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Rural Sociology

UNIT-I Meaning and Scope of Rural Society: Meaning and definition of Rural
Sociology, Origin and Development of Rural Sociology, Scope of Rural
Sociology, Need & Importance of Rural Sociology in India.
Indian Rural Community: Meaning and definition of Rural Community,
Elements of Community-Characteristics of Indian Rural Community,
Development of Indian Rural Community, Types of villages.

UNIT-II Rural and Urban Life:-Meaning of Rural and Urban Community-Characteristics

of Urban Community-Distinction between Rural and Urban Community, Peasant
Society in India
Agrarian Society -Meaning and definition of Agrarian Relations-Agrarian Social
System and Social Stratification, Poverty in Indian Agrarian, Agrarian Relations
and land management in Rural India-Land Reforms in five year plans

UNIT-III Sanskritization-Definition, Concept & Characteristics of Sanskritization,

Sanskritization, Brahminazation, Source and promoting factors of Sanskritization,
Sanskritization and Dominant Caste, Critical evaluation of Sanskritization
Westernization- Meaning and definition of Westernization, Elements and
Characteristics Westernization, Westernization in India, Impact of Westernization
on Indian Rural Society, Sanskritization, Westernization and Modernization,
Process of Modernizations in Rural India

UNIT-IV Family-Sociological meaning and definition of family, characteristics of family,

Joint Family System in India-Characteristics of Rural Joint family, Function or
merit of Joint family, Demerit of Joint family-Factors Changing Joint family,
changes in Joint family, changing pattern in Joint family-Past, present and future
of Joint family

UNIT-V Caste System -Meaning and Definition of Caste System, Charesterstics of Caste,
Function of Caste system in Rural India, Defection of the Caste system in rural
India, Dominant Caste, Caste Pnachyat, Jajmani System (Advantage and
disadvantage), Meaning of Untouchability, Role of Govt. and NGO for removal of

Books Reference
1. Rural Sociology Virendra Prakash Sharma,
2. Sociology (Hindi) D.N. Baghel,
3. Rural Sociology A.R.desai,
4. Rural Sociology S.L.Doshi
5. Rural Sociology G.R. Madan
6. India's Changing Village S.C. Dubey
7. Rural Sociology (Hindi) S..N. Singh

UNIT-I Rural Religion & Recreation-Definition and Meaning of religion, Aspects of

Rural religion, Function of Religion groups in Rural Societies, Role and
importance of temple in Rural Societies-Meaning of recreation Kinds of rural
recreation -Characteristics of Rural recreation, impact of modernization on rural

UNIT-II Rural Emigration, poverty, Unemployment-Meaning of migration, Rural

Emigration in India, Suggestion for Controlling Rural Emigration, Definition and
meaning of Poverty, minimum income, subsistence level and living standard
Forms of unemployment, Agricultural unemployment, Causes and remedies of
agricultural unemployment.

UNIT-III Rural habitation, Settlement, land less Labour and agrarian movements-
Meaning of habitation & Settlement, Major Component of Rural Settlement,
Factors influencing rural Settlement, Rural resources and Settlement-Meaning and
definition of Landless Labour, Problems of Landless Labour and marginal farmers
and causes of unrest Govt. efforts for improvement, Bonded labour, Position of
Bonded labour, Remedies for the bonded labour-Meaning and definition of
Revolution, Agrarian movements of the 19th century, Agrarian movements of the
20th century,

UNIT-IV Rural Power Structure- Meaning and definition of Power, nature traditional
Power structure in Rural India, Characteristics of traditional Rural Power
Structure, modernization of traditional rural power structure, Types of flow of rural
power, Studies related to rural power structure-Rural power structure to modernity,
Factors related to the modernization of traditional rural power structure.

UNIT-V Rural leadership- Concept of leadership, Characteristics of leadership,

Traditional basis of rural leadership, traits of a leader, Types of leadership,
Function of rural leader, Studies related to rural leadership, Emerging patterns of
rural leadership

Books Reference
1. Rural Sociology (Hindi) B.N.Singh
2. Introductory Sociology Ramnath Sharma
3. Rural Sociology (Hindi) Birendra prakash Sharma,
4. Gramin Samaj Shastra R.K.Sharma,
5. Rural Sociology N.Jaypalan
6. Rural Sociology Devi Laxmi,
7. Rural Sociology S.L.Doshi,
8. Indian Rural Sociology Desai A.R.

UNIT-I Planned Change for Rural Community- Meaning & objective of rural
reconstruction, importance of rural reconstruction, programs of rural
reconstruction, Programs during different Plan Period, Success and Failure and
Development of Five Year plan.-Special employment and poverty Elimination
Program, Suggestion of rural reconstruction

UNIT-II Panchyati Raj and Democratic decentralization- Meaning of Panchyati Raj

System, Forms of village Panchayat in Ancient India, Panchyati Raj in
Independent India, Gram sabha, Provision of Gram sabha in the 73rd Constitutional
Amendment, Evaluation for Gram Sabha, Gram Panchayat, Efforts made by the
Government for the Development of Gram Panchayat, Causes of failure and
suggestion of Panchayat -Power and Function of Gram Panchayat, Composition of
Panchayat Samiti and its Power and function

UNIT-III Community Development program-Meaning and definition of Community

Development program, Organization of Community Development program,
Program and achievement of Community Development Plan, Critical
evaluation of the Community Development program, suggestion for making
Community Development program, Green revolution, Features of green
revolution, Evaluation of green revolution.

UNIT-IV Integrated Rural development Program and Agrarian Relation-Meaning and

Nature of Integrated Rural development Program, Objective and Strategy of IRDP,
Organization of Integrated Rural development Scheme, Utility and importance of
IRDP, Drawback and obstacles of IRDP, Suggestion for the Success of IRDP,
Meaning and definition of Agrarian Relation, Agrarian Social System.

UNIT-V Water, Agriculture & Rural Social Structure- Water, Agriculture, Irrigation
management, Practice-Water management, Policy and aim of irrigation
management in Plan period-Irrigation, Policy and management of Indian
Government, Reason for non-completion of Indian irrigation project in time,
Agrarian legislation & Rural Social structure before and after independence.

Books Reference: -
1. India's Changing Village S.C.Dubey
2. Social Movements and social Change S.S.Kumar,.
3. Samajshstra Dr.D.S.Baghel,
4. Gramin Samaj Shasta R.K.Sharma,
5. Rural Sociology N.Jaypalan
6. Rural Sociology Devi Laxmi,.
7. Rural Sociology S.L.Doshi,
8. Introductory Sociology Dr. Ram Nath Sharma,

UNIT-I Social Research and methods:-- Meaning and Definition, Difference between
Social research and Social survey, Quality of a researcher, Methods of Social
research. Hypothesis:-Definition of Hypothesis, Characteristics of hypothesis,
Sources of hypothesis, Importance of Hypothesis, Disadvantage of Hypothesis.

UNIT-II Interview method:--Meaning and Definition of interview method, Characteristics

of interview technique, Objective of interview, Steps of interview technique.
Observation methods:- Meaning and Definition of observation methods, kinds of
observation, Reliability of observation, Importance of observation.

UNIT-III Questionnaires: -Meaning and Definition, Object Questionnaires,

Utility and limitation of Questionnaire.Sampling Methods: -Meaning and
Definition of sampling, Essential Characteristics of good sample, Advantage and
limitation of sampling, Type of sampling.

UNIT-IV Sources of Data: - Primary data, Secondary data, Method, technique and Tools
of Data collection, Classification and tabulation, Methods of tabulation, Coding
and its utility.

UNIT-V Measures of Central tendency: -- Mean, Mode, Median, Standard

deviation,Co-relation:- Definition, Methods, Measurement of correlation, Types
of correlation.

Books Reference
1. Scientific Social Survey P.V.Young
2. Methods of Social Research Goode and hatt
3. Introduction to logic & Chouhan & Nagle
Scientific methods
4. Methods of Social science Kaufman F.
5. Sociological Statistics Morris Zelditch J.
6. Social Survey and statistics Rastogi
7. Methods of Social Science .
8. Principle of Statistics D.Elhance

UNIT-I Extension Education:-- Meaning, Importance, Significance and scope of

Extension Education, History of Extension education, Aims and Objectives of
Extension education, Characteristics of Extension education, Philosophy of
Extension education., Principal of Extension Education

UNIT-II Extension Teaching Methods:-- Extension, Types of Demonstration,

Difference between Formal education and Extension education, Extension
education methods and motivation, Kinds of motivation, Classification of
Extension teaching methods, Extension teaching methods and aids.

UNIT-III Educational System:-Formal Education:- Definition, History, Merits and

Demerits. Non-formal education:- Characteristics of non-formal education, Scope
of Non-formal education,

Adult Education:-Background and Meaning, Definition & Aims,

Adult education programs in India and other countries.(China, Ruse, England
Japan, Denmark), National Literacy Mission, Achievements, problems, Jan
Shikshan Neilyam, Continuing education & Extension outreach programs

UNIT-IV Extension Worker & Training:-- Function of extension worker, Qualities of

extension worker, Training for extension worker and importance of training, Early
effects in Extension work and Community development programs in India.

UNIT-V Rural Communication:-- Meaning and Definition, Types and process of

Communication, Elements of Communication & their Significance and
Characteristics. Innovation:- Factors influencing innovation, Diffusion of
Innovation and Communication Characteristics of innovation, Innovation adoption

Books Reference: -
1. Extension Education S.K.Waghmare
2. Extension & Rural Welfare O.P.Dhama
3. Extension Education (Hindi) Geeta Pushpa Shah
4. Extension Education (Hindi) B.D.Harpalani
5. Prasar Sikha Srivastava & Tyagi
6. Education Planning Prepared by U.G.C.
7. Source Book of Adult Education Prepared by U.G.C
8. Learning Society U.G.C
9. Rural Development & Extension Murgesen
10. Bharat Me Prasar Sikha P.K.Dubey

UNIT-I Agriculture;--History and development of agriculture in India; Objectives, Socio-

economical Perspectives; Significance and Status of production of cereals
( wheat/rice), Pulses (Arhar/gram), oil (Sunflower/soybean),Vegetable(Potato)
Sugars (Sugarcane).

UNIT-II Soil Environment:- soil types,erosion (Problems & management) Fertility,

Organic and Bio-fertilizers: Types, Merits and demerits; soil Pollution: causes and

UNIT-III Crop residues and their application is rural development: Fibrous, stovers, straw,
Husk (Hulls), Oil cakes, sugarcane (baggase, tops, molasses, Presumed)'Vegetable
(Tomato, potato, cabbage)

UNIT-IV Mushroom Technology: Introduction, nutritional/medicinal importance, and

cultivation of edible mushrooms, Socio-economical role in Rural Society.

Vermicompost Technology: Significance, methodology of production, merits and

demerits, impacts on rural development.

UNIT-V Biogas & Rural Development: - Concept, Applications, Biogas Plants, and
Biopesticides: -Introduction, Types, Advantages, and disadvantages, Social
Tissue culture, vegetative propagation soil less farming

Books Reference: -

1. Fruit Preservation S.Srivastva

2. Fruit and vegetable's B.Jain
3. Forest In India V.P.Agrwal
4. A Hand Book of Social Forestry S.S. Negi
5. A Text Book of Agroforestry Gautam
6. Krishi Vaniki S.S. Srivastva
7. Biogas O.P.Chawla


UNIT-I History and development of Forestry in India

Types, National parks in Central India, Forest and tribal relationship, Plants in
Indian Folk Flor, Medicinal Plants used in different systems of medicine.

UNIT-II Minor Forest produce and Tribal development Significance, constraints, Status of
production of mahua, Bidipatta, Sal Seeds, Gums, Kattha.

UNIT-III Social Forestry: Concept, Philosophy, Scope, Approaches, Role of Non-

governmental organizations Dimensions: Education, Extension
CommunicationResearch, training, Monitoring, Evaluation Technology Transfer.

UNIT-IV Agroforestry: Concept, History, types, objectives, Scope, Constraints,

Socioeconomic aspects; Management: Tree/Agricultural, Tree/Crop interface,
Social productivity, Extension, Agroecological Zonifications

UNIT-V Management of Forest: principles of Forestry problems and impact of

Deforestation, Extension methods voleatary Social economical religious
organizations, and Govt. incentives

Books Reference:-

1. Forest In India, V.P.Agrwal

2. A Hand Book of Social Forestry S.S.Negi
3. A Text Book of Agroforestry Gautam
4. Krishi Vaniki S.S.Srivastava

Every Student has to participate in the study tour to one /two institute to
expose himself in the field and he has to submit a tour report which will be of 25
marks. every student has to adopt a village to select a problem and submit his
report ; which will be assessed by expert out of 50 marks. He has to face the viva
-voice which will be of 25 marks.

UNIT-I Co-operation: Genesis, objects and growth. Co-operation: Meaning and

Characteristics-Co-operative principles: Meaning, different aspects of Co-
operative principle, Importance and benefit of Co-operations

UNIT-II Co-operation and other forms of Enterprises- History and growth of Co-
operative movement in India- Progress of Co-operation during the Planning
period,Rural Credit and Co-operation

UNIT-III Agriculture Credit Societies -I, Historical prospects organization and

Registration of agricultural Credit Societies and its objects, Area of operation of
Agricultural Credit Societies & liability of agricultural credit societies, Working
Capital of Agricultural credit societies-Financing of Agricultural credit societies by
Commercial Banks.

UNIT-IV Agriculture Credit Societies –II, Multipurpose Societies,

Large sized societies, Promotion of viable primaries, Farmers service Societies,
Central Co-operative banks: Historical prospects, Types, objects and
function, size and area of operation, Loan operation: Defects and difficulties in
the working of the Central Co-operative banks, Suggestion to improve the working
of the Central Co-operative banks

UNIT-V State Co-operative Banks: Need, Function, and process of State Co-operative
banks, Sources of working Capital, Management of State Co-operative banks,
Land mortgage/Development banks: Need, Classification and Characteristics,
Management of Co-operative kind development banks.

Books Reference:-

1. Co-operation B.S. Mathur,

2. Rural development in India Dr. D. C. Pant
3. Economic Development in India C. B. Mamaoria
4. Industrial Economics V. C. Sinha
5. Agriculture, Co-operation Marketing Agarwal & Jain
Rural Development
6. Rural Development I.Satya Sundram
7. Rural finance Bhagirath & Singh
8. Indian Economics A.N.Sachdeva Basu
9. Rural Development & Dr. H. R. Swamy
Co-operation & B. P. Gupta
Co-operative Marketing, Processing, Farming and Management

UNIT-I Co-operative Marketing Meaning & objective, Indian farmers and marketing
difficulties, Advantage of Co-operative marketing. History of growth of Co-
operative marketing in India-Structure and Organization of Marketing Societies,
Management of marketing Societies

UNIT-II Co-operative Processing: Need & Importance, Classification of Processing

Societies, Defects and difficulties of Co-operative processing units,Suggestion for
the removal of defects of Co-operative Processing

UNIT-III Consumer Co-operatives: Meaning & objects, Origin and development of

consumer co-operative stores, Organization of Consumer co-operatives,
Financial resources & Management of Consumer stores in India, Causes of
slow growth of Consumes cooperation & suggestion for development

UNIT-IV- Co-operative farming: Meaning, types & Needs of Cooperative farming-

Advantage and disadvantage of Co-operative farming- Progress of Co-
operative farming during different Plan period- Causes of slow progress of
Co-operative farming

UNIT-V Cooperative management: meaning, importance of Business of management in

co-operatives and material elements of management. Private management and co-
operative management, Democratic control and policy making, Ideal managerial
organization, Short coming of co-operative management and suggestion for
improvement of co-operative management

Books Reference
1. Co-operation (Hindi) B.S.Mathur,.
2. Co-operation In India Dr.C.B. Mamoria
3. Co-operation Movements in India, B.Mishra
4. Rural Cooperative and economic development,
5. Consumer Co-operative and Rural marketing, Sharma Nripendra
6. Rural Development through Co-operative, Khan M.Altaf:
7. Cooperative marketing and processing,


UNIT-I Rural Development--Meaning, definition and Importance-History of Rural

development in India, Gandhi Concept of Gram Swaraj, Constrains of rural
development. Strategies of Rural Development Constrains of Rural Development

UNIT-II Planning of Rural development in India:--Identification of rural

problems,Structure of rural population, Rural –urban constraints, Rural
development planning in India, Eight five year plan, IX Five year plan, X
Five year plan,Poverty alleviation Programs in India.

UNIT-III Approaches to Rural Development: -Jawahar Rojgar Yojna, Community

development Program, Jawahar Gram Smardhi Yojna, Swarna Jayanti Yojna,Gram
swarojgar Yojna, Watershed management Programs.

UNIT-IV Rural Administration: -System of administration and monitoring of rural

development, Peoples participation in rural development, Role of voluntary agency
in rural development-Administration and organization of rural development,
Programs at Center, State, District, village and Block level.

UNIT-V Panchyati Raj system:-Meaning, Objective and History of Panchyati Raj

system,Management of Panchyati Raj system, Role of Panchyati Raj System,
Merit & Demerit of Panchyati Raj system, Suggestion for improvement of
Panchyati Raj system.

Books Reference: -

1. Administration interventions in Rakesh Hooja

2. India's Developing villages Dr. G.R.Madan
3. Bharat main Gramin Vikas (Hindi) Dr.D.C. Pant
4. Rural development and administrations Amarjeet Singh
5. Rural Development I.StyaSundram
6. Rural development administration Jaikant Tiwari
7. Bharat Panchyati Raj Prsashan Dr. K.K.Sharma
8. Gramin Vikas Evam Earthvavstha Dr.Subah Singh Yadav
9. Bharat Ki Arthic Samasay Prof. Krishna Sahay


UNIT-I Social Demography:-Nature-scope and importance of social demography-

Sociology and Demography-Theories of Population- Malthusian theory- Optimum
population theory-Demographic Transition theory-Marxian theory

UNIT-II Fertility: Meaning-Fecundity and fertility- measures of Fertility-socio-cultural

factors affecting fertility-fertility differentials.

UNIT-III Mortality: Concept of mortality-Measures of mortality- Factors influencing

mortality-Rural-Urban differentials in health and mortality. Infant –mortality
Factors associated with infant mortality-Measures undertaken in India to reduce
infant mortality-Mortality differentials.

UNIT-IV Migration: Definition-Types-factors leading to migration- social and demographic

effects of migration- Migration as a social process.

UNIT-V Population growth in India –it's history-causes-consequence-Family-Planning

Program-barriers to family Planning program-Population policy in India.

Books Reference

1. Asha Bhende, Tara Kanitkar: Principles of Population studies,

2. Bouge, Donald J Principles of Demography,
3. M.K.Ramanana : An Introduction to Social
4. Raj Hans : Fundamentals of demography,
5. O.S.Srivastva: A textbook of Demography,
Rani Durgavati Vishwavidyalaya, Jabalpur
Syllabus of M.A. Semester Examination
Subject - Rural Development

As per decision of the University Semester system will be implemented from

2005-2006 for M.A. Previous. The syllabus for M.A. Final will remain the same as
in the session 2004-05.


The assessment of the students under the Semester System will have two
main components namely:

(A) Examination at the end of each Semester: -

This will consist of four Theory papers. Each paper shall carry to 50 marks of
3 hours duration.

(B) Continuos Assessment during the Semester: -

Candidate will be assessed in the following three components also.

(I) Seminar's for each Semester: Every candidate/ student will be

required to give two seminars in the department each of 30 minutes
duration to be followed by a discussion of 15 minutes. The same will
assessed by two teachers of the Department. For this purpose,
candidates will be divided into appropriate number of groups arranged
in alphabetical order. The names of teachers who will assess the
seminar will rotated. Total credit for seminars will be 20 marks.

(II) Written Test during each Semester: Every student will be given
three uniformly distributed written tests each of one-hour duration
during one semester. Teacher conducting the course will conduct these
tests for each of the paper by teacher conducting the course.
The teacher concerned will declare the results for such test within a
week from the date of test. Thus every students will be required to
appear in three written tests for such course separately in one semester.
The total credit for such tests will be of 20 marks.

(III) Student's Participation in the Course: In order to promote active

participation of students 8 in Lectures/Practicales, due weightage will
be given to his attendance in various classes/practicals during the
course of a Semester. 10 marks will be allocated for this purpose. The
student will get credit for his attendance according to the following

(a) 3 marks if his attendance in class/practical is between 60%and 66%

(b) 5 marks if his attendance in class/practical is between 65%and 75%
(c) 8 marks if his attendance in class/practical is between 76%and 85%
(e) 10 marks for attendance above 86%

The candidate whose attendance is less than 60% will be allowed to

appear in the examination at the close of the Semester and he would be
declared as having failed in that Semester.


For passing in each semester, a candidate must have secured minimum

of 45% in total and not less than 40% in individual paper/practical.

The department will notify the dates of various components of testing

the candidates as described above 7 days in advance as per the Calendar.
Candidate who does not appear for being tested in such components will not
be given any credit for that part of the component.

Candidates will be entitled to see a valued answer script on payment of

10/- per answer script per test.

The Candidates will be admitted provisionally to the Second Semester.

However, the admission of a candidate who fails in the first semester will
automatically get cancelled from second semester. it is also made clear the
candidates failing in any semester of an academic year shall get a chance to
reappear in the examination of that semester only in the next academic
session .


UNIT-I Human Resource Development:- Meaning and Need for HRD, Need for HRD
in the Indian context - Difference between the traditional personnel management
function & HRD-HRD methods and Outcomes of HRD, organizing the HRD
system Individual behavior:-Meaning, Personality, Importance of personality,-
Determinants of personality, personality measurement

UNIT-II Personnel Management:-Introduction & Importance, Objectives of personnel

management-Development of personnel management, Functions of Personnel
management Employee Compensation:-Primary compensation, Requisites of
sound primary compensation Structure, Methods of job evaluation & Incentive

UNIT-III Human Resource planning; -Meaning & Objective need for man power
planning,-Elements of manpower planning, Existing Methods of human Resource
planning Job analysis: -Meaning, Scope & Process of job analysis.

UNIT-IV Leadership:-- Meaning & Definition Object & characteristics of

leadership-Importance of leadership, Types of leadership -Theory of leadership,
Qualities of leadership, Leadership styles. Motivation:- Meaning &
Definition, Objectives- Nature of Motivation-Importance of
Motivation. Types Of Motivation.

UNIT-V Rural Industrialization:-Concept and Growth of Rural Industrialization, Cottage

and Small-Scale industries:-Importance of Cottage and small scale industries in
India, Problems of Cottage and small scale industries in India. Efforts made by the
Govt. for Promotion of Cottage and small-scale industries, Role of Khadhi Village

Books Reference: -

1. HRD : Prof.Uttam C. Goyal

2. HRD and New Economics: P.C.Tripathi
3. Human Resource Management Sharma & Shurana
5. Human resource development and
Production techniques, Kumar Ashok
6. Human resource development management,
7. Human Resource Development, Kumar Ashok,
8. Hrd.dynamics in government systems, Kumar Ashok,
9. Human Resource management in 21st Century Kumar

UNIT-I BASIC CONEPT: Voluntarism, Social work, Social action –Socials worker Vs
activist and Voluntary agencies Vs Service Institutions- definition, objectives and
ideology of NGOs – Evolution and growth of NGOs- Comparison and Contrast
between Government and NGOs.

UNIT-II FORMATION: Technology of NGOs-Trust and Trade union- Preparation of

Bylaw and registration- Comparative analysis of three Bylaws –Factors
influencing the formation of NGOs –Difficulties –in the formation, registration and
sustenance of NGOs.


identification-Project formulation and Project appraisal processes-Sources of funds
and methods of mobilisation-programme implementation-Strategies and methods-
Strength and weaknesses.

UNIT-IV MONITORING AND EVALUATION-Need for monitoring and evaluation of

NGOs program-Role of Donor agencies in monitoring and evaluation –
participation of the community in monitoring and evaluation process-Steps in
monitoring and evaluation of NGO programs-Problems in monitoring and

UNIT-V COMMUNITY AND PARTICIPATION- Linkage between the local community

and NGO-Forms and levels of Community participation-Role of community in
problem identification, project formulation, and implementation-Typology of
community organizations and nature of their programs- Problems in serving the


1. Role of NGOs In Developing Countries, Singh R.S.Kumar,

2. Role Voluntary organizations in tribal development, Thakur
3. NGOs and Socio-economic development opportunities, Prasad Kamta

UNIT-I INTRODUCATION - Agricultural Economics and its meaning-Scope and subject

matter of Agricultural Economics- Agriculture and Economic Development-Land
Reform measures and its impact-limitations.

UNIT-II CROPPING SYSTEM- Different Types-Small Scale Large Scale-cropping-types of

cropping-Major Agricultural Crops and Cropping patterns and its trends. Farming
IRRIGATION- Meaning-Sources, Importance and different types of irrigation-
irrigation projects-criteria for financing irrigation projects-River water disputes

UNIT-III AGRICULTURAL LABOUR-Definition –Characteristics- Types-Importance-

Demand and supply of Agricultural labour-growth of Agricultural labour-
Efficiency of Agricultural labour-Minimum wages Act- Agricultural wages-
Policies and practice.


Agricultural sector-Fiscal significance of Agricultural tax- Agricultural exports
and imports-Institutional support to Agricultural exports

UNIT-V AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGY:-Basic concepts of Technology-Agricultural

Technology Transfer-Types of Agricultural Technology- Impact of Technology on
Agriculture-problems and prospects, perceived attributes of innovation.

AGRICULTURAL PRICE;-Need for stabilization of Agricultural price- objectives-

policy Instruments-Commission for Agricultural Cost and price- Its function-
Committees on Agricultural Price


1. Baasil P.C."Agricultural Problems of India "

2. Bhatnagar O.P and Desai G.R."Management of Agricultural Extension
3 Benjamin R.E.Harisharan S.V.Karunakaran, "Economics of Agriculture "
4. Dhingra I.C "Indian Economics problem
5. For Ster G.W. and Leager Mero C." Elements of Agricultural Economics "
6. Indian Society of Agricultural Economics."Role of Irrigation
In The Development of Indian Agriculture"
7. Indian Councilof Agricultural Research; Hand Book of Agriculture


Each Students has to submit a project report taking any problem related rural
society; which will be evaluated by an external followed by the viva -voice.

Project report - 75 marks

Viva-vice - 25 marks
Total - 100 marks
 Rani Durgavati Vishwavidyalaya,


Subject Rural Development