Industrial Tour

Indo-Gulf Fertilizers Jagdishpur

Submitted to

Associate Prof. Subhash Sharma
Department of Chemical Engg. H B T I Kanpur

Submitted by

Govind Kumar Maurya Final Chemical Engg. S R No. 503/08 Roll No. 2804551003


Salient Features
Indo Gulf Fertilisers is an Indian company which unit of Aditya Birla Nuvo Ltd based in Mumbai. and is part of the Aditya Birla Group of companies. It is among the largest private sector fertilizer companies in India. The company is located at Jagdishpur, near Lucknow in Uttar Pradesh. Indo Gulf is ISO 27001:2005, ISO 9002, ISO 9001:2000, OHSAS 18001:1999, ISO 14001:2004 Certified. 1. General Profile: Plant Locatio n Commissio ning Date Fertiliz Product Plant er Brand Capacity Produ Name ('000'MT ct PA) Urea Shaktim 726 an Proces s Name Name of Process Licenser

Jagdish pur


Ammo nia Strippi ng Proces s

(Urea) Snamprogr etti Spa (Ammonia ) Haldor Topse

2. Corporate Office: MD Address Shri B.N.Puranmalka 106, Free Press House, 10th Floor, Free Press Journal Marg, Nariman Point, Mumbai-400021

PABX STD Code Fax Telex E-mail Web Site

2846375 to 81 022 022-2846382 & 85

3. Plant: Jagdishpur EP(CF&C) Shri N.L.Jain/Shri S.P.Gupta Address PABX Jagdishpur Industrial area.Distt.sultanpur (U.P.)-227817 70032 to 38 (7 lines)

STD Code 05361 Fax E-mail Web Site 05361-70165

4. Production Performance: (Qty. in Thousand MT) Plant Product Production 1993-94 1994-95 1995-96 1996-97 1997-98 Plant 1 Urea 685 784 896 668 934

5. Sales Performance: (Qty. in Thousand MT) Produc Sales t 1993 1994 -94 -95 Urea 695 787 Stocks 1995 -96 868 1996 -97 698 1997 -98 904 1993 -94 15 1994 -95 12 1995 -96 38 1996 -97 6 1997 -98 35

6. Financial Performance: (Rs. Crores) Item Net Worth Capital Employed Net Profit/Loss 1993-94 1994-95 1995-96 1996-97 1997-98 218.36 627.61 47.23 417.61 670.07 78.46 16.36% 461.95 687.21 56.15 11.77% 691.62 734.24 64.62 11.45% 631.35 692.95 91.62 14.76%

Return on Capital Employed 14.41%

7. Proposals Under Consideration / Implementation: We have planned for doubling our production capacity, subject to finalisation of Govt. policy on allocation of Natural Gas/Alternate feed stock as also finalisation of long term pricing policy.

Jagdishpur Industrial Area
Jagdishpur( ) is a city and a municipality in Sultanpur district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. The popular language spoken here is Awadhi. Jagdishpur is situated at about 62 km from the city of Sultanpur on the national highway No.56 and 90 km from

Lucknow towards east. Nihalgarh, the nearest railway station on LucknowVaranasi route, is about 6 km from the main industrial area towards Sultanpur and has been a major market place for the local people or the people living in villages around it from a very long time. The place has been a major market itself and also played a role as a nodal centre for reaching other important markets. Well connected by roads with Lucknow, Raebareli, Sultanpur and Faizabad cities, Nihalgarh (about 27 km from Tehsil Musafirkhana) always played a significant role in the economic affairs of the natives of the region. During the period when prominent political personalities opted for Amethi as their parliamentary constituency (in 1980s), Jagdishpur was selected to be a most suitable place in the district for setting up heavy and medium scale industries for generating employment for locals and their multipronged development.

Industries in Jagdishpur
Jagdishpur is an industrial area. The three major factories operating here are: 

Indo-Gulf Fertilizers Co. LTD is a major producer of urea. Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited (B.H.E.L) Sail Jagdishpur unit(SAIL INDIA ) Quality Packagin

As of 2001 India census, Jagdishpur had a population of 31,029. Males constitute 52% of the population and females 48%. Jagdishpur has an average literacy rate of 50%, lower than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 60%, and female literacy is 40%. In Jagdishpur, 18% of the population is under 6 years of age

PROCESS DESCRIPTION of Urea Manufacturing by Snamprogetti Process
The urea production process takes place through the following main operation---Urea synthesis and high pressure recovery Urea purification and low pressure recovery Urea concentration Urea prilling Waste water treatment

a. Urea Synthesis and High Pressure Recovery
Urea is produced by synthesis of liquid Ammonia and Gaseous Carbon Dioxide. In the reactor R-1 the ammonia and CO2 react to form ammonium carbamate, a portion of which dehydrates to form urea and water. The reactions are as follows 2NH3 + CO2 = = NH2COONH4 + HEAT



At synthesis conditions (T=190C, P=150 Kg/cm2) the first reaction occurs rapidly and goes to completion, the second reaction occurs slowly and determine the reaction rate. The formation of ammonium cabamate that dehydrates is determined by the ratio of the various reactants, the operating temperature and the residence time in the reactor. The mole ratio of ammonia to CO2 is around 3.6:1. The mole ratio of water to CO2 is around 0.67:1. The liquid ammonia, coming from ammonia storage, at a temperature of around -10C is preheated in the ammonia preheater E-10 and then received in ammonia receiver V-1 and hot liquid ammonia at 35C from ammonia plant is received directly in ammonia receiver V-1.

From V-1 ammonia is drawn and pumped by mean of centrifugal pump P-5 (operating at 23 ATA discharged pressure), partially to medium pressure absorber C-1 and the remaining volume is directed to the high pressure synthesis loop. The ammonia to the synthesis loop is first taken to low speed, heavy duty reciprocating pumps P-1 A/B/C. These pumps discharge ammonia to a pressure of about 240 atm. Before entering the reactor, the ammonia at this high pressure is used as a driving fluid in the carbamate ejector EJ-1, where the carbamate coming from the carbamate separator MV-1 is taken to the synthesis pressure. The liquid mixture of NH3 and carbamate enters the reactor where it reacts with compressed CO2. The CO2 drawn at urea plant battery limit at about 1.1 atm pressure and about 45C temperature enters the centrifugal compressors K-1 and leaves it at a final discharge pressure of about 155 atm. A small quantity air is added to the CO2 at the compressor suction in order to passivate the stainless steel surfaces, thus protecting them from corrosion due to both the reactant and reaction product. The reaction product leaving the reactor flow to the steam heated falling film stripper E-1, which operates at essentially the same pressure as the reactor. The mixture is heated (by medium pressure steam on shell side) as it flows down the falling film exchanger. The CO2 content of the solution is reduced by the stripping action of the ammonia as boiled out of the solution. The decomposition of ammonium carbamate is an endothermic reaction. Heat for this reaction is supplied by 26 atm saturated steam on the shell side of the stripper. The overhead gases from the stripper, and the recovered solution from the medium pressure absorber C-1, the pumped through plunger pumps P2A/B, flow to the high pressure carbamate condenser E-5/6, where the total mixture except some inert, is condensed as carbamate and recycled to the reactor by mean of ejector EJ-1. Condensation of the gases at high pressure and temperature permits production of steam at 4.5 atm in the high pressure carbamate condenser. Non

condensable gases consisting of N2, O2, H2 and also containing a small quantity of NH3 and CO2 unreacted the condenser, are released from the top of the carbamate separator MV-1. This gaseous mixture is send to the bottom of the medium pressure decomposer E-2.

b. Urea Purification and Low Pressure Recoveries
Urea purification takes place in two stages at decreasing pressures as follows .. 1. Medium pressure at 18 ata pressure. 2. Low pressure at 4.5 ata pressure.

i. Medium Pressure Purification and Recovery at 18 ata
The solution with a low residual CO2 content, leaving the bottom of the stripper at synthesis pressure is let down to 18 ata pressures and enters medium pressure decomposer. The medium pressure decomposer has been divided into two parts .

1. Top Separator (MV-2): where the released flash gases are removed before the solution enters the tube bundle. 2. Decomposition section (E-2, falling film type): where the residual carbamate is decomposed and the heat required for decomposition is supplied by mean of 26 ata steam condensate flowing out from the shell side of the stripper. The NH3 and CO2 reach gases leaving the top separator (MV-2) are sent to medium pressure condenser E-7, where they are partially absorbed in aqueous carbamate solution coming from the low pressure recovery section. The absorption heat is removed by tempered cooling water circulation is the tube side of medium pressure condenser E-7.

Tempered water circulation is provided to prevent carbamate solidification maintaining proper cooling water temperature inlet to the tube side of the medium pressure condenser. The cooling water temperature inlet to condenser is maintained by mean of in-line pump P-19. In the MP condenser the CO2 is almost totally absorbed. The effluent from E-7 flows to the MP absorber C-1. The gaseous phases (entering C-1 along with liquid effluents from E-7) enter the rectification section of MP absorber C-1. The rectification section has bubble cap trays and effect CO2 absorption and NH3 rectification. The bubble cap trays are fed by pure reflux ammonia at the top trays which eliminates residual CO2 and H2O from gases leaving MP absorber from the top. Reflux NH3 is drawn from the NH3 receiver and pumped to the rectification column by mean of centrifugal pump P-5. Inert gases (H2, N2, O2) saturated with ammonia and having max. of 100 ppm CO2, leave the top of the rectification section of MP absorber. The bottom solution is recycled by the pump P-2A/B to synthesis recovery section. NH3 with inert gases leaving the MP absorber top is partially condensed the ammonia condenser E-9. Both uncondensed gases phase and condensed liquid ammonia are sending to ammonia receiver V-1. The inert gases, saturated with ammonia living the receiver V-1 enter ammonia preheater E-10 where an additional amount of vapor ammonia is condensed by heating cold ammonia (at around -10C) coming from ammonia storage area and used as makeup feed to urea plant in addition to hot ammonia taken directly from ammonia plant. The condensed ammonia from E-10 is received in the receiver V-1 and so is the ammonia make um feed. The inert gases with residual ammonia content are sent to medium pressure ammonia absorber E-11, which is a falling film type and where they meet counter-current condensate flows which absorb gaseous ammonia. The absorbing heat is removed by cooling water flow on the shell side of E-11. From the bottom of E-11 the water ammonia solution is pumped to the MP

absorber C-1 (at second bubble cap tray from the top) by mean of centrifugal pump P-7A/B. The upper part of MP ammonia absorber designated as C-3 consist of three valve trays where the inert gases are submitted to final washing by pure condensate. The inert leaving the top of E-11/C-3 are practically free from Ammonia.

ii. Low Pressure Purification and recovery stage 4.5 Ata
The pressure of the solution leaving bottom of the MP decomposer is letdown to 4.5 ata and then enters the low pressure decomposer which consist of - Top separator (MV-3), where the released flash gases are removed before the solution enters the lower tube bundle. - Decomposition section E-3 (falling film type), where the residual carbamate is decomposed. The required heat for decomposition is supplied by mean of saturated seam at 4.5 ata. The gases leaving the top separator (MV-3) are sent to the low pressure condenser E-8 where they are absorbed in an aqueous carbonate solution coming from the waste water recovery section. The absorption and condensation heat from LP condenser E-8 is removed by cooling water. From the LP condenser E-8 the liquid phase , with remaining inert gases, is sent to the carbonate solution tank V-3. From there the carbonate solution is recycled back to the medium pressure condenser E-7 by mean of centrifugal pump P3A/B. the inert gases from V-3 which essentially contain ammonia vapor and some inert flow directly into the low pressure falling film absorber E-12, where the ammonia is absorbed by a counter current water flow. The absorption heat is removed by cooling water flow on shell side of E-12. The top portion of E-12 has three valve trays and is designated as C-4. Pure condensate is

introduced into the top tray which flow down through other trays of C-4 and then E-12 to recover ammonia. Vent gases leaving C-4 are only inert and are free from ammonia.

c. Urea Concentration Section
As it is necessary, in order to prill urea, to concentrate the urea solution up to 99.8% by wt. a vacuum concentration section in two stages is provided. The solution leaving the LP decomposer E-3 bottom having about 72% by wt. of urea is sent to the first vacuum concentrator E-14, operating at a pressure 0.3 ata. The liquid/vapor phase coming out from E-14 enters the gas liquid separator MV-6, where from the vapors, are extracted by the first vacuum system ME-4 while the solution enters the second vacuum concentrator E-15, operating at a pressure of 0.03 ata. The two concentrator E-14 and E-15 use saturated steam at 4.5 ata. The liquid vapor phase coming out from E-15 enters gas-liquid separator MV-7 where the vapors are extracted by the second vacuum system ME-5.

i. First Vacuum System ME-4
First evaporator is operated at 130C and 0.3 Kg/cm2 a pressure, overhead vapors from the top of first vacuum separator is directed to the shell side of precondenser E-25 and heat of condensation is removed by cooling water in the tube side. Ammonia vapor and residual CO2 is absorbed in condensate, forming dilute ammonia carbonate solution and flow down through barometric leg to waste water tank V-5.

Uncondensed gases are sucked by the ejector EJ-2 (motive fluid being 4.5 ata steams) and discharge in the shell side of after condenser is E-27 which also receives uncondensed gases from second vacuum system ME-5. Heat of condensation is removed by cooling water flowing in the tube side of E-27. Dilute ammonia water solution flow down to waste water tank and non condensable are vented out from the shell side.

ii. Second Vacuum System ME-5
Second evaporator is operated at 140C and 0.03 Kg/cm2 pressure. Overhead gases from second vacuum separator MV-7 are sucked by a booster ejector EJ-4 (motive fluid being 4.5 ata steam) and discharged at slightly higher pressure to the shell side of first inter condenser E-28 where heat of condensation is removed by cooling water flowing in the tube side. The liquid solution flows down through barometric leg to V-5. Non condensed gases are drawn by the ejector EJ-5 (motive fluid being 4.5 ata steam) and discharged to the shell side of second inter condenser E-29 where the latent heat of condensation is again removed by cooling water. Liquid flow to V-5 and non condensed gases are sucked by ejector EJ-6 and discharged to the after condenser E-27 where non condensable from first vacuum system also join.

d. Urea Prilling
The melted urea leaving the second vacuum separator is pumped to the

prilling bucket ME-8A/B by mean of centrifugal pump P-8A/B. The molten urea coming out from the prilling bucket in the form of drops falls along the prilling tower ME-6 and encounters a cold air flow which causes its solidification and subsequent cooling. The solid prills falling to the bottom of the prilling tower are sent to the belt conveyer MT-1 by the rotator scraper ME_12. From here urea prills are passed

through screen ME-10 which retains lumps only. Product prills are conveyed by belt conveyer MT-3 to the bulk urea storage or bagging plant. Urea lumps retained on screen ME-10 are conveyed by mean of belt conveyer MT-2 an underground tank V-7 where the lumps are dissolved in condensate at 100C. The urea solution from this tank is pumped to the main urea solution tank vessel V-4 by mean of pumps P-9A/B via filter FL-1A/B to remove any foreign matter.

e. Waste Water Treatment
The water containing Ammonia and CO2 coming from first and second vacuum section is collected in waste water tank (V-5). The waste water contains 5-6% NH3, CO2 <1% and Urea 1-1.5%. This is also known as Ammonical water. This waste water is pumped at the top of a distillation tower (C-2) to remove NH3, CO2 and urea. The NH3 and CO2 gases leaves the column from the top and the urea get separated at the middle of the column and it is send to the urea Hydrolyser (R-51) which hydrolyze the urea and convert into carbamate then further hydrolization break this carbamate into Ammonia and CO2. The purified water is discharges from the shell side of a reboiler mounted at the bottom of the distillation column. The distillation column is operates at the pressure of 2.5 kg/cm3. The distillation column (C-2) is consists of 45 sieve trays. The feed means waste water is introduced at the tray numbers 37, 39 and 41 counting first from the bottom. Before introducing in the column the feed waste water is get preheated in the tube side of a shell and tube heat exchanger by the effluent of the reboiler. In the distillation column ammonia and CO2 in the feed are stripped by mean of vapor product produced in the reboiler, which is supplied by 4.5kg/cm2 saturated steam. The liquid steam from the holder above 20th tray is taken out to hydrolyser urea in hydrolyser by means of steam. The vapor from the hydrolyser enters at the 37th trays and liquid is recycled back to the distillation column at 20th trays.

The vapor leaving the top of the distillation column are condensed in an overhead condenser. The condensate (the carbamate solution) is received in the reflux accumulator. By means of centrifugal pump a part of solution is recycled back to the top of the distillation column as reflux, while the remaining part is supplied to LP carbamate condenser. The distillation column bottom effluent containing only traces of ammonia is taken to reboiler and then hot liquid effluent is fed to the shell side of the solution preheater, where it is cooled and pumped by the means of the centrifugal pump to the water cooler, where it is cooled by cooling water to a temperature about 40 C and then discharged of the of the factory effluent system. A provision for injection of small quantity of air in the bottom of the distillation column is provided to passivate the entire section. This purified water is used as the same as DM water.

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