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EXPERIMENT 1:..................................................................................................3 IMPLEMENTATION..........................................................................................................................3 RESULT:...................................................................................................................................4 EXPERIMENT 2:..................................................................................................5 IMPLEMENTATION:.........................................................................................................................5 RESULT:...................................................................................................................................7 ERROR PERFORMANCE OF BPSK AND QPSK ........................................................8 ABSTRACT............................................................................................................................8 ...........................................................................................................................................8 INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................................8 DESCRIPTION OF SIMULATIONS ...........................................................................................8 RESULTS AND ANALYSIS .....................................................................................................9 CONCLUSION ....................................................................................................................10 REFERENCES .....................................................................................................................10

Repeat the above experiment for QPSK algorithm and compare its performance with that of BPSK. implement the BPSK algorithm and study its performance. Using any package like MATLAB or using any programming language of your choice. 2. M. RITM WIRELESS & MOBILE NETWORKS Subject Code: 10SCN21 1.Dept of CSE. Tech CNE-MatLab Report 2 .

close all. % This time variable is just for plot time = []. % Generate a random bit stream bit_stream = round(rand(1. Tech CNE-MatLab Report 3 . Digital_signal = []. for ii = 1: 1: length(bit_stream) % The FSK Signal PSK_signal = [PSK_signal (bit_stream(ii)==0)*sin(2*pi*f*t + P1)+.N))..in Radians % Phase for 0 bit P1 = 0. PSK_signal = [].This will define the resoultion fs = 100. % Sampling rate . % Enter the two Phase shifts . % Frequency of Modulating Signal f = 3.Frame Length N = 8.Dept of CSE.. % Clear all variables and close all figures clear all. % Time for one bit t = 0: 1/fs : 1. M. RITM Experiment 1: Implementation % MATLAB Script for a Binary PSK with two Phases format long. % The number of bits to send . % Phase for 1 bit P2 = pi.

5]). xlabel('Time (bit period)').2). RITM (bit_stream(ii)==1)*sin(2*pi*f*t + P2)]. title('Original Digital Signal').Dept of CSE. plot(time. grid on. ylabel('Amplitude'). time = [time t].5 1. % The Original Digital Signal Digital_signal = [Digital_signal (bit_stream(ii)==0)*. zeros(1. xlabel('Time (bit period)'). ylabel('Amplitude').'r'.Digital_signal.PSK_signal. end % Plot the PSK Signal subplot(2.1. axis([0 time(end) -0. title('PSK Signal with two Phase Shifts').length(t))].2). Tech CNE-MatLab Report 4 . plot(time. axis([0 time(end) -1.2).1.'LineWidth'.5 1. Result: M. t = t + 1.length(t)) + (bit_stream(ii)==1)*ones(1. grid on.5]). % Plot the Original Digital Signal subplot(2..1).'LineWidth'..

Dept of CSE.'Polar').*quadPhaseOsc + evenNrzData.5. ylabel('Amplitude').Rb. M.blogspot.oddNrzData]=NRZ_Encoder(oddBits.ylimits(2)+0. subplot(3. plotHandle=plot(qpskModulated).1.N)>=0. %clear all stored variables N=100. % Amplitude of NRZ data oddBits = data(1:2:end). xlabel('Samples'). axis([0.Fs]=NRZ_Encoder(evenBits. %Generate uniformly distributed random data Rb=1e3. title('Input Binary Data').5]) .amplitude. inPhaseOsc = 1/sqrt(2)*cos(2*pi*Fc*evenTime). qpskModulated = oddNrzData. RITM Experiment 2: Implementation: % Demonstration of QPSK Modulation and Demodulation % % Author: Mathuranathan Viswanathan (http://gaussianwaves.Rb.evenNrzData. grid on. %Noise variance of AWGN channel data=randn(1. axis([xlimits.*inPhaseOsc. xlabel('Samples'). stem(data).2. Tech CNE-MatLab Report 5 .0 % Unported clear. %number of data bits noiseVariance = 0.N.2. title('QPSK modulated Data').5. subplot(3. [oddTime. %bit rate amplitude=1.3). ylabel('Amplitude'). Fc=2*Rb. ylimits = YLIM.amplitude. [evenTime.1. quadPhaseOsc = 1/sqrt(2)*sin(2*pi*Fc*oddTime).'Polar').com) % License : creative commons : Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.1). evenBits= data(2:2:end). Tb=1/Rb.-0.ylimits(1)-0. xlimits = XLIM.5]).

title('Detected Binary Data after QPSK demodulation').*inPhaseOsc. stem(finalOutput).qSignal(int32(i*Tb*Fs+1):int32((i+1) *Tb*Fs))). xlabel('Samples'). subplot(3. %Constellation Mapping at transmitter and receiver %constellation Mapper at Transmitter side M.5). estimatedQuadphaseBits=(quadraturePhaseComponent>=0).1. received = qpskModulated + noise.[]).data))/length(data).estimatedInphaseBits]. BER = sum(xor(finalOutput. plot(received). end %Threshold Comparator estimatedInphaseBits=(inPhaseComponent>=0). title('QPSK Modulated Data with AWGN noise'). end for i = 0:(length(qSignal)/(Tb*Fs))-1.5.length(qpskModulated)).2). ylabel('Amplitude'). subplot(3.2.1. qSignal = received. %Integrator integrationBase = 0:1/Fs:Tb-1/Fs. axis([0.-0. for i = 0:(length(iSignal)/(Tb*Fs))-1. RITM %------------------------------------------%Adding Channel Noise %------------------------------------------noise = sqrt(noiseVariance)*randn(1.*quadPhaseOsc. finalOutput=reshape([estimatedQuadphaseBits.5]). %------------------------------------------%QPSK Receiver %------------------------------------------%Multiplying the received signal with reference Oscillator iSignal = received. xlabel('Time').N. inPhaseComponent(i+1)=trapz(integrationBase.2. Tech CNE-MatLab Report 6 .Dept of CSE. ylabel('Amplitude'). quadraturePhaseComponent(i+1)=trapz(integrationBase.iSignal(int32(i*Tb*Fs+1):int32((i+1)*Tb*Fs)) ).

title('QPSK Constellation at Transmitter'). xlabel('Inphase Component').0]). h=line([0 0]. Tech CNE-MatLab Report 7 .5 1.-1.0.5.[0 0]).oddNrzData.1.[0.'ro').0]) h=line([-1.5].-1.'ro').6).Dept of CSE. plot(evenNrzData.'Color'. title(['QPSK Constellation at Receiver when AWGN Noise Variance ='. ylabel('Quadrature Phase component').0.'Color'.2*estimatedQuadphaseBits-1.[0.0.[0 0]).5]).5]).1. axis([-1.4).[0. set(h.[-1.2.5. %plot(inPhaseComponent/max(inPhaseComponent). xlabel('Inphase Component').0.2. set(h.1.5]).'Color'.0]) %constellation Mapper at receiver side subplot(3.5 1.[-1. Result: M.5.num2str(noiseVariance)]).[0.5 1. set(h.5 1.quadraturePhaseComponent/max(quadratur ePhaseComponent). h=line([-1. plot(2*estimatedInphaseBits-1. h=line([0 0].5].5]).5.5.1.0]). ylabel('Quadrature Phase component').'Color'. set(h.5. axis([-1.'ro'). RITM subplot(3.

It is the likelihood that a single error bit will occur within received bits. For any given modulation. Bit error rate (BER) of a communication system is defined as the ratio of number of error bits and total number of bits transmitted during a specific period. Tech CNE-MatLab Report 8 . Two-state phase shift keying (PSK) is called BPSK where the phase of the radio carrier is set to 0 or π according to the value of the incoming bit. RITM ERROR PERFORMANCE OF BPSK AND QPSK ABSTRACT In order to choose the most suitable modulation. There are many ways of reducing BER. BER has been measured by comparing the transmitted signal with the received signal and computing the error count over the total number of bits. the BER is normally expressed in terms of signal to noise ratio (SNR). in which two bits are combined and the radio carrier is phase-modulated according to the four possible patterns of two bits. Phase of the carrier signal is shifted according to the input binary data. independent of rate of transmission. The main considerations include the effect of multipath scattering. This paper focuses on error performance of phase modulation schemes in different channel conditions and on the method to reduce bit error rates with the help of convolution coding which is extensively used in GSM cellular system's encoder. Transmitting a symbol takes twice as long as a bit (Ts = 2·Tb) which means that the bandwidth efficiency of QPSK is twice that of BPSK. Convolutional coder takes a binary input sequence and outputs a convolutionally encoded binary sequence according to the specified M. we have considered the two most commonly used channels: the Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel where the noise gets spread over the whole spectrum of frequencies and the Rayleigh fading channel. A brief description of theoretical aspects of phase modulation schemes commonly used in satellite communications such as BPSK and QPSK is also given here along with simulations carried out with the help of Matlab tools. Each bit of the digital signal produces a transmit symbol with duration Ts. we focus on channel coding techniques. INTRODUCTION In any phase modulation scheme the information is expressed in terms of phase of the carrier. bandwidth efficiency. which is equal to the bit duration Tb. fading and Doppler shift that arise from the relative motion between the transmitter and the receiver. several criteria such as power efficiency.Dept of CSE. and bit error rate are used for evaluation. Here. In our simulations. DESCRIPTION OF SIMULATIONS Coded and uncoded BPSK & QPSK schemes have been simulated using the Serenade Symphony tool. Four-state or quadric phase PSK is called QPSK. A channel in mobile communications can be simulated in many different ways.

we focused only on BER performance in terms of signal to noise ratio per bit for PSK. M) which performs M-phase shift keying modulation.Dept of CSE. Fd. Such a signal was mixed with noise and later detected by convolving the distorted signal and the signal from matched filter-representation of carrier recovery circuit. Tech CNE-MatLab Report 9 . Fc is carrier frequency and Fs is sampling frequency. which generates an m-by-n binary matrix. This outcome will hold true only if we consider BER in terms of SNR per carrier. Here we can compare the resistance to error for two different channels. considering AWGN and Rayleigh channels. where BPSK and QPSK systems are compared. RESULTS AND ANALYSIS Figure 1 shows the BER performance to AWGN channel. coding with rate K/N = 1/2 results in a saving of 4 dB and with rate 1/3 more than 5 dB (example is for BER = 10-3) Fig. in which every K input bits are encoded into N output bits. PSK signal was created with the help of Matlab function y = dmod (x. 'psk'. In Matlab. This signal was passed through a decision device to get the final data. Fs. BPSK requires 3 dB less of signal to noise ratio than QPSK to achievethe same BER. RITM parameters of the model. n). The effect of convolutional coding on BPSK for different convolutional code rates is displayed in figure 2. X denotes values (modulating signal) of random bits generated with the help of function randint(m. 2: Effect of convolutional coder SNR per carrier for BPSK and The effects of AWGN and Rayleigh fading channles were simulated in Matlab. The results are displayed in figure 3. Fc. and for example. The rate of the coder is given by the ratio K/N. The bit error rate measurements were carried out subsequently. 1: Bit error performance in terms of with different rates for BPSK system QPSK Fig. In terms of signal to noise ratio per bit the BER is same for both QPSK and BPSK. In M.

D. it is observed that the introduction of the convolution coding scheme has helped to decrease the bit error rate significantly. 2002.. For our application. [2] Pratt. the signal is more prone to errors and for example. From our results. Schilling.: Satellite communication. it is evident that BPSK modulation is preferred in cases where we need to consider small amounts of transmitting energy. This paper further focuses on the ways to reduce BER and thus increase power efficiency. Tata McGraw Hill. Fig. RITM Rayleigh channel. it leads to higher power efficiency. T. but on the other hand. [3] Taub. John Wiley and Sons 2003. the bit rate is half (or third) that of the uncoded scheme. at a bit error rate of 10-3 we need 20 dB more of signal to noise ratio than for AWGN to achieve the same bit error rate. 3: Comparison between AWGN and Rayleigh Fading Channel for BPSK and QPSKin terms of signal to noise ratio per bit. results in the transmission of signals of specified quality with a smaller transmit power. REFERENCES [1] Hanus. VUTIM Press.: Rádiové a mobilní komunikace. This in turn. S.: Principles of communication systems. In other words. The main reason is that the BPSK offers acceptable BER while transmitting signals of relatively low energy. H. CONCLUSION The main purpose of this paper has been to present the commonly used modulation schemes in satellite communication systems and demonstrate the performance of PSK modulated systems in the presence of a noisy channel along with the ways to reduce the BER. Tech CNE-MatLab Report 10 .Dept of CSE. which clearly illustrates the diverse error performance of PSK to different channel models. 1994 M. The results of simulations in Matlab are displayed in figure 3. The probability of error is identical for BPSK and QPSK because the BER has been measured in terms of signal to noise ratio per bit.

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