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List the major challenges and opportunities for managers to use OB concepts 5. Identify the contributions made by major behavioral science disciplines to OB 6. Describe why managers require a knowledge of OB 7. Explain the need for a contingency approach to the study of OB 8. Identify the three levels of analysis in this book’s OB model Introduction: Managers need to develop their interpersonal or people skills if they are going to be effective in their jobs. Organizational behavior (OB) is a field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups, and structure have on behavior within an organization, then applies that knowledge to make organizations work more effectively. Specifically, OB focuses on how to improve productivity, reduce absenteeism and turnover, and increase employee citizenship and job satisfaction. We all hold generalizations about the behavior of people. Some of our generalizations may provide valid insights into human behavior, but many are erroneous. Organizational behavior uses systematic study to improve predictions of behavior that would be made from intuition alone. Yet, because people are different, we need to look at OB in a contingency framework, using situational variables to moderate cause‐effect relationships. Organizational behavior offers both challenges and opportunities for managers. It recognizes differences and helps managers to see the value of workforce diversity and practices that may need to be changed when managing in different countries. It can help improve quality and employee productivity by showing managers how to empower their people as well as how to design and implement change programs. It offers specific insights to improve a manager’s people skills. In times of rapid and ongoing change, faced by most managers today, OB can help managers cope in a world of “temporariness” and learn ways to stimulate innovation. Finally, OB can offer managers guidance in creating an ethically healthy work climate. WHAT MANAGER’S DO Importance of Developing Managers’ Interpersonal Skills Companies with reputations as a good place to work—such as Hewlett‐Packard, Lincoln Electric, Southwest Airlines, and Starbucks—have a big advantage when attracting high performing employees. 1 PREPARED BY:DIVYANG K. VYAS SPCAM(MBA)
A recent national study of the U.S. workforce found that: • Wages and fringe benefits are not the reason people like their jobs or stay with an employer. • More important to workers is the job quality and the supportiveness of the work environments. Managers’ good interpersonal skills are likely to make the workplace more pleasant, which in turn makes it easier to hire and retain high performing employees. Definitions: Manager: Someone who gets things done through other people. They make decisions, allocate resources, and direct the activities of others to attain goals. Organization: A consciously coordinated social unit, composed of two or more people, that functions on a relatively continuous basis to achieve a common goal or set of goals. Management Functions French industrialist Henri Fayol wrote that all managers perform five management functions: plan, organize, command, coordinate, and control. Modern management scholars have condensed to four: planning, organizing, leading, and controlling. 1. Planning requires a manager to: • Define goals (organizational, departmental, worker levels) • Establish an overall strategy for achieving those goals • Develop a comprehensive hierarchy of plans to integrate and coordinate activities. 2. Organizing requires a manager to: • Determine what tasks are to be done • Who is to be assigned the tasks • How the tasks are to be grouped • Who reports to whom • Where decisions are to be made (centralized/decentralized) 3. Leading requires a manager to: • Motivate employees • Direct the activities of others • Select the most effective communication channels • Resolve conflicts among members 4. Controlling requires a manager to: • Monitor the organization’s performance • Compare actual performance with the previously set goals • Correct significant deviations.
PREPARED BY:DIVYANG K. VYAS SPCAM(MBA)
Management Roles In the late 1960s, Henry Mintzberg studied five executives to determine what managers did on their jobs. He concluded that managers perform ten different, highly interrelated roles or sets of behaviors attributable to their jobs. The ten roles can be grouped as being primarily concerned with interpersonal relationships, the transfer of information, and decision making. 1. Interpersonal roles • Figurehead—duties that are ceremonial and symbolic in nature • Leadership—hire, train, motivate, and discipline employees • Liaison—contact outsiders who provide the manager with information. These may be individuals or groups inside or outside the organization. 2. Informational roles • Monitor—collect information from organizations and institutions outside their own • Disseminator—a conduit to transmit information to organizational members • Spokesperson—represent the organization to outsiders 3. Decisional roles • Entrepreneur—managers initiate and oversee new projects that will improve their organization’s performance • Disturbance handlers—take corrective action in response to unforeseen problems • Resource allocators—responsible for allocating human, physical, and monetary resources • Negotiator role—discuss issues and bargain with other units to gain advantages for their own unit Management Skills Robert Katz has identified three essential management skills: technical, human, and conceptual. 1. Technical skills: The ability to apply specialized knowledge or expertise. All jobs require some specialized expertise, and many people develop their technical skills on the job. 2. Human skills: The ability to work with, understand, and motivate other people, both individually and in groups, describes human skills. Many people are technically proficient but interpersonally incompetent. 3. Conceptual skills: The mental ability to analyze and diagnose complex situations. Decision making, for example, requires managers to spot problems, identify alternatives that can correct them, evaluate those alternatives, and select the best one.
Effective managers—defined as quality and quantity of performance. Luthans and his associates studied more than 450 managers. and structure have on behavior within organizations for the purpose of applying such knowledge toward improving an organization’s effectiveness. and activities approaches to management: managers need to develop their people skills if they are going to be effective and successful. and controlling. groups. OB studies three determinants of behavior in organizations: individuals. • Human resource management activities made the least relative contribution. The average manager spent 19 percent of his or her time performing this activity. managing conflict. commitment to employees: • • Successful managers do not give the same emphasis to each of those activities as do effective managers—it almost the opposite of effective managers. OB applies the knowledge gained about Communication made the largest relative contribution. and structure. A Review of the Manager’s Job One common thread runs through the functions. • Communication—Exchanging routine information and processing paperwork. politicking. This finding challenges the historical assumption that promotions are based on performance. staffing. • Networking—Socializing. 4 . and training. The average manager spent 20 percent of his or her time performing this activity. groups.Effective vs. roles. • Traditional management—Decision making. The average manager spent 32 percent of his or her time performing this activity. Organizational behavior is a field of study. disciplining. The average manager spent 29 percent of his or her time performing this activity. skills. Successful Managerial Activities Fred Luthans and his associates asked: Do managers who move up most quickly in an organization do the same activities and with the same emphasis as managers who do the best job? Surprisingly. Networking made the least relative contribution. as well as. and interacting with outsiders. Definition: ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR: OB is a field of study that investigates the impact that individuals. those managers who were the most effective were not necessarily promoted the fastest. • Human resource management—Motivating. planning. vividly illustrating the importance that social and political skills play in getting ahead in organizations. They found that all managers engage in four managerial activities. Successful managers—defined as those who were promoted the fastest: • Networking made the largest relative contribution to success.
individuals. explain. and sometimes change the behavior of humans and other animals.” We want to move away from intuition to analysis when predicting behavior. Behavior generally is predictable if we know how the person perceived the situation and what is important to him or her. boredom. it can be argued that it is possible to predict behavior. leader behavior and power. and the effect of structure on behavior in order to make organizations work more effectively. Psychology Psychology is the science that seeks to measure. There are certain fundamental consistencies underlying the behavior of all individuals that can be identified and then modified to reflect individual differences. When we use the phrase systematic study. sociology. The predominant areas are psychology. group structure and processes. attitude measurement. work design. decision making processes. social psychology. CONTRIBUTING DISCIPLINES TO THE OB FIELD Introduction Organizational behavior is an applied behavioral science that is built upon contributions from a number of behavioral disciplines. and job stress. and other factors relevant to working conditions that could impede efficient work performance. emotions. and work stress. conflict. employee selection techniques. performance appraisals. • Therefore. OB is concerned with the study of what people do in an organization and how that behavior affects the performance of the organization. While people’s behavior may not appear to be rational to an outsider. The systematic approach used in this book will uncover important facts and relationships and will provide a base from which more accurate predictions of behavior can be made. attitude development and perception. Early industrial/organizational psychologists concerned themselves with problems of fatigue. needs and motivational forces. their contributions have been expanded to include learning. and political science. there is reason to believe it usually is intended to be rational by the individual and that they see their behavior as rational. work design. training. but there is still considerable debate as to the relative importance of each: motivation. we mean looking at gathered information under controlled conditions and measured and interpreted in a reasonably rigorous manner. personality. There is increasing agreement as to the components of OB. 5 . groups. REPLACING INTUITION WITH SYSTEMATIC STUDY Introduction Each of us is a student of behavior: A casual or commonsense approach to reading others can often lead to erroneous predictions. or those “gut feelings” about “why I do what I do” and “what makes others tick. change processes. • These fundamental consistencies allow predictability. leadership effectiveness. perception. learning. anthropology. job satisfaction. You can improve your predictive ability by replacing your intuitive opinions with a more systematic approach. More recently. Systematic study replaces intuition. • There are rules (written and unwritten) in almost every setting. interpersonal communication.
if any. Their greatest contribution to OB is through their study of group behavior in organizations. THERE ARE FEW ABSOLUTES IN OB Introduction There are few. It focuses on the influence of people on one another. Because they are not alike.Sociology Sociologists study the social system in which individuals fill their roles. CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR OB There are many challenges and opportunities today for managers to use OB concepts. Human beings are complex. Anthropologists work on cultures and environments. That does not mean. however. • Second. It does mean. even in your own country. sociology studies people in relation to their fellow human beings. you are going to find yourself working with bosses. attitudes. that is. Responding to Globalization Organizations are no longer constrained by national borders. Political Science Frequently overlooked as a contributing discipline. conditions. accurate. they have helped us understand differences in fundamental values. you are increasingly likely to find yourself in a foreign assignment. Political science studies the behavior of individuals and groups within a political environment. Contingency variables—situational factors are variables that moderate the relationship between the independent and dependent variables. if you are a manager. Major area—how to implement it and how to reduce barriers to its acceptance Anthropology Anthropology is the study of societies to learn about human beings and their activities. Social Psychology Social psychology blends the concepts of psychology and sociology. peers. simple and universal principles that explain organizational behavior. particularly formal and complex organizations. and other employees who were born and raised in different cultures. or contingency. that we cannot offer reasonably accurate explanations of human behavior or make valid predictions. Organizational behavior theories mirror the subject matter with which they deal. Using general concepts and then altering their application to the particular situation developed the science of OB. 6 . of course. • First. and sweeping generalizations is limited. for instance. our ability to make simple. Globalization affects a manager’s people skills in at least two ways. and behavior among people in different countries and within different organizations. that OB concepts must reflect situational.
often old systems are eliminated entirely and replaced with new systems To improve productivity and quality.S. Japan.S. Workforce diversity has important implications for management practice. Employee attitudes and behavior are directly related to customer satisfaction requiring management to create a customer responsive culture. Australia. The melting pot assumption is replaced by one that recognizes and values differences. Wages and benefits are not enough to keep talented workers.S. Rather than make incremental changes. While globalization focuses on differences between people from different countries. labor force are women • Minorities and immigrants make up 23 percent • More workers than ever are unmarried with no children. Managers must understand human behavior and respond accordingly. Implementing quality programs requires extensive employee involvement Process reengineering asks the question: “How would we do things around here if we were starting over from scratch?” Every process is evaluated in terms of contribution to goals. 7 . It is an issue in Canada. Employees do not set aside their cultural values and lifestyle preferences when they come to work. Workforce diversity means that organizations are becoming more heterogeneous in terms of gender. managers must include employees. ignored by large organizations (pe‐1980s). For example. will have a labor shortage for the next 10‐15 years (particularly in skilled positions). the U. Members of diverse groups were a small percentage of the workforce and were. and ethnicity. for the most part. workers are employed in service industries. workforce diversity addresses differences among people within given countries.Managing Workforce Diversity Workforce diversity is one of the most important and broad‐based challenges currently facing organizations. race. Improving Customer Service and People Skills The majority of employees in developed countries work in service jobs—jobs that require substantive interaction with the firm’s customers. Responding to the Labor Shortage If trends continue as expected. now: • 47 percent of the U. South Africa. 80 percent of U. • Shift to recognizing differences and responding to those differences • Providing diversity training and revamping benefit programs to accommodate the different needs of employees Improving Quality and Productivity Total quality management (TQM) is a philosophy of management that is driven by the constant attainment of customer satisfaction through the continuous improvement of all organizational processes. A melting‐pot approach assumed people who were different would automatically assimilate. OB provides the concepts and theories that allow managers to predict employee behavior in given situations. The labor shortage is a function of low birth rates and labor participation rates (immigration does little to solve the problem). People skills are essential to managerial effectiveness. and Europe as well as the United States.
or facilitators. continually improve quality. There is a blurring between the roles of managers and workers. They reorganize their various divisions. and in many organizations. teams that include members from different departments and whose members change all the time. and replace permanent employees with temporaries. Communication technology has provided a vehicle for working at any time or any place. The concept of continuous improvement. Work groups are also increasingly in a state of flux. Coping with “Temporariness” Managers have always been concerned with change: What is different today is the length of time between changes. • Employees have to learn how to take responsibility for their work and make appropriate decisions. children.Empowering People Today managers are being called coaches. advisers. decision making is being pushed down to the operating level. 8 . Companies that maintain flexibility. managing could be characterized by long periods of stability. The lifestyles of families have changes creating conflict: more dual career couples and single parents find it hard to fulfill commitments to home. interrupted occasionally by short periods of change. Predictability has been replaced by temporary work groups. so workers need to continually update their knowledge and skills to perform new job requirements. Managers are empowering employees. In the past. subcontract non‐critical services and operations to other organizations. and beat their competition to the marketplace with innovative products and services will be tomorrow’s winners. Employees are critical to an organization’s ability to change and innovate. Helping Employees Balance Work‐Life Conflicts The creation of the global workforce means work no longer sleeps. • They are putting employees in charge of what they do. long periods of ongoing change are interrupted occasionally by short periods of stability! Permanent “temporariness”: Both managers and employees must learn to live with flexibility. • Managers have to learn how to give up control. The jobs that workers perform are in a permanent state of flux. where workers are being given the freedom to make choices about schedules and procedures and to solve work‐related problems. spontaneity. Organizations themselves are in a state of flux. implies constant change. sponsors. sell off poor‐performing businesses. and the increased use of employee rotation to fill constantly changing work assignments. employees are now called associates. Employees are working longer hours per week—from 43 to 47 hours per week since 1977. downsize operations. Change is an ongoing activity for most managers. for instance. Stimulating Innovation and Change Successful organizations must foster innovation and the art of change. Workers are on‐call 24‐ hours a day or working non‐traditional shifts. and unpredictability. Today.
expectations of increasing worker productivity. each level is constructed upon the previous level. Organizations are responding to this issue by: • Writing and distributing codes of ethics • Providing in‐house advisors • Creating protection mechanisms for employees who reveal internal unethical practices 5. Members of organizations are increasingly finding themselves facing ethical dilemmas in which they are required to define right and wrong conduct. many employees feel pressured to engage in questionable practices. etc. a simplified representation of some real‐world phenomenon. and friends. COMING ATTRACTIONS: DEVELOPING AN OB MODEL A model is an abstraction of reality. There are three levels of analysis in OB: • Individual • Group • Organizational Systems Level The three basic levels are analogous to building blocks. Employees want jobs that allow flexibility and provide time for a “life. 9 . In an organizational world characterized by cutbacks.” Improving Ethical Behavior 1. and tough competition. Group concepts grow out of the foundation laid in the individual section. we overlay structural constraints on the individual and group in order to arrive at organizational behavior. 4. Managers need to create an ethically healthy environment for employees where they confront a minimal degree of ambiguity regarding right or wrong behaviors. 3.spouse. 2. parents. Examples of decisions employees might have to make are: • “Blowing the whistle” on illegal activities • Following orders with which they do not personally agree • Possibly giving inflated performance evaluations that could save an employee’s job • Playing politics to help with career advancement.
The workflow is disrupted and often important decisions must be delayed. but that nevertheless promotes the effective functioning of the organization.S. All organizations have some turnover and the “right” people leaving—under‐performing employees—thereby creating opportunity for promotions. Primary dependent variables in OB: • Productivity • Absenteeism • Turnover • Job satisfaction • A fifth variable—organizational citizenship—has been added to this list. organizations. Estimated annual cost—over $40 billion for U. Example: When sales or market share goals are met. costs estimated at about $15. and output per hour of labor. Popular measures of efficiency include: ROI. and adding new/fresh ideas.The Dependent Variables Dependent variables are the key factors that you want to explain or predict and that are affected by some other factor. fatigue. or excess stress can decrease an employee’s productivity—it may well be better to not report to work rather than perform poorly. A one‐day absence by a clerical worker can cost a U. Desired citizenship behaviors include: • Constructive statements about work group and organization • Helping others on their team • Volunteering for extra job activities • Avoiding unnecessary conflicts • Showing care for organizational property 10 . An organization is efficient when it can do so at a low cost. more than 60 billion Deutsch Marks (U. A high turnover rate results in increased recruiting.S.5 billion) each year in Germany. $12 billion for Canadian firms. For instance. selection. Productivity is a major concern of OB: What factors influence the effectiveness and efficiency of individuals. Turnover: Turnover is the voluntary and involuntary permanent withdrawal from an organization. This must be done both effectively and efficiency.000 per employee. $35. employer up to $100 in reduced efficiency and increased supervisory workload. and training costs. An organization is effective when it successfully meets the needs of its clientele or customers. Organizational citizenship: Organizational citizenship is discretionary behavior that is not part of an employee’s formal job requirements.Turnover often involves the loss of people the organization does not want to lose. productivity also depends on achieving those goals efficiently. All absences are not bad. and replacing marginal employees with higher skilled workers. profit per dollar of sales. Productivity: It is achieving goals by transferring inputs to outputs at the lowest cost. groups and the company? Absenteeism: Absenteeism is the failure to report to work.S. illness.
Degree of attractiveness to each other c. Job satisfaction: Job satisfaction is “the difference between the amount of rewards workers receive and the amount they believe they should receive. organizations have a responsibility to provide employees with jobs that are challenging and intrinsically rewarding. of our model lies in understanding individual behavior. There are four other individual‐level variables that have been shown to affect employee behavior: • Perception • Individual decision making • Learning • Motivation The middle level of our model lies in understanding behavior of groups. 1. values and attitudes. The more obvious of these are personal or biographical characteristics such as age. People in groups are influenced by: a. Leadership and power e. There is little management can do to alter them. The Independent Variables: Organizational behavior is best understood when viewed essentially as a set of increasingly complex building blocks: individual. and basic ability levels.” Unlike the previous three variables. Ethically. The base.• • Respecting rules and regulations Tolerating occasional work‐related impositions. but also with the quality of life. People behave differently in groups than they do when alone. group. It became a primary dependent variable for two reasons: • Demonstrated relationship to performance factors • The value preferences held by many OB researchers Managers have believed for years that satisfied employees are more productive. gender. and marital status. and organizational system. Levels of conflict 11 . personality characteristics. Communication patterns d. however: Much evidence questions that assumed causal relationship. It can be argued that advanced societies should be concerned not just with the quantity of life. job satisfaction represents an attitude rather than a behavior. Acceptable standards of behavior by the group b. yet they have a very real impact on employee behavior. Group‐level variables: The behavior of people in groups is more than the sum total of all the individuals acting in their own way. an inherent emotional framework. Individual‐level variables: People enter organizations with certain characteristics that will influence their behavior at work. or first level.
work processes. and jobs. and structure on an organization.The top level of our model lies in understanding organizations system level variables.The design of the formal organization. groups. VYAS 12 SPCAM(MBA) . PREPARED BY:DIVYANG K. We will introduce important contingency variables that will improve the explanatory linkage between the independent and dependent variables in our OB model. reducing absenteeism and turnover. OB focuses on improving productivity. and organizational issues. group. SUMMARY AND IMPLICATIONS FOR MANAGERS: Managers need to develop their interpersonal skills. OB is a field that investigates the impact of individuals. The concepts of change and stress are acknowledging the dynamics of behavior and the fact that work stress is an individual. all have an impact. Organizational behavior reaches its highest level of sophistication when we add formal structure. Toward a Contingency OB Model: The model does not explicitly identify the vast number of contingency variables because of the tremendous complexity that would be involved in such a diagram. and the internal culture. and increasing employee citizenship and job satisfaction. the organization’s human resource policies and practices.
Distinguish between the four schedules of reinforcement. A job analysis will provide information about jobs currently being done and the abilities that individuals need to perform the jobs adequately. less turnover. 3. Third. Applicants can then be tested. and learning. is ascertain if learning concepts provide us with any insights that would allow us to explain and predict behavior. better adapts it to the specific talents of a given employee. Identify two types of ability. they include data that are contained in an employee’s personnel file. Shape the behavior of others. older workers and those with longer tenure are less likely to resign. The most important conclusions are that age seems to have no relationship to productivity. promotion and transfer decisions affecting individuals already in the organization’s employ should reflect the abilities of candidates. 2. students should be able to: 1. Generally. Clarify the role of punishment in learning. With new employees. and evaluated on the degree to which they possess the necessary abilities. 4. Examples would be to change some of the equipment used or to reorganize tasks within a group of employees. what can be done? First. Any observable change in behavior is prima facie evidence that learning has taken place. But what value can this information have for managers? The obvious answer is that it can help in making choices among job applicants. and married employees have fewer absences. Practice self‐management. 7. 5.Chapter 2 FOUNDATIONS OF INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOUR Learning Objectives After studying this chapter. Biographical characteristics are readily available to managers. Define the key biographical characteristics. and report higher job satisfaction than do unmarried employees. interviewed. Given management’s desire to get a compatible fit. Ability directly influences an employee’s level of performance and satisfaction through the ability‐job fit. Often modifications can be made in the job that. the fit can be improved by fine‐tuning the job to better match an incumbent’s abilities. Positive reinforcement is a powerful tool for 13 . while not having a significant impact on the job’s basic activities. Training can keep the abilities of incumbents current or provide new skills as times and conditions change. an effective selection process will improve the fit. Exhibit effective discipline skills. A final alternative is to provide training for employees. Chapter Overview This chapter looks at three individual variables—biographical characteristics. of course. This is applicable to both new workers and present job incumbents. ability. What we want to do. Second. 6. care should be taken to assess critical abilities that incumbents will need in the job and to match those requirements with the organization’s human resources.
Punishment may produce unpleasant side effects such as lower morale and higher absenteeism or turnover. the workforce is aging. A. 3. and satisfaction is often complicated. • Second. • Older workers are also perceived as lacking flexibility and as being resistant to new technology.modifying behavior. U. Managers who are constantly late to work. therefore. workers over 55 are the fastest growing sector of the workforce. Other factors are more easily definable and readily available—data that can be obtained from an employee’s personnel file and would include characteristics such as: • Age • Gender • Marital status • Length of service. 2. Employers’ perceptions are mixed. • Third. Finding and analyzing the variables that have an impact on employee productivity. and commitment to quality. By identifying and rewarding performance‐enhancing behaviors. 2.S. In addition. It is tempting to assume that age is also inversely related to absenteeism. turnover. 3. CHAPTER OUTLINE BIOGRAPHICAL CHARACTERISTICS 1. managers should expect that employees will look to them as models. punished behavior tends to be only temporarily suppressed rather than permanently changed. Age 1. Although punishment eliminates undesired behavior more quickly than negative reinforcement does. Many of the concepts—motivation. • They see a number of positive qualities that older workers bring to their jobs. the recipients of punishment tend to become resentful of the punisher. politics or organizational culture—are hard to assess. or power. specifically experience. That conclusion is based on studies of the age‐turnover relationship. there is a widespread belief that job performance declines with increasing age. 14 . The relationship between age and job performance is increasing in importance. Our knowledge about learning further suggests that reinforcement is a more effective tool than punishment. management increases the likelihood that they will be repeated. the less likely you are to quit your job. • Some believe that the older you get. or help themselves to company office supplies for personal use should expect employees to read the message they are sending and model their behavior accordingly. • First. Managers. Finally. are advised to use reinforcement rather than punishment. or take two hours for lunch. etc. a strong work ethic. judgment. absence. legislation largely outlaws mandatory retirement.
The relationship between age and job satisfaction is mixed. satisfaction tends to continually increase among professionals as they age. 4. including the areas of: • Problem‐solving • Analytical skills • Competitive drive • Motivation • Sociability • Learning ability 2. The logical explanation: cultural expectation that has historically placed home and family responsibilities on the woman. • Reviews of the research find that age and job performance are unrelated. Absence and turnover rates • Women’s quit rates are similar to men’s. There is a difference between men and women in terms of preference for work schedules. Marital Status 1. important differences between men and women that will affect their job performance. however. Other studies. and men are more aggressive and more likely than women to have expectations of success. but close examination finds that the age‐ absence relationship is partially a function of whether the absence is avoidable or unavoidable. professional and nonprofessional. There is no evidence indicating that an employee’s gender affects job satisfaction. There are not enough studies to draw any conclusions about the effect of marital status on job productivity. 5. they have higher rates of unavoidable absence. • Most studies indicate a positive association between age and satisfaction. and telecommuting in order to accommodate their family responsibilities. However. C. older employees have lower rates of avoidable absence. 3. There is a widespread belief that productivity declines with age and that individual skills decay over time.Most studies do show an inverse relationship. if any. • This seems to be true for almost all types of jobs. • The research on absence consistently indicates that women have higher rates of absenteeism. probably due to their poorer health associated with aging and longer recovery periods when injured. When professional and nonprofessional employees are separated. whereas it falls among nonprofessionals during middle age and then rises again in the later years. but those differences are minor. Gender 1. at least up to age 60. • Mothers of preschool children are more likely to prefer part‐time work. 4. have found a U‐shaped relationship. There are few. Women are more willing to conform to authority. • In general. flexible work schedules. • 15 . B. 5.
We were not all created equal. 4. • There is a negative relationship between tenure to absence. 2. Ability refers to an individual’s capacity to perform the various tasks in a job. spatial visualization. • Tenure has consistently been found to be negatively related to turnover and has been suggested as one of the single best predictors of turnover. A careful review of the evidence demonstrates that tests that assess verbal. 3. 5. inductive reasoning. 16 . numerical. It is a current assessment of what one can do. The major dilemma faced by employers who use mental ability tests is that they may have a negative impact on racial and ethnic groups. and LSAT. D.2. most of us are to the left of the median on some normally distributed ability curve. 2. and perceptual abilities are valid predictors of job proficiency at all levels of jobs. and cultural. Examples of such tests are popular college admission tests such as the SAT. spatial. domestic partnering. perceptual speed. such as divorce. Research consistently indicates that married employees have fewer absences. 4. IQ tests are designed to ascertain one’s general intellectual abilities. 3. For example. New research in this area focuses on “multiple intelligences. The issue of the impact of job seniority on job performance has been subject to misconceptions and speculations. deductive reasoning. GMAT. the more information‐processing demands that exist in a job. The seven most frequently cited dimensions making up intellectual abilities are: number aptitude. (See Exhibit 2‐1). and memory. Individual overall abilities are made up of two sets of factors: intellectual and physical. • The evidence indicates that tenure and satisfaction are positively related. • Tenure is also a potent variable in explaining turnover. More research needs to be done on the other statuses besides single or married. social. 2. Extensive reviews of the seniority‐productivity relationship have been conducted: • There is a positive relationship between tenure and job productivity. and are more satisfied with their jobs than are their unmarried coworkers. ABILITY 1. undergo less turnover. the issue is knowing how people differ in abilities and using that knowledge to increase performance. Everyone has strengths and weaknesses in terms of ability in performing certain tasks or activities. Jobs differ in the demands they place on incumbents to use their intellectual abilities. the more general intelligence and verbal abilities will be necessary to perform the job successfully. 3.. verbal comprehension. 7.” which breaks down intelligence into its four sub‐parts: cognitive. Tenure 1. emotional. etc. Intellectual Abilities 1. 6. Intellectual abilities are those needed to perform mental activities.
Finally. The Ability‐Job Fit 1. 17 . 3. Theories of Learning There are three theories—classical conditioning. Employee performance is enhanced when there is a high ability‐job fit. (See Exhibit 2‐2). 3. Research has identified nine basic abilities involved in the performance of physical tasks. 2. 3. our definition is concerned with behavior. pilots need strong spatial‐visualization abilities. the change must be relatively permanent. Individuals differ in the extent to which they have each of these abilities. or only the ability requirements of the job. A. The definition suggests that we shall never see someone “learning. What is learning? A generally accepted definition is “any relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience. Physical Abilities 1.” We can see changes taking place but not the learning itself. LEARNING • All complex behavior is learned. but there will be organizational inefficiencies and possible declines in employee satisfaction. ignores the fact that employee performance depends on the interaction of the two. some form of experience is necessary for learning. When the fit is poor employees are likely to fail.” 2. • If we want to explain and predict behavior. 4. Definition of Learning 1. learning involves change. When the ability‐job fit is out of sync because the employee has abilities that far exceed the requirements of the job. performance is likely to be adequate. The definition has several components that deserve clarification: • First. and social . Directing attention at only the employee’s abilities. operant conditioning. H. • Second. 4. 5. A. For example. Abilities significantly above those required can also reduce the employee’s job satisfaction when the employee’s desire to use his or her abilities is particularly strong and is frustrated by the limitations of the job. 2. Specific physical abilities gain importance in doing less skilled and more standardized jobs. we need to understand how people learn. High employee performance is likely to be achieved when management matches the extent to which a job requires each of the nine abilities and the employees’ abilities. The specific intellectual or physical abilities required depend on the ability requirements of the job. • Third.
hence. 3. Skinner’s research on operant conditioning expanded our knowledge. People learn to behave to get something they want or to avoid something they do not want. • Rewards are most effective if they immediately follow the desired response. Tenets of Operant Conditioning are: • Behavior is learned. • The bell was an artificial stimulus. 4. 18 . • The conditioned response. 2. Operant Conditioning 1. Operant conditioning argues that behavior is a function of its consequences. The tendency to repeat such behavior is influenced by reinforcement or lack of reinforcement. Key concepts in classical conditioning [Pavlov’s experiment] • The meat was an unconditioned stimulus. or what we call the conditioned stimulus. to teach dogs to salivate in response to the ringing of a bell.F. Learning a conditioned response involves building up an association between a conditioned stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus. Ivan Pavlov. one compelling and the other one neutral. the neutral one becomes a conditioned stimulus and. are paired. Classical conditioning grew out of experiments conducted at the turn of the century by a Russian physiologist. Four processes determine the influence that a model will have on an individual. 3. Harvard psychologist B. Learning by observing is an extension of operant conditioning. 4. 4. • People are likely to engage in desired behaviors if they are positively reinforced for doing so. identifiable event. by being told about something. People learn from a model only when they recognize and pay attention to its critical features. The influence of models is central to social learning. Individuals can also learn by observing what happens to other people. and we react in a specific way. 2. Classical conditioning is passive—something happens. This describes the behavior of the dog. 3. • Attentional processes. 2. When the stimuli. it salivated in reaction to the bell alone. takes on the properties of the unconditioned stimulus. 5. it invariably caused the dog to react in a specific way. it also acknowledges the existence of observational learning and the importance of perception in learning. Social Learning 1. It is elicited in response to a specific.Classical Conditioning 1. • Any situation in which it is either explicitly stated or implicitly suggested that reinforcements are contingent on some action on your part involves the use of operant learning. as well as by direct experiences.
whether it is positive or negative. but reinforcement is given often enough to make the behavior worth repeating. • The intermittent payoffs occur just often enough to reinforce behavior. When the behavior is not reinforced. • Some types of rewards are more effective for use in organizations than others. • It can be compared to the workings of a slot machine. Methods of Shaping Behavior. or varied. When we attempt to mold individuals by guiding their learning in graduated steps. weaken behavior and tend to decrease its subsequent frequency. An intermittent reinforcement can be of a ratio or interval type. Individuals will be motivated to exhibit the modeled behavior if positive incentives or rewards are provided. A model’s influence will depend on how well the individual remembers the model’s action after the model is no longer readily available. the watching must be converted to doing. After a person has seen a new behavior by observing the model. Shaping: A Managerial Tool 1. however. It is done by systematically reinforcing each successive step that moves the individual closer to the desired response. 3. 2. Schedules of Reinforcement 1. it tends to gradually be extinguished. 19 . A continuous reinforcement schedule reinforces the desired behavior each and every time it is demonstrated. Reinforcement processes. They strengthen a response and increase the probability of repetition. 5. not every instance of the desirable behavior is reinforced. Motor reproduction processes. 6. Reinforcement. • The speed with which learning takes place and the permanence of its effects will be determined by the timing of reinforcement. • Positive reinforcement—following a response with something pleasant • Negative reinforcement—following a response by the termination or withdrawal of something unpleasant • Punishment is causing an unpleasant condition in an attempt to eliminate an undesirable behavior • Extinction—eliminating any reinforcement that is maintaining a behavior. 2. we are shaping behavior. The two major types of reinforcement schedules are: 1) continuous and 2) intermittent. D. has an impressive record as a shaping tool. Evidence indicates that the intermittent. Both punishment and extinction. 4. 4. This point is extremely important and deserves considerable elaboration. 3. C. A review of research findings: • Some type of reinforcement is necessary to produce a change in behavior. form of reinforcement tends to promote more resistance to extinction than does the continuous form. Both positive and negative reinforcement result in learning. 5.• • • Retention processes. In an intermittent schedule.
Fixed‐interval reinforcement schedule—rewards are spaced at uniform time intervals. • Packers intuitively felt that 90 percent of shipments were containerized. In a fixed‐ratio schedule. variable schedules tend to lead to higher performance than fixed schedules. Continuous reinforcement schedules can lead to early satiation. as shown in Exhibit 2‐4. he or she is said to be reinforced on a variable‐ratio schedule. 2. • Salespeople on commission E. • They are appropriate for stable or high‐frequency responses. Intermittent reinforcers preclude early satiation because they do not follow every response. 5. Reinforcement Schedules and Behavior 1. 2. 4. • Pop quizzes • A series of randomly timed unannounced visits to a company office by the corporate audit staff 6.• Ratio schedules depend upon how many responses the subject makes. • A piece‐rate incentive plan is a fixed‐ratio schedule. 20 . An analysis showed that it was only 45 percent. 3. 3. 7. When the reward varies relative to the behavior of the individual. the individual is reinforced after giving a certain number of specific types of behavior. In general. Intermittent techniques be placed into four categories. the critical variable is time. Interval schedules depend upon how much time has passed since the last reinforcement. The employee tends to be more alert since there is a surprise factor. Variable‐interval reinforcements—rewards are distributed in time so that reinforcements are unpredictable. Under this schedule. 1. Variable‐interval schedules generate high rates of response and more stable and consistent behavior because of a high correlation between performance and reward. F. A reinforcement can also be classified as fixed or variable. and it is held constant. • Continuous reinforcers are appropriate for newly emitted. the individual is reinforced on the first appropriate behavior after a particular time has elapsed. or low‐frequency responses. a reward is initiated. 4. Some examples: • This is the predominant schedule for most salaried workers in North America—the paycheck. A classic was study conducted at Emery Air Freight (now part of Federal Express): • Emery’s management wanted packers to use freight containers for shipments whenever possible. behavior tends to weaken rapidly when reinforcers are withheld. after a fixed or constant number of responses are given. unstable. Behavior Modification 1.
Evaluating performance improvement is important to demonstrate that a change took place as a result of the intervention strategy. and improve friendliness toward customers. • Only employees who have not missed a day of work during the previous six months are eligible. sick pay • Organizations with paid sick leave programs experience almost twice the absenteeism of organizations without such programs. Well pay vs. Developing and implementing an intervention strategy will entail changing some elements of the performance‐reward linkage‐structure. • 21 . • This lottery follows a variable‐ratio schedule. both containerized and noncontainerized. Identifying behavioral consequences tells the manager the antecedent cues that emit the behavior and the consequences that are currently maintaining it. Continental holds a raffle and gives away eight new sport utility vehicles. processes. absenteeism. 5. 4. 9. • Management credits the lottery with significantly reducing the company’s absence rate. • Container utilization jumped to more than 90 percent on the first day of the program and held. or the task—with the goal of making high‐level performance more rewarding.2. 7. • At the end of each day. Specific Organizational Applications Using lotteries to reduce absenteeism • In the opening case study Continental Airlines has created a lottery that rewards its 40. 8. 3. G. 1. accident rates. The typical OB Mod program follows a five‐step problem‐solving model: • Identifying critical behaviors • Developing baseline data • Identifying behavior consequences • Developing and implementing an intervention strategy • Evaluating performance improvement Critical behaviors make a significant impact on the employee’s job performance. groups.000 employees for attendance. OB Mod has been used by a number of organizations to improve employee productivity and to reduce errors. the packer computed his or her container utilization rate. tardiness. technology. 2. • This simple program of feedback and positive reinforcements saved the company $2 million over a three‐year period. Developing baseline data determines the number of times the identified behavior is occurring under present conditions. This program at Emery Air Freight illustrates OB Modification. Management established a program of feedback and positive reinforcements by asking each packer to keep a checklist of his or her daily packings. 6. • Twice a year. these are those 5–10 percent of behaviors that may account for up to 70 or 80 percent of each employee’s performance.
6. it tends to be popular because of its ability to produce fast results in the short run. then doubling the amount. reduced absenteeism. • The use of discipline carries costs. • In one recent year.3 million workers. written warnings. • The basic processes involve observing one’s own behavior. 5. at some time. 4. b. • Provide motivational properties. Forbes cut its major medical and dental claims by over 30 percent. It may provide only a short‐term solution and result in serious side effects.• • One Midwest organization implemented a well‐pay program. and temporary suspensions. Self‐management • Organizational applications of learning concepts can also be used to allow individuals to manage their own behavior. • If the training has taken place off the job. and rewarding oneself if the behavior meets the standard. • Disciplining employees for undesirable behaviors tells them only what not to do. and improved employee satisfaction. and responses to achieve personal behavioral outcomes.S. comparing the behavior with a standard. corporations with 100 or more employees spent in excess of $58 billion on formal training for 47. It paid a bonus to employees who had no absence for any given four‐week period and then paid for sick leave only after the first eight hours of absence a. Forbes magazine used the same approach to cut its health care costs. • Managers will respond with disciplinary actions such as oral reprimands. have to deal with problem behaviors. • Help the trainee to file away what he or she has learned for later use and provide opportunities to practice new behaviors. internal processes. • Self‐management requires an individual to deliberately manipulate stimuli. 22 . 3. Employee discipline • Every manager will. The well‐pay program produced increased savings to the organization. Social‐learning theory suggests that training should: • Offer a model to grab the trainee’s attention. U. It does not tell them what alternative behaviors are preferred. increased productivity. • Offer positive rewards for accomplishments. Developing training programs • Most organizations have some type of systematic training program. allow the trainee some opportunity to transfer what he/she learned to the job. • In practice. It rewarded employees who stayed healthy and did not file medical claims by paying them the difference between $500 and their medical claims. • Discipline does have a place in organizations.
Managers are more likely to appreciate. List the dominant values in today’s workforce 3. Satisfied and committed employees. evaluate positively. If employees are required to engage in activities that appear inconsistent to them or are at odds with their attitudes. This argues for management to strive during the selection of new employees to find job candidates who not only have the ability. Given that managers want to keep resignations and absences down—especially among their more productive employees—they will want to do those things that will generate positive job attitudes. but also a value system that is compatible with the organization’s. experience. More importantly. Contrast the three components of an attitude 5. Given that people’s values differ. Contrast terminal and instrumental values 2. An employee’s performance and satisfaction are likely to be higher if his/her values fit well with the organization. have lower rates of turnover and absenteeism. and freedom is likely to be poorly matched with an organization that seeks conformity from its employees. Managers should also be aware that employees will try to reduce cognitive dissonance. For instance. dissonance can be managed. Knowledge of an individual’s value system can provide insight into his/her attitudes. the pressures to reduce the resulting dissonance are lessened when the employee perceives that the dissonance is externally imposed and is beyond his/her control or if the rewards are significant enough to offset the dissonance. Identify four employee responses to dissatisfaction Chapter Overview Why is it important to know an individual’s values? Although they do not have a direct impact on behavior. Identify the five value dimensions of national culture 4. values strongly influence a person’s attitudes. ATTITUDES AND JOB SATISFACTION Learning Objectives After studying this chapter. Summarize the relationship between attitudes and behavior 6. 23 . Identify the role that consistency plays in attitudes 7. Chapter 3 VALUES. State the relationship between job satisfaction and behavior 8.” and employees are more likely to be satisfied if they perceive that they do fit. students should be able to: 1. and allocate rewards to employees who “fit in. the person who places high importance on imagination. Managers should be interested in their employees’ attitudes because attitudes give warnings of potential problems and because they influence behavior. for instance. and motivation to perform. independence. managers can use the Rokeach Value Survey to assess potential employees and determine if their values align with the dominant values of the organization.
or desirable.” 2. Several studies confirm that the RVS values vary among groups. • The intensity attribute specifies how important it is. 3. Values represent basic convictions that “a specific mode of conduct or end‐state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end‐state of existence. • The content attribute says that a mode of conduct or end‐state of existence is important. • People in the same occupations or categories tend to hold similar values. • One set—terminal values—refers to desirable end‐states of existence. • The process of questioning our values. Contemporary Work Cohorts 1. may result in a change. Types of Values 1. Individuals enter organizations with notions of what is right and wrong with which they interpret behaviors or outcomes—at times this can cloud objectivity and rationality. teachers. • A significant portion of the values we hold is established in our early years—from parents. friends. but more often. B. workforce can be segmented by the era they entered the workforce. our questioning acts to reinforce the values we hold. The unique value of different cohorts is that the U. 3. Veterans—Workers who entered the workforce from the early 1940s through the early 1960s • Influenced by the Great Depression and World War II • Believe in hard work • Tend to be loyal to their employer 24 . CHAPTER OUTLINE VALUES 1. Importance of Values 1. 2. and others. good. or means of achieving the terminal values. 2. They tend to be relatively stable and enduring. Rokeach Value Survey • It consists of two sets of values. with each set containing 18 individual value items. Values have both content and intensity attributes. There is a judgmental element of what is right. • The other—instrumental values—refers to preferable modes of behavior. Values lay the foundation for the understanding of attitudes and motivation because they influence our perceptions. of course. A. • Ranking an individual’s values in terms of their intensity equals that person’s value system. Values are not generally fluid and flexible.S. 4. the goals that a person would like to achieve during his/her lifetime. (Exhibit 3‐3) 2. Values generally influence attitudes and behavior.
A. happiness. the civil rights and feminist movements. Loyalty is to relationships. see nothing wrong with job‐hopping • Seek financial success • Enjoy team work. Individuals’ values differ. MTV. Did this really happen? 5. and computers • Value flexibility. Xers—began to enter the workforce from the mid‐1980s • Shaped by globalization. but have a high emphasis on achievement and material success • Organizations who employ them are vehicles for their careers • Terminal values: sense of accomplishment and social recognition 4. Boomers—Employees who entered the workforce during the 1960s through the mid‐1980s • Influenced heavily by John F. believe in themselves. their decisions were made in terms of what was best for the employer. AIDS. Through the mid‐1970s. but are highly self‐reliant • Terminal values: freedom and comfortable life 6.• Terminal values: Comfortable life and family security 3. Values. the Vietnam War. the managerial ranks were dominated by Veterans whose loyalty was to their employer. and achievement of job satisfaction • Family and relationships are important and enjoy team‐oriented work • Money is important. have high expectation. Nexters—most recent entrants into the workforce. therefore they may be more likely to consider the ethical implications of their actions on others around them. and Ethical Behavior 1. life options. 4. but tend to reflect the societal values of the period in which they grew up. Loyalty was to their careers. but will trade off for increased leisure time • Less willing to make personal sacrifices for employers than previous generations • Terminal values: true friendship. Recent entrants to the workforce—Xers—are now moving into middle management. are more likely to accept authority than coworkers 15 years younger. Kennedy. Boomers entered the workforce at this time and by the 1990’s had risen into the majority of management positions. Many people think there has been a decline in business ethics since the late 1970s. the Beatles. Self‐centered values would be consistent with a decline in ethical values. for instance. • Grew up in prosperous times. and confident in their ability to succeed • Never‐ending search for ideal job. 25 . Employees in their 60s. and pleasure 5. The four‐stage model of work cohort values might explain this perception. 3. Workers under 35 are more likely than the other groups to balk at having to work overtime or weekends. and baby‐boom competition • Distrust authority. Loyalty. Managers consistently report the action of bosses as the most important factor influencing ethical and unethical behavior in the organization. 7. (Exhibit 3‐2) 2. two‐career parents. and are more prone to leave a job in mid‐career to pursue another that provides more leisure time. This can be a valuable aid in explaining and predicting behavior.
Power distance: • The degree to which people in a country accept that power in institutions and organizations is distributed unequally. investing in the future and delaying gratification • Gender differentiation: The extent to which a society maximized gender role differences 26 . confrontational. f. 3. a. d. b. it is nearly 30 years old. Values Across Cultures 1. China and Hong Kong had a long‐term orientation. • Collectivism equals low individualism. GLOBE Framework for Assessing Cultures: • Assertiveness: The extent to which a society encourages people to be tough. the Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness (GLOBE) has begun updating this research with date from 825 organizations and 62 countries. Conclusions: • Asian countries were more collectivist than individualistic. assertive. and competition prevail. Uncertainty avoidance: • The degree to which people in a country prefer structured over unstructured situations. • Short‐term orientation values the past and present and emphasizes respect for tradition and fulfilling social obligations. e. Russia and The Netherlands were low. understanding these differences helps to explain and to predict behavior of employees from different countries. One of the most widely referenced approaches for analyzing variations among cultures has been done by Geert Hofstede. In 1993. Quantity of life versus quality of life: • Quantity of life is the degree to which values such as assertiveness. Values differ across cultures. therefore. German and Hong Kong ranked highest on quality of life. the acquisition of money and material goods. 2. c. France and US were low. Long‐term versus short‐term orientation: • Long‐term orientations look to the future and value thrift and persistence. five value dimensions of national culture (Exhibit 3‐4): a. Individualism versus collectivism: • Individualism is the degree to which people in a country prefer to act as individuals rather than as members of groups. Hofstede’s work is the basic framework for assessing cultures. and competitive versus modest and tender • Future Orientation: The extent to which a society encourages and rewards future‐ oriented behaviors such as planning. • Quality of life is the degree to which people value relationships and show sensitivity and concern for the welfare of others. US ranked highest on individualism. B. Hofstede’s A framework for assessing cultures. However.
The belief that “discrimination is wrong” is a value statement and an example of the cognitive component of an attitude. For example. Types of Attitudes 1. Conclusion: The GLOBE study had extended Hofstede’s work rather than replaced it. A. Americans have developed organizational behavior within domestic contexts—more than 80 percent of the articles published in journals were by Americans. C. Three components of an attitude: • Cognition • Affect • Behavior 4. and organizational commitment.S. and kind to others b. Most of the research in OB has been concerned with three attitudes: job satisfaction. the U. • You should take into consideration cultural values when trying to understand the behavior of people in different countries. caring. generous. it is in the mid‐ranks of countries. people. 27 . From a cultural perspective this means: • Not all OB theories and concepts are universally applicable. Attitudes are not the same as values. 3. Follow‐up studies continue to confirm the lack of cross‐cultural considerations in management and OB research. Implications for OB 1.• • • • • • Uncertainly avoidance: Society’s reliance on social norms and procedures to alleviate the unpredictability of future events Power distance: The degree to which members of a society expect power to be unequally shared Individualism/Collectivism: The degree to which individuals are encouraged by societal institutions to be integrated into groups within organizations and society In‐group collectivism: The extent to which society’s members take pride in membership in small groups such as their families and circles of close friends. OB focuses our attention on a very limited number of job‐related attitudes. but the two are interrelated. 2. altruistic. ATTITUDES 1. Attitudes are evaluative statements that are either favorable or unfavorable concerning objects. 2. in the 70s led the world in individualism—today. job involvement. It confirms Hofstede’s five dimensions are still valid and provides updated measures of where countries are on each dimension. and the organizations where they are employed Performance orientation: The degree to which society encourages and rewards group members for performance improvement and excellence Humane orientation: The degree to which a society encourages and rewards individuals for being fair. or events.
Leon Festinger. • Often when people speak of “employee attitudes” they mean “employee job satisfaction. forces are initiated to return the individual to an equilibrium state where attitudes and behavior are again consistent. When there is an inconsistency. • Employee attitudes and job satisfaction are frequently used interchangeably. • This evidence. Research has generally concluded that people seek consistency among their attitudes and between their attitudes and their behavior. and wishes to maintain membership in the organization. C. • In its place. 3. 4. Organizational commitment • Definition: A state in which an employee identifies with a particular organization and its goals. • An individual’s level of organizational commitment is a better indicator of turnover than the far more frequently used job satisfaction predictor because it is a more global and enduring response to the organization as a whole than is job satisfaction. we might expect “occupational commitment” to become a more relevant variable because it better reflects today’s fluid workforce. 2.” 3. or by developing a rationalization for the discrepancy. by altering either the attitudes or the behavior. Cognitive Dissonance Theory 1. most of which is more than two decades old. He argued that any form of inconsistency is uncomfortable and that individuals will attempt to reduce the dissonance. in the late 1950s. • A high level of job satisfaction equals positive attitudes toward the job and vice versa. People sometimes change what they say so it does not contradict what they do. B. • Job involvement more consistently predicts turnover than absenteeism. • Research evidence demonstrates negative relationships between organizational commitment and both absenteeism and turnover.” 28 . needs to be qualified to reflect the changing employee‐employer relationship. Attitudes and Consistency 1. 4.2. Job satisfaction • Definition: It is an individual’s general attitude toward his/her job. • Organizational commitment is probably less important as a job‐related attitude than it once was because the unwritten “loyalty” contract in place when this research was conducted is no longer in place. Individuals seek to reconcile divergent attitudes and align their attitudes and behavior so they appear rational and consistent. seeking to explain the linkage between attitudes and behavior. • High levels of job involvement is thought to result in fewer absences and lower resignation rates. proposed the theory of cognitive dissonance. 2. Job involvement • A workable definition: the measure of the degree to which a person identifies psychologically with his/her job and considers his/her perceived performance level important to self‐worth. Dissonance means “an inconsistency.
9. Direct experience: The attitude‐behavior relationship is likely to be much stronger if an attitude refers to an individual’s direct personal experience. Researchers have achieved still higher correlations by pursuing whether or not behavior influences attitudes. Importance: Reflects fundamental values. 7. • The degree of influence the individual believes he/she has over the elements. Specificity: The more specific the attitude and the more specific the behavior. this assumed relationship between attitudes and behavior (A‐B) was challenged. 7. a. Self‐perception theory:‐ 1. 6. Cognitive dissonance refers to “any incompatibility that an individual might perceive between two or more of his/her attitudes. Accessibility: Attitudes that are easily remembered are more likely to predict behavior than attitudes that are not accessible in memory. E. they are less likely to be receptive to attitude change. 29 . 2. The desire to reduce dissonance would be determined by: • The importance of the elements creating the dissonance. Social pressures: Discrepancies between attitudes and behavior are more likely to occur where social pressures to behave in certain ways hold exceptional power. While dissonance exists. Early research on attitudes and common sense assumed a causal relationship to behavior. Influence: If the dissonance is perceived as an uncontrollable result. 4. 8. Importance: If the elements creating the dissonance are relatively unimportant. D. Rewards: The inherent tension in high dissonance tends to be reduced with high rewards. No individual can completely avoid dissonance. • The rewards that may be involved in dissonance. 5. In the late 1960s. it can be rationalized and justified. choice. and rewards factors—the greater the pressures to reduce it. the pressure to correct this imbalance will be low.“ 4. Measuring the A‐B Relationship 1. 5.3. The most powerful moderators: • Importance • Specificity • Accessibility • Social pressures • Direct experience 3. Recent research has demonstrated that attitudes significantly predict future behavior. Organizational implications • Greater predictability of the propensity to engage in attitude and behavioral change • The greater the dissonance—after it has been moderated by importance. or identification with individuals or groups that a person values. Moderating factors suggest that individuals will not necessarily move to reduce dissonance—or consistency. or between his/her behavior and attitudes. self‐interest. 6. the stronger the link between the two.
2. so I must like it! 3. 4. Example: I’ve had this job for 10 years. 4.S. no one has forced me to stay. organizations with 100 or more employees found that 47 percent or so of them sponsored some sort of diversity training. Managers present the employee with set statements or questions to obtain specific information. and using exercises that let participants feel what it is like to be different. not reality. Often employees do not have objective data from which to base their perceptions. meeting performance standards. VYAS SPCAM(MBA) 30 . Job satisfaction is “an individual’s general attitude toward his/her job. and the like. Using attitude surveys on a regular basis provides managers with valuable feedback on how employees perceive their working conditions. PREPARED BY:DIVYANG K.” 2. Jobs require interaction with co‐workers and bosses. While the traditional attitude‐behavior relationship is generally positive. Contrary to cognitive dissonance theory. Attitudes and Workforce Diversity 1. Policies and practices that management views as objective and fair may be seen as inequitable by employees in general or by certain groups of employees and can lead to negative attitudes about the job and the organization. Additional activities designed to change attitudes include arranging for people to do volunteer work in community or social service centers in order to meet face to face with individuals and groups from diverse backgrounds. living with working conditions that are often less than ideal. An Application: Attitude Surveys 1. 5. A survey of U. 3. G. The most popular method for getting information about employee attitudes is through attitude surveys. These diversity programs include a self‐evaluation phase where people are pressed to examine themselves and to confront ethnic and cultural stereotypes they might hold. they tend to create plausible answers for what has already occurred. This is followed by discussion with people from diverse groups. the behavior‐ attitude relationship is stronger particularly when attitudes are vague and ambiguous or little thought has been given to it previously. F. The use of regular attitude surveys can alert management to potential problems and employees’ intentions early so that action can be taken to prevent repercussions. 3. Measuring Job Satisfaction 1. This means that an employee’s assessment of how satisfied or dissatisfied he or she is with his/her job is a complex summation of a number of discrete job elements. The two most widely used approaches are a single global rating and a summation score made up of a number of job facets. attitudes are just casual verbal statements. 3. (See Exhibit 3‐5) 2. Employee behaviors are often based on perceptions. JOB SATISFACTION A. 2. Self‐perception theory argues that attitudes are used to make sense out of an action that has already occurred rather than devices that precede and guide action. following organizational rules and policies.
Surprisingly those last years were one’s of growth and economic expansion. C. However. there is renewed support for the original satisfaction‐ performance relationship. For example. • It makes sense that dissatisfied employees are more likely to miss work. present pay. and relations with co‐workers. 4. but the correlation is stronger than what we found for absenteeism. promotion opportunities. Most people are satisfied with their jobs in the developed countries surveyed. 4. 31 . how satisfied are you with your job?” b. absenteeism. supervision. Much research has been done on the impact of job satisfaction on employee productivity. Satisfaction and absenteeism • We find a consistent negative relationship between satisfaction and absenteeism. you might be a satisfied worker. Comparing these approaches. B. simplicity seems to work as well as complexity. Satisfaction and turnover • Satisfaction is also negatively related to turnover. It seems organizations with more satisfied workers as a whole are more productive organizations. • Typical factors that would be included are the nature of the work. • At the organization level. 3. What factors might explain the decline despite growth: • Increased productivity through heavier employee workloads and tighter deadlines • Employees feeling they have less control over their work 4. While some segments of the market are more satisfied than others. The Effect of Job Satisfaction on Employee Performance 1. they tend to be higher paid. yet still take a “mental health day” to head for the beach now and again. higher skilled jobs which gives workers more control and challenges. the less likely you are to miss work. The single global rating method is nothing more than asking individuals to respond to one question. and turnover. 2. 2.a. but other factors have an impact on the relationship and reduce the correlation coefficient. The more satisfied you are. A summation of job facets is more sophisticated: • It identifies key elements in a job and asks for the employee’s feelings about each one ranked on a standardized scale. Satisfaction and productivity: • Happy workers are not necessarily productive workers—the evidence suggests that productivity is likely to lead to satisfaction. such as “All things considered. Managers’ interest in job satisfaction tends to center on its effect on employee performance. 3. Comparisons of one‐question global ratings with the summation‐of‐job‐factors method indicate both are valid. In the US nearly an eight percent drop in the 90s. there has been a decline in job satisfaction since the early 1990s. How Satisfied Are People in Their Jobs? 1.
Satisfied employees are more likely to be friendly. you are more likely to engage in behaviors that go beyond your formal job requirements. Basically. however. 32 . More recent evidence. How Employees Can Express Dissatisfaction 1. Voice: Actively and constructively attempting to improve conditions. suggests that satisfaction influences OCB. 3. expectations about alternative job opportunities. Evidence indicates that satisfied employees increase customer satisfaction and loyalty. Exit: Behavior directed toward leaving the organization. but through perceptions of fairness. 3. 2.” E. F. There is a modest overall relationship between job satisfaction and OCB. Customer retention and defection are highly dependent on how front‐line employees deal with customers. Evidence indicates that an important moderator of the satisfaction‐turnover relationship is the employee’s level of performance. and trusting the organization and its management to “do the right thing. There are a number of ways employees can express dissatisfaction • Exit • Voice • Loyalty • Neglect 2. It seems logical to assume that job satisfaction should be a major determinant of an employee’s organizational citizenship behavior. Customers appreciate that. including suggesting improvements. the more likely they are to be dissatisfied. 4. and length of tenure with the organization are important constraints on the actual decision to leave one’s current job. treatment. and responsive. and procedures. including speaking up for the organization in the face of external criticism. Job Satisfaction and Customer Satisfaction 1. D. including looking for a new position as well as resigning. upbeat. Dissatisfied customers can also increase an employee’s dissatisfaction. Loyalty: Passively but optimistically waiting for conditions to improve. discussing problems with superiors. The more employees work with rude and thoughtless customers. 3. 2.• • Other factors such as labor market conditions. When you trust your employer. job satisfaction comes down to conceptions of fair outcomes. Job Satisfaction and OCB 1. and some forms of union activity.
Where managers err is if they ignore the emotional elements in organizational behavior and assess individual behavior as if it were completely rational. Personality assessment should be used in conjunction with other information such as skills. “You can’t divorce emotions from the workplace because 33 . and rates high on authoritarianism is likely to feel more comfortable in. Individuals who are submissive and conforming might not be effective as advertising “idea” people. transfer. Read emotions. Explain the factors that determine an individual’s personality. 8. Because personality characteristics create the parameters for people’s behavior. 5. 2. Emotions are a natural part of an individual’s makeup. Differentiate emotions from moods. they give us a framework for predicting behavior. As one consultant aptly put it. say. A person who accepts rules. conformity. Describe external constraints on emotions. or as an administrator in a large public agency than as a researcher or an employee whose job requires a high degree of creativity. a structured assembly‐line job. knowledge of an individual’s personality can aid in reducing mismatches. Explain the impact of job typology on the personality‐job performance relationship. or assembly‐line work on the basis of their personality characteristics alone? The answer is no. Identify the key traits in the Big Five personality model. displayed emotions. Explain any gender‐differences in emotions. students should be able to: 1. 10. and experience. 7. 4. as an admittance clerk in a hospital. 9. Describe the MBTI personality framework 3. Can we predict which people will be high performers in sales. We can look at certain personality characteristics that tend to be related to job success. research. and promotion decisions. EMOTIONS Can managers control the emotions of their colleagues and employees? No. dependence. For example. test for those traits. Chapter ‐4 Personality and Emotions Learning Objectives After studying this chapter. introverted. which. 6. However. individuals who are shy. and uncomfortable in social situations would probably be ill‐suited as salespeople. As such. abilities. Contrast felt vs. and use the data to make selection more effective. in turn. can lead to reduced turnover and higher job satisfaction. Apply concepts on emotions to OB issues Chapter Overview PERSONALITY A review of the personality literature offers general guidelines that can lead to effective job performance. it can improve hiring.
Personality is a dynamic concept describing the growth and development of a person’s whole psychological system‐‐it looks at some aggregate whole that is greater than the sum of the parts. Do emotions affect job performance? Yes. for the most part. The more complex a task. That is probably why organizations. especially if the job requires calculative and detailed cognitive processes. • Today. Given that the trend is toward jobs becoming more complex.you can’t divorce emotions from people. Chapter Outline PERSONALITY A. thus acting as motivators to higher performance. What differentiates functional from dysfunctional emotions at work? While there is no precise answer to this. How? Two ways. Second. • The heredity approach argues that the ultimate explanation of an individual’s personality is the molecular structure of the genes. • Three different streams of research lend some credibility to the heredity argument: 34 . • Personality appears to be a result of both influences. It is most often described in terms of measurable traits that a person exhibits. emotional labor recognizes that feelings can be part of a job’s required behavior.’’ Managers who understand the role of emotions will significantly improve their ability to explain and predict individual behavior. For instance. the lower the level of arousal that can be tolerated without interfering with performance. located in the chromosomes. What Is Personality? 1. very high levels interfere with the ability to function. try to extract emotions out of the workplace. Emotions can also enhance performance. First. Personality Determinants 1. While a certain minimal level of arousal is probably necessary for good performance. Heredity • Heredity refers to those factors that were determined at conception. emotions can increase arousal levels. especially negative emotions. the ability to effectively manage emotions in leadership and sales positions may be critical to success in those positions. Gordon Allport coined the most frequent used definition: Personality—“the dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determine his unique adjustments to his environment” 3. B. Personality is the sum total of ways in which an individual reacts to and interacts with others. it has been suggested that the critical moderating variable is the complexity of the individual’s task. 2. An early argument centered on whether or not personality was the result of heredity or of environment. we recognize a third factor—the situation. you can see why organizations are likely to go to considerable efforts to discourage the overt display of emotions—especially intense ones—in the workplace. They can hinder performance. 4. 2.
Early conditioning c. These are personality traits. they would be fixed at birth and no amount of experience could alter them. and timid. the more important it is. 35 . C. • There is no classification scheme that tells the impact of various types of situations. fear. If they were. Environment • Factors that exert pressures on our personality formation: a. and values passed from one generation to the next and creates consistencies over time. Early work revolved around attempts to identify and label enduring characteristics.• a. The consistency in job satisfaction over time and across situations. • Culture establishes the norms. lazy. c. This is indicates that satisfaction is determined by something inherent in the person. Norms among our family d. • The more consistent the characteristic. 4. Personality characteristics are not completely dictated by heredity. b. The study of twins who were separated at birth. Individual job satisfaction is remarkably stable over time. aggressive. • Popular characteristics include shy. Evidence demonstrates that traits such as shyness. and distress are most likely caused by inherited genetic characteristics. • Heredity sets the parameters or outer limits. the more frequently it occurs. • Situations seem to differ substantially in the constraints they impose on behavior. but an individual’s full potential will be determined by how well he or she adjusts to the demands and requirements of the environment. Personality Traits 1.953 in one study alone—that made it impossible to predict behavior. Friends and social groups • The environment we are exposed to plays a substantial role in shaping our personalities. • The arguments for heredity or environment as the primary determinant of personality are both important. The genetic underpinnings of human behavior and temperament among young children. 2. Early research on personality traits resulted in isolating large numbers of traits—17. Genetics accounts for about 50 percent of the variation in personality differences and over 30 percent of occupational and leisure interest variation. loyal. ambitious. attitudes. Situation • Influences the effects of heredity and environment on personality • The different demands of different situations call forth different aspects of one’s personality. The culture in which we are raised b. submissive. 3.
critical. and often stubborn. disorganized. and unreliable. and persistent. determined. • Openness to experience. Low agreeableness people—cold. and trusting. The five basic dimensions are: • Extraversion. A person’s ability to withstand stress. there is no hard evidence that the MBTI is a valid measure of personality. They usually have original minds and great drive for their own ideas and purposes. c. versatile. dependable. c. Extremely open people are creative. depressed. ESTJs are organizers. traits. logical. and antagonistic. The ENTP type is a conceptualizer. • Individuals are classified as: a. Individual’s propensity to defer to others. Extroverted or introverted (E or I). and sociable. and artistically sensitive. and insecure. Sensing or intuitive (S or N). (Exhibit 4‐2). assertive. and secure.3. disagreeable. Comfort level with relationships. curious. • These classifications are then combined into sixteen personality types. warm. The Big Five Model 1. and have a natural head for business or mechanics. D. INTJs are visionaries. Extraverts tend to be gregarious. organized. b. • Conscientiousness. They are realistic. An impressive body of research supports that five basic dimensions underlie all other personality dimensions. timid. The Myers‐Briggs Type Indicator • One of the most widely used personality frameworks is the Myers‐Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). independent. A high conscientious person is responsible. Those with high negative scores tend to be nervous. b. High agreeableness people— cooperative. People with positive emotional stability tend to be calm. • Agreeableness. and attracted to entrepreneurial ideas. For example: a. Introverts tend to be reserved. He or she is innovative. 4. 36 . They are characterized as skeptical. A measure of reliability. • It is 100‐question personality test that asks people how they usually feel or act in particular situations. anxious. One researcher reduced a set of 171 traits to sixteen personality factors. • Emotional stability. • More than 2 million people a year take the MBTI in the United States alone. The range of interests and fascination with novelty. however. and quiet. decisive. analytical. They like to organize and run activities. self‐confident. individualistic. Thinking or feeling (T or F). d. Those who score low on this dimension are easily distracted. Perceiving or judging (P or J). or primary. Those at the other end of the openness category are conventional and find comfort in the familiar. This person tends to be resourceful in solving challenging problems but may neglect routine assignments.
have higher absenteeism rates. 4. 37 . Internals generally perform better on their jobs.Research found important relationships between these personality dimensions and job performance. • Internals: People who believe that they are masters of their own fate. and persuade others more. • Extraversion predicted performance in managerial and sales positions. thorough. win more. are persuaded less. organized. • Internals search more actively for information before making a decision. There is not a clear relationship between locus of control and turnover because there are opposing forces at work. • Externals are more compliant and willing to follow directions. of absenteeism. and achievement‐oriented tend to have higher job performance. persistent. maintains emotional distance. E. are lower. • Individuals who rate high in externality are less satisfied with their jobs. training proficiency (performance during training programs). and do well on jobs that are well structured and routine and in which success depends heavily on complying with the direction of others. Internals believe that health is substantially under their own control through proper habits. attribute organizational outcomes to their own actions. • Externals: People who believe they are pawns of fate. • For the other personality dimensions. • An individual high in Machiavellianism is pragmatic. and make a greater attempt to control their environment. • Employees higher in conscientiousness develop higher levels of job knowledge. Locus of control • A person’s perception of the source of his/her fate is termed locus of control. who wrote in the sixteenth century on how to gain and use power. internals do well on sophisticated tasks. are more motivated to achieve. predictability depended upon both the performance criterion and the occupational group. • A broad spectrum of occupations was examined in addition to job performance ratings. their incidences of sickness and. reliable. hardworking. and believes that ends can justify means. • Internals are more suited to jobs that require initiative and independence of action. Major Personality Attributes Influencing OB 1. able to plan. • Internals. • Openness to experience is important in predicting training proficiency. and personnel data such as salary level. facing the same situation. careful. therefore. but one should consider differences in jobs. 2. • The results showed that conscientiousness predicted job performance for all occupational groups. Machiavellianism • Named after Niccolo Machiavelli. • High Machs manipulate more. 3. 2. hence. and are less involved on their jobs than are internals. are more alienated from the work setting. • Individuals who are dependable.
6. They are highly sensitive to external cues. High self‐monitor is capable of putting on different “faces” for different audiences. Self‐monitoring • It refers to an individual’s ability to adjust his or her behavior to external. • High Machs make good employees in jobs that require bargaining skills or that offer substantial rewards for winning. • Low self‐monitors cannot disguise themselves in that way. low SEs will tend to be concerned with pleasing others. situational factors. thus allowing latitude for improvisation. • Individuals high in self‐monitoring show considerable adaptability. High self‐monitoring managers tend to be more mobile in their careers and receive more promotions. and when the situation has a minimum number of rules and regulations. High self‐monitors tend to pay closer attention to the behavior of others. • While managers in organizations are generally risk‐aversive. As a result. and are capable of presenting striking contradictions between their public persona and their private self. • The research on self‐monitoring is in its infancy. so predictions must be guarded. VYAS 38 SPCAM(MBA) • . b. • Individuals with high self‐esteem will take more risks in job selection and are more likely to choose unconventional jobs than people with low self‐esteem. Preliminary evidence suggests: a. rather than indirectly. it makes sense to recognize these differences and even to consider aligning risk‐taking propensity with specific job demands. can behave differently in different situations. there are still individual differences on this dimension. • In managerial positions. They tend to display their true dispositions and attitudes in every situation resulting in a high behavioral consistency between who they are and what they do. 5. • High SEs are more satisfied with their jobs than are low SEs. • High risk‐taking managers made more rapid decisions and used less information in making their choices. Low SEs are dependent on the receipt of positive evaluations from others. Self‐esteem • Self‐esteem—the degree to which people like or dislike themselves. PREPARED BY:DIVYANG K. 7. • (SE) is directly related to expectations for success. Risk taking • The propensity to assume or avoid risk has been shown to have an impact on how long it takes managers to make a decision and how much information they require before making their choice. c.High Mach outcomes are moderated by situational factors and flourish when they interact face to face with others. • The most generalizable finding is that low SEs are more susceptible to external influence than are high SEs.
• There are no common personality types for a given country. and are also rarely creative.8. work long hours. Achieving Personality Fit 1. F. and. especially among individuals from developed countries. Are Type As or Type Bs more successful? • Type Bs are the ones who appear to make it to the top. and eating rapidly. measuring their success in terms of how many or how much of everything they acquire. The Person‐Job Fit: This concern is best articulated in John Holland’s personality‐job fit theory. 10. quantity over quality. walking. The Big Five model translates across almost all cross‐cultural studies. against the opposing efforts of other things or other persons. • Great salespersons are usually Type As. are doing do two or more things at once and cannot cope with leisure time. senior executives are usually Type Bs. people believe that they can dominate their environment. People in Middle Eastern countries believe that life is essentially preordained. Type A • A Type A personality is “aggressively involved in a chronic. rather than to exhibit their superiority at any cost and can relax without guilt. 2. • Play for fun and relaxation. • Holland presents six personality types and proposes that satisfaction and the propensity to leave a job depend on the degree to which individuals successfully match their personalities to an occupational environment. Type A’s operate under moderate to high levels of stress. Differences tend to surface by the emphasis on dimensions. incessant struggle to achieve more and more in less and less time. are fast workers. • Chinese use the category of conscientiousness more often and use the category of agreeableness less often than do Americans. 9. • They subject themselves to continuous time pressure. • Their behavior is easier to predict than that of Type Bs. G. The prevalence of Type A personalities will be somewhat influenced by the culture in which a person grows up.’’ • They are always moving. In North America. 2. 39 . Type B • Type Bs never suffer from a sense of time urgency with its accompanying impatience and feel no need to display or discuss either their achievements or accomplishments unless such exposure is demanded by the situation. • There is evidence that cultures differ in terms of people’s relationship to their environment. Personality and National Culture 1. if required to do so. 11. They are obsessed with numbers. are impatient with the rate at which most events take place. • There is a surprisingly high amount of agreement.
2. A related affect‐term that is gaining increasing importance in organizational behavior is emotional labor. anger. grief. joy. and similar feelings. The discussion focused on strong negative emotions that interfered with an employee’s ability to do his or her job effectively. A well‐run organization was one that successfully eliminated frustration. They are not directed at an object. Organizations have been specifically designed with the objective of trying to control emotions. Emotional labor creates dilemmas for employees when their job requires them to exhibit emotions incongruous with their actual feelings. Displayed Emotions 1. Emotions can turn into moods when you lose focus on the contextual object. The myth of rationality. Until very recently. Affect is a generic term that covers a broad range of feelings that people experience and encompasses both emotions and moods. The Person‐Organization Fit • • • Most important for an organization facing a dynamic and changing environment. love. B. not a trait. • Emotions are intense feelings that are directed at someone or something. The belief that emotions of any kind were disruptive. their answers are used to form personality profiles. Respondents indicate which of these occupations they like or dislike. What Are Emotions? 1. 3. C. (See Exhibit 4‐3) Vocational Preference Inventory questionnaire contains 160 occupational titles. It is a frequent occurrence. fear. Emotions are a critical factor in employee behavior. 2. • Moods are feelings that tend to be less intense than emotions and which lack a contextual stimulus. The theory argues that satisfaction is highest and turnover lowest when personality and occupation are in agreement. hate. EMOTIONS A. 3. Matching people to the organizational culture at the time of hiring should result in higher employee satisfaction and reduced turnover. the topic of emotions had been given little or no attention within the field of OB. 40 . It is when an employee expresses organizationally desired emotions during interpersonal transactions. It argues that people leave jobs that are not compatible with their personalities. Introduction 1. Originally developed in relation to service jobs.• • • Each one of the six personality types has a congruent occupational environment. For example. Felt vs. 2. They are reactions. and requiring employees who are able to readily change tasks and move fluidly between teams.
For example. 3. • Whether or not the employee can successfully meet the emotional demands of a job depends on both the intensity of the emotions displayed and for how long the effort has to be made.when there are people that you have to work with whom you find it very difficult to be friendly toward. Frequency and duration • Emotional labor that requires high frequency or long duration is more demanding and requires more exertion by employees. the more people are likely to confuse them. Gender and Emotions 1. 4. Sometimes this can be attributed to personality. Felt emotions are an individual’s actual emotions. Key—felt and displayed emotions are often different. Are people who suffer from alexithymia poor work performers? Not necessarily. Their own feelings make them uncomfortable. where role demands and situations often require people to exhibit emotional behaviors that mask their true feelings. 2. 2. Can People Be Emotionless? 1. The closer any two emotions are to each other on this continuum. Emotion Dimensions 1. air traffic controllers must remain calm even in stressful situations. sadness. E. Some people have difficulty in expressing their emotions and understanding the emotions of others. Intensity • People give different responses to identical emotion‐provoking stimuli. It is widely assumed that women are more “in touch” with their feelings than men. 41 . Sales or customer service jobs would not be good career choices. D. • People vary in their inherent ability to express intensity—from never showing feelings to displaying extreme happiness or sadness • Jobs make different intensity demands in terms of emotional labor. happiness. 2. Variety • There are many emotions. Displayed emotions are those that are organizationally required and considered appropriate in a given job. This is particularly true in organizations. • Emotions are identified along a continuum from positive to negative. F. People who suffer from alexithymia rarely cry and are often seen by others as bland and cold. The evidence does confirm differences between men and women when it comes to emotional reactions and ability to read others. 3. (See Exhibit 4‐6). Six universal emotions have been identified: anger. 2. They are learned. 3. They might very well be effective performers. You are forced to feign friendliness. and surprise. fear. and they are not able to discriminate among their different emotions. disgust. in a job requiring little or no emotional labor. Psychologists call this alexithymia.
Self‐management. But this norm does not apply worldwide. or guilt. 3. b. The ability to sense how others are feeling. For example. External Constraints on Emotions 1. and anger tend to be unacceptable except under fairly specific conditions. OB Applications 1. • Emotional intelligence (EI) refers to an assortment of non‐cognitive skills. Ability and Selection: People who know their own emotions and are good at reading others’ emotions may be more effective in their jobs. smiling is often seen as an expression of happiness by Americans. • Women also report more comfort in expressing emotions. 42 • . These differences may be explained several ways: • The different ways men and women have been socialized. • Cultures differ in terms of the interpretation they give to emotions. and competencies that influence a person’s ability to succeed in coping with environmental demands and pressures. • Women are better at reading nonverbal cues than are men. 2. experience emotions more intensely. Self‐motivation. c. Empathy.Women show greater emotional expression than men. Expressions of negative emotions such as fear. 3. smiling by cashiers is seen as being inexperienced. There tends to be high agreement on what emotions mean within cultures but not between cultures. d. capabilities. anxiety. The ability to handle the emotions of others. e. Cultural influences: • Cultural norms in the United States dictate that employees in service organizations should smile and act friendly when interacting with customers. Every organization defines boundaries that identify what emotions are acceptable and the degree to which they can be expressed. The ability to persist in the face of setbacks and failures. well‐managed organizations are expected to be essentially emotion‐free. F. • In the United States. Organizational influences: • There is no single emotional “set” sought by all organizations. there is a bias against negative and intense emotions. thus. in Israel. • Consistent with the myth of rationality. • Women may have a greater need for social approval and. Social skills. a. depression. However. G. The ability to manage one’s own emotions and impulses. and display more frequent expressions of both positive and negative emotions. Being aware of what you are feeling. The same applies in different cultures. • Studies indicate that some cultures lack words for such standard emotions as anxiety. • Women may have more innate ability to read others and present their emotions than do men. Self‐awareness. a higher propensity to show positive emotions such as happiness.
• Not everyone is emotionally engaged in their work. or both. but many are. • They fall into categories such as: 43 . you can be fairly certain that emotions are also surfacing. • Employee Deviance: Voluntary actions that violate established norms and which threaten the organization.. they rely on “the evocation. Deviant workplace behaviors • Negative emotions can lead to a number of deviant workplace behaviors. not academic I. 3. Motivation • Motivation theories basically propose that individuals “are motivated to the extent that their behavior is expected to lead to desired outcomes. • When effective leaders want to implement significant changes. That approach is probably naïve. 4. 6. Interpersonal Conflict • Whenever conflicts arise. Decision making • Traditional approaches to the study of decision making in organizations have emphasized rationality. is often largely due to his or her ability to identify the emotional elements in the conflict and to get the conflicting parties to work through their emotions.” • The image is that of rational exchange.Q. • 2. • A manager’s success in trying to resolve conflicts. framing. Leadership • The ability to lead others is a fundamental quality sought by organizations. and mobilization of emotions. People’s perceptions and calculations of situations are filled with emotional content that significantly influences how much effort they exert. its members. especially in jobs that demand a high degree of social interaction. • Negative emotions can result in a limited search for new alternatives and a less vigilant use of information. in fact. • Positive emotions can increase problem solving and facilitate the integration of information.’’ 5. EI. People use emotions as well as rational and intuitive processes in making decisions. The implications from the initial evidence on EI is that employers should consider it as a factor in selection.• Several studies suggest EI may play an important role in job performance. characterized high performers. • Effective leaders almost all rely on the expression of feelings to help convey their messages and is often the critical element that results in individuals accepting or rejecting a leader’s message.
blaming co‐workers d. to ensure that I keep working” will differ in their behavioral responses to their supervisor. if an employee believes that his or her job is lousy. sabotage c. 44 . and which you strongly desire and can lead to malicious deviant behaviors. verbal abuse Many of these deviant behaviors can be traced to negative emotions. Explain how perception affects the decision making process 5.• a. For example. envy is an emotion that occurs when you resent someone for having something that you do not. The evidence suggests that what individuals perceive from their work situation will influence their productivity more than will the situation itself. Production: leaving early. intentionally working slowly b. in spite of these expenditures. An organization may spend millions of dollars to create a pleasant work environment for its employees. Whether or not a job is actually interesting or challenging is irrelevant. that employee will behave accordingly. Personal aggression: sexual harassment. Define heuristics. Property: stealing. List the three determinants of attribution 3. Contrast the three ethical decision criteria Chapter Overview Perception Individuals behave in a given manner based not on the way their external environment actually is but. Describe how shortcuts can assist in or distort our judgment of others 4. Political: gossiping. Chapter 5 PERCEPTION AND INDIVIDUAL DECISION MAKING ON AND INDIVIDUAL DECISION MAKING Learning Objectives After studying this chapter. closely monitoring every motion. Whether or not a manager successfully plans and organizes the work of his or her employees and actually helps them to structure their work more efficiently and effectively is far less important than how employees perceive the manager’s efforts. Describe four styles of decision making 9. The difference has nothing to do with the reality of the supervisor’s actions. Explain how two people can see the same thing and interpret it differently 2. Similarly. the difference in employee behavior is due to different perceptions. Describe the actions of the boundedly rational decision maker 7. Identify the conditions in which individuals are most likely to use intuition in decision making 8. Outline the six steps in the rational decision making model 6. rather. on what they see or believe it to be. The employee who perceives his/her supervisor as a hurdle reducer who helps him/her do a better job and the employee who sees the same supervisor as “big brother. However. students should be able to: 1. It is the employee’s perception of a situation that becomes the basis for his or her behavior. and explain how they bias decisions 10.
and job satisfaction are also reactions to the individual’s perceptions. the use of groups. Third. Failure to deal with the differences when individuals perceive the job in negative terms will result in increased absenteeism and turnover and lower job satisfaction. For instance. The employee’s conclusion that a job is good or bad is an interpretation. Under some recent decision situations. do not assume that your specific decision style is appropriate for every job. Similarly. you should feel increasingly confident in imposing your intuitive processes on top of your rational analysis. be aware of biases. Dissatisfaction with working conditions or the belief that there is a lack of promotion opportunities in the organization are judgments based on attempts to make some meaning out of one’s job. As you gain managerial experience. if you are in a country that does not value rationality. to be able to influence productivity. Absenteeism. Managers must spend time understanding how each individual interprets reality and. do not feel compelled to follow the rational decision making model or even to try to make your decisions appear rational. and the like. and relying on intuition. combine rational analysis with intuition. the validity of performance appraisals. Few important decisions are simple or unambiguous enough for the rational model’s assumptions to apply. you can begin to change the way you make decisions to reduce those biases. If you understand the biases influencing your judgment. turnover. Just as organizations differ. These are not conflicting approaches to decision making. try to eliminate the distortions. Given the evidence we have described on how decisions are actually made in organizations. This style would match well with 45 . Adjust your decision style to ensure it is compatible with the organization’s culture. if your decision‐making style is directive. this is probably more the exception than the rule. so we find individuals looking for solutions that satisfice rather than optimize. Fourth. And your effectiveness as a decision maker will increase if you match your decision style to the requirements of the job. so do jobs within organizations. people follow the rational decision‐making model. you will be more effective working with people whose jobs require quick action. what can managers do to improve their decision‐making? We offer five suggestions. Therefore. it is necessary to assess how workers perceive their jobs. Second. and most non‐routine decisions. For instance. organizations differ in terms of the importance they place on risk. and the adequacy of working conditions are not judged by employees in a way that assures common perceptions.issues like fair pay for work performed. First. Adjust your decision making style to the national culture you are operating in and to the criteria your organization evaluates and rewards. where there is a significant difference between what is seen and what exists. you can actually improve your decision‐making effectiveness. We all bring biases to the decisions we make. nor can we be assured that individuals will interpret conditions about their jobs in a favorable light. But for most people. Individual Decision Making Individuals think and reason before they act. injecting biases and prejudices into the decision process. It is because of this that an understanding of how people make decisions can be helpful for explaining and predicting their behavior. By using both. analyze the situation.
unrelated characteristics as well. The context in which we see objects or events also influences our attention. Chapter Outline WHAT IS PERCEPTION. and our tendency to group similar things together. interests. or financial analysts. would work well managing accountants. Overtly look for novel solutions to problems. This would include attractiveness. For example. Our perception and judgment of a person’s actions are influenced by these assumptions. Attribution theory suggests that when we observe an individual’s behavior. • We make inferences about the actions of people that we do not make about inanimate objects. motives. light. or intentions. An analytic style. 4. motives. When an individual looks at a target and attempts to interpret what he or she sees. try to remove work and organizational barriers that might impede your creativity. on the other hand. past experiences. The more relevant personal characteristics affecting perception of the perceiver are attitudes. • Nonliving objects are subject to the laws of nature. and use analogies. FACTORS INFLUENCING PERCEPTION 1. Characteristics of the target can also affect what is being perceived. This could include time. Why is this important to the study of OB? • Because people’s behavior is based on their perception of what reality is. we attempt to determine whether it was internally or externally caused. Additionally. or other situational factors. Attribution Theory 1. Finally. market researchers. AND WHY IS IT IMPORTANT? Definition: Perception is a process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment. and expectations. Factors that shape (and can distort perception): • Perceiver • Target • Situation 2. Person Perception: Making Judgments about Others A. Our perceptions of people differ from our perceptions of inanimate objects. that interpretation is heavily influenced by personal characteristics of the individual perceiver. attempt to see problems in new ways. heat. 2. That determination depends largely on three factors: 46 . • People have beliefs. 3. members of a group with clearly distinguishable features or color are often perceived as alike in other. 5.managing stockbrokers. not on reality itself. gregariousness. 3. try to enhance your creativity.
• The Korean study suggests caution in making attribution theory predictions in non‐ Western societies. 6. Does the person respond the same way over time? The more consistent the behavior. especially in countries with strong collectivist traditions. 8. • • • 47 . 2. B. Clarification of the differences between internal and external causation: • Internally caused behaviors are those that are believed to be under the personal control of the individual. • If this action is not unusual. Fundamental Attribution Error • There is substantial evidence that we have a tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the influence of internal or personal factors.Distinctiveness Consensus Consistency 4. What we want to know is whether the observed behavior is unusual. Consensus occurs if everyone who is faced with a similar situation responds in the same way. Distinctiveness refers to whether an individual displays different behaviors in different situations. it will probably be judged as internal. This is called the “self‐serving bias” and suggests that feedback provided to employees will be distorted by recipients. contrary to the self‐serving bias. • Externally caused behavior is seen as resulting from outside causes. the more the observer is inclined to attribute it to internal causes. • There is also a tendency for individuals to attribute their own successes to internal factors such as ability or effort while putting the blame for failure on external factors such as luck. that is. Are these errors or biases that distort attribution universal across different cultures? While there is no definitive answer there is some preliminary evidence that indicates cultural differences: • Korean managers found that. If consensus is high. 9. the person is seen as having been forced into the behavior by the situation. • Attribution theory was developed largely based on experiments with Americans and Western Europeans. or event stand out will increase the probability that it will be perceived. • If it is. 5. you would be expected to give an external attribution to the employee’s tardiness. We use a number of shortcuts when we judge others. whereas if other employees who took the same route made it to work on time. 7. the observer is likely to give the behavior an external attribution. Frequently Used Shortcuts in Judging Others 1. object. they tended to accept responsibility for group failure. Selective Perception • Any characteristic that makes a person. Consistency in a person’s actions. your conclusion as to causation would be internal. An understanding of these shortcuts can be helpful toward recognizing when they can result in significant distortions.
Distortions in any given candidate’s evaluation can occur as a result of his or her place in the interview schedule. Dearborn and Simon performed a perceptual study in which 23 business executives read a comprehensive case describing the organization and activities of a steel company. The results along with other results of the study. Projection • This tendency to attribute one’s own characteristics to other people—which is called projection—can distort perceptions made about others. Halo Effect • The halo effect occurs when we draw a general impression on the basis of a single characteristic: a. Selectivity works as a shortcut in judging other people by allowing us to “speed‐read” others. determined. Contrast Effects • We do not evaluate a person in isolation.It is impossible for us to assimilate everything we see—only certain stimuli can be taken in. but not without the risk of drawing an inaccurate picture. industrious. Students may give prominence to a single trait such as enthusiasm and allow their entire evaluation to be tainted by how they judge the instructor on that one trait. and when the perceiver is judging traits with which he or she has had limited experience. skillful. 3. For example. b. and were asked to evaluate the person to whom those traits applied. c. b. The experiment showed that subjects were allowing a single trait to influence their overall impression of the person being judged. 5. c. A group’s perception of organizational activities is selectively altered to align with the vested interests they represent. • The reality of the halo effect was confirmed in a classic study. Research suggests that it is likely to be most extreme when the traits to be perceived are ambiguous in behavioral terms. a. when the traits have moral overtones. practical. When the word “warm” was substituted with “cold” the subjects changed their evaluation of the person. Subjects were given a list of traits such as intelligent. This phenomenon frequently occurs when students appraise their classroom instructor. b. 4. • A classic example: a. • • 48 . led the researchers to conclude that the participants perceived aspects of a situation that were specifically related to the activities and goals of the unit to which they were attached. d. Because we see what we want to see. and warm. Our reaction to one person is influenced by other persons we have recently encountered. we can draw unwarranted conclusions from an ambiguous situation. an interview situation in which one sees a pool of job applicants can distort perception.
and it permits us to maintain consistency. that is what they will perceive. • Although the appraisal can be objective. • 49 . Studies indicate that most interviewers’ decisions change very little after the first four or five minutes of the interview. even when those perceptions are faulty. • In organizations. by definition. Instructors got better results from the high potential group because they expected it confirming the effect of a self‐fulfilling prophecy. we frequently hear comments that represent stereotypes based on gender. • A study was undertaken with 105 soldiers in the Israeli Defense Forces who were taking a fifteen‐week combat command course. ethnicity. 2. Performance Evaluation • An employee’s performance appraisal is very much dependent on the perceptual process. The problem. and potential not known. Performance Expectations • Evidence demonstrates that people will attempt to validate their perceptions of reality. judgmental. • Self‐fulfilling prophecy or Pygmalion effect characterizes the fact that people’s expectations determine their behavior. • In addition. is when we inaccurately stereotype. Different interviewers see different things in the same candidate and thus arrive at different conclusions about the applicant. • From a perceptual standpoint. race. 6. whether or not they are accurate. and even weight. They tend to see people as more homogeneous than they really are. judgments of the same candidate can vary widely. 3. Stereotyping • Stereotyping—judging someone on the basis of our perception of the group to which he or she belongs • Generalization is not without advantages. • Interviewers generally draw early impressions that become very quickly entrenched. C. • Because interviews usually have so little consistent structure and interviewers vary in terms of what they are looking for in a candidate. normal potential. It just a means of simplifying a complex world. Specific Applications in Organizations 1. many jobs are evaluated in subjective terms. Soldiers were randomly divided and identified as having high potential. they compromise their ability to respond to individual differences. Expectations become reality.When managers engage in projection. age. of course. Employment Interview • Evidence indicates that interviewers make perceptual judgments that are often inaccurate. if people expect to see these stereotypes. Subjective measures are. agreement among interviewers is often poor.
• Which data are relevant to the decision and which are not? • Alternatives will be developed. • Data are typically received from multiple sources. Step 1: Defining the problem • • 50 . what products or services to offer. requiring consideration of alternative courses of action. • There is a discrepancy between some current state of affairs and some desired state. Individuals in organizations make decisions. and the strengths and weaknesses of each will need to be evaluated. HOW SHOULD DECISIONS BE MADE? A. what the evaluator perceives to be good or bad employee characteristics or behaviors will significantly influence the outcome of the appraisal. THE LINK BETWEEN PERCEPTION AND INDIVIDUAL DECISION MAKING 1. 2. 4. • Top managers determine their organization’s goals. Decision‐making occurs as a reaction to a problem. select new employees. The optimizing decision maker is rational. they make choices from among two or more alternatives. • Middle‐ and lower‐level managers determine production schedules. how best to finance operations. 2. how much effort to put forward once at work. • A number of organizations in recent years have been empowering their non‐managerial employees with job‐related decision‐making authority that historically was reserved for managers. 3. An assessment of an individual’s effort is a subjective judgment susceptible to perceptual distortions and bias. or where to locate a new manufacturing plant.To the degree that managers use subjective measures in appraising employees. The Rational Model—six steps listed in Exhibit 5‐3 3. The Rational Decision‐Making Process 1. value‐maximizing choices within specified constraints. and whether or not to comply with a request made by the boss. He or she makes consistent. Employee Effort • An individual’s future in an organization is usually not dependent on performance alone. • The awareness that a problem exists and that a decision needs to be made is a perceptual issue. The perceptions of the decision maker will address these two issues. and decide how pay raises are to be allocated. Every decision requires interpretation and evaluation of information. Non‐managerial employees also make decisions including whether or not to come to work on any given day.
• The decision maker determines what is relevant in making the decision. Many poor decisions can be traced to the decision maker overlooking a problem or defining the wrong problem. Step 5: Rating each alternative on each criterion. • People have to get out of the psychological ruts most of us get into and learn how to think about a problem in divergent ways. • Constant preferences. • No time or cost constraints. • This brings in the decision maker’s interests. Step 2: Identify the decision criteria important to solving the problem. Step 6: The final step is to compute the optimal decision: • Evaluating each alternative against the weighted criteria and selecting the alternative with the highest total score. Step 4: Generate possible alternatives that could succeed in resolving the problem. 1.A problem is a discrepancy between an existing and a desired state of affairs. 4. 7. 8. The rational decision maker will choose the alternative that yields the highest perceived value. 2. Any factors not identified in this step are considered irrelevant to the decision maker. Criteria and alternatives can be ranked and weighted to reflect their importance. Assumptions of the Model • Problem clarity. • Known options. but that are also appropriate to the problem or opportunity presented. 51 • • . and similar personal preferences. • Clear preferences. Step 3: Weight the previously identified criteria in order to give them the correct priority in the decision. The decision maker is assumed to have complete information regarding the decision situation. • Maximum payoff. • Critically analyze and evaluate each alternative • The strengths and weaknesses of each alternative become evident as they are compared with the criteria and weights established in the second and third steps. Creative Potential • Most people have creative potential. 6. B. People differ in their inherent creativity. values. The rational decision maker can obtain full information about criteria and alternatives because it is assumed that there are no time or cost constraints. It is assumed the decision maker is aware of all the possible consequences of each alternative. 9. Specific decision criteria are constant and the weights assigned to them are stable over time. Improving Creativity in Decision Making Definition: Creativity is the ability to produce novel and useful ideas. These are ideas that are different from what has been done before. 5.
The desire to work on something because it’s interesting. This model proposes that individual creativity essentially requires expertise. Three‐component model of creativity. and similar expertise in their field of endeavor. It determines the extent to which individuals fully engage their expertise and creative skills.) • Expertise is the foundation for all creative work. • This is because the limited information‐processing capability of human beings makes it impossible to assimilate and understand all the information necessary to optimize. • Creative thinking skills. as well as the talent to see the familiar in a different light. tend to be highly visible. the rational model is fairly accurate.A study of lifetime creativity of 461 men and women found that fewer than one percent were exceptionally creative. 3. and intrinsic task motivation. the search for criteria and alternatives begins. (See Exhibit 5‐4. exciting. proficiencies. a. satisfying. • Intrinsic task motivation. and when the cost of searching out and evaluating alternatives is low. and they will represent familiar criteria and previously tried‐and‐true solutions. • Choices tend to be confined to the neighborhood of the problem symptom and to the neighborhood of the current alternative. Bounded Rationality 1. Individuals operate within the confines of bounded rationality. and about sixty percent were somewhat creative. Most decisions in the real world do not follow the rational model. • People satisfice—they seek solutions that are satisfactory and sufficient. This turns creativity potential into actual creative ideas. How does bounded rationality work? • Once a problem is identified. which are easy to find. the ability to use analogies. 2. creative‐thinking skills. • The decision maker will identify a limited list made up of the more conspicuous choices. • Once this limited set of alternatives is identified. HOW ARE DECISIONS ACTUALLY MADE IN ORGANIZATIONS? 1. This encompasses personality characteristics associated with creativity. The potential for creativity is enhanced when individuals have abilities. They construct simplified models that extract the essential features. When faced with a complex problem. • Decision makers generally make limited use of their creativity. The decision maker will begin with alternatives that differ only in a relatively small degree from the choice currently in effect. the decision maker will begin reviewing it. A. 52 • . Are decision makers in organizations rational? • When decision makers are faced with a simple problem having few alternative courses of action. involving. 3. • Ten percent were highly creative. knowledge. 2. or personally challenging. most people respond by reducing the problem to a level at which it can be readily understood.
Intuitive decision‐making has recently come out of the closet and into some respectability. Why? • Visible problems are more likely to catch a decision maker’s attention. when variables are less scientifically predictable d. The first alternative that meets the “good enough” criterion ends the search. If a decision maker faces a conflict between selecting a problem that is important to the organization and one that is important to the decision maker. when “facts” are limited e. Problem Identification 1. 3. remember we are concerned with decision making in organizations. when a high level of uncertainty exists b. and there is pressure to come up with the right decision • Although intuitive decision making has gained in respectability. Research on chess playing provides an excellent example of how intuition works. don’t expect people— especially in North America. A. with good arguments for each h. the satisficing choice will be the first acceptable one the decision maker encounters. when time is limited. and other cultures where rational analysis is the approved way of making decisions—to acknowledge they are using it. Intuition 1. Problems that are visible tend to have a higher probability of being selected than ones that are important. • Second. when analytical data are of little use g. Rational analysis is considered more socially desirable in these cultures. when there are several possible alternative solutions to choose from. The order in which alternatives are considered is critical in determining which alternative is selected. when there is little precedent to draw on c. • The result is that the intuitive decision maker can decide rapidly with what appears to be very limited information.• • • b. It operates in complement with rational analysis. when facts do not clearly point the way to go f. self‐interest tends to win out. Assuming that a problem has more than one potential solution. Great Britain. • The expert’s experience allows him or her to recognize the pattern in a situation and draw upon previously learned information associated with that pattern to quickly arrive at a decision choice. 53 . • Eight conditions when people are most likely to use intuitive decision making: a. 2. What is intuitive decision making? • It is an unconscious process created out of distilled experience. B. • Some believe it is a personality trait that a limited number of people are born with. • Some consider it a form of extrasensory power or sixth sense. Alternatives that depart the least from the status quo are the most likely to be selected.
The picture that emerges is one of a decision maker who takes small steps toward his or her objective. Efforts tend to be confined to the neighborhood of the current alternative. 2. Evidence indicates that decision‐making is incremental rather than comprehensive. 2. Escalation of commitment • Escalation of commitment is an increased commitment to a previous decision in spite of negative information. An organization can suffer large losses when a manager continues to invest in a failed plan just to prove his or her original decision was correct. self interest tends to win out. Decision makers make successive limited comparisons. that are particularly vivid. Representative heuristic • To assess the likelihood of an occurrence by trying to match it with a preexisting category. Fore example. Individual Differences: Decision‐Making Styles 1. • There are two common categories of heuristics—availability and representativeness. Availability heuristic • The availability heuristic is “the tendency for people to base their judgments on information that is readily available to them.• The decision maker’s self interest also plays a part. Research on decision styles has identified four different individual approaches to making decisions. • Another bias is the tendency to escalate commitment to a failing course of action. 4. Making Choices 1. • Implications for the organizations: a. • It has been well documented that individuals escalate commitment to a failing course of action when they view themselves as responsible for the failure. b. E. D. Since decision makers seek a satisficing solution. there is a minimal use of creativity in the search for alternatives. decision makers rely on heuristics or judgmental shortcuts in decision making. 54 . Each creates biases in judgment. C. managers frequently predict the performance of a new product by relating it to a previous product’s success.” • Events that evoke emotions. Managers might be reluctant to change a failed course of action to appear consistent. many more people suffer from fear of flying than fear of driving in a car. In order to avoid information overload. Alternative Development 1. 3. When faced with selecting a problem important to the decision maker or important to the organization. Consistency is a characteristic often associated with effective leaders. or that have occurred more recently tend to be more available in our memory.
• Analytic a. The first is their way of thinking. Decisions are made with minimal information and with few alternatives assessed. lower‐level managers. It is best to think in terms of a manager’s dominant style and his or her backup styles. etc. Greater tolerance for ambiguity b. Desire for more information and consideration of more alternatives c. (See Exhibit 5‐5. Efficient and logical c. People differ along two dimensions. The organization itself constrains decision makers. Organizational Constraints 1. F. Low tolerance for ambiguity and seek rationality b. Make decisions fast and focus on the short‐run. 3. Best characterized as careful decision makers with the ability to adapt to or cope with new situations • Conceptual a. form four styles of decision making. Tries to avoid conflict and seeks acceptance 5. They process information serially. 2. relying heavily on meetings for communicating c. Concerned with the achievement of peers and subordinates and are receptive to suggestions from others. Characterizes decision makers who work well with others b. 4. Performance evaluation • Managers are strongly influenced in their decision making by the criteria by which they are evaluated. Tend to be very broad in their outlook and consider many alternatives b. • Others are able to process many thoughts at the same time. Most managers have characteristics that fall into more than one. with access to the same information. and top executives tend to score highest in the analytic style. The other dimension is a person’s tolerance for ambiguity • Some people have a high need to minimize ambiguity. and they are very good at finding creative solutions to problems. Their performance in decision making will reflect expectation. • Behavioral a. • Focusing on decision styles can be useful for helping you to understand how two equally intelligent people. d. • Some people are intuitive and creative. time constraints. can differ in the ways they approach decisions and the final choices they make. They perceive things as a whole. • Business students. Reward systems 55 . diagrammed. This happens due to policies.) • Directive: a. • Some people are logical and rational. regulations.2. These two dimensions. 3. Their focus is long range.
• Decision making by Japanese managers is much more group‐oriented than in the United States. Cultural Differences 1. whether organizational decisions should be made autocratically by an individual manager or collectively in groups 2. • An emphasis on rights means respecting and protecting the basic rights of individuals. to free speech. • Decisions must be made quickly in order to stay ahead of the competition and keep customers satisfied. 2. This view tends to dominate business decision making. and preference for collective decision making. • Decisions made in the past are ghosts which continually haunt current choices. • By programming decisions. 56 • . policies. 6. such as the right to privacy. The rational model makes no acknowledgment of cultural differences. A. • Almost all important decisions come with explicit deadlines. differ in terms of time orientation. and to due process. Utilitarian criterion—decisions are made solely on the basis of their outcomes or consequences. System‐imposed time constraints • Organizations impose deadlines on decisions. 5. the importance placed on logic and rationality d. G. We need to recognize that the cultural background of the decision maker can have significant influence on: a. Programmed routines • All but the smallest of organizations create rules. Three Ethical Decision Criteria 1. The goal of utilitarianism is to provide the greatest good for the greatest number. depth of analysis c. for example.The organization’s reward system influences decision makers by suggesting to them what choices are preferable in terms of personal payoff. the importance of rationality. Cultures. 4. Focus on rights—calls on individuals to make decisions consistent with fundamental liberties and privileges as set forth in documents such as the Bill of Rights. their belief in the ability of people to solve problems. Individual decisions are more accurately characterized as points in a stream of decisions. procedures. while others focus on accepting situations as they are. and other formalized regulations in order to standardize the behavior of their members. Historical Precedents • Decisions have a context. selection of problems b. WHAT ABOUT ETHICS IN DECISION MAKING? Ethical considerations should be an important criterion in organizational decision making. organizations are able to get individuals to achieve high levels of performance without paying for the years of experience. • Some cultures emphasize solving problems. It is common knowledge that the largest determining factor of the size of any given year’s budget is last year’s budget.
Focus on justice—requires individuals to impose and enforce rules fairly and impartially. • Be aware of biases: Understanding how they influence judgment can help to reduce their impact. company operating in China caught an employee stealing. Advantages and liabilities of these three criteria: • Utilitarianism a.3. turned him over to the local authorities. There is an equitable distribution of benefits and costs. Should a Western business professional pay a bribe to secure business if it is an accepted part of that country’s culture? • A manager of a large U. • Justice a. Be aware of these five strategies: • Analyze the situation: Adjust to national culture. Promotes efficiency and productivity b. only to learn later that the employee had been summarily executed. • Realize that no specific decision style is appropriate for every job: Organizations differ. There are no global ethical standards. as do jobs. and productivity. 5. Protects individuals from injury and is consistent with freedom and privacy b. Ethics and National Culture 1. most are gray. Matching decision style to the situation is the most effective strategy. She fired him. Contrasts between Asia and the West illustrate: • Bribery is commonplace in countries such as China. It can create an overly legalistic work environment that hinders productivity and efficiency. 4. 2. Individual Decision Making 1. It can result in ignoring the rights of some individuals. criteria defining right and wrong are actually much clearer in the West than in Asia. • While ethical standards may seem ambiguous in the West. Few issues are black‐and‐white there.S. It can encourage a sense of entitlement that reduces risk taking. C. the criteria the organization evaluates and rewards. particularly those with minority representation in the organization. Increased concern in society about individual rights and social justice suggests the need for managers to develop ethical standards based solely on non‐utilitarian criteria. B. 57 . Most people do not follow the rational decision‐making model—but satisfice rather than optimize. What can managers do to improve their decision making? 2. innovation. Many critics of business decision makers argue that this perspective needs to change. • Rights a. c. Protects the interests of the underrepresented and less powerful b. • Combine rational analysis with intuition: Using both can improve decision making effectiveness. Decision makers tend to feel safe and comfortable when they use utilitarianism.
Need theories. Equity theory. we 1) review the key motivation theories to determine their relevance in explaining our dependent variables. it is strongest when predicting absence and turnover behaviors and weakest when predicting differences in employee productivity. turnover. List the characteristics that high achievers prefer in a job. are directed at explaining turnover. particularly regarding the relationship between achievement and productivity. 6. We introduced four theories that focused on needs. Our final theory focused on performance variables. while others emphasize productivity. Describe Maslow’s need hierarchy. Chapter Overview The theories we have discussed in this chapter address different outcome variables. If the other three have any value at all. absenteeism. Equity theory deals with all four dependent variables. Goal‐setting theory. Some. The theory. Differentiate motivators from hygiene factors. 7. absenteeism. This theory has an impressive record for predicting factors like quality and quantity of work. Outline the motivation process. however. It has proved to offer a relatively powerful explanation of employee productivity. and McClelland’s needs theories. two‐factor. Clarify the key relationships in expectancy theory. students should be able to: 1. 3. and 2) assess the predictive power of each. However. tardiness. It 58 . Expectancy theory. 9. Summarize the types of goals that increase performance. 4. and turnover. State the impact of under‐rewarding employees. The theories also differ in their predictive strength. This evidence leads us to conclude that goal‐setting theory provides one of the more powerful explanations of this dependent variable. ERG. does not address absenteeism. persistence of effort. but expectancy theory assumes that employees have few constraints on their decision discretion. 8.Chapter 6 BASIC MOTIVATION WORK Learning Objectives After studying this chapter. In this section. that value relates to explaining and predicting job satisfaction. or satisfaction. and accident rates. There is little dispute that clear and difficult goals lead to higher levels of employee productivity. Contrast Theory X and Theory Y. 2. 5. Explain how the contemporary theories of motivation complement each other. The strongest of these is probably the last. for instance. These were Maslow’s hierarchy. Reinforcement theory. It does not offer much insight into employee satisfaction or the decision to quit.
4. Practicing managers still regularly use these theories and their terminology in explaining employee motivation. and persistence: • Intensity is concerned with how hard a person tries. This is the element most of us focus on when we talk about motivation. therefore. direction. However. • Direction is the orientation that benefits the organization. it also includes some subjective judgments. He hypothesized that within every human being there exists a hierarchy of five needs: (See Exhibit 6‐1). In the 1950s three specific theories were formulated and are the best known: hierarch of needs theory. Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is the most well‐known theory of motivation. The three key elements of our definition are intensity. CHAPTER OUTLINE WHAT IS MOTIVATION? 1. 2. expectancy theory is not a very good explanation for more typical types of work behavior. A Guide through the Maze. especially for individuals in lower‐level jobs. Hierarchy of Needs Theory 1. Motivated individuals stay with a task long enough to achieve their goal. Definition: Motivation is “the processes that account for an individual’s intensity. However. • Persistence is a measure of how long a person can maintain his/her effort. A. supervisors. Exhibit 6‐10 summarizes what we know about the power of the more well known motivation theories to explain and predict our four dependent variables. Theories X and Y. Many people incorrectly view motivation as a personal trait—that is. For major decisions. 2. While based on a wealth of research. and the two‐factor theory. We will narrow the focus to organizational goals in order to reflect our singular interest in work‐related behavior. and company policies. because such jobs come with considerable limitations imposed by work methods.makes many of the same assumptions that the rational model makes about individual decision‐ making (see Chapter 5). it does provide a reasonable guide through the motivation theory maze. direction. Motivation is the result of the interaction of the individual and the situation. some have it and others do not. We would conclude. 59 . such as accepting or resigning from a job. and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal. They are more prone to take the time to carefully consider the costs and benefits of all the alternatives. expectancy theory works well because people do not rush into decisions of this nature. EARLY THEORIES OF MOTIVATION 1. that expectancy theory’s power in explaining employee productivity increases where the jobs being performed are more complex and higher in the organization (where discretion is greater).” 3. These early theories are important to understand because they represent a foundation from which contemporary theories have grown. This acts to restrict its applicability.
belongingness. • Social. • Either Theory X or Theory Y assumptions may be appropriate in a particular situation. • People will exercise self‐direction and self‐control if they are committed to the objectives. Theory X and Theory Y 1. achieving one’s potential. the next need becomes dominant. esteem. and self‐actualization are as higher‐order needs • Higher‐order needs are satisfied internally. • Physiological and safety needs are described as lower‐order. autonomy. even seek. Maslow’s need theory has received wide recognition. No need is ever fully gratified. B. • Employees can view work as being as natural as rest or play. • Employees inherently dislike work and. a substantially satisfied need no longer motivates. • Since employees dislike work. includes growth. and other bodily needs Safety: Includes security and protection from physical and emotional harm Social: Includes affection. • Employees will avoid responsibilities and seek formal direction whenever possible. • There is no evidence to confirm that either set of assumptions is valid. sex. they must be coerced. • Most workers place security above all other factors and will display little ambition. • The average person can learn to accept. will attempt to avoid it. 3. 4. Theory Y assumptions are basically positive. Maslow provided no empirical substantiation. • Theory Y assumes that higher‐order needs dominate individuals. Maslow separated the five needs into higher and lower orders. As a need becomes substantially satisfied. and self‐fulfillment 2. controlled. or threatened with punishment. • • • • 60 . whenever possible. Theory X assumptions are basically negative. recognition. 5. and attention • Self‐actualization: The drive to become what one is capable of becoming.Physiological: Includes hunger. 4. • The ability to make innovative decisions is widely dispersed throughout the population. and friendship Esteem: Includes internal esteem factors such as self‐respect. responsibility. • McGregor himself held to the belief that Theory Y assumptions were more valid than Theory X. acceptance. and achievement. 2. and external esteem factors such as status. What are the implications for managers? This is best explained by using Maslow’s framework: • Theory X assumes that lower‐order needs dominate individuals. Research does not generally validate the theory. Douglas McGregor concluded that a manager’s view of the nature of human beings is based on a certain grouping of assumptions and he or she tends to mold his or her behavior toward employees according to these assumptions. particularly among practicing managers. and several studies that sought to validate the theory found no support for it. 3. shelter. thirst. • Lower‐order needs are predominantly satisfied externally.
C. Two‐Factor Theory
1. The Two‐Factor Theory is sometimes also called motivation‐hygiene theory. 2. Proposed by psychologist Frederick Herzberg when he investigated the question, “What do people want from their jobs?” He asked people to describe, in detail, situations in which they felt exceptionally good or bad about their jobs. These responses were then tabulated and categorized. 3. From the categorized responses, Herzberg concluded: • Intrinsic factors, such as advancement, recognition, responsibility, and achievement seem to be related to job satisfaction. • Dissatisfied respondents tended to cite extrinsic factors, such as supervision, pay, company policies, and working conditions. • The opposite of satisfaction is not dissatisfaction. • Removing dissatisfying characteristics from a job does not necessarily make the job satisfying. 4. Job satisfaction factors are separate and distinct from job dissatisfaction factors. Managers who eliminate job dissatisfaction factors may not necessarily bring about motivation. 5. When hygiene factors are adequate, people will not be dissatisfied; neither will they be satisfied. To motivate people, emphasize factors intrinsically rewarding that are associated with the work itself or to outcomes directly derived from it. 6. Criticisms of the theory: • The procedure that Herzberg used is limited by its methodology. • The reliability of Herzberg’s methodology is questioned. • No overall measure of satisfaction was utilized. • Herzberg assumed a relationship between satisfaction and productivity, but the research methodology he used looked only at satisfaction, not at productivity. 7. Regardless of criticisms, Herzberg’s theory has been widely read, and few managers are unfamiliar with his recommendations. • The popularity of vertically expanding jobs to allow workers greater responsibility can probably be attributed to Herzberg’s findings. • Contemporary Theories of Motivation CONTEMPORARY THEORIES OF MOTIVATION The following theories are considered contemporary not because they necessarily were developed recently, but because they represent the current state of the art in explaining employee motivation. A. ERG Theory 1. Clayton Alderfer reworked Maslow’s need hierarchy to align it with the empirical research. His revised need hierarchy is labeled ERG theory. 2. Alderfer argues that there are three groups of core needs: existence, relatedness, and growth. 3. The existence group • Provides our basic material existence requirements 61
They include Maslow’s physiological and safety needs. 4. Relatedness • The desire we have for maintaining important interpersonal relationships • These social and status desires require interaction with others. • They align with Maslow’s social need and the external component. 5. Growth needs • An intrinsic desire for personal development • These include the intrinsic component from Maslow’s esteem category and the characteristics included under self‐actualization. 6. In addition to collapsing Maslow’s five into three, Alderfer’s ERG theory also differs from Maslow’s in that: • More than one need may be operative at the same time. • If the gratification of a higher‐level need is stifled, the desire to satisfy a lower‐level need increases. • ERG theory does not assume that there exists a rigid hierarchy. A person can be working on growth even though existence or relatedness needs are unsatisfied, or all three need categories could be operating at the same time. 7. ERG theory also contains a frustration‐regression dimension. • Maslow argued that an individual would stay at a certain need level until that need was satisfied. ERG argues that multiple needs can be operating as motivators at the same time. • ERG theory notes that when a higher‐order need level is frustrated, the individual’s desire to increase a lower‐level need takes place. 8. ERG theory is more consistent with our knowledge of individual differences among people. • Variables such as education, family background, and cultural environment can alter the importance or driving force that a group of needs holds for a particular individual.
The evidence demonstrating that people in other cultures rank the need categories differently would be consistent with ERG theory.
B. McClelland’s Theory of Needs 1. The theory focuses on three needs: achievement, power, and affiliation. • Need for achievement: The drive to excel, to achieve in relation to a set of standards, to strive to succeed • Need for power: The need to make others behave in a way that they would not have behaved otherwise • Need for affiliation: The desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships 2. Some people have a compelling drive to succeed. They are striving for personal achievement rather than the rewards of success per se. This drive is the achievement need (nAch). 3. McClelland found that high achievers differentiate themselves from others by their desire to do things better.
• • • • •
They seek personal responsibility for finding solutions to problems. They want to receive rapid feedback on their performance so they can tell easily whether they are improving or not. They can set moderately challenging goals. High achievers are not gamblers; they dislike succeeding by chance. High achievers perform best when they perceive their probability of success as 50‐50. They like to set goals that require stretching themselves a little.
4. The need for power (nPow) is the desire to have impact, to be influential, and to control others. • Individuals high in nPow enjoy being “in charge.” • Strive for influence over others • Prefer to be placed into competitive and status‐oriented situations • Tend to be more concerned with prestige and gaining influence over others than with effective performance 5. The third need isolated by McClelland is affiliation (nAfl). • This need has received the least attention from researchers. • Individuals with a high affiliation motive strive for friendship. • Prefer cooperative situations rather than competitive ones • Desire relationships involving a high degree of mutual understanding 6. Relying on an extensive amount of research, some reasonably well‐supported predictions can be made based on the relationship between achievement need and job performance. • First, as shown in Exhibit 6‐4, individuals with a high need to achieve prefer job situations with personal responsibility, feedback, and an intermediate degree of risk. When these characteristics are prevalent, high achievers will be strongly motivated. • Second, a high need to achieve does not necessarily lead to being a good manager, especially in large organizations. People with a high achievement need are interested in how well they do personally and not in influencing others to do well. • Third, the needs for affiliation and power tend to be closely related to managerial success. The best managers are high in their need for power and low in their need for affiliation. • Finally, employees have been successfully trained to stimulate their achievement need. Trainers have been effective in teaching individuals to think in terms of accomplishments, winning, and success, and then helping them to learn how to act in a high achievement way by preferring situations where they have personal responsibility, feedback, and moderate risks. C. Cognitive Evaluation Theory 1. In the late 1960s, one researcher proposed that the introduction of extrinsic rewards, such as pay, for work effort that had been previously intrinsically rewarding due to the pleasure 63
6. promotions. Cognitive evaluation theory suggests otherwise. This has come to be called the cognitive evaluation theory. Its impact on employee motivation at work may be considerably less than originally thought. evidence indicates that very high intrinsic motivation levels are strongly resistant to the detrimental impacts of extrinsic rewards. When extrinsic rewards are used by organizations as payoffs for superior performance. Edwin Locke proposed that intentions to work toward a goal are a major source of work motivation. If the cognitive evaluation theory is valid. The popular explanation is that the individual experiences a loss of control over his or her own behavior so that the previous intrinsic motivation diminishes. it should have major implications for managerial practices. 64 . Further research is needed to clarify some of the current ambiguity. Well researched and supported theorists have assumed that intrinsic motivations. 7. • D. 11.associated with the content of the work itself. 10. many of the studies testing the theory were done with students. In the late 1960s. it would make sense to make an individual’s pay non‐contingent on performance in order to avoid decreasing intrinsic motivation. 5. Specific hard goals produce a higher level of output than do the generalized goals. etc. are independent of extrinsic motivators such as high pay. • Cognitive evaluation theorists would argue that this will tend only to decrease the internal satisfaction that the individual receives from doing the job. they should be made contingent on an individual’s performance. The theory may have limited applicability to work organizations because most low‐level jobs are not inherently satisfying enough to foster high intrinsic interest. are reduced. • If correct. The evidence does lead us to conclude that the interdependence of extrinsic and intrinsic rewards is a real phenomenon. 4. the intrinsic rewards. the elimination of extrinsic rewards can produce a shift—from an external to an internal explanation—in an individual’s perception of causation of why he or she works on a task. specifically on the methodology used and in the interpretation of the findings. While supported in a number of studies. Goals tell an employee what needs to be done and how much effort is needed. would tend to decrease the overall level of motivation.. Goal‐Setting Theory 1. Second. such as achievement. 2. cognitive evaluation theory has also met with attacks. • • First. 3. • If pay or other extrinsic rewards are to be effective motivators. 2. which are derived from individuals doing what they like. 3. Furthermore. etc. and many managerial and professional positions offer intrinsic rewards. The evidence strongly supports the value of goals.
If employees have the opportunity to participate in the setting of their own goals. • There is extreme concentration during the activity. In addition to feedback. If factors like ability and acceptance of the goals are held constant. we can also state that the more difficult the goal.4.” 2. It is when the individual looks back on the experience he or she is flooded with feelings of gratitude for the experience. National culture: Goal‐setting theory is culture bound and it is well adapted to North American cultures. will they try harder? A major advantage of participation may be in increasing acceptance. Intentions. Reinforcement theory is behavioristic approach. 5.If people participate in goal setting. Athletes call this being “in the zone. Adequate self‐efficacy: Self‐efficacy refers to an individual’s belief that he or she is capable of performing a task. The two theories are clearly at odds philosophically. and independent. Reinforcement is undoubtedly an important influence on behavior. Self‐generated feedback is more powerful a motivator than externally generated feedback. There are contingencies in goal‐setting theory. 65 . the more confidence you have in your ability to succeed in a task. but few scholars are prepared to argue that it is the only influence. F. 2. are a potent motivating force. the higher the level of performance. Flow and Intrinsic Motivation Theory 1. • When a person experiences the flow he or she is completely intrinsically motivated. 6. there is no evidence that such goals are associated with increased job satisfaction. Goal commitment: Goal‐setting theory presupposes that an individual is committed to the goal. People will do better when they get feedback on how well they are progressing toward their goals. It argues that reinforcement conditions behavior. Goals seem to have a more substantial effect on performance when tasks are simple. However. well‐ learned. The evidence is mixed regarding the superiority of participative over assigned goals. E. The higher your self‐efficacy. 8. • Reinforcement theorists see behavior as being environmentally caused. In contrast to Goal‐Setting theory. • Reinforcement theory ignores the inner state of the individual and concentrates solely on what happens to a person when he or she takes some action. four other factors influence the goals‐performance relationship. which is a cognitive approach. Reinforcement Theory 1. 7. A key element of the flow experience is that its motivation is unrelated to end goals. they are more likely to accept even a difficult goal than if they are arbitrarily assigned it by their boss. Task characteristics: Individual goal setting does not work equally well on all tasks. You lose yourself in the task and often lose track of time. as articulated in terms of hard and specific goals. A state of absolute concentration that occurs when doing a favorite activity.
Why? 2. • Competence: The accomplishment you feel in skillfully performing task activities you have chosen. Additionally. Conditions likely to produce a flow state: • Task is challenging and require high level of skill • They were goal directed and received feedback on how they were doing. • Meaningfulness: The opportunity to pursue a worthy task purpose. 3. • Task demanded total concentration and creativity. Studies with managerial staff demonstrate that these four components are significantly related to improved job satisfaction and increased performance. G. • If we perceive our ratio to be equal to that of the relevant others with whom we compare ourselves. • There are four moderating variables: gender. • 66 . is an extension of the flow concept. Employees make comparisons of their job inputs and outcomes relative to those of others. There are four referent comparisons that an employee can use: • Self‐inside: An employee’s experiences in a different position inside his or her current organization • Self‐outside: An employee’s experiences in a situation or position outside his or her current organization • Other‐inside: Another individual or group of individuals inside the employee’s organization • Other‐outside: Another individual or group of individuals outside the employee’s organization 4. as well as by the attractiveness of the referent. Equity Theory 1. • When we see the ratio as unequal. that matters in the larger scheme of things. causing motivation levels to drop.It is the desire to repeat the experience that creates continued motivation. Which referent an employee chooses will be influenced by the information the employee holds about referents. 4. He identifies the key elements that create intrinsic motivation as: • Choice: The ability to select task activities that make sense to you and perform them as you think appropriate. • More often to occur at work than home (flow is not associated with leisure. 5. we experience equity tension. and amount of education or professionalism. • Progress: Feeling you are making significant advancement in achieving the task’s purpose. length of tenure. as described by Ken Thomas. What role does equity play in motivation? An employee with several years experience can be frustrated to find out that a recent college grad hired at a salary level higher than he or she is currently earnings. the referent that an employee selects adds to the complexity of equity theory. 3. a state of equity is said to exist. We perceive our situation as fair. A Model of Intrinsic Motivation. level in the organization.
• Given payment by quantity of production. • Given payment by quantity of production. • 67 . Upper‐level employees tend to be more cosmopolitan and have better information about people in other organizations. • Distort perceptions of others. but higher quality. over‐rewarded employees will produce fewer. the perceived fairness of the process used to determine the distribution of rewards. • Employees in jobs that are not sex‐segregated will make more cross‐sex comparisons than those in jobs that are either male‐ or female‐dominated. • By increasing the perception of procedural fairness. • Equity should also consider procedural justice. This also suggests that if women are tolerant of lower pay. recent research has been directed at expanding what is meant by equity or fairness. promotions. 11. under‐rewarded employees will produce a large number of low‐quality units in comparison with equitably paid employees.Men and women prefer same‐sex comparisons. and other personal outcomes. • Choose a different referent. The theory establishes the following propositions relating to inequitable pay: • Given payment by time. employees are likely to view their bosses and the organization as positive even if they are dissatisfied with pay. • Historically. it may be due to the comparative standard they use. 12. • The evidence indicates that distributive justice has a greater influence on employee satisfaction than procedural justice. • Change their outcomes. Therefore. Employees with long tenure rely more heavily on coworkers for comparison. • Leave the field. 5. • Inequities created by overpayment do not seem to have a very significant impact on behavior in most work situations. 7. and intention to quit. Employees also seem to look for equity in the distribution of other organizational rewards. • Procedural justice tends to affect an employee’s organizational commitment. • Distort perceptions of self. under‐rewarded employees will produce less or poorer quality of output. 10. trust in his or her boss. • Not all people are equity sensitive. over‐rewarded employees will produce more than will equitably paid employees. 9. 8. Finally. these types of employees will make more other‐ outside comparisons. When employees perceive an inequity. units than will equitably paid employees. Employees with short tenure in their current organizations tend to have little information about others. they can be predicted to make one of six choices: • Change their inputs. 6. These propositions have generally been supported with a few minor qualifications. • Given payment by time. equity theory focused on distributive justice or the perceived fairness of the amount and allocation of rewards among individuals.
As a contingency model. will it be recognized in my performance appraisal? No. It says that an employee will be motivated to exert a high level of effort when he/she believes that: Effort will lead to a good performance appraisal. • • • 68 . rightly or wrongly. The employee. but some key issues are still unclear. Attempts to validate the theory have been complicated by methodological criterion and measurement problems. are the rewards ones that I find personally attractive? It is important the rewards being tailored to individual employee needs 6. Expectancy theory helps explain why a lot of workers merely do the minimum necessary to get by. if the organization’s performance appraisal assesses nonperformance factors.13. 3. between the rewards and individual goal satisfaction. • If I am rewarded. 7. for most employees. That a good appraisal will lead to organizational rewards. and finally. Equity theory demonstrates that. Expectancy theory argues that the strength of a tendency to act in a certain way depends on the strength of an expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of that outcome to the individual. expectancy theory recognizes that there is no universal principle for explaining everyone’s motivations. 4. I. motivation is influenced significantly by relative rewards as well as by absolute rewards. • Published studies that purport to support or negate the theory must be viewed with caution. Victor Vroom’s expectancy theory has its critics but most of the research is supportive. 2. Expectancy theory is one of the most widely accepted explanations of motivation. Expectancy Theory 1. between performance and rewards. perceives that his/her boss does not like him/her. • If I get a good performance appraisal. 8. That the rewards will satisfy his/her personal goals. The key to expectancy theory is the understanding of an individual’s goals and the linkage between effort and performance. For example: • If I give a maximum effort. will it lead to organizational rewards? Typically many employees see the performance‐reward relationship in their job as weak. Three key relationships • Effort‐performance relationship: the probability perceived by the individual that exerting a given amount of effort will lead to performance • Performance‐reward relationship: the degree to which the individual believes that performing at a particular level will lead to the attainment of a desired outcome • Rewards‐personal goals relationship: the degree to which organizational rewards satisfy an individual’s personal goals or needs and the attractiveness of those potential rewards for the individual 5.
and rewards and satisfaction of personal goals. CAVEAT EMPTOR: MOTIVATION THEORIES ARE CULTURE BOUND Many—Theories Were Developed in the United States 1. in turn. Success on a job is facilitated or hindered by the existence or absence of support resources. and the performance appraisal system must be perceived as being fair and objective. Each of these relationships. If either is inadequate. is influenced by certain factors. 3. A popular although arguably simplistic way of thinking about employee performance is as a function of the interaction of ability and motivation. The most blatant pro‐American characteristic inherent in these theories is the strong emphasis on individualism and quantity of life. 4. most studies have failed to replicate the methodology as it was originally proposed. and equity theories. Both goal‐setting and expectancy theories emphasize goal accomplishment as well as rational and individual thought. The final link in expectancy theory is the rewards‐goals relationship. and moderate risks. Individuals will compare the rewards (outcomes) they receive from the inputs they make with the outcome‐input ratio of relevant others and inequities may influence the effort expended. need. Some critics suggest that the theory has only limited use. the individual must have the requisite ability to perform. When you attempt to assess why an employee may not be performing to the level that you believe he or she is capable of. 2. 3. that is. 2. reinforcement. For effort to lead to good performance.• • Importantly. Motivation would be high to the degree that the rewards an individual received for his or her high performance satisfied the dominant needs consistent with his or her individual goals. The Model in Exhibit 6‐10 integrates much of what we know about motivation. 7. H. look to the environment to see if it is supportive. Reinforcement theory recognizes that the organization’s rewards reinforce the individual’s performance. Expectancy theory predicts that an employee will exert a high level of effort if he/she perceives that there is a strong relationship between effort and performance. High achievers are internally driven as long as the jobs they are doing provide them with personal responsibility. 5. 6. Its basic foundation is the expectancy model. 69 . arguing that it tends to be more valid for predicting in situations where effort‐performance and performance‐ reward linkages are clearly perceived by the individual. performance and rewards. INTEGRATING CONTEMPORARY THEORIES OF MOTIVATION 1. The model considers the achievement. Don’t Forget Ability and Opportunity 1. 8. performance = f(A × M). We need to add opportunity to perform to our equation—performance = f(A × M × O). ERG theory would come into play at this point. 4. performance will be negatively affected. feedback.
achievement.2. employees exhibited an entitlement attitude. in collectivist cultures such as the former socialist countries. equity is meant to be closely tying pay to performance. • Growth. This hierarchy aligns with American culture. Countries like the Netherlands and Denmark who score high on quality of life characteristics would have social needs at the top. • However. Greece and Mexico. Japan. PREPARED BY:DIVYANG K. There are cross‐cultural consistencies. and self‐actualization. In the United States. Equity theory • It is based on the assumption that workers are highly sensitive to equity in reward allocations. Maslow’s need hierarchy • People start at the physiological level and then move progressively up the hierarchy in this order: physiological. • In countries where uncertainty avoidance characteristics are strong. security needs would be on top of the need hierarchy. safety. • The view that a high achievement need acts as an internal motivator presupposes two cultural characteristics—a willingness to accept a moderate degree of risk and a concern with performance. Moreover. 4. social. • The desire for interesting work seems important to almost all workers. employees expect rewards to reflect their individual needs as well as their performance. esteem. and responsibility were rated the top three and had identical rankings in another study of several countries. VYAS 70 SPCAM(MBA) . 3. consistent with a legacy of communism and centrally planned economies.
A major breakthrough in our understanding of leadership came when we recognized the need to develop contingency theories that included situational factors. for it is the leader who usually provides the direction toward goal attainment. Therefore. experience. Explain Hersey and Blanchard’s situational theory. John Kotter feels that management is about coping with complexity. Identify the limitations of behavioral theories. we can say that individuals who are ambitious. and motivation. Summarize the conclusions of trait theories. Leadership is about coping with change. Describe the path‐goal theory. CHAPTER OUTLINE WHAT IS LEADERSHIP? A. Summarize leader‐member exchange theory. 4. 6. intelligence. hold job‐relevant knowledge. The original search for a set of universal leadership traits failed. • • Good management brings about order and consistency by drawing up formal plans. level of group support. At best.Chapter 11 BASIC APPROACHES TO LEADERSHIP Learning Objectives After studying this chapter. a desire to lead. The behavioral approach’s major contribution was narrowing leadership into task‐oriented and people‐oriented styles. the evidence indicates that relevant situational variables would include the task structure of the job. are perceived as honest and trustworthy. 7. Describe Fiedler’s contingency model. Contrast leadership and management. Definitions 1. but no one style was found to be effective in all situations. self‐confidence. and are flexible are more likely to succeed as leaders than individuals without these traits. At present. designing rigid organization structures. and follower characteristics such as personality. Chapter Overview Leadership plays a central part in understanding group behavior. 5. ability. the leader’s intelligence and experience. 3. level of situational stress. a more accurate predictive capability should be valuable in improving group performance. Identify the situation variables in the leader‐participation model. have high energy. 8. 2. 71 . students should be able to: 1. and monitoring results against the plans.
create visions of the future. Self‐confidence e. • Leaders can emerge from within a group as well as by formal appointment to lead a group. Honesty and integrity d. 2. • The cumulative findings from a half of a century of research show that some traits increase the likelihood of success as a leader. Leaders must challenge the status quo. 3. • Non‐sanctioned leadership—the ability to influence that arises outside the formal structure of the organization—is often as important as or more important than formal influence. Ambition and energy b.” • The source of this influence may be formal. nor. TRAIT THEORIES 1. The media has long been a believer in trait theories of leadership. Robert House of Wharton basically concurs: • Managers use the authority inherent in their designated formal rank to obtain compliance. • Recent research provides strong evidence that people who are high self‐monitors are much more likely to emerge as leaders in groups than low self‐monitors. 2. are all managers leaders. • Six traits on which leaders tend to differ from nonleaders are: a. 3. Intelligence f. • Not all leaders are managers. enthusiastic. • Management consists of implementing vision and strategy. 5. Organizations need strong leadership and strong management for optimum effectiveness. 4. then they align people by communicating this vision and inspiring them to overcome hurdles. A review of 20 different studies identified nearly 80 leadership traits. and inspire organizational members.Leaders establish direction by developing a vision of the future. coordinating and staffing. for that matter. The search for attributes that describe leaders and differentiate them goes back to the 1930s. They identify leaders by focusing on personal qualities and characteristics such as charismatic. and courageous. but none guarantee success. A search to identify traits that were consistently associated with leadership has better results. A person may assume a leadership role simply because of his/her position. and handling day‐to‐day problems. Job‐relevant knowledge. Desire to lead c. Research efforts at isolating leadership traits resulted in a number of dead ends. The trait approach has at least four limitations: 72 • . We define leadership as “the ability to influence a group toward the achievement of goals. 4. but only five of these traits were common to four or more of the investigations.
therefore we could select the right leaders. 73 . Consideration is described as “the extent to which a person is likely to have job relationships that are characterized by mutual trust. Initiating structure refers to the extent to which a leader is likely to define and structure his/her role and those of employees in the search for goal attainment. Behavioral approach assumption: suggests that we could train people to be leaders. Trait and behavioral theories differ in terms of their underlying assumptions. Leaders high in initiating structure and consideration tended to achieve high employee performance and satisfaction. work relationships. • A leader high in consideration could be described as one who helps employees with personal problems. • The leader high in initiating structure could be described as someone who “assigns group members to particular tasks. The most comprehensive and replicated of the behavioral theories resulted from research that began at Ohio State University in the late 1940s. and clear expectations. Trait theories assumption: Leadership is basically inborn. 3. We can design programs to implant behavioral patterns. 3. traits predict behavior more in “weak” situations than in “strong” situations. well‐being.• • • • First.” “expects workers to maintain definite standards of performance. Finally. and treats all employees as equals. • The “high‐high” style did not always result in positive consequences. Third. • It includes attempts to organize work. there are no universal traits that predict in all situations.” 4. They narrowed over a thousand dimensions into two dimensions—initiating structure and consideration. These researchers sought to identify independent dimensions of leader behavior. and regard for their feelings. the evidence is unclear in separating cause from effect. is friendly and approachable. The behavioral approach would have implications quite different from those of the trait approach. and satisfaction. Strong situations are those in which there are strong behavioral norms. traits do a better job at predicting the appearance of leadership than in actually distinguishing between effective and ineffective leaders. we could have an infinite supply of effective leaders. Second. 4.” and “emphasizes the meeting of deadlines. BEHAVIORAL THEORIES 1. 2. 5. b. Such strong situations create less opportunity for leaders to express their inherent dispositional tendencies. If training worked. status. 2. a. The Ohio State Studies 1. and goals. Researchers began to wonder if there was something unique in the way that effective leaders behave.” • The leader shows concern for followers’ comfort. respect for employees’ ideas. strong incentives for specific types of behaviors.
Employee‐oriented leaders were associated with higher group productivity and higher job satisfaction. (See Exhibit 11‐1). They discovered two dimensions of leadership behavior— employee‐oriented and production‐oriented. Unfortunately. creating 81 different positions. E. 74 . High consideration was negatively related to performance ratings of the leader by his/her superior. The Managerial Grid 1. The previous three behavioral approaches were essentially developed between the late 1940s and early 1960s—when the world was a more stable place. The grid shows the dominating factors in a leader’s thinking in regard to getting results. 2. Their basic premise is that effective leaders would exhibit development‐oriented behavior. Blake and Mouton proposed a managerial grid based on the styles of “concern for people” and “concern for production. 4. Production‐oriented leaders tended to be associated with low group productivity and lower job satisfaction. and lower levels of job satisfaction for routine tasks. 4. They took a personal interest in the needs of their employees and accepted individual differences among members. and generate and implement change. 3. with similar research objectives. 2. Leadership studies were undertaken at the same time as those being done at Ohio State. The production‐oriented leaders tended to emphasize the technical or task aspects of the job—group members were a means to that end. seek new ideas. managers were found to perform best under a 9. Michigan researchers’ conclusions strongly favored the leaders who were employee oriented. absenteeism. 5. The grid has nine possible positions along each axis. 2. Employee‐oriented leaders emphasized interpersonal relations.• • Leader behavior characterized as high on initiating structure led to greater rates of grievances. Researchers in Finland and Sweden have been reassessing the two‐dimension model. University of Michigan Studies 1. These leaders value experimentation. the grid offers a better framework for conceptualizing leadership style than for presenting any tangible new information. with a 9.9 (lassiez‐faire type) style. for example. Based on the findings of Blake and Mouton. 3. as contrasted. Scandinavian Studies 1.1 (authority type) or 1.” which essentially represent the Ohio State dimensions of consideration and initiating structure or the Michigan dimensions of employee‐oriented and production‐oriented. and turnover.9 style.
The early evidence is positive. 2. It asks respondents to describe the one person they least enjoyed working with by rating him or her on a scale of one‐to‐eight for each of the 16 sets of contrasting adjectives. g. supportive‐hostile). f. the respondent is primarily interested in good personal relations with this coworker. However. e. the researchers have found strong support for development‐oriented leader behavior as a separate and independent dimension. 5. 6. Fiedler believes that based on the respondents’ answers to this questionnaire. If the least preferred coworker is seen in relatively unfavorable terms (a low LPC score). These items. 75 . The Scandinavian researchers proposed that this was because developing new ideas and implementing change were not critical in those days. • Fiedler assumes that an individual’s leadership style is fixed. CONTINGENCY THEORIES A. 2. Using samples of leaders in Finland and Sweden. Summary of Behavioral Theories 1.3. the respondent is primarily interested in productivity and thus would be labeled task‐oriented. He created the least preferred coworker (LPC) questionnaire for this purpose. About 16 percent of respondents cannot be classified as either. F. at the time. The Scandinavian researchers have been conducting new studies looking to see if there is a third dimension—development orientation—that is related to leader effectiveness. d. The questionnaire contains 16 contrasting adjectives (such as pleasant‐unpleasant. efficient‐inefficient. Fiedler Model 1. b. The Scandinavian researchers’ review of the original Ohio State data found development items such as “pushes new ways of doing things. Identifying leadership style: • Fiedler believed that a key factor in leadership success is the individual’s basic leadership style. a. he can determine their basic leadership style. If the least preferred coworker is described in relatively positive terms (a high LPC score). open‐guarded. It purports to measure whether a person is task‐ or relationship‐oriented.” and “encourages members to start new activities. The behavioral theories have had modest success in identifying consistent relationships between leadership behavior and group performance. situational factors that influence success or failure need to be explored further. c. did not explain much toward effective leadership. The first comprehensive contingency model for leadership was developed by Fred Fiedler who proposed that effective group performance depends upon the proper match between the leader’s style and the degree to which the situation gives control to the leader.” “originates new approaches to problems.” 4.
If predictions from the model use only three categories rather than the original eight. 76 . you can change the leader to fit the situation. c. b. the more highly structured the job. II. • There are problems and the practical use of the model that need to be addressed. and salary increases • The next step is to evaluate the situation in terms of these three contingency variables. perform better in moderately favorable situations—categories IV through VI. Position power—The degree of influence a leader has over power variables such as hiring. Defining the situation: • After assessing leadership style. while relationship‐oriented leaders perform best in moderate control situations. b. there are potentially eight different situations or categories in which leaders could find themselves. there is ample evidence to support Fiedler’s conclusions. you would seek to match leaders and situations. The second alternative would be to change the situation to fit the leader. the more control the leader has. • Given Fiedler’s findings. VII. a. however. or VIII situation. Relationship‐oriented leaders. • Fiedler has condensed these eight situations to three. (See Exhibit 11‐2). Because Fiedler views an individual’s leadership style as being fixed. Task‐oriented leaders perform best in situations of high and low control. promotions. Position power is either strong or weak. task‐ oriented leaders perform better. Ill. Task structure—The degree to which the job assignments are procedural. Fiedler would predict that when faced with a category I. • Altogether. 5. firing. Leader‐member relations are either good or poor. by mixing the three contingency variables. and the stronger the position power. and respect members have in their leader b. Matching leaders and situations: • The Fiedler model proposes matching them up to achieve maximum leadership effectiveness. b. trust. discipline. • Fiedler states the better the leader‐member relations. there are only two ways to improve leader effectiveness. The logic underlying the LPC is not well understood and studies have shown that respondents’ LPC scores are not stable. Task structure is either high or low. Fiedler has identified three contingency dimensions: a.3. First. • Fiedler concluded that task‐oriented leaders tend to perform better in situations that were very favorable to them and in situations that were very unfavorable. a. Leader‐member relations—The degree of confidence. c. Evaluation: • There is considerable evidence to support at least substantial parts of the model. it is necessary to match the leader with the situation. a. 4.
It is difficult for leaders to think logically and analytically when they are under stress. b. 77 . c. 6. b. Just as a parent needs to relinquish control as a child becomes more mature and responsible.” • The emphasis on the followers in leadership effectiveness reflects the reality that it is the followers who accept or reject the leader. • Successful leadership is achieved by selecting the right leadership style. low‐stress situations. The most effective behavior depends on a followers’ ability and motivation. • The importance of a leader’s intelligence and experience to his/her effectiveness differs under low‐ and high‐stress situations. Situational leadership is a contingency theory that focuses on the followers. Joe Garcia. research efforts to test and support the theory have generally been disappointing. B. In high stress situations. Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Theory 1. SLT views the leader‐follower relationship as analogous to that between a parent and child. • Cognitive resource theory is developing a solid body of research support. The re‐conceptualization is Cognitive Resource Theory. 4. so too should leaders. This model—Situational Leadership Theory (SLT)—has been incorporated into leadership training programs at over 400 of the Fortune 500 companies. there is a positive relationship between job experience and performance. Yet. the contingency variables are complex and difficult for practitioners to assess. Cognitive resource theory: • Fiedler and an associate. • The essence of the new theory is that stress is the enemy of rationality. Three conclusions: a. Directive behavior results in good performance only if linked with high intelligence in supportive. SLT has an intuitive appeal. The intellectual abilities of leaders correlate with group performance in situations that the leader perceives as low in stress. a. which is contingent on the level of the followers’ readiness. 3. and over one million managers a year from a wide variety of organizations are being taught its basic elements. re‐conceptualized the original theory focusing on the role of stress as a form of situational unfavorableness and how a leader’s intelligence and experience influence his/her reaction to stress. Hersey and Blanchard identify four specific leader behaviors—from highly directive to highly laissez‐faire. The term readiness refers to “the extent to which people have the ability and willingness to accomplish a specific task. Intelligence and experience interfere with each other. 2. Paul Hersey and Ken Blanchard developed a leadership model that has gained a strong following among management development specialists.• Also.
78 . leaders establish a special relationship with a small group of their followers. House identified four leadership behaviors: • The directive leader lets followers know what is expected of them. House assumes leaders are flexible and can display any of these behaviors. These individuals make up the in‐group—they are trusted. It is the leader’s job to assist followers in attaining their goals and to provide the necessary direction and/or support to ensure that their goals are compatible with the overall objectives of the firm. Personal characteristics of the employee. b. These determine how the environment and leader behavior are interpreted. The term path‐goal is derived from the belief that effective leaders clarify the path to help their followers achieve their work goals. Supportive leadership results in high employee performance and satisfaction when employees are performing structured tasks. c. the leader implicitly categorizes the follower as an “in” or an “out” and that relationship is relatively stable over time. • How the leader chooses who falls into each category is unclear. It is a contingency model of leadership which extracts key elements from the Ohio State leadership research on initiating structure and consideration and the expectancy theory of motivation. b. Path‐Goal Theory 1. 3. • The supportive leader is friendly and shows concern for the needs of followers. 2. etc. Two classes of situational or contingency variables moderate the leadership behavior: • • Environmental or outcome relationship. 5. a. and are more likely to receive special privileges. The leader‐member exchange (LMX) theory argues that because of time pressures. • The theory and research surrounding it provide substantive evidence that leaders do differentiate among followers and that these disparities are far from random. In contrast to Fiedler. • The achievement‐oriented leader sets challenging goals and expects followers to perform at their highest level. get a disproportionate amount of the leader’s attention. • The leader does the choosing on the basis of the follower’s characteristics. One of the most respected approaches to leadership is the path‐goal theory developed by Robert House. Directive leadership leads to greater satisfaction when tasks are ambiguous or stressful than when they are highly structured and well laid out. The theory proposes that early in the history of the interaction between a leader and a given follower. 4.C. 6. (See Exhibit 11‐3). Leader‐Member Exchange Theory a. These factors determine the type of leader behavior required as a complement if follower outcomes are to be maximized. (See Exhibit 11‐4). • The participative leader consults with followers and uses their suggestions before making a decision. 7.
Research evidence generally supports the logic underlying the path‐goal theory. empirically‐supported contingency variables that you should consider when choosing your leadership style. and experience are important situational variables. these researchers argued that leader behavior must adjust to reflect the task structure. Recognizing that task structures have varying demands for routine and non‐routine activities. More recent work by Vroom and Arthur Jago revised this model. 6. • The model is far too complicated for the typical manager to use on a regular basis. The model was normative—it provided a sequential set of rules that should be followed in determining the form and amount of participation in decision making. 5. • Criticism has focused on variables that have been omitted and on the model’s overall complexity. In 1973. PREPARED BY:DIVYANG K. Directive leadership is likely to be perceived as redundant among employees with high perceived ability or with considerable experience. intelligence. 8. VYAS 79 SPCAM(MBA) . 4. e. • Other contingency theories demonstrate that stress. as determined by different types of situations. The model was a decision tree incorporating seven contingencies and five leadership styles. 2. d. 3. • Retaining the same five alternative leadership styles but adds a set of problem types and expands the contingency variables to twelve • The twelve contingency variables are listed in Exhibit 11‐5. Vroom and his associates have provided us with some specific. Employees with an internal locus of control will be more satisfied with a participative style.c. Leader‐Participation Model 1. Victor Vroom and Phillip Yetton developed a leader‐participation model. Research testing both the original and revised leader‐participation models has been encouraging. Achievement‐oriented leadership will increase employees’ expectancies that effort will lead to high performance when tasks are ambiguously structured.
for instance. Competence especially appears to offer wide appeal. Few employees relish being powerless in their job and organization. 4. that when people in organizations are difficult. will be seeking to make you dependent on them. others you work with will be trying to do the same. Define the four bases of power. and temperamental. “One of the reasons many of us like to work for and with people who are powerful is that they are generally more pleasant. 5. for instance. It has been argued. Expert and referent power are derived from an individual’s personal qualities. and satisfaction. Others. and legitimate power are essentially organizationally derived. You will not be alone in attempting to build your power bases. Clarify what creates dependency in power relationships. 7. Since people are more likely to enthusiastically accept and commit to an individual whom they admire or whose knowledge they respect (rather than someone who relies on his or her position to reward or coerce them). where the performance expectations placed on them exceed their resources and capabilities. 3. 2. 9. increase your power in relation to your boss by developing knowledge or a skill that he needs and for which he perceives no ready substitute. 10. you will be seeking to minimize your dependence on others. You can. As a manager who wants to maximize your power. Explain how sexual harassment is about the abuse of power. and its use as a power base results in high performance by group members. Describe the importance of a political perspective. 6. not because it is their native disposition. 8. of course. In contrast. 80 . List those individual and organizational factors that stimulate political behavior. commitment. the effective use of expert and referent power should lead to higher employee performance. you will want to increase others’ dependence on you. reward. and. List seven power tactics and their contingencies. coercion. it may be because they are in positions of powerlessness. List the three questions that can help determine if a political action is ethical.Chapter 13 POWER AND POLITICS Learning Objectives After studying this chapter. but because the reputation and reality of being powerful permits them more discretion and more ability to delegate to others. While you seek to maximize others’ dependence on you. particularly employees and peers. it helps to have power. Explain how defensive behaviors can protect an individual’s self‐interest. students should be able to: 1. There is evidence that people respond differently to the various power bases. The message for managers seems to be: Develop and use your expert power base! The power of your boss may also play a role in determining your job satisfaction. The result is a continual battle. Contrast leadership and power. Chapter Overview If you want to get things done in a group or organization. argumentative. Identify seven techniques for managing the impression one makes on others. but power is a two‐way street.
assuming that B values his or her job. Leadership. larger salary increases and promotions. Leadership focuses on the downward influence on one’s followers. • The greater B’s dependence on A. a capacity or potential. merely dependence. b. 2. They are more likely to exhibit higher job satisfaction. c. or demote B. • The direction of influence: a. Probably the most important aspect of power is that it is a function of dependency. A DEFINITION OF POWER 1. A possesses coercive power over B. if A can assign B work activities that B finds unpleasant or treat B in a manner that B finds embarrassing. Some people are just significantly more “politically astute” than are others. • Similarly. the generation of frustration through restriction of movement. CONTRASTING LEADERSHIP AND POWER 1. Those who are good at playing politics can be expected to get higher performance evaluations. Definition: Power refers to a capacity that A has to influence the behavior of B. in turn. Leaders achieve goals. and power is a means of facilitating their achievement. and hence. therefore. • A person can have power over you only if he or she controls something you desire. Power does not minimize the importance of lateral and upward influence patterns. 2. emphasizes style. Coercive Power: • The coercive power base is being dependent on fear. By assessing behavior in a political framework. for the most part. suspend. Power does not require goal compatibility. • Power may exist but not be used. of physical sanctions such as the infliction of pain. b. d.The effective manager accepts the political nature of organizations. Formal Power 1. The research on power has tended to encompass a broader area and focus on tactics for gaining compliance. or the controlling by force of basic physiological or safety needs. 81 . Leadership research. requires some congruence between the goals of the leader and those being led. Leaders use power as a means of attaining group goals. the greater is A’s power in the relationship. • At the organizational level. on the other hand. A has coercive power over B if A can dismiss. is based on alternatives that B perceives and the importance that B places on the alternative(s) that A controls. or the threat of application. It is. • It rests on the application. so that B acts in accordance with A’s wishes. you can better predict the actions of others and use this information to formulate political strategies that will gain advantages for you and your work unit. Differences between Leadership and Power: • Goal compatibility: a. • Dependence. BASES OF POWER A.
we become increasingly dependent on experts to achieve goals. the most frequent access power is one’s structural position. • Referent power develops out of admiration of another and a desire to be like that person." • Expertise has become a powerful source of influence as the world has become more technological. • Others follow because they can articulate attractive visions. It represents the power a person receives as a result of his/her position in the formal hierarchy. • Positions of authority include coercive and reward powers. If you can give someone something of positive value or remove something of negative value. take personal risks. is broader than the power to coerce and reward. others become dependant on them. 82 . 3. managers have access to data that subordinates do not have). 4. special skill. Personal Power 1. Expert Power: • Expert power is "influence wielded as a result of expertise. • These rewards can be anything that another person values. a. you can exercise power over me because I want to please you. however. or knowledge. It includes acceptance of the authority of a position by members of an organization. When people have needed information. • Referent power explains why celebrities are paid millions of dollars to endorse products in commercials. etc. • Coercive power and reward power are actually counterparts of each other. Reward Power: • The opposite of coercive power is reward power. • People comply because doing so produces positive benefits. Legitimate Power: • In formal groups and organizations. If you can remove something of positive value from another or inflict something of negative value upon him/her. you have coercive power over that person. it is a lot like charisma. one who can distribute rewards that others view as valuable will have power over those others. Referent Power: • Its base is identification with a person who has desirable resources or personal traits. As jobs become more specialized. b. you have reward power over that person. Information Power: • Refers to power that comes from access to and control over information. • Legitimate power. (For example. If I admire and identify with you. 2. Charismatic Power: • Is an extension of referent power stemming from an individual’s personality and interpersonal style. B.2. 3. demonstrate follower sensitivity. therefore.
b. is inversely proportional to the alternative sources of supply. creation of goodwill. This is why most organizations develop multiple suppliers rather using just one. 2. Individuals in occupations in which the supply of personnel is low relative to demand can negotiate compensation and benefit packages. When you possess anything that others require but that you alone control. therefore. What Creates Dependency? • Importance a. c. A resource needs to be perceived as scarce to create dependency. the more power that control over that resource provides. The more that a resource has no viable substitutes. Low‐ranking members in an organization who have important knowledge not available to high‐ranking members gain power over the high‐ranking members. POWER TACTICS 1. The findings identified seven tactical dimensions or strategies: • Reason—Use of facts and data to make a logical or rational presentation of ideas • Friendliness—Use of flattery. or employees. which are far more attractive than can those in occupations where there is an abundance of candidates. From those essays: a. The General Dependency Postulate: • The greater B’s dependency on A. the thing(s) you control must be perceived as being important. b. you gain power over them. a. • Nonsubstitutability a. c. b. Therefore. • Scarcity a. a. and given to over 750 employees.DEPENDENCY: THE KEY TO POWER 1. It also explains why so many of us aspire to financial independence. These respondents were asked not only how they went about influencing others at work but also for the possible reasons for influencing the target person. The scarcity‐dependency relationship can further be seen in the power of occupational categories. d. • Dependency. you make them dependent upon you and. 2. Ways Powerholders Get What They Want • One hundred sixty five managers were asked to write essays describing an incident in which they influenced their bosses. acting humble. To create dependency. those individuals or groups who can absorb an organization’s uncertainty will be perceived as controlling an important resource. c. Organizations actively seek to avoid uncertainty. then. b. These were condensed into a 58‐item questionnaire. the greater the power A has over B. and being friendly 83 . Three hundred seventy power tactics were identified and grouped into 14 categories. co‐workers.
Coalition—Getting the support of other people in the organization to back up the request • Bargaining—Use of negotiation through the exchange of benefits or favors • Assertiveness—Use of a direct and forceful approach such as demanding compliance • Higher authority—Gaining the support of higher levels in the organization to back up requests • Sanctions—Use of organizationally derived rewards and punishments 3. Employees do not rely on the seven tactics equally. • The most popular strategy was the use of reason. • Contingency variables that affect the selection of a power tactic a. The manager’s relative power impacts the selection of tactics in two ways. • First, managers who control resources that are valued by others, or who are perceived to be in positions of dominance, use a greater variety of tactics than do those with less power. • Second, managers with power use assertiveness with greater frequency than do those with less power. • Resistance leads to managers using more directive strategies. b. The manager’s objectives for wanting to influence causes them to vary their power tactics. • Seeking benefits from a superior, they use friendliness. • Attempting to persuade their superiors to accept new ideas, they usually rely on reason. • Managers use reason to sell ideas to employees and friendliness to obtain favors. c. The manager’s expectation of the target person’s willingness to comply • When past experience indicates a high probability of success, managers use simple requests to gain compliance. • Where success is less predictable, managers are more tempted to use assertiveness and sanctions to achieve their objectives. d. The organization’s culture • The organizational culture in which a manager works, therefore, will have a significant bearing on defining which tactics are considered appropriate. • The organization itself will influence which subset of power tactics is viewed as acceptable for use by managers. e. People in different countries tend to prefer different power tactics. • US prefers reason whereas China prefers coalition tactics. • Differences are consistent with values among countries—reason is consistent with American’s preference for direct confrontation and coalition is consistent with the Chinese preference for using indirect approaches. POWER IN GROUPS: COALITIONS 1. Those “out of power” and seeking to be “in” will first try to increase their power individually. 2. If ineffective, the alternative is to form a coalition—an informal group bound together by the active pursuit of a single issue.
3. The natural way to gain influence is to become a powerholder but this may be difficult, risky, costly, or impossible. • In such cases, efforts will be made to form a coalition of two or more “outs” who, by joining together, can combine their resources to increase rewards for themselves. • Successful coalitions have been found to contain fluid membership and are able to form swiftly, achieve their target issue, and quickly disappear. 4. Predictions about Coalition Formation • First, coalitions in organizations often seek to maximize their size. a. Decision‐making in organizations does not end just with selection from among a set of alternatives. b. The decision must also be implemented. c. The implementation of and commitment to the decision is at least as important as the decision. d. It is necessary for coalitions in organizations to seek a broad constituency. e. This coalition expansion is to facilitate consensus building f. In political science theory, coalitions move the other way—they try to minimize their size. • Another prediction relates to the degree of interdependence within the organization. a. More coalitions will likely be created where there is a great deal of task and resource interdependence. b. In contrast, there will be less interdependence among subunits and less coalition formation activity where subunits are largely self‐contained or resources are abundant. • Finally, coalition formation will be influenced by the actual tasks that workers do. a. The more routine the task of a group, the greater the likelihood that coalitions will form. b. The more that the work that people do is routine, the greater their substitutability. SEXUAL HARASSMENT: UNEQUAL POWER IN THE WORKPLACE 1. Importance: • The issue received increasing attention by corporations and the media in the 1980s because of the growing ranks of female employees. • It was the congressional hearings in the fall of 1991 in which law professor Anita Hill graphically accused Supreme Court nominee Clarence Thomas of sexual harassment that challenged organizations to reassess their harassment policies and practices. 2. Sexual Harassment Defined: • "Any unwanted activity of a sexual nature that affects an individual’s employment." • A 1993 Supreme Court decision added that the key test for determining if sexual harassment has occurred is whether comments or behavior in a work environment “would reasonably be perceived, and is perceived, as hostile or abusive.’’ • There continues to be disagreement as to what specifically constitutes sexual harassment:
a. Overt forms of sexual harassment of female employees. This includes unwanted physical touching, recurring requests for dates when it is made clear the woman is not interested, and coercive threats that a woman will lose her job if she refuses a sexual proposition. b. The problem today—subtle forms of sexual harassment such as unwanted looks or comments, off‐color jokes, sexual artifacts like nude calendars in the workplace, etc. Most studies confirm that the concept of power is central to understanding sexual harassment. The supervisor‐employee dyad best characterizes an unequal power relationship. a. It is also worth noting that individuals who occupy high‐status roles (like management positions) sometimes believe that sexually harassing female employees is merely an extension of their right to make demands on lower‐status individuals. b. Because of power inequities, sexual harassment by one’s boss typically creates the greatest difficulty for those who are being harassed. Although coworkers do not have position power, they can have influence and use it to sexually harass peers. a. Coworkers are the most frequent perpetrators of sexual harassment in organizations. b. Coworkers exercise power by providing or withholding information, cooperation, and support. Women in positions of power can be subjected to sexual harassment from males who occupy less powerful positions. The employee devalues the woman through highlighting traditional gender stereotypes that reflect negatively on the woman in power. Sexual harassment is about power: a. It is about an individual controlling or threatening another individual. b. It is wrong. c. It is illegal.
POLITICS: POWER IN ACTION 1. Definition: those activities that are not required as part of one’s formal role in the organization, but that influence, or attempt to influence, the distribution of advantages and disadvantages within the organization. 2. This definition encompasses key elements. a. Political behavior is outside one’s specified job requirements. b. It encompasses efforts to influence the goals, criteria, or processes used for decision‐ making. c. It includes such varied political behaviors as withholding key information from decision makers, whistle blowing, spreading rumors, leaking confidential information, etc. 3. The “Legitimate‐Illegitimate” Dimension • Legitimate political behavior refers to normal everyday politics—complaining to your supervisor, bypassing the chain of command, forming coalitions, etc. • Illegitimate political behaviors that violate the implied rules of the game, such as sabotage, whistle blowing, and symbolic protests, etc.
A. 7. 2. and have a high need for power are more likely to engage in political behavior. 4. that is not the organization most people work in. if all members of that organization hold the same goals and interests. however. 3. the less likely he/she is to use illegitimate means. The more that a person has invested and the more a person has to lose. not everyone’s interests can be provided for causing the conflict. Individual factors: • Researchers have identified certain personality traits. which often turns potential conflict into real conflict. The Reality of Politics 1. 6. What’s an adequate improvement? 5. The Machiavellian personality is comfortable using politics as a means to further his/her self‐interest. Politics is a fact of life in organizations. and interests. Factors Contributing to Political Behavior 1. perceived alternatives. Organizations are made up of individuals and groups with different values. Employees who are high self‐monitors. and expectations of success will influence the tendency to pursue illegitimate means of political action. people within organizations will use whatever influence they can to taint the facts to support their goals and interests. The high self‐monitor is more sensitive to social cues and is more likely to be skilled in political behavior than the low self‐monitor. d.• The vast majority of all organizational political actions are legitimate. a. goals. Resources in organizations are also limited. c. b. This sets up the potential for conflict over resources. 87 . a. Most managerial decisions take place in the large and ambiguous middle ground of organizational life. Because resources are limited. • An individual’s investment in the organization. possess an internal locus of control. The extreme illegitimate forms of political behavior pose a very real risk of loss of organizational membership or extreme sanction. Individuals with an internal locus of control are more prone to take a proactive stance and attempt to manipulate situations in their favor. What is good performance? b. a. and other factors that are likely to be related to political behavior. needs. • These forces create a competition. The most important factor leading to politics within organizations is the realization that most of the “facts” that are used to allocate the limited resources are open to interpretation. It is possible for an organization to be politics free. Because most decisions have to be made in a climate of ambiguity. These are activities we call politicking. • Gains by one individual or group are often perceived as being at the expense of others.
unclear performance evaluation systems. democratic decision‐making. The more alternative job opportunities an individual has. • Sharing their power with others runs directly against some managers’ desires. you must lose! • This encourages making others look bad and increasing the visibility of what you do. zero‐sum reward allocation practices. A low expectation of success in using illegitimate means diminishes the probability of its use. Role ambiguity means that the prescribed behaviors of the employee are not clear. When an organization’s resources are declining. the more unlikely that the employee will be held accountable for his/her political behaviors. politics is more likely to surface. • The greater the role ambiguity. when the existing pattern of resources is changing.” • The more time that elapses between an action and its appraisal. g. Organizational factors: • Political activity is probably more a function of the organization’s characteristics than of • individual difference variables. e. the more likely he/she will risk illegitimate political actions. and self‐serving senior managers will create breeding grounds for politicking. h. • There are fewer limits to the scope and functions of the employee’s political actions.b. people may engage in political actions to safeguard what they have. f. 2. and when there is opportunity for promotions. a prominent reputation. b. If I win. The less trust there is within the organization. d. a. When organizations downsize to improve efficiency. Subjective criteria in the appraisal process: • Subjective performance criteria create ambiguity. role ambiguity. c. or influential contacts outside the organization. Promotion decisions have consistently been found to be one of the most political in organizations. • Single outcome measures encourage doing whatever is necessary to “look good. The zero‐sum approach treats the reward “pie” as fixed so that any gain one person or group achieves has to come at the expense of another person or group. the higher the level of political behavior and the more likely it will be illegitimate. Making organizations less autocratic by asking managers to behave more democratically is not necessarily embraced by all individual managers. Cultures characterized by low trust. high pressures for performance. the more one can engage in political activity with little chance of it being visible. c. 88 .
3. i.The result is that managers. The effect of politics is moderated by the knowledge the individual has of the decision making system and his/her political skills: • High political skills individuals often have improved performance. 5. conferences. In countries that are more unstable politically.” there is motivation to do whatever is necessary to make sure the outcome is favorable. the more likely they are to engage in politicking. B. 5. 3. you may be discredited. a climate is created that supports politicking. change. may be offered with sincerity. 2. • Being perceived positively by others should have benefits for people in organizations. especially those who began their careers in the 1950s and 1960s. The perception of politics leads to anxiety or stress. The more pressure that employees feel to perform well. It is a de‐motivating force and performance may suffer as a result. regardless of the beneficial or detrimental effects for them. 4. When employees see top management successfully engaging in political behavior. If the image claimed is false. Who engages in IM—the high self‐monitor • Low self‐monitors tend to present images of themselves that are consistent with their personalities. • If a person perceives that his or her entire career is riding on the next “whatever. 89 • . and group meetings in a superficial way as arenas for maneuvering and manipulating. There is very strong evidence indicating that perceptions of organizational politics are negatively related to job satisfaction. When it get too much to handle. • Excuses and acclaiming. j. 2. employees quit. Reaction to organizational politics is also moderated by culture. Impression Management 1. How Do People Respond to Organizational Politics? 1. or blame. • Low political skills individuals often respond with defensive behaviors—reactive and protective behaviors to avoid action. • High self‐monitors are good at reading situations and molding their appearances and behavior to fit each situation. 4. for instance. IM does not imply that the impressions people convey are necessarily false. A. workers will tolerate higher levels of politicking that more politically stable counties. Situations that are characterized by high uncertainty or ambiguity that provide relatively little information for challenging a fraudulent claim increase the likelihood of individuals misrepresenting themselves. Misrepresentation can have a high cost. The process by which individuals attempt to control the impression others form of them • We know that people have an ongoing interest in how others perceive and evaluate them. may use the required committees. • You can actually believe that ads contribute little to sales in your region or that you are the key to the tripling of your division’s sales.
The second question concerns the rights of other parties. 5. The first question you need to answer addresses self‐interest versus organizational goals. • These have been essentially limited to job interview success. 7. and they received more job offers. Ethical actions are consistent with the organization’s goals. Only a limited number of studies have been undertaken to test the effectiveness of IM techniques. and process conflict. Define conflict. human relations. The Ethics of Behaving Politically 1.6. The final question that needs to be addressed relates to whether or not the political activity conforms to standards of equity and justice. rights. Contrast distributive and integrative bargaining. 6. When the applicants’ credentials were also considered. interviewers felt that those applicants for a position as a customer service representative who used IM techniques performed better in the interview. Three ethical decision criteria are utilitarianism. 2. A more recent study confirmed the value of a controlling style. 3. Contrast task. relationship. 5. Another employment interview study looked at which IM techniques worked best. In one study. Chapter 14 CONFLICT AND NEGOTIATION Learning Objectives After studying this chapter. C. the answers to these questions are often argued in ways to make unethical practices seem ethical. enthusiasm. 90 . it was apparent that the IM techniques alone that influenced the interviewers. Those applicants who used the controlling style were rated higher by interviewers on factors such as motivation. They can persuasively argue that unfair actions are really fair and just. Differentiate between the traditional. and the interviewers seemed somewhat more inclined to hire these people. and even technical skills. students should be able to: 1. See Exhibit 13‐8 for an illustration of a decision tree to guide ethical actions. Describe the five conflict‐handling intentions. 4. • • • The researchers compared IM techniques that focused the conversation on themselves (called a controlling style) with techniques that focused on the interviewer (referred to as a submissive style). 2. Outline the conflict process. Unfortunately. and justice. and interactionist views of conflict. 8. Powerful people can become very good at explaining self‐serving behaviors. 3. 4. • The evidence is that IM behavior works.
Describe cultural differences in negotiations. Chapter Overview Many people automatically assume that conflict is related to lower group and organizational performance. when you perceive no chance of satisfying your concerns. or more important issues are pressing. to build social credits for later issues. where unpopular actions need implementing (in cost cutting. This chapter has demonstrated that this assumption is frequently incorrect. when potential disruption outweighs the benefits of resolution. when conflict is at an optimal level. The following provides some guidelines: • Use competition when quick. to arrive at 91 . levels of conflict can be either too high or too low. and to work through feelings that have interfered with a relationship. on issues vital to the organization’s welfare when you know you are right. when others can resolve the conflict more effectively. when issues are more important to others than yourself and to satisfy others and maintain cooperation. when your objective is to learn. to learn. discipline). to merge insights from people with different perspectives. Either extreme hinders performance. stimulate creativity. An optimal level is where there is enough conflict to prevent stagnation. to gain commitment by incorporating concerns into a consensus. motivation should be enhanced through the creation of a challenging and questioning environment with a vitality that makes work interesting. resulting in reduced satisfaction of group members.7. 8. and there should be the amount of turnover needed to rid the organization of misfits and poor performers. As shown in Exhibit 14‐8. on important issues. • Use accommodation when you find you are wrong and to allow a better position to be heard. enforcing unpopular rules. and to allow employees to develop by learning from mistakes. • Use compromise when goals are important but not worth the effort of potential disruption of more assertive approaches. eventually. • Use collaboration to find an integrative solution when both sets of concerns are too important to be compromised. Inadequate or excessive levels of conflict can hinder the effectiveness of a group or an organization. when gathering information supersedes immediate decision. and to show your reasonableness. yet not so much as to be disruptive or deter coordination of activities. to let people cool down and regain perspective. and against people who take advantage of noncompetitive behavior. and. when opponents with equal power are committed to mutually exclusive goals. and when issues seem tangential or symptomatic of other issues. to achieve temporary settlements to complex issues. What advice can we give managers faced with excessive conflict and the need to reduce it? Do not assume there is one conflict‐handling intention that will always be best! You should select an intention appropriate for the situation. when harmony and stability are especially important. and initiate the seeds for change. allow tensions to be released. complacency and apathy should be minimized. to minimize loss when you are outmatched and losing. On the other hand. lower productivity. • Use avoidance when an issue is trivial. increased absence and turnover rates. decisive action is vital (in emergencies). Identify the five steps in the negotiation process. Conflict can be either constructive or destructive to the functioning of a group or unit.
Conflict was synonymous with such terms that reinforced its negative connotation. There are several common themes which underlie most definitions: • The parties to it must perceive conflict. We define conflict as “a process that begins when one party perceives that another party has negatively affected. something that the first party cares about. The Traditional View 1. TRANSITIONS IN CONFLICT THOUGHT 1. By definition. it was harmful and was to be avoided. and the failure of managers to be responsive to their employees. or is about to negatively affect. Negotiation was shown to be an ongoing activity in groups and organizations. This early approach assumed that all conflict was bad. The human relations view argues that conflict is a natural and inevitable outcome in any group and that it need not be evil.” • This describes that point when an interaction “crosses over” to become an inter‐party conflict. This view was consistent with the prevailing attitudes about group behavior in the 1930s and 1940s. B. • It encompasses the wide range of conflicts that people experience in organizations. Distributive bargaining can resolve disputes but it often negatively affects one or more negotiators’ satisfaction because it is focused on the short term and because it is confrontational. tends to provide outcomes that satisfy all parties and that build lasting relationships. • Commonalties in the definitions are opposition or incompatibility and some form of interaction. The Human Relations View 92 . CHAPTER NOTES A DEFINITION OF CONFLICT 1. 2. Conflict was seen as a dysfunctional outcome resulting from poor communication. 2. a lack of openness and trust between people. in contrast. 3. 2. Integrative bargaining. A. The traditional view of conflict argues that it must be avoided—it indicates a malfunctioning with the group. and as a backup when collaboration or competition is unsuccessful. The inter‐actionist approach proposes that conflict can be a positive force in a group but explicitly argues that some conflict is absolutely necessary for a group to perform effectively. but has the potential to be a positive force in determining group performance.expedient solutions under time pressure.
THE CONFLICT PROCESS A. 2. Group leaders maintain enough conflict to keep the group viable. These conflicts are almost always dysfunctional. it must be kept low. 2. and “noise” in the communication channels. a.1. improving group performance. The Inter‐actionist View 1. For process conflict to be productive. Stage I: Potential Opposition or Incompatibility First is the presence of conditions that create opportunities for conflict to arise. and noise in the communication channel are all barriers to communication and potential antecedents to conflict. The human relations view dominated conflict theory from the late 1940s through the mid‐ 1970s. a. insufficient exchange of information. jargon. c. 3. Low‐to‐moderate levels of task conflict are functional and consistently demonstrate a positive effect on group performance because it stimulates discussion. Conflict is a natural occurrence in all groups and organizations. structure. and creative. and personal variables 1. tranquil. b. • Differing word connotations. Since it was natural and inevitable it should be accepted. Low‐levels of process conflict are functional and could enhance team performance. Communication • Communication as a source of conflict represents those opposing forces that arise from semantic difficulties. 3. misunderstandings. C. peaceful. Three general categories: communication. Intense arguments create uncertainty. • Task conflict relates to the content and goals of the work. Whether a conflict is good or bad depends on the type of conflict. Conflicts that hinder group performance are dysfunctional or destructive forms of conflict. This approach encourages conflict on the grounds that a harmonious. 4. self‐critical. What differentiates functional from dysfunctional conflict? You need to look at the type of conflict. The friction and interpersonal hostilities inherent in relationship conflicts increase personality clashes and decrease mutual understanding. FUNCTIONAL VS. It cannot be eliminated and may even contribute to group performance. 2. The inter‐actionist view is the one taken in this chapter. • Process conflict relates to how the work gets done. DYSFUNCTIONAL CONFLICT 1. b. Not all conflicts are good. constructive forms of conflict support the goals of the group and improve its performance. and cooperative group is prone to becoming static and non‐responsive to needs for change and innovation. 93 . • Relationship conflict focuses on interpersonal relationships. Functional.
Value differences are the best explanation for differences of opinion on various matters.Semantic difficulties are a result of differences in training. reward systems. B. • Size and specialization act as forces to stimulate conflict. Personal variables • Include individual value systems and personality characteristics. 4. • Positive feelings increase the tendency to see potential relationships among the elements of a problem. This stage is where conflict issues tend to be defined and this definition delineates the possible settlements. to take a broader view of the situation. • Negative emotions produce oversimplification of issues. 2. the greater the likelihood of conflict. • Too much reliance on participation may also stimulate conflict. the greater the potential for conflict. 3. and to develop more innovative solutions. Certain personality types lead to potential conflict. if a group is dependent on another group. jurisdictional clarity. • The diversity of goals among groups is a major source of conflict. The larger the group and more specialized its activities. Second. • Finally. C. • Reward systems. leadership styles. Stage III: Intentions 1. • The potential for conflict is greatest where group members are younger and turnover is high. 2. degree of specialization. 3. Antecedent conditions lead to conflict only when the parties are affected by and aware of it. too. selective perception. and the degree of dependence. Conflict is personalized when it is felt and when individuals become emotionally involved. and negative interpretations of the other party’s behavior. member‐goal compatibility. Stage II: Cognition and Personalization 1. 2. opposing forces are stimulated. Why are intentions separated out as a distinct stage? Merely one party attributing the wrong intentions to the other escalates a lot of conflicts. • The potential for conflict increases when either too little or too much communication takes place. • The channel chosen for communicating can have an influence on stimulating opposition. • 94 . • A close style of leadership increases conflict potential. emotions play a major role in shaping perceptions. • Most important is differing value systems. • The greater the ambiguity in responsibility for actions lies. Structure • The term structure includes variables such as size. Intentions are decisions to act in a given way. reductions in trust. are found to create conflict when one member’s gain is at another’s expense. and inadequate information.
conflicts exist somewhere along a continuum (See Exhibit 14‐4). • Functional conflicts are typically confined to the lower range of the continuum. and the solution provides incomplete satisfaction of both parties’ concerns. • They might change because of reconceptualization or because of an emotional reaction. The intention is to solve the problem by clarifying differences rather than by accommodating. 95 . conflicts are characterized by subtle. Five conflict‐handling intentions can be identified. and highly controlled forms of tension.” • Assertiveness—“the degree to which one party attempts to satisfy his or her own concerns. The behavior stage includes the statements. • It may be more appropriate to view the five conflict‐handling intentions as relatively fixed rather than as a set of options from which individuals choose to fit an appropriate situation. D. • Competing: When one person seeks to satisfy his or her own interests. Stage IV is where conflicts become visible. Stage IV is a dynamic process of interaction. • Compromising: When each party to the conflict seeks to give up something. that party is willing to be self‐sacrificing. and reactions made by the conflicting parties. • However. • Avoiding: A person may recognize that a conflict exists and want to withdraw from it or suppress it. actions. One author’s effort to identify the primary conflict‐handling intentions is represented in Exhibit 14‐2 is along two dimensions: • Cooperativeness—“the degree to which one party attempts to satisfy the other party’s concerns. There is no clear winner or loser. • At the lower part of the continuum.3. 2. individuals have preferences among the five conflict‐handling intentions. Stage IV: Behavior 1. Intentions provide general guidelines for parties in a conflict situation. regardless of the impact on the other parties to the conflict • Collaborating: When the parties to conflict each desire to fully satisfy the concerns of all parties. • Accommodating: When one party seeks to appease an opponent. These conflict behaviors are usually overt attempts to implement each party’s intentions. resulting in a compromised outcome. • Conflict intensities escalate as they move upward along the continuum until they become highly destructive. They define each party’s purpose.” 4. 5. sharing occurs. indirect. Exhibit 14‐4 lists the major resolution and stimulation techniques. but they are not fixed. 3.
Encourages interest and curiosity. promotes reassessment of group goals and activities. • Conflict challenges the status quo. • Undesirable consequences: a. The comparison of six major decisions made during the administration of four different US presidents found that conflict reduced the chance of groupthink. b. An investigation of 22 teams of systems analysts found that the more incompatible groups were likely to be more productive. 96 . • The evidence suggests that conflict can improve the quality of decision‐making. improve the quality of decisions. a. and increases the probability that the group will respond to change. d. a. b. studies of professionals—systems analysts and research and development scientists—support the constructive value of conflict. When groups analyzed decisions that had been made by the individual members of that group. c.E. b. which acts to dissolve common ties and eventually leads to the destruction of the group. • Conflict is an antidote for groupthink. Subordination of group goals to the primacy of infighting between members • Conflict can bring group functioning to a halt and potentially threaten the group’s survival. furthers the creation of new ideas. or dysfunctional in hindering it. Fosters an environment of self‐evaluation and change. unique ideas than those produced by the all‐Anglo group. • Similarly. The ethnically diverse groups produced more effective and more feasible ideas and higher quality. and facilitate change by enhancing member flexibility. 3. Outcomes may be functional—improving group performance. A retarding of communication b. Reductions in group cohesiveness c. Research and development scientists have been found to be most productive where there is a certain amount of intellectual conflict. Improves the quality of decisions. Functional outcomes • How might conflict act as a force to increase group performance? • Conflict is constructive when it: a. Provides the medium through which problems can be aired and tensions released. • Increasing cultural diversity of the workforce should provide benefits to organizations. the average improvement among the high‐conflict groups was 73 percent greater than was that of those groups characterized by low‐conflict conditions. Heterogeneity among group and organization members can increase creativity. a. • Research studies in diverse settings confirm the functionality of conflict. e. Stimulates creativity and innovation. E. Stage V: Outcomes 1. 2. Dysfunctional outcomes • Uncontrolled opposition breeds discontent.
” We use the terms negotiation and bargaining interchangeably. Distributive bargaining • An example of distributive bargaining is buying a car: a. even‐tempered questions: “Can you tell me more about what happened?. • One common ingredient in organizations that successfully create functional conflict is that they reward dissent and punish conflict avoiders.” and offer a sincere “Thank you. One of New York’s best‐known law firms. Negotiation permeates the interactions of almost everyone in groups and organizations. It is great and you want it. The owner tells you the asking price. There are two general approaches to negotiation: distributive bargaining and integrative bargaining. • Managers negotiate with employees. and vice versa. • A high proportion of people who get to the top are conflict avoiders. The two of you then negotiate over the price. You do not want to pay that much. • At least seven out of ten people in American business hush up when their opinions are at odds with those of their superiors. • 97 . Negotiation is a “process in which two or more parties exchange goods or services and attempt to agree upon the exchange rate for them. • Its most identifying feature is that it operates under zero‐sum conditions.The demise of an organization as a result of too much conflict is not as unusual as it might first appear. Shea & Gould. allowing bosses to make mistakes even when they know better. labor bargains with management. • Such anti‐conflict cultures are not tolerable in today’s fiercely competitive global economy. they encourage functional conflict. This process frequently results in decisions and alternatives that previously had not been considered. 6. 2. (See Exhibit 14‐5) 2. however. You go out to see the car. 4. • A worker agrees to answer a colleague’s phone for a few minutes in exchange for some past or future benefit. closed down solely because the 80 partners just could not get along. 3. particularly in large American corporations. Any gain I make is at your expense. b. Creating functional conflict is a tough job.” “What do you think we ought to do?. • Salespeople negotiate with customers. Not so obvious. Bargaining Strategies 1. • Managers should ask calm. G. peers. Creating functional conflict • If managers accept the inter‐actionist view toward conflict. • Purchasing agents negotiate with suppliers. c.” NEGOTIATION 1. and bosses. 5. • The real challenge for managers is when they hear news that they do not want to hear. For example.
The sale will go through with a bank guarantee that will ensure payment if not made in 60 days. and what are their perceptions of the conflict? What do you want from the negotiation? What are your goals? • • 98 . c. a. Preparation and planning: • Do your homework. The area between these two points makes up each one’s aspiration range. integrative bargaining is preferable to distributive bargaining. 3. • This example operates under the assumption that there exists one or more settlements that can create a win‐win solution. The two openly review their options. • The essence of distributive bargaining is depicted in Exhibit 14‐6. all things being equal. which marks the lowest outcome that is acceptable. Each has a target point that defines what he or she would like to achieve. a. The Negotiation Process 1. A sensitivity by both parties to the other’s needs c. b. 2. • In terms of intra‐organizational behavior. d. They want to make the sale. b. leaves one party a loser. What is the nature of the conflict? What is the history leading up to this negotiation? Who is involved. The ability to trust one another d. • When engaged in distributive bargaining. it bonds negotiators and allows each to leave the bargaining table feeling victorious. As long as there is some overlap between A and B’s aspiration ranges. one’s tactics focus on trying to get one’s opponent to agree to one’s specific target point or to get as close to it as possible. c. • Why do we not see more integrative bargaining in organizations? The answer lies in the conditions necessary for this type of negotiation to succeed.The most widely cited example of distributive bargaining is in labor‐management negotiations over wages. Distributive bargaining. but do not want to get stuck with uncollectable debt. Each also has a resistance point. on the other hand. they agree on a solution that meets both their needs. there exists a settlement range where each one’s aspirations can be met. a. A willingness by both parties to maintain flexibility H. The next day. Integrative bargaining • An example: A sales rep calls in the order and is told that the firm cannot approve credit to this customer because of a past slow‐pay record. e. After considerable discussion. the sales rep and the firm’s credit manager meet to discuss the problem. Parties who are open with information and candid about their concerns b. It tends to build animosities and deepens divisions. A simplified model of the negotiation process is provided in Exhibit 14‐7. • Because integrative bargaining builds long‐term relationships and facilitates working together in the future. Parties A and B represent two negotiators.
and relationship‐ oriented in negotiations than are men. • Overall assessments of the personality‐negotiation relationship finds that personality traits have no significant direct effect on either the bargaining process or negotiation outcomes. a. • A popular stereotype is that women are more cooperative. Issues in Negotiation 1. • Once you have gathered your information. The role of personality traits in negotiation • Can you predict an opponent’s negotiating tactics if you know something about his/her personality? The evidence says no. • Concessions will undoubtedly need to be made by both parties. amplify. the parties will also exchange their initial proposals or demands. 5. When you can anticipate your opponent’s position. explain. clarify. you are better equipped to counter his or her arguments with the facts and figures that support your position. if any. Closure and implementation: • The final step—formalizing the agreement that has been worked out and developing any procedures that are necessary for implementation and monitoring • Major negotiations will require hammering out the specifics in a formal contract. • Comparisons between experienced male and female managers find women are: 99 • . • Determine your and the other side’s Best Alternative To a Negotiated Agreement (BATNA). closure of the negotiation process is nothing more formal than a handshake. 6. Bargaining and problem solving: • The essence of the negotiation process is the actual give and take in trying to hash out an agreement. Any offer you receive that is higher than your BATNA is better than an impasse. pleasant. Definition of ground rules: • Who will do the negotiating? Where will it take place? What time constraints. 4. The evidence does not support this. • You might want to provide the other party with any documentation that helps support your position. I. and justify your original demands • This need not be confrontational. Clarification and justification: • When initial positions have been exchanged. • For most cases. use it to develop a strategy. bolster. b.You also want to prepare an assessment of what you think the other party to your negotiation’s goals are. Your BATNA determines the lowest value acceptable to you for a negotiated agreement. will apply? • To what issues will negotiation be limited? Will there be a specific procedure to follow if an impasse is reached? • During this phase. a. 2. however. 3. Gender differences in negotiations • Men and women do not negotiate differently.
• The French like conflict. and Russians negotiating style. Neither more cooperative nor open to the other. Arabs. the Chinese executive might smile and start the process all over again. • Women’s attitudes toward negotiation and toward themselves appear to be different from men’s. and how they handled negotiating deadlines. Cultural differences in negotiations • Negotiating styles clearly vary across national cultures. 5. b. regardless of gender. a. a. They countered opponent’s arguments with subjective feelings. a. 4. a. • Americans are known around the world for their impatience and their desire to be liked. Just when you think you have reached a final solution. b. b. The cultural context of the negotiation significantly influences the amount and type of preparation for bargaining. etc. They gain recognition and develop their reputations by thinking and acting against others. and they are not overly concerned about whether their opponents like or dislike them. • The belief that women are “nicer” is probably due to confusing gender and the lack of power typically held by women. how they responded to an opponent’s arguments. their approach to making concessions. b. Low‐power managers. b. attempt to placate their opponents and to use softly persuasive tactics rather than direct confrontation and threats. Arabs approached deadlines very casually. the Chinese negotiate to develop a relationship and a commitment to work together. c. Managerial women demonstrate less confidence in anticipation of negotiating and are less satisfied with their performance despite achieving similar outcomes as men. • North Americans tried to persuade others by relying on facts and appealing to logic. 100 . the emphasis on task versus interpersonal relationships. • The Arabs tried to persuade by appealing to emotion. the tactics used. a. a.a. Like the Japanese. Astute negotiators often turn these characteristics to their advantage. A study compared North Americans. Women may unduly penalize themselves by failing to engage in negotiations when such action would be in their best interests. Neither worse nor better negotiators. b. • The Russians based their arguments on asserted ideals. a. Neither more nor less persuasive nor threatening than are men. They tend to take a long time in negotiating agreements. c. North Americans treated deadlines as very important. 3. They made small concessions early in the negotiation to establish a relationship and usually reciprocated the opponent’s concessions. • The Chinese also draw out negotiations but that is because they believe negotiations never end. They made concessions throughout the bargaining process and almost always reciprocated opponents’ concessions.
The authority of the arbitrator varies according to the rules set by the negotiators. 7. Comparing its effectiveness to mediation has proven difficult. and persuading disputants to develop agreements. • A mediator is a neutral third party who facilitates a negotiated solution by using reasoning and persuasion. the Brazilians touched each other almost five times every half‐hour. • A conciliator is “a trusted third party who provides an informal communication link among parties. b. They are widely used in labor‐management negotiations and in civil court disputes. Conciliators engage in fact finding. • Finally. if any. • An arbitrator is “a third party with the authority to dictate an agreement. A second study looked at verbal and nonverbal negotiation tactics exhibited by North Americans. b. labor. c. or free to choose and make any judgment.5 to 3 times more often. interpreting messages. b. 3. Conciliation is used extensively in international. Their settlement rate is approximately 60 percent. the Brazilians had none. suggesting alternatives. 101 . concessions. It can be voluntary (requested) or compulsory (forced on the parties by law or contract). e. c. d.” a. Japanese. Third‐party negotiations • When individuals or group representatives reach a stalemate and are unable to resolve their differences through direct negotiations. and Brazilians during half‐hour bargaining sessions. Any negative depends on how “heavy‐handed” the arbitrator appears. d. the Russians tended to ignore deadlines. and the like. they may turn to a third party. intensity cannot be too high.a. Finally. while the Japanese and the North Americans had no physical contact with their opponents during negotiations except for handshaking. but the Brazilians interrupted 2. c. They made few. Any concession offered by an opponent was viewed as a weakness and almost never reciprocated.” a. c. family. • North Americans averaged 3. a. b. and the mediator must be perceived as neutral and noncoercive. This role was made famous by Robert Duval in the first Godfather film. • The Japanese and North Americans interrupted their opponent about the same number of times. • Brazilians on average said “No” 83 times compared to five times for the Japanese and nine times for the North Americans. with negotiator satisfaction at about 75 percent. The key to success—the conflicting parties must be motivated to bargain and resolve their conflict. • The Japanese displayed more than five periods of silence lasting longer than ten seconds during the 30‐minute sessions. and community disputes. The big plus of arbitration over mediation is that it always results in a settlement.5 such periods. The arbitrator might be limited to choosing one of the negotiator’s last offers or to suggesting an agreement point that is nonbinding.
These favorable or unfavorable perceptions then affect employee performance and satisfaction. Just as people’s personalities tend to be stable over time. team emphasis. Contrast strong and weak cultures. When a culture becomes mismatched to its environment. 5. Define the common characteristics making up organizational culture. 4. Employees form an overall subjective perception of the organization based on such factors as degree of risk tolerance. Identify characteristics of a spiritual culture. 6. In contrast to the previous roles. so too do strong cultures. and support of people. the organization’s culture or personality. This approach has a longer‐term focus: to build new and positive perceptions and attitudes between the conflicting parties. is that managers should treat their organization’s culture as relatively fixed. Hiring individuals whose values do not align with those of the organization is likely to 102 . Chapter 16 ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE Learning Objectives After studying this chapter. 8. 10. Identify the functional and dysfunctional effects of organizational culture on people and the organization. Chapter Overview Exhibit 18‐7 depicts organizational culture as an intervening variable. 3. 7. 2. Describe a customer‐responsive culture. Clarify how culture is transmitted to employees. The result. List the factors that maintain an organization’s culture. as the Point‐Counterpoint debate for this chapter demonstrates. However. in effect. Outline the various socialization alternatives available to management. aided by his or her knowledge of conflict management. management will want to change it. the consultant’s role is to improve relations between the conflicting parties so that they can reach a settlement themselves. 9. with the impact being greater for stronger cultures. Describe institutionalization and its relationship to organizational culture. b. changing an organization’s culture is a long and difficult process. This makes strong cultures difficult for managers to change. Explain the factors determining an organization’s culture.• A consultant is “a skilled and impartial third party who attempts to facilitate problem solving through communication and analysis. This overall perception becomes. One of the more important managerial implications of organizational culture relates to selection decisions. at least in the short term.” a. students should be able to: 1.
on some jobs. 3. fundamentally. • It redefines itself. 2.” 2. it is valued for itself. Not surprisingly. Institutionalization produces common understandings about what is appropriate and. the appraisal of an individual’s performance includes how well the person fits into the organization. Furthermore. organizations were rational means by which to coordinate and control people. unfriendly or supportive. such an approach may be evaluated negatively. Can he or she get along with coworkers? Does he/she have acceptable work habits and demonstrate the right attitude? These qualities differ between jobs and organizations. As a result. This is essentially the same thing that organizational culture does. We should also not overlook the influence socialization has on employee performance.lead to employees who lack motivation and commitment and who are dissatisfied with their jobs and the organization. On another job. Acceptable modes of behavior become largely self‐evident to its members. Understanding the right way to do a job indicates proper socialization. When an organization becomes institutionalized. • Harvard and MIT are in the same business—education—but each has a unique character. This system of shared meaning is a set of key characteristics that the organization values. not merely what it produces: • It acquires immortality. The research suggests seven primary characteristics: • Innovation and risk taking • Attention to detail • Outcome orientation 103 . Organizations have personalities too. meaningful behavior. proper socialization becomes a significant factor in influencing both actual job performance and how it is perceived by others. • General Electric offices and people are different from the offices and people at General Mills. WHAT IS ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE? 1. 6. The origin of culture as an independent variable affecting an employee’s attitudes and behavior can be traced back more than 50 years ago to the notion of institutionalization. innovative or conservative. For instance. or on the same job in another organization. 4. CHAPTER NOTES INSTITUTIONALIZATION: A FORERUNNER OF CULTURE 1. employee “misfits” have considerably higher turnover rates than individuals who perceive a good fit. An employee’s performance depends to a considerable degree on knowing what he should or should not do. Organizational culture—“a system of shared meaning held by members that distinguishes the organization from other organizations. Until the mid‐1980s. Viewing organizations as cultures—where there is a system of shared meaning among members—is a relatively recent phenomenon. just like individuals: • They can be rigid or flexible. 5. employees will be evaluated more favorably if they are aggressive and outwardly indicate that they are ambitious.
Organizational culture is descriptive. • How things are done. 2. or experiences that members face: • Defined by department designations and geographical separation • It will include the core values plus additional values unique to members of the subculture. • The way members are supposed to behave. A dominant culture expresses the core values that are shared by a majority: • An organization’s culture is its dominant culture.People orientation Team orientation Aggressiveness Stability 3. • This macro view of culture that gives an organization its distinct personality. etc. This is the basis for: • Shared understanding that members have. 3. reward practices. Job satisfaction seeks to measure affective responses to the work environment. such as how employees feel about the organization’s expectations. Subcultures tend to develop in large organizations to reflect common problems. • We cannot ignore the reality that many organizations also have subcultures that can influence the behavior of members. The argument is that strong cultures have a greater impact on employee behavior and are more directly related to reduced turnover: • The organization’s core values are both intensely held and widely shared. the value of organizational culture as an independent variable would be significantly lessened: • It is the “shared meaning” aspect of culture that makes it such a potent device for guiding and shaping behavior. A. Do Organizations Have Uniform Cultures? 1. 4. Appraising the organization on these gives a composite picture of the organization’s culture. situations. 3. • The core values are essentially retained but modified to reflect the subculture. 2. C. 104 • • • • . Each exists on a continuum from low to high. not if they like them. 5. If organizations had no dominant culture and were composed only of numerous subcultures. Individuals with different backgrounds or at different levels in the organization will tend to describe the organization’s culture in similar terms. Research on organizational culture has sought to measure how employees see their organization. while job satisfaction is evaluative. Organizational culture is concerned with how employees perceive its characteristics. Culture Is a Descriptive Term 1. Strong vs. There can be subcultures. Most large organizations have a dominant culture and numerous sets of subcultures. Weak Cultures 1. B.
2. It conveys a sense of identity for organization members. Culture as a Liability 1. and taken for granted. It enhances social system stability. and organizational commitment. and consistency. Does national culture override an organization’s culture? The research indicates that national culture has a greater impact on employees than does their organization’s culture. D. 4. Who receives a job offer to join the organization. 2. The employee selection process will be used by multinationals to find and hire job applicants who are a good fit to their organization’s dominant culture. A high agreement about what the organization stands for builds cohesiveness. E. WHAT DO CULTURES DO? A. understandings. This has to be qualified to reflect the self‐selection that goes on at the hiring stage. formalization and culture are two different roads to a common destination. National cultures must be taken into account if accurate predictions are to be made about organizational behavior in different countries. Culture enhances organizational commitment and increases the consistency of employee behavior. implicit. Culture serves as a sense‐making and control mechanism that guides and shapes the attitudes and behavior of employees. One specific result of a strong culture should be lower employee turnover. It creates distinctions between one organization and others. 7. Organizational Culture vs. High formalization in an organization creates predictability. This last function is of particular interest to us: • Culture by definition is elusive. Culture vs. • Every organization develops a core set of assumptions. 3. Formalization 1.” B. but there are potentially dysfunctional aspects of culture. and who gets the promotion is strongly influenced by the individual‐organization “fit. The role of culture in influencing employee behavior appears to be increasingly important. 3. 3. Culture’s Functions 1. Culture is the social glue that helps hold the organization together. Barrier to change: 105 • . The shared meaning of a strong culture ensures that everyone is pointed in the same direction. intangible. A strong culture can act as a substitute for formalization. 2. orderliness. 2. 3. A strong culture achieves the same end without the need for written documentation. Culture facilitates commitment to something larger than one’s individual self‐interest. who is appraised as a high performer. 5. 6. National Culture 1. Therefore. and implicit rules that govern day‐to‐day behavior in the workplace. A strong organizational culture increases behavioral consistency. It has a boundary‐defining role.A strong culture will have a great influence on the behavior of its members because the high degree of shared‐ness and intensity creates an internal climate of high behavioral control. We are treating culture in a nonjudgmental manner. loyalty. 2.
How a Culture Begins 1. Barrier to acquisitions and mergers: • Historically. Whether the acquisition actually works seems to have more to do with how well the two organizations’ cultures match up. Product synergy • Cultural compatibility has become the primary concern. Eastman Kodak. and Boeing have had in recent years in adapting to upheavals in their environment. or other differences. General Motors. b. The ultimate source of an organization’s culture is its founders. They support institutional bias or become insensitive to people who are different. 3. Barrier to diversity: • Hiring new employees who. Kellogg. gender. are not like the ajority of the organization’s members creates a paradox. An organization’s culture comes from what it has done before and the degree of success it has had. The founders of an organization traditionally have a major impact on that organization’s early culture: • They had the vision. they want to support the differences that these employees bring to the workplace. the key factors that management looked at in making acquisition/merger decisions: a. they are unconstrained by previous customs or ideologies. Financial advantages b. • Strong cultures. disability. • The small size of new organizations facilitates the founders’ imposition of the vision on all organizational members. This is most likely to occur when an organization’s environment is dynamic. They effectively eliminate the unique strengths that diverse people bring to the organization. yet these diverse behaviors and strengths are likely to diminish in strong cultures. They limit the range of values and styles that are acceptable. • Management wants new employees to accept the organization’s core cultural values but. can be liabilities when: a. • Organizations seek out and hire diverse individuals because of their alternative strengths. 4. • Strong cultures put considerable pressure on employees to conform. • This helps to explain the challenges that executives at companies like Mitsubishi. Culture creation occurs in three ways: • 106 . 2. 5. therefore.Culture is a liability when the shared values are not in agreement with those that will further the organization’s effectiveness. because of race. CREATING AND SUSTAINING CULTURE A. at the same time.
the actions of top management. where they “prove” their commitment.First. Three forces play a particularly important part in sustaining a culture: selection practices. the Marine trainers are indoctrinating new recruits in the “Marine way. There are practices within the organization that act to maintain it by giving employees a set of similar experiences. and other rewards. B. promotions. b. c. the founders’ entire personality becomes embedded in the culture of the organization. • This results in the hiring of people who have values consistent with those of the organization. and socialization methods. At the same time.” • 107 . What is appropriate dress. • Second. Keeping a Culture Alive 1. skills. 4. Socialization • New employees are not fully indoctrinated in the organization’s culture. • Additionally. becomes a two‐way street. Top management • The actions of top management. the selection process provides information to applicants about the organization. therefore. values. When the organization succeeds. 5. Each encounter seeks corroborating evidence of the traits that the firm believes correlate highly with “what counts” for success at P&G. what they say and how they behave. • Example—applicants for entry‐level positions in brand management at Procter & Gamble (P&G). How much freedom managers should give their employees. Selection. founders hire and keep only employees who think and feel the way the way they do. and assumptions. Risk taking. and abilities to perform the jobs within the organization successfully. d. • The final decision as to who is hired will be significantly influenced by the decision maker’s judgment of how well the candidates will fit into the organization. 4. • All Marines must go through boot camp. establish norms that filter down through the organization as to: a. Selection • The explicit goal of the selection process is to identify and hire individuals who have the knowledge. They are unfamiliar with the organization’s culture and are potentially likely to disturb the beliefs and customs that are in place. they indoctrinate and socialize these employees to their way of thinking and feeling. What actions will pay off in terms of pay raises. • Socialization is the organization helping new employees adapt to its culture. 2. 3. • The founders’ own behavior acts as a role model that encourages employees to identify with them and thereby internalize their beliefs.
At Starbucks, all new employees go through 24 hours of training covering everything necessary to make them brewing consultants. In addition, they learn the Starbucks philosophy, the company jargon, and even how to help customers make decisions about beans, grind, and espresso machines. The most critical socialization stage is at the time of entry into the organization: a. This is when the organization seeks to mold the outsider into an employee. b. The organization socializes every employee throughout his/her entire career.
6. Socialization is a process made up of three stages: pre‐arrival, encounter, and metamorphosis. • The first stage, pre‐arrival, encompasses all the learning that occurs before a new member joins. • The pre‐arrival stage recognizes that each individual arrives with a set of values, attitudes, and expectations about both the work to be done and the organization: a. In many jobs, particularly professional work, new members will have undergone a considerable degree of prior socialization in training and in school. b. The selection process informs prospective employees about the organization as a whole and acts to ensure the inclusion of the “right type”—those who will fit in. • In the second stage, encounter, the new employee sees what the organization is really like and confronts the possibility that expectations and reality may diverge. a. The individual confronts the possible dichotomy between his/her expectations— about his/her job, coworkers, boss, and the organization in general—and reality. b. If expectations are accurate, this stage merely reaffirms them. c. Where expectations and reality differ, the new employee must undergo socialization that will detach him/her from his/her previous assumptions and replace them with another set that the organization deems desirable. d. At the extreme, a new member may become totally disillusioned and resign. • In the third stage, metamorphosis, the relatively long‐lasting changes take place. The new employee masters the skills required for his/her job, successfully performs his/her new roles, and makes the adjustments to his/her work group’s values and norms. a. The more management relies on socialization programs that are formal, collective, fixed, serial, and emphasize divestiture, the greater the likelihood that newcomers’ differences and perspectives will be stripped away and replaced by standardized and predictable behaviors. b. Metamorphosis and the entry socialization process is complete when the new member has become comfortable with the organization and his job. ° He has internalized the norms of the organization and his work group and understands and accepts these norms. ° Exhibit 18‐4 shows successful metamorphosis should have a positive impact on the new employee’s productivity and his commitment to the organization, and reduce his propensity to leave the organization. HOW EMPLOYEES LEARN CULTURE PREPARED BY:DIVYANG K. VYAS SPCAM(MBA)
A. Stories 1. During the days when Henry Ford II was chairman of the Ford Motor Co., the message was Henry Ford II ran the company. 2. Nordstrom employees are fond of the story when Mr. Nordstrom instructed the clerk to take the tires back and provide a full cash refund. After the customer had received his refund and left, the perplexed clerk looked at the boss. “But, Mr. Nordstrom, we don’t sell tires!,” “I know,” replied the boss, “but we do whatever we need to do to make the customer happy. 3. Stories such as these typically contain a narrative of events about the organization’s founders, rule breaking, rags‐to‐riches successes, reductions in the workforce, relocation of employees, reactions to past mistakes, and organizational coping. 4. They anchor the present in the past and provide explanations and legitimacy for current practices: • For the most part, these stories develop spontaneously. • Some organizations actually try to manage this element of culture learning. B. Rituals 1. Rituals are repetitive sequences of activities that express and reinforce the key values of the organization, what goals are most important, which people are important, and which are expendable. 2. College faculty members undergo a lengthy ritual in their quest for permanent employment—tenure. The astute faculty member will assess early on in the probationary period what attitudes and behaviors his or her colleagues want and will then proceed to give them what they want. 3. One of the best‐known corporate rituals is Wal‐Mart’s company chant. W‐A‐L squiggle M‐A‐ R‐T! was Sam Walton’s way to motivate his workforce. C. Material Symbols 1. The headquarters of Alcoa does not look like your typical head office operation: • There are few individual offices. • The informal corporate headquarters conveys to employees that Alcoa values openness, equality, creativity, and flexibility. 2. Some corporations provide their top executives with a variety of expensive perks. Others provide fewer and less elaborate perks. 3. The layout of corporate headquarters, the types of automobiles top executives that are given, and the presence or absence of corporate aircraft are a few examples of material symbols. 4. These material symbols convey to employees who is important, the degree of egalitarianism desired by top management, and the kinds of behavior that are appropriate. D. Language
1. Many organizations and units use language as a way to identify members of a culture or subculture. By learning this language, members attest to their acceptance of the culture and help to preserve it. 2. Organizations, over time, often develop unique terms to describe equipment, offices, key personnel, suppliers, customers, or products that relate to its business. 3. New employees are frequently overwhelmed with acronyms and jargon that, after six months on the job, have become fully part of their language. 4. Once assimilated, this terminology acts as a common denominator that unites members of a given culture or subculture. CREATING AN ETHICAL ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE 1. The content and strength of a culture influences an organization’s ethical climate and the ethical behavior of its members. 2. An organizational culture most likely to shape high ethical standards is one that’s high in risk tolerance, low to moderate in aggressiveness, and focuses on means as well as outcomes. 3. If the culture is strong and supports high ethical standards, it should have a very powerful and positive influence on employee behavior. 4. What can management do to create a more ethical culture? 5. Be a visible role model. Employees will look to top‐management behavior as a benchmark for defining appropriate behavior. 6. Communicate ethical expectations. Ethical ambiguities can be minimized by creating and disseminating an organizational code of ethics. 7. Provide ethical training. Use training sessions to reinforce the organization’s standards of conduct; to clarify what practices are and are not permissible; and to address possible ethical dilemmas. 8. Visibly reward ethical acts and punish unethical ones. Performance appraisals of managers should include a point‐by‐point evaluation of how his or her decisions measure against the organization’s code of ethics. 9. Provide protective mechanisms. The organization needs to provide formal mechanisms so that employees can discuss ethical dilemmas and report unethical behavior without fear of reprimand. This might include creation of ethical counselors, ombudsmen, or ethical officers. CREATING A CUSTOMER‐RESPONSIVE CULTURE Most organizations are attempting to create a customer‐responsive culture because they recognize that this is the path to customer loyalty and long‐term profitability. A. Key Variables Shaping Customer‐Responsive Cultures 1. A review of the evidence finds that half‐a‐dozen variables are routinely evident in customer‐ responsive cultures. 2. First is the type of employees themselves. Successful, service‐oriented organizations hire employees who are outgoing and friendly. 3. Second is low formalization. Service employees need to have the freedom to meet changing customer service requirements. Rigid rules, procedures, and regulations make this difficult.
Selection • The place to start in building a customer‐responsive culture is hiring service‐contact people with the personality and attitudes consistent with a high service orientation. and attentiveness in service employees positively affect customers’ perceptions of service quality. enthusiasm. Empowered employees have the decision discretion to do what is necessary to please the customer.4. • Regular training updates in which the organization’s customer focused values are restated and reinforced is an important strategy. Managerial Action 1. Structural Design • Organization structures need to give employees more control. active listening. 7. 4. 3. Leadership • Effective leaders in customer‐responsive cultures deliver by conveying a customer‐ focused vision and demonstrate by their continual behavior that they are committed to customers. Finally. They are conscientious in their desire to please the customer. 7. They have to acquiesce to the demands of both their employer and the customer. showing patience. Service employees act as “boundary spanners” between the organization and its customers. • Studies show that friendliness. Empowerment • Empowering employees with the discretion to make day‐to‐day decisions about job‐ related activities 6. 6. • The content of these training programs will vary widely but should focus on improving product knowledge. B. Fifth is role clarity. Employees are better able to satisfy customers when they have some control over the service encounter. Fourth is good listening skills. Third is an extension of low formalization—it is the widespread use of empowerment. Performance Evaluation 111 . Managers should look for these qualities in applicants. customer‐responsive cultures have employees who exhibit organizational citizenship behavior. 5. In such cases. Employees in customer‐responsive cultures have the ability to listen to and understand messages sent by the customer. 2. 5. the emphasis will be on training rather than hiring. Training and Socialization • Management is often faced with the challenge of making its current employees more customer‐focused. This can be achieved by reducing rules and regulations. and displaying emotions. There are a number of actions that management can take if it wants to make its culture more customer‐responsive. • All new service‐contact people should be socialized into the organization’s goals and values.
2. Strong Sense of Purpose • Spiritual organizations build their cultures around a meaningful purpose. It should include ongoing recognition and it needs to make pay and promotions contingent on outstanding customer service. Trust and Openness • Spiritual organizations are characterized by mutual trust. 5. • Behavior based evaluations give employees the incentive to engage in behaviors that are conducive to improved service quality and gives employees more control over the conditions that affect their performance evaluations. 2. • Behavior‐based evaluations appraise employees on the basis of how they behave or act—on criteria such as effort. What is Spirituality? 1. commitment. 6. 8. honesty. An awareness of spirituality can help you to better understand employee behavior. It is not about God or theology. friendliness. Focus on Individual Development • Spiritual organizations recognize the worth and value of people. C. and openness. Reward Systems • If management wants employees to give good service. they also try to provide employment security. 3. it has to reward good service. For example. Organizations that are concerned with spirituality are more likely to directly address problems created by work/life conflicts. Spiritual organizations are concerned with helping people develop and reach their full potential. 112 • . B. What differentiates spiritual organizations from their non‐spiritual counterparts? 4. and the ability to solve customer problems—rather than on the measurable outcomes they achieve. • Recognizing the importance of people. Workplace spirituality is not about organized religious practices. SPIRITUALITY AND ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE A.Evidence suggests that behavior‐based performance evaluations are consistent with improved customer service. Workplace spirituality recognizes that people have an inner life that nourishes and is nourished by meaningful work that takes place in the context of community. Historical models of management and organizational behavior had no room for spirituality. Managers aren’t afraid to admit mistakes. They are not just providing jobs. The myth of rationality assumed that the well‐run organization eliminated feelings. Why Spirituality Now? 1. They seek to create cultures in which employees can continually learn and grow. 2. teamwork. Ben & Jerry’s Homemade has closely intermeshed socially responsible behavior into its producing and selling of ice cream. Characteristics of a Spiritual Organization 1.
113 • . 5. 4. 3. do organizations have the right to impose spiritual values on their employees? • Second is the question of economics. D. Explain the values underlying most OD efforts 5. Explain individual difference variables that moderate the stress‐outcome relationship. 7. 6. employee satisfaction. students should be able to: 1. 4. Specifically. However. Other studies also report that spirituality in organizations was positively related to creativity. 2. A recent research study by a major consulting firm found that companies that introduced spiritually based techniques improved productivity and significantly reduced turnover. Another study found that organizations that provide their employees with opportunities for spiritual development outperformed those that did not. 3. Identify properties of innovative organizations. Chapter 18 ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE AND STRESS MANAGEMENT Learning Objectives After studying this chapter. customers. and suppliers. 8. Employee Empowerment • Managers in spiritually based organizations are comfortable delegating authority to individual employees and teams. Criticisms of Spirituality 1. This criticism is undoubtedly valid when spirituality is defined as bringing religion and God into the workplace. The issue of whether spirituality and profits are compatible objectives is certainly relevant for managers and investors in business. Toleration of Employee Expression • They allow people to be themselves—to express their moods and feelings without guilt or fear of reprimand.They tend to be extremely up front with their employees. List characteristics of a learning organization. Critics of the spirituality movement in organizations have focused on two issues: • First is the question of legitimacy. and organizational commitment. 9. Summarize sources of individual and organizational resistance to change. the goal is limited to helping employees find meaning in their work lives and to use the workplace as a source of community. 7. Describe forces that act as stimulants to change. Describe potential sources of stress. 8. They trust their employees to make thoughtful and conscientious decisions. Describe Lewin’s three‐step change model. team performance. Define knowledge management and explain its importance. Are spirituality and profits compatible? 2.
and if tomorrow were always exactly the same as today. policies. The impact of stress on satisfaction is far more straightforward. they shape the organization’s change culture. in and of itself. The evidence indicates that stress can be either a positive or negative influence on employee performance. cultural factors. For instance. For many people. We found that the existence of work stress. As organizations have had to become more adaptable. “A casual reflection on change should indicate that it encompasses almost all our concepts in the organizational behavior literature. math. need not imply lower performance. if employees’ skills and abilities were always up to date and incapable of deteriorating. However. computer. requiring organizations and their members to undergo dynamic change if they are to perform at competitive levels. FORCES FOR CHANGE 1. alertness. and roles.Chapter Overview The need for change has been implied throughout this text. management decisions related to structural design. Competition is changing: 114 . Similarly. eventually takes its toll and performance declines. however. Think about leadership. organizational environment. management decisions. motivation. is turbulent. so too have their employees. and ability to react. Managers are the primary change agents in most organizations. a high level of stress. 2. This requires adaptation. organizational change would have little or no relevance to managers. • Human resource policies and practices changed to attract and keep this more diverse workforce. low to moderate amounts of stress enable them to perform their jobs better by increasing their work intensity. economic shocks have continued to impose changes on organizations. and practices will determine the degree to which the organization learns and adapts to changing environmental factors.” If environments were perfectly static. and human resource policies largely determine the level of innovation within the organization. Job‐related tension tends to decrease general job satisfaction. and other skills of employees 3. or even a moderate amount sustained over a long period of time. Even though low to moderate levels of stress may improve job performance. • We live in an “age of discontinuity. Organizations face a dynamic and changing environment. It is impossible to think about these and other concepts without inquiring about change. Technology is changing jobs and organizations: • Sophisticated information technology is also making organizations more responsive. Exhibit 19‐1 summarizes six specific forces that are acting as stimulants for change.” Beginning in the early 1970s with the overnight quadrupling of world oil prices. The real world. By the decisions they make and their role‐modeling behaviors. • Large expenditure on training to upgrade reading. The changing nature of the workforce: • A multicultural environment. 4. employees find stress dissatisfying.
employees of the organization. Who in organisations are responsible for managing change activities? • Change agents can be managers. goal‐oriented activity is planned change. • It provides a degree of stability and predictability to behavior. 3. empower employees. th • September 11 has caused changes organizations have made in terms of practices concerning security. implicit. • Consultant change agents can offer a more objective perspective than insiders can. • Successful organizations will be the ones that can change in response to the competition. Resistance to change does not necessarily surface in standardized ways. 115 • • . An organization’s success or failure is essentially due to the things that employees do or fail to do. There are two goals of planned change: • Improve the ability of the organization to adapt to changes in its environment. or outside consultants. employee stereotyping. Examples of planned‐change activities are needed to stimulate innovation. so planned change is also concerned with changing the behavior of individuals and groups within the organization. 2. 5. change as an intentional. No one could have imagined how world politics would change in recent years. • Change employee behavior. and introduce work teams. and people moving from the suburbs back to cities • A global context for OB is required. • Outside consultants are also more willing to initiate second‐order changes. etc. operating procedures. we look to senior executives as agents of change. Baby Boomers retiring. 6. RESISTANCE TO CHANGE 1. • Internal change agents are often more cautious for fear of offending friends and associates. • There is a definite downside to resistance to change. however. One of the most well‐documented findings is that organizations and their members resist change. MANAGING PLANNED CHANGE 1. 5. entrepreneurial firms with innovative offerings. • Resistance can be overt. Some organizations treat all change as an accidental occurrence. culture. It hinders adaptation and progress. back‐up systems. or deferred. 2. 4. top managers are increasingly turning to temporary outside consultants with specialized knowledge in the theory and methods of change. Social trends during the past generation suggest changes that organizations have to adjust for: • The expansion of the Internet. immediate.The global economy means global competitors. and personnel. For major change efforts. • They are disadvantaged in that they often have an inadequate understanding of the organization’s history. • Typically. Established organizations need to defend themselves against both traditional competitors and small.
2. increased absenteeism due to “sickness”— and hence more difficult to recognize. Changing one affects the others. 4. Six tactics used by change agents in dealing with resistance to change: 116 . Overcoming Resistance to Change 1. They actively resist change. are conservative. They tend to be content with the way things are. • A change may produce what appears to be only a minimal reaction at the time it is initiated. There are six major sources of organizational resistance: (See Exhibit 19‐4. Reactions to change can build up and then explode seemingly totally out of proportion. 5. but then resistance surfaces weeks. A. to cope with having to make hundreds of decisions everyday. 6. B. a. Individual Resistance Five reasons why individuals may resist change are (See Exhibit 19‐2): 1. Structural inertia: Organizations have built‐in mechanisms to produce stability. Group inertia: Group norms may act as a constraint.• It is easiest for management to deal with resistance when it is overt and immediate. and what surfaces is a cumulative response. 4. 3. Threat to established resource allocations: Groups in the organization that control sizable resources often see change as a threat. we all rely on habits or programmed responses. Implicit resistance efforts are more subtle—loss of loyalty to the organization. 2. months. Once they have created this world. 3. b. Organizational Resistance Organizations. C. or even years later. deferred actions cloud the link between the source of the resistance and the reaction to it. Security: People with a high need for security are likely to resist change because it threatens their feelings of safety. Threat to expertise: Changes in organizational patterns may threaten the expertise of specialized groups. Fear of the unknown: Changes substitute ambiguity and uncertainty for the known. 3. it resists change. 5. Limited focus of change: Organizations are made up of a number of interdependent subsystems. Habit: Life is complex. 4.) 1. this structural inertia acts as a counterbalance to sustain stability. Threat to established power relationships: Redistribution of decision‐making authority can threaten long‐established power relationships. increased errors or mistakes. Economic factors: Another source of individual resistance is concern that changes will lower one’s income. Selective information processing: Individuals shape their world through their perceptions. The resistance was deferred and stockpiled. loss of motivation to work. by their very nature. Similarly.
expensive. 117 . 3. those opposed can be brought into the decision process. Change threatens the status quo. and its implementation offers no assurance of success. and a poor letter of recommendation. and creating false rumors to get employees to accept a change. making it an inherently political activity.” It seeks to “buy off” the leaders of a resistance group by giving them a key role in the change decision. withholding undesirable information. • What if they are no longer the ones the organization values? • This creates the potential for others in the organization to gain power at their expense. The Politics of Change 1. Facilitation and support: • Employee counseling and therapy. new‐skills training. • It works provided that the source of resistance is inadequate communication and that management‐employee relations are characterized by mutual trust and credibility. 3. D. • The negatives—potential for a poor solution and great time consumption. • It has potentially high costs.” • Cooptation is “a form of both manipulation and participation. 2. loss of promotions. Negotiation: • Negotiation as a tactic may be necessary when resistance comes from a powerful source. Education and communication: • Resistance can be reduced through communicating to help employees see the logic of a change. and there is the risk that the change agent is open to the possibility of being blackmailed by other individuals in positions of power.2. assuming they have the expertise to make a meaningful contribution. negative performance evaluations. The assumption is that the source of resistance lies in misinformation or poor communication. The drawbacks—it is time‐consuming. • Both manipulation and cooptation are relatively inexpensive and easy ways to gain support.” • Examples of coercion are threats of transfer. Manipulation and cooptation: • Manipulation refers to “covert influence attempts. 6. 5. Internal change agents typically are individuals high in the organization who have a lot to lose from change. Politics suggests that the impetus for change is more likely to come from outside change agents. 4. Coercion: • This is “the application of direct threats or force upon the resisters. 7. Participation: • It is difficult for individuals to resist a change decision in which they participated. twisting and distorting facts to make them appear more attractive. • Prior to making a change. The tactics can backfire if the targets become aware that they are being tricked or used. or a short paid leave of absence may facilitate adjustment.
can be decreased. The status quo can be considered to be an equilibrium state. concerns. • The restraining forces. there is a very high chance that the change will be short‐ lived and that employees will attempt to revert to the previous equilibrium state. analysis. The process consists of five steps: diagnosis. Radical change is too threatening. • When forced to introduce change. To move from this equilibrium—to overcome the pressures of both individual resistance and group conformity—unfreezing is necessary. 118 . which hinder movement from the existing equilibrium. APPROACHES TO MANAGING ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE A. action. the new situation needs to be refrozen so that it can be sustained over time. B. Managers who have spent their entire careers with a single organization and eventually achieve a senior position in the hierarchy are often major impediments to change. and needed changes from members of the organization. • A third alternative is to combine the first two approaches. These steps closely parallel the scientific method. • Boards of directors that recognize the imperative for the rapid introduction of second‐ order change in their organizations frequently turn to outside candidates for new leadership. 3. 4. feedback. Diagnosis begins by gathering information about problems. Power struggles within the organization will determine the speed and quantity of change. can be increased.4. and evaluation. they may be expected to implement changes. 3.” 2. Action Research 1. • The driving forces. yet. Lewin’s Three‐Step Model 1. • Unless this last step is taken. these long‐time power holders tend to implement first‐order changes. Kurt Lewin argued that successful change in organizations should follow three steps (See Exhibit 9‐5): • Unfreezing the status quo • Movement to a new state • Refreezing the new change to make it permanent 2. Once the change has been implemented. 5. • Long‐time career executives will be sources of resistance. which direct behavior away from the status quo. Action research is “a change process based on the systematic collection of data and then selection of a change action based on what the analyzed data indicate. • Change itself is a very real threat to their status and position. • The objective of refreezing is to stabilize the new situation by balancing the driving and restraining forces.
Once employees have actively participated in the feedback stage. Action research includes extensive involvement of the people who will be involved in the change program. Analysis of information is synthesized into primary concerns. The underlying values in most OD efforts: • Respect for people • Trust and support • Power equalization • Confrontation • Participation 4.” a. and solving these differences is the survey feedback approach. and possible actions.4. b. 119 . The change agent objectively looks for problems and the type of problem determines the type of change of action. 2. Action research provides at least two specific benefits for an organization. c. resistance to change is reduced. Organization members may be asked to suggest questions or may be interviewed. increased tolerance of individual differences. 8. 3. Organizational Development 1. • Second. Feedback requires sharing with employees what has been found from steps one and two and the development of a plan for the change. greater openness. 6. any subsequent changes can be compared and evaluated. Action is the step where the change agent and employees set into motion the specific actions to correct the problems that were identified. but of key importance is the organizational “family. the change process typically takes on a momentum of its own. • Participants discuss themselves and their interactive processes. • Everyone can participate. A questionnaire is usually completed by all members in the organization or unit. Survey feedback: • One tool for assessing attitudes held by organizational members. groups. problem areas. Using the initial data gathered as a benchmark. it is problem‐focused. C. improved listening skills. The questionnaire asks for perceptions and attitudes on a broad range of topics. • Specific results sought include increased ability to empathize with others. Sensitivity training: • It can go by a variety of names—laboratory training. or T‐groups (training groups)—but all refer to a thorough unstructured group interaction. OD techniques or interventions for bringing about change: 5. • First. 5. 7. 6. and improved conflict resolution skills. identifying discrepancies among member perceptions. collaborative and participative processes. Evaluation is the final step to assess the action plan’s effectiveness. loosely directed by a professional behavioral scientist. Organizational development (OD) is a term used to encompass a collection of planned‐ change interventions built on humanistic‐democratic values that seek to improve organizational effectiveness and employee well‐being. The OD paradigm values human and organizational growth. and a spirit of inquiry.
and team process analysis. the other group. • Team building is applicable to the case of interdependence. • There are several approaches to intergroup development. Following this. • 120 .The data from this questionnaire are tabulated with data pertaining to an individual’s specific “family” and to the entire organization and distributed to employees. “to perceive. a. a. The process consultant need not be an expert in solving the particular problem that is identified. The consultant’s expertise lies in diagnosis and developing a helping relationship. and how it believes the other group perceives it. b. Intergroup development: • A major area of concern in OD is the dysfunctional conflict that exists between groups. which will result in increasing the team’s performance. and formal communication channels. • The activities considered in team building typically include goal setting. informal relationships among unit members. This should identify potential problem areas. • Team building can be applied within groups or at the inter‐group level. • Team building attempts to use high interaction among members to increase trust and openness. and perceptions that groups have of each other. It seeks to change the attitudes. understand. a. 9. there will be greater understanding of the process and the remedy and less resistance to the action plan chosen. Process consultation: • The purpose of process consultation is for an outside consultant to assist a manager. a. • Finally. role analysis. b. and act upon process events” that might include work flow. Begin by having members attempt to define the goals and priorities of the team. Each group meets independently to develop lists of its perception of itself. These data then become the springboard for identifying problems and clarifying issues. 8. Team building: • It utilizes high‐interaction group activities to increase trust and openness among team members. 7. b. • The consultant works with the client in jointly diagnosing what processes need improvement. The objective is to improve coordinative efforts of members. A popular method emphasizes problem solving. By having the client actively participate in both the diagnosis and the development of alternatives. Particular attention is given to encouraging discussion and ensuring that discussions focus on issues and ideas and not on attacking individuals. group discussion in the survey feedback approach should result in members identifying possible implications of the questionnaire’s findings. • Team building can also address itself to clarifying each member’s role on the team. members can evaluate the team’s performance—how effective is the team in structuring priorities and achieving its goals? c. stereotypes. development of interpersonal relations among team members.
certain characteristics surface again and again. • First. For instance.b. participants discuss how the organization is going to fulfill its dream. but not all changes necessarily involve new ideas or lead to significant improvements. then look for a solution. The groups then share their lists. Appreciative inquiry seeks to identify the unique qualities and special strengths of an organization. Stimulating Innovation 1. c. adaptation and cross‐fertilization. • Dreaming. can now be created for further diagnosis and to begin to formulate possible alternative actions that will improve relations. employees are asked to recount times they felt the organization worked best or when they specifically felt most satisfied with their jobs. The information from the discovery phase is used to speculate on possible futures for the organization. Differences are clearly articulated. or service. and the groups look for the causes of the disparities. process. For instance. after which similarities and differences are discussed. Appreciative Inquiry: • Most OD approaches are problem‐centered. • Innovation is a new idea applied to initiating or improving a product. organic structures positively influence innovation because they facilitate flexibility. participants focus on finding a common vision of how the organization will look and agree on its unique qualities. 10. people are asked to envision the organization in five years and to describe what is different. • Design. They identify a problem or set of problems. • Destiny. with members from each of the conflicting groups. cultural. • Innovations in organizations can range from small incremental improvements to significant change efforts. 11. the groups can move to the integration phase—working to develop solutions that will improve relations between the groups. Based on the dream articulation. 3. The AI process essentially consists of four steps: • Discovery. In this final step. Sources of innovation: • Structural variables are the most studied potential source of innovation. The idea is to find out what people think are the strengths of the organization. 121 . They are grouped into structural. 2. How can an organization become more innovative? There is no guaranteed formula. CONTEMPORARY CHANGE ISSUES FOR TODAY’S MANAGERS A. Innovation is a more specialized kind of change. • All innovations involve change. This typically includes the writing of action plans and development of implementation strategies. • Subgroups. and human resource categories. • Once the causes of the difficulty have been identified. Change refers to making things different.
What’s a learning organization? • A learning organization is an organization that has developed the continuous capacity to adapt and change. it is a fundamental requirement for their sustained existence. There is a high use of committee. • Learning organizations are also characterized by a specific culture that values risk taking.Second. and ensure that the innovation is implemented. • 122 . and growth—it seeks “boundarylessness”. It provides opportunities for radically different solutions to problems and dramatic jumps in improvement. 4. • They also display characteristics associated with transformational leadership. Like second‐order change. They offer high job security so employees do not fear getting fired for making mistakes. task forces. When errors are detected. cross‐functional teams and other mechanisms that facilitate interaction. build support. openness. Human resources: • Innovative organizations actively promote the training and development. energy. • Managers in innovative organizations recognize that failures are a natural by‐product of venturing into the unknown. policies. inter‐unit communication is high in innovative organizations. • Finally. the correction process relies on past routines and present policies. • They celebrate mistakes. • They reward both successes and failures. 2. Creating a Learning Organization 1. • Idea champions have jobs that provide considerable decision‐making discretion. innovation is nurtured where there are slack resources. Once a new idea is developed. • Most organizations engage in single‐loop learning. persistence. • All organizations learn—whether they consciously choose to or not. • They encourage individuals to become champions of change. b. Managerial tenure apparently provides legitimacy and knowledge of how to accomplish tasks and obtain desired outcomes. long tenure in management is associated with innovation. double‐loop learning challenges deep‐rooted assumptions and norms within an organization. idea champions actively and enthusiastically promote the idea. and standard routines. • Learning organizations use double‐loop learning: a. and a tendency to take risks. overcome resistance. c. it’s corrected in ways that involve the modification of the organization’s objectives. • Third. 5. Innovative organizations tend to have similar cultures: • They encourage experimentation. • Champions have common personality characteristics: extremely high self‐confidence. B. When an error is detected.
c. If change is possible. there’s an increasing awareness that they represent a wealth of knowledge that will be lost if there are no attempts to capture it. Establish a strategy. 2. Knowledge management is increasingly important today for at least three reasons. Managing learning: • • What can managers do to make their firms learning organizations? a. 3. b. C. Managing Change: It’s Culture Bound! To illustrate. How does an organization record the knowledge and expertise of its employees and make that information easily accessible? • It needs to develop computer databases of pertinent information that employees can readily access. 123 . a well‐designed KM system will reduce redundancy and make the organization more efficient. • It has to develop mechanisms that allow employees who have developed valuable expertise and insights to share them with others. 1. let’s briefly look at five questions. B. as baby boomers begin to leave the workforce. • In societies with a short‐term focus (the United States and Canada). • Third. Organizations that can quickly and efficiently tap into their employees’ collective experience and wisdom are more likely to “outsmart” their competition. Knowledge Management 1. • Intellectual assets are now as important as physical or financial assets.2. individuals will take a proactive view of change—the United States and Canada. Redesign the organization’s structure. people expect quick results. 4. Do people believe change is possible? • In cultures where people believe that they can dominate their environment. 2. Reshape the organization’s culture. Management sets the tone for the organization’s culture both by what it says (strategy) and what it does (behavior). KM provides an organization with both a competitive edge and improved organizational performance because it makes its employees smarter. how long will it take to bring it about? • Societies that focus on the long term (Japan) will demonstrate considerable patience. • Second. such as Iran and Saudi Arabia. • It needs to create a culture that supports and rewards sharing. people see themselves as subjugated to their environment and thus will tend to take a passive approach toward change. • In many other countries. Knowledge management is a process of organizing and distributing an organization’s collective wisdom so the right information gets to the right people at the right time.
3. What Is Stress? 1. constraint. C. Stress is not necessarily bad in and of itself. Individuals often use stress positively to rise to the occasion and perform at or near their maximum. 4. B. • The latter refers to the loss of something desired. • There must be uncertainty over the outcome. Finally. Effective managers will alter their organization’s championing strategies to reflect cultural values. • The former prevent you from doing what you desire. or the loss avoided that there is stress. Potential Sources of Stress 1. Understanding Stress and Its Consequences 1. If the outcomes are unimportant to the individual—there is no stress. The symptoms of stress can surface as physiological. Typically. • The higher the uncertainty avoidance of a society. Stress is a dynamic condition in which an individual is confronted with an opportunity. 4. 5. 3. while Americans emphasize the present. WORK STRESS AND ITS MANAGEMENT A. • People in high‐power‐distance cultures prefer champions to work closely with those in authority. • Importance is also critical. do successful idea champions do things differently in different cultures? • People in collectivist cultures prefer appeals for cross‐functional support for innovation efforts. stress is associated with constraints and demands. Two conditions are necessary for potential stress to become actual stress. Environmental factors: • 124 . Low‐power‐distance cultures value democratic methods (Denmark and Israel). and behavioral outcomes. and the outcome must be important. psychological. • Only when there is doubt or uncertainty regarding whether the opportunity will be seized. 6. Is resistance to change greater in some cultures than in others? • Resistance to change will be influenced by a society’s reliance on tradition. or demand related to what he/she desires and for which the outcome is perceived to be both uncertain and important. the more champions should work within the organization’s rules and procedures to develop the innovation. The model in Exhibit 19‐10 identifies three sets of factors—environmental. the constraint removed. change efforts will tend to be autocratically implemented by top management. and individual—that act as potential sources of stress. organizational. 2. 2. • Italians focus on the past. Does culture influence how change efforts will be implemented? • In high‐power‐distance cultures (the Philippines or Venezuela).
become mature. Organizational structure defines the level of differentiation in the organization. c. working conditions. b. Stressors are additive‐‐stress builds up. e. 4. and the physical work layout. 3. a • • • • • demanding and insensitive boss. Organizational leadership represents the managerial style of the organization’s senior executives. Role demands relate to pressures that are a function of the role an individual plays in an organization. Individual Differences 125 . and inherent personality characteristics. task variety. these factors are family • • • issues. where it is in this four‐stage cycle—creates different problems and pressures for employees. Changes in the business cycle create economic uncertainties. degree of automation). They’re established. National surveys consistently show that people hold family and personal relationships dear. Political uncertainties can be stress inducing. and where decisions are made. Excessive rules and lack of participation in decisions might be potential sources of stress.• • • • Environmental uncertainty influences stress levels among employees in an organization. b. Role overload is experienced when the employee is expected to do more than time permits. The establishment and decline stages are particularly stressful. Organizational factors: • Pressures to avoid errors or complete tasks in a limited time period. d. Technological uncertainty can cause stress because new innovations can make an employee’s skills and experience obsolete in a very short period of time. Economic problems created by individuals overextending their financial resources. An organization’s life stage—that is. personal economic problems. they grow. D. and unpleasant coworkers are a few examples. Interpersonal demands are pressures created by other employees. Task demands are factors related to a person’s job. work overload. Role ambiguity is created when role expectations are not clearly understood. They include the design of the individual’s job (autonomy. 2. c. Individual factors: • These are factors in the employee’s personal life. a. and eventually decline. Primarily. Stress tends to be least in maturity where uncertainties are at their lowest ebb. the degree of rules and regulations. Role conflicts create expectations that may be hard to reconcile or satisfy. A significant individual factor influencing stress is a person’s basic dispositional nature. a. Organizations go through a cycle.
self‐efficacy e. Psychological symptoms: • Job‐related stress can cause job‐related dissatisfaction. Self‐efficacy: The confidence in one’s own abilities appears to decrease stress Hostility: People who are quick to anger. a. 3. Physiological symptoms: • Most of the early concern with stress was directed at physiological symptoms due to the fact that specialists in the health and medical sciences researched the topic. Locus of control: • Those with an internal locus of control believe they control their own destiny. Voluntary turnover is more probable among people who experience more stress. Behavioral symptoms: 126 . • Multiple and conflicting demands—lack of clarity as to the incumbent’s duties. Consequences of Stress 1. • Those with an external locus believe their lives are controlled by outside forces. b. First is the idea of selective withdrawal. locus of control d. and experienced stress: a. perception b. 5. 4. Second. Job experience: The evidence indicates that experience on the job tends to be negatively related to work stress. • The less control people have over the pace of their work. a. people eventually develop coping mechanisms to deal with stress. 3. it lies in an employee’s interpretation of those conditions. Externals are more likely to be passive and feel helpless. Internals are likely to believe that they can have a significant effect on the results. and responsibilities—increase stress and dissatisfaction. Internals perceive their jobs to be less stressful than do externals. maintain a persistently hostile outlook. Five individual difference variables moderate the relationship between potential stressors 2. 2. Perception: Moderates the relationship between a potential stress condition and an employee’s reaction to it. hostility. a. Physiological symptoms have the least direct relevance to students of OB. and behavioral symptoms. 6. 4. job experience c. and project a cynical mistrust of others are more likely to experience stress in situations. • Job dissatisfaction is “the simplest and most obvious psychological effect” of stress. Stress potential doesn’t lie in objective conditions.1. Stress shows itself in a number of ways—physiological. psychological. authority. E. Collegial relationships with coworkers or supervisors can buffer the impact of stress. c. b. the greater the stress and dissatisfaction.
require action by management. 3. Individuals then often perform their tasks better. In spite of the popularity and intuitive appeal of the inverted‐U model. and sleep disorders. making daily lists of activities to be accomplished. b. as well as changes in eating habits. Even moderate levels of stress can have a negative influence on performance over the long term as the continued intensity of the stress wears down the individual and saps his/her energy resources. relaxation training. it doesn’t get a lot of empirical support. absence. improved organizational communication f. training d. The logic underlying the inverted U is that low to moderate levels of stress stimulate the body and increase its ability to react. which result in lower performance. scheduling activities according to the priorities set. increased smoking or consumption of alcohol. a. d. thus. rapid speech. increasing physical exercise. family. increased employee involvement e. or work colleagues to talk to provides an outlet for excessive stress. knowing your daily cycle and handling the most demanding parts of your job during the high part of your cycle when you are most alert and productive. d. Organizational approaches • Strategies that management might want to consider include: a. and expanding the social support network. improved personnel selection and job placement b. or more rapidly. and biofeedback. establishment of corporate wellness programs. Individual approaches: • Effective individual strategies include implementing time management techniques. use of realistic goal setting. But too much stress places unattainable demands or constraints on a person. b. prioritizing activities by importance and urgency. c. can lead to reduced employee performance and. 127 . c. more intensely. High or low levels of stress sustained over long periods of time. • Noncompetitive physical exercise has long been recommended as a way to deal with excessive stress levels. • Practicing time management principles such as: a. Managing Stress 1.• • • Behaviorally related stress symptoms include changes in productivity. F. 2. hypnosis. The stress‐performance relationship is shown in Exhibit 19‐11. • Having friends. fidgeting. • Individuals can teach themselves to reduce tension through relaxation techniques such as meditation. and turnover. redesigning of jobs c.
and a sense of cohesion with their fellow workers. PREPARED BY:DIVYANG K. In fact. For this to work. can be trusted to do their jobs to their utmost ability. as well as the people that work for them. While several similarities and differences surround the ideas of McGregor and Ouchi. cultures and traditions. Theory Z workers have a high need to be supported by the company. while Ouchi's Theory Z takes this notion of perceptions a bit farther and talks about how the workers might perceive management. These perceptions tend to take the form of how management views employees. employees must be very knowledgeable about the various issues of the company. These types of workers have a very well developed sense of order. rather than specialists. and to increase their knowledge of the company and its processes through job rotations and continual training. and be more permanent than in other types of settings. it is assumed. These include the assumption that workers tend to want to build cooperative and intimate working relationships with those that they work for and with. as workers are given a much longer opportunity to receive training. Also. Theory Z workers. under this theory. moral obligation to work hard. and more time to learn the intricacies of the company's operations. the most obvious comparison is that they both deal with perceptions and assumptions about people. and social institutions are regarded as equally important as the work itself.Theory Z Ouchi's Theory Z makes certain assumptions about workers. they will know a great deal more about the company and how it operates. discipline. promotions tend to be slower in this type of setting. The table below illustrates this distinction. and highly value a working environment in which such things as family. It is expected that once an employee does rise to a position of high level management. is to develop a work force that has more of a loyalty towards staying with the company for an entire career. Theory Z stresses the need for enabling workers to become generalists. One of the most important tenets of this theory is that management must have a high degree of confidence in its workers in order for this type of participative management to work. so long as management can be trusted to support them and look out for their well being. VYAS SPCAM(MBA) 128 . The desire. Finally. as well as possessing the competence to make informed decisions. and will be able to use Theory Z management theories effectively on the newer employees.
th cell repr en so his resents an id deal situatio Here the person on. Mu utual under rstanding an friendship between people are the highes in this nd st space. Th person d he does not 4. There is es t p may k poten ntial interperso onal conflict in this s quadrant. The w window is shown with fou quadrant represen n ur ts nting four distinct aspects of e every perso onality. As in the hidden self. q nd Self:‐ Alte ernatively kn nown as blind area.Johari i window MANA AGEMENT C CONCEPTS This m model is hig ghly useful i analysing the causes for interpe in g s ersonal conflict. Blin knows about others but doe not know about himself/herself. There w would be ope enness and c compatibility y and little r reason to be de efensive. poten ntial for conf flict in this ce ell too. there is s es w . is ly t situation. this c cell represen nts a situatio on where the person 3. 129 . this cell denotes that the person A as ate t s rstands abou himself b does not know abo other pe ut but out erson. e knows s about hims self and others. Ope Self:‐ Als called public area. attitude or secret and will not open up to others. The ere is a misu understanding. Undiscovered Self:‐ This i potentiall the most explosive s either r about hims self or about t others. Naturally there is little scope or no scope fo or any conflict. Alternativ vely this are ea is known a as the dark a area. The r result being that the under person remains h hidden from others beca ause of the fear of how w others might react. which le eads to inter rpersonal conflic ct. 2. Johari i Wind dow summarises of four cells th hey ar re: 1. The person keep his/her true feelin ngs. Hidden Self:‐ Also known a the priva or secret area.
t being spont taneous and aware wi the capacity for d ith • The Adult ego state is about b intimacy. • As we gro up we ta in ideas. . eve en though. • For example. ay hat ngs her may hav ve done. thinking a and behavior r that we ha ave copied fr rom our par rents and significant t others. mother. b blind self.The b best way to reduce the sizes of hid dden self. or treat ot thers as we m might have b been treated d. beliefs. Adult ego state • The Adult ego state is about direct responses to the here and now. fee ow ake elings and b behaviors from our parents and caretakers s. co onsciously. we all ha ave a right to o be in the w world and be e accepted transa actional ana alysis ‐ ego states nt ego state Paren • This is a se et of feelings. with things that are goin ng on today in ways tha at are not un nhealthily in nfluenced • We deal w by our pas st. we ma notice th we are saying thin just as our father. w we don't want to. 130 . grandmoth is ve h on hat omatically re eproduce • We do thi as we hav lived with this perso so long th we auto certain things that were said to us s. Transa actional ana alysis Eric Be erne's Trans sactional Ana alysis ‐ TA th heory develo opment and explanation n the ph hilosophy that: people can change . • If we live in an extended family th s called introjecting and d it is just as s if we take in the who ole of the • When we do this. it is care giver. hen there are e more peop ple to learn a and take in f from. an undiscov nd vered self is to have better r communica ation betwe een the perso on and others.
• If this were explored we might remember the time the head teacher called us in to tell us off. not everything in the Child ego state is negative. look at what you did wrong again. the Integrating Adult ego state can just stop any negative dialogue and decide to develop another positive Parent ego state perhaps taken in from other people they have met over the years Child ego state • The Child ego state is a set of behaviours. we may meet someone who gives us the permission we needed as a child.• • • • • • • • • • • When in our Adult we are able to see people as they are. I never get anything right". • We might ask ourselves "I wonder what X would say now". and did not get. • We might go into someone's house and smell a lovely smell and remember our grandmother's house when we were little. • Then on hearing the new permissions to relax and take some time out. the internal Parent ego state may beat up on the internal Child. thoughts and feelings which are replayed from our own childhood. Many people hardly hear this kind of internal dialogue as it goes on so much they might just believe life is this way. An effective Integrating Adult ego state can intervene between the Parent and Child ego states. • We may well use that person in our imagination when we are stressed to counteract our old ways of thinking that we must work longer and longer hours to keep up with everything. For example. Alternatively. • Both the Parent and Child ego states are constantly being updated. you are useless". Taking the best from the past and using it appropriately in the present is an integration of the positive aspects of both our Parent and Child ego states. • Perhaps the boss calls us into his or her office. In this structural model. Integrating means that we are constantly updating ourselves through our every day experiences and using this to inform us. and all the same warm feelings we had at six year's of age may come flooding back. look how useless I am. do just that and then return to the work renewed and ready for the challenge 131 . we may immediately get a churning in our stomach and wonder what we have done wrong. • Of course. This might be done by stating that this kind of parenting is not helpful and asking if it is prepared to learn another way. The Child may then respond with "I am no good. So this can be called the Integrating Adult. the Integrating Adult ego state circle is placed in the middle to show how it needs to orchestrate between the Parent and the Child ego states. • For example. We ask for information rather than stay scared and rather than make assumptions. rather than what we project onto them. to be fun and joyous. saying "You are no good.
Racism is an example of this. • Alternatively. we might have had a traumatic experience yesterday which goes into the Child ego state as an archaic memory that hampers our growth. For instance. • The positive experiences can then be drawn on to remind us that positive things do happen. We may be in our Child ego state when we say this. we tend to use the word for when bacteria has gone into milk. • Positive experiences will also go into the Child ego state as archaic memories. • It is important to remember that ego states do not have an existence of their own. • This occurs when we talk as if something is a fact or a reality when really this is a belief. but saying "I" reminds us to take responsibility for our actions. • If we are white we might have lived with parents or significant others who said such things as "Black people take our jobs". they are concepts to enable understanding. • The Integrating Adult ego state is contaminated in this case by the Parent ego state. • Growing up it is likely. rather than beating up on ourselves for what we did or did not do. • The process of analyzing personality in terms of ego states is called structural analysis. Therefore it is important to say "I want some fun" rather than "My Child wants some fun". • We might also have been told that Black people are aggressive.Subsequently. • 132 . • Well. this is similar to the case with the contaminated Integrating Adult ego state. Contamination of the Adult ego state • The word contamination for many conjures up the idea of disease. what tends to happen is we automatically start to give ourselves new permissions and take care of ourselves. that having no real experience to go by. we believed this. • In our Child ego state may well lodge some scared feelings about Black people and in this ego state we may start to believe "All Black people are scary".
When in this mode the person is caring and affirming. This is the boundary setting mode. and is punitive. From this mode we learn the rules to help us live with others. When in this mode the person is engulfing and overprotective. This is the creative. • Negative Free Child ‐ in this mode the person runs wild with no restrictions or boundaries. • Positive Controlling Parent ‐ communicates the message "You're OK". fun loving. In this mode they express a "You're not OK" message effective modes • Positive Nurturing Parent ‐ communicates the message "You're OK". unrealistic fear and anxiety. offering constructive criticism. whilst being caring but firm.Parenting mode ineffective modes • Negative Controlling Parent ‐ communicates a "You're not OK" message. • Negative Adapted Child ‐ expresses an "I'm not OK" message. 133 . When in this mode the person will often do things for others which they are capable of doing for themselves. • Positive Adapted Child ‐ communicates an "I'm OK" message. • Positive Free Child ‐ communicates an "I'm OK" message. When in this mode the person over‐adapts to others and tends to experience such emotions as depression. • Negative Nurturing Parent ‐ communicates a "You're not OK" message. curious and energetic mode.
it is likely we are in Child ego state. If we are leaning forward it is likely we are in the posture of the Parent mode. somebody is in. when we work with other staff or are relating with young people. as a child we had feelings similar to those we are experiencing now. Assessment needs to be supported by other methods of diagnosis. I have outlined them here though so that an understanding of the complexity of the process can be achieved. If our mother or father behaved or talked in the same way that we are behaving or talking now then we are probably in a Parent ego state. For example. social diagnosis Observation of the kinds of transactions a person is having with others. if eliciting a response from someone's caretaking Parent it is likely that the stimulus is coming from Child. whereas if we are in Adult mode we tend to be erect. • Parent mode words typically contain value judgments. and muscle tone provide clues for diagnosing ego states. tempo of speech. a person in Adapted Child mode may cry silently. tone. postures. behavioural diagnosis • Words. and • Free Child mode words are direct and spontaneous. though not necessarily the Adapted Child mode. • Adult words are clear and definable. • These are indicators not guarantees. expressions. This means that diagnosis is undertaken by self‐examination. This is sometimes accurate and sometimes very inaccurate as the Child ego state may be afraid to allow our Adult to know what is going on. • For example. • However. phenomenological diagnosis This occurs when we re‐experience the past instead of just remembering it. to be undertaking more in‐depth types of diagnosis.transactional analysis ‐ diagnosis • It is helpful to be able to assess or diagnose which ego state in the structural model. whereas when in Free Child mode we are likely to make a lots of noise. gestures. If. Our own responses to someone will often be a way of assessing which ego state or mode they are coming from. historical diagnosis The person's past also provides important information. breathing. • "You" or "one" usually come from Parent. or which mode in the descriptive model. This can switch even mid‐sentence. • It is not always possible. 134 . we are responding on the behavioral level. or appropriate. • In this way we can respond appropriately as well as ensure which mode we are addressing.
transactional analysis ‐ strokes • In Transactional Analysis we call compliments and general ways of giving recognition strokes. It is likely that the great variety of stroke needs and styles present in the world results from differences in wealth. • On the whole we prefer to receive negative strokes than no strokes at all. By training children to obey these rules. as children. and methods of parenting. • It apparently makes no difference whether the touching induces pain or pleasure ‐ it is still important. parents ensure that ". verbal or nonverbal. but not for being creative. if we have always been told we are clever. cultural mores. says Steiner. • We all have particular strokes we will accept and those we will reject. and our brother is creative." change • We therefore need to change the restrictive rules to unrestrictive ones: • give strokes when we have them to give • ask for strokes when we want them • accept strokes if we want them • reject manipulative strokes • give ourselves positive strokes • Strokes can be positive or negative: • A) "I like you" • B) "I don't like you" Strokes can be unconditional or conditional. An unconditional stroke is a stroke for being whereas a conditional stroke is a stroke for doing. at least that way we know we exist and others know we exist. a situation in which strokes could be available in a limitless supply is transformed into a situation in which the supply is low and the price parents can extract for them is high. we are all indoctrinated by our parents with five restrictive rules about stroking. • This name came from research which indicated that babies require touching in order to survive and grow.. the stroke economy • Claude Steiner suggests that. • don't give strokes when we have them to give • don't ask for strokes when we need them • don't accept strokes if we want them • don't reject strokes when we don't want them • don't give ourselves strokes • Together these five rules are the basis of what Steiner calls the stroke economy. For instance: 135 . • For example. • Stroking can be physical. From this frame of reference only one person in the family can be the creative one and so on. then we are likely to accept strokes for being clever.
• Conversely we might use them negatively to reinforce the negative strokes we give to ourselves. Some might come in but fall straight onto the floor. transactional analysis ‐ life positions Life positions are basic beliefs about self and others. and the birth was easy enough. • If we were treated punitively. This might be the only sense we can make of our experiences. • One way to think about this to consider being out in the rain. and not held. What then? Well life experiences might reinforce our initial somatic level life position. or the birth was difficult or even life threatening. When we are conceived we are hopefully at peace. some just bounce off the umbrella and we might not accept the good strokes that are coming our way. • Let's take another situation. • Let's take it that the pregnancy went fine. both positive and negative. Our behaviour then comes into the I am OK and You are not OK quadrant. If nothing untoward happens we will emerge contented and relaxed. The rain is the strokes that are available to us. There is a hole in the umbrella and some of the strokes go through and we save them in a bucket to enjoy in lean times. However. waiting to emerge into the world once we have grown sufficiently to be able to survive in the outside of the womb. or contradict it. They only let in strokes which they think they are allowed to let in. for example. Perhaps we were picked on and bullied as a child. This experience is likely to have an effect on the way we experience the world. Of course. which are used to justify decisions and behaviour."I like you" ‐ unconditional "I like you when you smile" ‐ conditional As negative strokes these might be: "I don't like you" ‐ negative unconditional "I don't like you when you're sarcastic" ‐ negative conditional People often have a stroke filter. go into "I am not OK and You are not OK either". For instance they allow themselves to receive strokes for being clever and keep out strokes for being good looking. In which case we might emerge sensing that life is scary and might. perhaps our mother had some traumatic experiences. We learnt that the way to get by was to bully others and that way we felt stronger and in control. talked down to. we may begin to believe "I am not OK and You are OK". In this case we are likely to perceive the world from the perspective of I am OK and You are OK. even at the somatic level. 136 .
• Rather than "I don't know how to do this. • Franklin Ernstdrew the life positions in quadrants. and in fact we may have forgotten all about our negative feelings about ourselves as we have tried so hard to deny the pain of believing we are not OK. Life Positions • Berne talked about the life positions as existential positions. but nobody sees that. one of which we are more likely to go to under stress. Just like when somebody says "I can't do this. whilst the former links being useless with not being able to do something. therefore how I view myself and others are just that "views" not fact. Will you show me?" • The latter is staying with the fact that they do not yet know how to do it. • Ernst used the term 'Corralogram' for this method of self‐assessment using the OK Corral matrix. They just see our behaviour. • However. The reality is I just am and you just are. we tend to act as if they are a fact. I'm useless". which he called the OK Corral (1971). • These life positions are perceptions of the world. 137 . • The colours used are red and green to show the effective and ineffective quadrants for communication and healthy relationships. • By shading in the quadrants according to the amount of time we think we spend in each we can get an idea of the amount of time we spend in each. Of course this may cover up our belief that we are really not OK. • There are a number of ways of diagramming the life positions.
blame model The Transactional Analysis 'Okay Corral' can be linked to 'blame'. that there are only two people involved. the behaviour of young people in gangs may say that they believe they are okay and perhaps other gangs in their neighborhood are okay. Chris Davidson (1999) writes about the three dimensional model of Okay ness. for which Jim Davis TSTA developed this simple and helpful model. made when we are growing up. which each correlate to a position on the Okay Corral: I'm to blame (You are okay and I'm not okay ‐ 'helpless') You are to blame (I'm okay and you are not okay ‐ 'angry') We are both to blame (I'm not okay and you are not okay ‐ 'hopeless') None of these is a healthy position. that we move around them all during the day. We find other people who we like and then we gossip and put other people down. For example. with perhaps another position underneath this one. but an individual or gang from another neighborhood are not okay." (I'm okay and you are okay ‐ 'happy') (With acknowledgements to Jim Davis TSTA) transactional analysis ‐ the script • The script is a life plan. i. We are therefore saying that we believe we are okay but those others are awful (underneath this there may be a belief that we are not okay either but we feel better by putting someone else down). and the mindset should be: "It's no‐one's fault. In this way the two dimensional model of okay ness i.e. Instead the healthy position is. and that others are not to be trusted and are not OK either. becomes three dimensional model where there can be three or more involved. All of the previous diagrams talk as if there were only one other person in the equation. then the world would be a scary place and we are likely to experience life as tough and believe we will only be all right if we keep alert and on the look out for danger and difficulties. Commonly when emotions are triggered people adopt one of three attitudes relating to blame. • Whilst there is some truth in this we could agree with Berne that there will be one major position we go into under stress. We often do this at work as well. when in reality there are often more.This is significantly different to the concept Ernst uses. The difference between Berne and Ernst is important. • These positions can change as we develop and grow. It is like having the script of a play in front of us ‐ we read the lines and decide what will happen in each act and how the play will end. • 138 . There is also the way in which we view life itself. If we consider that there is something wrong with us. blame isn't the issue ‐ what matters is how we go forward and sort things out.e.
We can: • cross the transaction by responding from a different ego state than the one the stimulus is designed to hook. • (A discount is when we minimize. Rather than saying "let me do this for you" instead say "It sounds like you have a problem. beliefs and actions that go with it to confirm parental injunctions and further the life script to maintain the person's life position by "proving" that self/others are not OK to provide a high level of stroke exchange while blocking intimacy and maintaining distance to make people predictable. We may not realize that we have set ourselves a plan but we can often find this out if we ask ourselves what our favorite childhood story was. There are further discounts at each stage of the game. be healthy. happy. 139 . I'm useless". How is this story reflected in our life today? Another way of getting to what script is may be to think about what we believe will happen when we are in old age. Such as saying in a whiny voice "This is too difficult for me to do". including the use of different options than the one automatically used.g. Then consider the beginning. and contented? What do we think will be on the headstone for our grave? What would we like to be on it? • transactional analysis ‐ games Games vary in the length of time that passes while they are being played. Some can take seconds or minutes while others take weeks months or even years. so we automatically help them). By detecting discounts we can identify game invitations and defuse them with options. who was our favorite character in the story and who do we identify with.• The script is developed from our early decisions based upon our life experience. Do we believe we will be alive at 80 or 90 years old. middle and end of the story. • pick up the ulterior rather than the social message e. What do you want me to do about it?" (said from the Adult ego state) • the opening message to the game always entails a discount. People play games for these reasons: to structure time to acquire strokes to maintain the substitute feeling and the system of thinking. ways to deal with games There are various ways to stop a game. maximize or ignore some aspect of a problem which would assist us in resolving it. when a person says "I can't do this.
if we don't obtain sufficient positive strokes. even if they are negative. What happens next? 4. and then consider how to do things differently. One way to discover this is to ask the following questions: 1. And then what happens? 5. we will go for quantity rather than quality of strokes and play games to get them. Another way to think about this is to consider the game role we or the other person is likely to take. How does it start? 3. We get a great many strokes from games. 1973) We can then consider the reason we might have taken up a particular role. get others to come with us to intervene and so on. How does it end? 6. We need to consider what our own responsibility is in this ‐ if the situation is too violent for us to get involved what options to we have? We could call for help. Loss of strokes to the Child ego state means a threat to survival. or give ourselves positive strokes. We need to choose the appropriate assistance and take the action required 140 PREPARED BY:DIVYANG K. This loss of strokes is also a loss of excitement that the game has generated. where we might switch to. How do feel after it ends? (John James. However. VYAS SPCAM(MBA) . What keeps happening over and over again 2.Replace the game strokes.
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