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Archaeology and pre-Islamic art
B. A. Litvinskya a Academician Professor, Institute of Oriental Studies, Moscow
To cite this Article Litvinsky, B. A.(1998) 'Archaeology and pre-Islamic art', Iranian Studies, 31: 3, 333 — 348 To link to this Article: DOI: 10.1080/00210869808701914 URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00210869808701914
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T. EHSAN YARSHATER AND HIS Downloaded By: [Swets Content Distribution] At: 22:14 24 February 2011 colleagues have performed a colossal task in preparing and publishing volumes I-VIII. Summer/Fall 1998 B. Moscow. architecture. buildings and rock reliefs. and art have all been dealt with comprehensively. the author manages not merely to present the history of scholarship of Median monuments. C. B. (There is now a separate article on this site. These articles were written by prominent specialists. pre-Islamic architecture. but to give brief characterizations of the most important monuments and to stress the relationship of early multi-columned halls with the later "Palace P" at Pasargadae. Litvinsky is Academician Professor. A. and groups of artifacts. numismatics. 293) He also gives a very successful characterization of the material culture of Achaemenid Iran with a map showing ceramic zones. 4) monuments. Archaeology. This is merely a list of monuments with very brief descriptions but a complete bibliography. The author correctly notes that "archaeological field work has played a comparatively smaller part in forming the image of Sasanian history and culture than the large number of preserved monuments. It is certainly useful.may have entered their eventual homeland in a peaceful fashion. perhaps over a surprisingly long time." (p. Stronach proposes that Persians ". 3) material culture. de Morgan. 1. and 5) varia. Archaeology. The archaeology of Afghanistan is found in AFGHANISTAN viii. Schippmann uses a different approach in iii. the author has not included Dahan-e Golaman in his survey. -Ed. and art The article ARCHEOLOGY consists of 7 sections. D." (p. However. 302).) K. Huff (iv. PROF. While examining the problems of chronology. Pre-Median: history and method of research) covers a long period for which he sketches the principal studies and stresses the importance of the work of J. A.Iranian Studies. two of which are dedicated to Central Asia. many of whom participated personally in the excavations of the relevant monuments or examined them on site. Sasanian) combines both approaches—a study of the problems and a thorough list of monuments. .. Litvinsky Archaeology and Pre-Islamic Art ENCYCLOPAEDIA IRANICA IS A UNIQUE WORK. architecture and art. architecture. and foreign member of the Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei (Roma). collections of coins and objects of art. 2) archaeological periods. I have divided the articles into the following groups: 1) Archaeology. volume 31. Institute of Oriental Studies. and art. Median and Achaemenid is a model entry. D. numbers 3-4. but does not provide a comprehensive study of the archaeology of these periods. Young's impressive opening entry (ARCHEOLOGY i. Parthian archaeology. Stronach's ii.. The section on the Sasanian period by D.
1 Moreover. Young. Archeology (W. H. Archeology (N. when she deals with stone and bronze age monuments. Missing is any attempt at the definition of specific features of the cultures and their links with neighboring areas and cultures. P. idem. Downloaded By: [Swets Content Distribution] At: 22:14 24 February 2011 . The author faced a difficult problem: by 1978 a total of 101 Urartian forts." La revue du Louvre et des musees de France 283 (1973): 153-63. the book has two volumes. Dupree fails to include the Rodney Young excavation of 1953. Mary. Khalil Poladian [Kabul. R. Gardin had already been published. "The Southern Wall of Balkh-Bactra. Islamic Central Asia demonstrates clearly the different ways in which archaeological work is conducted in these two regions. 1. 1984]) on the preIslamic sites. and the most important excavations and monuments are described for each period. "Antiquites de Bactriane. Before the thirties the Islamic archaeology of Iran was considered of minor importance. even though the first studies of P. G. but in her bibliography she cites it incorrectly (W. Kleiss) is organized chronologically. But the article is based only on the materials from Iranian Azerbaijan. materials from Northern Azerbaijan (the former Azerbaijan SSR) are totally excluded. Tashkent. ed. Khulbuk. "Bactrian protohistorique. Dupree) opens with a brief note on the history of archaeological studies in Afghanistan and then surveys the archaeological monuments of the country. there is very little data and only cursory reference to publications. excavated by W. when part of the city wall of the lower city of Balkh was excavated. The article AFGHANISTAN viii. While it was impossible to organize excavations in the main cities of Islamic Iran. Dupree's discussion of the Folul Hoard is imprecise. The article AZERBAIJAN ii. This work of two volumes has been widely used by N. Islamic Iran and vii. Dupree. settlements. P. Yet by the time of writing this article the very full reference book on monuments of Afghanistan compiled by Warwick Ball in collaboration with J. Bukhara. Amiet proposed the idea that groups of artisans from Elam moved to Bactra. not three. and so on. I.334 Litvinsky A comparison of the sections vi. and other sites and inscriptions had been discovered and identified." American Journal of Archaeology 59 (1955): 267-76 2. Ball is not the editor. Amiet. Veselovsky). She fails to comprehend its close resemblance to the art of Elam. Kleiss himself. while the archaeology of Central Asia had its start with the excavation of medieval Islamic cities (the 1885 excavations of Afrasiab by N.2 Historical periods are constructed as simple lists of monuments. and its title is Archaeological Gazetteer not Gazatteer). H. arranging them in chronological order. Termez. Consequently the archaeology of Islamic Central Asia is first and foremost the archaeology of urban centers. This is rather strange because in the beginning of the article the author states with good reason that before the partition in the nineteenth century. Urgench. Amiet had been published by then. The most significant among them was Bestam. excavations in Central Asia were conducted at Samarkand." Syria 54 (1977): 89-191. It should be noted that the Afghan International Center for Kushan Studies has now published a collection of articles in Western languages and Persian (Tahqlqat-e-Kushanl.
etc. The question of the influence of Persepolis reliefs on the reliefs of the Parthenon is debatable. in his conclusion he writes: "With the exception of metalwork.Archaeology and Pre-Islamic Art 335 Iranian and Russian Azerbaijan constituted a single cultural entity. But this is not the case.E. the architecture of Nisa was not included. there is no mention of the Temple of Oxus although its foundation dates to the end of the 4th-beginning of the 3rd-centuries B. For example. but the problems of the origins of Achaemenian art and its relation to Greek art remain to be more fully explored. it [Achaemenian art] did not reach very far beyond modern Iran. the Temple of Oxus in Bactria. Calmeyer also authored iii. The text informs us about building materials. but on all the territory of the Parthian state. Russian and Azerbaijani scholars examined archaeological monuments in detail and conducted extensive excavations. Huff provides a sketch of building technology and brief descriptions of specific buildings. The article ART IN IRAN consists of 11 sections from the Neolithic to the "post-Qajar" period. it would be useful to include a separate article on the archaeology of Northern Azerbaijan. Section i is "Seleucid architecture" but section iv "Central Asian" begins with the Neolithic period. His arrangement also differs from the usual attempts to provide a chronological definition of the evolution of Achaemenian art and architecture using materials from the most recent excavations. construction. the architecture and art of Urartu are not treated very thoroughly. Sasanian (D. In Northern Azerbaijan. S. Chorasmia.C. There is some inconsistency here. palaces. This should be considered a model for articles on architecture. The entry ARCHITECTURE iii. ARCHITECTURE consists of eight sections. Achaemenian-like capitals in India. (For Kuh-e Khvaja. The entries on Seleucid and Parthian architecture are extremely brief. Median art and architecture the late P. Downey has written an interesting short outline of Parthian art. the results of the 1974-75 Downloaded By: [Swets Content Distribution] At: 22:14 24 February 2011 . In ii. and is accompanied by a most detailed bibliography.). Porada). The second includes an extensive bibliography." (p. (the late E. She discusses Parthian art not only within the boundaries of modern Iran. Achaemenian art and architecture though in this latter case there is much more material. Material on the main monuments is missing. decorative details. Unfortunately. Huff) is superb. In the Seleucid entry. The masterfully written i. Calmeyer surveys the available though sparse material and proposes new interpretations in several cases. The material obtained dates from the early Paleolithic to Safavid and Qajar times. and houses). Pazyryk. In the event of publication of a supplement. fortifications. It contains an extremely condensed but comprehensive characterization of the Sasanid architecture of Iran. the apadana-like hall in Armenia (Erebuni).E. Although there is a reference in the text to Nisa. columns.C. Neolithic to Median. proposes many novel ideas on geography as a determinant in the development of the art of ancient Iran. and others all show the spread of Achaemenian influence. functional types of building (with subdivisions into religious architecture. seventh millenium to seventh century B. Some of his conclusions seem problematic. B. 579). Her analysis of iconographic motifs is particularly interesting. and structural types (vaulted and domed constructions.
4 ART IN IRAN v. Pugachenkova does. Invernizzi. Sources ecrites et documents preislamiques (Paris. These include T. mosaic. without reference to Takht-i Sangin and the Temple of the Oxus." Archaeologische Mitteilungen aus Iran und Turan." Journal des savants (1985). See V." Bulletin of the Asia Institute. . Iran. Sasanian (P. but from the lst-2nd centuries C. E. a qui ont-ils servi?" Histoire et cultes de I 'Asie Centrale preislamique. Unfortunately many constituent parts of the arts of Central Asia have not been mentioned (toreutics.336 Litvinsky expeditions of the Istituto Italiano per il Medio ed Estremo Oriente3 are important. although the first series of them had been published by the time the article was published. as G. Bernard. It is not clear why they are not mentioned in the article. P." East-West. A. Bactrian seals have also been omitted. A. 4. Faccenna "New Fragment of Wall-Painting from Ghaga Sahr Kuhi JJvagaSistan. 31/l^t (Rome 1981). seals. toreutics. Harper) is devoted exclusively to art. H. AFGHANISTAN ix: Pre-Islamic Art by F.S. "Excavation of Staraia Nisa. Sarianidi.E. 8 (1996). the art of Nisa is conceived of in quite a different way from its perception at the time volume 2 of EIr appeared. N. painting. coroplastic. 5.E. "Les rhytons de Nisa: I. 87-100. supplied with a thorough bibliography. S. V. author of vi. Monumental Art of the Parthian Period in Iran. not alabaster (p. glass. (p. ceramics. The Hellenistic period is described only on the basis of the materials of Ay Khanom. Kawami.5 Contrary to the author's opinion. Tissot describes Hephthalite attitudes concerning Buddhism without taking into account the full complexity of Downloaded By: [Swets Content Distribution] At: 22:14 24 February 2011 3. textiles. ceramics. "Die hellenistischen Grundlagen der friihparthischen Kunst. N. N. "Les rhytous de Nisa: a quoi. 27 (1996). but instead used her section to define the main lines of artistic development. It contains very comprehensive definitions of all kinds of Sasanian art: rock reliefs.). (Leiden. Potesses grecques. 1991). idem.C. S. etc. Tissot. 1987). It should be noted that the reliefs found at Airtam was limestone. 597). Azarpay. the inscription from Sorkh Kutal gives no explanation of the functions of the Temple. It is a brief but extremely well-written outline of Sasanian art. there have been remarkable findings of paintings and other cultural artifacts. It is unfortunate that the author did not turn her attention to the influence of Sasanian art upon the art of neighboring peoples. Mathiessen. pre-Islamic Eastern Iran and Central Asia. without which it is difficult to understand the origins of art in Afghanistan. especially on the Buddhistic art of Afghanistan. and new studies have been published. textiles. The author does not mention the Fulol Hoard. Drevnie zemledel'tsy Afganistana [Ancient Farmers of Afghanistan] (Moscow.S. I. Azarpay correctly dates Khalchayan not from the 2nd century B. A. 1977). 1992). refrained from describing or even listing the most important monuments. G.N. 593). Sculpture in the Parthian Empire (Aarhus. Pilipko. There are some omissions in the article.) In light of the most recent studies. the curator of the Guimet museum—a repository of remarkable works of art from Afghanistan— provides a general overview. O. Since then. D.
(Mainz. Litvinsky." Gold. 9." in History of the Civilizations of Central Asia. vol. 1. The Dards and connected problems.10 Y.. 8. P. 1964). Iskandarov. and there is no archaeology at all. 6 Downloaded By: [Swets Content Distribution] At: 22:14 24 February 2011 . 27: 1-4 (1977): 3-103. is quite comprehensive. A. A. 7. Tucci's remarkable work8 been used or the valuable work by H. H. especially in the work of the oldest Tadjik historian. R. The authors consider Andronovo culture and pottery to have reached Central Asia from Southern Siberia. This is not the case. 1993). 1994) (with detailed bibliography). B. Nor are there references in the text to the works of B.Archaeology and Pre-Islamic Art 337 this question." Orientalia Iosephi Tucci memoriae dicata." East and West. The article DARDESTAN contains sections on geography and languages. 25-26. For readers of the encyclopedia a chronological table of the periods (levels) of the different monuments of the bronze age would be very useful. on the other hand. G. Heinrickson) very clearly interprets the material originating from the territory of contemporary Iran. including Afghanistan and South Turkmenia. A. is only partly familiar with the Russian literature on the subject. vols. vol. eds. See K. Dyson and M.. 1-2 (Mainz. India v drevnosti. A. eds. there is no history of the Dardic peoples. Had he been more conversant with it. Further. 1989. Archaeology and pre-Islamic History. BRONZE AGE. he would have found thorough materials on the history. there is no mention of the work of Russian researchers who first established the connection between Dardic and Central Asian customs and beliefs and who pointed out that this connection had very ancient roots related to a common homeland. 3.. 147.S. Oddly enough. Rapoport superbly summarizes the written sources and the results of archaeological expeditions in CHORASMIA i. Francfort. N. Antiquities of Northern Pakistan Reports and Studies. Outline of History of Buddhism in Central Asia (Moscow. 1968). Litvinsky (Paris. 1996). Examples of ancient links and contacts). and other ores have been mined in the region. ethnography.. "On Swat. Voigt derive their material from greater Iran. M. Litvinsky. These contain the most important data on the history of the Dards and Dardestan. Unfortunately the author has ignored the richest materials. Fussman and K. 2. Grevemeer. Andronovo tribes 6.7 Nor has G. Rowland on the art of Afghanistan and Central Asia and in particular his study on Bamiyan. Serie Orientale Roma. See B. (1985): 395-400. "Tajikistan i India (primery drevnikh svyazei i kontaktov)" (Tajikistan and India.9 Unfortunately there is also no indication in the article of the results of expeditions to the upper part of the Indus valley. B. ed. 56. B. Jettmar et al. (Moscow. F. A. 10. author of DARVAZ. "Note sur la mort de Cyrus et les Dardes. See B. which come from south Turkmenia and Central Asia. The author is not correct when he says that Darvaz "lacks mineral resources. Litvinsky. III. Archaeological periods CHALCOLITIC ERA IN PERSIA (E. H. "The Hepthalite Empire. copper. Jettmar. during which more than ten thousand petroglyphs and one thousand inscriptions—among them many Iranian inscriptions—were found. and physical anthropology of the people of Darvaz. 146-51.
Concordance of clothing terms among ethnic groups in modern Persia (-Eds. 1981). but are unfamiliar with the archaeological commentary on this article contained in my own work11 and the numerous works of E. "Problems of the Ethnic History of Central Asia in the 2nd Millennium B. and esthetic properties of the ayvan.C.C. which is widely reflected in the iconogra11. The authors of the introduction dwell on such problems as sources and classification as well as on potential methods of studying clothing. descriptive phase. and the Iranian tribes on the Pontic steppes and in the Causasus. The earliest genuine domes had diameters exceeding the diagonal of the square bases which is why they did not need squinches. CLOTHING. consists of 28 sections. Grabar. The intermediate types consist of arches between domes without squinches and domes supported by squinches. AYVAN (or TAQ)-E KESRA (E. groups of artefacts O. DOMES (B. O'Kane) has used Central Asian material hardly at all. The entry concludes with two valuable linguistic sections: xxvii. the problem of the four ayvans. Stronach) provides not only a brief description of apaddnas in Susa and Persepolis but also makes convincing arguments about the genesis of the apadana type and the dating of the apadanas of Susa and Persepolis. all of which are very important for the history of architecture of Iran and Central Asia. and provides a thorough discussion of the dating of the building. and the practical. however. Historical lexicon of Persian clothing (Golam-Hosain Yosofi) and xxviii. they describe three main approaches and also some theoretical problems. The history of costume here has its start in the Median and Achaemenid periods. I must mention. Obviously. this should have been preceded by a section on pre-Median clothing. Also.E. Central Asian aspects of the Aryan problem. 1973). Unfortunately the author has made little use of this literature. of EIr). In its introduction. Downloaded By: [Swets Content Distribution] At: 22:14 24 February 2011 . the authors refer to T. which has been the subject of long-lasting debate. He also provides a judicious review of the functions of the apadana and the entire complex of Persepolis. followed by clothing of pre-Islamic Eastern Iran. author of the brilliant article AYVAN. The article is illustrated with 30 drawings and 116 plates and is equipped with an extensive bibliography. two important gaps. 154-69. Material culture architecture and art. Kelly) is also very interesting.E. symbolic. For the typology of early domes and squinches. it is correctly emphasized that the study of costume is still in its initial. The construction. typology. Burrow "The Proto-Indoaryans" (Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society.) (Moscow. One of the lengthier articles. APADANA (D. sets forth his ideas on the origin of the ayvdn. and evolution of domes and squinches have been studied in the works on Central Asia more thoroughly than for Iran proper. He rightfully describes it as the most famous of all Sasanian monuments (p. As a whole. it provides a sound overview. all by different authors. Kuz'mina. After the introduction there is a section on pre-Islamic and Islamic clothing." Ethnic Problems of Central Asia in the Early Period (second millennium B. this is a comprehensive and serious entry. 3. 155). the Sogdians.338 Litvinsky populated the whole of Kazakhstan as well and reached Central Asia from there.
" BGH LXXXVH (1963). fashioned in a very artistic manner.C. Holscher. Proto-lraniens. R. 119. etc.E. 1964). 104. 3. 14. Assur. Khalchayan. II. Henning. Dalverzin. supposedly from Elam (fourteenth century B.Archaeology and Pre-Islamic Art 339 phy of early Iron Age Iran. 1963). A few lines on p. Ghirshman. Khalchayan. See E. Die Darstellung der Perser in der griechischen Kunst bis zum Beginn das Hellenismus (1933). and textile remnants (including full costumes from Termez). coroplastic (from many places).13 A bronze statuette from Hurvin has plate armor on its chest and abdomen. Ajina-Tepe. passim. Livshits. See H. 16. such as murals (Diberjin. Nor has material from central and southeastern Afghanistan been used. 177. and Toprak Kala). Babylonian documents of the Achaemenid epoch mentioning the armor of Achaemenid warriors have not been used. "Presentation des guerriers perses et la notion de barbare dans la I-ere moitie du Vl-eme siecle. "The Death of a city. The Avestan materials should also have been cited as written sources. Ghirshman. J. even though we have significant iconographic sources for them. Negahban. but the great bulk of iconographic material from this region has been overlooked. H. Dyson. 1972).15 There are helmets in the Metropolitan Museum of Art. 1979). Taf. B. there is a warrior in armor with conical helmet depicted on a silver vessel from Marlik. A. W.16 12. Achemenides (Paris.). 13. V. M. Jahrhunderts v." Beitrdge zur Archiiologie 6.C. Ba'alyk-Tepe. sculpture (Surkh Kotal. Belenitskii. no. However a great deal of the data has not been mentioned. Gorelik. und 4. I would have hoped that all of this would have been included in the section on pre-Islamic Eastern Iran. of different types come from Western Iran and pictures of them are found in the art of that provenance.12 At Hasanlu IV (about 900 B. but in this undeservedly short entry these materials have not even been mentioned. This material has been studied by several scholars. Tombe princiere de Zivie et la debut de I'art scythe (Paris. passim. "Zashchitnoe vooruzhenie persov i medyan achemenidskogo vremeni" (Armour of Persians and Medians in Achaemenid times). it is strange that although there is a section on Sogdia there is nothing on Chorasmia or Bactria. Allan in ARMOR quite naturally bases the first part of his contribution (concerning prehistoric Iran) on archaeological data. Downloaded By: [Swets Content Distribution] At: 22:14 24 February 2011 .C. 13. Toprak-Kala. The list of classic written sources providing information on Persian armor is far from complete. A large number of bronze and iron helmets dating from the ninth to seventh centuries B. (1960). 15. The iconography has not been used at all. For example.E. 753 are devoted to the dress of the Iranian population of Eastern Turkestan. "Griechische Historienbilder des 5.E. Secondly." Expedition 2.). Auflage. and V. 10. (Munchen. 39. passim. Schoppa. I. Vestnik drevnei istorii no. M. Chr. The author has referred to some terms from Khotanese and Sogdian. Bovon. Medes.) bronze and iron scales from scale armor were found and also a piece of a metallic shoulder armor plate. R. W. III. I believe that this particular section of the entry on clothing requires much more work and should have a much more complete bibliography. 53. 3 (1982). B. 19. A. A bronze rectangular scale was also found at Ziwije. but there are no references to the relevant works of H.14 At Ziwije golden plates from a suit of plate armor were found and warriors were depicted clothed in jackets with rows of little squares. fig. Perrot. pi. A Preliminary Report on Marlik Excavation: Gohar Rud Expedition Rudbar: 1961-1962 (Tehran. Perse. A. R.
1978). Wooley in 1913 (Oxford. D. 86/22. Catalogue of Coins in the Punjab Museum. 1: Indo-Greek coins (Oxford. (Moskva.23 There is very rich material on the armor of the Kushans and Sogdians. KalaiKafirnihan. Pasargadae: A Report on the Excavations Conducted by the British Institute of Persian Studies from 1961 to 1963 (Oxford. 1914). 52-53. 1909). P. 1995). Vestnik drevnei istorii. R.340 Litvinsky Regarding material discoveries. 286-93. Jade: A study in Chinese archaeology and religion (Chicago. Cemeteries of the First Millenium B. Economy and material culture. In Central Asia and Sinkiang. (East Turkestan in antiquity and early medieval times. Balalyk Tepe. XVI. at Ajina Tepe. S. "O panzyrnom vooruzhenii parfyanskogo i baktriiskogo voinstva" (About the armor of the Parthian and Bactrian Host). 1866). H. B. Lahore vol. IX/4. B. Litvinskogo. Shahristan.C. BELTS i. Litvinsky). 18. pi. and scale armor discovered at Nisa are important sources. Laufer. E. 212. the author limits himself to mentioning Persepolis but omits Pasargadae. S. 229). Gardner. pi. 38-39. near Carchemish. by B.E.22 For Parthian times cuirasses. In ancient Iran (P. 1988.17 Deve Hiiyiik. Vostochnyi Turkestan v drevnosti i rannem srednevekov'e: Khoziaistvoi material'naia kul'tura. unfortunately none of it is reflected in the entry. 232. cit. Muscarella. et al. would have influenced the practice of wearing belts in Central Asia. 1935). Varakhsha. Pugachenkova.24 17. The Palace of Apries (Memphes. P. Calmeyer) and ii. Some information is available from numismatic iconography. Ed. 115-118. the metallic details of belts have been found in many places as well as being depicted in the murals of seventh-eighth centuries C. from Japan and T'ang China in the east to Hungary in the west. Siberian Scythians.18 Gordion. The situation in China. 11. XLII/109-114. 223. Lawrence and C. Stronach. 13.. 60/3 (1956): 257. 1917). Moorey. where emperor Kao Tsu (618-626) had introduced a rule that the type of belt worn must depend on rank and nobility.. 19. and elsewhere. II) (London.E. Findings and Results of excavations in Cyprus (1927-1931). vol II (Stockholm. it is important to note that composite belts were very widespread in the sixth-ninth centuries C. A. pi. 21. R. pi. 222. Preliminary Reports.20 The remarkable findings at Amaphis and Idalion (Cyprus) may also be connected to the Achaemenids. A. "The Campaign of 1955 at Gordion.19 and Egypt. and Hatra as well as Iran itself. Gjerstad. IV. 1912). although all these publications had appeared before this volume of the encyclopaedia.21 There is no information on Scythian armor in the article. R. fig. Young. The Swedish Cyprus expedition." American Journal of Archaeology. 22. L. at Deve Htiytik. Petrie. Afrasiab. The Coins of the Kings of Bactria and India (London. Downloaded By: [Swets Content Distribution] At: 22:14 24 February 2011 . G. 28. Pod redaktsii B. fig. M. 23. statues. 1980). W. 322. op. In the Parthian and Sasanian Periods (E. idem Tools and Weapons (London. Peck) both contain rich material and deal with Central Asia. E. 2 (1966). 20. 181. Regarding the second section. salvaged by T.E. although this subject has been studied in detail (the bibliographical references are too numerous to mention here). pi. no. 24. Whitehead.
Pigott wrote his entry. V. Litvinsky. 227. was a true "Realm of Iron. The term for "crystal" should have been given in Khotanese-Mcfara. but in my opinion there are still several serious omissions in the entry. A. There were also hundreds of spearheads. A. I have several remarks. Mandelshtam and others. Nevertheless. 627) is mistaken. and so on. Pigott successfully elucidates how iron mining developed. emblem) (A. B. Wartke. 26. On the entry CRYSTAL ROCK. standard. to the second to third century C. therefore we have only scant indication of the availability and uses of iron during this time" (p. clamps." The Classical Review. 28. As a result he believes that "it is impossible to write a meaningful archeological history of Luristan bronzes at present. Litvinsky. For example: C. nails. 1963). Shapur Shahbazi) is attractive owing to its comprehensive use of Iranian and Greek sources as well as of a plenitude of iconographic material. flag. M. 1973). See B. See E. When V. Levina. 1996). M. See R.28 As concerns a later period. iron was widespread in Central Asia.E.E. A. 1984). Etnokul'turnaya istoriya Vostocnogo Priaral'ya (The Ethnocultural History of the eastern part of the territories adjacent to the Aral Sea) (Moscow. The author clearly distinguishes between excavated and unexcavated objects. 61 (1947): 9-10. H. 22 (Berlin. A study of T'ang Exotics (Berkeley and Los Angeles. Bactria from the fourth century B. 1972. perhaps such a history will never be written" (p. B. Actually even for the Achaemenid period. 27.26 In AHAN. Downloaded By: [Swets Content Distribution] At: 22:14 24 February 2011 . There should have been a more thorough discussion of the abundance and variety of iron manufactures including armor in Urartu. Schafer.E. Schriften zur Geschichte und Kultur des Alten Orients. daggers. Bonner.29 25. "The Standard of Artaxexes II. B. 2 3 8 39.C.Archaeology and Pre-Islamic Art 341 BRONZES OF LURISTAN (O. Toprakkale: Untersuchungen zu den Metallobjekten im Vorderasiatischen Museum zu Berlin. L. A. The Golden Peaches of Samarkand. Muscarella) is a masterpiece of insightful and critical scholarship. A. 479). his contribution maps out ways in which the study of "bronzes from scientific excavations in Luristan" and "Luristan bronzes in general" should be conducted. 102-3. Bernshtam. Litvinskii. information on these findings had already been published by A." Excavations of the Temple of Oxus and graveyards of the nomads in Beshkent Valley (south Tajikistan) have yielded thousands of iron implements of various types: iron arrowheads alone numbered more than three thousand. The bibliography is quite complete omitting only a few works. Drevnie kochevniki "Kryshi Mira" (Ancient nomads of the "Roof of the World").25 Rock crystal beads and seals have been found at Central Asian sites of the third to the seventh_centuries C. Ukrasheniya iz mogil'nikov zapadnoi Fergany (Jewelry from burial courtyards in the west Ferghana Valley) (Moscow. 29. Litvinsky. Eisenzeitliche Kurgane zwischen Pamir und Aral See (Miinchen. DERAFS (banner. Iron armor is especially plentiful in the burial mounds of Iranian nomads (Saka tribes). Perhaps it should also have been noted that rock crystal objects including T'ang drinking cups had been sent as royal gifts many times from Samarkand and Kapisa (Begram). B. butts. N.27 The opinion that for the Parthian and Sasanian periods "Archeologically. 1990).
There are also 35 photos of ceramics of the Islamic period. Naturally without them the picture is not as complete as it might otherwise have been. Progress in the field of pre-Islamic ceramics is especially noteworthy. the types of glaze and their ingredients. There are only sporadic references to the cultures of southern Turkmenia. of course. The entry thus lacks a description of the characteristic ceramics of specific periods. There are only single references to ceramics from Afghanistan and Afrasiab (Samarkand).000 B.30 The group as a whole belongs to the 30. 4 (1980). auxiliary stock). These are very important. Sogd. ARSACIDS iii. Pilipko presented a detailed typological classification and attempted to date individual issues. applying ornament before firing. for example the Kushanian period. the reason should have been explained. 2. This is even more important because ceramic development and the characterization of distinct periods for several areas of Central Asia have been worked out in great detail. Twenty tables of drawings of the shapes and ornamentation of ceramics are included in the text. 1. But these are not based on any familiarity with the material itself but on secondary and random articles.C. the method of coating the walls of vessels with slip. Bactria. the ways of making vessels and corresponding tools and devices. but the history of ceramics is not so limited. Downloaded By: [Swets Content Distribution] At: 22:14 24 February 2011 . Most of the authors present and explain ceramic material that comes from the territory of modern Iran. The material is arranged chronologically and geographically. construction. Nevertheless I must make several comments. single or double firing. He might also have mentioned Margiana here. Chach. When preparing the entry. At the end of the article he speaks of indigenous dynasties that exercised the right to mint coins and largely displaced Arsacid currency from their domain. though it was a part of Khurasan. the painting of the finished products and so on—all these are missing from the entry. N. The authors of most of the sections describe ceramics only in terms of form and ornament. The comparison of this article with the corresponding article in Survey of Persian Art demonstrates clearly the degree to which our knowledge in this field has grown in the half of a century since the first edition of the Survey of Persian Art. pottery kilns (types. Alram has written a very fine entry. M. If so." Vestnik drevnei istorii. perhaps under separate headings. On the obverse of the coins is the head of the ruler and on the reverse a seated archer with the sign n under his bow. Russian numismatists generally agree that coins of this type come from a local Margianian mint. Also there are no definitions of techniques and technology. In nearby regions two hoards with 500 and 600 examples were discovered.E. One is left to wonder whether Afghanistan and Central Asia were excluded deliberately. the geographical limits were not clearly defined. V. It covers the period from the emergence of ceramics in the Neolithic period (7.342 Litvinsky CERAMICS is one of the longest archaeological articles in the encyclopedia. Arsacid Coinage. no. In the ancient city of Merv many such coins were found. and Chorasmia should have been included.E. with two tables of coins. Every section concludes with a detailed bibliography. Margiana. In my opinion ceramics from Afghanistan. "Parfyanskye bronzovye monety so znakom IT pod lukom.) to the 19th century C. The composition of ceramic paste.
and his contribution provides a complete description and excellent analysis. COGA SAFID (F. Grenet). Bernard. Of course. in all probability. The chronological table correlating five monuments of the Dehloran Plain is particularly useful. Schmidt. V. ii. G. 577). It probably should have been noted that the excavations proper were carried out not by R. Elamite.. heads the excavations of this remarkable Greek colonial city in the eastern part of the Hellenistic world. A.E.E. The value of the article is enhanced by the fact that the material from Chogha Mish has been examined against the background of the history of the Susiana plain as a whole. It was excavated in 1962-66 by Italian scholars. The existence of slaveholding 31. G. Bernard. the first amateur excavation had been conducted long before that by General A. 1974) and D. The latter is of particular significance for the author. Sallwood. many discoveries have been made at Afrasiab by archaeologists from Uzbekistan (H. since it was written. and iii. examines versions of Darius's inscription. Pumpelly. M. Pugachenkova and E. The excavation team led by R. However. Young and ii. Komaroff. but by the archaeologist H. Monuments The entry ANAW includes i. A.D. to the middle of the 3rd century C. author of AY KANOM. The long article BISOTUN consists of three sections: i. archaeology. Ya. The author has succeeded in presenting the data and at the same time demonstrating the fusion of Hellenistic and Oriental traditions. "The Drachms of the Parthian 'Dark Age'"JRAS no. Ahun-Babaev. R. Prehistoric period by T. C. 1 (1976). This reviewer has only two comments.31 4. Inevetkina and others) and France (P. Holl) is organized in a similar fashion. Kantor paints a clear picture of the cultural sequence of this important monument. Pumpelly in 1904 conducted the first scientific excavations of the prehistoric period in Central Asia. O. G. Rtveladze's article AFRASIAB (the modern name of the site of ancient and medieval Samarkand) is quite comprehensive. remnants of the copies and correlates the three versions (Babylonian. N. This is one of the best articles dedicated to an individual monument. F. I do not agree with the statement that "In the 4th-5th century A. Darius's inscriptions. P. the Achaemenid provincial capital. Gnoli has been examining this monument since its discovery. DAHAN-E GOLAMAN was a large urban settlement in Sistan. and. In COGA MIS. Katalog parfyanskikh monet Gosudarstvennogo muzeya Gruzii (Tbilisi. Schmitt. For example.Archaeology and Pre-Islamic Art 343 period from the second half of the last century B. G. a geologist. The results of the analyses of the different stages in the genesis of the Bisotun monument are set out in a table. Downloaded By: [Swets Content Distribution] At: 22:14 24 February 2011 . The results of the excavations of Chogha Safid are presented in relation to the excavations of other monuments of the Dehloran Plain (Khuzistan). Pugachenkova. Historical Period by G. Abramishvili. Introduction. Alram's bibliography lacks several major works. and Old Persian).C. the inhabited area of Afrasiab shrank" (p. E. a time of crisis in the slaveholding society and the beginning of the shaping of feudalism. though from a modern perspective they had serious defects.
pt. 2 (New Haven.. M. The mosque has stucco decoration. I. M. 1946). Downloaded By: [Swets Content Distribution] At: 22:14 24 February 2011 .344 Litvinsky society in Central Asia was an official Marxist doctrine and all Soviet historians (by the way including myself) tried to demonstrate it. The discovery of Dura-Europos." The Excavations at Dura-Europos. The invasion of new tribal nomadic confederations had a considerable effect in this development. Rostovtzeff et al. Carter's BEGRAM details the history of the study of Begram-Kapisa and of the site of the Begram treasure. Leriche. Hopkins. Shishkina.32 P. In 1953 when the city was studied in detail. P. The city had a fortified shahristan as well as a vast (1. The splendid Islamic architectual monuments of Dehestan have also been examined in books and articles in Russian.6 x 1 km) rabaz during the Islamic period. and the problems of its chronology in a relatively short article. Bosworth provides the information found in written sources on DEHESTAN. the archaeological material should also have been included. art. has published a series of major works dedicated to DURA EUROPOS. its sections. and organization. I would only like to add that in the course of describing the city Leriche failed to mention the very interesting necropolis. 33. Bernard's DELBARJINis a model of conciseness. The author discusses the differing opinions concerning chronology itself but does not present any data concerning the site. Excavations in the early 1940s uncovered remnants of urban life and the most important mosque of the city built in the ninth to early tenth century. are of considerable significance. which was the main urban center in the medieval period. it was discovered that it had first emerged in Sasanian times. E. inscriptions. Schwander Haus und Stadt in klassischen Griechenland (Munich. The author says that this town was situated ten farsakhs from Merv. the coordinator (since 1986) of Mission Franco-Syrienne ob Doura-Europas. 1979 (with detailed bibliography). The whole region of Dehestan has been examined in great detail. Preliminary Report on the Ninth Season of Work 1935-36. C. 1986). Radical rebuilding of the mosque dates to the end of the eleventh century. although there were no real facts and events were "adjusted" to suit this theory. Life finally ended there in the fifteenth century. Toll. and numerous remains from the Bronze and early Iron Age have been discovered. L. The article is also accompanied by a bibliography. E. In fact the ancient city was in the area of Dash Rabad some 60 km from Merv. The location of the city later shifted. V. L. 32. its size. The same comment is relevant to the article by C. providing a clear picture of the city's structure. W. Hoepfner and E. See N. P. 205^4-1 (with accurate architectural reconstructions). according to an Arabic inscription. Although C. ed. This article contains a skillful historical and archaeological description of the city.33 The bibliography should have included G. Bosworth DANDANQAN. "The Necropolis. My second comment is that in reality a decline in urban life in Sogd only took place in the second half of the fourth century." Bulletin of the Asia Institute 8 (1996): 90-91. "Ancient Samarkand: capital of Soghd. For the Islamic period the results of extensive excavations at Meshedi Misrian.
The author is especially attentive to a controversial question of dating. The account of R. dating the tombs to the fourth to third centuries B.E.) nor that it is surrounded by a rectangle of walls. Fuchs was published in 1938 not in 1928. The bibliography here is too short. is a serious step forward in the study of Bamiyan. This latter work. See W. Varia Here I include articles on archaeological institutions and biographies of the most prominent archaeologists. About the same time that the encylopedia article was being published. "Qadjarische Lehmziegel Gebiide beim karawanserail Daihr. D. History and archeology. 5. published in Dushanbe.. Tarzi is the author of BAMLAN.C. He follows the idea of an "Irano-Buddhist" art of Bamiyan. histories of the Hisar Valley. DA O DOKTAR. Rome. "Southern Bactria and Northern India before Islam: a Downloaded By: [Swets Content Distribution] At: 22:14 24 February 2011 34. Only one remark should be made. the courtyard 68 x 68 m. 13 (1980): 201-6.S. argues for the date of "probably the early Hellenistic period" for this particular rock-cut tomb. Dushanbe-gorod drevnii [The Ancient city of Dushanbe]. Now we have the following study of the last period of work of the delegation in Afghanistan. even including articles from Russian and Tadjik newspapers. S. which has been especially elaborated by Rowland. DELEGATIONS ARCHEOLOGIQUES FRANCAISES deals with the "delegation" in Iran and the delegation in Afghanistan." Archaeologische Mitteilungen aus Iran und Turan. Huff mentions all the archaeological monuments in Darab and its district and underscores the importance of Darab in early Sasanian history. Rock reliefs by G.Archaeology and Pre-Islamic Art 345 The article DUSHANBE is written by M. G. Ranov and O. The article contains a great deal of information. Another article by this author. However. N. A. certainly. 1993). . In this article he gives information about the history of Bamiyan and a short description of its architecture and art. 1989). Z. von Gall) deals with four rock-cut tombs in Deh-e Now near Bisotun. D. In DARAB ii. Solov'ev. Ghirshman's excavations in Begram should have mentioned his important contribution to establishing the stratigraphy and chronology of this site. Atkin on the basis of Russian and Tadjik sources. Kleiss. Some of them have rock reliefs on their fronts. Mehrdad Shokoohy's article on the caravansary DAYR-E GACIN does not report the size of the building (the outer dimensions are 108 x 108 m. This is clearly shown by three rock reliefs (DARAB iii. Herrmann) and by a building from the time of Shapur II. Fussinan. in particular the work of V. DEH-E NOW (H. Dr. The entry was written by the curator of the Museum Guimet. Klimburg-Salter's The Kingdom of Bamiyan: Buddhist Art and Culture of the Hindu Rush (Naples. came out. were not utilized very well. (Dushanbe.34 Shokoohy does provide valuable information about the chronology of the caravansary. and it contains a misprint: the text of Huichao and translation into German by F. Von Gall's evidence and conclusions seem convincing. In 1977 he published two volumes of his work on the architecture and art of Bamiyan. Francine Tissot.
vol. sometimes. Litvinsky (Moscow. E." Epigrafika Vostoka. Istoriya i kultura. It is a pity that the author did not use available studies like V. by Zayn al-Din Wasifi. The statement of Emmerick that Sogdiana was totally non-Buddhistic therefore should have been made not quite so categorically. There is no "Bagram c Ali" in the Merv oasis but there is the modern urban site "Bayram cAli". Mukhtarov. In pre-Islamic times (R. the head of the local administration. ed. While narrating the events of the end of the fifteenth century. A. and there are no archaeological data at all. Zayn al-Din Wasifi. The excavations in Pendjikent give an idea of the nature of bazaars in Sogdian towns on the eve of the arrival of Islam and of the position of bazaars in city planning. (1996): 243-54 (an excellent and critical review of fieldwork and publications). 2 (Moscow. he tells us about a dehqan named Farrukhi who was the owner of a village with over 2000 families and possessor of much wealth." (One of the bazaars of Pendjikent in the seventh-eighth centuries). most likely from the sixth to the seventh 35. M. 80-100. Raspopova.346 Litvinsky review of archaeological reports. Taffazoli asserts that since the eleventh century "the dehqdns gradually lost their importance. 36. Strany i narody Vostoka 10 (1971). Buddhistic objects and motifs are found in the art of Panjikent. Downloaded By: [Swets Content Distribution] At: 22:14 24 February 2011 . Bonine's article BAZAR is surprisingly poor as concerns written sources.35 There is also epigraphic evidence from Central Asia that in the thirteenth to the fifteenth centuries the term dehqan meant a large landowner and. A. The archaeological data of DEH (D. The section of BUDDHISM i. In DEHQAN." (On the coins of the dehqans of Ilaq at the end of the lOth-beginning of the 11th C). 225).37 Hence different parts of Iran and Central Asia witnessed different evolutions of the class of dehqans. B. 1215-18. Emmerick) concerning archaeological monuments of Buddhism in West Turkestan is based solely on the works of Russian scholars that have been translated into western languages. and ethnologists—would have allowed the authors to create a more comprehensive and profound picture of the deh (village) from the early Iron Age to modern times. "Nadgrobnye kairaki XIH-XVI vv s upominaniem termina 'dihkan' (gravestones with the term 'dehqan'). Though Buddhism was not widespread in Sogd. Coins minted at the end of the tenth and beginning of the eleventh century show that local rulers used the title dehqan. The data about the Buddhistic monuments in Afghanistan are also imprecise. and so on. Gafurov and B. and the word came to mean simply a farmer" (p. The data therefore are very incomplete and inexact. A. Balland and M.36 This situation existed not only in Central Asia but also in Sistan. "Odin iz bazarov Pendzhikenta VII-VIII vv. E. A. In this regard it is worth mentioning the inscriptions of early coins of the Ilek Khans or Karakhanids. Davidovich. "O monetahkh dikhkanov Ilaka kontsa X-nachala XI v. Drevnost'i i srednevekov'e narodov Srednei Azii. There is no information on written Buddhist documents from Termez." Journal of the American Oriental Society. There is relevant material in Bada0^ al-waqa3ic. orientalists. 1978). 1961). E. 37. Merv. BadaDic al-waqa'i. The colossal Buddhas in Bamiyan date not from the Kushan period but from post-Kushanian times. The historical part of M. 18 (1967): 8 0 93. The use of studies by Russian scholars—archaeologists. Bazin) are very fragmentary. I.
B. 1981). Marshak. For example: A. that Indian influence had not yet touched this monument. "The Excavations at Surkh Kotal and the problem of Hellenism in Bactria and India. 1976). 493). 1941) and Th. In this regard I would like to remind the reader that the main investigator of Surkh Kotal. What sort of a sect is that? One unknown to the author and undoubtedly unknown to anybody on earth. D.39 The author of DIV. I]. Litvinsky (Moscow. B." British Academy Proceedings. "Der weisse Dev von Mazandaran. However. Marshak. in the art of Panjikent]. considered the scholarly elite of the world. G. and Iranian miniature painting is not used at all in the article. " [The Semantic of the ancient beliefs and customs of the inhabitants of the Pamir. "Cherty mirovozzreniya sogdiitsev VIIVIII vv. Litvinsky. Unfortunately the author avoided the question of the attribution of a female deity (Goddess-Mother) which often has symbols of fertility in the coroplastics of Margiana. Belenitsky and B. Sogdian painting.Archaeology and Pre-Islamic Art 347 centuries C. and London. Klimkeit's valuable works. Several of the most important works in Western languages have also been missed. ed. A.E. I. 77-7. have contributed. Schlumberger. See A. v iskusstve Pendzhikenta" [Characteristics of the worldview of the Sogdians of the 7th-8th c. has collected considerable data from written sources of the Islamic period and from folk tales. the majority of articles have been written at the highest possible level of scholarship. Sogdian Painting. the late D. Essai sur la demonologie iranienne (Copenhagen. 47 (1961): 90-1. Gafurov and B. Schlumberger. Its decoration is a twin of Surkh Kotal. Azarpay. 18 (1915). and Bactria. Emmerick's bibliography also includes none of the late H. but at the same time there are also Buddhistic pictures there. 38. Yarshater and his collaborators in organizing such a tremendous work. The author proposes a very unusual and strange notion concerning Surkh Kotal: "It may have been the site of a dynastic cult or of an unusual Buddhist sect" (p. "Semantika drevnikh verovanii i obriadov Pamirtsev. The article "Anahita in the arts. Los Angeles. ed. believed with good reason that there were no Indian features in Surkh Kotal art. G. 1981). There is no analysis of the problem of correlating Nana (or Nanai) and Anahita in Sogdian painting. 40. 41. These are especially abundantly represented in Kushanian complexes.40 The evidence in Sogdian written sources and onomastic. But two kilometers from the acropolis of Surkh Kotal.. there is another monument. with an extensive bibliography." Archiv fiir Downloaded By: [Swets Content Distribution] At: 22:14 24 February 2011 Religionswissenschaft. Valuable contributions on this issue were made by G. 132-40. Many Russian scholars believe that they are the Central Asiatic variant of Anahit." a subsection of ANAHID. Azarpay and B. A. contains valuable material. Because authors. A. he is absolutely unaware of the richest Central Asiatic materials. .41 To conclude my review of the articles on the archaeology and pre-Islamic art of Iran. E. Litvinsky. This is evidence of a Buddhistic (Gandharan)-Bactrian synthesis. Mahmoud Omidsalar. Nb'ldeke. but it is not Surkh Kotal. The Pictorial Epic in Oriental Art (Berkeley. Khorezm. Srednyaya Aziya i ee sosedy v drevnosti i srednevekov'e: Istoriia i kul'tura (Moscow. Christensen. Istoriya i Kultura narodov Srednei Azii (drevnost' i srednevekovye). I would like once again to note the superb job that was conducted by Prof. J. 39. B.38 It was local Bactrian art.
this has meant an opportunity to expand the horizon of knowledge on that particular subject has been lost. Is the subject of EIr only Iran in its contemporary geographical boundaries or is it the whole area inhabited by Iranian tribes and peoples? In principle. Central Asia. There is no consistency in the geographical boundaries of the encyclopaedia articles. Articles like these would be appropriate only in a specialized work like an archaeological gazetteer. the compilers seem to share the second approach. Where issues have been much more thoroughly researched for Central Asia. G. some of the general articles have sections devoted to Central Asia while others do not. Shaffer's article DEH MORASl GONDAY. Many articles are too short. and suggestions concerning many of the individual articles have been set out above. and the Scythians stand out like a sore thumb for the lack of references to even the most important cultures and monuments. 2. or present only random data that show they do not know the main publications and scholarship. Finally. The articles on monuments vary in their organization and content. and many articles concerning Afghanistan. However. and the Scythians. while in other cases the text contains only specific facts and information. Transcaucasia. These volumes enrich world civilization. The inclusion in the EIr of articles on minor archaeological monuments or groups of artifacts seems to be another problematic issue. which contains a full list of monuments or groups of artifacts in Iran or Afghanistan. 4. 1. Some articles are accompanied by excellent illustrations. In several articles the authors either make no reference to areas outside modern Iran. for example. 3. others are devoid of illustrations. Archeology. Downloaded By: [Swets Content Distribution] At: 22:14 24 February 2011 . Similar articles are AYBAK. J. for example. than for Iran proper itself. doubts. It would have been sufficient simply to mention the name of this monument in AFGHANISTAN viii. Thus. Transcaucasia. Only two or three articles have any information on Scythian archaeology and art. Here I would like to raise some more general questions.348 Litvinsky The main part of my specific notes. DANESTAMA. still is one whose inclusion in the encyclopaedia is by no means obligatory. In contrast. But I understand that there is a limit to the size of the encyclopaedia. and Transcaucasia have been included. though well-written and researched. I think that in spite of individual shortcomings the published volumes of Encyclopaedia Iranica are a great contribution to the study of Iran and the Iranian peoples. articles dealing with the archaeology of Central Asia. and DAM. This monument and others like it have not played a significant part in history or the history of culture. Some articles have no specific or concrete descriptions and a text containing only theoretical data.
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