europa Super inspired. I also get moti-
Show in Arlington, Texas.
body requires vated by some of the top
That’s where I won the Hot and how to people and how intense-
Bod Model Search. accommodate ly they train—guys like
MD: Two years ago I met Branch Warren, who
a man named Doug Fagan.
your workout lives and trains not too
I saw him in my gym all the and eating far from where we live.
time. I started talking to him schedule to your DY: What type of
about weight training. He diet do you follow?
said he saw a lot of poten-
everyday life.” MD: My diet on-sea-
tial in me, and he took me son goes through several \ MARCH 2008 249

Free download from
DY: How
do you organize
your training week?
MD: We always lift a minimum of
four days a week, with six to seven
days of cardio.
DY: How much cardio do you
JJ: During my building stage I do
30 minutes six days a week. At eight
to 12 weeks out I’m doing 1 1/2
hours a day. My favorite cardio
machine is the stair climber. I keep
my heart rate at about 138 so that I
don’t burn too much muscle.
DY: Describe a typical train-
stages. The first half is the mass- JJ: Our favorite supplement is ing program for you, bodypart
building stage, where I’m eating Mega Cleanse. It’s a gentle detoxifier by bodypart.
more carbs and lean red meat. Then that is taken every day to keep you MD: We train together now, so
midway through I begin to reduce cleansed and free of buildup. We we do the same workout—but obvi-
the carbs. As I move into the last also love Isopure protein, Designer ously I use heavier weights.
several weeks, I eat mainly protein. Supplements Exceed and Super
Oatmeal and green vegetables are Charge.
Dumbbell bench
the only carbs I take in. Throughout DY: What are your goals re-
presses 4 x 15, 10, 8, 7
the entire process, I eat every two to garding bodybuilding and fit-
Incline presses 4 x 15, 10, 8, 7
three hours. ness?
Floor presses 4 x 12
After a competition, I take a MD: I’m training for conditioning
couple of weeks off and don’t worry and functional strength right now to
Cable flyes 4 x 12
about it as much. The rest of the off- get into the fire department. That’s
Pushups 4 x 25
season I continue with my normal my current training focus.
Bench presses (light burnout set)
diet—healthful high protein, whole JJ: We’re talking about getting
grains, good carbs and good fats, married and starting a family soon, Back
with one cheat day a week. so no competitions right now. I’m Low-pulley rows 3 x 12
DY: What are your favorite helping other girls with their prepa- Wide-grip pulldowns 3 x 12
supplements? rations. Superset

250 MARCH 2008 \

Free download from

Pulldowns 3 x 12 Leg curls 3 x 10

Low-pulley rows 3 x 12 Stiff-legged deadlifts 3 x 10
Seated calf raises 3 x 12
Standing calf raises 4 x 10-12
Dumbbell presses 3 x 12
Lateral raises 3 x 12 Abs
Front raises 3 x 12 Anything and everything
High pulls 3 x 12
Biceps DY: What do you think are the
Standing curls 4 x 12 key elements that lead to suc-
Preacher curls (with cess?
10-second negatives) 4 x 12 MD: The key element is having a
Barbell 21 curls 4 x 21 plan and sticking to it. Also know-
Superset ing your body. Everyone is different,
Hammer curls 4 x 12 and one thing does not work for
Concentration curls 4 x 12 everyone. You need to figure out
Triceps what your body requires and how
Skull crushers 4 x 12 to accommodate your workout and
Weighted dips 4 x 8-20 eating schedule to your everyday
Rope pushdowns 4 x 12 life.

Legs Editor’s note: Visit Mike and

Squats 1 x 15, 2 x 10, 3 x 8 JJ at
Lunges 3 x 15 jj_TheDynamicDuo or to contact
Hack squats 3 x 12 them for modeling or contest prep,
Leg presses 3 x 10 send e-mail to m_j_TheDynam-
Leg extensions 3 x 10 IM

Free download from


New Season Dept.

Bright Future
Stellar lineups at IM Pro and
ASC start off great ’08

By the time you have this edition of the News & Views in your
hands, the 2008 contest season will be ready to rumble. For the
19th year in a row the IRON MAN Pro will lead things off, followed
two weeks later by the 20th edition of the Arnold Schwarze-
negeger Classic. Based on early reports, both shows will field
magnificent lineups.
The IM Pro and Los Angeles FitExpo, which are set for February
15 through 17, will feature a change of venue this year; after four
seasons in Pasadena, promoter John Balik and company are
heading to downtown L.A., to the Los Angeles Convention Center,
adjacent to Staples Center and the brand-
new Nokia Theater. Phil
Since the contract deadline for the IM Heath.
is nearly a month off as I write this, I can’t
tell you exactly who’ll be in, for sure, but it’s
shaping up to be the best lineup in years.
Toney Freeman said a month or so ago Toney
on the MD radio Webcast that he’ll be back Freeman.
to defend his title. I had a feeling that would
happen after his spectacular success early
in 2007 was negated, somewhat, by his
shocking 14th-place finish at the Mr. O.
I heard that the 6’2”, 285-pounder out of
Atlanta, who has since that interview signed
with AMI, was ill before the O. I didn’t hear Samuel.
it from him, but it would make sense, as he
was coming off victories at the IM and the

Contest photography by Roland Balik, Merv and Keith Berson

Sac Pro and a third-place landing at the
Arnold Classic.
Was the X Man really under the weather at the Olympia? Was it
just precontest mistakes? Or was he, at 41 years old, just too tired
from the early-season contests to peak again? I think the man is still a
terrific bodybuilder, and his desire to prove just that will get him back
onstage in Los Angeles.
Another question: Will Phil Heath be joining him? Early on “the
Gift” told me he was going to open the year at the IM, which certainly
would make sense. A win here, or at least a very strong showing,
would carry over to Columbus, Ohio, and the Arnold two weeks later.
The 28-year-old from Denver packed on some impressive size in the
off-season; he looked very good at about 265 pounds when I saw
him at the Nationals in November, and a competition weight of around
235, up 10 to 12 pounds from last year’s Arnold (at 5’9”), is certainly
not out of the question.
Heath sat out the past two Olympias to “put on size,” he said. Now Johnnie
that he’s accomplished that, it’s time for Phil to compete, not watch from Jackson.

252 MARCH 2008 \

Free download from
But is this the ultimate SIX-PACK? THE PAST
fighting championship? Who’s getting Can you name
Pages 254-255 back onstage that contest in
at the Arnold? one guess?
Pages 254- Page 256


MAN Figure his seat. And another Freeman-Heath battle would certainly be a treat.
winners. Of course, a Freeman-Health-Samuel battle would be even better.
The winner of my Pro Bodybuilder of the Year award in 2007, Silvio
Samuel was a highly disputed fourth at the IRON MAN Pro last year,
and after winning the 210-and-under
Gary division as well as the main event at the
Strydom, Europa—and finishing a strong seventh
2006. at the Olympia—Silvio has earned the
right to be considered a precontest
Dawn favorite with Toney and Phil. Samuel
Kirkham, competed an amazing eight times last
Isaac Hinds \

Monica year and looked terrific in every single

Mark and contest, proving that it’s certainly pos-
Danielle sible to peak more than once—or
Edmonds. twice, or three times—in one season.
And let’s not leave out Johnnie
Jackson, who had one terrific 2007,
winning the Atlantic City Pro and then
earning an impressive ninth-place finish
at the O. Jackson is one of several top-
flight stars being trained by Milos “the
Mind” Sarcev.
Now, if Gustavo Badell jumps
into the fray, as rumored, things will
definitely get, as Ron Avidan is famous
for saying, “quite interesting.” The Fri-
can’ Rican, a former IM Pro winner, was
fourth at the ’07 Arnold and finished a
very disappointed eighth, one slot be-
hind Silvio, at the O.


THE IM STAGE—Eddie Abbew,
Marcus Haley, David Henry and
Hidetada Yamagishi, who finished
third, fifth, sixth and seventh, respective-
ly, last year, top the list here. Abbew, the
David best-built nurse in the world, has said
Eddie Henry. he’ll be coming in from England again to
Abbew. compete. Haley’s Comet finished fifth in
Marcus his first crack at the event, getting the benefit
Haley. of the show’s new status in 2007 as a top-five
Olympia qualifier.
Henry, second to Lee Priest in 2006,
fell a few slots last year, but don’t let that
fool ya. The guy might have been the most
conditioned athlete onstage at the O, where
he took 10th. Yamagishi ranked among the
most improved pros on the circuit last year
and became the first Japanese bodybuilder
to grace the Olympia stage. Plus, he always
DeShaun has a huge entourage of fans in the audience,
Grimez. which adds to the excitement of any show he
flexes in.

Ditto for Troy Alves, who’ll be returning \ MARCH 2008 253

Free download from
to the show after sitting out the 2007 edition. The 5’8”, 220-pounder Alves.
from Phoenix placed third in ’05 and ’06 and at 41, despite not qualifying
for the Olympia last year, still possesses one of the sport’s classiest phy-
siques. Always include Troy’s name in the battle for a top-five finish.
Two rookies—DeShaun Grimez and “Sting” Ray Arde—have told
me they’ll make their pro debuts in Los Angeles. Grimez won his pro card
by taking the heavyweights and finishing second to Ben White in the
overall balloting at the ’07 USA; Arde won the light-heavyweight crown at
the ’05 Nationals. I think both guys can hold their own on a pro stage.
Gary Strydom said at the Nationals that he’ll be competing in the
show this year. At 48, the 6’1”, 275-pound Strydom has defied the aging
process, and if he does follow through on his promise, he would be mak-
ing his first appearance at the IM since the initial event back in 1990.
I’m sure I’m missing some others who’ll be there come showtime—lo-
cals Will Harris and Omar Deckard and Arizona’s Rusty Jeffers
could be on that list. Harris has a tremendous physique and finished
behind only Silvio Samuel at the Europa. He looked great at the O, de- Omar
spite his out-of-the-top-15 finish. Will can definitely be a thrill in February. Deckard.
Oh, and the buzz out of New York is that King Kamali could be
jumping in the fray as well. As you know, Kamali adds excitement, on and
off the stage, to any show he competes in.
The IRON MAN NPC Figure competition returns to the festivi-
ties, with the overall winner receiving a photo shoot with Mi- King
chael Neveux, as usual. A new, positive twist to the ladies’ Kamali.
show—no limit on the number of contestants, so the lineup could
be the largest in its eight-year history.
The bodybuilding community suffered a great loss in Novem-
ber when Reg Park succumbed to melanoma at 79. Park will
be honored posthumously with this year’s Lifetime Achievement
Award. See Gene Mozée’s tribute to him on page 168.
For updates on the IRON MAN field (and the entire event), not
to mention the latest “The Experts” video, wherein Isaac Hinds,
Ron Avidan and I once more display our uncanny prognostica-
tion talents, log on to

Arnold Classic
FIELD OF DREAMS—Just as the Arnold Sports Festival
weekend keeps getting bigger, the Arnold Classic lineup keeps Will
getting deeper! The top six from 2007—Victor Martinez, Dex- Harris.
ter Jackson, Toney Freeman, Gustavo Badell, Phil Heath and
Silvio Samuel—are scheduled to get on the Veterans Memorial stage in
Columbus again on March 1.
In addition, the Marvelous One, Melvin
Anthony (fifth in the show in 2005 and ’06,
and sixth and fifth, respectively, in the past two
Olympias), and Kai Greene, the winner of my
Most Improved Bodybuilder award for 2007,
are prepping for the Classic. So promoter Jim
Lorimer’s latest lineup will have not only two
great physiques but also the two best posers in
the industry, in some people’s opinions.
The only big names from last season’s Olym-
pia that will be missing in Columbus are Jay
Cutler and the retired Ronnie Coleman.
The addition of Anthony and Greene makes it,
at least on paper, one of the greatest lineups in
the 20-year history of the show. For those who
may not remember, Rich Gaspari took the
initial crown back in 1989, with Robby Robinson in second and Gary
Strydom in third. Lorimer is rounding up as many past champions as
possible to honor at the finals. And who knows what other surprises Jim Wrestling and fencing at the Arnold
and his co-promoter, the Governator, are packaging? Sports Festival.

254 MARCH 2008 \

Free download from
Martinez copped his first Arnold win last year by
besting two-time champ Jackson, and the two went
on to finish second and third, respectively, at the
Olympia. Even so, Dexter felt he should have been
rewarded with his third straight ASC crown last year.
He’ll get another chance to prove who really de-
serves the $130,000 first prize.


SHOW—Last year, in addition to emceeing the
Arnold Classic, I got to host the extremely successful
NPC Arnold, a bodybuilding, fitness and figure event
that was added to the weekend. This season it will
include not only NPC athletes but also IFBB amateur
competitors from Europe, Asia and Canada. And it
will be run over three days rather than two.
“The Arnold Sports Festival is proud to announce
this historic collaboration between Rafael San-
tonja, president of the IFBB, Jim Manion, presi-
Melvin dent of the NPC, and Classic Productions,” said Jim
Anthony. Lorimer.
Added Santonja, “The IFBB is most pleased to
further our relationship with the Arnold Sports Festi-
val; the inception of this competition will create a premier opportunity for
amateur athletes all around the world.”
Bob Lorimer, co-director of the event with the Fitness Factory’s
Mike Davies, said, “We are thrilled to once again allow top amateur
athletes an opportunity to compete on the legendary Veterans Memorial
stage, where every icon of the sport has competed. This opens our com-
petition to international exposure and broadens the scope of the entire
sports festival.”
The Arnold Sports Festival showcases 12 Olympic sports, attracts
more than 17,000 athletes and features a 650-booth expo. New additions
include the Arnold Cycling Challenge, the USA Powerlifting Champion-
ships and a USA Weightlifting world team–qualifying event.
Of course, any discussion of the amazing weekend has to include
the return of the UFC Championships on Saturday night. Last year the
Kai 19,000-seat Nationwide Arena sold out in an hour—at an average of
Greene. $200 a ticket. The pay-per-view buys were through the roof.
Needless to say, those planning on getting their fannies to Columbus
this year better get their ducats immediately. See ya in Ohio.

Add NPC Contests

SOUTHERN BEAUTY—The annual Southern States
Bodybuilding, Fitness and Figure event, held July 13
and 14 at the War Memorial Auditorium in Fort Lauder-
dale, Florida, featured sublime champions and exciting
changes. No surprises there for anyone who’s followed
the prestigious competition’s growth over the years
“We added a novice class to both figure and men’s
bodybuilding so that athletes starting up the NPC ladder
would not be intimidated by those competing in the open
division,” said promoter Peter Potter. The 250 contes-
Isaac Hinds \

tants were equally divided among bodybuilding, fitness

and figure and represented 18 states. Some impressive
stats: 11 women in the open fitness competition and 15
in the teen men.
Karate in Columbus. Manuel Romero, a “definite future pro and a
look-alike to guest poser Victor Martinez,” accord-
ing to Potter, was a unanimous winner in the men’s bodybuilding. A 6’
232-pounder who’s been training for only four years, he has the goods
UFC at the Arnold. \ MARCH 2008 255

Free download from
to follow in the footsteps of both Martinez and
Dexter Jackson, the ’94 Southern States
champ, Peter said.
Only two times in the 28-year history of
the contest has a fitness or figure competitor
crossed over to bodybuilding and won the over-
all title there: Tammy Simpson in 1996 and
Stephanie Kessler, the ’06 Team Universe
overall winner and an ’07 Ms. Olympia competi- Robby
tor, in ’03. Now you can add Anastasia Mail-
lard to that list. Entering her first bodybuilding
contest, the 112-pound court officer easily took
and Gary
her class before scoring the overall win. Strydom
“The caliber as well as the quantity was ex- at the first
ceptional, as always,” said Ken Taylor, who Arnold
flew all the way out from Los Angeles to lead a Classic.
star-studded judging panel that featured eight
NPC national judges from four states. The
record book lists 16 former overall Southern
States winners who eventually moved on to the
pro ranks. This year’s class may well carry on
that tradition. Victor Martinez
Congrats to all involved. in ’07.

OHIO REPORT—On the subject of annual suc-

cessful shows, the dynamic duo of Todd Pember
and Dave Liberman produced another big one in
October, with 124 of the very best drug-free competitors
from the Midwest (not counting crossovers, which is the
only number that counts) stepping on the Lakewood
(Ohio) Civic Auditorium stage for the Natural Northern
Arnold Schwarzenegger and Jim
Ohio Championships. A large crowd viewed the event,
which drew competitors from 13 states. Tommy Rob-
ertson Jr. captured the men’s overall crown, with
Maria Bradley winning it all in women’s bodybuilding and Lauren Kryser taking
the figure title.
I met Robertson at the Nationals, where the impressive 5’5”, 165-pounder from
Cincinnati finished third in the welterweights. It was not his first time doing well at a
high-level contest, however: He won his class at the ’99 North Americans and was
third at the ’97 Junior Nationals. I really like Robertson’s physique, and I think the
35-year-old equipment operator has the tools to take his class at this season’s Team
Universe Championships in September. Remember, you heard it here first.
Bradley is a 5’5”, 140-pound personal trainer from Akron, Ohio, who has played
competitive handball in Brazil and Switzerland and who also has plans to flex at the
T.U. this fall. Kryser, who’s only 22, is a 5’3”, 125-pound special-education
instructor from Ravenna, Ohio, who placed fourth in her class at this contest
in 2005 and second at the Big Dust Classic.
Pro star Bill Wilmore guest posed, and IFBB figure pro Chastity

Sloane made a special appearance. Sloan was also promoting her Fitness
Layne Personal Training and Day Spa in Troy, Ohio. You can check it out at
Congrats to Todd and Dave on the continued success of this show, which
enforces a strict (and expensive) testing protocol. It’s the same test used in
the Olympic Games, and it detects the use of anabolic steroids, diuretics and
clenbuterol within the previous year.
Photo courtesy of Dave Liberman

GOTTA HAVE HEART DEPT—Last summer I returned to Gold’s Gym,
Pasadena, after an 8 1/2-year hiatus. I saw many familiar people at the facility
(which was previously known as World Gym, Pasadena) but in many instanc-
Ohio winners Robertson, Bradley and
256 MARCH 2008 \ Kryser.

Free download from

Michael es I knew the face, not the person. That was the situation with John Heart, one of
O’Hearn. the club’s most successful personal trainers.
I recognized him as “Payne” on “Battledome,” although some remember Heart
as the winner of the tall class at the ’01 Natural Mr. Universe. Formerly known as
John Sperandeo, the 6’1” 210-pounder was born and raised in New York and
came out to Cali in the ’90s.
In watching Heart work with clients, I could see he follows the Heavy Duty ideol-
ogy of the late Mike Mentzer. As it turned out, John worked with Mentzer in the
early 1990s. He started his personal-training business 15 years ago using Mike’s
principles. They must work—the 43-year-old remains in terrific shape year-round.
The personable Heart was more excited than usual on a particular day in mid-
October. No, he didn’t beat me in a posedown. His wife, Zalika, had just an-
nounced the good news that the couple’s third child was on the way.
To find out more about John, check out his Web site,,
where you can download new high-intensity-training programs.

THE RETURN OF “AMERICAN GLADIATORS”—It’s no surprise that multi-

time IRON MAN cover model Michael O’Hearn is one of the featured players
in the latest version of “American Gladiators,” a show that ran on cable TV in the
early-to-mid-1990s. A former high school football standout, premier bodybuilder
and champion powerlifter, O’Hearn starred in the original series and then had a spot
on “Battledome” a few seasons back.
This time around the show will appear on a major network, NBC, running weekly
on Monday nights. It was set to premiere on Sunday, January 6, with Michael in the
role of “Titan.”
Congrats also to Tanji Johnson (“Stealth”), Beth Horn (“Venom”) and Val-

erie Waugaman (“Siren’), who landed three of the seven positions on the ladies
side of the ledger. Another lass who made the cut is
strength athlete and figure competitor Robin Cole-
Isaac Hinds \

Ryan DeLuca. man, whom I met at Gold’s Gym, Northridge, in

October. It’s great exposure for some of the industry’s
A-list players. Doesn’t get any better than prime-time
TV, gang. I’ll be watching.

MOVIN’ ON UP DEPT—The honors keep

coming in for In December the
online Internet Retailer magazine named the Boise,
John Heart and L.T. Idaho–based company one of the top 100 Internet
do Heavy Duty. retail sites in the world. The list was chosen based on
striking and effective site designs, site search func-
tionality, risk taking in new technologies and setting
new trends in the Internet retailing industry.
“We are building something—this is not just based on
making money,” said Ryan DeLuca, CEO of the health
and fitness products e-retailer. “Everything we add to our
site is based on helping visitors stick with their programs
and reach their goals. That will ultimately lead to much

higher revenue, a much more valuable brand based on

emotional connections and more profitability based on
increased customer loyalty.”
On the subject of building, Ryan may have to come up
with some extra room in his garage since wife Bryna pre-
Ian Ware \ IAJE Photography

sented him with a brand-new custom

chopper, built by the famous Orange County Choppers, at
a surprise 30th-birthday bash thrown for Ryan at the Big
Easy in Boise.
Speaking of growth, their support for the bodybuilding
industry remains stronger than ever—
and promoter Jon Lindsay recently agreed to a multi-
Southern States champs (from left): Tom Toy, Manuel Romero, Anastasia year deal, in which the company will be the title sponsor for
Mallard, Gabriel Figueras, Christina Morales and Seine Silva. Lindsay’s annual USA megabash. IM
To contact Lonnie Teper about material possibly pertinent to News & Views, write to 1613 Chelsea Road, #266, San Marino, CA 91108; fax to
(626) 289-7949; or send e-mail to \ MARCH 2008 257

Free download from
A 19th-Birthday Photo Celebration
It’s hard to believe that 2008 is the IRON MAN Pro’s
19th year. The pro-season opener has been won by many
superstar bodybuilders—established big names as well as
those on the verge of breaking out—with a list of champs
that includes Shawn Ray,
Flex Wheeler and Jay Cutler. 2006
We’ve had a smorgasbord of
major muscle every year, and
this time will be no different.
To whet your appetite for the
fabulous physique athletes
who will be onstage at the
Los Angeles Convention
Center on February 16,
here’s a look back at all the
past winners.
—the Editors 1990



260 MARCH 2008 \

Free download from
Toney Freeman

Free download from

Lee Priest

262 MARCH 2008 \

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Gustavo Badell

264 MARCH 2008 \

Free download from
Dexter Jackson

Free download from

Jay Cutler

266 MARCH 2008 \

Free download from
Chris Cormier
1999, 2000, ’01, ’02

Free download from

Flex Wheeler
1993, ’95, ’96, ’97, ’98

268 MARCH 2008 \

Free download from
Vince Taylor

Free download from

J.J. Marsh

270 MARCH 2008 \

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Shawn Ray
(The first winner)

272 MARCH 2008 \

Free download from
• ’07 Pro Highlights
• Doings
• Columbus Bound
• Pump-Pourri

Photography by John Balik, Ruth Silverman, Roland Balik and Merv

Adela Garcia
claimed her
third Olympia

in a row—and
announced that
she’d take the
early season off
in ’08, skipping
the Fitness Inter-
national for the
first time since
she turned pro.
In eight straight
appearances at
the Columbus,
Ohio, megaevent
the chica supre-
ma earned eight
top-five finishes,
five of them in
the top three,
with two wins.

SISTER ACT Iris Kyle and Dayana Cadeau ended the year
exactly where they started—one and two. Iris was the
only athlete to win at the Arnold and the Olympia.

SEASON IN A NUTSHELL New pro Heather Policky (left) muscled into

the top three at the Ms. International, but by year’s close, Dayana,
Iris and Yaxeni Oriquen had retained their lock on the sport.
274 MARCH 2008 \
Free download from
Mary Lado
took her


second In-
crown and
then crashed
at the O.
She passed
on defend-
ing her title
in February
in order to

FAIRY TALES (CAN COME TRUE) Jenny Lynn got the guy
and won the Figure O—again. And it was the same guy,
Blair Mone.


1) Jen Gates went

from flavor of the 3
month to fourth at
the Figure O.
2) Second at the
’07 International,
Amanda Savell was
poised to move up at
the O, and she did,
to fifth—not quite
as high as some
thought she’d go.
Her exclusion from 1
the ’08 Figure I invite
list had folks scratch-
ing their heads.
3) Sonia Adcock,
the flavor of several
months during the
early season, strolled
past both of them to
finish third at the O.

4) Meanwhile,
Gina Aliottl kept a
careful eye on the
competition and left 4
them in her Olympia
dust, taking second 2
to Jenny Lynn. \ MARCH 2008 275

Free download from
Is fear of strutting
keeping you
from getting the
most out of your
quarter turns?
Let Nancy show
you how to find
your inner model.
PRIZE Jamie Reed
Veteran physique
didn’t get her pro
star and new
card last season,
IFBB pro Nancy

but the 5’8” struc-

Georges conducts
tural engineer
her popular Stage
from New York
Might figure-
did cop a prize
posing workshops
that was sought
in Pasadena,
by many in the
California, on
industry: a spot on
February 24,
NBC’s new “Ameri-
April 13 and July
can Gladiators.”
13. Get the
A summa cum
details (including
laude graduate of
hotel info) at
Cornell University,
Reed earned Ivy
League honors in
softball and the
pole vault, skills
that should serve
her well (along
with scrounging
for dressing space
backstage at the
USA) when she
unleashes her
powers as “Fury.”
For more on the
latest incarnation
of TV’s ultimate
game show, see
News & Views on
page 252.

Ron Avidan
YEAR-ROUND? The truth may be found on Scott
and Monica Brant-Peckham’s reality DVD series,
THEY’RE BA-A-ACK Adela Garcia, Jenny but I’m not promising anything. For info or to
Lynn and Susie Curry save the world from subscribe, go to
futuristic monsters—in color. Available
for $3.99 from DW
says: “Fitness models in spandex!” I say: MISS VICKIE’S SHOW
What’s wrong with that? What: First Annual
Vickie Gates Classic
When: May 3, 2008
Where: Dallas Black
Academy of Arts
Divisions: Bodybuild-
ing, Fitness and Figure
Also: A portion of
the proceeds will go
to several Dallas-area
nonprofit organiza-


hosts Nancy Di Nino (left) and Dr. Z. Catherine
Photo courtesy of Nancy Di Nino

Navarro (right) presented their first Living

Beautiful Award to Julie Palmer. Jules earned
the beautiful plaque—and a $1,000 check that
came courtesy of the Vein Centre of the Palm For info: Call
Beaches—“through her multifaced roles as a (817) 999-
professional athlete, trainer, girlfriend, busi- 5757, or send
ness associate and registered nurse.” Find e-mail to
more news about LBR on page 288. OndreaGates@
Free download from
BACK New Faces at
licked her the Arnold
Kim Klein
will de-
fend her


this reporter—and only because she got her pro card by taking second
TOUCHDOWN Julie Lohre improved in her class. (Those gals have a greater challenge in the pros—admit it.)
more than just her football skills in
2007. From the moment she hit the stage in Pittsburgh, however, Fry found
what she’d been missing, and she ended the year in eighth at the O.


Look for these outstanding athletes 2

onstage in Columbus on February 29:
1) ’07 NPC USA Figure champ Cath-
erine Anderson.
2) ’07 Team Universe Bodybuilding
champion Tracy Beckham.
3) Sizzling South American figure
pro Juliana Malacarne.
For crackling commentary on all
things women’s bodybuilding,
fitness and figure, read my
Pump & Circumstance blog at 1 \ MARCH 2008 277
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shows the
how it’s
done at
the Cal Pro

Janet Kearns-
Koehler pumps
up some
beautiful figure
muscle at the
Pittsburgh Pro.

Left: Heidi Fletcher’s roller-

coaster year ended with fourth
Welcome aboard. Jen Hendershott place in West Palm Beach.
greets newcomer Amy Villa Nelson Below: Mary Jo Cooke scored
at the Fitness International. five runner-up finishes in 2007.
That’s gotta be some kind of
Photography by Ruth Silverman a record

Roland Balik

Toughest interview of all time. Watch Steve

teach me how to accentuate the positive—in
the Olympia videos at

Hot rocks. Åsa Lötbom was

the most blingalicous babe
at the Olympia. The two-time
Swedish Middleweight champ
is a jewelry designer who does
amazing things with Swarovski

Congratulations! Fresno’s
Farinaz Tavakoli, D.C., partied
at the O and then won the
figure overall at the NPC San
Francisco a week later. Nice
chatting with you, Doc.
Pauline BEAUTIFUL RADIO Catch me
Nordine Colorful. Briana Tindall and on Nancy Di Nino and Dr. Z.
presents Kristi Tauti make a pretty back- Catherine Navarro‘s radiofest
arms at the stage pair. for women on February 7 at
Soldiers 11 a.m. EST and downloadable
Isaac Hinds \

and Sailors forever at www.LivingBeautiful

Memorial (with a broadcast
Hall in from WWNN 1470 AM
Pittsburgh. Radio Palm Beach Florida on
February 11 at 6 p.m. EST).
Costumer Cynthia James takes the pins out The topic: Handicapping
of her mouth long enough to pose with her the Ms., Fitness and Figure
creations—and the ladies who wore them so International competitions. I’m
well, Amy Haddad and Tracey Greenwood. so looking forward to it.

You can contact Ruth Silverman, fitness, figure and women’s bodybuilding reporter and Pump & Circumstance scribe, in
care of IRON MAN, 1701 Ives Ave., Oxnard, CA 93033; or via e-mail at

Free download from

IRON MAN Hardbody

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’07 Ms. Bikini
Marzia Prince Has One Out-of-This-World Physique
Compiled by Jonathan Lawson • Photography by Michael Neveux
Hair & Makeup by Alex Almond \ MARCH 2008 285

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Height: 5’9”
Age: 33
Weight: 135
Current residence: Dallas,
Occupation: Fitness specialist,
model and athlete
Marital status: Married
Factoids: “I’m the ’07 Ms. Bikini
Universe, a Gaspari Nutrition
spokesmodel, and I’ve been a
fitness trainer for six years. I
got started in the fitness world
through sports in high school. I
ran track and played volleyball,
but it wasn’t until I was in nurs-
ing school that I hired a fitness
trainer. I was addicted from day
one, so I quit nursing school
after three years and became a
trainer myself. I absolutely love it
and have no regrets.”
Future plans: “Besides run-
ning my own personal-training
business and shooting for fitness
magazines, I’m doing a reality
series on Bodybuilding
.com. I show viewers what it’s
like in my world, and I’ll be
doing a client transformation
there as well. I get a lot of fan
e-mail from women, and I hope
that my fans get some of their
questions answered by watching
the series. I’d like to have my own
show one day, so this is going to
be great practice!”
Web site: or
For bookings contact

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The Return of Uncle Buddy
by Bill Starr Photography by Michael Neveux
I was enjoying bluegrass music out of Marion, Virginia, late one Friday night,
when Uncle Buddy knocked on my door. He brought in a 30-pack of Miller
and a sword from Scotland, where he’d been for the past month, entertaining
one of his many lady friends. This time it was Heidi, an American Airlines flight
attendant. I’d met her on a previous visit, and she was a knockout, a slightly
older version of Torrie Wilson.
Uncle Buddy was a merchant seaman with an unusual lifestyle. He’d sign on
a ship and never take any time off for six or seven straight months. When he’d
accumulated enough money, he’d hook up with one of his ladies and travel to
some very desirable location, such as Italy, France, Greece or the British Isles.
When his money ran out, he’d go back to work. There was always a place for
a worthy seaman, he told me. On nearly every furlough he’d come to visit me.
He had other relatives but never bothered with them. We had common interests
in music, athletics and politics and so got along very well.
We were also both consistent about our training, which was perhaps the
main reason he’d drop by. I always provided him with a place to train. Uncle
Buddy was extremely generous, but he hated to pay to work out. He’d go to \ MARCH 2008 299

Free download from
great lengths to avoid laying out to stand rather than squeeze into
even five bucks to lift. So I always an uncomfortable seat. After Buddy
managed to have a guest pass for bought a baseball from the shop
him or take him to someone’s home inside the stadium, we found a
gym. It was a fair deal for me, since spot with a nice breeze and leaned
he paid for everything else when he against a support beam. While keep-
stayed with me. ing a lookout for any stray
We stayed up till four a.m. talking foul balls, we
and slept past noon. Then I fixed a
huge ham-and-cheese omelet, and chatted
we lounged around watching beach and scanned
volleyball and baseball. Saturday is the crowd in
my slug day, and Uncle Buddy said hopes of spotting
he was taking a day off as well, so Cal.
we didn’t have to plan around any We’d been there for
training. only about 15 minutes when
That evening, after crab cakes at I saw Ken walking toward us, grin-
Grumpy’s, I drove him over to Rip- ning like a Cheshire cat. “Well,” he
ken Stadium, where the Aberdeen blurted, “if it ain’t the hermit and
IronBirds were playing the Oneonta his famous uncle. Good to see you
Tigers from upstate New York. The guys.” Uncle Buddy and I shook his
real reason for going to the stadium hand.
wasn’t to watch the game as much We’d trained with Ken on several
as to see whether Cal was in atten- occasions when Fielder’s Shed was
dance. He’d recently been inducted the place for heavy lifting in the
into the Baseball Hall of Fame, and county. It’s since been replaced by
Uncle Buddy wanted to get him to a three-car garage. Ken owns and
autograph a baseball for the son of a operates a highly successful survey-
lady friend. ing business and was one of the best
The place was packed, and all athletes to come out of North Har- “We’re just watching a game. We
we could get were standing-room- ford High School. He was got time. You been sick?” Buddy
only tickets. That was fine with us all-conference at Gettys- said.
because we both pre- burg College and went “Guess you might say that. Okay,
ferred on to play three years I’ve been wanting to come down
of Arena football before and talk to Bill anyway about this
becoming a powerlift- whole deal. I’ve tried calling but
er. At one time he was only get your fax. Truth is, I’m at a
ranked in the top 10 loss for what to do right now. I know
in his weight division, I need to do something, but I’m not
the 220-pound class. sure how to go about it.”
I hadn’t seen him “Why’d you stop training?” I in-
for a long time and quired.
was stunned at his “I’ll start at the beginning of
appearance. He’d the ordeal, in 2003. I was training
gone from being a for the Nationals to be held out
stout athlete to a in Columbus, which is a lot closer
slumping, over- than it usually is, so I wouldn’t have
weight shell of to take much time off from work.
his former self. I My lifts were all moving up nicely,
didn’t comment and I was getting psyched. If I kept
because I fig- improving, I had a shot at placing.
ured he’d been Then I started getting these head-
sick, but Uncle aches—migraines—and I seldom
Buddy didn’t got headaches. I figured it was from
hold back. working out in the sun for so long.
“What the hell We’d been really busy with all the
happened new buildings going up. I remem-
to you?” he ber Bill telling me to take lots of the
asked in his water-soluble vitamins and miner-
typical blunt fashion. als in hot weather. It helped some,
“It’s sort of a long story,” Ken but I still got those splitting head-
muttered. aches a couple times a week. I didn’t

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say anything to Helen, but they were
wearing me down.
“Then, during one heavy workout
I got nosebleed when I did my heavy
set of squats. I didn’t think it was a
big problem, only some weak tissue,
and I was putting out 100 percent
on that squat and didn’t plan on
telling Helen. But damn if she didn’t
spot the bloody towel in my gym
bag, and that’s when the shit hit the
fan. She’s never liked the idea that I
took steroids and insisted that I go
to our family doctor to get checked
out. She even tagged along just to
make sure I didn’t skip the appoint-
“Bad news?” Uncle Buddy asked.
“From the get-go. First thing he
did was check my blood pressure,
and he nearly dropped his stetho-
scope. It was off the charts, 190 over
130.” once, how they affect you depends and maintain a respectable level of
“Good grief,” Uncle Buddy said, on lots of other factors: age, diet, strength.
and I whistled. how many other foods you eat that “For about a month everything
“He didn’t tell me what it meant place undue demands on your liver. was okay. My lifts dropped but not
exactly, except to say I was lucky Then there’s always the matter of too much. Then I started losing
that I didn’t have a stroke. Either of individual differences.” weight. I chugged down protein
you know?” “He took some blood for a liver shakes and ate throughout the day
“That’s more my nephew’s terri- function test and gave me some to keep it up. All of a sudden, my
tory,” Uncle Buddy said. medicine to help lower my blood appetite went south, and my energy
“The first number in the blood pressure and in no uncertain terms level dropped to zero. I couldn’t
pressure reading,” I said, “measures told me not to take any more ’roids. make it through a complete workout
systolic pressure, the force exerted He put a rush on the liver function without having to lie down between
against the walls of the arteries test and called me two days later. sets. Even when I cut my program
when the heart beats and pushes He wanted to put me in the hospital way back, I still couldn’t do a full
blood out into them. The second because my liver was in such bad workout. It was really discouraging.
figure is your diastolic pressure, the shape, but I refused. I was way too “When I went back to the doctor
force exerted when your heart rests busy to be lying around in a hospital for a follow-up, he ran more tests.
between beats. Both are way too bed and I felt okay. The headaches My liver was much better because
high, but that diastolic is the scary had stopped. I agreed to do what- I’d also eliminated alcohol and any-
one. And he told you it was due to ever he told me, but no hospital.” thing else that made it work harder.
taking steroids?” “How much and what were you My blood pressure had dropped to
“Well,” said Ken, “I hadn’t men- taking?” Uncle Buddy wanted to 160 over 110—not good but getting
tioned them yet. I was hoping it know. there. I asked him why I was losing
might be some kind of virus or flu “Lately just Deca-Durabolin,” weight and strength so fast, and he
bug. But when he asked me to tell Ken said. “I’d start with one cc a told me it was because my testos-
him all the medication I was tak- week and slowly increase the dosage terone level was way below normal.
ing, I told him about the ’roids. He over a two-month period. When the He said the glands that produce
wasn’t happy because he knew I headaches started, I was up to three testosterone had almost shut down
didn’t get them from him. But even ccs twice a week.” because of the ’roids. I’d never heard
then, I wasn’t positive they were the “Damn!” Uncle Buddy grunted. anything about that before. You?”
source of my problems. I’d always “You were a human pincushion.” “Sure,” I said. “Lots of times when
heard that injectables were safe. It’s Ken laughed. “You can say that high dosages are used. The ’roids
the oral kind that cause trouble.” again. My ass was always sore.” are basically just synthetic forms of
“Not completely true,” I an- “That’s when you quit training?” the male hormone. When you over-
swered. “The injectables are usually I asked. load your system with any kind of
safer than orals, but they’re not safe- “No,” he said. “I stuck with it. I steroid, your body stops producing
safe. While the orals put more stress knew I wasn’t going to be nearly testosterone. It’s kind of a defense
on your liver than the injectables as strong as I was and had to for- mechanism to prevent you from
because they pass through your get about the Nationals, but I still overwhelming your liver, kidneys
liver twice and the injectables only wanted to stay in decent shape and other organs. Your body is

302 MARCH 2008 \

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You Can Get
always trying to maintain equilib-
rium. In your case your hypothala-
“So what prompted you to quit
altogether,” I asked. Bigger,
mus—which controls the nervous
and endocrine systems—sent sig-
“Well, I started getting injured,”
Ken replied. “First came my lower Stronger
nals to your testicles that there was
plenty of testosterone available and
back, then my right knee, then my
right shoulder. I decided to give my and Leaner
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they’ll recover, but it may take some “And you never started back,” said build more muscle size and strength as your
time. Uncle Buddy. abs get razor sharp and you get ripped.
That’s the attention-grabbing look you want
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slob and sure as hell didn’t 30s, but it isn’t. If you obtain your
want my old training bud- goal of getting completely back in
dies to see me like this. But I shape before that, well and good.
made up my mind a few days If it takes a bit longer than a year,
ago that I’m going to make that’s all right too. It’s the process,
some changes. Thing is, I’m the journey, more than the desti-
not sure how to go about it. nation, that’s of value.”
That’s why I wanted to talk Ken sighed. “I guess you’re right.
to you guys. Bill, I know you No sense trying to get in a hurry if
used ’roids at York when I’m planning on training the rest
you lifted for them, so you of my life. But I sure don’t look
must have gone through the forward to starting from scratch,
transition when you stopped especially if any of my old buddies
taking them,” are around.”
“I did, and so did everyone “I wouldn’t worry about that,” I
else. It was easier for some said. “There are a lot of new gyms
than others, and a few kept in the area, and you could pick
right on using until some one where no one there knows
health issues forced them to you. There’s even a 24-hour facility
stop. I can’t say it was easy in town that would let you train
for me because I relished when you pleased or when it’s
being strong, but soon after almost empty.”
I stopped competing, I got Uncle Buddy spoke up. “Or you
into strength coaching and could train at home. Buy some
couldn’t justify telling my used equipment from the classi-
athletes that they had to fied ads and build your own gym.
stay clean while I was taking You save on gym memberships,
steroids. But then I remem- It’s the process, the and it’ll give you flexibility as to
bered why I got interested journey, more than when you train.”
in lifting in the first place the destination, “I know you’re right,” Ken said.
back in my teens. I wanted to that’s of value. “It could have been a whole lot
look good, be fit and healthy. worse. I like that idea of putting
Once you’re able to alter your together my own gym. Then Helen
mind-set from being super could use it too, and when Luke
strong to being extremely gets old enough, I could start him
healthy, the rest comes naturally.” stop using ’roids for about the same on a program. Now, how should I
“You might think you got a bad reason you did. He took up running proceed?”
break when those headaches and with the goal of eventually running “Slowly,” I answered. “Start with
nosebleeds came along,” Uncle in the Boston Marathon. It took him the basics: one primary exercise for
Buddy said, “but I have to believe six years, but he did it.” your upper body, back and legs. For
you were lucky they happened. “I doubt if I’ll start running,” Ken the first week just do three sets; then
Sounds like you were a walking said, “but I hadn’t considered Olym- slowly work up to five or six sets for
time bomb, a heartbeat away from a pic lifting. I always wanted to give five reps. You can stay with the same
stroke or heart attack. You only got a that a try.” basic exercises at every workout
slap on the wrist, health-wise. You’re I thought about my friend Jack or switch them around if you want
young, what? Thirty-two?” King and related his story. He did variety.”
“Thirty-four.” end up in a hospital because of “Such as? Give me some exam-
“So you got a lot of living ahead of steroids and nearly died. After he ples.” He was scribbling on the back
you. It’ll help if you have something got out, he found that the Olympic of the game program.
to shoot for.” lifts were too hard on his weakened “Okay, you may decide to only
“Like what?” body, and he became a competitive do benches, squats and deadlifts
“When we trained together at bodybuilder. Over the years he won for a while. Or alternate benches
the shed one time, you were doing every physique title in the South, with inclines and overhead presses
power snatches and seemed really including the Master’s Mr. America. for your upper body; deadlifts,
smooth. How about Olympic lift- “Uncle Buddy’s right,” I said. power snatches or power cleans and
ing? All those guys are clean, so you “Having a goal helps, and the goal shrugs for your back; and lunges
wouldn’t be at a disadvantage the can change regularly. Equally im- and front and back squats for your
way you would in powerlifting. Al- portant is to give yourself time to get legs.”
though I was looking at Powerlifting back into shape. Figure on a year.” Ken nodded that he understood,
USA this afternoon and saw results I saw his mouth drop open, so I so I went on. “After two or three
for natural contests. I had a good continued: “I know, a year sounds weeks, or when you feel you’re re-
friend from Colorado who had to like a long time when you’re in your covering from the workouts, add a

304 MARCH 2008 \

Free download from
couple of auxiliary exercises for the that you stopped taking supple- carries harmful fats out of your
smaller muscles: biceps, triceps, ments once you quit training.” system. Ease into whatever activ-
deltoids and calves.” “That’s right. Didn’t think I need- ity you choose: 20 minutes at first,
“How often should I train?” ed them.” then slowly increasing to 45 minutes
“Three days a week at first. When “Well, start back. They’ll help you to an hour. That’s something else
you think you’re ready to handle a train with more intensity and re- Helen could do with you, and you
heavier workload, add another light cover faster. Recovery is the key. You can walk anywhere.”
day. Be sure to use the heavy, light also need to start paying attention “Speaking of Helen,” Ken said, “I’d
and medium concept that you used to your diet and make sure you get better get back. I only came down to
when you were powerlifting. One of the rest you need. I doubt if you’ll buy a baseball for Cal to sign.”
the hardest things you’re going to like this, but also start doing some “Cal’s here!” Uncle Buddy barked.
have to deal with is forgetting about cardio on your nonlifting days.” “Yeah, upstairs. The whole fami-
what you did before, ‘Ole Man Usta He grimaced. “I hate the idea of ly’s here. Helen was talking to Cal’s
died,’ my mother would often say, running.” wife, Kelly, so she won’t mind that I
and it applies to anyone getting “I didn’t say running. Pick any abandoned her. I’d take you up, but
back into a strength program. Start aerobic activity that suits you. Walk- you can’t get in the elevator unless
with a clean slate. That’s the difficult ing is fine. So is swimming, biking you have tickets.”
part, but on the flip side you have or using a treadmill or any other “Could you get Cal to sign this
advantages over a rank beginner. machine. Remember what you’re ball? To Brian?”
You have muscle memory and un- trying to accomplish with your “Sure thing. Least I could do. Be
derstand how your body works and program this time around—long- right back.”
what you can and cannot do. You’ve term health and fitness, not just “That was a stroke of luck,” I said.
already beaten the numbers you’ll pure strength. The cardio will help “Who’s Brian?”
be working through. That’s a huge you get rid of the unwanted pounds “He’s Elizabeth’s son. They live in
plus. The danger is that you’ll try to you’re lugging around, reduce your Carmel. I plan on stopping by on
get back in prime shape too quickly. risk of heart disease and elevate my way to San Francisco next week.
I’m guessing your HDLs—the good kind of cho- That’s my next port of departure.”
lesterol that True to his word, Ken was back
with the signed ball quickly.
Uncle Buddy thanked him, and
Ken said, “No, thank you two. I
Remember feel like a heavy weight’s been
what you’re lifted off my shoulders just
trying to knowing that I’m about to start
accomplish training again. I didn’t realize
with your how much I missed it until I
program talked to you two. Any way I can
this time get in touch with you?” he asked
around—long- me.
term health “I’ll be here for the kids’ world
and fitness, series in a few weeks.”
not just pure “That’ll work. See you then,
strength. and thanks again.” Ken waved
and hurried off toward the eleva-
“What say we head back to
your air-conditioned apartment,”
Uncle Buddy said, “and knock
down some very cold Miller? I’ve
had enough baseball for one day.”
“Excellent idea.”

Editor’s note: Bill Starr was a

strength and conditioning coach
at Johns Hopkins University from
1989 to 2000. He’s the author of The
Strongest Shall Survive—Strength
Training for Football, which is
available for $20 plus shipping
from Home Gym Warehouse. Call
(800) 447-0008, or visit www.Home- IM

306 MARCH 2008 \

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Another Day of Scheming
And daydreaming
2) Seeking lean muscle only is a frustrating mission, as

his month I’m compelled to dash off a sally of little-
known weight-gain proposals (low-tech facts, free-form few—I’ve known three or four—are blessed with the supe-
ideas, unstructured notions and educated guesses) that rior metabolism and genetic blueprint to succeed readily.
work for most people. They’ve worked for me for more than Waiting for lean muscle to grow, meanwhile, is like watching
50 years. a pot of water—it never boils.
Eat better, train harder, be tougher, think surer, and rest, 3) Though lean mass is the desired goal, gaining muscle
well, morer. mass, or bulk, a solid composition of muscle and essential
Of course, there’s always the slightly expanded version: adipose tissue, is the more common achievement of size-
conscious muscle builders.
1) Late flash! Gaining lean muscle weight is a slow process.
Lots of good food, hard training, guts and persistence 4) Well-distributed bulk is appealing, useful and reward-
required. You mustn’t pursue weight gain randomly or sur- ing for most lifters with long-term goals and a tolerance for
render to the tediousness of the process. Backward steps temporary bodybuilding smoothness. Proper bulk provides
are too hard to recover. Never give up. strength and energy to overload the muscles during a
workout and plenty of tissue-building resources for muscle
5) Guess what? The lifter must eat
more and better meals—a balance
of complete protein, nutrient-dense
carbs and non-greasy-fat meals.
Eat smaller portions more frequently
throughout the day without failure
for better nutrient absorption, more
consistent tissue building and less
system overload. Break out the
Tupperware, and embrace the rou-
tine of preparing meals for the road.
Missed meals are backward steps.
6) Drink lots of water. I repeat—
water, water and water. No soda
pop. Soda is a crime, water divine.
While on the subject, no junk, no
garbage, no kidding.
7) Most serious muscle build-
ers drink milk, eat dairy and eggs
and include red meat in their diet.
There’s more: A quality protein pow-
der as a dietary supplement and
meal fortifier is a most effective and
convenient weight-gain tool.
8) Remember: Fresh fruit and
salads are invaluable for weight
gain, health and system vitality.

308 MARCH 2008 \

Free download from
EFAs from olive
oil, flaxseed and Problem Solving
fish add health
to the body and
calories to your
Sleep on It
diet. I periodi-

cally forget to in- ave you ever
clude everything awakened in
and suspect you the morning
do too. Living with the answer to

Neveux \ Model: David Perry

foods and es- a question you were
sential fats are pondering the night
great warriors before? Maybe you
and supportive were trying to figure
cheerleaders. out a puzzle, and the
Lock and load!
next morning you
Go, muscles, go!
solved it. Apparently,
9) Drugs and chemical enhancers are out of the picture. sleeping helps us or-
They work hastily to supply greedy needs, but so do petty ganize our thoughts.
theft and grand larceny. Getting something for nothing is for In a Harvard study,
nobody and no one. Once you open the outhouse door, it’s reported on in the October ’07 Prevention, subjects were
tough to shut. Stinky too.
given brain teasers, and many were much more likely to
10) Workout sessions, along with meal regularity, take solve the problem after a good night’s sleep. According to
center stage. Know yourself, know your training, and per- lead researcher Matthew Walker, Ph.D., “Sleep can knit
sistently bomb it without overtraining and without failing. ideas together: You go to bed with pieces of the puzzle
Common sense, instinct, practice, trial and error, observa- and awaken with the picture complete.” So, according to
tion and time teach and guide. Missed workouts are back- the study, if you have a tough problem, sleep on it.
ward steps.
—Becky Holman
Limit your aerobics schedule to three 15-minute blasts a
week and think training intensity. An acquaintance of mine
doesn’t do any aerobic activity, convinced it interferes with
his mass gains and muscle retention. He adds the con-
served time and energy to his regimen of intense weight
training, believing his thus-amped training is sufficient for Emotions
cardiovascular health.
11) Rest and relaxation are as important as drive and vital- Anger
ity to developing lean muscle. Sleep well, rest and de-stress
regularly, and meditate on building a strong body and mind Danger
and soul when musing.

12) Remember the words of one of the greatest lifters in study of
the world, Sir Winston Churchill, “Never give in. Never give people
in. Never, never, never, never.”
Farrally \ Model: Mike Icolari

50 years
The secrets are revealed, the buried treasures uncovered, old and older
the gems of truth fixed in settings of gold. Light replaces dark-
ness. found that those
Peculiar thing about muscle-building secrets: There aren’t who expressed
any. anger by yelling
When you’re a bomber, nothing is new. The only thing
remaining is hard work, love, hope and faith. and becoming agi-
Throttle forward, steady as she goes, soar... tated were more likely to have calcium deposits in their
—Dave Draper coronary arteries. In other words, screamers are more
apt to have a heart attack than those who suppress
Editor’s note: For more from
Dave Draper, visit www.Dave anger. It’s believed that outwardly expressing anger and sign up for his free causes a temporary high in blood pressure, which can
newsletter. You can also check out damage blood vessels. This finding runs counter to the
his amazing Top Squat training tool,
classic photos, workout Q&A and belief that “you need to let it out.”
forum. —Becky Holman \ MARCH 2008 309

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MIND/BODY BodySpace Physique of the Month MIND/BODY

Maria Rogers
f you want the fashion accessory of the decade, a great
body is a good place to start—and Maria Rogers won’t
have to go shopping to get hers. At 5’8” this girl has a
body that was made for wearing clothes—a lot or a little. It’s
all part of the benefit of having a master’s degree in nutrition
and loving a good workout.
Maria made her NPC figure competition debut in 2006
at the Orange County Muscle Classic. She also did the San
Diego Bodybuilding and Figure Championships and took first
in her class at the prestigious ’07 California Bodybuilding,
Figure and Fitness Championships. That qualified her for the
’07 USA, which was held in Las Vegas last summer, where
she placed fourth in her class. Not bad, considering that she

Photography by Ian Sitren \ SecondFocus

was pretty much a beginner.
Maria first got interested in health and work-
ing out while playing volleyball in high school.
Then the Grecian beauty, who does speak
Greek, not only got a master’s degree in nutri-
tion from Cal State Fullerton but also became
certified in alternative nutrition.
You’ll soon be seeing her new clothing line of
active and casual wear, MaryMee, in gyms and
boutiques. She’ll also be back on the competi-
tion stage in ’08, going for her IFBB pro card.
For more on Maria Rogers, check out her
profile at
—Ian Sitren

Editor’s note: For more BodySpace bod-

ies and info,
visit www

310 MARCH 2008 \

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Take a Bite Out of Stress

odybuilders are familiar with cortisol, the stress hormone
that can eat hard-earned muscle tissue. New research
says it can cause your gums to recede as well. A Brazilian
study suggests that
those with high cor-
tisol are more prone
to peridontal disease.
Cortisol impairs the
immune system, which
encourages bacteria to
munch on your gums.
High-strung individu-
als should brush more
often and perhaps take
a phosphatidylserine supplement. PS is a soy lipid that has been
shown to reduce cortisol by 30 percent (see page 164).
—Becky Holman

New Stuff
ushups are a great
upper-body exer-
cise, and simple new
devices are making the
move even better. A set
of pushup handles called
HotPex makes the exer-
cise more comfortable and
ergonomically correct while
increasing the range of motion. Here’s what Brad Harris, Hollywood stuntman
hall-of-famer and HotPex
creator, had to say about
“After 60 years of per-
forming pushups in every
position I could dream of, in-
cluding with a pair of crudely
homemade wooden handles
that I carried with me around
the world for several years
during my career as a stunt-
man, stunt coordinator and
star of a slew of foreign
films, I finally came up with
HotPex. I’ve tried just about
every other pushup handles
on the market place, and
HotPex are the best—forget
the rest.”
For more information, visit

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Creatine taurinate. A novel to enhance insulin sensitivity, forc-
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carnosine (beta-alanyl-L-histidine),
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Glycine. An amino acid that’s
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creatine, glycine can facilitate insu- (1999). Creatine: A review of efficacy
lin-mediated uptake of glucose into and safety. J Am Pharm Assoc.
muscle tissue. It also plays a key 39(6):803-810.
role in the synthesis of a number of Gannon, M.C., Nuttall, J.A., and
biologically important compounds, Nuttall, F.Q. (2002). The metabolic
including proteins, ATP, glycogen response to ingested glycine. Am J
and hemoglobin. Clin Nutr. 79:1302-1307.
L-lysine HCI. Required for the Irving, C.S., et al. (1986). Lysine
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MIND/BODY Gallery of Ironmen MIND/BODY

Luisita Leers

Photos courtesy of the David Chapman collection

t was long
thought that
women were
not supposed to lift
weights, do heavy
exercise or build
muscles. They could
do all the housework
they wanted, but if
they dared pick up
a dumbbell, then
at best they would
become uppity and
mannish, and at worst they would Bros. Barnum & Bailey Circus that
kill themselves. That attitude began her stardom was secured. Louise
to break down in the early 20th and her father were brought to
century, when it came as something America, and from 1929 to 1936 she
of a shock to both genders that was a famous and much-loved big-
women could indeed build impres- top performer. At some point she
sive muscles. changed her name to a more Latin
One conclusive proof was a and exotic form, and thus became
mighty woman who put many men “Luisita.”
to shame with her superbly muscled The performer’s most famous
arms and upper body. Her name stunt was her “giant revolutions,” or
was Luise Leers, and she was re- one-arm swings, in which she threw
nowned for both her muscularity and her entire body in a circle while she
her femininity. She was born around grasped the trapeze with one hand.
1907 in Wiesbaden, Germany. The It was a stunt that only long hours of
daughter of a skilled trapeze per- practice and spectacularly powerful
former, she learned from him the muscles could accomplish. At the
stunts and tricks that would become height of her strength, Luisita could
her profession. perform 190 revolutions in a row
For many years father and daugh- without stopping.
ter performed together throughout Because of those incredible per-
Europe in a high-wire act, but it was formances, the young lady’s upper-
not until the girl was spotted by an body muscularity was phenomenal.
agent for the American Ringling Even more amazingly, she was quite
proud of her muscles and would
regularly pose in a double-biceps or
side-triceps shot for the photogra-
phers. That was unheard of in her
day; women were not supposed to
show off like that.
When World War II broke out,
Luisita was trapped in Germany, and
her circus career came to an abrupt
end. The last notice of her came in
1949, when she sent an appeal to
an American circus magazine asking
readers to send her food so that she
could regain her strength and restart
her performing career. Sadly, there
is no indication that ever happened,
and she was not heard from again.
—David Chapman

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M IN D/BODY I R O N M A N R isin g S t a r s

Isaac Hinds \

Jenny Lewis
Age: 28
Residence: Elizabeth, Colorado
Contest Highlights: ’07 NPC USA
Figure Championships, 9th; ’07 Figure
Nationals, 4th
Factoid: “I was a professional
wrestler for almost three years and
was accepted into the Ohio Valley
Wrestling School in ’04. That same
year I had my first WWE ‘dark’ match
in Columbia, South Carolina—on my
26th birthday!”

316 MARCH 2008 \

Free download from
M IND/BODY I R O N M A N R isi n g S t a r s

Roland Balik

Jeff Schwartzer
Weight: Contest, 215; off-season,
Height: 5’5
Residence: Pembroke Pines, Florida
Contest Highlights: ’03 NPC Nation-
als, heavyweight, 2nd; ’07 USA,
heavyweight, 5th
Factoid: “In high school I played
in the marching band while others
played football (my overprotective
mother was a nurse and would have
nothing of it). In college I was a
deejay at two clubs and was known
as ‘Deejay Quad.’”
Merv \ MARCH 2008 317

Free download from

Readers Write
March 2008

with everything you said—he’s a great ambassador for our

Cover Controversy sport and always ripped. Promoters interested in booking
the Texas Shredder for exhibitions and/or seminars can
Seeing as how I’m partial to exotic-looking women, I contact him via e-mail at
thought your January ’08 cover featuring Dina Al-Sabah
was incredible! The photos of her inside the issue also had
me gasping for air. Nice work, Mr. Neveux. That cover is
sure to sell out everywhere.
Samuel Ericson
Awesome Advice
via Internet I want to thank Steve Holman and Jonathan Lawson
for all their good advice. They’re doing a great job! At last
FREAK-PHYSIQUE EXTRA: GIANT FULL-PAGE MR. OLYMPIA PHOTOS I am a family man someone is really explaining how the science of muscle
with three young building works. For more than 40 years I’ve studied all the

daughters. I subscribe bodybuilding literature I could lay my hands on. There’s
MUSCLE DINA AL-SABAH to IRON MAN, and I such a bewildering variety of methods, all claiming to be
SCIENCE 8 Mini-Posters
Dave Fisher
Age 40
love the content, but the best. But because no one could explain how the science
ROUNDUP I have a problem with worked, I could never make an informed judgment as to
Light Weights some of your covers. the best system to adopt. Consequently, I’ve only trained
Build Mass
Heat Ignites
For example, the Janu- sporadically, fearing that, with my light bone structure, I
Growth Fast
ary ’08 issue was very might end up with long-term problems. Thanks to [Hol-
Stretch It for
Serious Size suggestive, something man and Lawson’s] research, however, even at my age I feel
on the Rise
I don’t want my kids to confident to proceed (with caution) in the knowledge that
see me reading. How what I’m doing is scientifically sound. All the pieces of the
Be Bold in the Cold about going back to puzzle are falling into place. I can`t thank them enough.
Can It Prime Your Pump?
training covers or more Keep up the good work.
0 1> PLUS:
wholesome-looking Chris Gavin
•The At-Home Big-Gain All-Dumbbell Workout couples without the T via Internet
•Mass-Packing Diet: Chow Down to Muscle Up
and A?
0 70992 37390 1
Please display until 1/2/08 •Athletes: Any Chump Can Jump—Sky-High!

C1_GATEFldJan08_F.indd 1 11/5/07 12:17:56 PM

Stephen Hobson Editor’s note: A lot of Holman and Lawson’s findings
via Internet are discussed in “The Science of Muscle Size Simplified,”
which begins on page 130. There’s more information at
Editor’s note: We argue about this a lot around the IM and
offices. A cover with a beautiful woman on it sells well, and
we do one every so often. We thought the cover with Dina
Al-Sabah had muscle without too much suggestiveness
(although the dumbbell is placed somewhat suggestively,
Governator Meets
it’s covering particular areas). The debate continues. We’d
like to hear from other readers on the subject.
the Abdominator
Doug Brolus, a man renowned for his etched abs, sent
us this photo. He was visiting Southern California and
Shredder Sighting happened to run into the state’s governor while he was out
enjoying the
I recently helped judge a physique contest in Juneau, sights. Some
Alaska, along with Dave “Texas Shredder” Goodin, who people have
also guest posed. What a wonderful ambassador he is for all the luck
Photo courtesy of Doug Brolus

the sport of bodybuilding. I thoroughly enjoyed talking running into

with him. Dave also con- famous folks.
ducted a very informative Arnold’s been
Q&A seminar, and he’s a Dave lucky that way
wonderful spokesperson Goodin. all his life.
for the Muscle-Link line
of supplements. Dave is a
throwback to old-school California Governor Arnold
bodybuilding, and he was a Schwarzenegger and Doug Brolus.
breath of fresh air. And the
moniker Texas Shredder is
Vol. 67, No. 3: IRON MAN (ISSN #0047-1496) is published monthly by IRON MAN Pub-
most deserved, as he was lishing, 1701 Ives Ave., Oxnard, CA 93033. Periodical Mail is paid at Oxnard, CA, and at
in spot-on condition. additional mailing offices. POSTMASTER: Send address changes to IRON MAN, 1701 Ives