SWI 3.

2

TECHNOLOGY

Radiographic Interpretation

Radiographs of Welds
Course reference WIS 10
Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd
M.S.Rogers

SWI 3.2

Radiographic Interpretation of Welds

TECHNOLOGY

Lack of root penetration

What’s the defect?
Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd
M.S.Rogers

SWI 3.2

Radiographic Interpretation of Welds

TECHNOLOGY

Lack of root Fusion

What’s the defect?
Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd
M.S.Rogers

SWI 3.2

Radiographic Interpretation of Welds

TECHNOLOGY

Excess Penetration

Piping

MAG Process
Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd

What’s the defect?
M.S.Rogers

SWI 3.2

Radiographic Interpretation of Welds

TECHNOLOGY

Lack of root fusion with misalignment

What’s the defect?
Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd
M.S.Rogers

SWI 3.2

Radiographic Interpretation of Welds

TECHNOLOGY

Excessive root penetration

What’s the defect?
Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd
M.S.Rogers

SWI 3.2

Radiographic Interpretation of Welds

TECHNOLOGY

Concave root

What’s the defect?
Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd
M.S.Rogers

SWI 3.2

Radiographic Interpretation of Welds

TECHNOLOGY

Cluster porosity

What’s the defect?
Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd
M.S.Rogers

SWI 3.2

Radiographic Interpretation of Welds

TECHNOLOGY

Burn through

What’s the defects?
Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd
M.S.Rogers

SWI 3.2

Radiographic Interpretation of Welds

TECHNOLOGY

Cap undercut

What’s the defect?
Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd
M.S.Rogers

SWI 3.2

Radiographic Interpretation of Welds

TECHNOLOGY

Wormholes/Piping

What’s the defect?
Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd
M.S.Rogers

SWI 3.2

Radiographic Interpretation of Welds
Note: Grinding marks on parent plate Cap undercut intermittent

TECHNOLOGY

Concave root

What’s the defect?
Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd
M.S.Rogers

SWI 3.2

Radiographic Interpretation of Welds
Hard Stamping Blow hole/piping

TECHNOLOGY

MAG process

Lack of root fusion

What’s the defects?
Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd
M.S.Rogers

SWI 3.2

Radiographic Interpretation of Welds
Note: Grinding marks on parent plate Root undercut Porosity

TECHNOLOGY

Arc strike indication
Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd

Porosity

What’s the defects?
M.S.Rogers

SWI 3.2

Radiographic Interpretation of Welds

TECHNOLOGY

Root undercut

What’s the defect?
Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd
M.S.Rogers

SWI 3.2

Radiographic Interpretation of Welds

TECHNOLOGY

Incomplete filled groove

What’s the defect?
Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd
M.S.Rogers

SWI 3.2

Radiographic Interpretation of Welds

TECHNOLOGY

Longitudinal crack

What’s the defect?
Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd
M.S.Rogers

SWI 3.2

Radiographic Interpretation of Welds
Cap Undercut Intermittent

TECHNOLOGY

Slag Line

What’s the defects?
Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd
M.S.Rogers

SWI 3.2

Radiographic Interpretation of Welds
Slag line Poor stop/start Slag line

TECHNOLOGY

What’s the defect?
Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd
M.S.Rogers

SWI 3.2

Radiographic Interpretation of Welds

TECHNOLOGY

Elongated slag lines

What’s the defect?
Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd
M.S.Rogers

SWI 3.2

Radiographic Interpretation of Welds

TECHNOLOGY

Linear misalignment

What’s the defect?
Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd
M.S.Rogers

SWI 3.2

Radiographic Interpretation of Welds

TECHNOLOGY

Lack of sidewall fusion

What’s the defect?
Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd
M.S.Rogers

SWI 3.2

Radiographic Interpretation of Welds

TECHNOLOGY

Transverse cracking

What’s the defect?
Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd
M.S.Rogers

SWI 3.2

Radiographic Interpretation of Welds
Cap undercut intermittent Slag inclusions

TECHNOLOGY

Root piping

What’s the defect?
Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd
M.S.Rogers

SWI 3.2

Radiographic Interpretation of Welds

TECHNOLOGY

Lack of sidewall fusion + slag

What’s the defect?
Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd
M.S.Rogers

SWI 3.2

Radiographic Interpretation of Welds

TECHNOLOGY

Lack of sidewall fusion + slag

What’s the defect?
Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd
M.S.Rogers

SWI 3.2

Radiographic Interpretation of Welds
Lack of root penetration

TECHNOLOGY

Burn through

What’s the defects?
Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd
M.S.Rogers

SWI 3.2

Radiographic Interpretation of Welds
Note: Re-shoot lead letters in weld area

TECHNOLOGY

Cluster porosity throughout weld

What’s the defect?
Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd
M.S.Rogers

SWI 3.2

Radiographic Interpretation of Welds

TECHNOLOGY

Crater crack or Star crack

What’s the defect?
Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd
M.S.Rogers

SWI 3.2

Radiographic Interpretation of Welds

TECHNOLOGY

Worm holes

Do you see anything else
Hard stamping

What’s the defect?
Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd
M.S.Rogers

SWI 3.2

Radiographic Interpretation of Welds

TECHNOLOGY

HAZ crack

What’s the defect?
Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd
M.S.Rogers

SWI 3.2

Radiographic Interpretation of Welds
Lack of root penetration

TECHNOLOGY

Copper inclusions

Lack of root penetration MAG Process
Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd

What’s the defects?
M.S.Rogers

SWI 3.2

Radiographic Interpretation of Welds
Note: Grinding marks throughout Excess root penetration

TECHNOLOGY

Root undercut
Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd

What’s the defect?
M.S.Rogers

SWI 3.2

Radiographic Interpretation of Welds

TECHNOLOGY

Crater cracks + crater pipe

No weld metal

What’s the defect?
Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd
M.S.Rogers

SWI 3.2

Radiographic Interpretation of Welds
Lack of root penetration

TECHNOLOGY

Root undercut

Unfused filler wire

What’s the defect?
Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd
M.S.Rogers

SWI 3.2

Radiographic Interpretation of Welds

TECHNOLOGY

Excess penetration

Flush weld

What’s the defect?
Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd
M.S.Rogers

SWI 3.2

Radiographic Interpretation of Welds

TECHNOLOGY

Silica inclusions

MAG Process
Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd

What’s the defect?
M.S.Rogers

SWI 3.2

Radiographic Interpretation of Welds

TECHNOLOGY

Cluster porosity

What’s the defect?
Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd
M.S.Rogers

SWI 3.2

Radiographic Interpretation of Welds

TECHNOLOGY

Cap undercut

Arc strike

What’s the defects?
Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd
M.S.Rogers

SWI 3.2

Radiographic Interpretation of Welds
Do you see anything else?
Spatter / Debris

TECHNOLOGY

Excess Root Penetration

What’s the defects?
Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd
M.S.Rogers

SWI 3.2

Radiographic Interpretation of Welds
What else can you see ?
Spatter

TECHNOLOGY

Piping

Gas pore

What’s the defects?
Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd
M.S.Rogers

SWI 3.2

Radiographic Interpretation of Welds

TECHNOLOGY

Root undercut

What’s the defects?
Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd
M.S.Rogers

SWI 3.2

Radiographic Interpretation of Welds
What’s the defects?
Burn Through

TECHNOLOGY

MAG Process Copper inclusions
Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd

Lack of Root Penetration

Can you see anything else?
M.S.Rogers

SWI 3.2

Radiographic Interpretation of Welds
What’s the defects?
Lack of root fusion Incomplete filled groove

TECHNOLOGY

Lack of root Penetration
Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd

Lack of root Penetration
M.S.Rogers

SWI 3.2

Radiographic Interpretation of Welds
What's the defects?
Wormholes/piping Cap Undercut

TECHNOLOGY

Lack of Root Penetration
Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd
M.S.Rogers

SWI 3.2

Radiographic Interpretation of Welds
What defects can you see?
Parallel slag lines

TECHNOLOGY

Porosity
Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd
M.S.Rogers

SWI 3.2

Radiographic Interpretation of Welds
What defects can you see?
Porosity

TECHNOLOGY

Crack
Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd

Lack of sidewall fusion
M.S.Rogers

SWI 3.2

Radiographic Interpretation of Welds

TECHNOLOGY

Interpass slag inclusions

What’s the defects?
Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd
M.S.Rogers

SWI 3.2

Radiographic Interpretation of Welds
Re-Shoot Lead letter in weld area Transverse Cracks

TECHNOLOGY

Porosity
Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd

Excess penetration

What’s the defects?
M.S.Rogers

SWI 3.2

Radiographic Interpretation of Welds
Lack of root penetration

TECHNOLOGY

What’s the defects?

Incomplete filled groove Copper inclusions
Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd

Incomplete filled groove
M.S.Rogers

SWI 3.2

Radiographic Interpretation of Welds

TECHNOLOGY

Tungsten inclusions

TIG Process
Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd

What’s the defects?
M.S.Rogers

SWI 3.2

Radiographic Interpretation of Welds

TECHNOLOGY

Herringbone porosity

What’s the defects?
Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd
M.S.Rogers

SWI 3.2

Radiographic Interpretation of Welds
Note: Grinding marks Root concavity Note: weld repair

TECHNOLOGY

Arc strike
Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd

What’s the defects?
M.S.Rogers

SWI 3.2

Radiographic Interpretation of Welds
Note: Re-shoot lead letter in weld area Lack of root penetration Excess penetration

TECHNOLOGY

Tungsten inclusions TIG Process

What’s the defects?
Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd
M.S.Rogers

SWI 3.2

Radiographic Interpretation of Welds
Gas cavities Concave root intermittent

TECHNOLOGY

Slag inclusions
Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd

What’s the defects?
M.S.Rogers

SWI 3.2

Radiographic Interpretation of Welds

TECHNOLOGY

Light Fog Light Leaks

What’s the Artefact?
Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd
M.S.Rogers

SWI 3.2

Radiographic Interpretation of Welds
What’s the Defect?
Cap undercut

TECHNOLOGY

Yellow Fog

What’s the Artefact?
Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd
M.S.Rogers

SWI 3.2

Radiographic Interpretation of Welds

TECHNOLOGY

Crimping Mark After Exposure

What’s the Artefact?
Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd
M.S.Rogers

SWI 3.2

Radiographic Interpretation of Welds

TECHNOLOGY

Film Scratch

What’s the Artefact?
Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd
M.S.Rogers

SWI 3.2

Radiographic Interpretation of Welds

TECHNOLOGY

Static Discharge

What’s the Artefact?
Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd
M.S.Rogers

SWI 3.2

Radiographic Interpretation of Welds

TECHNOLOGY

Chemical Mark

What’s the Artefact?
Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd
M.S.Rogers

SWI 3.2

Radiographic Interpretation of Welds

TECHNOLOGY

Chemical Mark

What’s the Artefact?
Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd
M.S.Rogers

SWI 3.2

Radiographic Interpretation of Welds

TECHNOLOGY

Water Marks

What’s the Artefact?
Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd
M.S.Rogers

SWI 3.2

Radiographic Interpretation of Welds

TECHNOLOGY

Dust/Grime Marks

What’s the Artefact?
Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd
M.S.Rogers

SWI 3.2

Radiographic Interpretation of Welds

TECHNOLOGY

Reticulation

What’s the Artefact?
Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd
M.S.Rogers

SWI 3.2

Radiographic Interpretation of Welds

TECHNOLOGY

Diffraction Mottle

What’s the Artefact?
Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd
M.S.Rogers

SWI 3.2

TECHNOLOGY

Any Questions

?
Copyright © 2003 TWI Ltd Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd
M.S.Rogers M.S.Rogers

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