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POWER SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES
1. What are the classifications of power semi converter devices? The classifications of power semi converter devices are, 1. Uncontrolled turn- on and off (diode) 2. Controlled turn- on and uncontrolled turn off ( SCR) 3. Controlled turn on and turn off ( BJT, power MOSFET, SITH, IGBT, SIT and MCT) 4. Continuous gate signal requirements ( BJT, MOSFET, IGBT, SIT) 5. Pulse gate requirements ( SCR, GTO, MCT) 6. Bipolar voltage withstanding capability ( SCR, GTO) 7. Unipolar voltage withstanding capability ( BJT, MOSFET, IGBT) 8. Bidirectional current capability ( TRIAC, RCT) 9. Unidirectional current capability ( SCR, GTO, BJT, MOSFET, IGBT, SIT, SITH, power diode) 2. Mention some of the thyristors family Some of the thyristors are, 1. SCR ( silicon controlled rectifier) 2. TRIAC 3. DIAC 4. SCS ( silicon controlled switch) 5. GTO ( gate turn off) thyristor 3. What is a thyristor? The term of thyristor denotes a family of silicon based semiconductor devices used for power control in DC and AC system. The thyristor has the combination of THYRatron characteristics and transISTOR construction, so the name thyristor is derived from the bold letters (THYRISTOR). 4. IGBT is a voltage controlled device. Why? IGBT is a voltage controlled device because the controlling parameter is gateemitter voltage. 5. Why IGBT is very popular nowadays? IGBT is very popular to nowadays because it has, 1. Lower hate requirements 2. Lower switching losses 3. Smaller snubber circuit requirements
P.RATHNAVEL, LECTURER/ EEE
DHANALAKSHMI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, CHENNAI
6. What are the different methods to turn on the thyristor? The different methods to turn on the thyristor are, 1. Forward voltage triggering 2. Gate triggering 3. dv/dt triggering 4. Temperature triggering 5. Light triggering 7. What is the difference between power diode and signal diode? The difference between power diodes and signal diodes are, Sl.No. Power diode Signal diode
Constructed with n-layer, called drift Drift region is not present. region between p+ layer and n+ layer. 1 2 The voltage, current and power ratings are higher. Power diodes operate at high speeds. The voltage, current and power ratings are Lower Operates speed. at higher switching
8. IGBT is a voltage controlled device. Why? IGBT is a voltage controlled device because the controlling parameter is gateemitter voltage. 9. Power MOSFET is a voltage controlled device. Why? Power MOSFET is a voltage controlled device because the output (drain) current can be controlled by gate-source voltage. 10. Power BJT is a current controlled device. Why? Power BJT is a current controlled device because the output (collector) current can be controlled by base current. 11. What is the relation between α and β? The relation between α and β is given by,
β = forward current gain α = current gain
P.RATHNAVEL, LECTURER/ EEE
DHANALAKSHMI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, CHENNAI
Define: hard-driving or over-driving Hard-driving or over-driving defined as. Define: latching current The latching current is defined as the minimum value of anode current which it must attain during turn on process to maintain conduction when gate signal is removed. 16. Define: SCR turn off time ( tq) Turn off time (tq) is the minimum value of time interval between the instant when the on state current has decrease to zero and the instant when the thyristor is capable of withstanding forward voltage without turning on. What is the turn off time for inverter grade SCR? The turn off time for inverter grade SCR is 3-50 ms. 21. 14. 17. What are the different types of power MOSFET? Two types of power MOSFET are. a thyristor is said to be hard-driving or over-driving. N-channel MOSFET 2. 20.RATHNAVEL. LECTURER/ EEE DHANALAKSHMI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING. CHENNAI . Define: holding current The holding current is defined as the minimum value of anode current below which it must fall to for turning off the thyristor. 18. What is the turn off time for converter grade SCR? The turn off time for converter grade SCR is 50-100 ms. It consists of a series combination of a resistor and a capacitor in parallel with the thyristors. What is a snubber circuit? A snubber circuit is a protection circuit. 15. What losses occur in a thyristor during working conditions? The losses occur in a thyristor during working condition are. P. when gate current is several times higher than the minimum gate current required. Loss due to leakage current during forward and reverse blocking 3. How to turn off the thyristor? A thyristor which is in the on state can be turned off by reducing the forward current to a level below the holding current. P-channel MOSFET 13.12. Forward conduction losses 2. 1. Gate triggering loss. It is mainly used for dv / dt protection. 19. 1. Switching losses at turn-on and turn-off 4.
Higher voltage blocking capability. During this period. 2. 2. 4. It is majority carrier Devices.RATHNAVEL. 3. it remains latched in on state due to internal regenerative action. LECTURER/ EEE DHANALAKSHMI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING. CHENNAI . 26. Thus secondary breakdown is caused by a localized thermal runaway. 1. all the carriers inside the SCR are removed and junctions. What are the operational difference between thyristor family and transistor family of devices? The operational difference between thyristor family and transistor family of devices are. What is meant by secondary break down? The secondary breakdown is a destructive phenomenon which result from the current flow to a small portion of the base. J1 and P. resulting from high current concentrations. a reverse voltage must be applied across its anode cathode terminals. 23. Define: circuit turn off time The turn off time is defined as the time during which a reverse voltage is applied across the thyristor during its commutation process. However a transistor turns off when its base signal is removed. 1. 24. producing localized spots is sufficient. Operates as a switch always hence on state losses are reduced 27. 25. However a transistor must be given a continuous base signal to remain in on state. High ratio of peak surge current to average current. What is reverse recovery time? The reverse recovery time is the time for which negative current flows through the SCR. Once a SCR is turned on by a gate signal. the excessive localized heating may damage the transistor. a process called commutation failure. In order to turn off a thyristor . otherwise the device may turn-on at an undesired instant. What are the advantages of GTO over BJT? The advantages of GTO over BJT are. Why circuit turn off time should be greater than the thyristor turn -off time? Circuit turn off time should be greater than the thyristor turn-off time for reliable turnoff.22.
4) In some dc applications. whereas antiparallel thyristor pair needs two heat sinks. What are the advantages of TRIAC? The advantages of TRIAC are: 1) It can be triggering with positive or negative polarity voltage. What are the different types of power transistor? Types of power transistors are. which also simplifies the construction 3) It needs a single heat sink of slightly larger size. the excessive localized heating may damage the transistor. 29. At the end of reverse recovery time. What is meant by secondary break down? The secondary breakdown is a destructive phenomenon. Thus secondary breakdown is caused by a localized thermal runaway. 2) It needs a single fuse for protection. the channel will be completely depleted. CHENNAI . Define: pinch off voltage of MOSFET The pinch off voltage of MOSFET defined as the gate source voltage VGS at which. IDS=0.RATHNAVEL. result from the current flow to a small portion of the base. 1) Bipolar junction transistor (BJT) 2) Metal – oxide semiconductor field – effect transistors (MOSFET) 3) Insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) 30. anode current becomes zero. SCR is required to be connected to be connected with a parallel diode to protect against reverse voltage. producing localized spots is sufficient. In TRIAC which of the modes the sensitivity of gate is high? The more sensitive of the TRIAC is greatest in the first quadrant when turned on with positive gate current and also in the third quadrant when turned on with negative gate current. 31. 28.J2 achieve their forward blocking state. offering a high value of RDS and there will be no current flow from the drain to source. resulting from high current concentrations. P. 32. LECTURER/ EEE DHANALAKSHMI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING. where a triac used may work without diode as safe breakdown in either direction is possible.
7. Powers MOSFET operate at switching frequency in the MHz range. 4.33. What are the factors that influence the turn off time of a SCR? The factors are influence the turn off time of a SCR. Secondary breakdown does not occur in MOSFET. BJT operate at switching frequencies in KHz range. 6. BJT has higher switching losses 2. MOSFETs are available with ratings upto 500V and 140V BJT 1. Power MOSFET has lower switching losses. It is a bipolar device.RATHNAVEL. 6. Secondary breakdown occur in BJT 8. BJTs are available with rating upto 1200V and 800V. It is a unipolar device. BJT has negative temperature coefficient. 1. P. Recovery process 2. CHENNAI . 7. It is current controlled device. LECTURER/ EEE DHANALAKSHMI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING. It has low conduction losses 3. It has more conduction losses. MOSFET 1. 8. 5. MOSFET has positive temperature coefficient. 2. 3. What is meant by forward break over voltage? The forward break over voltage is the forward voltage at which the junction J2 will have an avalanche breakdown. 34. Recombination process 35. 5. It is a voltage controlled device. 4. Distinguish between MOSFET and BJT? The distinguish between MOSFET and BJT are.
3. The latching current is defined as the minimum value of anode current which it must attain during turn on process to maintain conduction when gate signal is removed. The time required to change the base emitter capacitance to VBES= 0. Holding current is less then the latching current. base emitter voltage VBE is applied.36. Define: delay time The delay time period define as. Distinguish between holding current and latching current of SCR. Latching current is the 2 to 3 times of holding current. What are the terminals in thyristor? The terminals in thyristor are. Holding current is associated with turn off process. gate 38. Latching current 1. cathode 3. Latching current is associate with turn on process. The distinguish between holding current and latching current of SCR are. 2. Holding current 1. The thyristor can be turn off or the thyristor can be forward blocking state only . LECTURER/ EEE DHANALAKSHMI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING. anode 2. 37. 1. 3. the base current IB rises to IBS and the collector current IC is equal to zero or collector emitter leakage current ICBO. α = ∆IC / ∆IB β = ∆IC / ∆IE 39. CHENNAI . β is a forward current gain which is the ratio of collector current to the emitter current. P.RATHNAVEL. if the forward current falls below a low level current called the holding current. Define: β and α α is a current gain which is the ratio of collector current to base current.7V. Mathematically. 2.
2) Since TRIAC can be triggered in either direction. 42. CHENNAI . When the reverse voltage is increased the junction J1 and J3 will have an avalanche breakdown at a voltage. when cathode is positive with respect to anode with gate circuit open. LECTURER/ EEE DHANALAKSHMI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING.40. the junction I1 and J3 are reverse biased but J2 junction is forward biased. This voltage is called critical break over voltage Vbr. weight and volume 2) Reduction in acoustics and electromagnetic noise due to the elimination of commutation chokes 3) Faster turn off. Mention some disadvantages of TRIAC. collector current IC rises to steady state values ICS and the collector emitter voltage falls from VCC to VCES. What is meant by reverse break over voltage? The reverse break over voltage means.RATHNAVEL. a trigger circuit with TRIAC needs a careful consideration. 1) Elimination of commutative components in forced commutation. 3) SCR is available in large rating compared to TRIAC. The disadvantages of TRIAC are. 1) It has low dv/dt rating compared to SCR. The rise time depends on the input capacitance. 41. permitting high switching frequencies 4) Improved efficiency of the converter P. 4) Reliability is less than that of SCR. Define: rise time The rises time period define as. 43. Mention the advantages of GTO over SCR. The advantages of GTO over SCR are. resulting in reduction in cost.
5) Its reverse voltage blocking capability is less than its forward blocking capability. 1) Magnitude of latching and holding current is more in a GTO.RATHNAVEL. 2) ON state voltage drop and the associated loss is more I a GTO 3) Due to multicathode structure of GTO. Mention the disadvantages of GTO over SCR. LECTURER/ EEE DHANALAKSHMI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING. The disadvantages of GTO over SCR are. P. CHENNAI .44. triggering gate current is higher than that required foe the conventional thyristor. 4) Gate drive circuit losses are more.
What is the function of freewheeling diodes in controlled rectifier? The function of freewheeling diodes in controlled rectifier: 1. textile mills and paper mills employing dc motor drives. 2. Load current waveform is improved and thus the load performance is better. It prevents the output voltage from becoming negative. Magnet power supplies 6. The applications of controlled rectifiers are. 1. SCRs are subjected to a peak-inverse voltage o f 2Vm in a fully controlled bridge rectifier. Input power factor is improved. What are the advantages of single phase bridge converter over single phase mid-point converter? The advantages of single phase bridge converter over single phase mid-point converter are. power handled by midpoint configuration is about of that handled by bridge configuration. 2. As such. 6. DC traction 3.RATHNAVEL. LECTURER/ EEE DHANALAKSHMI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING. Hence for same voltage and current ratings of SCRs. Mention the advantages of freewheeling diodes in a controlled rectifier? The advantages of freewheeling diodes in a controlled rectifier are. as such these are also called line commutated or naturally commutated AC to DC converter. 2. These rectifiers use line voltage for their commutation. the transformer rating in mid-point converter is double the load rating. printing press. Steel rolling mills. P. Portable hand tool drives 5. 5. 2. 1. 1. HVDC transmission system 3. The load current is transferred from the main thyristors to the freewheeling diode. thereby allowing all of its thyristors to regain their blocking states. each secondary winding should be able to supply the load power. What is meant by phase controlled rectifier? Phase controlled rectifier converts constant AC voltage into variable DC output voltage.UNIT 2 PHASE CONTROLLED CONVERTER 1. 4. In mid-point converter. the angle between the zero crossing of the input voltage and the instant the thyristor is fired. 2. Electro chemical and electro-metallurgical process 4. Mention some of the applications of controlled rectifier. CHENNAI . Define: firing angle α The firing angle is defined as.
CHENNAI . I1 = fundamental components of the supply current Φ1 = input displacement angle Irms=supply rms current 10. 14. Digital firing schemes 8. the current flowing through the thyristor is forced to become zero by external circuit. p. 15. 9.f = V1 I1 cosΦ1/ Vrms Irms where. It is also known as onequadrant converter. What are the different methods of firing circuits for line commutated converter? The different methods of firing circuits for line commutated converter are. Here. This process is used in thyristors for turning it off. What is meant by natural commutation? Natural commutation means. the process of changing the direction of current flow in a particular path of the circuit. 11. the current flowing through the thyristor goes through a natural zero and enables the thyristor to turn off.RATHNAVEL. Using UJT 2. 1. Vdc = (Vm / π) (1 + cos α). the output current and output voltage is always positive. What is meant by forced commutation? Forced commutation means. P. The expression for average output voltage of single phase semi converters Average output voltage is. 13. Forced commutation 12. What is meant by commutation? The commutation means. It is also known as two quadrant converter. What are the types of commutation? Two types of commutations are. Define: input power factor in controlled rectifier The input power factor is defined as the ratio of the total mean input power to the total RMS input volt-amperes. Natural commutation 2. V1 =Vrms= phase voltage. Give an expression for average output voltage of single phase semiconverters. What is meant by full controlled rectifier? A fully controlled converter or full converter or full converter uses thyristor only and there is a wider control over the level of dc output voltage. What is meant by half controlled rectifier? A half controlled rectifier or semiconverter uses a mixture of diodes and thyristors and there is a limited control over the level of dc output voltage.7. 1. LECTURER/ EEE DHANALAKSHMI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING. The cosine wave crossing pulse timing control 3.
the power factor is better in semi converter. the angler displacement between the fundamental component of the AC line current and the association line to neutral voltage. Mention the advantages of three phase controlled rectifiers? The advantages of three phase controlled rectifiers are. This is known as rectification mode. How is power factor of semiconverter better than that of full converter? When supply given to load. LECTURER/ EEE DHANALAKSHMI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING.16. power flows from load to source and the converter operates as a line commutated inverter is source voltage VS is negative and source current is positive. the voltage at the dc terminals is negative. Distortion on the AC side is lower order harmonics 3. 23. By using higher number of pulses. 17. What is mean by inversion mode? The inversion mode means. Commutation is made very simple 2. the ratio of the total harmonic current to the fundamental component. Define: two pulse converter Two pulse converter is defined as. 3. 20. IH = ( I2rms – I21) / I1 22. Ripple content decreases.RATHNAVEL. α > 90°. Mention the advantages of six pulse converter? The advantages of six pulse converter are. 24. the voltage at the dc terminals is positive. This is known as inversion mode or synchronous inversion. Output voltage increase 2. Define: displacement factor The input displacement factor is defined as. 18. in a single phase full converter. 1. CHENNAI . Therefore. Therefore. 19. the ratio of the net harmonic content of the output voltage to the average output voltage. power flows from source to load and the converter operates as a rectifier is source voltage VS and source current IS positive. Inductance required in series is considerably reduced P. 1. Therefore. What is meant by rectification mode in single phase full controlled converter? In single phase full converter. two triggering pulse or two sets of triggering pulses are to be generated during every cycle of the supply to trigger the various SCRs. Define: harmonic factor of the input current The harmonic factor of the input current is defined as. the output voltage should be smoother. the semiconverter receives less reactive power due to freewheeling action when compared with full converter. 21. α < 90°. Define: voltage ripple factor Voltage ripple factor is defined as.
3. Regenerative braking 30. 1. Mention the modes of operation of single phase full converter. semi converter 3. The load current is mostly continuous in three phase converters.RATHNAVEL. CHENNAI . The modes of operation of single phase full converter are. the filtering requirements for smoothing out the load current are less. Non. Half wave controlled converter 2. 31. Why power factor is better in single phase semi converter over full converter? Power factor is better in single phase semiconverter over full converter is. The average output voltage should be reduced. 2. What are the advantages of three phase converters over single phase converter? The advantages of three phase converters over single phase converter are. Consequently. 1. Mention the functional modes of dual converters? The functional modes of dual converter are. the ripple frequency of the converter output voltage is higher than in single phase converter. Output current waveform also changed. 27. because in semiconverter there is no negative conduction. What are the effects of source impedance in the controlled rectifiers? The effects of source impedance in the controlled rectifiers are. In three phase converters. 1. full converter 28. Define: commutation angle or overlap angle The commutation period. The overlap period. 1. 2. What are all the types of three phase controlled converter? The types of three phase controlled converter are. The load performance when the three phase converters are used is therefore superior as compared to when single phase converters are used. 26. 1. Circulating current mode P. power delivered to load is greater in semiconverter than full converter.circulating current mode 2. LECTURER/ EEE DHANALAKSHMI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING. 29. both devices share conduction is known as commutation angle or overlap angle (µ). Reduced displacement factor.25. Forward motoring 2. when both outgoing and incoming thyristor are conducting is known as the overlap period.
Reduce the displacement factor.32. 33. thyristor switches connect the load to the AC source foe a position of each cycle of input voltage. 1. 3. Due to source inductance. ON. Output current waveform also changed. What are the effects of source inductance? The effects of source inductance are. 1. Define: ON-OFF control and phase control ON-OFF control ON-OFF control defined as. LECTURER/ EEE DHANALAKSHMI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING. What are the two methods of control in AC voltage controller? The two methods of control in AC voltage controller are. 2. Phase control 34. P. CHENNAI . the average output voltage should be reduced. the thyristors are employed as switched to connect the load circuit to the source for a few cycle of the source voltage and disconnect it for another few cycles Phase control The phase control defined as.OFF control 2.RATHNAVEL.
Unit III DC TO DC CONVERTER 1. Electric braking. Type A chopper or first quadrant chopper 2. What are the different types of chopper configuration? Depending on the direction of current and voltage. LECTURER/ EEE DHANALAKSHMI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING. Mine haulers 6. Trolley cars 4. Step up chopper 2. Type D chopper or second quadrant type B chopper 5. Traction motor control in electric traction 3. Fast dynamic response 4. the average output voltage is less than the input voltage. Vo < Vs In a step.up chopper or Boost converter define as.e. CHENNAI . the average output voltage is more than the input voltage. 2. Type E chopper or four quadrant chopper 6. Smooth acceleration 3. 1. Define: dc chopper A dc chopper defines as a high speed static switch used to obtain variable dc voltage from a constant dc voltage. Battery operated vehicles 2. 1. Regeneration 4. Define step-up and step-down chopper? In a step. What are the applications of dc chopper? The applications of dc chopper are. i. Step down chopper 5. High efficiency 2. 1. Marine hoists 5. 3.RATHNAVEL. Type C chopper or two quadrant type A chopper 4. 1. What are the advantages of dc chopper? The advantages of dc choppers are. What are the types of dc chopper? The types of dc chopper are.down chopper or Buck converter define as.. Type B chopper or second quadrant chopper 3. chopper can be classified into the following types. Vo > Vs P.
LECTURER/ EEE DHANALAKSHMI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING. This method of controlling is called frequency modulation scheme. it is turned off. the value of Ton / T is varied in order to change the average output voltage. Constant frequency control 2. α is the duty cycle. What is meant by TRC? In time ratio control (TRC) means. What is meant by current commutation? The current commutation means. 16. 9. What is meant by duty-cycle? Duty cycle is defined as the ratio of the on time of the chopper to the total time period of the chopper. 2. Average output voltage for step down chopper V0 = α Vs. It is denoted by α. What are the different types of chopper with respect to commutation process? The different types of chopper with respect to commutation process are. 15. Load commutated chopper. 8. 12. Average output voltage for step up chopper V0 = Vs / (1. What are the two types of control strategies? 1. Write down the expression for average output voltage for step down chopper. 10.7.RATHNAVEL. the width of the pulse is varied and this type of control is known as Pulse Width Modulation (PWM). the on time Ton is varied but chopping frequency ‘f’ is kept constant. Current Limit Control method (CLC) 11. Forced commutation i. the chopping frequency ‘f’ is varied and either on time Ton is kept constant or off time Toff is kept constant. Time Ratio Control (TRC) 2. ii.α). Write down the expression for average output voltage for step up chopper. Current commutated chopper. What is meant by PWM control in dc chopper? The PWM control method means. α is the duty cycle. 1. Variable frequency control 13. 14. What is meant by FM control in a dc chopper? The frequency modulation control means. P. Voltage commutated chopper. a current pulse is made to flow in the reverse direction through the conducting thyristor and when the net thyristor current becomes zero. CHENNAI . What are the two types of TRC? 1.
P. Commutation is reliable as load current is less than the peak commutation current ICP 3. 6. Filtering requirements are minimum 22. What is meant by load commutation? The load commutation means. CHENNAI .17. efficiency becomes very low because of high 2. LECTURER/ EEE DHANALAKSHMI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING. 21. For high power applications. The output voltage amplitude is controlled by varying the mark space ratio of the chopper. a charged capacitor momentarily reverse biases the conducting thyristor and turn it off. the load current flowing through the thyristor either becomes zero or is transferred to another device from the conducting thyristor. 23.RATHNAVEL. 20. The capacitor always remains charged with the correct polarity 2. 3. Freewheeling diode is subjected to twice the supply voltage. One thyristor pair should be turned-on only when the other pair is commutated. The auxiliary thyristor TA is naturally commutated as its current passes through zero value. 18. 5. What is meant by forced commutation? The forced commutation means. The commutating capacitor has to carry full load current at a frequency of half chopping frequency. Switching losses at high operating frequencies. It is capable of commutating any amount of load current 3. This may be achieved by pulse with control or frequency variation with constant pulse width. It can work at high frequencies in the order of kHz 4. What are the disadvantages of load commutated chopper? The disadvantages of load commutated chopper 1. Peak load voltage is equal to twice the supply voltage. What are the advantages of current commutated chopper? The advantages of current commutated chopper are. This can be realized by sensing the capacitor current that is alternating. What are the advantages of load commutated chopper? The advantages of load commutated chopper 1. What is meant SMPS? SMPS is switched mode power supply. 1. It is based on a dc chopper with a rectified and possibly transformed output. 4. Commutating inductor is not required 2. What is meant by voltage commutation? The voltage commutation means. 19. when the current flowing through the thyristor is forced to become zero to turn the thyristor off .
Buck – Boost converter 4. Define: buck converter The buck converter defined as. The efficiency is high due to the transistor 5. The output voltage is less than or equal to the input voltage 2. Boost converter 3. 1. What are the characteristics of buck converter? The characteristics of buck converter are. 30.boost converter defined as.boost converter The buck. Cuk converter 25. 28. 1. 1. Television receiver 3. Input current is non.24. Computer 2. a converter used to step up an unregulated DC input voltage to produce a regulated DC output voltage. LECTURER/ EEE DHANALAKSHMI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING. Define: buck. 27. What are the applications of SMPS? The applications of SMPS are. Define: cuk converter The cuk converter is similar to buck. The polarity of the output voltage is opposite to the input voltage. The peak transistor current is high P. a converter used to either buck or boost function. The output current is non. The output voltage is greater than or equal to the input voltage 2. What are the characteristics of boost converter? The characteristics of boost converter are.pulsating 3. What are the types of SMPS? The types of SMPS are. Define: boost converter The boost converter defined as. The output current is pulsating 4. 29.RATHNAVEL. CHENNAI . 1. Battery charger 26. 31. This also known as fly back converter. Buck converter 2.pulsating 4. Input current is pulsating 3. a converter used to step down an unregulated DC input voltage to produce a regulated DC output voltage.boost converter which can provide an output voltage greater or lesser then the input voltage and also the polarity of the output is opposite to the input.
e. 5. P. Why thyristors are not preferred for inverters? Thyristors require extra commutation circuits for turn off which results increased complexity of the circuit. Voltage Source Inverter 2. Commutation circuit is simple as it involves only thyristors. What are the main classifications of inverter? The main classifications of inverter are. Adjustable speed drives 2. Stand-by aircraft power supplies 4. 7. 1. UPS 5. Induction heating 3. For these reasons thyristors are not preferred for inverters. Give two advantages of CSI. 2. HVDC transmission 3. 1. What is meant by inverter? A inverter is a device that converts dc power into ac power at desired output voltage and frequency is called an inverter. These diodes are called feedback diodes.UNIT 4 INVERTERS 1. CSI does not require any feedback diodes. i. the delay angle of the thyristors is varied. load current will not be in phase with load voltage and the diodes connected in antiparallel will allow the current to flow when the main thyristors are turned off. LECTURER/ EEE DHANALAKSHMI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING. What are the applications of inverter? The applications of inverter are. The advantages of CSI are. Why diodes should be connected in antiparallel with the thyristors in inverter circuits? For RL loads. CHENNAI . How output frequency is varied in case of a thyristor? The output frequency is varied by varying the turn off time of the thyristors in the inverter circuit.RATHNAVEL. 6. Current Source Inverter 4. 1. 8. 2. What is meant by series inverter? The series inverter means an inverter in which the commutating elements are connected in series with the load.
What are the advantages of PWM control? The advantages of PWM control are. The output voltage can be obtained without any additional components 2. CHENNAI . Ultrasonic generator 2. 1. Line commutated inverters 2. the filtering requirements are minimized. It is commonly used for fixed output applications such as 1. 10. Induction heating 2.9. ranging from 200 Hz to 100kHz. Lagging VAR compensation 3. 14. What are the applications of a CSI? The applications of a CSI are. What is meant by McMurray inverter? The McMurray inverter means a relies on LC circuit and an auxiliary thyristor for commutation in the load circuit. Lower order harmonics can be eliminated or minimized along with its output voltage control. Self commutated inverters 4. 15. Induction heating 3. P. What are the applications of a series inverter? The applications of a series inverter are. What is meant by PWM control? PWM control means. This is the most popular method of controlling the output voltage and this method is termed as PWM control. 1. Speed control of ac motors 4. As the higher order harmonics can be filtered easily.RATHNAVEL. a fixed dc input voltage is given to the inverter and a controlled ac output voltage is obtained by adjusting the on and off periods of the inverter components. What is meant by parallel inverter? An inverter in which the commutating elements are connected in parallel with the load is called a parallel inverter. How is the inverter circuit classified based on commutation circuitry? The inverter circuits classified based on commutation circuitry are. The thyristorised series inverter produces an approximately sinusoidal waveform at a high output frequency. Sonar Transmitter 11. 12. Synchronous motor starting. Forced commutated inverters. LECTURER/ EEE DHANALAKSHMI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING. 1. 13. Load commutated inverters 3.
the instrumentation and metering can be affected. Compare CSI with VSI. 4.16.No 1 VSI Input voltage is maintained constant The output voltage does not depend on the load The magnitude of the output current and its waveform depends on the nature of the load impedance It requires feedback diodes Commutation circuit is simple i. LECTURER/ EEE DHANALAKSHMI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING. Stepped wave inverters 18. 17. 3. 5 Commutation circuit is complicated i. This will reduce the load carrying capacity of the motor.e.e. On critical loads. Comparisons of CSI with VSI are. Multiple commutation in each cycle 4. it contains only capacitors. torque pulsation produced by the harmonic current can be useful. If the control and the regulating circuits are not properly shielded. it contains capacitors and inductors. CHENNAI . Harmonic currents will lead to excessive heating in the induction motors. What are the disadvantages of the harmonics present in the inverter system? The disadvantages of the harmonics present in the inverter system are.RATHNAVEL. Harmonic currents cause losses in the ac system and can even some time produce resonance in the system. 2. Under resonant conditions. 1. Sl. Sinusoidal PWM 3. What are the methods of reduction of harmonic content? The methods of reduction of harmonic content are. harmonics from power ride can affect their operation and malfunctioning can result. CSI Input current is constant but adjustable The output current does not depend on the load The magnitude of the output voltage and its waveform depends on the nature of the load impedance It does not requires feedback diodes 4 2 3 P. 1. Transformer connections 2.
SCRs are expansive as they must possess low turn on and turn off times 20. Single pulse width modulation 2. 21. 1. Sinusoidal pulse width modulation. 23.19. LECTURER/ EEE DHANALAKSHMI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING. there is only one pulse per half cycle and the output voltage is varied by varying the width of the pulse. Multi pulse with modulation 3. 22. What are the different types of PWM control? The different types of PWM control are. Operation above 120. CHENNAI . Logic circuit is relatively complex 2. 1. Define: amplitude modulation index The amplitude modulation index defined as the ratio of reference voltage ER to the control voltage EC and it is denoted by M. What is the disadvantage of the single pulse width modulation? The harmonic content is more at lower pulse width is the disadvantage of the single pulse width modulation.150 Hz is difficult 3.RATHNAVEL. P. What are the disadvantages of PWM control? The disadvantages of PWM control are. What is single pulse width modulation? In single pulse width modulation.
Intensive care units. 6. Line interactive UPS 3. Induction motor drive and similar other motor control applications 2. Mention the applications of online UPS. Microwave relay stations 5. LECTURER/ EEE DHANALAKSHMI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING. Nuclear reactor controls 6. The various configurations of UPS are. P. safety monitors or a computer installation.UNIT V APPLICATIONS 1. do not emit an explosive gas while charging and they cannot be damaged by discharging. Computers 2. The applications of UPS are. Online UPS 2. where even a temporary loss of supply could have a severe consequence. which cannot be directly fed from DC source and Dc source is required to be converted into AC. 1. 7.RATHNAVEL. Which material is used for installation of UPS? The installation of UPS uses either nickel cadmium or lead acid batteries to provide backup. 2. chemical plant process control. 1. 1. there is need to provide an uninterruptible power supply system which can maintain the supply under all conditions. Offline UPS 3. Mention the applications of UPS. Data transmitters 4. medical equipments. Communication links 5. Data processors 3. CHENNAI . What is the expansion of UPS? The expansion of UPS is uninterruptible power supply. What is the need for UPS? In application of such as medical care systems. The applications of online UPS are. to provide an interrupt free supply of power to the AC load. Nickel cadmium batteries have the advantages that their electrolyte is non corrosive. Mention the various configurations of UPS. 4. Their cost is two to three times that of lead acid batteries. What is the function of UPS? The function of UPS is.
It provides isolation between main supply and load. 9. Rectifier 2. 1.8. 1. Offline UPS are internal control is very simple 11. The advantages of online UPS are. 1. Mention the advantages of offline UPS. Mention the disadvantages of online UPS. The power handling capacity of charger is reduced 3. Mention the disadvantages of online UPS. Battery charger 5. Offline UPS are cheap 4. Mention the advantages of online UPS. Battery 6. Mention the parts of UPS. Mention the application of online UPS. 4. printers and scanners etc. All the disturbance of supply such as blackout. since charger is not continuously on 2. 2. Overall efficiency of UPS is reduced since inverter is always on 2. Switches P. Voltage regulation is better 5. The advantages of offline UPS are. 1. Since inverter is always on. Output of offline UPS is not perfectly reliable 12. 2. CHENNAI . The wattage of the rectifier is increased since it has to supply power to inverter as well as charge battery. Inverter 3. The advantages of online UPS are. 3. There is finite transfer time from mains to inverter when mains supply fails 3. The applications of online UPS are.RATHNAVEL. 3. Computers. 1. Transfer time is practically zero since inverter is always on. The output voltage contains spikes.. The disadvantages of online UPS are. 1. LECTURER/ EEE DHANALAKSHMI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING. spikes etc are absent in the output. Filter 4. Emergency power supplies 13. Offline UPS has high efficiencies. blackouts 2. brownout. the quality of load voltage is free from distortion. brownouts. The parts of UPS are. Online UPS is costlier than other UPS system 10.
The advantages of HVDC are. Multiterminal HVDC system 18. There is no corona loss 5. Bipolar link 3. There is no inductive and capacitive drop 4.14. 1. 17. Resistive drop is less 2. Homopolar link 4. What are the standard voltage for HVDC system? The standard voltages for HVDC system are. Back to back HVDC coupling system 5. What is HVDC? HVDC is high voltage direct current transmission system. 15. Overload capacity of HVDC converter is low 3. It is used to provide a higher capacity main supply to the load if a load fault occurs since the switch is required to operate within 10ms. 1. Mention the advantages of HVDC. It is used to provide an alternative supply to the load in case of inverter failure 2. What are the disadvantages of HVDC transmission? The disadvantages of HVDC transmission are. The types of HVDC links are. 1. Volume of copper used is less 3. inverters and filters. There is no skin and proximity effect. The power transmission with HVDC is not economical if the length of transmission is less than 500 km as HVDC system additionally requires converters. 2. 16. LECTURER/ EEE DHANALAKSHMI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING. CHENNAI . What is the function of static switch in UPS system? The functions of static switch in UPS system are. Monopolar link 2.RATHNAVEL. • Vindhychal – 500MW • Chandrapur – 2* 500MW • Vishakhapatnam – 500MW • Sasaram – 500MW 19. The maintenance cost of insulator in HVDC system is more P. Mention the types of HVDC links. 1.
It helps in damping out the oscillation and avoids damage of various equipments. Rectifier 4. 23. 1. The power flow is to be kept over the designated routes. The power transfer capability of transmission systems is to be increased. What is FACTs? FACT is flexible AC transmission. 22. Static VAR compensator 2. 2. What is the value of firing angle for inverter and rectifier operation? The firing angle is 0ᵒ to 90ᵒ in rectifier operation and 90ᵒ to 180ᵒ for inverter operation.RATHNAVEL. Static synchronous compensator 4. What are the main objectives of FACTs? The main objectives of FACTs are. Static synchronous generator 3. 1. LECTURER/ EEE DHANALAKSHMI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING. 1. It controls line impedance angle and voltage which helps in controlling the power flow in transmission lines 2. Thyristorised switching capacitor 5. It limits the impacts of faults and equipment failures 26. Mention some of FACT devices.20. Static VAR system 6. The power flow in the transmission lines can be made optimum 3. Unified power flow controller. Generator 2. Step up transformer 3. The advantages of FACTs are. Inverter 5. Some of the FACT devices are. This time in electrical degrees is called angle of overlap. Where the first FACT device is established? In 1995 between Sulivan substation and the rest of the network. P. Define: overlap angle Overlap angle defined as the lasts for definite duration time. 1. 25. Circuit breaker and relays 21. CHENNAI . Step down transformer 6. Mention the advantages of FACTs. What are the components used in HVDC system? The components used in HVDC system are. FACT is power electronic based system. 24. 4. 27.
What are the types of FACTs? The types of FACTs are. It is based on thyristor without gate turn. 31. CHENNAI . STATCOM Generation of less harmonics Acting as voltage source behind a reactance Operates in both inductive and capacitive regions Insensitive to transmission system harmonic resonance. Compare SVC and STATCOM.28.off thyristors which are costly as comparared to normal thyristors. It is a capacitive reactance type of compensator consisting of a series capacitor bank connected in parallel with a thyristor controlled reactor. LECTURER/ EEE DHANALAKSHMI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING. P. SVC Generation of more harmonics Acting as a variable susceptance Operates mainly in capacitive region Sensitive to transmission system harmonic resonance.off capability 2. What is TSCS? TSCS is thyristor controlled series compensator. Sl. The advantages of TSCS are. Series controller 2.RATHNAVEL. Combined series – shunt controller 29. Comparison of SVC and STATCOM are. 30.no 1. 4. 1. What is the drawback of STATCOM? STATCOM needs a gate turn. 1. Shunt controller 3. Mention the advantages of TSCS. so as to provide smooth variable capacitive reactance. It helps in limiting fault current foe a firing angle of 90ᵒ 32. 3. 2. Combined series – series controller 4.
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