Technology Knowledge & Skills Paper American Occupational Therapy Association

SPECIALIZED KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS IN TECHNOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL INTERVENTIONS FOR OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY PRACTICE Purpose The purpose of this document is to describe the knowledge and skills that are necessary for occupational therapists and occupational therapy assistants1 to provide ethical, competent occupational therapy services related to technology and environmental interventions. Intended for internal and external audiences, it provides information about occupational therapy practitioners’ roles and collaborative partnerships with other professionals in technology and environmental interventions, outlines professional development and supervision guidelines, defines terms related to technology and environmental interventions, and describes entry- and advanced-level knowledge and skills. In this document, the phrase technology and environmental interventions represents the broad range and combination of technology, environmental interventions, and reasonable accommodation strategies. The emphasis is on technology and environmental interventions that support the ability of people with or without disabilities to fully participate in their daily lives in accessible environments and livable communities and through engagement in occupations. Introduction Occupational therapy practitioners have long-standing expertise in providing occupational therapy services to clients that incorporate technology and environmental modification, often in collaboration with other professionals. Clients include individuals, organizations, and populations (American Occupational Therapy Association [AOTA], 2008). When addressing technology and environmental interventions, occupational therapy practitioners consider the context in which people engage in daily life occupations that support their participation, health, and wellness. On the basis of their understanding of their clients’ occupational engagement desires and needs, capacities, and contexts, occupational therapy practitioners collaborate with the client and with other professionals in the evaluation, design, fabrication, customization, modification, and application of new or existing technologies and environmental interventions. They also conduct outcome studies, support advocacy initiatives, offer guidance regarding funding resources and referrals, and provide training and consultation (Hammel & Angelo, 1996). Occupational therapy practitioners deliver technology and environmental-related services in a variety of settings, such as hospitals, rehabilitation centers, skilled nursing facilities, outpatient facilities, home health agencies, schools, work sites, industry, homes, and communities and in a variety of roles such as the primary service provider, team member, advocate, and expert consultant. Occupational Therapy’s Role in Technology and Environmental Modification Technology and environmental interventions can support people’s participation in occupations which, by definition, hold purpose and meaning for them. This is especially beneficial when the
Occupational therapists are responsible for all aspects of occupational therapy service delivery and are accountable for the safety and effectiveness of the occupational therapy service delivery process. Occupational therapy assistants deliver occupational therapy services under the supervision of and in partnership with an occupational therapist (AOTA, 2004a). When the term occupational therapy practitioner is used in this document, it refers to both occupational therapists and occupational therapy assistants (AOTA, 2006).
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and engagement in occupation (AOTA. well-being. and interpreting assessments to analyze the occupational performance of individuals. education. Professional Development For both occupational therapists and occupational therapy assistants. and valid. reliable. and sleep occupations that are meaningful and necessary (AOTA. Occupational therapy practitioners must adhere to state and agency regulatory laws when providing services across practice setting and the continua of care. Reimbursement for services may be available through various sources. and environmental interventions and the context for their use. task completion. the progression from entrylevel to advanced-level knowledge and skills related to technology and environmental 2 . participation (World Health Organization. administer. The goal is to promote. During intervention. Outcomes include subjective impressions such as improved competence. capacities. and physical environments to promote play and leisure participation. occupational therapists are trained to conduct comprehensive evaluations to identify the skills and abilities of the client and to guide the recommendation for services. Outcomes also include objective measurements such as improved efficiency. and consistent with payer needs. social participation. 2004a). or maintain the ability of people to engage in basic and instrumental activities of daily living: work.g. the design and customization of seating devices.Technology Knowledge & Skills Paper American Occupational Therapy Association activities are otherwise too difficult or challenging. Occupational therapy practitioners collaborate with the client and other professionals to create a successful match among the client. 2008). the activity demands. play. educational and training programs for organizations and populations. and populations. and private pay. 2001). The evaluation includes the development of an occupational profile and selecting. organizations. the positioning and modification of speech and communication devices to facilitate social participation. and the fabrication and modification of assistive devices for self-care tasks. and the contexts for the technology and environmental interventions. the selection and training in the use of environmental controls and of vision and hearing technologies to support involvement in instrumental activities of daily living. and quality of life (AOTA. Occupational therapy assistants contribute to the evaluation process by gathering data and administering selected assessment tools or measures for which they have demonstrated competence (AOTA. 2008). administering. occupational therapy practitioners focus on how the technology and environmental interventions support the client’s health.. Interventions also may focus on advocacy initiatives. Examples include the selection and adaptation of computers and software to support education and work. improve. As part of therapeutic services. self-efficacy. and performance patterns. and adapt technologies and environments that support the intervention plan developed by the occupational therapist. leisure. including legislation (e. Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act. hope. sensitive to measuring change. and policy development that promote accessible environments and livable communities. accessibility. This includes consideration of the client’s performance skills. reflective of clients’ goals. and the ability of the client to assume or regain valued life roles and occupations. both occupational therapists and occupational therapy assistants select. the technology. The selected outcomes need to be measurable. independence or interdependence. Medicaid. When measuring the outcomes of interventions. mobility equipment. 2008). the characteristics of the technology and the environmental interventions. private insurance. Medicare).

2004c). genetic conditions. The occupational therapist and occupational therapy assistant also may supervise other non-licensed personnel when providing technology and environmental modification to clients (AOTA. The occupational therapist has the primary role in evaluation and intervention planning. occupational therapy and occupational therapy assistant students receive education in the structure and function of the human body. 2007c). In addition. and seeking advanced competency and specialty certification through AOTA or external organizations. educational activities. an occupational therapy practitioner may have advancedlevel skills in computer and information technologies for students in school systems but only entry-level knowledge in vehicle modification and transportation for older adult populations. 2004a. including the biological and physical sciences. and they develop clinical-reasoning skills to consider the interplay of physical. such as RESNA. Occupational therapy assistants and entry-level occupational therapists should seek supervision and mentoring from a more experienced occupational therapist or an occupational therapist with advanced knowledge and skills in technology and environmental interventions. 2004c). They acquire foundational knowledge and skills regarding technology and environmental interventions. environmental. and effects of mental and physical health. occupational therapy practitioners may develop additional expertise in technology and environmental interventions. 2004c). Closing the Gap (CTG). thus. and critical examination of available evidence (AOTA. Examples include participating in local and national continuing education conferences such as those sponsored by AOTA. Over time. The occupational therapy practitioner’s acquisition of advanced-level knowledge and skills related to technology and environmental interventions is individualized. completing postsecondary courses.Technology Knowledge & Skills Paper American Occupational Therapy Association interventions evolves through education and experience. 3 . and research and by participating in professional development. disease processes. 2004b. the occupational therapy assistant collaborates with the occupational therapist in the provision of specific interventions (AOTA. For example. they gain higher level knowledge. 2004a). cognitive. and context on occupational performance. They ensure advanced knowledge and skills in technology and environmental interventions by maintaining and documenting competence in practice. At a level commensurate with their respective academic programs. including the behavioral and social sciences. a practitioner may possess differing levels of expertise in a wide variety of skill areas and populations served by occupational therapy. Supervision Considerations The amount of supervision provided to occupational therapy practitioners in the area of technology and environmental interventions directly relates to their training and experience and state practice acts. and nonlicensed personnel. the California State University National Conference (CSUN). skills. 2007b. It is the ethical responsibility of occupational therapy practitioners to ensure that they are competent in the services they provide and routinely seek out new knowledge and techniques that apply to their practice (AOTA. and clinical reasoning through experience and mentoring opportunities. and sociocultural factors in providing effective services (AOTA. occupational therapy assistants. education. trauma. Most state practice acts mandate the frequency and duration for supervision of entry-level occupational therapists. human development throughout the life span and human behavior. 2007a. and the Rehabilitation Engineering and Assistive Technology Society of North America (RESNA). as they advance in their education and arena of practice. the Assistive Technology Industry Association (ATIA).

without the need for adaptation or specialized design (Center for Universal Design. and training. or identification of letters and numbers. or duplication of data or information. 6).and Advanced-Level Knowledge and Skills The appendix provides a matrix that outlines the entry. modified. coordination of services.S. Internet sites. equipment. or acquisition of foundational skills (Cook & Polgar.g. including evaluation. or improve functional capabilities of individuals with disabilities and/or create accessible environments (e. 1996).L.” such as visual perception or cognitive training. Access Board. Depending on the client contexts. provide interventions. acquisition. 2000). and reasonable accommodation strategies used to increase. environmental interventions. or customized.. information kiosks and transaction machines.. maintain. Technology and environmental competency (TEC): The combination of technology (e. Electronic and information technology: Information technology. but is not limited to. 1997). or improve functional capabilities of individuals with disabilities. school.g.g. restoration.” Assistive technology service means “any service that directly assists an individual with a disability in the selection. telephones). home. 108-364). electronic and information. assistive. Technology: The combination of assistive. work.or advanced-level knowledge and skills that occupational therapists and occupational therapy assistants should demonstrate when 4 . and interconnected systems or subsystems of equipment that are used in the creation. electronic and information. 2008. multimedia. rehabilitative). mobility + environmental control + computer access) (Hammel & Angelo. virtual). and measure outcomes such as custom seating and mobility and integrated systems (e.. whether acquired commercially. piece of equipment. basic. and experience to evaluate. complex. conversion. community. P. to the greatest extent possible. Rehabilitative and educational technologies: Technology “used as a tool for remediation or rehabilitation. training. Complex technology: Technology and environmental interventions that require advanced or specialized knowledge. p. telecommunications products (e. ! ! ! ! ! ! Entry. or use of an assistive technology device” (Assistive Technology Act of 2004.. and office equipment such as copiers and fax machines (U. and rehabilitative and educational technologies. 1996). that is used to increase. or product system. maintain. It includes. rehabilitation and educational technologies have the role of remediation. improvement in motor control. Universal design: The design of products and environments to be usable by all people. ! Basic technology: Commonly used technologies or environmental interventions such as activities of daily living equipment and basic home modifications (Hammel & Angelo. fitting and customization.g.Technology Knowledge & Skills Paper American Occupational Therapy Association Terminology and Definitions ! Assistive technology device (ATD): “Any item.

(1997). Occupational therapy practice framework: Domain and process (2nd ed. Principles of universal design. 2005). American Journal of Occupational Therapy. 641–651. American Journal of Occupational Therapy. (2005). including the duty to maintain high standards of competency within a practice area and to seek out supervision and continuing education in those areas of practice that are above their level of competency (AOTA. Accreditation standards for a master’sdegree-level educational program for the occupational therapist. 673–677. 33–34).Technology Knowledge & Skills Paper American Occupational Therapy Association providing occupational therapy services related to technology and environmental interventions. 58. 652–661. American Occupational Therapy Association. In Policy manual (2007 ed. (2007c). 1707. Assistive Technology Act of 2004. American Occupational Therapy Association. 2004b. 108-364.. Standards of practice for occupational therapy. 61. 61. P. 52. 652–661. American Occupational Therapy Association. Occupational therapy practitioners have a professional responsibility to work within their own level of competency. 108 Cong.L. 639–642. an A denotes that the occupational therapist or the occupational therapy assistant may assist or contribute information but is not able to perform the task alone and requires supervision. American Journal of Occupational Therapy. and responsibilities during the delivery of occupational therapy services. American Occupational Therapy Association. American Journal of Occupational Therapy. American Journal of Occupational Therapy. as well as within the scope of practice as defined and regulated by state licensure and Occupational Therapy Code of Ethics. 62. American Occupational Therapy Association. 663–667. 61. Policy 1. American Occupational Therapy Association. Scope of practice. 59. Guidelines for supervision. American Journal of Occupational Therapy.. NC: Author. roles.). pp. Raleigh. (2004). American Journal of Occupational Therapy. Center for Universal Design. American Occupational Therapy Association. 625–683. Accreditation standards for an educational program for the occupational therapy assistant. An X denotes the minimum knowledge and skills that the occupational therapist or occupational therapy assistant should demonstrate to practice competently at that level. References American Occupational Therapy Association. MD: Author. (2008). 58. 5 . American Occupational Therapy Association. American Journal of Occupational Therapy. (2004a). 118 STAT. 866–869. Occupational therapy code of ethics (2005). Bethesda. (2006). (2007a).44: Categories of occupational therapy personnel. Accreditation standards for a doctoraldegree-level educational program for the occupational therapist. (2004c). (2007b). (2004b).

2008. PhD. (2000. 63 (November/December). FAOTA Lynn Gitlow. FAOTA With contributions from Janet V. To be published and copyrighted in 2009 by the American Occupational Therapy Association in the American Journal of Occupational Therapy. Chairperson Adopted by the Representative Assembly 2008CO107 This document replaces the 2004 Statement Assistive Technology Within Occupational Therapy Practice. OTR. DEd. OT. (2001). Geneva. J. OTR/L.Technology Knowledge & Skills Paper American Occupational Therapy Association Cook. disability and health (ICF). DeLany. from http://www/access-board. MS. December 21). FAOTA. J. FAOTA for The Commission on Practice Susanne Smith Roley. PhD. FAOTA Kim Hartmann. Retrieved September 5. Technology competencies for occupational therapy practitioners. OTR/L Roger Smith. Authors This document is based on the work of Hammel and Angelo (1996) and on a motion from the April 2006 Representative Assembly. ATP Brent Braveman. M. Electronic and Information Technology Accessibility Standards (Section 508). EdD. FAOTA. Assistive Technology. 6 . OTR/L. ATP Beth Goodrich. M.. 8(1). A. PhD. ATP Robin Jones. 34–42. & Angelo. OTR/L. S. Access Board. OTR/L. Switzerland: Author. MS. Hammel. Federal Register. MO: Mosby/Elsevier. Cook and Hussey’s assistive technologies principles and practice. & Polgar.gov/508 World Health Organization.. ROH Susan Leech. The knowledge and skills were revised by the Technology Special Interest Section Standing Committee with consultation from a panel of international experts from external organizations with occupational therapy and technology expertise and developed into a Knowledge and Skills Paper. International classification of functioning. (2008). Louis. OTR. MEd. OTR/L. Chairperson Daniel Knowland. This 2008 paper was revised by Joy Hammel. PhD. S. OTR/L. U. PhD. St. COTA. (1996).

social) for their influence on technology and environmental access. ranging from none to basic to advanced/complex. disability status). A = assists with the task.g.2. play.g.a A X A X A X A X A. education. environmental modification. and contexts.. sleep) and the potential need for technology and environment applications to support these needs.2. technology.e A. the client’s performance skills and performance patterns. life cycle. activities. chronological. leisure. = does not perform the task. OTA OT Advanced OTA OT A. therapy). service delivery team members.f 7 . A. consumer.d A. family. Communicate range of relevant and related interventions that could be considered (e.2 A. developmental. case managers.c A. screen for occupational performance capacities and limitations. Assess prior and current use of technology and environmental interventions across existing roles. occupations. Specialized Knowledge and Skills in Technology and Environmental Interventions X = able to perform the task. and client factors across contexts of potential technology and environmental use. training. Screen and identify the level of technology and environmental intervention needed.2. or user of the technology and environmental solutions. surgery.Technology Knowledge & Skills Paper APPENDIX.2. Evaluation Upon referral for services. virtual. social participation. funders. and environments (physical.2. pharmacology. Evaluate and analyze the activity demands. temporal (e. advocates) throughout the process.g. application..g.2.1 A.. including transitions between contexts. screen for environmental supports and barriers. caregivers).b A A A A A X X X X X A A A A A X X X X X A. and use. Evaluate the client’s occupational and participation needs in areas of occupation (e. and other relevant stakeholders (e. Evaluate the client’s contexts.. Determine technology and environmental needs as part of a comprehensive OT evaluation that includes occupational profile and an analysis of occupational performance. and identify if the need for a comprehensive OT evaluation exists. basic and instrumental activities of daily living. including cultural. Entry-Level Knowledge and Skills All knowledge and skills assume active collaboration with the client.. work.g. significant others relevant to the situation (e.

and other disciplines into the plan (e. social participation. Conduct a BASIC technology and environmental evaluation. audiology.4. sociology. education.4. rehabilitation engineering. Compare and contrast different basic technology and environmental features and access methods in relation to the client.4. engineering. occupational science. demands. leisure.. Conduct specialized or complex technology and environmental evaluations (assumes A. public health. contexts.a A. incorporating basic technology and environmental applications as appropriate.f. Integrate basic theoretical information from OT. play. environmental control. communication alternatives). ergonomics. disability studies.g A. sensory needs..a A A A X A.4.d 8 .3. demands. physical therapy. those related to computer access..4 A. architecture. specialized. or integrated technology and environmental features and access methods in relation to the client. A. Coordinate evaluation of OT-related needs within interdisciplinary basic technology and environmental services. and constraints. Interpret and integrate basic technology and environmental evaluation results into intervention or service delivery plan and also outcome measures. psychology. Evaluate basic technology and environmental needs within areas of occupation (e.2.3. speech and language pathology. A.g. Conduct advanced evaluation of complex or specialized technology and environmental applications (e.g. supports. supports.3 met). and intervention plans.3. and environmental needs.d.b A. seating and positioning needs. activity and environmental needs. reevaluating as needed. Utilize information resources on specialized or complex technology and environmental applications within decision making. and other disciplines into the intervention or service delivery plan A A X X A X X X OTA X OT X Advanced OTA X OT X A.c.b A.c A A X X A A A A X A X X A.Technology Knowledge & Skills Paper Entry-Level Knowledge and Skills Refer clients to appropriate professionals for technology and environmental resources when the services the client needs or seeks are beyond the scope of practice and competency level of the OT practitioner.3.3.1– A. activity.e. A. basic and instrumental activities of daily living. Develop occupational goals. education. urban planning). Compare and contrast different complex. occupational science.g. mobility and driving programs. anthropology. A A A A X X X X A A A A X X X X A.3.3 A. work. Integrate advanced technology and environmental theoretical information from OT. anticipated outcomes. sleep). and constraints.

and training in basic technology and environmental applications. and/or adapt tasks to meet the occupational and activity demands of the context. preventative maintenance training and schedules. ergonomic practice. and comparing level of assistance to do task (attendant vs. systems. technology). reevaluating as needed. delivery of. Examples include daily living skills training.4. A. ADA training. mechanical components. and community contexts. alter.1. Interpret and integrate results of complex technology and environmental evaluation into intervention or service delivery plans and also outcome measures. and electrical circuits and components. Provide basic interventions that optimize the client’s engagement in areas of occupation within the home. with incorporation in OT intervention plan and outcome measures.2. ergonomic design.a Evaluate relationship of materials and different design choices. rearranging class schedules..b B.g.Technology Knowledge & Skills Paper Entry-Level Knowledge and Skills and also outcome measures. strengthening. equitable access).2.1 B. Examples include rewriting job descriptions. including consideration of mechanics/strength of materials. ease of use. and energy conservation. electrical. Develop advanced technology and environmental goals. as relevant. performance patterns. A A A A A A X A A X X X OTA OT Advanced OTA OT X X X X B.1. B. work. sharing job duties. anticipated outcomes.c 9 .g B.f A. school. Provide access to.a A A X X X X X X X X X X B.4. Intervention Provide technology and environmental interventions as part of a comprehensive OT plan. and intervention plans.4.c X X X X B. and electronic equipment. Address issues of repair and maintenance in basic technology and environmental applications. Utilize design and fabrication principles within basic technology and environment applications. visual/perceptual rehabilitation. and constraints within complex technology and environmental plans.b X X X X B. including basic repair. simplicity. trade-offs. including advantages. cognitive rehabilitation. Examples include environmental interventions. Design.1.2 B. and limitations and violations of warranty for mechanical.e A. and body functions. Incorporate universal design principles within technology and environmental applications (e. Provide basic interventions that optimize the client’s performance skills. and disability awareness training to promote participation and accessibility.2.

Technology Knowledge & Skills Paper Entry-Level Knowledge and Skills Address factors related to cost and benefit/impact of custom versus commercial technology and environment applications.g B.2. Collaborate in the design. and machines as needed to match basic technology and environmental applications to user’s needs. environmental control.2. pressure over time.3. school.g.2. community. and install and train individuals in use. Utilize advanced design and fabrication principles (e. with referral to advanced expertise as indicated.d B.. delivery of. and training in complex or specialized technology and environmental applications (assumes B. and customization of basic technology and environmental applications within a defensible level of competence as appropriate to the case and the level of expertise required.3. Utilize advanced environmental and universal design principles to match client needs and specific environmental demands (e. and maintenance of complex.. Periodically reevaluate basic technology and environmental use.2 met).3. and integration into everyday life.e B. work. Perform product trials. materials.g.e B.f B. and train technology and environmental user and important others in the use. and repair. fabrication.2. OTA A A X X A OT X X X X X Advanced OTA A X X X A OT X X X X X B.g A A A X 10 . recommend product specifications.. design to address issues of corrosion. hardware and software interface) across different environments and systems/equipment.h B. augmentative communication for education and work).a B. Provide access to. materials. Utilize fabrication tools.g.f A A A A A A A X A A X X X X X X A X A X B. needs. with referral to specialized expertise as needed. fabrication.3 B. repair. specialized.g. temperature. and machines as needed to match user’s needs. maintenance. and customization of complex or specialized technology and environmental applications within a defensible level of competence as appropriate to the case and the level of expertise required. order technologies and environmental solutions.c B. and integrated technology and environmental applications (e. Perform product trials and feature analyses.3.1–B. Address issues of compatibility and integration of technologies (e.2.b B.3.. coordinate delivery and installation of technology and environmental interventions. Participate in the design. wheelchair. home). Utilize fabrication tools.3. compatibility or integration of multiple technologies).

Participate in evidence-based practice within OT and complex or specialized technology and environmental delivery (assumes D.2 C. prevention.a X X A X X X X X A X X X A A A X C. and advanced technology and environmental research. needs. D. quality of life. and supports.1 C.2.1. occupational science. Resource Coordination and Advocacy Provide and coordinate OT and basic technology and environmental resources.2. X X X X OTA A OT X Advanced OTA A OT X B. Participate in OT and advanced technology and environmental quality improvement and program evaluation activities.1 A A A A A A A X A X X X 11 .1 knowledge and skills met).Technology Knowledge & Skills Paper Entry-Level Knowledge and Skills Periodically reevaluate complex technology and environmental use.2. including those related to occupational performance. Participate in OT and basic technology and environmental program evaluations and continuous quality improvement initiatives to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of service delivery. Participate in OT. quality of life. and consumer use and satisfaction. Identify and document the outcomes of OT and basic technology and environmental interventions. participation in daily life. Participate in OT. emotional and physical health and wellness. C. occupational science.h C.d C.1.b C. Identify and document the outcomes of OT and advanced technology and environmental interventions. Critically analyze and apply evidence-based research within OT.1. Critically analyze and apply evidence-based research within OT and basic technology and environmental practice.b C. including those related to occupational performance.c C. services. and basic technology and environmental research.3.2. and advanced technology and environmental practice. emotional and physical health and wellness.c C. participation in daily life. and consumer use and satisfaction. prevention. occupational science.1.a C.d D. Evidence-Based Practice and Outcomes Participate in and apply results from evidence-based practice within OT and basic technology and environmental service delivery. and integration into everyday life.

engineering.1. Provide and coordinate complex or specialized technology and environmental resources (assumes D.g.b X X X X D. audiology.g. occupationbased perspective encompassing technology and environmental use and delivery.g X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X D.. schools. Describe the contributions of other disciplines and their roles within technology and environmental service delivery (e.e D.1. and policies regarding delivery and funding/ reimbursement of basic OT and technology and environmental applications.j D. IDEA. legislation and policies. OTA X OT X Advanced OTA X OT X D.g.g.i D.a D. ADA. and collaborate with consumer to become an informed self advocate for his or her own needs.1. user groups. worksite) to improve access. regulations. private resources) within different settings (e. engineering. speech and language pathology. advocacy organizations. Technology Act). Participate in advocacy activities related to technology and environment on an individual case level.c D. funding/reimbursement sources.g. vendors. education) and within technology and environmental service delivery. inpatient.1. Effectively communicate the role of OT practitioners in providing a global.2 12 . vocational rehabilitation. and collaborate with the disability community in technology and environmental activism. Justify and document the provision of OT and basic technology and environmental services and solutions for reimbursement. government funding. including shared or matched funding strategies..1. suppliers.1 met). Participate in advocacy activities related to technology and environmental on a systems change level.1. therapy. Describe the role of distributors. case management).1.. Utilize and link clients and consumers to basic technology and environmental information resources (e. rehabilitation engineering.h D.. manufacturers. Describe mechanisms.Technology Knowledge & Skills Paper Entry-Level Knowledge and Skills Understand and apply technology and environmental-related legislation and policies across the delivery process (e. continuing education. conferences. Maintain the Occupational Therapy Code of Ethics and Standards of Practice in primary discipline or field (e. foundation grants.1.1.d X X X X X X X X D. vendors. additional services. loan programs... designers. Strategize different sources of funding (e.k D.1. legal). education.f D. and fabricators within technology and environmental delivery. community. product databases. physical therapy.g.1.

user groups. continuing education..c D. computer access).d A A X A A X A A X X X X 13 . additional services. conferences.2. advocacy organizations. Justify and document the provision of OT and complex or specialized technology and environmental services. seating and mobility..2.g. OTA X OT X Advanced OTA X OT X D. legal assistance). vendors.b D. Maintain the Occupational Therapy Code of Ethics and Standards of Practice in specialized fields of technology and environmental service delivery (e.2. legislation and policies.Technology Knowledge & Skills Paper Entry-Level Knowledge and Skills Utilize and link clients and consumers to complex or specialized technology and environmental information resources (e. Describe mechanisms for obtaining reimbursement of OT and complex or specialized technology and environmental services.2.a D.g. funding/reimbursement sources. product databases.

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