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Proximity Sensor

A proximity sensor is a sensor which can detect the presence of nearby objects
without any physical contact. An infrared proximity detector (IRPD) works by emitting
a beam of Infrared Light. When the light is reflected by an obstacle, the IR detector
will register that light, and the obstacle and signal it by switching on a buzzer.

The first step in building this circuit is to place all the components on your bread
board using the schematic given, but before you do that, go through the description
of all the different components you will be using in this circuit -

Resistors restrict the flow of electric current, for example a resistor is placed in series
with a light-emitting diode (LED) to limit the current passing through the LED.
Resistance is measured in ohms, the symbol for ohm is an omega .

The resistance of a resistor can be determined by the bands printed on it. Most
resistors have 4 bands:

• The first band gives the first digit.

• The second band gives the second digit.

• The third band indicates the number of zeros.

• The fourth band can be ignored for this project.

Colour Number

Black 0

Brown 1

Red 2

Orange 3

Yellow 4

Green 5

Blue 6

Violet 7

Grey 8

White 9
For example, a resistor with bands of yellow, violet and red will have first digit 4
(yellow in table above), second digit 7 (violet), followed by 2 (red) zeros: 4,700 ohms.

The circuit diagram of a resistor is given below –

Variable Resistors
Variable resistors are resistors whose value can be changed. A variable resistor is
shown below.

This is how they are shown in a circuit diagram.

Light emitting diodes(LEDs)

LEDs emit light of a particular frequency when an electric current passes through

LEDs must be connected the correct way round, the diagram may be
labelled a or + for anode and k or - for cathode. The cathode is the
short lead.

The circuit diagram of a LED is given below –

Integrated Circuit(IC)
Integrated Circuits are usually called ICs or chips. They are complex circuits which
have been etched onto tiny chips of semiconductor (silicon). The chip is packaged in
a plastic holder with pins spaced on a 0.1" (2.54mm) grid which will fit the holes on
Each IC has a definite number of pins. The pins are numbered anti-clockwise around
the IC (chip) starting near the notch or dot at the top. The diagram shows the
numbering for 8-pin IC.

NOTE: Observe the white notch at the top. The pins are numbered anti-clockwise
starting form the notch.

The breadboard is the base for the electronic circuit you are about to build. You have
to fix all the components on it and make all the connections on it. You have to see
that the breadboard has numerous holes arrangened in rows and coloumns. You are
going to put the leads of the components into them. But before starting off, please
read the following description of the breadboard.

If you carefully notice there are ten holes in each rows(A-E and F-J). These five holes
are internally connected which means that if a wire is connected to A then it is also
connected to B, C, D, E and if a wire is connected to F then it is connected to G, H, I
and J. A to E is not connected to F to J. Further you can also notice that there are 64
rows. And each row is NOT connected to other.

Using the breadboard, put in your components where you are told to put them in. Be
careful not to bend their leads and not to short circuit the components.

Circuit Diagram
Note: The IC used is LM358 and the value of the variable
resistor is 22000 ohms.
Use the above circuit diagram to make the connections on the breadboard using
components and the wire provided to you.

Before you start please read the following instructions carefully.

1. The straight line in the circuit diagram represents the wire.

2. The Integrated Circuit has eight pins with the first pin represented by a dot.

3. The coordinates for connecting the IC on the breadboard are as follows:

1st Pin – E4

2nd Pin – E3

3rd Pin – E2

4th Pin – E1

5th Pin – F1

6th Pin – F2

7th Pin – F3

8th Pin – F4

4. Connect the IR emitter (the LED with a transparent case) such that its anode
and cathode are connected to A10 and A9 respectively.

5. Connect the IR detector (the dark blue LED) such that its anode and cathode
are connected to A7 and A6 respectively.

6. Connect the Red LED such that its anode and cathode are connected to D4 and
D5 respectively.

7. Connect a wire from G4 to E6.

8. Connect a wire from A1 to B9.

9. Connect a wire from B2 to C7.

10. Connect a 180 ohms resistor from E10 to D6.

11. Connect a 180 ohms resistor from C1 to C5

12. Connect a 10,000 ohms resistor from B1 to B7.

13. Connectone yellow wire from the variable resistor to H4 and the other yellow
wire to C9. Connect the brown wire from the variable resistor to D3.

14. Connect the red wire from the buzzer to C4 and the blue wire to D1.

Your circuit is now complete.

Now connect the positive wire of the battery (red wire) I4 to and negative
(black) to D9.