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xWizard

UMTS Network Design


(including HSPA)
Optimi Corp

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................ 3

2 THE XWIZARD FRAMEWORK AND THE UMTS MODULE ............................................................ 3

3 USING THE HSPA FUNCTIONALITY OF THE UMTS MODULE .................................................... 4

4 PARAMETERS FILE.......................................................................................................................... 5

5 USER EQUIPMENT (UE) ................................................................................................................... 6

6 BEARERS .......................................................................................................................................... 7

7 SERVICE TYPES ............................................................................................................................... 8

8 UMTS RADIO ................................................................................................................................... 11

9 UMTS ANALYSES ........................................................................................................................... 13


9.1 STATIC ANALYSES...................................................................................................................... 13
9.2 MONTE CARLO ANALYSES .......................................................................................................... 15
9.2.1 The Monte Carlo Analysis Dialog ........................................................................................ 15
9.2.2 Monte Carlo Reports ........................................................................................................... 18
10 DESIGNING WITH THE XWIZARD UMTS MODULE ..................................................................... 24
10.1 COVERAGE DESIGN.................................................................................................................... 24
10.1.1 Setting the Coverage Design Objectives ........................................................................ 24
10.1.2 The Network Diagnostics Analysis .................................................................................. 25
10.1.3 Interpreting the results of the Network Diagnostics analysis .......................................... 26
10.2 CAPACITY DESIGN...................................................................................................................... 28
10.3 QUALITY OF SERVICE ................................................................................................................. 28
10.3.1 Pilot Pollution and Dominance ........................................................................................ 28

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1 Introduction
This document focuses on the usage of xWizard UMTS module. While it is assumed the reader has
basic knowledge of xWizard, the knowledge of the UMTS module is not a prerequisite. Both new and
experienced UMTS engineers can benefit from this document.

2 The xWizard Framework and the UMTS Module


The xWizard application is composed of the main xWizard Framework and multiple technology modules.
Concepts of the xWizard framework are not covered here. Focus is given to the UMTS module only.
The xWizard UMTS module contains the following sections:

• Parameters File
• User Equipment (UE)
• Bearers
• Service Type
• Clutter Attributes
• Service Configuration
• FER to Eb/Nt Mapping Tables
• Packet Data Applications
• Data Rate Mapping Files
• Restricted PSC ranges
• UMTS Radio level parameters
• UMTS Analyses:
- Static Analyses
- Monte Carlo Analyses

The above items are explained in detail in the subsequent sections. The following figure outlines the
xWizard UMTS module.

Cell Site
Database UMTS-FDD
Radio

UMTS-FDD
GIS Engine Parameter File

xWizard xWizard
Framework UMTS-FDD
Module
RF
Configuration
UMTS-FDD
Bearers,
Services, UE
Propagation UMTS-FDD
Modeling Analyses

Utilities Static Monte Carlo


Analyses Analyses

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The UMTS module in xWizard supports the HSPA functionality which allows users to benefit from the
combined improvements in uplink and downlink as offered in the HSDPA (3GPP Release 5) and HSUPA
(3GPP Release 6) technologies. These performance improvements include higher throughputs, reduced
latency and increased spectral efficiency.

3 Using the HSPA functionality of the UMTS Module


When using the HSPA functionality in xWizard, one of the first tasks that need to be performed is to
properly setup the service configuartion. The service configuration definitions can be accessed from the
Edit > Parameters > UMTS > Service Configurations… menu item.

Here the user needs to check the applicable HSPA specific options:

- Packet Switched (HSUPA - Release 6): HSUPA Packet data service that uses 3GPP Release
6 specifications.
- Packet Switched Data (HSDPA – Release 5): HSDPA Packet data service that uses 3GPP
Release 5 specifications.
- Dynamic HSDPA: Dynamic power allocation for HSDPA feature allows Node B to use
the downlink power remaining (unused) from R99 Voice and Data and use it for
HSDPA. Static Power Allocation for HSDPA reserves fixed power for HSDPA users that
is only used for HSDPA and is wasted if no HSDPA users exist and it does not allow
HSDPA users to fully benefit from cell capacity if R99 Traffic is low
- Percent of Power reserved for HSDPA: Percent of the Maximum PA Power that can be used
for HSDPA services (non-dynamic HSDPA)
- Maximum number of available HSDPA codes: HSDPA service can be configured with
maximum allowed codes.

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4 Parameters File
The UMTS parameters file is used to store the basic parameters of UMTS technology as well as the
defaults that can be used for the radio level parameters. The UMTS Parameter definitions can be
accessed from the Edit > Parameters > UMTS > Parameters… menu item as shown below:

Note that the power units can be changed between dBm and Watts from the Edit > Workspace menu
item (Technology tab), as shown below:

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The UMTS-FDD parameters file has two sections:

• Technology defaults: Basic UMTS parameters like the chip rate and some environmental
parameters like orthogonality factor, delay spread, and rake efficiency.
• Radio defaults: Default parameters used for the radio if radio level parameters are not
overridden with user specific values. This simplifies the modeling of basic vendor configurations
without having to override radios at each sector. For more details on the radio level parameters,
please refer to the UMTS Radio section.

Please note that the UMTS-FDD parameters file can be assigned at:

• Project level: Using the Edit > Workspace dialog


• Node B or Cell level: The parameters can be specified at the “Additional Parameters” section of
the Cell Data dialog. This can be very useful in configuring vendor specific parameters in a multi-
vendor project. The common practice is to have one parameter file per typical Node B
configuration.

5 User Equipment (UE)


In order to run most of the xWizard analyses the definition of all UMTS User Equipments is must. The
User Equipment (UE) definitions can be accessed via the Edit > Parameters > UMTS > User
Equipment menu item. This menu item invokes a dialog with RF parameters of a UMTS UE as shown
below:

Users can create new UEs as needed and save them using the Save As option. UE parameters include:

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• PA Power (dBm or watts): Typical values: 21 or 24 dbm - consult equipment vendor. UE


Maximum Power Amplifier value which depends on UE Category and is used in Uplink UMTS
analysis.
• Noise Figure (dB): Typical values: 3 to 6 dB - consult equipment vendor. UE Noise Figure
depends on UE type. This parameter impacts Downlink Eb/No, Ec/Io calculation.
• Active Set Size (unitless): Typical values: 1 to 6. This field determines how many signals can
be processed by the UE in the Down link. HSDPA supports only one pilot signal while voice
applications support as many as six but typically 3. This parameter affects the display of Forward
Link Analysis, HO type and Aggregate Eb/Nt. There will be no soft handoffs if the device only
supports one pilot (no handoff condition)
• Cable Loss (dB): Specify the cable loss for the selected equipment, including body/head
losses.
• Antenna Gain (dB): Specify the antenna gain for the selected equipment.
• Supports HSUPA: Select as applicable
• HSUPA Category: Select the appropriate category from the drop-list.
• TTI Length (ms): Valid for HSUPA supporting UEs only. The Transmission Time Interval
represents the data arrival time in milliseconds. Valid values are 2ms or 10ms depending on the
HSUPA category.
• E-DPCCH: Valid for HSUPA supporting UEs only. Specify the power for the E-DCH Dedicated
Physical Control Channel.

6 Bearers
A UMTS Bearer, also known as the Radio Access Bearer (RAB), can be accessed from the Edit >
Parameters > UMTS Bearers... menu item. This menu item invokes a dialog with parameters of a
UMTS Bearer as shown below:

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The parameters include:

• Requested Data Rate [kbps]: Highest data rate requested by the service
• Minimum Data Rate [kbps]: Minimum (Guaranteed) data rate for the service, below which the
bearer will be dropped.
• R99 FER Table: (for Circuit Switched links only). Note that packet switched mode uses Data
Rate Table, and not the FER table.
• Max DCH Power [W] (for downlink only): Maximum downlink traffic channel power that can be
allocated for this bearer. Note that this field will be ignored for uplink mode. For the uplink, the
user equipment’s PA Power will be used as the maximum uplink traffic channel power.
• # Channel Elements: Number of traffic channels used by the bearer at requested data rate
• Power Control Headroom [dB] (for uplink only): Power control margin reserved to handle fast
fading.
• Switching Type (Circuit or Packet): Selection to define the bearer as circuit switched or packet
switched.
• Link Type (Uplink or Downlink): Selection to define the bearer as uplink or downlink.
• Packet Data Mode (Release 99 or HSDPA): Selection of packet data service mode.
• Data Rate Table (Used for Packet Data mode only): Selection of data rate mapping table
which contains supported data rate and its parameter mapping (Eb/No, number of channel
elements, number of codes, and spreading factor)
• R99 FER%: FER percentage associated with the bearer

For analyses purposes two bearers per service type must be defined - one for uplink and one for
downlink.

7 Service Types
Service Type (Services) definitions can be accessed from the Edit > Parameters > UMTS > Service
Types menu item. This menu item invokes a dialog as shown below.

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Description of the service type parameters includes:

• Service Name: Editable drop down list that allows engineers to specify a new name or the Service
Type, or open an existing service type from the drop list.

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• Service Priority: An integer value that defines the priorities by which users are stacked in the
network during Monte Carlo Simulation with zero corresponding to highest priority. For example if
CS Voice Service is set to priority 0 and HSDPA Service is set to priority 1 then simulator will
allocated CS voice users in the network first and then start allocating HSDPA users during Monte
Carlo Simulation. Thus CS Voice users won’t be blocked due to HSDPA users in the network
• Service Weight: The service weight determines the weight for each service type when xWizard
simulates for multiple services in the UMTS Monte Carlo simulation.
• User Equipment: User Equipment used for the service
• Circuit Switched Offered Load:. This is the equivalent to circuit switched offered load for the
service to simulate.
• Two Carriers:. This is used only by the UMTS Monte Carlo analysis as needed.
• Downlink Parameters:
- Bearer: Drop down list of available UMTS
- Activity Factor: Activity factor of the downlink
- Packet Switched Parameters: (applies only if bearer is packet switched):
o Primary Link:
Either UL or DL can be primary—not both. If primary link, then activity factor is
enabled, otherwise it is disabled
o Offered Load:
Only used for packet switched bearers, not circuit switched bearers. If bearer is
circuit switched, then the control is disabled
- Packet Data Application:
The Packet Data Application is defined in a separate dialog than service type. It can be
accessed from Edit -> Parameters-> UMTS -> Packet Data Application menu item.
In the services dialog the user can select packet data application based on which the
offered load and the activity factor are calculated in the Services dialog
• Uplink Parameters:
- Bearer: Drop down list of available bearers
- Activity Factor: Activity factor of the uplink
- Packet Switched Parameters (applies only if bearer is packet switched):
o Primary Link:
Either UL or DL can be primary—not both. If primary link, then activity factor is
enabled, otherwise it is disabled
- Offered Load:
Only used for packet switched bearers, not circuit switched bearers. If bearer is
circuit switched, then the control is disabled
- Packet Data Application:
The Packet Data Application is defined in a separate dialog than service type. It can be
accessed from Edit -> Parameters-> UMTS -> Packet Data Application menu. In the
services dialog the user can select packet data application based on which the offered load
and the activity factor are calculated in the Services dialog

• Absolute Values: If this check box is checked then the demand grid value is used as is. If the check
box is unchecked then the demand grid values are scaled based on the offered load.
• Demand Grid: Drop down of available Demand Grids for the project
• Support HSDPA: Specifies if the services supports HSDPA
• HSDPA User Proportion: Specifies the percentage of HSDPA users for this service, usually 100%

Users can save the service type parameters for a given Service Name by using the Save button. Also,
users can delete a Service Name via the Delete button.

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8 UMTS Radio
The UMTS Radio definition can be accessed using the Radio button in the Cell Data dialog as shown
below:

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The following details the usage of the Radio dialog:

1. Add or Remove Radio: xWizard supports multiple radios with carrier specific Node B
configurations. To add or remove carriers, the Add Radio or the Remove Radio buttons are
used.
2. Show Default Values: This check box option shows the default values from the UMTS
Parameters files. These default values are shown in light gray. User overrides are shown in
black.
3. Radio parameters: The following radio parameters are available:

• Active: Use this checkbox to make the radio available (or active) for the analysis.
• Carrier: Designator for UTRA carrier
• Frequency: Absolute frequency reference to the selected carrier. This is important for the
cross technology interference analysis
• Interference Scaling Factor: Used in the cross technology analysis to scale the
interference based on the usage activity of the radio.
• Primary Scrambling Code: PSC assigned to the selected radio.
• Service Configuration: The Service Configuration is used to configure the types of services
that are supported by a UMTS radio
• PA_Power: Maximum output of the NodeB PA
• CPICH(p+s): Power allocated to common pilot (primary and secondary)
• CCPCH(p+s ): Power dedicated to common channels
• SCH(p+s): Power dedicated to synchronization channel
• AIC+PICH: Power dedicated to access and paging indicator channels
• Ave_DCH: Average power used for all dedicated channels. The Average DCH Power
determines the amount of forward link loading when performing the Static Analyses. This
value is ignored when doing Monte Carlo simulations
• HS-SCCH: Defines the average Power of High Speed Shared Control Channel in Watts
• Base Station Noise Figure: Noise figure of the NodeB receiver
• Rev Link Noise Rise: Noise increase due to traffic loading
• Max Rev Link Noise Rise: Maximum noise rise threshold used in Monte Carlo analysis to
block any new users if the receiver’s noise at the NodeB has reached the specified
threshold.
• Max Fwd Link Loading: Used in the Monte Carlo analysis to block any new users if the
NodeB’s DCH Power loading has reached the specified loading.
• Reporting Threshold: Maximum allowed difference between the strongest pilot and a pilot
in the active set.
• Absolute Threshold: Minimum Ec/Io for a pilot signal to be considered usable
• Handoff weighting: Determines relative importance of the aggregate Ec/Io relative to
strongest Ec/Io.
• HSDPA Utilization: This is the percentage of time occupied by active HSDPA sessions; it
indicates how much of the power is utilized by HSDPA users.
• HSUPA Max Noise Rise: Maximum Noise Rise allowed for services supporting HSUPA.
This value is used in the Monte Carlo analysis only and it does not impact the static
analysis.
• HSUPA Loading: Reverse link loading due to HSUPA users.

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9 UMTS Analyses
The UMTS-FDD module defines two types of analyses: Static and Monte Carlo. The difference between
static and Monte Carlo is in the means of determining the system loading. The concept of system
loading is further described in the following sections.

Each analyses type generates the following predictions:

• Pilot predictions
• Downlink predictions
• Uplink predictions
• Probability of Coverage (utilizes both uplink and downlink predictions)
• Neighbor List generation (static only)
• Scrambling Code generation (static only)

All UMTS analyses can be accessed via the Analysis menu. If UMTS is the primary technology then the
analyses will be available at the top of the menu as shown below:

If UMTS is not the primary technology then the analyses are available toward the bottom of the menu
under the Analysis > UMTS-FDD sub-menu.

9.1 Static Analyses


As mentioned earlier, in the static analyses, the loading (both UL and DL) are specified by the engineer.

Loading on the downlink is specified at the following possible levels:

• At the project level - Average DCH power


• At the Node B level (site) - Average DCH power

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• At the radio level - Average DCH power


• At the runtime (available for override in each analysis dialog box) – FWD Link Loading (%)

Loading on the uplink is specified at the following possible levels:

• At the project level - Noise rise


• At the Node B level - Noise rise
• At the radio level - Noise rise
• At the runtime - Noise rise

Static analyses are appropriate for the following situations:

• “First cut” designs


• Initial optimization
• Coverage designs
• With available switch data

The static analyses are composed of various coverage outputs generated from the input loading
conditions. The following static analyses are supported:

1. Pilot Analyses:

• Pilot Quality:
- Best Pilot Signal Quality (Ec/Io) for up to 10 best severs
- Aggregate Pilot Signal Quality of all pilots within the active set
• Pilot Pollution:
- Number of Pilots above absolute threshold
- Number of Pilot within reporting range
• Pilot Delta
th
- Difference in Pilot Signal of the desired two pilot (e.g. Best Pilot vs. the interfering 5 pilot)
- Total Received Power (Received power for all channels including overhead and traffic
channels, but not including the unused power at the Node B)
• CPICH-RSCP
- N-Best Pilot Signal Strength (in dBm) for up to 10 best severs.
- Equal Power Boundary identifying the service areas per best sector

2. Total PA Power Coverage: Computes and displays the N strongest server for all active
transmitters in the project. This analysis runs the propagation model using the terrain assigned
to the project, adjusting for antenna patterns and power levels.
3. UMTS Dominance: Computes and displays the number of servers that meet or exceed their
specified minimum serving signal value.
4. Reverse Link Pathloss: This analysis calculates the pathloss in the reverse link.
5. Forward Link Analyses: Predicts performance measures for the forward link of the specified
service type. There are five predictions specified within the Forward Link analysis

• HO Type: Displays a geographical representation of the mobile soft handoff regions.


Handover Types (Soft, Softer, Soft-Soft, Soft-Softer, etc.)
• Max Throughput: This option is active for data service types only and shows the max data
throughput for any given bin within the analysis area.
• Traffic Power Per User: Required transmit power to support the selected down link bearer
configuration
• Max achievable EbNo: Calculates the maximum EbNo achievable for the Forward link
• SNR: Calculates the SNR achievable for the Forward link for HSDPA services

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6. Reverse Link Analysis: Required Mobile Transmit Power to support the selected uplink bearer
configuration.
7. Probability of Coverage: Probability of coverage considering both uplink and downlink criteria.
8. Neighbor List Generation: The analysis algorithm looks at the area where a transmitter has
pilot coverage, and then checks other transmitters' received pilots against a set of parameters. It
keeps a tally of the number of qualifying overlapped bins between the two transmitters. After
examination of all bins, the percentage of overlapped bins is computed and compared against
the two overlap percentage thresholds. Transmitters that meet this threshold become neighbors
of the serving transmitter. It also supports iRAT neighbor generation.
9. Primary SC planning: This feature provides a means of creating a new scrambling code plan or
optimizing an existing one so that “co-scrambling code” is eliminated or reduced. Also, a more
advance SC optimization analysis is available that benefits from the neighbor list.
10. UMTS GSM Handover: This analysis details areas where UMTS systems can handover to the
GSM system.

9.2 Monte Carlo Analyses


Unlike the static analyses where the loading is specified by the user, the Monte Carlo analysis computes
the loading conditions within the analysis. The analysis evaluates network response averaged from the
user-defined number of iterations. The loading is calculated through multiple simulations of mobile
distributions that are generated using the traffic demand grids. After the loading conditions have been
calculated, the coverage output of the pilot, downlink, and the uplink can be generated based on the
calculated loading.

The following steps summarize the Monte Carlo process:

- Each iteration or snapshot is created pseudo-randomly based on the underlying service profiles,
traffic grids, UE types and other project data. In other words, each snapshot is a frozen picture of
the network in time.
- For each snapshot, the network response is evaluated calculating link conditions for each UE thrown
within the project area based on the traffic map. The probability of UE being in the pixel is
proportional to the amount of traffic offered in the pixel.
- The link is evaluated for each UE. If the CPICH can be acquired and forward and reverse links are
closed, UE is counted as served. Otherwise, the UE contributes to the blocked user count.
- Pilot acquisition and link closures are evaluated taking into account effect of all users on the
observed link.
- The Monte Carlo analysis uses an iterative process to converge to make sure all users are
accounted for. Link closure is determined for each UE by the ability to reach target Ec/Io and EbNo
under power and noise rise limitations defined in the project setup.

The main result of the UMTS Monte Carlo analysis is a rich set of spatial displays, grid statistics and
reports giving full picture of the estimated network performance within the chosen simulation polygon.

9.2.1 The Monte Carlo Analysis Dialog


When the UMTS Monte Carlo analysis is selected from the menu, the following dialog containing four
tabbed pages will be invoked. The first tab page “UMTS Monte Carlo” is where the users specify input
parameters for the analysis, the second tab “Analysis Filter” serves as the filter to limit the number of
entities to be included in the analysis. The last two (Bands and Legend) serve as the display control
interface of the output grids.

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The following parameters are available in the UMTS Monte Carlo page:

• Ec (dBm): Absolute received pilot power acquisition threshold in dBm. If strongest pilot in the
pixel is below the Ec value, pixel will not be served and UE will be counted as UE's blocked due
to pilot acquisition failure.
• Ec/Io (dB): Pilot quality acquisition threshold in dB: If the best pilot in the cell has quality below
the Ec/Io value, pixel will not be served and UE will be counted as UE blocked due to pilot
acquisition failure.
• Service Types to Simulate: Select all service types that need to be included in the Monte Carlo
run. These service types must be previously defined as described earlier.
• UMTS Band to Simulate: Select the desired simulation band
• Number of Monte Carlo Runs: It is the number of snapshots that will be averaged to produce
Monte Carlo composite statistics. There exists a trade -off between the speed of execution and

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statistical validity of averaged results. Optimi recommends 1000-3000 Monte Carlo runs. The
user may also choose to enable or disable “Stop On Convergence”. When checked, the UMTS
Monte Carlo Simulator will stop when convergence is reached. When not checked, the number
of Monte Carlo Runs populated by the user will run regardless of whether convergence is
reached.
• Simulation Polygon: The analysis will be limited within the specified simulation polygon
• Carrier: Specify the UMTS carrier to be simulated
• Clutter Attributes: The simulation will use clutter specific coverage, quality and capacity
thresholds as specified in the selected clutter attributes file.
• Stop On Convergence: As mentioned above, the user may choose to enable or disable “Stop
On Convergence”. When checked, the UMTS Monte Carlo Simulator will stop when
convergence is reached.
• View Output For Service Type: If the user is running for multiple service types this field
determines which service type will be used for initial display. The user can look at results for
other service types via the Analysis Manager gadget.
• Output Grid To View: This determines which grid (for the selected service type) will be shown
after the analysis completes, as listed below:

- DL, UL and Combined Probability of Coverage:


These three spatial displays illustrate estimated probability per pixel that downlink, uplink or
both links will be successfully closed. It takes into account signal fading and dB-distance
between median predicted signal level and the level required to close DL, UL or both links at
target Eb/No. The analysis assumes log-normal signal distribution to estimate displayed
probability.

- DL Ec/Io Best
This displays the strongest server CPICH quality (Ec/Io) in dB. In the ratio Ec/Io, Ec denotes
chip energy and Io denotes power spectral density of noise and interference.

- DL Handoff State
This map display gives predicted Hand-off states in each pixel. Available states range from
no connection to five way

- DL Received Signal Code Power


This display is the predicted DL received signal CPICH code power in dBm

- HSDPA Coverage Probability


Shows the probability that mobiles will be covered at the bit rate specified in the RAB
settings.

- HSDPA Coverage State


Shows covered (bit rate met), unsatisfied (bit rate cannot be met), and covered but
unsatisfied (Bit rate met but delayed).

- HSDPA Throughput
Maximum HSDPA Throughput in Kbps

- HSUPA Throughput
- Maximum HSUPA Throughput in Kbps

- Monte Carlo Mobiles


This is quite similar display as compare to the Reason for Failure, but this map displays
estimated conditions experienced by individual mobile from each run.

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- Reason for Failure


This analysis displays main reason for failure in a pixel. This display is generated after
operating point is calculated averaging Monte Carlo runs. After that, a probe mobile from the
chosen simulation profile is injected to test serve-ability in each pixel. Probe mobile is
assumed to not affect the calculated operating point. Possible reasons for failure are listed in
legend.

Analysis Filter Tab

The Analysis Filter page allows users to filter the analysis by controlling which transmitters of the
analysis specific technology are included in the analysis.

The configuration field is a broad filter; it specifies in general which transmitters are considered. The
configuration drop list has three types of entries:

• <Current Configuration> - Only the active and visible transmitters at the time the analysis is
run are considered
• <All Transmitters> - All transmitters regardless of the Active and visible state are considered
• Configuration - All saved configurations are listed in this drop-list. It includes local
configurations saved in the current workspace as well as the shared configurations saved by any
user of the source project. The configuration will be loaded and all transmitters active and
visible due to the specified configuration will be considered

The user can choose to further filter the transmitter set by checking the Apply Filter on Configuration
check box. The filtering options are as follows:

• Technology Band. Only transmitters of the selected technology band will be considered.
• Polygons. The input set will be those transmitters laying inside the polygon selected from the
combo boxes.
• Groups. The set of input transmitters will be those that have the value selected from the
Members combo box for the Group selected in the Groups combo box.

9.2.2 Monte Carlo Reports

Two tabular reports are available to summarize UMTS simulation results:

- Sector Performance
- Served Users Report

Sector Performance Report summarizes predicted UMTS performance indicators per cell and Served
Users Report summarizes global performance indicators for the whole network. Both reports are stored
in the “UMTSMONTESTATICSIM” sub-folder under the project folder.

9.2.2.1 Sector Performance

This report contains cell-specific results of UMTS simulations. Available fields include:

• Offered DL Kbps: For each data service separately, total offered traffic on the forward link in
Kbps summed over all pixels where cell is the best server. Offered traffic is pseudo-randomly

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determined from the traffic map of each packet-switched profile included in the Monte Carlo
simulation.

• Carried DL Kbps: For each data service separately, total estimated served traffic on the forward
link in Kbps summed over all pixels where cell is the best server. Carried traffic is calculated
from the offered traffic map of each packet-switched profile included in the Monte Carlo
simulation.

• Offered UL Kbps: For each data service separately, total offered traffic on the reverse link in
Kbps summed over all pixels where cell is the best server. Offered traffic is pseudo-randomly
determined from the traffic map of each packet-switched profile included in the Monte Carlo
simulation.

• Carried UL Kbps: For each data service separately, total estimated served traffic on the reverse
link in Kbps summed over all pixels where cell is the best server. Carried traffic is calculated
from the offered traffic map of each packet-switched profile included in the Monte Carlo
simulation.

• Offered Erlang: For each circuit-switched service separately, total offered traffic in Erlang
summed over all pixels where cell is the best server. Offered traffic is pseudo-randomly
determined from the traffic map of each circuit-switched profile included in the Monte Carlo
simulation.

• Carried Erlang: For each circuit-switched service separately, total estimated served traffic in
Erlang summed over all pixels where cell is the best server. Carried traffic is calculated from the
offered traffic map of each circuit-switched profile included in the Monte Carlo simulation.

• Noise Rise (dB): Ratio of the total received power (including thermal noise) at the base station
receiver and the thermal noise alone. Since both numerator and denominator contain thermal
noise, noise rise is always equal to or above 0dB. It is limited by the maximum allowed noise rise
per cell since Monte Carlo simulation starts dropping users if noise rise limit is exceeded for the
cell. Reported noise rise is averaged from all executed Monte Carlo runs.

Design goal is to keep noise rise as low as possible to stay below admission and load control
threshold typically set 3-6dB. When noise rise reaches admission threshold, new users are
blocked and existing may be dropped
• %Uplink Loading: Contains the same information as the Noise Rise, but expressed as
percentage. Calculated from Noise Rise field (NR) as:

β = 1 − 10 − Noise _ Rise / 10
• Thermal Noise (dBm): Constant power due to thermal noise calculated as the product of
Boltzmann's constant, absolute Kelvin temperature, bandwidth (5 MHz) and the cell-specific
noise figure. Does not change in multiple Monte Carlo runs. Thermal noise is usually
approximated with the well known expression:

Thermal _ noise = 10 log10 (kTBF )


Where:
-23
k: Boltzman’s constant = 1.38 J/K
T: Temperature in Kelvin
B: Receiver bandwidth
F: Linear domain receiver noise figure

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• In Cell Interference (dBm): Total estimated UMTS power at the base station receiver summed
from all mobiles in pixels served by the given cell. Note that serving cell performs power control
and therefore provides reference point for the EbNo inversion to calculate mobile transmitted
powers for the mobiles served by that cell. Reported value is the average of all Monte Carlo
runs.

• Out Cell Interference (dBm): Total estimated UMTS power at the base station receiver
summed from all mobiles in pixels not served by the given cell. Reported value is the average of
all Monte Carlo runs.

• Total Interference (dBm): Total simulated UMTS power received at the cell receiver from both
mobiles served by the cell and mobiles served by other cells. Calculated as sum of (In Cell
Interference + Out Cell Interference) in linear domain and converted in logarithmic.

• Iout/Iin: Unit-less ratio of out-of-cell and in-cell interference on the reverse link. Also known as
frequency reuse efficiency or Iadj. Nominal value for perfectly uniform UMTS network is 0.66,
indicating that in the balanced UMTS network more interference on the reverse link comes from
the mobiles served by the given cell than from out-of-cell mobiles. Much lower and higher values
than 0.66 indicate predicted deficiencies in the network design, such as too wide (Iout/Iin >>
0.66) or too narrow (Iout/Iin << 0.66) coverage areas.

• Min Traffic Power (W): Minimum predicted forward link traffic power among all Monte Carlo
runs.

• Max Traffic Power (W): Maximum predicted forward link traffic power among all Monte Carlo
runs.

• Avg Traffic Power (W): Average predicted forward link traffic power considering all Monte Carlo
runs.

• %Forward Link Loading: Percent of available traffic power estimated as required to serve as
much as possible of the offered demand. Calculated from the average traffic power as

In the above relationship, “AvgTrafficPower” is calculated as the average of all Monte Carlo runs,
“TotalSectorPower” is read from cell database Maximum PA Power field and
“TotalOverheadPower” is a sum of power allocated to all common channels (CPICH, SCH,
CCPCH)

• HSDPA Utilization: The percentage of the available HSDPA HS-DSCH power used by the
sector to serve the load. This value will vary when Dynamic HSDPA is enabled as it will be
affected by R99 loading.

• HSDPA Inflated Utilization: The percentage of the available HSDPA HS-DSCH power used by
the sector to serve the load including blocked users. Note that if two sectors have same
utilization factor but one of them blocks more HSDPA users, its inflated utilization is higher. High
simulated inflated HSDPA utilization indicates high blocking or high HSDPA utilization in the
sector.

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• Number of Supported Users (Soft): Number of users simulated as served in the soft hand-off
mode, meaning users are served by cells belonging to different sites. Average of soft HO users
from all Monte Carlo runs.

• Number of Supported Users (Softer): Number of users simulated as served in the softer hand-
off mode, meaning users are served by cells belonging to same sites. Average of softer HO
users from all Monte Carlo runs.

• Number of Blocked Hand Off Users: Number of users where hand-off cannot be completed
due to lack of RF resources for hand-off fingers. Limit is defined as percentage of traffic power at
cell level.

• Number of Users Blocked - Max Noise Rise: Number of users unable to complete reverse link
because of excessive noise rise above cell-specific noise rise limit. Average of blocked users
due to max. noise rise from all Monte Carlo runs is reported.

• Number of Users Blocked - Max Number of Channelization Codes Exceeded: Number of


users blocked due to exceeding OVSF channelization codes in the observed sector. Large
number of users predicted as blocked in this field indicates overloading the sector with too many
users on the forward link.

• Number of Users Dropped - Pilot Acquisition Failure: Number of users dropped because
pilot cannot be acquired estimated as average from all Monte Carlo runs.

• Number of Users Dropped - UE PA Max Power: Number of users dropped due to lack of UE
power necessary to achieve target RL EbNo. Average of dropped users due to lack of UE PA
power from all Monte Carlo runs. Large number of users predicted as dropped in this field
indicates reverse link traffic power problems in the cell either because of mobiles too far trying to
reach the cell or excessive noise rise at the cell receiver.

• Number of Users Dropped - Max TCH Allocation: Number of users dropped due to lack of
forward link power per RAB. RAB power limit is defined at RAB definition dialog. Average of
dropped users due to max. TCH allocation from all Monte Carlo runs.

• Number of Users Dropped - Max PA: Number of users dropped due to exceeding total allowed
traffic power per cell. Percentage of power limit is defined at cell level among other cell UMTS
parameters. Reported value is an average from dropped users due to max. PA power from all
Monte Carlo runs.

• Uncovered HSDPA Kbps: The total in Kbps for users served on HSDPA for which the RAB bit
rate could not be met. Summed for the cell best served pixels. Large number of users predicted
in this field indicates insufficient design of the HSDPA link and/or HSDPA resource allocation

• Number of Covered but Unsatisfied HSDPA Kbps: The total in Kbps for users served on
HSDPA for which the RAB bit rate was met but the throughput was delayed. Summed for the cell
best served pixels.

• Number of Unsatisfied HSUPA Kbps: The total in Kbps for user served on HSUPA for which
the RAB bit rate was met but the throughput was delayed. Summed for the cell best served
pixels.

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9.2.2.2 Served Users Report


Second UMTS simulation report summarizes overall network performance and enables global
comparison of predicted performance metrics. Each field in the report is given separately for each
service included in the simulation, both as absolute count and percentage. Also all circuit-switched and
packet-switched services are aggregated together. The following fields are available:

• Offered Load (Erlang/Kbps): Total offered load for each service reported in Erlang for circuit-
switched or Kbps for packet-switched services. Since X UMTS simulator generates UE's in each
Monte Carlo snapshot according to Poisson distribution driven by traffic maps, reported value is
the average of all snapshots. It is a sum of offered load over all cells from Sector Performance
Report.

• Carried Load (Erlang/Kbps): Predicted served traffic reported separately for each service in
Erlang for circuit-switched or Kbps for packet-switched services. It is a sum of carried load over
all cells from Sector Performance Report. This is the first and most important field when quickly
evaluating predicted network performance

• Block - Uplink - Noise Rise Max: Total number of blocked Erlang or Kbps due to exceeding
maximum noise rise on the reverse link. Sum of all blocks due to excessive noise rise over all
cells from the Sector Performance Report

• Block - Channel Element: Total number of blocked Erlang or Kbps due to lack of channel
elements reported separately for each services and aggregated for all circuit and packet-
switched services.
• Block - Max Channelization Codes Exceeded: Number and percentage of users/throughput
blocked because orthogonal variable spreading factor (OVSF) code space has been exhausted.
This may become a problem with many high speed data users occupying channelization code
branches with low spreading factor and thus preventing other codes from being allocated.
• Total Blocked Users: Total number of blocked users due to above two reasons for each service
summed over all cells

• Drop - Pilot Acquisition Failure: Total number of dropped Erlang or Kbps due to inability to
acquire pilot. A sum of all pilot-related drops over all cells reported separately for each service
and aggregated packet/circuit-switched services

• Drop - Uplink - User Equipment PA Max: Total number of dropped Erlang or Kbps in the entire
network due to exceeding the UE PA power limit required to close the reverse link and meet
target RL EbNo. A sum of all drops due to exceeding UE PA max. power over all cells.

• Drop - Downlink - Max TCH Allocation: Total number of dropped Erlang or Kbps in the entire
network due to exceeding TCH power limit required to close the forward link and meet target FL
EbNo. A sum of all drops due to exceeding TCH max. power per RAB over all cells.

• Drop - Downlink - Sector PA Max: Total number of dropped Erlang or Kbps in the entire
network due to exceeding total cell PA power limit. This occurs when other users have drained
PA power from the allowed PA power percentage specified in UMTS sector-specific parameters.
A sum of all drops due to exceeding cell PA power over all cells.

• No Pathloss Data: Total number of Erlang or Kbps for bins with no pathloss data. This usually
indicates a sector or sectors with no pathloss data. This may be a network performance issue if
traffic is offered in areas not covered by any signal or project creation issue if
prediction/measurement data was not loaded completely. Properly created project with loaded
pathloss or measurements over pixels with offered traffic will have zero in this field

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• Drop - HSDPA Coverage: Total number of Kbps dropped due to no HSDPA coverage. This is
usually the result of one or more sectors that don't have HSDPA active. The Monte Carlo
simulator allocates requested HSDPA data rate if resources allow. If requested data rate is not
supported, the maximum supportable data rate is allocated. Number in this field represents
average through all Monte Carlo snapshots of unserved HSDPA offered throughput.

• Total Dropped (Erlang/kbps): Sum of all dropped Erlang or Kbps in the entire network due to
above 5 reasons. A sum of all drops due to all reasons over all cells.

• HSDPA - Satisfied: Total number of kbps for users for whom the RAB bit rate was met.

• HSDPA - Covered but Unsatisfied: The total in Kbps for users served on HSDPA for which the
RAB bit rate was met but the throughput was delayed.

• HSDPA - Uncovered: The total in Kbps for users served on HSDPA for which the RAB bit rate
could not be met.

• One-Way Hand-off: Total number of all Erlang or Kbps in one-way HO. Reported separately for
each service and aggregated for packet-switched and circuit-switched services summed over all
cells.

• Two-Way Hand-off: Soft Soft: Total number of all Erlang or Kbps in soft HO when UE is served
by cells from different sites. Reported separately for each service and aggregated for packet-
switched and circuit-switched services summed over all cells.

• Two-Way Hand-off: Softer: Total number of all Erlang or Kbps in softer HO when UE is served
by cells from same sites. Reported separately for each service and aggregated for packet-
switched and circuit-switched services summed over all cells.

• Three-Way Hand-off: Soft Softer: Total number of all Erlang or Kbps in soft-softer HO when
UE is served by 3 cells one of which is from the same and other from a different site. Reported
separately for each service and aggregated for packet-switched and circuit-switched services
summed over all cells.

• Three-Way Hand-off: Soft Soft Soft: Total number of all Erlang or Kbps in soft-soft HO when
UE is served by 3 cells from 3 different sites. Reported separately for each service and
aggregated for packet-switched and circuit-switched services summed over all cells.

• Four-Way Hand-off: Softer Softer: Total number of all Erlang or Kbps in soft-softer-softer HO
when UE is served by 4 cells from 2 different. Reported separately for each service and
aggregated for packet-switched and circuit-switched services summed over all cells.

• Four-Way Hand-off: Soft Soft Softer: Total number of all Erlang or Kbps in soft-soft-softer HO
when UE is served by 4 cells from 2 different sites where 2 cells belong to the same site and the
remaining 2 fingers belongs to other sites. Reported separately for each service and aggregated
for packet-switched and circuit-switched services summed over all cells.

• Four-Way Hand-off: Soft Soft Soft Soft; Total number of all Erlang or Kbps in soft-soft-soft HO
when UE is served by 4 cells from 4 different sites. Reported separately for each service and
aggregated for packet-switched and circuit-switched services summed over all cells.

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10 Designing with the xWizard UMTS Module


There are various types of objectives that can be set for any RF design projects. But mostly, these
objectives typically boil down to three categories: coverage, capacity, and quality. Unlike most 2G
system, in UMTS systems (or any other CDMA based systems), engineers must be aware that changing
any one of the coverage, capacity, or quality aspects of the network affects each other. For example,
expanding the coverage area of one site will cause interference level to increase in neighboring sites,
thereby effecting capacity and quality. Therefore, the impact on all three aspects of the design must be
carefully studied before finalizing any RF network design activities.

10.1 Coverage Design

10.1.1 Setting the Coverage Design Objectives

Typically, before placing any new sites in the planning tool, the coverage design goals are set in the form
of “Link Budget” thresholds. A link budget for each clutter class is generated, in which the required
threshold per clutter class is set. The design thresholds can also be set independently for uplink and/or
the downlink. In the case UMTS, priority is given more to the uplink as it is typically the limiting link. An
example of the design objectives are illustrated in Table 1.

Table 1. Example Link Budget design goals


Uplink - Mobile Downlink - Received Coverage Area
Transmit Power (dBm) Pilot Power (dBm) Requirement (%)
Dense Urban -10 -75 95
Urban -2 -83 90
Suburban 8 -93 85
Rural 12 -97 80
Highway 5 -90 99

Further, coverage area objective can also be set. An example of the goal is “95% percent of the dense
urban area or dense urban population must meet the link budget objective”. Once these design goals
have been determined, they can be input into xWizard with Clutter Adjustment editor as shown below:

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10.1.2 The Network Diagnostics Analysis

After the possible site locations have been selected, and their RF and radio parameters of the network
have been configured, the network’s coverage can be tested to check if it meets the design objectives.
This feature is available through xWizard’s Network Diagnostics analysis, which can be invoked from the
menu item Analysis > Network Diagnostics. This analysis provides the following reports:

1. Geographical plots highlighting areas that meet the design goals, and areas that do not.

2. Statistical reports in tabular format that reports the coverage performance per sector, per site
and for the network as a whole. Based on these performance reports, a design can be deemed
to be good or not.

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The following bullet points details the usage of the Network Diagnostics analysis:

1. Clutter to Analyze: In this section, the clutter grid and design goal clutter adjustment file needs
to be specified.

2. Demand Grids: This is an optional feature, but it can be very useful to view the performance of
the network from traffic point of view. One or more demand grids can be specified. Demand
grids can be grids containing traffic densities such as voice traffic, data traffic, or population. At
the end of the analysis a statistical report will be provided containing the demand that meets the
design goals. The statistics is provided per sector, per site and for the network as a whole.

3. xWizard Analysis:
a) Technology: Select UMTS_FDD for UMTS design.

b) Analysis: If coverage is based on uplink then select Reverse Link – MS Tx Power analysis.
The following analyses are available:
• CPICH-RSCP
• Best Pilot Ec/Io
• Reverse Link – MS Tx Power
• Dominance
• RSCP (dBm) and Ec/Io (dB)

Make sure that the proper clutter adjustment file is selected to match the selected analysis.
In other words, the design goal values must match those of the analysis.

c) Clutter Threshold Operator: It is very critical that the correct operator is used for the
analysis that is selected. For the case of uplink analysis, the less than operator (“<”) must
be selected because the design goal is that the mobile transmit power must be below the
threshold. In the case of downlink analyses, the greater than operator (“>”) must be used
because the signal strength or quality must be above the threshold to meet the design goal.

NOTE: For the “RSCP (dBm) and Ec/Io (dB)” analysis there are two thresholds (one for
RSCP which is coming from the clutter adjustment file and the other one for Ec/Io which is
specified in the “Ec/Io Threshold Value” field.

d) Output:
• Grid to Show: Allows selection of various geographical plots:
- Actual vs. Required grid
- Percent Area Covered grids
• Show Statistics: If this option is checked, statistical results will be presented in
Microsoft Excel application showing sector, site and network level statistics.

10.1.3 Interpreting the results of the Network Diagnostics analysis

It is very easy to view and interpret results of the Network Diagnostics analysis. There are two cases:

• Downlink Analyses: For the case of the downlink analyses (Pilot Power or Quality), to see
areas that do not meet the criteria (Figure a), the bands range has to be set to negative (above 0
dB). To show areas where design goals are met (Figure b), then band range has to be set to be
positive. The results are basically the difference between the predicted signal values and the
required values per clutter type. So if the objective is met, then results are negative, and if
objective is not met, it is positive.

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• Uplink Analyses: For the case of the uplink analysis (Mobile Transmit Power), to see areas that
do not meet the criteria, the bands range has to be set to positive (above 0 dB). To show areas
where design goals are met, then band range has to be set to be negative.

(a) Areas not meeting design objectives (b) areas meeting design objective

Further, plots can also be viewed to show the percent of sectors’ coverage area that do not meet the
objective. To use this option, the “Show Percent Area Covered – Show Poor Areas Only” option in the
Network Diagnostics analysis dialog can be selected. An example is shown below. Note that in this
example, the blue areas depict the poorly covered areas for which the best serving sectors do not satisfy
the 85% coverage area requirement.

The statistical outputs can also be used analyze the performance of sector, cell or for the entire network.
The following performance indicators are provided:

1. Total area covered (sq miles or km)


2. Area meeting design objective (sq miles or km)
3. Area not meeting design objective(sq miles or km)
4. Percent of Area meeting design objective
5. If one or more demand grids are used as input then the following are also provided per demand
grid:

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a. Total demand covered


b. Demand meeting coverage objective
c. Demand not meeting coverage objective
d. Percent of Demand meeting coverage objective.

An example of the cell level output is shown in Table 2.

Table 2. Statistical output of the Network Diagnostics analysis

Using the results, engineers can evaluate if the design objective are met at the network level, site level
or the sector level.

10.2 Capacity Design


The Monte Carlo statistics can be used when doing the capacity design – please refer the Monte Carlo
reports section.

10.3 Quality of Service

10.3.1 Pilot Pollution and Dominance

As mentioned in the Static analyses section, Pilot Pollution and Pilot Delta analyses are available in
xWizard.

The Pilot Pollution analysis shows:

• Number of Pilots above Absolute Threshold


• Number of Pilot within Reporting Range

The threshold to determine the pollution levels can be set via the band ranges. An example is presented
below:

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(a) Pilot Pollution Analysis Dialog (b) map showing polluted areas

Alternatively, the Pilot Delta analysis can also be used to detect the pilot pollution. As we know, the
serving pilots must be dominant over interfering pilots. The Pilot Delta analysis, as shown below,
evaluates the pilot dominance of a serving pilot against the interfering pilots.

Having low dominance can be a problem in networks because the mobile’s active set can be changing
constantly which could cause dropped calls

(a) Pilot Delta Analysis dialog (b) map showing low pilot dominance

UMTS (HSPA) Network Design using xWizard