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+ Excluding Table of Contents, Bibliography and Referencing.
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Introduction Factors influencing the individual performance in the Workplace
3. 4. 5. 6. 7.
The Contingency Approach Maslow theory and Vodafone Herzberg and Vodafone McGregor and Vodafone Conclusion Bibliography and Referencing
5 6 7 8 9 10
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Management behaviour is a discipline which deal with how people work in an organizational settings and how management affects the behaviours. (According to Mullins, 2005), the organizational goal can be achieved by an organization through people. It is things beings done through others in an effective and efficient manner. Management is doing right things and doing, things right. It can also be define as the product of efficiency and effectiveness (Robin Cotler). Management plays a vital role in the organization as it is responsible for all executive activities. Culture is the combination of some experience, practices and expressive forms that people of the organisation share the specific behaviour in the organisation (Gordon and Tomas, 1992). So it will not be wrong to say that organization culture is the set of values, practices and beliefs, therefore, the culture of company is highly inclined by the corporate culture. Company’s Culture demonstrates itself equally visible and invisible ways. Various expressions of corporate culture are simple to observe such as work environment, benefits, titles and job descriptions and management structure but others types of culture are not so easily noticeable.
There exist a close relationship between the culture and the behaviour that management demonstrates. In fact management behaviour dominates under the umbrella of culture. So we can say that culture dominates the management behaviour as culture has a huge impact on the behaviour and decision making techniques of an organization. When people come in close contact with each other for a common purpose, culture is emerged. Humans have the tendency to perform well once they have adopted the colours of culture adequately. This tendency leads to intrinsic motivation which strive them to perform well and their productivity increases remarkably. The satisfied workers are productive workers who play a vital role in the success of business. Vodafone is a company which has high profile cultural norms, values and beliefs which has been regarded as the pillars of the organization’s strong foundation. It has improved its development due to formation of atmosphere which encourages company’s norm. 3 Adnan ul Haque
Factors influencing the individual performance in the Workplace: The performance of the individual at workplace is highly influenced by various factors because individuals work in an environment which is being influenced by different internal and external factors. These factors drive his performance in certain direction. The working conditions at Vodafone are one of the factors in shaping the behaviour of employees. Vodafone provides healthy environment to its workers so that they feel the safe in that environment. Due to the comfortable and friendly environment workers are more goals oriented because a feeling of security drives them to work as ease. If a manager wants to ensure that employees do not fear at workplace, he should try to create a sound and secure environment. It has been observed that a satisfied employee is a productive employee. Self esteem is also essential at workplace because not all individuals for money. Those who feel that their self respect stands as an icon shape up their career at the top of the ladder. Once the worker feels he is respected and cared of, than automatically his moral is high and his level of competence increases more. Vodafone always promote the idea of creative environment and the respect for all types of employees because to retain its employees it should always consider and feel for what employees feel and belief. Usually at a workplace the ability to be an active participant of team is appreciated and is critical to job performance. Researches has shown that precision, extraversion and thoughtfulness are all related to corporative behaviour but that these are not interlinked to job task. In fact, personality of individual affects the job performance asocial situation at workplace has a significant contribution to the performance of individual. The Contingency Approach:
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Theories like Fiddler’s contingency Model, Vector Vroom theory and Goal Path theory are some of the theories that debates that not always one way is the best way but according to situation an approach should be developed in order to attain the result by using available resources at hand. The contingency theory emphasizes that when an executive makes a decision, he should consider all possible alternatives and the current scenario and act accordingly to achieve his objective by using the resources in optimal way. The role of executive is best determine by the situation at hand, for instance at the time of urgency most of the employees are not sure of participating but wants an order to carry out. In such situation the autocratic leaders are more useful but a situation where a new manager is appointed, the democratic style of leadership is more effective as he learns from subordinates that what are their views and what they value. The participative decision making also is useful when a management seeks new ideas or want to start a new project. Maslow and Vodafone: Maslow hierarchy theory consists of five needs physiological, safety, love and belongingness, self esteem and self actualization. (According to Maslow) when one need is fulfilled the other needs emerged. Needs are driving forces that strives individual to behave in a certain manner.
Self Actualization Self Esteem Belongingness and Love Needs Safety and Security Needs
Physiological Needs P
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Physiological Need: it is the basic level of need of human and includes the factors like food, sleep and shelter. The Vodafone also tries to fulfil these needs of their workforce. It recognises the significance of these deprivations of its employees and provides the solution to these needs to their employees by paying them a fair amount to manage their livelihood. The Safety need is the second level which consists on the job security, it shows a better management behaviour and attachment by the management and organisation. Vodafone provides a healthy environment to its employees so that they are satisfied with the working conditions. Belongingness is the third level of need which is the social environment that workplace offer to individuals. This level not only gives the social need to the employees by providing the friendly atmosphere where you feel you are the part of organization. Vodafone mainly focus on the team work that fulfils this need as team work promotes the friendly environment where employees feel that they are the important part of the organization which treats them in a caring and good social way. Vodafone employees celebrate events and occasions where social orientation is at most. Esteem Need: This level includes the self respect as well respect from others. This may be defined as that admiration and appreciation of staff. Employees feel they are treated fairly and in unbiased manner. There is no partiality act by management with them. This need ensures and determines the future performance of employees. Vodafone also use same approach in their organisation. They also seek suggestions, recommendations, and feedback from their employees to enlarge their business. Self Actualization: It is the top most level of hierarchy of needs it includes the factors like creativity, personal ambitions which are driving the individuals to increase their potential and show their abilities. Vodafone also developed the personal development plan (PDP) to determine the skills, abilities, and talent in employees who can serve as a part of management in the organisation. They focus on such individuals who have the talent of management and select the high skilled personnel for the betterment of organisation.
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Herzberg and Vodafone Vodafone provides its employees good working condition, adequate pay scale and bonuses so according to Herzberg these are hygiene factors which will certainly reduce dissatisfaction on the side of employees but it does not lead to job satisfaction. Vodafone gave its employees an opportunity to participate in team work and recognize and reward them for their abilities which acts as motivators. Such things lead to job satisfaction but again it is not necessarily important that all individual will be motivated by these factors. It is also possible that hygiene factors may remain motivators to some employees. Most of the employees are not permanents but company motivates them to perform well on job and reward them permanents job on the basis of their performance. These way employees are attained and retained by company and they focus of the organizational goal to accomplish aligned with their individual goals. HY GIE NE MO IVA TIO N
Employees dissatisfied and unmotivated
McGregor and Vodafone:
Employees not dissatisfied but unmotivated
Employees satisfied and motivated
Douglas McGregor’s theory in Vodafone clearly shows that management behaviour is with such employees who lies in the category x are to rewards them for good work, provide incentives so that they work efficiently, they provide equipments, material etc so that employees have no complains about being unproductive at work. This is a process of directing their efforts towards organizational goals and controlling their actions, and modifying their behaviour to enrich the organizational culture. By doing so management is ensuring that corporate culture is being valued
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by all individuals. They must therefore be motivated, recognised, rewarded, punished, and controlled. Management is making sure that work done through others is in an effective and efficient manner. Whereas for Y type employees creative environment is existing to come up front and take an initiative to me a next leader in the organization.
In a nutshell: To put it in a nutshell we can easily say that culture has a strong impact on the management behaviour and employees. Individual performance and organisation success are interlinked. The behaviour of management plays a vital role in the motivation of employees. Vodafone also follows the motivational theories to expand the growth of their business through employee’s interest. It provides the quality environment to its employees in order to run its business in a smooth manner.
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Bibliography and References:
1. Abraham-Maslow.com, (n.d.), [Father of modern management] Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Chart [ONLINE]. Available at:http://www.abrahammaslow.com/m_motivation/Hierarchy_of_Needs.asp. Viewed on 05 May 2011. 2. Barrick, M. R., Stewart, G. L., & Piotrowski, M. (2002). Personality and job
performance: Test of the mediating effects of motivation among sales representatives. Journal of Applied Psychology, p 87, 43-51.
3. Colbert, A. E., Mount, M. K., Harter, J. K., Witt, L. A., & Barrick, M. R. (2004).
Interactive effects of personality and perceptions of the work situation on workplace deviance. Journal of Applied Psychology, p 89,599-609.
4. Hochwater, W. A., Witt, L. A., & Kacmar, K. M. (2000). Perceptions of organizational
politics as a moderator of the relationship between conscientiousness and job performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, p 85, 472-478.
5. Hurtz, G. M., & Donovan, J. J. (2000). Personality and job performance: The Big Five
revisited. Journal of Applied Psychology, p 85, 869-879.
6. Judge, T. A., Martocchio, J. J., & Thoresen, C. J. (1997). Five-factor model of personality
and employee absence. Journal of Applied Psychology, p 82, 745-755.
7. Judge, T. A., Heller, D., & Mount, M. K. (2002). Five-Factor model of personality and
job satisfaction: A meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, p 87, 530-541.
8. LePine, J. A., & Dyne, L. V. (2001). Voice and cooperative behavior as contrasting forms
of contextual performance: Evidence of differential relationships with big five personality characteristics and cognitive ability.Journal of Applied Psychology, p 86, 326-336.
9. Lim, B., & Ployhart, R. E. (2004). Transformational leadership: Relations to the fivefactor model and team performance in typical and maximum contexts. Journal of Applied Psychology, p 89, 610-621.
10. Mullins, L. J. (2005), Management and Organizational Behaviour. Prentice Hall. P 26, 189, 219.
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11. Rashid, Z A. (2004). The influence of organizational culture on attitudes toward organizational change. The Leadership & Organization Development Journal. 25 (1), p 161-165.
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