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Registers

Registers

a register is a collection of flip-flops basic function is to hold information a shift register is a register that moves information on the clock signal

serial-in/serial-out serial-in/parallel-out parallel-in/serial-out parallel-in/parallel-out

serial-out unidirectional shift register.Serial-in.26 . Figure 6.

Figure 6.Serial-in. parallel-out unidirectional shift register.27 .

Figure 6.Parallel-in unidirectional shift register.28 .

(c) Symbol.Universal shift register.29 . Figure 6. (a) Logic diagram. (b) Mode control.

Flip-Flop Applications Counters .

Counters Also called pattern generators Function: produce a specified output pattern sequence Types of counters Binary ripple counters (asynchronous counters) Synchronous counters .

State diagram of a counter.30 . Figure 6.

Binary Ripple Counters also called asynchronous binary counters the LSB flip-flop recieves clock input from a clock source the ith flip-flop recieves clock input from output of the ith-1 flip-flop .

Figure 6. (c) Counting sequence.31 . (a) Logic diagram. (b) Timing diagram.Four-bit binary ripple counter.

Synchronous Binary Counters Solve the settling time problem of the ripple counters Every flip-flop changes on clock input simultaneously Large number of flip-flops can cause loading complications .

Four-bit synchronous binary counter. Figure 6.32 .

Four-bit synchronous binary counter variation. Figure 6.33 .

Figure 6. (b) Symbol.34 .Four-bit synchronous binary counter with parallel load inputs. (a) Logic diagram.

Synchronous mod-10 counter. (a) Connections. Figure 6.35 . (b) Counting sequence.

8-bit synchronous binary counter constructed from two 4-bit synchronous binary counters. Figure 6.36 .

Counters Based on Shift Registers Nonbinary counters a ring counter: a circular shift register where only one flip-flop is in 1-state and the rest are in 0-state a switch-tail counter (twisted-ring counter or Johnson counter): complement of the rightmost flip-flop becomes input of the leftmost flip-flop .

(b) Counting sequence.Mod-4 ring counter. Figure 6.37 . (a) Logic diagram.

Mod-8 twisted-ring counter. (b) Counting sequence. Figure 6.38 . (a) Logic diagram.

Mod-7 twisted-ring counter. (b) Counting sequence. (a) Logic diagram. Figure 6.39 .

Synchronous Counter Design To design a synchronous counter. perform the following steps Decide the counting sequence Draw an excitation table. which consists of 3 parts Present state| Next state| flip-flop inputs (flip-flop inputs can be obtained from an application table of the selected flip-flop) Determine inputs of each flip-flop .

Figure 6.40 .General structure of a synchronous mod-6 counter using positive-edge-triggered JK flip-flops.

Determination of the minimal-sum expressions for a synchronous mod-6 counter using clocked JK flip-flops.41 . Figure 6.

Figure 6.Logic diagram of a synchronous mod-6 counter.42 .

Determination of the minimal-sum expressions for a synchronous mod-6 counter using clocked D flip-flops.43 . Figure 6.

Determination of the minimal-sum expressions for a synchronous mod-6 counter using clocked T flip-flops. Figure 6.44 .

Determination of the minimal-sum expressions for a synchronous mod-6 counter using clocked SR flip-flops. Figure 6.45 .

46 .Complete state diagram for the synchronous mod-6 counter of Fig. 6.42. Figure 6.

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