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Q 1. Why should a manger know about research when the job entails managing people, products, events, environments, and the like? The manager, while managing people, products, events, and environments will invariably face problems, big and small, and will have to seek ways to find long lasting effective solutions. This can be achieved only through knowledge of research even if consultants are engaged to solve problems. The primary purpose for applied research (as opposed to basic research) is discovering, interpreting, and the development of methods and systems for the advancement of human knowledge on a wide variety of scientific matters of our world and the universe. Research can use the scientific method, but need not to do so. The goal of the research process is to produce new knowledge, which takes three main forms (although, as previously discussed, the boundaries between them may be fuzzy): Exploratory research, which structures and identifies new problems. Constructive research, which develops solutions to a problem Empirical research, which tests the feasibility of a solution using empirical evidence The research room at the New York Public Library, an example of secondary research in progress. Research can also fall into two distinct types : Primary research Primary research (also called field research) involves the collection of data that does not already exist, which is research to collect original data. Primary Research is often undertaken after the researcher has gained some insight into the issue by collecting secondary data. This can be through numerous forms, including questionnaires, direct observation and telephone interviews amongst others. This information may be collected in things like questionnaires and interviews . Secondary research Secondary research (also known as desk research) involves the summary, collation and/or synthesis of existing research rather than primary research, where data is collected from, for example, research subjects or experiments. Secondary research can come from either internal or external sources. The proliferation of web search engines has increased opportunities to conduct secondary research without paying fees to database research providers In social sciences and later in other disciplines, the following two research methods can be applied, depending on the properties of the subject matter and on the objective of the research:
In the social sciences. The hourglass model starts with a broad spectrum for research. demands and desires of their customers. which of such hypotheses are true. since the defining feature of research is that the researchers do not know in advance exactly how to accomplish the desired result.Qualitative research Qualitative research is a method of inquiry employed in many different academic disciplines. where. As a result. production processes and methods are rapidly increasing. the term relates to empirical methods. Research and development is nowadays of great importance in business as the level of competition. Qualitative researchers aim to gather an in-depth understanding of human behavior and the reasons that govern such behavior. Quantitative Research In the social sciences. Quantitative methods can be used to seek empirical support for such research hypotheses. which contrast qualitative research methods. when. originating in both philosophical positivism and the history of statistics. Quantitative research is used widely in social sciences such as psychology. smaller but focused samples are more often needed. Unfortunately. rather than large samples. The objective of quantitative research is to develop and employ mathematical models. economics. Research is often conducted using the hourglass model structure of Research. though this use of the term differs in context. then expands the research in the form of discussion and results. It is of special importance in the field of marketing where companies keep an eagle eye on competitors and customers in order to keep pace with modern trends and analyze the needs. Qualitative methods produce information only on the particular cases studied. and any more general conclusions are only hypotheses. quantitative research refers to the systematic empirical investigation of quantitative properties and phenomena and their relationships. but also in market research and further contexts. theories and/or hypotheses pertaining to phenomena. research and development are very difficult to manage. . The process of measurement is central to quantitative research because it provides the fundamental connection between empirical observation and mathematical expression of quantitative relationships. Quantitative methods can be used to verify. anthropology. higher R&D spending does not guarantee “more creativity. and any more general conclusions are only propositions (informed assertions). The qualitative method investigates the why and how of decision making. Qualitative methods produce information only on the particular cases studied. Hence. Research in mathematical sciences such as physics is also 'quantitative' by definition. higher profit or a greater market share. traditionally in the social sciences. not just what. and political science. A comprehensive analysis of 1274 articles published in the top two American sociology journals between 1935 and 2005 found that roughly two thirds of these articles used quantitative methods. focusing in on the required information through the methodology of the project (like the neck of the hourglass).
This will also give an opportunity to the respondents for doing some advance thinking over the various issues involved so that. Thus. 2. It is particularly suitable in areas where there is little experience to serve as a guide. but in cases where hypothesis have not yet been formulated. Exploratory research studies are also termed as formulative research studies. his task is to review the available material for deriving the relevant hypothesis from it. As such the research design appropriate for such studies must be flexible enough to provide opportunity for considering different aspects of a problem under study.Q 2. For such a survey. The respondents so selected may then be interviewed by the investigator. For this purpose the existing . the following three methods in the context of research design for such studies are talked about : 1. The researcher must prepare an interview schedule for the systematic questioning of informants. It may also be considered whether the already stated hypothesis suggests new hypothesis. The major emphasis in such studies is on the discovery of ideas and insights. at the time of interview. How do you evolve research design for exploratory research? Briefly analyze. an experience survey may enable the researcher to define the problem more concisely and help in the formulation of the research hypothesis. The main purpose of such studies is that of formulating a problem for more precise investigation or of developing the working hypothesis from an operational point of view. The object of such a survey is to obtain insight into the relationships between variables and new ideas relating to the research problem. By the interview must ensure flexibility in the sense that the respondents should be allowed to raise issues and questions which the investigator has not previously considered. Experience survey means the survey of people who have had practical experience with the problem to be studied. This. Sometimes the works of creative writers also provide a fertile ground for hypothesis formulation as such may be looked into by the researcher. Generally. Besides. the experience of collecting interview is likely to be long and may last for few hours. This method consists of the intensive study of selected instance of the phenomenon in which one is interested. a. He should also make an attempt to apply concepts and theories developed in different research contexts to the area in which he is him working. it is often considered desirable to send a copy of the questions to be discussed to the respondents well in advance. which fact may necessitate changes in the research procedure for gathering relevant data. already made in one’s area of interest may as well as made by the researcher for precisely formulating the problem. 3. Hypothesis stated by earlier workers may be reviewed and their usefulness be evaluated as a basis for further research. Inbuilt flexibility in research design is needed because the research problem. they may be able to contribute effectively. is transformed into one with more precise meaning in exploratory studies. Generally. Analyses of ‘insight-stimulating’ examples are also a fruitful method for suggesting hypothesis for research. Hence. broadly defined initially. the bibliographical survey of studies. The survey of concerning literature happens to be the most simple and fruitful method of formulating precisely the research problem or developing hypothesis. Ans. people who are competent and can contribute new ideas may be carefully selected as respondents to ensure a representation of different types of experience. In this way the researcher should review and build upon the work already done by others. survey may as well provide information about the practical possibilities for doing different types of research.
in an exploratory of formulative research study which merely leads to insights or hypothesis. Therefore. income and price of substitute. One can mention few examples of ‘insight-stimulating’ cases such as the reactions of strangers. intelligence may also influence the school performance. In statistical term. income. age is a continuous variable. . since it is not directly related to the purpose of the study undertaken by the researcher. And if. while price is the independent variable. Experience indicated that for particular problem certain types of instances are more appropriate than others. it is known as a dependent or endogenous variable. the demand also depends upon them in addition to the own price. qualitative variables are not quantifiable in the strictest sense of objectivity. However. In general. if demand depends upon price. But. the reactions of marginal individuals. Independent dependent variables : A magnitude that varies is known as a variable. weight. the reactions of individuals from different social strata and the like. a research study should always be framed in such a manner that the dependent variable completely influences the change in the independent variable and any other extraneous variable or variables. the dependent variable. where as the number of children is a non-continuous variable. The concept may assume different quantitative values. However. may be examined. Now. like height. if any. the qualitative phenomena may also be quantified in terms of the presence or absence of the attribute considered. the unstructured interviewing may take place. b. in which case the latter is an independent variable and the former. whatever method or research design outlined above is adopted. then demand is a dependent variable. For example. For instance. Phenomena that assume different values quantitatively even in decimal points are known as ‘continuous variables’. the intensity of the study and the ability of the researcher to draw together diverse information into a unified interpretation are the main features which make this method an appropriate procedure for evoking insights. all variables need not be continuous. cases that provide sharp contrasts or have striking features are considered relatively more useful while adopting this method of hypothesis formulation. or some other approach may be adop0ted. what sorts of examples are to be selected and studied? There is no clear cut answer of it. For example. Thus. more variables determine demand. Values that can be expressed only in integer values are called ‘non-continuous variables’. assume that a researcher wants to test the hypothesis that there is relationship between children’s school performance and their self-concepts. Briefly explain Independent dependent and extraneous variables in a research design. Attitude of the investigator. demand is a dependent variable which is determined by the independent variables like own price. it would be known as an extraneous variable. Then. In this context. Extraneous variable : The independent variables which are not directly related to the purpose of the study but affect the dependent variable are known as extraneous variable. The influence caused by the extraneous variable on the dependent variable is technically called as an ‘experimental error’. and the variables that cause the changes in the dependent variable are known as the independent or explanatory or exogenous variable. Ans. the study of individuals who are in transition from one stage to another. the only thing essential is that it must continue to remain flexible so that many different facets of a problem may be considered as and when they arise and come to the notice of the researcher. they are also known as ‘discrete variable’. like income and prices of substitute commodity. etc.records. When changes in one variable depends upon the changes in one or more other variables.
Census Survey is conducted in an A sample survey is asked of a limited attempted to get an answer from all people group of people in a geographical area. Therefore the results of a sample survey always have a margin for error whereas census survey is always accurate. There are times and requirements where governments have to indulge in census survey even if it is time consuming and very expensive as it needs to formulate policies and welfare programs for the population. There are many techniques of survey out of which sample survey and census survey are very popular. This article will discuss the features of two types of surveys to clear the doubts in the minds of the readers. it can conduct a sample survey of some of the cancer patients and then extrapolate the results on the section of the population that is undergoing treatment for cancer. it is not possible to carry out census survey which is when sample survey is undertaken. It depends upon time available and other circumstances to engage in either of the two types of surveys. There are errors in sampling in case of sample survey which can be minimized but never eliminated. Census Survey gathers data from the A sample Survey investigation on takes a . it cannot conduct a sample survey to count the number of people in the country. there are many differences in features and also the results obtained. when a government has to count heads of the population. Though there are many similarities between these two methods.Q 3. many times. This obviously means that a census survey is a much bigger exercise in nature and procedures than a sample survey. Ans. a. Census Survey Sample Survey A census is a statistical enumeration and A survey can be a tally of opinions or analysis of a certian population answers. But when government is planning on a welfare program for cancer patients. On the other hand. Differentiate between ‘Census survey’ and ‘ Sample Survey’. Before we begin to differentiate. Census survey also is a very time consuming exercise as information needs to be collected from each and every individual from the population. it is pertinent to note that sample is a portion of the population whereas census takes into consideration everyone in the population. For example. sample survey is easier as a representative sample is taken from the population and the results obtained are extrapolated to fit the entire population. However. Census Survey vs Sample Survey Surveys are done all over the world to collect information from the populace to arrive at conclusions that help in improving the products or services of a company.
a third option. That is. This entails that the researcher can obtain limitless number of subjects before finally making a decision whether to accept his null or alternative hypothesis. ADVANTAGES OF SEQUENTIAL SAMPLING • • The researcher has a limitless option when it comes to sample size and sampling schedule. Sample Survey is less accurate. Sequential sampling is a non-probability sampling technique wherein the researcher picks a single or a group of subjects in a given time interval. this sampling technique enables the researcher to fine-tune his research methods and results analysis. sampling is carried out in two or more stages. Sampling schedule is also completely dependent to the researcher since a second group of samples can only be obtained after conducting the experiment to the initial group of samples. The procedure continues down to the final sampling units or population procedure continues down to the final sampling units or population elements. conducts his study. a sampling unit is a cluster of the sampling units of the subsequent stage. a sample of the first stage sampling units is drawn.e. The researcher can accept the null hypothesis. there exists another step. Sub-sampling balances the two conflicting effects of clustering i. First. the sampling in second and subsequent stage frames is called sub-sampling. then from each of the selected first stage sampling unit. cost and sampling errors. The population is regarded as being composed of a number of second stage units and so forth. . at each stage. minor changes and adjustments can be done during the initial parts of the study to correct and hone the research method.. It is also useful when a survey has to be made within a limited time and cost budget. Appropriate random sampling method is adopted at each stage. Sub-sampling is a part of multi-stage sampling process.whole group/poulation small part of the group/poulation Census survey takes each and every sample survey takes a representative individual sample Census survey takes more time and Sample Survey takes less time and money money Census survey is more accurate. In sequential sampling technique. As mentioned above. b. The sample size can be relatively small of excessively large depending on the decision making of the researcher. It is appropriate where the population is scattered over a wider geographical area and no frame or list is available for sampling. Ans. or select another pool of subjects and conduct the experiment once again. a sample of the second stage sampling units is drawn. The major disadvantage is that the procedure of estimating sampling error and cost advantage is complicated. In a multi-stage sampling. accept his alternative hypothesis. In multi-stage sampling method. Due to the repetitive nature of this sampling method. Analyze multi-stage and sequential sampling. analyzes the results then picks another group of subjects if needed and so on.
the median is the average of the two middle values. It is not expensive. If there is an even number of observations. not time consuming and not workforce extensive. and 150 pounds. List down various measures of central tendency and explain the difference between them? Ans. Its only hope of approaching representativeness is when the researcher chose to use a very large sample size significant enough to represent a big fraction of the entire population. results from this sampling technique cannot be used to create conclusions and interpretations pertaining to the entire population. and n is the number of sample observations. DISADVANTAGES OF SEQUENTIAL SAMPLING • • • This sampling method is hardly representative of the entire population. which can be illustrated with an example. the mean weight would equal (100 + 100 + 130 + 140 + 150)/5 = 620/5 = 124 pounds. 130 pounds. using one of the following equations: Population mean = μ = ΣX / N OR Sample mean = x = Σx / n where ΣX is the sum of all the population observations. Suppose we draw a sample of five women and measure their weights. N is the number of population observations. The mean of a sample or a population is computed by adding all of the observations and dividing by the number of observations. In the general case. They weigh 100 pounds. Q 4. since 130 pounds is the middle weight.• There is very little effort in the part of the researcher when performing this sampling technique. 100 pounds. Due to the aforementioned disadvantages. If there is an odd number of observations. This contributes to the very little degree representativeness of the sampling technique. Returning to the example of the five women. the median is the middle value. The sampling technique is also hardly randomized. we arrange the observations in order from smallest to largest value. Σx is the sum of all the sample observations. 140 pounds. Thus. the mean can be calculated. in the sample of five women. the median value would be 130 pounds. To find the median. . The two most common measures of central tendency are the median and the mean.
000 and $100.000. . Suppose you multiply every value by a constant. Effect of Changing Units Sometimes. suppose you have a set of scores with a mean equal to 5 and a median equal to 6.).000. If you add a constant to every value. The Mean vs. the new mean will be 5 + 10 = 15. when the sample size is large and does not include outliers. statisticians use the symbol x to refer to the mean score. If you add 10 to every score. That tenth household is an outlier. To illustrate these points. feet to meters. For example.000. Then. they use the Greek letter μ to refer to the mean score.When statisticians talk about the mean of a population. the mean and median increase by the same constant. Suppose we examine a sample of 10 households to estimate the typical family income. If we choose a measure to estimate the income of a typical household. and the new median will be 6 + 10 = 16. etc. the mean and the median will also be multiplied by that constant. However. the mean will greatly over-estimate the income of a typical family (because of the outlier). Nine of the households have incomes between $20. When they talk about the mean of a sample. Here is how measures of central tendency are affected when we change units. If you multiply each of these scores by 10. the Median As measures of central tendency. The median may be a better indicator of the most typical value if a set of scores has an outlier. the new mean will be 5 * 10 = 50. An outlier is an extreme value that differs greatly from other values.000. the mean and the median each have advantages and disadvantages. assume that a set of scores has a mean of 5 and a median of 6. researchers change units (minutes to hours. the mean score usually provides a better measure of central tendency. Some pros and cons of each measure are summarized below. consider the following example. while the median will not. but the tenth household has an annual income of $1. For example. and the new median will be 6 * 10 = 60.
Select any topic for research and explain how you will use both secondary and primary sources to gather the required information. the researcher can collect the required data precisely according to his research needs and he can collect them when he wants and in the form that he needs it. such as annual reports. farm management studies. There are various methods of primary data collection. for the purposes of the project immediately at hand. collection of data directly by the researcher on brand awareness. marketing research. etc. Primary data has to be gathered in cases where the available data is inappropriate. publications of international organizations such as the UN.V. census reports.g. reports of government departments). leadership studies. in the form of a marketing information system. opinion polls. World Bank and International Monetary Fund. In this case. observation and experiments. It includes: socio economic surveys. required data is not available from secondary sources and it has to be directly gathered from the primary sources. trade and financial journals. and brand loyalty and other aspects of consumer behavior. compared to gathering information from available sources • Data collection is a time consuming process • It requires trained interviewers and investigators Secondary Sources of Data These are sources containing data.. knowledge-awareness practice (KAP) studies. Primary Sources of Data Primary sources are original sources from which the researcher directly collects data that has not been previously collected. Primary data is first hand information collected through various methods such as surveys. trade associations (e. minutes of meetings and other information that is available within the firm. social anthropological studies of rural communities and tribal communities.g. radio listening and T. brand preference. business management studies etc. inadequate or obsolete. from a sample of consumers by interviewing them. published sources (annual reports of currency and finance published by the Reserve Bank of India. viewing surveys. inventory records. .g. Chambers of Commerce) and commercial services (outside suppliers of information). attitudinal surveys. Yet. sociological studies of social problems and social institutions. for several types of social science research. such as government agencies (e. Methods of Data Collection: The researcher directly collects primary data from its original sources. They may also be external sources. financial statements. audits and panels. But the collection of primary data is costly and time consuming. The advantages of primary data are – • It is unique to a particular research study • It is recent information.5. which has been collected and compiled for another purpose. unlike published information that is already available The disadvantages are – • It is expensive to collect. sales reports. Secondary sources may be internal sources. e.Q.). including surveys. experiments and observation.
It is a method of research involving collection of data directly from a population or a sample at a particular time. A survey involves the following steps – • • • • • • • • • Selection of a problem and its formulation Preparation of the research design Operation concepts and construction of measuring indexes and scales Sampling Construction of tools for data collection Field work and collection of data Processing of data and tabulation Analysis of data Reporting There are four basic survey methods. Telephone interview 3. Interviewing is the only suitable method for gathering information from illiterate or less educated respondents. Interview is often superior to other data-gathering methods. It permits probing into the context and reasons for answers to questions. or when a sufficient number of qualified interviewers are available. from factual demographic data to highly personal and intimate information relating to a person’s opinions. initiated for obtaining information relevant to a specific study. facial expressions and pauses. Once rapport is established. It may be defined as a two-way systematic conversation between an investigator and an informant. A survey has certain characteristics: • • • • • It is always conducted in a natural setting. Interviewing may be used either as a main method or as a supplementary one in studies of persons. Where the area covered for the survey is compact. . beliefs. It is a field study. experiences and future intentions. Fax survey Personal Interview Personal interviewing is one of the prominent methods of data collection. It seeks responses directly from the respondents. It may include an extensive study or an intensive study It covers a definite geographical area. personal interview is feasible. which include: 1. values. Personal interview 2. It can cover a very large population. People are usually more willing to talk than to write.1 Survey Research A survey is a fact-finding study. Interviewing is appropriate when qualitative information is required. It is useful for collecting a wide range of data. but also learning from the respondent’s gestures. or probing is necessary to draw out the respondent fully. Mail survey and 4. It involves not only conversation. attitudes. and his environment. even confidential information may be obtained.
such as family members. . momentary experience for them. gestures.Interview can add flesh to statistical information. business executives. but a conversation with a specific purpose. which for some reason or the other the respondents do not want to answer. it need not be limited to a single respondent. It has a fixed beginning and termination points. This poses a problem of seeing that recording does not interfere with the tempo of conversation. The interview is a mode of obtaining verbal answers to questions put verbally. The interview is not a mere casual conversational exchange. Although the interview is usually a conversation between two persons. behavior. or a group of children. hence.. Interviewing is not a standardized process like that of a chemical technician. business houses. As far as possible. because the interview can also be conducted over the telephone. It can also be conducted with a group of persons. the interviewer should try to be closer to the social-economic level of the respondents. It permits the investigator to seek clarifications and brings to the forefront those questions. viz. It enables the investigator to grasp the behavioral context of the data furnished by the respondents. The respondent reacts to the interviewer’s appearance. his perception of the thrust of the questions and his own personal needs. psychological process. obtaining information relevant to a study. e. The interaction between the interviewer and the respondent need not necessarily be on a face-to-face basis. The interaction between the interviewer and the respondent depends upon how they perceive each other. The interview is an interactive process. or a group of customers. The relationship between the participants is a transitory one. It may be used as a major method or as a supplementary method. The interview proper is a fleeting. Interviewing as a method of data collection has certain characteristics. the investigator has to get himself/herself introduced to the respondent in an appropriate manner. It will be useful in the following situations: • When the universe is composed of those persons whose names are listed in telephone directories. depending on the requirements of the study. They are: • The participants – the interviewer and the respondent – are strangers.g. • • • • • • • • • Telephone Interviewing Telephone interviewing is a non-personal method of data collection. facial expression and intonation. doctors and other professionals. it is rather a flexible. The investigator records information furnished by the respondent in the interview.
a radio or television program survey. Mail Survey The mail survey is another method of collecting primary data. as in the case of personal interview method. It should preferably contain mostly closed-ended and multiple choice questions. It does not involve face-toface conversation between the investigator and the respondent. The researcher should prepare a mailing list of the selected respondents. the flow of information is multi dimensional. clubs and other organized groups. intentions and opinions among individuals in the group. e. e. The interviewer acts as the discussion leader. beliefs.g. This method involves sending questionnaires to the respondents with a request to complete them and return them by post. The group may consist of about six to eight individuals with a common interest. In particular. Samples for group interviews can be obtained through schools. he must be aware that a single comment by a member can provide important insight. • Group Interviews A group interview may be defined as a method of collecting primary data in which a number of individuals with a common interest interact with each other. Communication is carried out only in writing and this requires more cooperation from the respondents than verbal communication. so that it could be completed within a few minutes. with the discussion serving as a guide to ensure consideration of the areas of concern.g. by collecting the addresses from the telephone directory of the association or organization to which they belong. provided the units of study are listed in the telephone directory. When the subject is interesting or important to respondents. the interviewers look for evidence of common elements of attitudes. The distinctive feature of the mail survey is that the questionnaire is self-administered by the respondents themselves and the responses are recorded by them and not by the investigator.• • • When the study requires responses to five or six simple questions. The discussion leader stimulates the group members to interact with each other. Free discussion is encouraged on some aspect of the subject under study. The mail questionnaires should be simple so that the respondents can easily understand the questions and answer them. The following procedures should be followed – . When the respondents are widely scattered and when there are many call backs to make. This can be used in the case of educated respondents only. In a personal interview. a survey relating to a profession conducted by the concerned professional association. The desired information may be obtained through self-administered questionnaire or interview. When the survey must be conducted in a very short period of time. a survey relating to trade conducted by a trade association or a chamber of commerce. At the same time.
The progress in return may be watched and at the appropriate stage. The sponsor’s identity may be revealed. In this case. They are: 11. After a few days from the date of mailing the questionnaires to the respondents. 2 32. when such information may bias the result. so as to attract and hold the interest of the respondent. Anonymity must be assured. Such preliminary contact with potential respondents is more successful than follow-up efforts. Advance information: Advance information can be provided to potential respondents by a telephone call. a disguised organization name may be used. Quality printing: The questionnaire may be neatly printed on quality light colored paper. Covering letter: The covering letter should be couched in a pleasant style. 10 116. so as to attract the attention of the respondent. if the required sample size is 1000. 4 53. or advance notice in the newsletter of the concerned organization. 8 95. follow-up efforts can be made.• a covering letter should accompany a copy of the questionnaire. 6 74. stamps for collection and other incentives are also used to induce respondents to complete and return the mail questionnaire. they may be approached through someone in that organization known as the researcher. However. • • • The response rate in mail surveys is generally very low in developing countries like India. Certain techniques have to be adopted to increase the response rate. . It must anticipate objections and answer them briefly. It must explain to the respondent the purpose of the study and the importance of his cooperation to the success of the project. For example. it is not desirable to reveal it. the researcher can expect the return of completed ones from them. Incentives: Money. or by a letter. Larger sample size: A larger sample may be drawn than the estimated sample size. It is desirable to address the respondent by name. Follow-up-contacts: In the case of respondents belonging to an organization. This may help the researcher to secure an effective sample size closer to the required size. a sample of 1500 may be drawn.
Graphs play a very important role during presentations because they make the data easier to understand and interpretations and comparisons can be made quickly. charts and other pictorial devices such as diagrams. called edges or arcs. variations and trends in data can be showed clearly and they show how the values of particular variables change over time. clear and accurate and also be appropriate to the data. They are useful in presentations also because they can summarize large amounts of data and can convey the basic idea of the research. A graph data structure consists of a finite (and possibly mutable) set of ordered pairs. Graphs also help in determining the relationship between variables. The graphs which are most commonly used in visual aids are Bar graphs. The device of graphic presentation is particularly useful when the prospective readers are non-technical people or general public.Q 6. or series of bars. Graphs really help the audience in absorbing the data as they are simple to interpret and are appealing. such as a symbolic label or a numeric attribute (cost. an edge (x. Pie Charts. These forms and devices reduce large masses of statistical data to a form that can be quickly understood at the glance. representing various kinds of quantitative information and relationships. By using graphs. Roles of Graphs Graph is a diagram.” They.). A graph data structure may also associate to each edge some edge value. logically and simply. graphic forms are not substitutes for tables. but are additional tools for the researcher to emphasize the research findings. Explain the role of Graphs and Diagrams? Ans. However. as a curve. graphic presentation involves use of graphics. a. etc. . by emphasizing new and significant relationship. are also useful in discovering new facts and in developing hypothesis. The nodes may be part of the graph structure. capacity. In presenting the data of frequency distributions and statistical computations. Graphic forms used should be simple. for important points can be more effectively captured in pictures than in tables. such as the successive changes in a variable quantity or quantities. As in mathematics. Graphic presentation must be planned with utmost care and diligence. It is useful to even technical people for dramatizing certain points about data. length. of certain entities called nodes or vertices. A graph is an abstract data structure that is meant to implement the graph and hypergraph concepts from mathematics. Line graphs and Scatter diagrams. or may be external entities represented by integer indices or references. broken line. it is often desirable to use appropriate forms of graphic presentations. The meaning of figures in tabular form may be difficult for the mind to grasp or retain. In additions to tabular forms. “Properly constructed graphs and charts relieve the mind of burdensome details by portraying facts concisely.y) is said to point or go from x to y.
to decide on the level of interest and to determine the boundaries of each role in a diagram. “The transformation of data through visual methods like graphs.Roles of Diagrams Diagram is a graphic representation of an algebraic or geometric relationship. It describes these in turn. such as maps. In reality the reader will rely upon experience gained through using Role Activity Diagrams in projects. are used to represent large volume of data. This guide tells you how to draw Role Activity Diagrams. diagrams. Graphical form makes it possible to easily draw visual impressions of data. The graphic method of the representation of data enhances our understanding. it becomes difficult to draw results. b. It is not difficult to learn how to draw them and it is not difficult for most people to interpret them. Role Activity Diagrams (RADs) are a useful way of describing processes. and as they might be in the future. The guide will show you that Role Activity Diagrams are a reasonably simple diagramming technique. graphs and diagrams. The main part of the SPRINT BPR Methodology describes the ways in which Role Activity Diagrams can be used within a broader change project. The guide progresses by introducing each of the main constructs of the Role Activity Diagram. They are valuable in documenting processes as they are now. It makes the comparisons easy. This experience will teach how Role Activity Diagrams can best be used. the creation of Role Activity Diagrams relies upon an ability to scope a study. giving advice about the drawing conventions. maps and charts is called representation of data. and what they are most useful for. . This is where the real skill of using Role Activity Diagrams comes in but such issues are addressed only partially in this report. They are necessary: • • • • If the information is presented in tabular form or in a descriptive record. In addition to these syntactic skills. the data may also be presented in some graphic or diagrammatic form.” The need of representing data graphically: Graphics. This is syntactic guidance. What are the Types and General rules for graphical representation of data? REPRESENTATION OF DATA Besides the tabular form.
age–sex composition. These makes it easy to understand the patterns of population growth. 3. Graphic forms should follow and not precede the related textual discussion. Each curve or bar on the chart should be labeled. distribution and the density. The zero point should always be represented and the scale intervals should be equal. . Numerical data upon which the chart is based should be presented in an accompanying table. The chart should have a title placed directly above the chart. 10.• • • • Besides. 9. they should be clearly differentiated from one another by distinct patterns or colours. 6. etc. occupational structure. It presents characteristics in a simplified way. The most commonly used graphic forms may be grouped into the following categories : • • • • • • • • Line Graphs or Charts Bar Charts Segmental presentations Scatter plots Bubble charts Stock plots Pictographs Chesnokov Faces The general rules to be followed in graphic representations are : 1. The title should be clear. 5. Measurements proceed from left to right on the horizontal line and from bottom to top on the vertical. 4. sex ratio. 2. If there are more than one curves or bar. 7. Graphic forms should be used sparingly. 8. Too many forms detract rather than illuminating the presentation. concise and simple and should describe the nature of the data presented. such methods create an imprint on mind for a longer time. The horizontal line measures time or independent variable and the vertical line the measured variable. It is a time consuming task to draw inferences about whatever is being presented in non–graphical form.