I unitIntroduction : Concept, Development, application and scope of Industrial Management. Productivity : Definition, measurement, productivity index, types of production system, Industrial Ownership.


Traditional Author says that management is an art of getting things done through people where as modern authors says that management is a process of accomplishing certain objectives through the utilization of human and other resource. MANAGEMENT FUNCTIONS




IMPORTANCE OF MANAGEMENT        For the accomplishment of the goals. For effective utilization of the resources. Sound Organization. Providing vision &Foresight. For the harmony in work. To help employees in achieving personal objective. Development of the society and nation. INDUSTRIAL MANGEMENT   Industrial management is now a branch of engineering which facilitates creation of management system and integrates same with people and their activities to utilize the resources. Industrial management is structured approach to mange the operational activities of the organization. SCOPE OF INDUSTRIAL MANGEMENT 1. Related to Designing of the production system.(see notes) 2. Relating to analysis & control of production operation.(see notes) APPLICATION OF THE INDUSTRIAL MANGEMNT 1. Planning Function  For Designing Conversion System  For Scheduling Conversion System Prepared by: Dr. Vandana Mittal,Dr.Ansar-Ul-Haque,Dr.Raj Kumari,Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal

2. Organizing Function  Organizing for conversion  Structuring of Operation Staffing  Job & Work Design.  For Production & Operation Standard.  For Payment system. 3. Controlling Function  Quality  Quantity  Time  Inventory  Cost  Maintenance

Production is transformation of inputs into the output of commodity in a specific period of time with the given technology. Production implies the creation of form, place and time utilities of different usable commodities and service. Productivity measures the efficiency of the production system. Or productivity may be defined as ratio between output and input. Output means the amount produced or the number of items produced. Input are the various sources employed like land. Building, equipment, machinery, material, labor, etc Output Productivity = Input

Performance Achieved (Effectiveness) PRODUCTIVITY INDEX= Input Resources Consumed (Efficiency)   Efficiency is the ratio of actual output attained to the standard expected output. It measures of how well the resources are utilized to accomplish the target or result. Effectiveness is the degree of accomplishing the objectives

Prepared by: Dr. Vandana Mittal,Dr.Ansar-Ul-Haque,Dr.Raj Kumari,Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal

Production System
The production system can be viewed as a framework or skeleton of activities within which the creation of value can occur. The difference between the value of input and the value of output represent the value created through production activities. At the one end of the production system are the input and at the other end are output. Connecting the input and output are a series of operations or processes, storage and inspections represent the simplified production system.

Input Row material Operation - 1 Operation – 2 Operation – 3 Final inspection Finished goods storage Output Receiving Reports Inventory Reports Schedules

Production Manager
Route Sheets Production Reports Time and Cost Record Inspection Reports Inventory Reports Shipping Orders

INPUT OUTPUT MODEL (ANALYSIS OF PRODUCTION SYSTEM)      It is one of the basic models of the production system. Production system is the set of interconnected input output element. It is made up of three component parts namely – Input, Output and Process. A wide variety of inputs are transformed so that they give out a set of output. The transforming process can be complicated and the design of an actual input and output system for manufacturing may be expensive and difficult.

Prepared by: Dr. Vandana Mittal,Dr.Ansar-Ul-Haque,Dr.Raj Kumari,Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal

To clear the debt or loans acquired from different sources. To stand better in the market.Ansar-Ul-Haque. Job Security and Satisfaction FOR CUSTOMER  To reduced price of the article. To sell more. Higher standard of living. Better Working Conditions. Prepared by: Dr. Vandana Mittal.Dr.MATERIAL MEN PLANT & FACILITIES GOODES & SERVICES ENERGY INPUT INPUT PRODUTION PROCESS PRODUTION PROCESS OUTPUT OUTPUT Purpose to Increase Productivity: FOR MANAGEMENT     To produce good earning (profit). FOR WORKERS     HIGHER WAGES.Dr.Raj Kumari.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal .

Dr. Merits      Demerits  Unlimited Liability Legal Entity Risk Sharing More Funds Continuity Mutual Agency Limited Resources Lack of Continuity Unlimited Liability Limited Managerial Ability Prepared by: Dr. Co – operative Organization Sole Proprietorship Sole Proprietorship is that form of Industrial ownership in which Individual Exercise & enjoy all rights related to business in his own interest.Dr.Ansar-Ul-Haque. Merits –     Easy Formation Easy to Operate Secrecy Simplicity Demerits     Partnership Partnership may be defined as the relation between person who has agreed to share the profits of a business carried on by all or any of them acting for all.INDUSTRIAL OWNER SHIP Sole Proprietorship Partnership Joint Stock Company State & Central Govt .Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . Vandana Mittal.Raj Kumari.

Merits      Limited liability Economy in Operation Support From Government Stable Existence Ease of Formation Demerits      Limited Resources Inefficiency in Management Lack Of Secrecy Government Control Difference Of Opinion Prepared by: Dr. Vandana Mittal. Merits      Demerits      Complexity in Formation Lack of Secrecy Impersonal Work Environment Numerous Regulation Delay In Decision Making Limited Liability Transfer of Interest Perpetual Existence Scope for Management Professional Management Co – Operative Undertaking The Co – Operative society is voluntary association of person.Ansar-Ul-Haque.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal .Dr.Raj Kumari. who join together with the motive of welfare of the members and society.Dr.   Limited Resources Possibility Of Conflict Lack of Public Interest Joint Stock Company A joint stock Company means an association of several people who contributed money or moneys worth to a joint or common stock & employ it in same business & share among themselves the profit or loss arising from it.

It is in this function that managers distribute authority to job holders. Management principles are general rather than specific to a type of firm or organization. organizing. Specification of Production requirements.II unitManagement Function : Principles of Management. The focus is on division. coordinating: interrelate all sectors of the organisation. budgeting: depend on fiscal planning. accounting and control.Dr. e.. a tactic for accomplishing a specific goal. management is universal only if the manager has become familiar with the specific situation in which it is applied. evaluating and compensating are the specific activities included in the function.Management Tools – time and motion study. The American Luther Gulick and Brit Lydnall Urwick expanded Fayol's list to seven executive management activities summarized by the acronym POSDCORB:        planning: determine objectives in advance and the methods to achieve them. However. Planning is the ongoing process of developing the business' mission and objectives and determining how they will be accomplished. Prepared by: Dr. work simplificationprocess charts and flow diagrams. Vandana Mittal. Directing is influencing people's behavior through motivation. hiring. hire and train workers. organizing: establish a structure of authority for all work. staffing includes all paid and unpaid positions held by family members including the owner/operators. and taking corrective or preventive action as necessary.g. leadership and discipline. The purpose of directing is to channel the behavior of all personnel to accomplish the organization's mission and objectives while simultaneously helping them accomplish their own career objectives. and the narrowest. e. Controlling is a four-step process of establishing performance standards based on the firm's objectives. Production technology. Recruiting. The intended result is the use of an organization's resources in a way that accomplishes its mission and objectives. measuring and reporting actual performance. Production Planning. training. reporting: inform hierarchy through reports. directing: make decisions.Ansar-Ul-Haque. group dynamics. Management is creative problem solving. comparing the two.g. Management Function: Management Management is generic. maintain favourable working conditions. Organizing is establishing the internal organizational structure of the organization.Dr. Planning includes both the broadest view of the organization. staffing: recruit. communication. This creative problem solving is accomplished through four functions of management: planning. Staffing is filling and keeping filled with qualified people all positions in the business. customer characteristics and the culture of the industry are examples of specifics that managers need to learn to be effective in applying their generic management skills. coordination. records and inspections. and control of tasks and the flow of information within the organization. In the family business.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal .. its mission. issue orders and directives.Raj Kumari. leading and controlling.

On the basis of observation and analysis i.Each of these functions involves creative problem solving. He recommended that work of all kinds must be divided & subdivided and allotted to various persons according to their expertise in a particular area.Raj Kumari. Vandana Mittal. It extends from analysis of the environment within which the business is functioning to evaluation of the outcomes from the alternative implemented. Prepared by: Dr. Authority & responsibility are co-existing. practical experience of managers. There are 14 Principles of Management described by Henri Fayol. In his day. if anyone is made responsible for any job. choice making or decision making. f. Specialization leads to efficiency & economy in spheres of business. It establishes cause and effect relationship between two or more variables under given situation. b.e. was motivated to create a theoretical foundation for a managerial educational program based on his experience as a successful managing director of a mining company. There should be a balance between the two i. These principles are derived: a. they must go hand in hand. Party of Authority & Responsibility a. Authority without responsibility leads to irresponsible behavior whereas responsibility without authority makes the person ineffective. d.Ansar-Ul-Haque. c. It also helps the individual in acquiring speed. In a same way. They serve as a guide to thought & actions. e. Henry Fayol has stressed on the specialization of jobs.2 from Higgins. he should also have concerned authority. the father of the school of Systematic Management. d. management principles are the statements of fundamental truth based on logic which provides guidelines for managerial decision making and actions.Dr. Authority refers to the right of superiors to get exactness from their sub-ordinates whereas responsibility means obligation for the performance of the job assigned. Division of Labor a. Henri Fayol. he should also be made responsible. managers had no formal training and he observed that the increasing complexity of organisations would require more professional management. Principles of Management A principle refers to a fundamental truth. e. b.Dr.e. b. 1. 2. page 118) Creative problem solving is broader than problem finding.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . Subdivision of work makes it simpler and results in efficiency. If authority is given to a person. accuracy in his performance. Therefore. c. (Figure 4. By conducting experimental studies.

a sub-ordinate should not receive instructions from more than one person because It undermines authority Weakens discipline Divides loyalty Creates confusion Delays and chaos Escaping responsibilities Duplication of work Overlapping of efforts c. Fayol advocates one head one plan which means that there should be one plan for a group of activities having similar objectives. Advantage It avoids conflicts. It is related to the functioning departments. e. Related activities should be grouped together.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . According to this principle. Unity of Direction a. It creates harmonious relationship between superiors and sub-ordinates. efforts of all the members of the organization should be directed towards common goal. dual sub-ordination should be avoided unless and until it is absolutely essential. one plan for a group of activities having similar objectives. Basis Unity of command Unity of direction Meaning It implies that a sub-ordinate should receive orders & instructions from only one boss. Without unity of direction. confusion & chaos. c. unity of command is not possible without unity of direction. It means one head. A sub-ordinate should receive orders and be accountable to one and only one boss at a time. Vandana Mittal. b. Therefore. Principle of One Boss a. e. d.Dr. stable & orderly existence. Unity of command provides the enterprise a disciplined. of Necessity It is necessary for fixing responsibility of each subordinates. It is necessary for sound organization. d. There should be one plan of action for them and they should be under the charge of a particular manager. In fact.Dr. In other words. or organization as a whole.Raj Kumari. b. It avoids duplication of efforts and wastage Prepared by: Dr. unity of action cannot be achieved.Ansar-Ul-Haque. 4.3. Nature It is related to the functioning of personnel‘s.

b. appropriate and specific place for every article and every place to be effectively used for specific activity and commodity. c. Social order. They should not discriminate with respect to age. This principle applies that subordinate should respect their superiors and obey their order.There should be safe. ―at times force and harshness might become necessary for the sake of equity‖. Discipline a. obedience.Raj Kumari. Discipline is not only required on path of subordinates but also on the part of management. It implies that managers should be fair and impartial while dealing with the subordinates. b. d. . d. Prepared by: Dr. better superior sub-ordinate It leads to smooth running of the enterprise. g. They should give similar treatment to people of similar position. relation etc. This principle is concerned with proper & systematic arrangement of things and people. But equity does not mean total absence of harshness. It is an important requisite for smooth running of the enterprise. Equity a. 7.Selection and appointment of most suitable person on the suitable job. sex. c.of resources.Ansar-Ul-Haque. Vandana Mittal. Therefore it is obvious that they are different from each other but they are dependent on each other i. c. f. ―Discipline means sincerity. But it does not automatically comes from the unity of direction. There should be a specific place for every one and everyone should have a specific place so that they can easily be contacted whenever need arises. According to Fayol. religion. Equity is essential to create and maintain cordial relations between the managers and subordinate. Arrangement of things is called material order and placement of people is called social order.Sanctions (punishments) are judiciously applied. unity of direction is a pre-requisite for unity of command. e. caste. It means eagerness to initiate actions without being asked to do so.Dr. Fayol was of opinion that. Material order. e.There are good superiors at all levels.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . Discipline can be enforced if . Workers should be encouraged to take initiative in the work assigned to them. respect of authority & observance of rules and regulations of the enterprise‖. 6. h. The employees should be treated with kindness & equity if devotion is expected of them. Equity means combination of fairness. 5. Initiative a. Result It leads to relationship.Dr.e. . kindness & justice. 8. d. b. b.There are clear & fair agreements with workers. Order a.

11. the time.e. c. medical & residential facilities to workers. reasonable. experiences& new method of work. e. wage rate prevailing etc. Every orders. According to Fayol. financial position of the business. Stability of Tenure a. Therefore employees should be appointed after keeping in view principles of recruitment & selection but once they are appointed their services should be served. To suggest improvement in formulation & implementation of place. instructions. Fayol also recommended provision of other benefits such as free education. this path can be cut shirt and this short cut is known as Gang Plank. g. Fayol emphasized that employees should not be moved frequently from one job position to another i. d. requests. c. effort and money spent on training the worker will go waste. for the sake of convenience & urgency. They can be encouraged with the help of monetary & non-monetary incentives. Stability of job creates team spirit and a sense of belongingness among workers which ultimately increase the quality as well as quantity of work. work assigned.c. the period of service in a job should be fixed. A Gang Plank is a temporary arrangement between two different points to facilitate quick & easy communication as explained below: Prepared by: Dr. 9. Scalar Chain a. b.Ansar-Ul-Haque. Fayol advised that management should provide opportunity to its employees to suggest ideas. But. Wages should be determined on the basis of cost of living. d. b.Dr. ―Time is required for an employee to get used to a new work & succeed to doing it well but if he is removed before that he will not be able to render worthwhile services‖. Logical & appropriate wage rates and methods of their payment reduce tension & differences between workers & management creates harmonious relationship and pleasing atmosphere of work. People then enjoy working in the organization because it adds to their zeal and energy. 10. messages. Fayol defines scalar chain as ‘The chain of superiors ranging from the ultimate authority to the lowest‖. As far as possible it should accord satisfaction to both employer and the employees. satisfactory & rewarding of the efforts. Vandana Mittal. Fair Remuneration a.Raj Kumari. e. b. It helps in developing an atmosphere of trust and understanding. explanation etc. d. e. d. has to pass through Scalar chain. The quantum and method of remuneration to be paid to the workers should be fair.Dr.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . f. c. As a result.

e.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . ―Degree of centralization or decentralization depends on no.In the figure given. Fayol cautioned the managers against dividing the employees into competing groups because it might damage the moral of the workers and interest of the undertaking in the long run. reconciliation should be achieved between individual and group interests. it may not be worth therefore a gang plank has been developed between the two. Fayol suggested that absolute centralization or decentralization is not feasible. B to A and then downwards with the help of E and F to G which will take quite some time and by that time. Prepared by: Dr. b. c. For example. Vandana Mittal. According to Fayol. d. b. 13. individual must sacrifice for bigger interests. There should be no place for misunderstanding.  Efforts should be made to create enthusiasm and keenness among subordinates so that they can work to the maximum ability. if D has to communicate with G he will first send the communication upwards with the help of C.Proper & regular supervision of work. He also cautioned against the more use of Britain communication to the subordinates i. But in case of conflict. Gang Plank clarifies that management principles are not rigid rather they are very flexible. centralization is a situation in which top management retains most of the decision making authority.Raj Kumari. Anything which increases the role of subordinate is decentralization & anything which decreases it is centralization.Dr.Reconciliation of mutual differences and clashes by mutual agreement. Sub-Ordination of Individual Interest to General Interest a. face to face communication should be developed. Decentralization means disposal of decision making authority to all the levels of the organization. b. They can be moulded and modified as per the requirements of situations 12. sharing authority downwards is decentralization. e. An organization should strike to achieve a lot between the two.Employees should be honest & sincere. An organization is much bigger than the individual it constitutes therefore interest of the undertaking should prevail in all circumstances. In other words. c.  Efficient employees should be rewarded and those who are not up to the mark should be given a chance to improve their performance. Espirit De’ Corps (can be achieved through unity of command) a. . experience of superiors. In other words.e. harmony in the work groups and mutual understanding among the members. c.Dr. dependability & ability of subordinates etc. of factors like size of business.Ansar-Ul-Haque. To inculcate Espirit De‘ Corps following steps should be undertaken  There should be proper co-ordination of work at all levels  Subordinates should be encouraged to develop informal relations among themselves. Centralization & De-Centralization a. e. The managers should infuse team spirit & belongingness. As far as possible.  Subordinates should be made conscious of that whatever they are doing is of great importance to the business & society. d. In order to achieve this attitude. for change of location of plant. for change of profit sharing ratio. People then enjoy working in the organization & offer their best towards the organization. 14. etc. it is essential that .e. Spirit De‘ Corps inspires workers to work harder. . It refers to team spirit i. d. Centralization means concentration of authority at the top level. f.

Raj Kumari. while each slice represents a different class or group within the whole.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . and which give you a lot of leverage over common problems. Quality Control Charts           Other Quality Management Tools          Pie charts Bar charts Run Charts Radar Charts Scatter Plots Histograms Pareto Charts Normal Test Plots Process Capability Calculations Control Charts Relations Diagram Pathway Affinity Diagrams Brainstorms Building Consensus Cause and Effect Diagrams Flowcharts Force Field Diagrams Tree Diagrams Pie Charts Pie charts are used to show classes or groups of data in proportion to the whole data set.000 years.Management tools Classic Tools There's an elusive balance between chasing after each new management tool or method. Prepared by: Dr. and ignoring the fact that we have actually learned some things about management over the past 100. The best tools are those which stand the test of time. The entire pie represents all the data.Dr. Vandana Mittal.Ansar-Ul-Haque.Dr.

Ansar-Ul-Haque. a run chart in a hospital might plot the number of patient transfer delays against the time of day or day of the week. Vandana Mittal. cycles. In bar charts.Raj Kumari. are useful for comparing classes or groups of data.Bar Charts Bar Charts. The results might show that there are more delays at noon than at 3 p. In a run chart. events. For example. Run Charts Run charts (often known as line graphs outside the quality management field) display process performance over time. Upward and downward trends. and large aberrations may be spotted and investigated further. or they can be broken down further into multiple categories for greater depth of analysis.m. like pie charts. shown on the y axis. a class or group can have a single category of data. are graphed against a time period on the x axis.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal .Dr.Dr. Investigating this phenomenon could Prepared by: Dr.

On one axis. and a final axis might show his interceptions." A straight line of best fit (using the least squares method) is often included. another. an average line can be added to a run chart to clarify movement of the data away from the average. Radar Charts Radar charts are useful when you want to look at several different factors all related to one item.Dr. Radar charts have multiple axes along which data can be plotted. Also.Raj Kumari. blocks made.Dr. Vandana Mittal. another.unearth potential for improvement.Ansar-Ul-Haque. Scatter Plots Scatter Plots (also called scatter diagrams) are used to investigate the possible relationship between two variables that both relate to the same "event.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . you could plot the percentage of passes caught. Another axis would show his yards per completion. Prepared by: Dr. his completions per 100 plays. For example. checking to determine their success. you could use a radar chart to compile data about a wide receiver on a professional football team. Run charts can also be used to track improvements that have been put into place.

This same distribution has been observed in other areas and has been termed the Pareto effect. concluding that a fairly consistent minority – about 20% – of people controlled the large majority – about 80% – of a society's wealth.Raj Kumari. the peak is in the 40-49 class.Ansar-Ul-Haque.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal .Dr. Pareto Charts Vilfredo Pareto. so that you can get an idea of how frequently data in each class occur in the data set. where there are four points. a turn-of-the-century Italian economist.Dr. In the histogram show above. studied the distributions of wealth in different countries. Prepared by: Dr.Histograms A histogram is a specialized type of bar chart. and low bars indicate less points. Vandana Mittal. Individual data points are grouped together in classes. High bars indicate more points in a class.

Dr. with respect to both the mean and standard deviation. If they aren't. the special cause can be expensive.Ansar-Ul-Haque. it is important to notice special causes of variation as soon as they occur.Dr. If. If you are cutting diamonds. Control Charts Every process varies. For valid process capability calculations. and someone bumps your elbow. Make sure to check this data in a variables control chart to make sure that all points in the x bar. If you write your name ten times. your signatures will all be similar. someone bumps your elbow. There is an inherent variation. Process Capability The capability of a process is some measure of the proportion of in-specification items the process produces when it is in a state of statistical control. many processes. all data must be from an in-control process. your capability indices in the statistics dialog box are not valid.Raj Kumari. as you are signing your name. but it varies between predictable limits. Vandana Mittal. Prepared by: Dr.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . s or R charts are in control. but no two signatures will be exactly alike.Normal Test Plot Normal Test Plots (also called Normal Probability Plots or Normal Quartile Plots) are used to investigate whether process data exhibit the standard normal "bell curve" or Gaussian distribution. you get an unusual variation due to what is called a "special cause". For many.

Once all the relevant connections between items have been drawn. Those with the most connections will usually be the most important factors to focus on. Dr. showing that they have an impact on each one. Marshall-Qualtec espouses a seven-step problem Prepared by: Dr.Dr. Deming used the Plan-Do-Check-Act cycle. a relations diagram of urban poverty might start out something like this: Instead of one item following another in a logical sequence.Ansar-Ul-Haque. For example. the connections are counted. or processes. each item is connected to many other pieces. Vandana Mittal. Why are they worthwhile? Because they make it easy to pick out the factors in a situation which are the ones which are driving many of the other symptoms or factors. areas.Dr. Project Pathways for Management One of the common features of modern management thinking is its focus on methodologies for problemsolving.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal .Other Quality Management Tools Relations Diagram (or Interrelationship Digraph) Relations Diagrams are drawn to show all the different relationships between factors.Raj Kumari.

It isn't important to define why they belong together. To accomplish this. Nonetheless." According to Osborn. rather than according to preordained categories. Brainstorming Creative thinking requires tools such as the brainstorm and the affinity diagram. Vandana Mittal. embodied in software. So does Executive Learning Inc. 6. Done right. That said.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . while different in the details. 4. or KJ method (after its author. Structured brainstorming produces numerous creative ideas about any given "central question". everyone will need a fair opportunity to be heard and latent issues must be explored to the Prepared by: Dr.The pathway." Creativity is encouraged by not allowing ideas to be evaluated or discussed until everyone has run dry. In doing so. Should they belong in a larger group? Do large sets need to be broken down more precisely? When most of the ideas have been sorted. Kawakita Jiro). In 1939. each stormer audaciously attacking the same objective.Ansar-Ul-Haque. The affinity diagram was developed to discovering meaningful groups of ideas within a raw list. Any and all ideas are considered legitimate and often the most far-fetched are the most fertile. you sort the brainstormed list. 3. It also provides an easy way for managers of many projects or departments to keep tabs on the status and progress of work. a team led by advertising executive Alex Osborn coined the term "brainstorm.Dr. Look for small sets. it is important to let the groupings emerge naturally.Dr.Raj Kumari. Clarify any ideas in question. wasn't originally intended for quality management. all the approaches. it taps the human brain's capacity for lateral thinking and free association. is a key means of keeping a team focused and on-track. Consensus does not imply complete agreement. but does involve seeking a decision with which everyone is reasonably comfortable. The Juran Institute has a slightly different method. moving ideas from the brainstorm into affinity sets. Brainstorms help answer specific questions such as:     What opportunities face us this year? What factors are constraining performances in Department X? What could be causing problem Y? What can we do to solve problem Z? Building Consensus The word consensus comes to us from Latin roots meaning "shared thought". it has become one of the most widely used of the Japanese management and planning tools. As you sort ideas: 1.solving model. 5. you can start to enter titles for each affinity set. are very similar overall. Brainstorming is simply listing all ideas put forth by a group in response to a given problem or question. and creating groups of related ideas. using the right side of the brain. Rapidly group ideas that seem to belong together. To create an affinity diagram. Copy an idea into in more than one affinity set if appropriate. 7. Affinity Diagram The affinity diagram. " Brainstorm means using the brain to storm a creative problem and to do so "in commando fashion. 2.

Dr.satisfaction of the group. Computer programmers popularized flowcharts in the 1960's. Many different tools can be used to build consensus. effective tools specifically for building consensus are used. Vandana Mittal. all the tools used in quality management contribute to consensus. In fact. who pioneered quality management processes in the Kawasaki shipyards.Ansar-Ul-Haque.Raj Kumari.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . Prepared by: Dr. or try to narrow a list from many items to just a few. using them to map the logic of programs. For example. with the main causal categories drawn as "bones" attached to the spine of the fish. There are many varieties of flowcharts and scores of symbols that you can use. a well-run brainstorming session can get lots of ideas out onto the table and give everyone a chance for input. The C&E diagram is also known as the fishbone diagram because it was drawn to resemble the skeleton of a fish.Dr. most groups approach a point where they must choose between options. Cause & Effect Diagram The cause & effect diagram is the brainchild of Kaoru Ishikawa. Flowcharting Flowcharts are maps or graphical representations of a process.  Detailed flowcharts show a step-by-step mapping of all events and decisions in a process. as shown below. Experience has shown that there are three main types that work for almost all situations:  High-level flowcharts map only the major steps in a process for a good overview. Still. and in the process became one of the founding fathers of modern management. and the flow of the process is indicated with arrows connecting the symbols. Steps in a process are shown with symbolic shapes. For this.

Although there are many symbols that can be used in flowcharts to represent different kinds of steps. delay.Dr.Ansar-Ul-Haque. Deployment flowcharts which organize the flowchart by columns. diamond. The trouble spots in a process usually begin to appear as a team constructs a detailed flowchart.Raj Kumari. Vandana Mittal. oval. It consists of a two column form. and restraining forces in the second. with driving forces listed in the first column. cloud). rectangle. Force Field Analysis Force Field Analysis is a simple but powerful technique for building an understanding of the forces that will drive and resist a proposed change.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . Prepared by: Dr. accurate flowcharts can be created using very few (e.g. with each column representing a person or department involved in a process.Dr.

best known through the biographical 1950 film and book Cheaper by the Dozen).Ansar-Ul-Haque. system used was the Westinghouse or LMS system – so called after its originators Lowry. Maynard and Stegemerten. Time and motion study have to be used together in order to achieve rational and reasonable results. Tree Diagram The tree diagram is one of the 7 Management and Planning Tools described by Shigeru Mizuno. e. The time study measures the time required to perform a given task in accordance with a specified method and is valid only so long as the method is continued. actions and consequences. After its first introduction. It is particularly important that effort be applied in motion study to insure equitable results when time study is used. Vandana Mittal. According to Lewin‘s theories. cultural norms.g. These forces can be positive. A force field diagram portrays these driving forces and restraining forces that affect a central question or problem. time study developed in the direction of establishing standard times.Dr. Prepared by: Dr. ―C+‖. Methods-Time Measurement (MTM) is a predetermined motion time system that is used primarily in industrial settings to analyse the methods used to perform any manual operation or task and. and will help your team focuses on specific tasks that are needed to get something done. This system considers four factors independently:     Skill – Proficiency in following the given method Effort – The will to work Conditions – The general work surroundings Consistency – of performance Each factor is assigned an alpha rating. It is used to figure out all the various tasks that must be undertaken to achieve a given objective. expectations. A force field diagram can be used to compare any kind of opposites. Motion study can be considered the foundation for time study. If you use it carefully and thoroughly. and so on. including banks. urging us toward a behavior. while motion study evolved into a technique for improving work methods. schools and hospitals. as a byproduct of that analysis. Once a new work method is developed. the time study must be changed to agree with the new method. In fact.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . much of the difficulty with time study is a result of applying it without a thorough study of the motion pattern of the job. ―A‖. ―B-―. human behavior is caused by forces – beliefs. or negative. Time and motion study A time and motion study (or time-motion study) is a business efficiency technique combining the Time Study work of Frederick Winslow Taylor with the Motion Study work of Frank and Lillian Gilbreth (not to be confused with their son.Raj Kumari. Methodology The rating. Appendix 1 shows the model for Causes of Difference in Output on which the LMS system is based. This integrated approach to work system improvement is known as methods engineering.The force field diagram is derived from the work of social psychologist Kurt Lewin. or Levelling. it will give you a better understanding of the true scope of a project. This reduces the possibility of ―clock rating‖ and ensures that all factors are considered in the composite rating. propelling us away from a behavior. set the standard time in which a worker should complete that task. and the like – within the "life space" of an individual or society. different points of view. Time studies are applied today to industrial as well as service organizations. which has a numeric value which is applied later. etc. The two techniques became integrated and refined into a widely accepted method applicable to the improvement and upgrading of work systems.Dr.

Ansar-Ul-Haque. sizes of parts and tools and tolerances were accurately measured and recorded on the shop floor to complement the later analyses. time-determining variables. Unit The unit in which movements are measured for MTM is TMU (time measurement unit): 1 TMU = 36 milliseconds . distances. Person and Means of the tasks to be evaluated. MTM is complementary to other Industrial Engineering charting analytical techniques.Raj Kumari. These Basic Motions were Reach. Work Simplification is a scientific approach to study work processes with a view to simplifying the process such that the work process becomes more efficient and effective and thereby raises productivity and reduces wastage of labor effort. materials. the structure which the manual motions of MTM-1 have today.Dr. Move. Sequence. The films were then projected frame-by-frame and analysed and classified in to a predetermined format of Basic Motions. gave the table of Body Motions.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . Work simplification techniques range from low-tech (such as using no-scrub cleaners) to high-tech (such as using voice recognition software for typing). using Time Study.Layout. Prepared by: Dr. Release. etc. and then ―levelled‖ to a common performance. time and energy in the process of producing a good or delivering a service. space. Vandana Mittal. Analysis determined the best definitions of limits of motions and their major. Plots of the levelled times for the various motions were drawn.000 TMU 1 TMU = 0. It should be used after broader techniques have established the Necessity and Purpose. or to decrease the amount energy required to complete an activity. A motion was taken to begin on the frame in which the hand first started performing the motion and was taken to end on the frame in which the motion was completed. 1 hour = 100. Later work.Dr. it does not replace them. Some examples include:      Using an automated can opener instead of the manual version Lengthening a short handle on a dustpan to avoid bending Using pre-pressed clothes that eliminate the need for ironing Sliding heavy objects or using a wheeled cart to avoid lifting Putting an automatic toilet cleaner in the bowl Work simplification can be useful for people who wish to remain independent for as long as possible. Place. Grasp. by means of a frame count. and resulted in. This allowed a time for each recorded motion to be calculated in seconds.036 second Work Simplification Work simplification describes the making of daily tasks easier in order to reduce strain. even if they have a chronic health condition. more or less. Position.

. They established a set of symbols as the ASME Standard for Operation and Flow Process Charts. Link with other Simplification and Harmonization Initiatives – Simplification and Harmonization process envisages close collaboration with country offices and national partners. its use is not widespread. Over the past two decades. This was (and still is) a simple and effective way to track the flow of a person or a piece of material through a work process. It needs to be built around national systems and processes and must complement the directions on aid coordination that governments in programme countries are pursuing. the EU and others. Vandana Mittal. An inspection occurs when an object is verified for quality or quantity in any of its characteristics. New methods for studying work are introduced on a regular basis. By the time the symbols were standardized they had evolved into a solid set of five symbols that covered every aspect of work. .Dr.Storage. It appears that many organizations are focusing their attention on purchasing solutions for their business rather than mastering their work themselves. The first process charts appeared as a series of symbols strung down a page in sequential order. World Bank and Regional Banks. Work Simplification has generated billions of dollars through effectiveness and efficiency for organizations that focused on their people and gave them tools for continuous improvement. The simple and effective approach of Work Simplification has more to offer than it ever had. Europe and Australia as these companies seek to regain control of their operations. These days. This is a good time to look back and discover again a simple tool that visually displays processes in a universal language that can be readily Prepared by: Dr. A delay occurs when an object waits for the next planned action. the corporate memory is discarded leaving the organization dependent on those from whom they purchased their processes.Allow for Flexibility –Simplification and Harmonization by its very definition allows for flexibility for the UN Country Team and national partners to apply those Simplification and Harmonization measures that are appropriate to their country situation and that take into account the financial management capacities available for implementation and that empower recipient countries. . Contribute to Capacity Building – The Simplification and Harmonization must be an instrument towards increased national capacities. For those organizations whose leaders truly believe that their people are their most valuable resource.Raj Kumari.and better than ever. ASME did something that was even then a long time in the making. assembled or disassembled or intentionally changed. A transportation occurs when an object is moved from one location to another. . Their work is undocumented and as changes are made the complexity mounts. However.Transportation. the glamour of electronics has seduced many organizations into treating their people as expenses rather than resources. notably of the OECD-DAC.First Steps in Finding the One Best Way" at the Annual Meeting of ASME in 1921. It is on the program at many universities and it is being applied in increasing numbers of organizations across the US and Canada. In 1946. and must factor in and mutually build on the various efforts at Simplification and Harmonization. This will ensure synergy and complementarities.Operation.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . An operation occurs when an object is arranged or prepared for another step. Usually they focus effectively on one or another aspect of improvement but they often fail because they do not deal rigorously with the work itself. The Work Simplification approach utilizes the corporate memory rather than discarding it. Where the purchased solutions lead to downsizing. in South America. It counters increasing complexity with continuous improvement and enables the work force to be the masters of their processes. a number of the recommendations could apply to all the UN funds and programmes and specialized agencies at the country level. processes change so fast that many organizations have failed to keep up. Twenty-five years earlier Frank and Lillian Gilbreth had presented "Process Charts . that can be used with very little confusion. in any work environment. A storage occurs when an object is kept and protected against unauthorized removal. the tools of Work Simplification are still available .Delay. . The gradual adoption of some of the elements of the programme approach by the various other agencies might enable them to align with the other measures.Dr. Include other agencies – while the various Simplification and Harmonization measures pertain largely to the four ExCom agencies that have adopted a common Country Programme approach.Inspection.Ansar-Ul-Haque.

Vandana Mittal. if you are managing your supply chain. "save changes" or similar. which uses the common idioms of such languages without strictly adhering to the details of a particular one. managing day to day internal operations or documenting your processes for certification or audit. and their order by connecting these with arrows.Dr. Work Simplification helps you get there…faster. understanding the fundamental steps in your work processes will help you get those things done. showing the steps as boxes of various kinds. Generic processing steps Represented as rectangles.Ansar-Ul-Haque. cheaper and better! Flowchart A flowchart is a type of diagram that represents an algorithm or process. developing a b2b strategy. Subroutines Represented as rectangles with double-struck vertical edges. these are used to show complex processing steps which may be detailed in a separate flowchart. Today. if you are using Kazan or value stream mapping. establishing an electronic commerce presence.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal .Dr. in contrast with data flow diagrams. or another phrase signaling the start or end of a process. Process operations are represented in these boxes. This diagrammatic representation can give a step-bystep solution to a given problem. usually containing the word "Start" or "End". Example: PROCESS-FILES. Often pseudo-code is used. if you are pursuing six sigma or lean manufacturing. rather. Flowcharts used to be a popular means for describing computer algorithms and are still used for this purpose. documenting or managing a process or program in various fields. Flowchart building blocks Symbols A typical flowchart from older basic computer science textbooks may have the following kinds of symbols: Start and end symbols Represented as circles. and arrows connecting them represent flow of control. ovals or rounded rectangles. Examples: "Add 1 to X". Flowcharts are used in analyzing. such as "submit enquiry" or "receive product".Raj Kumari. they are implied by the sequencing of operations. Data flows are not typically represented in a flowchart. designing. "replace identified part". and also because designing algorithms using flowcharts was more likely to result in spaghetti code because of the need for gotos to describe arbitrary jumps in control flow. One subroutine may have Prepared by: Dr. Modern techniques such as UML activity diagrams can be considered to be extensions of the flowchart. An arrow coming from one symbol and ending at another symbol represents that control passes to the symbol the arrow points to. In the 1970s the popularity of flowcharts as an own method decreased when interactive computer terminals and thirdgeneration programming languages became the common tools of the trade. since algorithms can be expressed much more concisely and readably as source code in such a language. Arrows Showing what's called "flow of control" in computer science.understood by anyone who wants to understand.

one with a single exit flow is a join. wherever two lines accidentally cross in the drawing. Input/output Represented as a parallelogram. Examples: Get X from the user. showing where multiple control flows converge in a single exit flow. A junction symbol will have more than one arrow coming into it. for example. Junction symbol Generally represented with a black blob. the "outflow" connector must always be unique. but there may be any number of "inflow" connectors. These are useful to represent an iterative process (what in Computer Science is called a loop). consist of a connector where control first enters. one of them may be drawn with a small semicircle over the other. (The arrows should always be labeled. in which case it may need to be broken-down further or replaced with the "pre-defined process" symbol. The conditional symbol is peculiar in that it has two arrows coming out of it. Conditional or decision Represented as a diamond (rhombus) showing where a decision is necessary. a conditional with one arrow exiting the loop. these are shown as labeled 'wells' in the rectangle.Ansar-Ul-Haque. A concurrency symbol with a single entry flow is a fork. In this case. Prepared by: Dr. processing steps. commonly a Yes/No question or True/False test. For each label. Concurrency symbol Represented by a double transversal line with any number of entry and exit arrows.Raj Kumari.Dr. In simple cases. one may simply have an arrow point to another arrow instead. Labeled connectors are used in complex or multisheet diagrams to substitute for arrows. if so.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . display X. but this is normally a clear indicator that a complex decision is being taken. but only one going out. Vandana Mittal. showing that no junction is intended.) More than two arrows can be used. Shows operations which have no effect other than preparing a value for a subsequent conditional or decision step (see below). one corresponding to Yes or True. and control arrows connect to these 'wells'.multiple distinct entry points or exit flows (see coroutine). A loop may. The exit flows are activated concurrently when all of the entry flows have reached the concurrency symbol. and one corresponding to No or False. For additional clarity. and one going back to the connector. Labeled connectors Represented by an identifying label inside a circle.Dr. These symbols are used whenever two or more control flows must operate simultaneously. Prepare conditional Represented as a hexagon. a junction in control flow is implied. usually from the bottom point and right point.

Functional flow block diagram Prepared by: Dr. On-line Web-based versions of such programs are available. many diagram techniques exist that are similar to flowcharts but carry a different name. showing controls over a document-flow through a system Data flowcharts. to substitute for the parallelogram symbol). Software Any drawing program can be used to create flowchart diagrams. such as UML activity diagrams. but they generally have little currency:     A Document represented as a rectangle with a wavy base. All processes should flow from top to bottom and left to right. Many software packages exist that can create flowcharts automatically. An example would be to signify data-entry from a form.Dr. A Manual input represented by quadrilateral. rather than control flow.Dr. either directly from source code. system analysts and clerks) and that there are four general types:     Document flowcharts. These symbols may also be used in control flow charts (e. Types of flowchart Example of a system flowchart. but these will have no underlying data model to share data with databases or other programs such as project management systems or spreadsheets. with the top irregularly sloping up from left to right. Sterneckert (2003) suggested that flowcharts can be modelled from the perspective of different user groups (such as managers.Ansar-Ul-Haque. In addition. A Manual operation represented by a trapezoid with the longest parallel side at the top.It is important to remember to keep these connections logical in order. Vandana Mittal. Data-flow extensions A number of symbols have been standardized to represent data flow. to represent an operation or adjustment to process that can only be made manually.Raj Kumari.g. rather than on the particular flow itself. A Data File represented by a cylinder. showing controls over a data flows in a system System flowcharts showing controls at a physical or resource level Program flowchart. Some tools offer special support for flowchart drawing.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . showing the controls in a program within a system Notice that every type of flowchart focuses on some kind of control. or from a flowchart description language.

The FFBD notation was developed in the 1950s. as shown in Figure 2. PERT diagrams. Gantt charts. control flow diagrams. Development of functional flow block diagrams Figure 2: Development of Functional Flow Block Diagrams FFBDs can be developed in a series of levels.Dr. and is widely used in classical systems engineering. For example. and functional flows. FFBDs are also referred to as Functional Flow Diagrams.Dr. functional block diagrams. A Functional Flow Block Diagram (FFBD) is a multi-tier. along with flow charts. and IDEF. FFBDs are one of the classic business process modeling methodologies.Ansar-Ul-Haque. data flow diagrams.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal .Raj Kumari.Functional Flow Block Diagram Format. FFBDs show the same tasks identified through functional decomposition and display them in their logical. time-sequenced. the entire flight mission of a spacecraft can be defined in a top level FFBD. Each block in the first level diagram Prepared by: Dr. step-by-step flow diagram of a system‘s functional flow. sequential relationship. Vandana Mittal.

which permits selection among the alternatives." Note that the diagram shows both input (transfer to operational orbit) and output (transfer to space transportation system orbit).[8] Building blocks An overview of the key FFBD attributes: Graphical explanation of a "function block" used in these diagrams. In certain cases. does the spacecraft antenna acquire the tracking and data relay satellite (TDRS) only when the payload data are to be transmitted.Dr. Flow connection: Lines connecting functions should only indicate function flow and not a lapse in time or intermediate activity. Functional reference: Each diagram should contain a reference to other functional diagrams by using a functional reference (box in brackets).Dr. A horizontal line shall separate this number and the title. Function symbolism A function shall be represented by a rectangle containing the title of the function (an action verb followed by a noun phrase) and its unique decimal delimited number. These diagrams are used both to develop requirements and to identify profitable trade studies. thus initiating the interface identification and control process. or does it track TDRS continually to allow for the reception of emergency commands or transmission of emergency data? The FFBD also incorporates alternate and contingency operations. serves as a basis for development of operational and contingency procedures. Prepared by: Dr.can then be expanded to a series of functions.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . as shown in the second level diagram for "perform mission operations. which improve the probability of mission success. Flow direction: Diagrams should be laid out so that the flow direction is generally from left to right. as shown in the third level diagram on Figure 2.Raj Kumari. Summing gates: A circle is used to denote a summing gate and is used when AND/OR is present. GO and NO-GO paths: ―G‖ and ―bar G‖ are used to denote ―go‖ and ―no-go‖ conditions.Ansar-Ul-Haque. Function numbering: Each level should have a consistent number scheme and provide information concerning function origin. AND is used to indicate parallel functions and all conditions must be satisfied to proceed. Each function needs to stand for definite.        Function block: Each function on an FFBD should be separate and be represented by single box (solid line). For example. The flow diagram provides an understanding of total operation of the system. alternate FFBDs may be used to represent various means of satisfying a particular function until data are acquired. finite. These numbers establish identification and relationships that will carry through all Functional Analysis and Allocation activities and facilitate traceability from lower to top levels. Each block in the second level diagram can be progressively developed into a series of functions. Arrows are often used to indicate functional flows. and pinpoints areas where changes in operational procedures could simplify the overall system operation. Vandana Mittal. These symbols are placed adjacent to lines leaving a particular function to indicate alternative paths. discrete action to be accomplished by system elements. OR is used to indicate that alternative paths can be satisfied to proceed. Flow is from left to right.

Ansar-Ul-Haque. F4 may begin after completion of F2 AND F3. Likewise.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal .Dr. Prepared by: Dr. which provides context within a specific FFBD. but not multiple inputs and outputs combined (Figure 5). Function Symbol Figure 4. The figure also depicts how to represent a reference function. Figure 3. Directed Lines Directed lines A line with a single arrowhead shall depict functional flow from left to right. The symbol may contain a single input with multiple outputs or multiple inputs with a single output. see Figure 4.Raj Kumari. See Figure 9 for an example regarding use of a reference function.[9]  AND: A condition in which all preceding or succeeding paths are required.Dr. Read the figure as follows: F2 AND F3 may begin in parallel after completion of shown in see Figure 3 above. Vandana Mittal.[9] Logic Symbols The following basic logic symbols shall be used.

or all of the multiple preceding or succeeding paths are required. F4 may begin after completion of either F2 OR F3. "AND" Symbol Figure 6.Figure 5.Ansar-Ul-Haque. Read the figure as follows: F2 OR F3 may begin after completion of F1. Figure 9 is a decomposition of the function F2 contained in Figure 8 and illustrates the context between functions at different levels of the model. ―Inclusive OR‖ Logic Contextual and Administrative Data Each FFBD shall contain the following contextual and administrative data:     Date the diagram was created Name of the engineer. Figure 7 depicts Inclusive OR logic using a combination of the AND symbol (Figure 5) and the Exclusive OR symbol (Figure 6). The symbol may contain a single input with multiple outputs or multiple inputs with single output. Vandana Mittal. "Exclusive OR" Symbol  Exclusive OR: A condition in which one of multiple preceding or succeeding paths is required. Likewise. Inclusive OR: A condition in which one. Read Figure 7 as follows: F2 OR F3 (exclusively) may begin after completion of F1.Dr.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . or working group that created the diagram Unique decimal delimited number of the function being diagrammed Unique function name of the function being diagrammed. OR (again exclusive) F2 AND F3 may begin after completion of F1. Likewise. but not all. but not multiple inputs and outputs combined (Figure 6). Prepared by: Dr.Dr.Raj Kumari. OR (again exclusive) F4 may begin after completion of both F2 AND F3  Figure 7. Figure 8 and Figure 9 present the data in an FFBD. F4 may begin after completion of either F2 OR F3 (exclusively). organization. some.

Dr. determination of production processes and production planning and control. Therefore efficient management of the production function is of utmost importance in order to achieve this objective. the entrepreneur steps into the shoe of production manager and attempts to apply managerial principles to the production function in an enterprise.Raj Kumari. The main objective of production function is to produce the goods and services demanded by the customers in the most efficient and economical way. layout etc.Figure 8. Production function encompasses the activities of procurement. Prepared by: Dr. FFBD Function 0 Illustration Figure 9.Ansar-Ul-Haque. which can be measured as the difference between the value of inputs and value of outputs.Dr. Vandana Mittal. Production system is a system whose function is to convert a set of inputs into a set of desired outputs. allocation and utilization of resources. Production is a process whereby raw material is converted into semi finished products and thereby adds to the value of utility of products.e.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . Production system is depicted under with help of chart Production management involves the managerial decisions regarding design of the product and design of the production system i. its location. FFBD Function 2 Illustration PRODUCTION PLANNING AND SCHEDULING After taking decisions about the type of business.

PRODUCT DESIGN Product design is a strategic decision as the image and profit earning capacity of a small firm depends largely on product design. Once the product to be produced is decided by the entrepreneur the next step is to prepare its design. Product design consists of form and function. The form designing includes decisions regarding its shape, size, color and appearance of the product. The functional design involves the working conditions of the product. Once a product is designed, it prevails for a long time therefore various factors are to be considered before designing it. These factors are listed below: (a) Standardization (b) Reliability (c) Maintainability (d) Servicing (e) Reproducibility (f) Sustainability (g) Product simplification (h) Quality Commensuration with cost (i) Product value (j) Consumer quality (k) Needs and tastes of consumers. Above all, the product design should be dictated by the market demand. It is an important decision and therefore the entrepreneur should pay due effort, time, energy and attention in order to get the best results. Broadly one can think of three types of production systems which are mentioned here under: (a) (b) (c)

Continuous production Job or unit production Intermittent production
Continuous production: - It refers to the production of standardized products with a standard set

of process and operation sequence in anticipation of demand. It is also known as mass flow production or assembly line production. Prepared by: Dr. Vandana Mittal,Dr.Ansar-Ul-Haque,Dr.Raj Kumari,Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal

This system ensures less work in process inventory and high product quality but involves large investment in machinery and equipment. The system is suitable in plants involving large volume and small variety of

output e.g. oil efineries reform cement manufacturing etc. (b) Job or Unit production: - It involves production as per customer's specification each batch

or order consists of a small lot of identical products and is different from other batches. The system requires comparatively smaller investment in machines and equipment. It is flexible and can be adapted to changes in product design and order size without much inconvenience. This system is most suitable where heterogeneous products are produced against specific orders. (c) Intermittent Production: Under this system the goods are produced partly for inventory and partly

for customer's orders. E.g. components are made for inventory but they are combined differently for different customers. . Automobile plants, printing presses, electrical goods plant are examples of this type of

manufacturing. The nature of the process of production required by these three different types of production system are distinct and require different conditions for their working. Selection of manufacturing process is also a strategic decision as changes in the same are costly. Therefore the manufacturing process is selected at the stage of planning a business venture. It should meet the basic two objectives i.e. to meet the specification of the final product and to be cost effective. The manufacturing process is classified into four types. (i) Jobbing Production: - Herein one or few units of the products are produced as per the requirement and specification of the customer. Production is to meet the delivery schedule and costs are fixed prior to the contract. (ii) Batch Production: - In this, limited quantities of each of the different types of products are manufactured on same set of machines. Different products are produced separately one after the other. (iii) Mass or flow production: Under this, the production run is conducted on a set of machines arranged according to the sequence of operations. A huge quantity of same product is manufactured at a time and is
stocked for sale. Different product will require different manufacturing lines. Since one line can produce only one

type of product, this process is also called as line flow.
(iv) Process Production: Under this, the production run is conducted for an indefinite period. Following factors need to be considered before making a choice of manufacturing Process. a) Effect of volume/variety: This is one of the major considerations in selection of manufacturing process. When the volume is low and variety is high, intermittent process is most suitable and with increase in volume and reduction in variety continuous process become suitable. The following figure indicates the choice of process as a function of repetitiveness. Degree of repetitiveness is determined by dividing volume of goods by variety.

b) Capacity of the plant: Projected sales volume is the key factor to make a choice between batch and
line process. In case of line process, fixed costs are substantially higher than variable costs. The reverse is true for batch process thus at low volume it would be cheaper to install and maintain a batch process and Prepared by: Dr. Vandana Mittal,Dr.Ansar-Ul-Haque,Dr.Raj Kumari,Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal

line process becomes economical at higher volumes.
c) Lead time: - The continuous process normally yields faster deliveries as compared to batch process. Therefore lead-time and level of competition certainly influence the choice of production process. d) Flexibility and Efficiency: - The manufacturing process needs to be flexible enough to adapt contemplated changes and volume of production should be large enough to lower costs. Hence it is very important for entrepreneur to consider all above mentioned factors before taking a decision regarding the type of manufacturing process to be adopted as for as SSI are concerned they usually adopt batch processes due to low investment.

Production planning and control can facilitate the small entrepreneur in the following ways (1) Optimum Utilisation of Capacity: With the help of Production Planning and Control [PPC] the entrepreneur can schedule his tasks and production runs and thereby ensure that his productive capacity does not remain idle and there is no undue queuing up of tasks via proper allocation of tasks to the production facilities. No order goes unattended and no machine remains idle. (2) Inventory control: Proper PPC will help the entrepreneur to resort to just- in- time systems and thereby reduce the overall inventory. It will enable him to ensure that the right supplies are available at the right time. (3) Economy in production time: PPC will help the entrepreneur to reduce the cycle time and increase the turnover via proper scheduling. (4) Ensure quality: A good PPC will provide for adherence to the quality standards so that quality of output is ensured. To sum up we may say that PPC is of immense value to the entrepreneur in capacity utilization and inventory control. More importantly it improves his response time and quality. As such effective PPC contributes to time, quality and cost parameters of entrepreneurial success.

Once the entrepreneur has taken the decisions regarding the product design and production processes and system, his next task is to take steps for production planning and control, as this function is essentially required for efficient and economical production. One of the major problems of small scale enterprises is that of low productivity small scale industries can utilise natural resources, which are otherwise lying. Planned production is an important feature of the small industry. The small entrepreneur possessing the ability to look ahead, organize and coordinate and having plenty of driving force and capacity to lead and ability to supervise and coordinate work and simulates his associates by means of a programme of human relation and organization of employees, he would be able to get the best out of his small industrial unit. Gorden and Carson observe production; planning and control involve generally the organization and planning of manufacturing process. Especially it consists of the planning of routing, scheduling, dispatching Prepared by: Dr. Vandana Mittal,Dr.Ansar-Ul-Haque,Dr.Raj Kumari,Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal

planning as well as control. Routing procedure involves following different activities. The ultimate objective is the organization of the supply and movement of materials and labour. quantity. methods machines. Production control regulates and stimulates the orderly how of materials in the manufacturing process from the beginning to the end. control of materials.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . machine and money requires for producing predetermined level of output in given period of time. each step to be taken at the right time and in the right place and each operation to be performed in maximum efficiency. and coordination. In small enterprises. Vandana Mittal. their path and sequence are established. It helps entrepreneur to work out the quantity of material manpower.Raj Kumari.inspection. (2) To determine the quality and type of material (3) Determining the manufacturing operations and their sequence. To perform these operations the proper class of machines and personnel required are also worked out. tools and operating times. Prepared by: Dr. (1) An analysis of the article to determine what to make and what to buy. this job is usually done by entrepreneur in self in a rather adhoc manner.Dr.Ansar-Ul-Haque. Production planning: Production planning may be defined as the technique of foreseeing every step in a long series of separate operations. planning initiates action while control is an adjusting process. viz. the operations. Production planning without production control is like a bank without a bank manager. Routing: Under this. in order to bring about the desired manufacturing results in terms of quality. functions on either side.. (4) A determination of lot sizes (5) Determination of scrap factors (6) An analysis of cost of the article (7) Organization of production control forms. STEPS OF PRODUCTION PLANNING AND CONTROL Production Planning and Control (PPC) is a process that comprises the performance of some critical. time and place. The main aim of routing is to determine the best and cheapest sequence of operations and to ensure that this sequence is strictly followed. providing corrective measures for planned development.Dr. machines utilization and related activities.

(2) Personnel who possess the desired skills and experience to operate the equipment and perform the type of work involved. It is very useful where single or few products are manufactured repeatedly at regular intervals. Its not independent decision as it takes into account following factors.Scheduling: It means working out of time that should be required to perform each operation and also the time necessary to perform the entire series as routed. This forms a base for all subsequent scheduling acclivities. Thus it would show the required quality of each product and sequence in which the same to be operated Scheduling of Job order manufacturing: Scheduling acquires greater importance in job order manufacturing. It mainly concerns with time element and priorities of a job. As far as small scale industry is concerned scheduling is of utmost importance as it brings out efficiency in the operations and s reduces cost price.Ansar-Ul-Haque. The small entrepreneur should maintain four types of schedules to have a close scrutiny of all stages namely an enquiry schedule. Manufacturing schedule: It is prepared on the basis of type of manufacturing process involved. (1) Physical plant facilities of the type required to process the material being scheduled. Vandana Mittal. Master Schedule: Scheduling usually starts with preparation of master schedule which is weekly or monthly break-down of the production requirement for each product for a definite time period. This will enable the speedy execution of job at each center point. A master schedule is followed by operator schedule which fixes total time required to do a piece of work with a given machine or which shows the time required to do each detailed operation of a given job with a given machine or process. a Prepared by: Dr. by having this as a running record of total production requirements the entrepreneur is in better position to shift the production from one product to another as per the changed production requirements.Dr.Raj Kumari.Dr. (3) Necessary materials and purchased parts.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . The pattern of scheduling differs from one job to another which is explained as below: Production schedule: The main aim is to schedule that amount of work which can easily be handled by plant and equipment without interference. a production schedule. making allowances for all factors concerned.

Beginning of work on each operation. assembly or the finishing production and releasing the necessary orders as well as initiating the necessary follow-up to have the smooth function of the enterprise. The production controller directly reports to the works manager but in small scale unit. the personnel manager and the financial controller assist in planning production activities. The production planning and control department can function at its best in small scale unit only when the work manager. 2. where and when thus to leave nothing to chance once the work has begun. Recording of time and cost involved in each operation. a shop schedule is the most important most suited to the needs of small scale industry as it enables a foreman to see at a glance. Vandana Mittal. Movement of work from one operation to another in accordance with the route sheet. repairs and maintenance of machinery or equipment. 4. 6. The total load on any section 2. The production control is of complicated nature in small industries.Ansar-Ul-Haque. removing bottlenecks in the flow of work and ensuring that the productive operations are taking place in accordance with the plans. Certain personnel decisions like training. the purchase manager. The stage. Inspecting or supervision of work Dispatching is an important step as it translates production plans into production. Corrective measures: Corrective action may involve any of those activities of adjusting the route. which any job has reached. 5. rescheduling of work changing the workloads. 3. starting and finishing for each important item. misunderstanding of orders and instruction. Movement of materials to different workstations. The operational sequence 3. under loading or overloading of work etc. It can be required as effective agency of production control. Movement of tools and fixtures necessary for each operation. Dispatching: Dispatching involves issue of production orders for starting the operations. Production control: Production control is the process of planning production in advance of operations. transfer. All problems or deviations are investigated and remedial measurer are undertaken to ensure the completion of work by the planned date. Gantt Charts are most commonly used in small industries in order to determine the existing load and also to foresee how fast a job can be done. schedule and an arrears schedule out of above four. It helps to reveal detects in routing and scheduling.Raj Kumari. all the three functions namely material control. Alternate methods may be suggested to handle peak loads. Most of a small scale enterprise fail due to non-adherence to delivery schedules therefore they can be successful if they have ability to meet delivery order in time which no doubt depends upon production of quality goods in right time. It makes all the more important for entrepreneur to judge ahead of time what should be done.Dr. It spots delays or deviations from the production plans. control over inventories of the cause of deviation is the poor performance of the employees. Follow up: Every production programme involves determination of the progress of work. demotion etc. planning and control are often performed by the entrepreneur himself production control starts with dispatching and ends up with corrective actions. setting.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal .Dr. Prepared by: Dr. So loading determines who will do the work as routing determines where and scheduling determines when it shall be done. may have to be taken. establishing the extract route of each individual item part or assembly. The usefulness of their technique lies in the fact that they compare what has been done and what ought to have been done. Necessary authority and conformation is given for: 1. Inspection: This is mainly to ensure the quality of goods. Loading: The next step is the execution of the schedule plan as per the route chalked out it includes the assignment of the work to the operators at their machines or work places.

Raj Kumari. New systems change the environment and relationships between people. such as beneficiaries or users. Requirements must be documented. Historically. taking account of the possibly conflicting requirements of the various stakeholders. actionable. this has included such things as holding interviews. Requirements can be architectural. Requirements analysis is critical to the success of a development project. the analyst will employ a combination of these methods to establish the exact requirements of the stakeholders. the requirement engineering process begins with a feasibility study activity. More modern techniques include prototyping. System modeling. functions. Requirement engineering according to Laplante (2007) is "a subdiscipline of systems engineering and software engineering that is concerned with determining the goals. The term requirements analysis can also be applied specifically to the analysis proper. so it is important to identify all the stakeholders. which leads to a feasibility report. measurable. as opposed to elicitation or documentation of the requirements. and defined to a level of detail sufficient for system design. Vandana Mittal. so that a system that meets the business needs is produced. testable.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . requirements capture. Requirements specification. or holding focus groups (more aptly named in this context as requirements workshops) and creating requirements lists. Requirements analysis can be a long and arduous process during which many delicate psychological skills are involved. Analysts can employ several techniques to elicit the requirements from the customer. for instance. Requirements management. It is sometimes referred to loosely by names such as requirements gathering. Requirements validation. structural." In some life cycle models.Ansar-Ul-Haque.Dr. or requirements specification. Where necessary. and use cases. encompasses those tasks that go into determining the needs or conditions to meet for a new or altered product. Requirements Engineering can be divided into discrete chronological steps:       Requirements elicitation. Requirements analysis and negotiation.Dr. If the feasibility study suggests that the product should be Prepared by: Dr.Requirements analysis Requirements analysis in systems engineering and software engineering. Requirements engineering Systematic requirements analysis is also known as requirements engineering. related to identified business needs or opportunities. and non-functional. take into account all their needs and ensure they understand the implications of the new systems. behavioral. functional. and constraints of hardware and software systems.

this perspective deficiency has the general advantage of obtaining a much richer understanding of the stakeholder's unique business processes. Prepared by: Dr.Ansar-Ul-Haque. but they are still seen to this day. Stakeholder identification See Stakeholder analysis for a discussion of business uses. where the stakeholder's attention is compelled to assume a more cross-functional context. then requirement analysis can begin. Weaknesses   Such lists can run to hundreds of pages. A major new emphasis in the 1990s was a focus on the identification of stakeholders. An appropriate metaphor would be an extremely long shopping list. and perceived needs. It is increasingly recognized that stakeholders are not limited to the organization employing the analyst. political. Contract-style requirement lists One traditional way of documenting requirements has been contract style requirement lists. Though they are generally idiosyncratic in nature and focused upon the perspectives and perceived needs of the stakeholder. marketing and sometimes sales act as surrogate consumers (mass-market customers) to guide development of the product organizations which regulate aspects of the system (financial. then feasibility should be determined before requirements are finalized.Raj Kumari. product management. Consequently this technique can serve as a means of obtaining the highly focused knowledge that is often not elicited in Joint Requirements Development sessions. In a complex system such requirements lists can run to hundreds of pages. standards bodies) which have a valid interest in the system.developed. decision-relevant business rules. very often without larger enterprise or system context. which may foster outside the box thinking. Stakeholders (SH) are persons or organizations (legal entities such as companies. For a large system can provide a high level description. Moreover. Vandana Mittal. They may be affected by it either directly or indirectly. Such lists are very much out of favour in modern analysis. Such requirements lists abstract all the requirements and so there is little context  This abstraction makes it impossible to see how the requirements fit or work together. Other stakeholders will include:        anyone who operates the system (normal and maintenance operators) anyone who benefits from the system (functional.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . safety. the in-person nature of the interviews provides a more relaxed environment where lines of thought may be explored at length.Dr. Strengths    Provides a checklist of requirements. see also Misuse case) organizations responsible for systems which interface with the system under design those organizations who integrate horizontally with the organization for whom the analyst is designing the system Stakeholder interviews Stakeholder interviews are a common technique used in requirement analysis. It is virtually impossible to read such documents as a whole and have a coherent understanding of the system. Provide a contract between the project sponsor(s) and developers. and other regulators) people or organizations opposed to the system (negative stakeholders. If requirement analysis precedes feasibility studies. financial and social beneficiaries) anyone involved in purchasing or procuring the system. In a mass-market product organization. as they have proved spectacularly unsuccessful at achieving their aims.Dr.

desirable contents. Vandana Mittal. This abstraction increases the likelihood of misinterpreting the requirements. This standard describes possible structures. while a list does make it easy to prioritize each individual item. these documents speak in generality. environment. However. Structural Requirements Prepared by: Dr. since they do not lend themselves to application. In addition to use cases.    These lists create a false sense of mutual understanding between the stakeholders and developers. they inevitably miss out crucial requirements which are identified later in the process.Raj Kumari. and qualities of a software requirements specification. Developers can use these discovered requirements to renegotiate the terms and conditions in their favour. These requirements lists are no help in system design. quality standards.   This abstraction makes it difficult to prioritize requirements properly. Types of Requirements Requirements are categorized in several ways. the SRS also contains nonfunctional (or supplementary) requirements. the number of (different) interpretations of the envisioned system increase.Dr. Recommended approaches for the specification of software requirements are described by IEEE 830-1998. Operational requirements will define the basic need and. or design constraints).Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . as more people read them. Non-functional requirements are requirements which impose constraints on the design or implementation (such as performance requirements. constraints. is in the details. This abstraction means that it's extremely difficult to be sure that you have the majority of the requirements. These contract style lists give the stakeholders a false sense of security that the developers must achieve certain things.Ansar-Ul-Haque. at a minimum.Dr. The customers are those that perform the eight primary functions of systems engineering. and measures of effectiveness and suitability (MOE/MOS). but the devil. Use cases are also known as functional requirements. The following are common categorizations of requirements that relate to technical management:[1] Customer Requirements Statements of fact and assumptions that define the expectations of the system in terms of mission objectives. removing one item out of context can render an entire use case or business requirement useless. Necessarily. Software requirements specification A software requirements specification (SRS) is a complete description of the behavior of the system to be developed. due to the nature of these lists. answer the questions posed in the following listing:[1]        Operational distribution or deployment: Where will the system be used? Mission profile or scenario: How will the system accomplish its mission objective? Performance and related parameters: What are the critical system parameters to accomplish the mission? Utilization environments: How are the various system components to be used? Effectiveness requirements: How effective or efficient must the system be in performing its mission? Operational life cycle: How long will the system be in use by the user? Environment: What environments will the system be expected to operate in an effective manner? Architectural Requirements Architectural requirements explain what has to be done by identifying the necessary system architecture (structure + behavior) of a system. as they say. with special emphasis on the operator as the key customer. It includes a set of use cases that describe all of the interactions that the users will have with the software.

Behavioral Requirements Behavioral requirements explain what has to be done by identifying the necessary behavior of a system.Ansar-Ul-Haque. timeliness or readiness. a requirement for long range or high speed may result in a design requirement for low weight. action or activity that must be accomplished.[1] Allocated Requirements A requirement that is established by dividing or otherwise allocating a high-level requirement into multiple lowerlevel requirements.Raj Kumari. [1] Non-functional Requirements Non-functional requirements are requirements that specify criteria that can be used to judge the operation of a system.[1] Design Requirements The ―build to. and characterized in terms of the degree of certainty in their estimate. Requirements analysis issues Stakeholder issues Steve McConnell. Functional requirements analysis will be used as the toplevel functions for functional analysis.Dr. generally measured in terms of quantity. performance (how well does it have to be done) requirements will be interactively developed across all identified functions based on system life cycle factors. in his book Rapid Development. coverage.‖ ―code to. During requirements analysis.Dr. the degree of criticality to system success. details a number of ways users can inhibit requirements gathering:        Users do not understand what they want or users don't have a clear idea of their requirements Users will not commit to a set of written requirements Users insist on new requirements after the cost and schedule have been fixed Communication with users is slow Users often do not participate in reviews or are incapable of doing so Users are technically unsophisticated Users do not understand the development process Prepared by: Dr. quality. For example. Functional Requirements Functional requirements explain what has to be done by identifying the necessary task. rather than specific behaviors.[1] Derived Requirements Requirements that are implied or transformed from higher-level requirement.Structural requirements explain what has to be done by identifying the necessary structure of a system. and their relationship to other requirements.‖ and ―buy to‖ requirements for products and ―how to execute‖ requirements for processes expressed in technical data packages and technical manuals.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . Vandana Mittal. Example: A 100-pound item that consists of two subsystems might result in weight requirements of 70 pounds and 30 pounds for the two lower-level items. Performance Requirements The extent to which a mission or function must be executed.

Attempted solutions One attempted solution to communications problems has been to employ specialists in business or system analysis.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . These tools are designed to bridge the communication gap between business users and the IT organization — and also to allow applications to be 'test marketed' before any code is produced. Users do not know about present technology This may lead to the situation where user requirements keep changing even when system or product development has been started. The best of these tools offer:       electronic whiteboards to sketch application flows and test alternatives ability to capture business logic and data needs ability to generate high fidelity prototypes that closely imitate the final application interactivity capability to add contextual requirements and other comments ability for remote and distributed users to run and interact with the simulation Prepared by: Dr. rather than personnel with the people skills and the domain knowledge to understand a client's needs properly.Raj Kumari. Also. Analysis may often be carried out by engineers or programmers. rather than develop a system specific to the needs of the client. Vandana Mittal. use cases. Engineers and developers may try to make the requirements fit an existing system or model. and Agile software development are also intended as solutions to problems encountered with previous methods. a new class of application simulation or application definition tools have entered the market.Dr. Unified Modeling Language (UML). they may wrongly believe they are in perfect agreement until the finished product is supplied. Techniques introduced in the 1990s like prototyping.Dr. Consequently. Engineer/developer issues Possible problems caused by engineers and developers during requirements analysis are:    Technical personnel and end-users may have different vocabularies.Ansar-Ul-Haque.

(5) scheduling. These functions include (1) identification. (6) procurement. AIM OF MATERIAL MANAGEMENT To get      The Right quality Right quantity of supplies At the Right time At the Right place For the Right cost SCOPE OF MATERIALS MANAGEMENT Materials Management strives to ensure that the material cost component of the total product cost be the least. MATERIALS MANAGEMENT DEFINITION  Planning and control of the functions supporting the complete cycle (flow) of materials. (12) distribution. (11) inventory control.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . and (13) disposal.  Material management is a scientific technique.Unit-III Inventory control : Inventory. Purchasing. from their initial purchase to destination. the control is exercised in the following fields. (2) cataloging. (3) standardization.Raj Kumari. (4) need determination. Introduction to supply chain management. Organizing &Control of flow of materials. organizing and controlling the flow of materials from their initial purchase through internal operations to the service point through distribution. Deterministic models. (7) inspection. and the associated flow of information. (10) storage. (8) quality control. Also called materials planning  It is concerned with planning. In order to achieve this.Dr. Prepared by: Dr. cost. Vandana Mittal.Dr. concerned with Planning.   Materials Planning.Ansar-Ul-Haque. (9) packaging.

Materials Planning. Disposal of Scrap and Surplus. the budget allocated for the materials will also Prepared by: Dr. Receiving. Vandana Mittal. Standardization and Variety Reduction.Dr.Ansar-Ul-Haque. Materials Handling & Traffic.Raj Kumari. Value Analysis.      Store Keeping. Store Keeping.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . Inspection and Despatching The function of material planning department is to plan for the future procurement of all the required materials as per the production schedule. Inventory Control. Material Preservation. Materials Handling & Traffic. Receiving. Purchasing. MATERIAL MGT.Dr. Disposal of Scrap and Surplus. Standardizat ion and Variety Reduction. Inspection and Despatching. At the time of material planning. Inventory Control. Material Preservatio n. Value Analysis.

materials. Factory managers need to know how many units of their products are available for customer orders.Dr. After material planning. There are four basic purchasing activities: Selecting suppliers. and suppliers that can contribute to company objectiveness WHAT IS INVENTORY? Inventory is the total amount of goods and/or materials contained in a store or factory at any given time. The word 'inventory' can refer to both the total amount of goods and the act of counting them. negotiating and issuing purchase orders Expediting delivery from suppliers Acting as liaison between suppliers and other company departments Looking for new products. Vandana Mittal.Raj Kumari. Store owners need to know the precise number of items on their shelves and storage areas in order to place orders or control losses. Many companies take an inventory of their supplies on a regular basis in order to avoid running out of popular items.Ansar-Ul-Haque. Purchasing department buys material based on the purchase requisitions from user departments and stores departments and annual production plan.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . purchasing is to be done. Restaurants need to order more food based on their current supplies and menu needs. Others take Prepared by: critically reviewed.Dr. for better control.

12 oranges and 8 bananas on the produce shelf.. supply and movements of goods.also have inventories (fixtures. Ideally. serviceproviders and not-for-profits ..Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . requires that you maintain certain amounts of inventory to use in this "lead time. from supplier to user at every stage. INVENTORY TYPES While accountants often discuss inventory in terms of goods for sale. most companies want to have just enough inventory to meet current orders. organizations . 3 oranges and 2 bananas to reach the par number. Vandana Mittal. If the par sheet calls for 20 apples.Inventories are maintained as buffers to meet uncertainties in demand. 15 oranges and 10 bananas. So bulk buying. Furniture companies may also offer 'inventory reduction sales' in order to clear out their showrooms for newer merchandise. The preferred number of each item is listed on a 'par sheet'.Ansar-Ul-Haque. REASONS FOR KEEPING INVENTORY There are three basic reasons for keeping an inventory:    Time . Restaurants and other retail businesses which take frequent inventories may use a 'par' system based on the results. . a master list of all the items in the restaurant. Companies also take an inventory every quarter in order to generate numbers for financial reports and tax records.Raj Kumari. movement and storing brings in economies of inventory to insure the number of items ordered matches the actual number of items counted physically.Dr. furniture. This same principle holds true for any other retail business with a number of different product lines. Economies of scale . thus inventory. The inventory itself may reveal 10 apples. then the manager knows to place an order for 10 apples." Uncertainty . for example. when he needs it" principle tends to incur lots of costs in terms of logistics. Having too many products languishing in a warehouse can make a company look less appealing to investors and potential customers.manufacturers.The time lags present in the supply chain.Ideal condition of "one unit at a time at a place where a user needs it. Quite often a company will offer significant discounts if the inventory numbers are high and sales are low.Dr. This is commonly seen in new car dealerships as the manufacturers release the next year's models before the current vehicles on the lot have been sold.) that they do not intend to Prepared by: Dr. Shortages or overages after an inventory can indicate a problem with theft (called 'shrinkage' in retail circles) or inaccurate accounting practices. supplies.

jibs and fixtures. diesels. Maintenance. Inventories not intended for sale to customers or to clients may be held in any premises an organization uses. To manage these various kinds of inventories.Dr.Dr. In these systems. if uncontrolled. Order point systems are often considered the appropriate procedure to control inventory type 3 & 4. it will be impossible to know the actual level of stocks and therefore impossible to control them.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . Retailers' inventory may exist in a warehouse or in a shop or store accessible to customers. repairs and operating supplies which are consumed during the production process and generally do not form part of the product itself (e. machinery and plant spares. tools.g. Manufacturers'. Finished Products: Complete finished products ready for sale. There are four types of inventory with which a manufacturing firm must concern itself –     Raw materials and purchased components: These are raw .Ansar-Ul-Haque.. and wholesalers' inventory tends to cluster in warehouses. empty cans and their lids (or coils of steel or aluminum for constructing those components).) For example: A canned food manufacturer's materials inventory includes the ingredients to form the foods to be canned. labels. The firm's work in process includes those materials from the time of release to the work floor until they become complete and ready for sale to wholesale or retail customers. In general.materials. distributors'. repair and tooling inventories: Maintenance. various oils and lubricants. the items are restored when the inventory levels become low. work-in-process and partly finished products formed at various stages of production.  Materials requirement planning – MRP: It is important that the proper control procedure be applied to each of the four types of inventory. MRP is the appropriate control procedure for inventory types 1 &2 SPECIAL TERMS USED IN DEALING WITH INVENTORY Prepared by: Dr.) that will form part of a finished can. kerosene. etc. Vandana Mittal.sell. Stock ties up cash and. In process inventory: Semi-finished parts. Petroleum products like petrol.. parts and components which enter into the product Direct during the production process and generally form part of the product. and anything else (solder.Raj Kumari. . glue. two alternative control procedures can be used –  Order Point Systems : This has been the traditional approach to inventory control.

any change in the packaging or product is a new SKU. Cycle stock (Used in batch processes. It all depends on a number of factors. "New old stock" (sometimes abbreviated NOS) is a term used in business to refer to merchandise being offered for sale that was manufactured long ago but that has never been used. Consumption per day is 20 units. it is the available inventory.Buffer Stock is a stock held to reduce the negative effects (stock-out costs) of an unusually large usage of stock. WHAT IS INVENTORY CONTROL? Prepared by: Dr. decoupling inventory is the one which decouples customer and producer. and the new old stock may represent the only market source of a particular item at the present time.Ansar-Ul-Haque.e. ice cream for summer) Pipeline stock (Goods still in transit or in the process of distribution .Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . TYPOLOGY IN INVENTORY MANAGEMENT    Buffer/safety stock. finished goods inventory.Raj Kumari.   Anticipation stock (Building up extra stock for periods of increased demand . from the time it takes to create the machinery to the speed of the delivery system. but a larger order of custommade parts may have a lead time of weeks.have left the factory but not arrived at the customer yet). months or even longer. It might be raw material. So. Vandana Mittal. It can be raw material. Therefore. Ex: customer has inventory for 10 days for consumption. WIP. work in progress or finished goods inventory Ex: Assume supplier is far away.Dr. Such merchandise may not be produced anymore. Stock Keeping Unit (SKU) is a unique combination of all the components that are assembled into the purchasable item. excluding buffer stock) De-coupling (Buffer stock that is held by both the supplier and the user). 5 days for transportation 20X5= 100 units are required for the period of transportation. A small order of a pre-existing item may only have a few hours lead time. So if you keep 100 units in your stock it becomes your pipeline inventory.g. For 10 days customer is decoupled from producer.  Lead Time: Lead time is the period between a customer's order and delivery of the final product. Inventory ―decouples‖ in different stages.   Stockout means running out of the inventory of an SKU. This level of detailed specification assists in managing inventory.Dr.

How much to order ? 2..Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . Vandana Mittal. in inventory inventories and while control held smooth at the in may be is said to be a in planned such for of a method manner whereby that it investment ensures as 'well stock of maintained materials the proper sales.Dr. Inventory control is one of the greatest factors in a company‘s success or failure. storing.Dr. To manage inventory effectively.Raj Kumari. When to order? The simplest language.Ansar-Ul-Haque. in inventories is kept at a minimum. To make sure that the financial investment in inventories is minimum (i. Prepared by: Dr.  Efficient purchasing.Lead time Inventory Policy Objective Minimize Cost Decision 1.Demand .Inventory Costs . Proper inventory control will balance the customer‘s need to secure products quickly with the business need to control warehousing costs. consumption and accounting for materials is an important objective. a business must have a firm understanding of demand. flow same needed total costs production investment operations time. to see that the working capital is blocked to the minimum possible extent). OBJECTIVES OF INVENTORY CONTROL   To ensure adequate supply of products to customer and avoid shortages as far as possible.Inventory consists of the goods and materials that a retail business holds for sale or a manufacturer keeps in raw materials for production.e. Inventory System Constraint . and cost of inventory. Inventory control is a means for maintaining the right level of supply and reducing loss to goods or materials before they become a finished product or are sold to the consumer.

However. no stock out.  Cost Of Ordering/ Replenishment cost : Every time an order is placed for stock replenishment. there are shortfall costs. To maintain timely record of inventories of all the items and to maintain the stock within the desired limits. To provide a reserve stock for variations in lead times of delivery of materials. BENEFITS OF INVENTORY CONTROL It is an established fact that through the practice of scientific inventory control. hence. Prepared by: Dr.Dr.Dr. raw material like steel against production components like casting. o Follow-up costs required to ensure timely supplies – includes the travel cost for purchase followup. Smooth and uninterrupted production and. To provide a scientific base for both short-term and long-term planning of materials. A good inventory control system will balance carrying costs against shortfall costs. customer‘s relationship because of the timely delivery of goods and INVENTORY COSTS There are four main types of cost in inventory. it can be assumed that the cost per order is constant. following are the benefits of inventory control:      Improvement in service. Vandana Mittal. Economy in purchasing. Finally. Co includes: o Paper work costs. Helps in minimising loss due to deterioration. it is assumed that an estimate Co can be obtained for a given range of items. Efficient utilisation of working capital.    To ensure timely action for replenishment. There are the costs to carry standard inventories and safety stock. obsolescence damage and pilferage. This cost of ordering.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal .Raj Kumari. telephone. and for most practical purposes. Eliminates the possibility of duplicate ordering. typing and despatching an order. certain costs are involved. depending upon the type of items. Ordering and setup costs come into play as well. The ordering cost (Co) may vary. telex and postal bills.Ansar-Ul-Haque.

This cost includes:  interest on capital. for example.  Ordering costs: Ordering costs have to do with placing orders.  storage costs – any labour. gives a basis for estimating what it actually costs a firm to carry stock.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . This measure. They include sales that are lost. obsolescence or theft.  salaries of stores staff. To minimize carrying costs. Logistics managers prefer to err on the side of caution to reduce warehousing costs. ordering expenses are generally expressed as a monetary value per order.  Stock-out costs: Stockout or shortfall costs(Ks) represent lost sales due to lack of supply for consumers. Sales departments prefer these numbers be kept low so that an ample stock will always be kept.Dr. How these costs are calculated can be a matter of contention between sales and logistics managers. Lowering these costs would be accomplished by placing small number of orders.Dr. etc. Vandana Mittal. Unlike carrying costs. Prepared by: Dr. management makes frequent orders of small quantities. If the business is in manufacturing.Ansar-Ul-Haque.  allowance for deterioration or spoilage.Raj Kumari. These charges increase as inventory levels rise. Holding costs are commonly assessed as a percentage of unit value.o Costs involved in receiving the order. rather than attempting to derive monetary value for each of these costs individually. each for a large quantity. racks. then to production setup costs are considered instead. when a desired item is not available. This practice is a reflection of the difficulty inherent in deriving a specific per unit cost. o Any set up cost of machines if charged by the supplier.  insurance and tax charges. receiving and storage. both short and long term. Transportation and invoice processing are also included. inspection.  Obsolescence.  Holding\Inventory Carrying cost\Safety stock: This cost is measured as a percentage of the unit cost of the item. the costs of provisions of storage area and facilities like bins. checking and handling in the stores. either directly indicated in quotations or assessed through quotations for various quantities. o The salaries and wages to the purchase department. the costs associated with back ordering the missing item.

consumption rate. Since A items are of the highest value and are required in large numbers they could be purchased more frequently and the others.Ansar-Ul-Haque.weight / cost permit. Of the various techniques.Dr.Dr. Vandana Mittal.  VED Analysis . B items represent the immediate cost centres.items. These charges are probably the most difficult to compute. INVENTORY CONTROL TECHNIQUES Some important analysis carried out are :  ABC Analysis .  SOS Analysis-based on seasonality  XYZ Analysis-Left out stock value  Two-Bin System a) ABC ANALYSIS : ABC is said to connote ―Always Better Control‖. and less attention for category C.or expenses related to stopping the production line because a component part has not arrived. and to a lesser degree on B items.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . In so far as inventory control is concerned the following guidelines will Prepared by: Dr. it will be possible to control the inventory quiet effectively both in the way of cost control and lessening the risk of ‗stock out‘.  SDE Analysis . A very close control is exercised over A items while less stringent control is adequate for those in the category B.versa. It will be seen that first 10% of items approximately account for 70%. The cost of each item is multiplied by the number used in a given period and then these items are tabulated in descending numerical value order. the next 20% for 20% of value and the last 70% account for 10% of value. and C.items represent low cost centres. By concentrating on controlling A.Raj Kumari.  GOLF analysis-based on suppliers  HML Analysis . but arguably the most important because they represent the costs incurred by customers when an inventory policy falters.based on annual consumption.  FSN Analysis . A – Items represent the high cost centre. ABC analysis is the analysis of the store items cost criteria. B & C items less frequently. ABC classification is the most important technique.availability.criticality for production. It has been seen that a large number of items consume only a small percentage of resources and vice.

Safety stocks moderate 5. 4. Ordinary control measure 2. Class A B C Number of items 10% of total items 20% of total items 70% of total items Rupee value in items 70% 20% 10% Steps in computing A-B-C analysis: procedure of A-B-C analysis  First we are trying to prepare a list of items and calculate their annual usage in rupees.Items in keeping the system optimum (i. Purchase based on usage estimates 3. Management be done at middle level C.Dr. Controls exercises by store keeper.Items 1. This can be obtained by multiplying the quantity ( number of units) of the item consumed in one year by its unit price. Vandana Mittal. Safety stocks high 5. Moderate control 2. Management of items should be done at top management level. Reasonably strict watch and control 4. Purchase based on rigid requirements 3.Items: on 1.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . Prepared by: Dr. Management be done at lower levels.e.Raj Kumari.Ansar-Ul-Haque. Safety stocks should be low 5. Tight controls 2. Strict and close watch ( monitoring) 4. Healthy balance between financial constraints and purchase of required quantity of materials) A. Rigid estimates of requirements 3.Dr. B.

Table: 1 A-B-C analysis usage in rupees Items Annual Unit cost in Annual usage Ranking Rs: (2)×(3) 1 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 2 20.30 0. After having done this the total of annual usage in rupees is put at the bottom of the list.20 0. the third item the third maximum and so on.50 2. the second item the second maximum.000 8000 60. Example: The company has 10 items mentioned in the table .05 0.Dr.10 0.Raj Kumari.20 . The rest which contributes 5 to 10% of the total percentage of annual usage are called C items. Items which contribute the next 20 to 25 % of the aggregate are listed as B items.000 30.Dr.25 0.  Placing of the orders on the basis of this classification. Vandana Mittal.Ansar-Ul-Haque.000 500 50. Similarly. Arranging all these items in the descending order of their individual dosage in rupees.00 0.  Those items which together form about 70% of the total annual usage may be total annual usage may be categorized as A items.00 4 5000 6000 1000 150 10000 400 24000 700 4500 100 5 4 3 6 9 2 8 1 7 5 10 usage units rupees Prepared by: Dr.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . That means the first item in the list will now show the maximum annual usage in rupees.000 10.40 1.000 700 9000 50 3 0.

850 Table :1 shows a representative ABC analysis where 10 items have been studied and annual usage extended by unit cost to get annual usage in rupees.14 86.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal .78 95.Total Rs: 51.Dr. Prepared by: Dr.47 97.39 98. Vandana Mittal.57 77.00 A A B B C C C C C C percentage Table 2 shows the ranking and assignment of A.81 100.51 99.14 99.Raj Kumari.28 65. B and C categories of items. 24000 34000 40000 45000 49500 50500 51200 51600 51750 51850 46.Dr.Ansar-Ul-Haque. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 107 105 102 101 109 103 108 106 104 110 24000 10000 6000 5000 4500 1000 700 400 150 100 annual usage Rs. Table: 2 A-B-C ranking Ranking Item Annual Cumulative Cumulative Category usage Rs.

103. 20 20 60 34000 11000 6850 65.104 106.Dr. A B C 107.57 % of annual usage 20 percent of the item represent 21.Dr.110 Table 3 shows a summary ABC analysis showing that 20% of the items represent 65.Table 3: Summary of A-B-C analysis: Class Item % items of Rs: (per Cumulative percentage of Rs.Ansar-Ul-Haque.e.21% of annual usage and 60% of the items represent only 13.108.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal .21 13. A items are ordered more frequently and I small quantities ( i.22 group) The general picture of ABC Analysis will show the following position:- b) VED ANALYSIS : Prepared by: Dr.Raj Kumari.101 109.22 % of annual usage.105 102. few weeks requirements) while C items are ordered just once or twice a year to obtain the entire year‘s requirement.57 21. Vandana Mittal.

in some public organizations which are static or inefficiently managed.  Desirable: items whose non availability can be tolerated for a long period.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . Airlines industry is bound to keep stand-by engines as its absence. bamboo is an important raw material.availability can not be tolerated. essential and desirable items varies from organisation to organisation. Indifferent attitude towards hospital formulary Fear of change Poor supervision and control Unfair practice due to vested interest. at times. Although the proportion of vital. at times. These unnecessary items get purchased due to the following reasons. By stocking the items in order of priority. Although not included in scientific VED analysis. vital and essential items are always in stock which means a minimum disruption in the services offered to the people. some paper mills. VED analysis is done to control a critical inventory situation. All the vital items are not expensive and all the expensive items are not vital. we identify the criticality of production situation and accordingly plan for the inventory.. It should be realized that vital.Raj Kumari. similarly microwave oven and air conditioning unit are expensive. and desirable items we stocked in small amounts. i. Materials are classified into the three types as under:  V-Vital: items without which production will completely stop.V items and A items are not the same. The vital items are stocked in abundance. essential items are stocked in medium amounts. which costs to the industry an enormous revenue loss. Domestic examples of salt and matchbox proves that though these items are vital. Availability of bamboo from the forests.  E-Essential: items whose cost of non availability can be tolerated for 2-3 days.e. non.Ansar-Ul-Haque. Vandana Mittal. they are not expensive. a) b) c) d) e) Thoughtless continuation of previous purchase. Eg.Dr. there is a peculiar category of ‗U‘ items which can be grouped as unnecessary. rolling machine cannot operate. but they are not essential.ABC analysis does not tell anything about the criticality of the items.Dr. Due to the absence of bearing. Through this analysis. Prepared by: Dr. natural calamities etc. For example. becomes uncertain because of number of reasons due to climate. because similar or alternative items are available. the industry may require flight cancellation.

Dr. E . items which have to come from far off cities or where there is not much competition in market or where good quality supplies are difficult to get or to be procured. i. For example. therefore. own administrative procedure and soon. and critically VED on the other. and it is based on the nature of market and suppliers. mostly local items.e. V & S items for selective controls.It is possible to conduct a two dimensional analysis taking into consideration cost on one hand .B. these items are procured on yearly interval.Dr. c) SDE ANALYSIS : This analysis is based spares availability of an item – S-Scarce Items D-Difficult Items E-Easy Items S .are Difficult items which are procurable in market but not easily available. d) GOLF ANALYSIS: It is similar to SDE analysis. D . Prepared by: Dr.Ansar-Ul-Haque.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . it is important to keep in mind all these issues to function efficiently and smoothly. e) HML ANALYSIS : The cost per item (per piece) is considered for this analysis. Suppliers or Vendors are classified as under: G-Government O-Ordinary or Non-government L-Local F-Foreign All these suppliers have their own payment terms. It is normally advantageous to consider A. Due to their nature.refers to Scarce Items.refers to Easy items – Items are those which are easily available. For a materials Manager.Raj Kumari. especially imported and those which are very much in short supply. Due to their easy availability.C categories. Vandana Mittal. A. organizations may not require to hold these items in large volume in their stock.

Non-seasonal items are available throughout the year without any major price variation. The fast and slowmoving classifications help in arrangement of stock in stores and their distribution and handling methods. Example: in case of sugar mills whose procurement is seasonal. Slow-moving (S) and Non-moving (N) items. procurement actions vary. S. i) THE TWO-BIN SYSTEM Prepared by: Dr. The items are analyzed to be classified as Fast-moving (F). can plan not only for procurement but also for secured storage of items. ‗Z‘ items are the residual items.Seasonal Items OS – non-seasonal Items Depends on seasonality and non-seasonality of the items. h) XYZ ANALYSIS This analysis is made based on the value of left out stock in the stores. Green tea leaves are available for a longer duration from February to October. ‗X‘ items are those whose value of left out stock is very high.High cost items (H).Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . The Non-moving items (usually not consumed over a period of two years) are of great importance. g) SOS ANALYSIS: SOS Analysis is done. keeping in view the seasonality or non-seasonality of the item. Medium Cost items (M) and Low Cost item (L) help in bringing controls over consumption at the departmental level. Since seasonal items. are procured in bulk to manage the production process throughout the year. which are available for a limited period. ‗Y‘ items are those whose left-out stock value is moderate.Dr. based on such analysis. whose left-out stock value are neither high nor moderate. Scrutiny of non-moving items is to be made to determine whether they could be used or be disposed off. Materials managers.Dr. Vandana Mittal. f) FSN ANALYSIS : This analysis is to help control obsolescence and is based on the consumption pattern of the items. these companies need to procure their requirement for a longer duration so as to adjust their production plans.Raj Kumari.Ansar-Ul-Haque.

then both the bins are again filled in. which is a simple method of control exercised by two simple rules. say. bolts method it and is a nuts is appropriate only system. Vandana Mittal. is first just bolts more bin bin replenishment the nuts delivery the awaited. INVENTORY MODELS The inventory models are broadly classified as follows:  Deterministic models [Known Demand] Prepared by: Dr.Raj Kumari. delivery arrives.Dr. issued. what that is experience as we quantity their rate period know of consumption.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . BIN NO.1 BIN NO. and The The as diagram shows this simple method.One of the earliest systems of stock control is two-bin system.Ansar-Ul-Haque. for deterministic are necessary Use Bin No 2 when Bin no 1 is empty when We a given consumption know from as rate our well is constant. The bins contain. mild-steel bolts and bolts soon and as the arrives and nuts are issued bin when from is the the from empty. ordered.2 Use till Bin no 1 is empty Such to of a say. and the other is what quantity should be covered. The following nuts. and nuts While When when are required. second second the first bin bolts is are as and empty.Dr. One is when the order should be placed.

This is also known as a situation of sureness since it is realized that whatever are ascertained.Ansar-Ul-Haque. Since it conceives the system to be deterministic. it automatically means that one has full information about the system. Also the information about the system under thought should be whole so that the parameters can be determined with confidence.Raj Kumari. Deterministic optimization models presume the state of affairs to be deterministic and consequently render the numerical model to optimize on system arguments. Although this is present everywhere.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal .Dr. Vandana Mittal. and it is for sure that some uncertainty is always associated with the system. let us imagine deterministic and probabilistic conditions. EOQ models with restrictions (multi items models) C. the vagueness always makes us comfortless. But. Deterministic models are further classified as follows: A. such models also create larger trouble in analysis and often become uncontrollable.Dr. Probabilistic models [Unknown Demand] DETERMINISTIC AND PROBABILISTIC METHODS What is Deterministic and Probabilistic inventory control? To value it better. A deterministic circumstance is one in which the system parameters can be ascertained precisely. But this kind of system rarely exists. Probabilistic situation is also known as a situation of uncertainty. Elementary Models: 1) Economic Order Quantity [EOQ] models without shortages a) Instantaneous production b) Finite production 2) Reorder level models [ROL] with shortages a) Instantaneous production b) Finite production B. Probabilistic inventory prototypes consisting of probabilistic demand and supply are more suitable in many real circumstances. things are sure to occur the same way. EOQ models with lead time Prepared by: Dr. So people keep attempting to lessen uncertainty.

W. It is one of the oldest classical production scheduling models. Prepared by: Dr. Note that the number of times an order is placed will also affect the total cost.Dr.D. the time between the placement of the order and the receipt of the order is known and constant.Dr. We want to determine the optimal number of units of the product to order so that we minimize the total cost associated with the purchase. ie. the purchase cost for each item. however.Raj Kumari. but R.Ansar-Ul-Haque. There is a fixed cost charged for each order placed.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . a consultant who applied it extensively. the fixed cost to place the order and the storage cost for each item per year. The lead time. constant. this number can be determined from the other parameters Underlying assumptions of the EOQ model 1. ie. Vandana Mittal. regardless of the number of units ordered. Wilson. The framework used to determine this order quantity is also known as Wilson EOQ Model or Wilson Formula. Harris in 1913. EOQ models with price breaks (quantity discounts) In general Inventory Models are classified as:  Fixed order-quantity models – Economic order quantity – Production order quantity – Quantity discount  Probabilistic models  Fixed order-period models ECONOMIC ORDER QUANTITY (EOQ) Economic order quantity is the level of inventory that minimizes the total inventory holding costs and ordering costs. EOQ only applies where the demand for a product is constant over the year and that each new order is delivered in full when the inventory reaches zero. H. Demand is known and is deterministic. The model was developed by F. There is also a holding or storage cost for each unit held in storage (sometimes expressed as a percentage of the purchase cost of the item). is given credit for his early in-depth analysis of it. 2. delivery and storage of the product The required parameters to the solution are the total demand for the year.

Ansar-Ul-Haque. while calculating the EOQ that serves the best possible solution.3. which cater to these requirements. These assumptions are essential for evolving the best effective inventory management systems. usually not related to the unit cost) Calculating EOQ through Different Models Economic order Quantity will be optimal for the basic assumptions made in the inventory management and these assumptions for each model are specified below. (for the Basic EOQ-Model) 5. Prepared by: Dr.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal .e. Model – 1: EOQ with Uniform Rate of Demand & Instantaneous Replenishment In this model the assumptions made are: a) Demand is known for the item and is consumed at uniform rate b) Stock replenishment is instantaneous (lead time is zero) i.) Variables       Q = order quantity Q * = optimal order quantity D = annual demand quantity of the product P = purchase cost per unit S = fixed cost per order (not per unit. The receipt of inventory is instantaneous. (A common misunderstanding is that the formula tries to find when these are equal. etc.Raj Kumari. the price of the product will still be the same. Vandana Mittal. insurance. uneven demand rates. refrigeration. In other words the inventory from an order arrives in one batch at one point in time. purchase with or without discounts. Quantity discounts are not possible.Dr. in addition to unit cost) H = annual holding cost per unit (also known as carrying cost or storage cost) (warehouse space. But in reality. Five EOQ models. so that ordering cost + carrying cost finds its minimum. situation arises with deviations to the assumptions. are discussed in this unit. That the only costs pertinent to the inventory model are the cost of placing an order and the cost of holding or storing inventory over time EOQ is the quantity to order. Hence it may become imperative to consider different lot sizes.Dr. the quantity of items will be realized instantly as soon as the consumption reaches a point. in other words it does not make any difference how much we order. thus resulting in conflicting issues while seeking the best possible solutions. 4.

c) Price of materials is fixed (no quantity discount is assumed) d) Inventory carrying cost per unit is constant. Figure shown below is the graphical representation of the above said model with assumption When reach down to a level of inventory at R, you place your next order for Q sized order

R = Reorder Level. Q = Economic order Quantity AND L = Lead time How to Calculate EOQ The objective is to determine the quantity to order which minimizes the total annual inventory management cost.

Total Cost = purchase cost + ordering cost + holding cost
 Purchase cost: This is the variable cost of goods, indicated by per unit purchase price × annual demand quantity. This is indicated as P×D

Ordering cost: This is the cost of placing orders, each order has a fixed cost S, and we need to order D/Q times per year. Where Order Cost = The Number of Orders Placed in the period x Order Costs. This is indicated as S × D/Q

Prepared by: Dr. Vandana Mittal,Dr.Ansar-Ul-Haque,Dr.Raj Kumari,Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal

Holding cost: the average quantity in stock (between fully replenished and empty) is Q/2. and Holding cost/Carrying Cost = Average Inventory Level x the Carrying Costs of 1 unit of Stock for one period so this cost is H × Q/2

. To determine the minimum point of the total cost curve, set the ordering cost equal to the holding cost:

Solving for Q gives Q* (the optimal order quantity):



Note that interestingly, Q* is independent of P(purchase price); it is a function of only S, D, H. Graphical Solution If we minimize the sum of the ordering and carrying costs, we are also minimizing the total costs. To help visualize this we can graph the ordering cost and the holding cost as shown in the chart below: This chart shows costs on the vertical axis or Y axis and the order quantity on the horizontal or X axis. The straight line which commences at the origin is the carrying cost curve, the total cost of carrying units of inventory. As expected, as we order more on the X axis, the carrying cost line increases in a proportionate manner. The downward sloping curve which commences high on the Y axis and decreases as it approaches the X axis and moves to the right is the ordering cost curve. This curve represents the total ordering cost depending
Prepared by: Dr. Vandana Mittal,Dr.Ansar-Ul-Haque,Dr.Raj Kumari,Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal

on the size of the order quantity. Obviously the ordering cost will decrease as the order quantity is increased thereby causing there to be fewer orders which need to be made in any particular period of time.

The point at which these two curves intersect is the same point which is the minimum of the curve which represents the total cost for the inventory system. Thus the sum of the carrying cost curve and the ordering cost curve is represented by the total cost curve and the minimum point of the total cost curve corresponds to the same point where the carrying cost curve and the ordering cost curve intersect. To determine Economic order quantity EOQ that minimizes the total annual inventory costs, we have to differentiate total annual cost with respect to variable Q and set the derivative to zero and by using calculus, the formula for calculating the EOQ works out to:

Prepared by: Dr. Vandana Mittal,Dr.Ansar-Ul-Haque,Dr.Raj Kumari,Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal

Dr.Raj Kumari. Vandana Mittal.1000 per unit.Worked Example on Modle – 1: An electronic product uses 32000 PCB‘s per year costing Rs. Cost of ordering Rs.Ansar-Ul-Haque.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal .Dr.100 per unit.250 per unit and the inventory cost is Rs. a) How many PCB‘s should be ordered at a time to maximize economy? b) How many orders be placed per year c) What is the duration between each order? d) What are the total annual costs associated with inventory? e) What are the total annual costs involved including that of materials? Solution: Prepared by: Dr.

the rate of replenishment should be greater than or equal to the rate of decrease in inventory. this model can be considered as the production model.Model – 2: Economic Lot Size with Uniform Rate of Demand and Finite Rate of Replenishment In this model the assumptions made are as follows: a) Demand is known and is consumed at uniform rate b) Stock replenishment is not instantaneous but it is gradual at uniform rate c) Setup cost is fixed and it does not change with lot size. the inventory builds up gradually at a certain rate as by the sloping line upwards. Since the stock out is not permitted. Prepared by: Dr. Finite rate of replenishment means. Vandana Mittal. Uniform demand means that the stocked material goes on decreasing at a uniform rate as shown by the sloping line downwards. when the order is placed. This cycle repeats at an interval.Dr. This model is suitable for the manufacturing organization where there is a simultaneous production and consumption.Ansar-Ul-Haque. Figure shown below indicates the uniform demand and finite rate of replenishment.Dr. Since this type of production is very much in practice.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . d) Inventory carrying cost per unit is constant e) Shortages (stock outs) are not permitted.Raj Kumari.

and annual inventory cost from the following derivations: Total annual inventory = [Annual ordering costs + annual Inventory carrying costs] ————— (1) Annual ordering costs = Annual set up costs = No. Hence the set up cost is fixed per run and no change with the lot size of production.Dr.Raj Kumari.EBQ. Vandana Mittal. i. In view of all these changes. We can calculate the total annual inventory. of set ups x Cost/setup ———————————(2) Annual set up costs = [(D/Q) x Co] ——————————————– (3) Annual Inventory carrying cost = [Average inventory x Inventory Carrying Cost] —————— (4) Prepared by: Dr.Dr.Ansar-Ul-Haque.It may please be noted that there is no ordering cost here as there are no outside vendors or suppliers considered. Instead of ordering cost Co. EBQ. there is cost associated with the setup of machinery and tooling.e.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . the EOQ mentioned in the previous model is referred here as ‗Economic Production Quantity‘-EPQ or ‗Economic Batch Quantity‘. the economic batch size in production.

Dr. Its production capacity is 40 transmissions per day and works for 300 days in a year. produces in batches with a set up cost of Rs.Ansar-Ul-Haque. Cost of material inputs per transmission is Rs. Calculate: Prepared by: Dr.Dr.Raj Kumari. Vandana Mittal. 20/month. 3000.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal .Problem Solving: Example A transmission manufacturer supplying to a car manufacturer at the rate of 25 per day has a holding cost of the complete unit at Rs. 10000 each time when set up is changed.

Dr. Vandana Mittal. Prepared by: Dr.Dr.Ansar-Ul-Haque.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal .Raj Kumari.a) Most economical numbers that can be produced in one batch b) How frequently should the batches be started in a day c) What will be the minimum average inventory cost and production time d) What is the production time Answer for Model – III: Finite Rate of Replenishment with Shortages The assumptions made in this model are as follows: 1) Demand is known and is consumed at uniform rate 2) Stock replenishment is not instantaneous but it is at a finite rate 3) Setup cost is as per production runs 4) No quantity discount is given for the supplies 5) Shortages are allowed 6) No loss of sales due to the above said shortages Figure given below represents the model which shows the finite replenishment with shortages.

Vandana Mittal.Finite replenishment is a gradual and uniform increase in inventory due to continuous production just as in model II. then the consumption is shown as the drooping line BC. There is no consumption during this shortage until fresh stocks arrive for production and the immediate supply is given first to production before building up the inventory.Dr. the inventory builds first as shown by the sloping line AB. In the figure above. Here the shortages are allowed which means that demand is more than supply for certain duration.Ansar-Ul-Haque. At the point B is the maximum inventory level at any point of time. the point at which the demand of earlier period is satisfied and the backlog becomes zero.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . which build back to E. Formula’s to be used in Model-III are given below: Prepared by: Dr. Line CD represents the shortages and the stocks are replenished at point D.Raj Kumari.Dr.

Raj Kumari.20 per unit per year.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . 500 and the holding cost of one unit per month is 25 Paise. Determine the optimum quantity to be produced and the number of shortages that the company faces.Dr. The shortage cost is Rs.Solved problem on the above model The demand for a company‘s product is 24000 units per year and can produce at the rate of 3000 per month.Dr. The cost of one set up is Rs. Vandana Mittal.Ansar-Ul-Haque. which has to be borne by the inventory managers. Also determine the manufacturing time and the time between each set ups? Model – IV: Quantity Discount Model In this model the quantity discount in price of the supplies is considered while calculating the EOQ and then orders are placed depending on the economics of placing orders with or without discount and the quantity being ordered. A decision Prepared by: Dr. However the fact that the materials if brought to the huge quantities may result in heavy build up of inventory and hence the inventory carrying cost.

Dr.Ansar-Ul-Haque.Raj Kumari. Vandana Mittal. The following procedure is adopted in this decision making process: Step – 1: calculate EOQ at different price levels Step – 2: Determine the Economic quantity to be purchased at each price level Step – 3: Calculate the annual total cost including those of materials for each of the quantities determined by step – 2 Step – 4: Select an optimal quantity to be purchased which involves the least annual total cost Formula’s to be used in this model: Solved Problem for Model-Iv A Transmission manufacturer is purchasing 4800 forgings per year.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal .has to be taken by the purchaser on whether to stick to the EOQ or raise the order quantity to take advantage of price discount.Dr. The requirement is known and the demand is mostly fixed. The supplier offers quantity discount as detailed below: Prepared by: Dr.

130 Step – 2: from the above figures in step-1. or b) the quantity of 500 forgings ordered at Rs. Next come EOQ at price of 140/unit with a quantity of 462 units and the next being 480 numbers when the unit cost is Rs. 687600 Prepared by: Dr. Step – 3: To calculate the annual total cost including materials for all selected quantities in step-2.140 or c) 750 forgings at Rs.02x12)/2)}] = Rs. it can be concluded that the choice in the descending order for the manager to order are a) best EOQ of 447 units at Rs. Vandana Mittal. it is observed that the price of Rs. the least units of purchase.From the above three price values and the EOQ‘s.Raj Kumari.130 and this decision depends on the actual demand requirements over the particular period of time.02x12)/2}] = Rs.150. we use the formula TAQ – 1: Cu D + Co (D/Q) + Cu x (i) (Q/2) = [{(150x4800)} + {(4800/447) x 750} + {150 x (447x0.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal .Dr.Ansar-Ul-Haque.Dr. 748099 Similarly TAQ – 2 = [(140x4800) + (4800/500) x750 + {140x (500x0.150 for purchase of 500 forgings has resulted in an EOQ of 447.

strategic coordination of the traditional business functions and the tactics across these business functions within a particular company and across businesses within the supply chain. and finished goods from point of origin to point of consumption . Therefore the price discount could be used for the economy when the buying quantity is warranted up to 750 numbers at any point of time in the production cycle. and monitoring of supply chain activities with the objective of creating net value.Ansar-Ul-Haque.Dr. synchronizing supply with demand and measuring performance globally. PROBABLISTIC MODEL ASSUMPTIONS  Demand is NOT deterministic but probability distribution is known  Lead time MIGHT NOT BE deterministic  Shortages MAY OCCUR  All ordered units arrive at once  Purchasing cost is independent of the order quantity SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENTN AND INVENTORY CONTROL Supply chain management (SCM) is the management of a network of interconnected businesses involved in the ultimate provision of product and service packages required by end customers. consisting of materials and the annual ordering cost plus the inventory carrying cost. Supply chain management spans all movement and storage of raw materials. planning. leveraging worldwide logistics.02x12)/2}] = Rs. Vandana Mittal.Raj Kumari." More common and accepted definitions of supply chain management are: Supply chain management is the systemic. Another definition is provided by the APICS Dictionary when it defines SCM as the "design. Supply Chain Management Decision Prepared by: Dr.TAQ – 3 = [{(130x4800)} + {(4800/750) x750} + {130 x (750x0. execution. out of the above three quantities considered.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal .Dr. building a competitive infrastructure. 640500 While we observed that the EOQ is best at purchase of 447 numbers. the total cost. control. for the purposes of improving the long-term performance of the individual companies and the supply chain as a whole. is least when the order is placed for 750 numbers in one go. work-in-process inventory.

then the performance measures for the various functional departments should be changed to support the overall supply chain management goals. The next step is to begin the process of transitioning from a functional organization to a process organization.Raj Kumari. Integrated Supply Chain and Inventory Management Integrated supply chain require that each segment of the supply chain i. Some examples are the electronic transmission of advance ship notices (ASN) to advise customers of the contents of a shipment and its expected delivery date. which involves the configuration. This is the key to optimizing resources as well as the timing of activities associated with procuring raw materials and producing and distributing products. A key tool to achieving this is to develop a supply chain "diagnostic method" that can be used to improve operations and reduce inventories . The first consideration here is for the company to examine and understand their supply and demand planning. distributors.e.Supply chain management has emerged over the past few years as the key to success in the global economy. information exchange. production. It is important that companies develop a supply chain management strategy that is consistent with their overall business strategy. Today's technology is the key that allows the supply chain to become integrated and therefore reduces the inventory requirement. and distribution and links together suppliers. which provides flexibility that can be used to react to rapidly changing internal and external needs such as changes in production schedule or changes in customer product delivery requirements. Supply Chain (SC).Dr. customer satisfaction. and cash-to-cash cycle time. production.Ansar-Ul-Haque. transaction execution. Some examples of the measurements would include perfect order fulfillment. Also. freight tracking systems now are being used in the management of the movement of goods. There are three links in the supply chain--distribution.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . and performance reporting. product quality. The transmission of purchase orders via electronic data interchange (EDI) can provide more timely and accurate data to suppliers.. total supply chain cost. allowing for more efficient information in management and production planning . And finally. integrates technology and human resource capacity for optimal management of operations to reduce inventory requirements and provide support to enterprises in pursuance of a competitive advantage in the marketplace. and procurement/materials. Vandana Mittal. as companies reorganize to be process driven. manufacturers. customers and carriers in a network system that allows for effective planning. regardless of industry or company size.Dr. and improvement of sequentially related set of operations in establishments. inventory days supply. production and distribution be functionally integrated for optimum result. A coordinated SC integrates procurement. procurement. coordination. Its premise is simple: operational strategies should be designed and managed around customer needs. Prepared by: Dr.

To a great degree. the idea is to develop a solid understanding of what is needed to produce goods and schedule them for shipment to customers within the shortest time frame possible. Another application of a just in time inventory focuses not on raw materials but on finished goods. without having the replacement set in storage for an extended period of time. This involves two key factors. By knowing these two pieces of information. This dual application of a just in time inventory strategy can significantly cut the operational expenses of a business in regards to the amount of inventory that must be stored at any one time and the amount of taxes that must be paid on larger inventories. it is possible to establish procedures that allow the item to be reordered just in time to arrive and replace a worn item.Ansar-Ul-Haque. the anticipated life or usage of the item must be determined. or just in time.Dr. a just-in-time inventory process relies on the efficient monitoring of the usage of materials in the production of goods and ordering replacement goods that arrive shortly before they are needed.JUST-IN-TIME INVENTORY JIT. This simple strategy helps to prevent incurring the costs associated with carrying large inventories of raw materials at any given point in time. it is necessary to know how long it will take for the item to be shipped from the supplier and arrive at the manufacturing facility. As with raw materials. Many purchasing departments employ a just in time inventory for such key items as raw materials and machine parts. Vandana Mittal. inventory is an inventory management strategy that is aimed at monitoring the inventory process in such a manner as to minimize the costs associated with inventory control and maintenance. shipping finished goods shortly after producing them leads to minimizing storage costs and any taxes that may be applicable. A just in time inventory management process involves understanding how much of a given item is needed to maintain production while more of the same item is ordered.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal .Raj Kumari. Prepared by: Dr. Again. Second. First.Dr.

if it works well in the equipment for which it is meant.Dr.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . does not involve any mechanism to take corrective action. chemical composition. workmanship. design.  The component is said to possess good quality. as it ascertains quality characteristics of an item.Dr. mechanical functioning. etc. double and sequential sampling. type of labour. tools.Ansar-Ul-Haque. Introduction to TQM. process control.Unit-IV Quality control:Meaning.    Meaning of Control: Control is a system for measuring and checking (inspecting) a phenomenon. however. machines. Control differs from ‗inspection‘.Feigorbaum Total Quality Control is: ―An effective system for integrating the quality development. it incorporates a feedback mechanism which explores the causes of poor quality and takes corrective action. how often to inspect and how much to inspect. ―Quality‖ may simply be defined as fitness for purpose at lowest cost. Inspection. As per A. SQC control charts. Quality Control can be defined as the entire collection of activities which ensures that the operation will produce the optimum Quality products at minimum cost. It can be determined by some characteristics namely. Quality Control: Definition of Quality:  The meaning of ―Quality‖ is closely allied to cost and customer needs. Quality is not absolute but it can only be judged or realized by comparing with standards. material. Quality maintenance and Quality improvement efforts of the various groups in an organization. compares the same with prescribed quality standards and separates defective items from non-defective ones. The various factors include material. single. Vandana Mittal. In addition.Y. Quality is thus defined as fitness for purpose. Quality is the ‗totality of features and characteristics‘ both for the products and services that can satisfy both the explicit and implicit needs of the customers. so as to enable production and services at the most economical levels which allow full customer satisfaction‖ Prepared by: Dr. finish and other properties. measuring instruments. Meaning of Quality Control: Quality Control is a systematic control of various factors that affect the quality of the product. ―Quality‖ of any product is regarded as the degree to which it fulfills the requirements of the customer. size. It suggests when to inspect. ―Quality‖ means degree of perfection.Raj Kumari. working conditions.

e. Uniformity in quality can be achieved. Modern quality control begins with an evaluation of the customer‘s requirements and has a part to play at every stage from goods manufactured right through sales to a customer. Money i. Vandana Mittal.‖ Quality Control is concerned with making things right rather than discovering and rejecting those made wrong.Dr. Prepared by: Dr. machines and manufacturing conditions there are some other factors which affect the product quality. ―Quality Control‖ may be broadly defined as that ―Industrial management technique means of which products of uniform accepted quality are manufactured. To take various steps to solve any kind of deviations in the quality of the product during manufacturing. Management i. Improvement in manufacturer and consumer relations. who remains satisfied. This procedure is known as rehabilitation of defective goods. These are:     Market Research i.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . Management policies for quality level.In the words of Alford and Beatly.Ansar-Ul-Haque. capability to invest.Raj Kumari. materials. if it is possible. In short. To correct the rejected goods. Production methods and product design.Dr. Functions of Quality Control Department:      Only the products of uniform and standard quality are allowed to be sold.e. So the cost of manufacturing reduces. Objectives of Quality Control:    To decide about the standard of quality of a product that is easily acceptableto the customer and at the same time this standard should be economical to maintain. Good quality product improves reputation.e. To reject the defective goods so that the products of poor quality may not reach to the customers. Advantages of Quality Control:       Quality of product is improved which in turn increases sales. demand of purchaser. To take different measures to improve the standard of quality of product. we can say that quality control is a technique of management for achieving required standards of products. To find out the points where the control is breaking down and investigate the causes of it. Factors Affecting Quality: In addition to men. Scrap rejection and rework are minimized thus reducing wastage. Inspection cost reduces to a great extent. To suggest method and ways to prevent the manufacturing difficulties.

C.C. S. namely.Dr. According to the theories of probability.    Sampling inspection Analysis of the data.Raj Kumari. production & inspection based on continuous testing with random samples. the dimensions of the components made on the same machine and in one batch (if measured accurately) vary from component to component. Relying itself on the probability theory.WalterA.Q.C plan is established.Ansar-Ul-Haque.Q.Q. it is easy to apply even by man who does not have extensive specialized training. This may be due to inherent machine characteristics or the environmental conditions.Q. . Greater efficiency: It requires lesser time and boredom as compared to the 100 percent inspection and hence the efficiency increases. and has following main advantages over 100 percent inspection: 1. The technique permits a more fundamental control. S.Q. testing and analysis to conclude whether the quality of the product is as per the laid quality standards. collects and analyses data in assessing and controlling product quality.C.C. was though developed in 1924 by Dr.Shewartan American scientist. GRANT The fundamental basis of S. uses three scientific techniques. it got recognition in industry only second world war.Dr. 3.C is one of the tool for scientific management. a good amount of data to obtain reliable results. S. Vandana Mittal. The technique of S. S. hence cost of inspection is greatly reduced. Reduction in cost: Since only a fractional output is inspected. and Control charting Advantages of S.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal .C): Statistics: Statistics means data. The chance or condition that a sample will represent the entire batch or population is developed from the theory of probability. Prepared by: Dr.Q.C: This is a quality control system employing the statistical techniques to control quality by performing inspection.C: S.Q.‖ -YA LUN CHOU ―Statistical quality control should be viewed as a kit of tools which may influence decisions to the functions of specification.Statistical Quality Control (S.Q.Q. evaluates batch quality and controls the quality of processes and products. ―Statistical quality control can be simply defined as an economic & effective system of maintaining & improving the quality of outputs throughout the whole operating process of specification.EUGENE L.C. The science of statistics handles this data in order to draw certain conclusions.Q. production or inspection. Using statistical techniques. Easy to apply: Once the S. is the theory of probability. 2.

can be characterized as discrete process control. One example is the production of adhesives and glues. Accurate prediction: Specifications can easily be predicted for the future. motion and packaging applications.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal .4. They ensure that whether the products confirm to the specified quality standard or not. unwanted variations in quality may be detected after large number of defective items have already been produced. performed correctly. Other important examples are the production of food. Whereas in 100 percent inspection. 100 percent inspection is not possible (which will spoil all the products).Ansar-Ul-Haque. which is not possible even with 100 percent inspection. we can know from graphic picture that how the production is proceeding and where corrective action is required and where it is not required. Thus by using the control charts. The five elements of a process are:      People – skilled individuals who understand the importance of process and change control Methods/Instructions – documented techniques used to define and perform a process Equipment – tools. which normally require the mixing of raw materials in a heated vessel for a period of time to form a quantity of end product. is an example of continuous process control. for example. fixtures. Process Control consists of the systems and tools used to ensure that processes are well defined. Some important continuous processes are the production of   Prepared by: Dr. Vandana Mittal. beverages and medicine. Early detection of faults:The moment a sample point falls outside the control limits. The control of the water temperature in a heating jacket.Dr. a physical system is represented through variables that are smooth and uninterrupted in time. Process Control: Under this the quality of the products is controlled while the products are in the process of production. Continuous – Often. 5. mishaps. Can be used where inspection is needs destruction of items: In cases where destruction of product is necessary for inspecting it. packing etc. Control charts are also used in the field of advertising. and maintained so that the completed product conforms to established requirements. such as that found in automotive production. Batch processes are generally used to produce a relatively low to intermediate quantity of product per year (a few pounds to millions of pounds). 6. process control systems can be characterized as one or more of the following forms:  Discrete – Found in many manufacturing. facilities required to make products that meet requirements Material – both product and process materials used to manufacture and test products Environment – environmental conditions required to properly manufacture and test products In practice. Batch – Some applications require that specific quantities of raw materials be combined in specific ways for particular durations to produce an intermediate or end result. incidents and nonconformances. it is taken as a danger signal and necessary corrective measures are taken. Robotic assembly.Dr. It is recognized that strict process control practices will aid in the prevention of process escapes that may result in or contribute to in-flight anomalies. sampling inspection is resorted to. The process control is secured with the technique of control charts.Raj Kumari. Most discrete manufacturing involves the production of discrete pieces of product. such as metal stamping. Process Control is an essential element of managing risk to ensure the safety and reliability of the Space Shuttle Program.

Standard 2: Eliminate creep through process controls and audits. The following are process control standards: Standard 1: Detect and eliminate process variability and uncoordinated changes. if not controlled. Much of its power lies in the ability to monitor both process center and its variation about that center. variations in the process that may affect the quality of the end product or service can be detected and corrected. The Space Shuttle Process Control Management Plan defines the minimum requirements for process control related to flight hardware and critical ground support equipment for the Space Shuttle Program prime contractors.Dr.Ansar-Ul-Haque. Each manufacturer and supplier has unique systems for process control that guarantee the integrity of the hardware. Standard 6: Identify and evaluate changes to equipment and environment. Statistical Process Control (SPC) is an effective method of monitoring a process through the use of control charts.Dr. chemicals and plastics. Standard 7: Capture and maintain process knowledge and skills.Raj Kumari. Standard 3: Understand and reduce process risks. Perform to written procedures. Standard 5: Be personally accountable. Control Charts Since variations in manufacturing process are unavoidable. the control chart tells when to leave a process alone and thus prevent unnecessary frequent adjustments. Vandana Mittal.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal .fuels. thus reducing waste as well as the likelihood that problems will be passed on to the customer. Those processes. Process Control Standards & Practices A program as sophisticated as the Space Shuttle requires the integration of thousands of parts that must endure extreme operating environments. Control charts are graphical representation and are based on Prepared by: Dr. By collecting data from samples at various points within the process. can result in degradation of the end product and an associated increase in program risk. Standard 4: Identify key design and manufacturing characteristics and share lessons learned relating to processes. It has an emphasis on early detection and prevention of problems. Space hardware is produced by a broad supplier base using a wide variety of processes. Continuous processes in manufacturing are used to produce very large quantities of product per year (millions to billions of pounds).

In other words.  A device for attaining statistical control. 5.Raj Kumari. A control charts indicates whether the process is in control or out of control.Ansar-Ul-Haque. If the chart indicates that the process being monitored is not in control.Dr. is stable. control chart is:  A device which specifies the state of statistical control. A control chart is a specific kind of run chart that allows significant change to be differentiated from the natural variability of the process. mean of the proportions) A center line is drawn at the value of the mean of the statistic The standard error (e. If analysis of the control chart indicates that the process is currently under control (i. A control chart consists of:      Points representing a statistic (e. including: Prepared by: Dr. Control charts build up the reputation of the organization through customer‘s satisfaction. Control charts detect variations in the processing and warn if there is any departure from the specified tolerance limits. which can then be eliminated to bring the process back into control. range.Dr. the mean of the means. These control charts immediately tell the undesired variations and help in detecting the cause and its removal. 4. as soon as some products show variation outside the tolerances. In control charts.g. analysis of the chart can help determine the sources of variation.  A device to judge whether statistical control has been attained or not. It warns in time. where both upper and lower values are specified for a quality characteristic... a review of situation is taken and corrective step is immediately taken.e. Vandana Mittal. mean of the ranges. with variation only coming from sources common to the process) then data from the process can be used to predict the future performance of the process. and if the process is rectified at that time. scrap or percentage rejection can be reduced. It ensures product quality level. proportion) of measurements of a quality characteristic in samples taken from the process at different times [the data] The mean of this statistic using all the samples is calculated (e. Process parameters should never be adjusted for a process that is in control. It provides information about the selection of process and setting of tolerance limits. It determines process variability and detects unusual variations taking place in a process. including whether or not to change process control parameters. standard deviation/sqrt(n) for the mean) of the statistic is also calculated using all the samples Upper and lower control limits (sometimes called "natural process limits") that indicate the threshold at which the process output is considered statistically 'unlikely' are drawn typically at 3 standard errors from the center line The chart may have other optional features. Purpose and Advantages: 1.g. according to which an adequate sized random sample is drawn from each lot. as this will result in degraded process performance.. The control chart can be seen as part of an objective and disciplined approach that enables correct decisions regarding control of the process.statistical sampling theory. 3.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . 6.g. 2. a mean.

Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . as determined by the Quality Engineer in charge of the process's quality Types of Control Charts Variables or Measurement Charts X(bar) Chart R Chart Chart Control charts p chart Attribute Charts np Chart C chart U chart Prepared by: Dr.   Upper and lower warning limits.Ansar-Ul-Haque. Vandana Mittal.Dr.Dr.Raj Kumari. with the addition of rules governing frequencies of observations in each zone Annotation with events of interest. drawn as separate lines. typically two standard errors above and below the center line Division into zones.

An attribute requires only a single decision. Variables charts are relatively expensive because of the greater cost of collecting measured data. Variables charts are more detailed and contain more information as compared to attribute charts. Also. the number of dents in the car. Thus. or determining whether a casting contains cracks or not. or smell.Dr. based on various quality criteria.. the number of barnacles on the bottom of a boat).9 ounces of liquid).Dr.g. Often they can be evaluated with a simple yes or no decision. 3. taste. The different characteristics that can be measured by control charts can be divided into two groups: variables and attributes. such as the weight of a cereal box. Attribute charts are the only way to control quality in those cases where measurement of quality characteristics is either not possible or it is very complicated and costly to do so—as in the case of checking colour or finish of a product. Charts for Attributes A comparison of variable control charts and attribute control charts are given below: 1. this type of chart tends to be more easily understood by managers unfamiliar with quality control procedures. precise devices and time-consuming measurement procedures. the meat is good or stale. Advantages of variable control charts.Raj Kumari. on the other hand.  A control chart for variablesis used to monitor characteristics that can be measured and have a continuum of values. the number of broken cookies in the box. the apple is good or rotten. 5. therefore. attribute charts sometimes bypass the need for expensive.Control charts can be used to measure any characteristic of a product. that is. such as yes or no. is used to monitor characteristics that have discrete values and can be counted. whereas as attribute chart only differentiates between a defective item and a non-defective item without going into the measurement of its dimensions. Therefore.Ansar-Ul-Haque. In such cases the answer is either yes or no. it may provide more persuasive (to management) evidence of quality problems.  A control chart for attributes. Variables charts involve the measurement of the job dimensions and an item is accepted or rejected if its dimensions are within or beyond the fixed tolerance limits. good or bad. the bottle of soft drink contains 15. the shoes have a defect or do not have a defect. Vandana Mittal..g. A soft drink bottling operation is an example of a variable measure. the temperature of a baking oven. Examples include color. or the volume of bottled water. since the amount of liquid in the bottles is measured and can take on a number of different values. Attribute charts. 4. Advantages of attribute control charts. the lightbulb works or it does not work) or counting the number of defects (e. variable control charts may alert us to quality problems before any actual "unacceptables" (as detected by the attribute chart) will occur. or the diameter of plastic tubing. Variable control charts are more sensitive than attribute control charts. the number of chocolates in a box. such as height. acceptable or unacceptable (e. Montgomery (1985) calls the variable control charts leading indicators of trouble that will sound an alarm before the number of rejects (scrap) increases in the production process. Control Charts for Variables vs.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . Attribute control charts have the advantage of allowing for quick summaries of various aspects of the quality of a product. The monitoring of attributes usually takes less time than that of variables because a variable needs to be measured (e. weight. Other examples are the weight of a bag of sugar. the engineer may simply classify products as acceptable or unacceptable. Prepared by: Dr.g. or volume. being based upon go and no go data (which is less effective as compared to measured values) require comparatively bigger sample size. 2..

The grand average (equal to the average value of all the average ) and ( is equal to the average of all the ranges R) are found and from these we can calculate the control limits for the and R charts. The R chart is used to monitor process variability when sample sizes are small (n<10). like 1. 6. P chart. or to simplify the calculations made by process operators. the average value of all the measurements and the range R are calculated. It controls the quality of incoming material. For each sample. To do this we take multiple samples and compute their means.Dr.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal .Raj Kumari. When used along with R chart: a. It is generally used along with X-bar chart.Ansar-Ul-Haque. It secures information in establishing or modifying processes. Each sample has its own mean. Plotting of and R charts: A number of samples of component coming out of the process are taken over a period of time. 7. for control of number of defects per unit. It shows erratic or cyclic shifts in the process. The center line of the chart is then computed as the mean of all sample means. It shows changes in process average and is affected by changes in process variability. where _ is the number of samples: 1. 2. Usually these samples are small. for analysis of fraction defectives 3. like tool wear. Whereas x-bar charts measure shift in the central tendency of the process. C chart. with about four or five observations. 4. It detects steady progress changes. range charts monitor the dispersion or variability of the process. It is used to monitor changes in the mean of a process. Vandana Mittal. It is a chart for the measure of central tendency. It controls general variability of the process and is affected by changes in process variability. 3. To construct a mean chart we first need to construct the center line of the chart. It is a chart for measure of spread. This chart is called the R chart because the statistic being plotted is the sample range. and the upper and lower control limits are computed. The center line of the control chart is the average range. X-Bar and R charts when used together form a powerful instrument for diagnosing quality problems. 5. for process control. The method for developing and using R-charts are the same as that for x-bar charts. specifications or inspection procedures. 3.Commonly used charts. 2. Mean (x-Bar) ( ) Charts A mean control chart is often referred to as an x-bar chart.Dr. Range (R) charts Theseare another type of control chart for variables. It is the most commonly used variables chart. 2. Each sample must be taken at random and the size of sample is generally kept as 5 but 10 to15 units can be taken for sensitive control charts. (X-Bar) and R charts. b. Prepared by: Dr. It tells when to leave the process alone and when to chase and go for the causes leading to variation. 1. c. Therefore.

Raj Kumari.C tables.Here the factors .Ansar-Ul-Haque.Dr. and depend on the number of units per sample.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . Vandana Mittal. and these are given below in tabular form: Prepared by: Dr.Dr. the close the can be obtained from S. Larger the number.Q. However for ready reference limits. The value of the factors .

We wish to establish statistical control of inside diameter of the ring manufactured by this process using x and R charts.Raj Kumari.Dr. Vandana Mittal.Dr.Notation: n or m= sample size Example Piston for automotive engine are produced by a forging process. have been taken when we think the process is in control. Prepared by: Dr. The inside diameter measurement data from these samples are shown in table.Ansar-Ul-Haque. Twenty-five samples.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . each of size five.

001 = 0.Raj Kumari.58.3) for sample size 5 =0.023) = 73.58(0.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal .023 = 0.Ansar-Ul-Haque.023 From S.0.58(0.C tables (Fig. UCL = =2.023) = 74.11*0.98766 UCL (R chart) = = 2.So. Vandana Mittal. =74.04853 LCL (R chart) = Prepared by: Dr.Q.001+ 0.001.Dr.01434 LCL = -- = 74.11 and + =0 = 74.Dr.

023 =0 Now and R charts are plotted on the plot as shown in Fig.1: Chart Fig.Dr.Raj Kumari.1 and Fig.2: R Chart Inference: Prepared by: Dr.Ansar-Ul-Haque.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal .2 Fig.Dr.= 0*0. Vandana Mittal.

Raj Kumari. all of the time the plotted points representing average are well within the control limits but if some samples fall outside the control limits then it means something has probably gone wrong or is about to go wrong with the process and a check is needed to prevent the appearance of defective products.3 Process out of control: After computing the control limits.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal .Ansar-Ul-Haque. Prepared by: Dr. 4. The various reasons for the process being out of control may be: 1. Vandana Mittal.Dr. a comparison between the required specifications and the process capability may be carried out to determine whether the two are compatible. 3. This cause must be traced or removed so that the process may return to operate under stable statistical conditions.Dr. it means there is an external cause that throws the process out of control.In the chart. the next step is to determine whether the process is in statistical control or not. If not. Faulty tools Sudden significant change in properties of new materials in a new consignment Breakout of lubrication system Faults in timing of speed mechanisms. Fig. 2. Process in control: If the process is found to be in statistical control.

P-charts are appropriate when both the number of defectives measured and the size of the total sample can be counted. the number of rotten apples. When all the points are inside the control limits even then we cannot definitely say that no assignable cause is present but it is not economical to trace the cause.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . Vandana Mittal. or the number of complaints issued. the proportion of broken eggs in a carton. Plotting of P-charts: By calculating. Each item is classified as good (non-defective) or bad (defective).Dr. Control Charts for Attributes: Control charts for attributes are used to measure quality characteristics that are counted rather than measured. certain errors may develop and that constitute the assignable causes but no statistical action can be taken.Ansar-Ul-Haque. 3. 1. this could be the number of nonfunctioning lightbulbs. Attributes are discrete in nature and entail simple yes-or-no decisions. It means assignable causes (human controlled causes) are present in the process.Dr. In case the process is out of control an investigation to hunt for the cause becomes necessary. A proportion can then be computed and used as the statistic of measurement. Two of the most common types of control charts for attributes are p-charts and c-charts. No statistical test can be applied.Raj Kumari. The process is said to be in control if fraction defective values fall within the control limits. the number of scratches on a tile. For example. Prepared by: Dr. 2. Examples are the proportion of broken cookies in a batch and the proportion of cars produced with a misaligned fender. Even in the best manufacturing process. the fraction defective and then the control limits.Conclusions: When the process is not in control then then the point fall outside the control limits on either or R charts. P-charts are used to measure the proportion of items in a sample that are defective. It can be a fraction defective chart. first. This chart is used to control the general quality of the component parts and it checks if the fluctuations in product quality (level) are due to chance alone.

Defect vs.g. but in the interest of clarity let's try to unravel this man-made mystery. the item of the product) does not meet at least one of the specifications. (e. the choice of the value of Z depends on the environment in which the chart is being used. Defective items vs individual defects The literature differentiates between defect and defective. C charts can be plotted by using the following formulas: UCL  c  3 c LCL  c  3 c The primary difference between using a p-chart and a c-chart is as follows. A P-chart is used when both the total sample size and the number of defects can be computed. each chip. we cannot compute the proportion of complaints from customers. This may sound like splitting hairs. and on managerial judgment. the number of bacteria on a petri dish. the defects may be located at noncritical positions on the wafer.g. When a particular wafer (e. the specific point) at which a specification is not met becomes a defect or nonconformity. or the number of barnacles on the bottom of a boat. the number of the so-called "unimportant" defects becomes alarmingly large. the proportion of bacteria on a petri dish. However. it is classified as a nonconforming item. For example. • ‗Defective‘ – items having one or more defects. Consider a wafer with a number of chips on it. on the other hand.Usually the Z value is equal to 3 (as was used in the X and R charts).. C-charts count the actual number of defects.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . The wafer is referred to as an "item of a product". or for the average number of defects per inspection unit. If. There exist certain specifications for the wafers. a nonconforming or defective item contains at least one defect or nonconformity. So. The chip may be referred to as "a specific point". For example. which is the same as differentiating between nonconformity and nonconforming units. since the variations within three standard deviations are considered as natural variations.Ansar-Ul-Haque.Raj Kumari. However. Control charts involving counts can be either for the total number of nonconformities (defects) for the sample of inspected units. Vandana Mittal.. Prepared by: Dr. we can count the number of complaints from customers in a month. an investigation of the production of these wafers is warranted. Defective • ‗Defect‘ – a single nonconforming quality characteristic. It should be pointed out that a wafer can contain several defects but still be classified as conforming.Dr. Furthermore. or the proportion of barnacles on the bottom of a boat.Dr.

Dr. and if the number of defective items is more than the stated number known as acceptance number. These stages may be: inspection of incoming materials and parts. Acceptance Sampling: ―Acceptance Sampling is concerned with the decision to accept a mass of manufactured items as conforming to standards of quality or to reject the mass as non-conforming to quality. inspection is carried out at many stages in the process of manufacturing.Ansar-Ul-Haque.SIMPSON AND KAFKA For the purpose of acceptance.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal of individual defective item . Incoming Quality Inspection Station Accepted Lot Outgoing Quality Rejected lot Subjected to cent Percent inspection Replacement of substandard items by Prepared by: Dr. The purpose of Acceptance Sampling is.A C-chart is used when we can compute only the number of defects but cannot compute the proportion that is defective. therefore a method used to make a decision as to whether to accept or to reject lots based on inspection of sample(s).Dr. the whole lot is rejected. final inspection by a manufacturer of his own product and finally inspection of the finished product by the purchaser.Raj and rejection good ones from assemblies Kumari.‖ . A sample from the inspection lot is inspected. Inspection for acceptance is generally carried out on a sampling basis. The decision is reached through sampling. Vandana Mittal. process inspection at various points in the manufacturing operations. The use of sampling inspection to decide whether or not to accept the lot is known as Acceptance Sampling.

Dr.Double Sampling (Inference made on the basis of one or two samples) .Single Sampling (Inference made on the basis of only one sample) . Similarly. Inspection provides a means for monitoring quality. the entire lot is either accepted or rejected.‖ Depending on the number of defects or ―bad‖ items found. The objective is not to control or estimate the quality of lots. The cookies may be inspected to make sure they are not broken or burned. Acceptance Sampling is much less expensive than 100 percent inspection. There are different types of sampling plans. Very good 100 percent inspection may remove at the most 99 percent of the defectives. Using sampling rather than 100% inspection of the lots brings some risks both to the consumer and to the producer. 3.Raj Kumari.Dr.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . the sample taken may show defective units as such the lot will be rejected. which are called the consumer's and the producer's risks.Ansar-Ul-Haque. respectively. However. sampling is used instead. but still cannot reach the level of 100 percent. only to pass a judgment on lots. The variables to be specified include the size of the lot (N).a random sample is drawn from every lot. it is possible to carry out sample inspection at various stages. It is general experience that 100 percent inspection removes only 82 to 95 percent of defective material. inspection may be performed on incoming raw material.Acceptance sampling is the process of randomly inspecting a sample of goods and deciding whether to accept the entire lot based on the results. Acceptance Sampling is therefore a method used to make a decision as to whether to accept or to reject lots based on inspection of sample(s). to decide whether to keep it or return it to the vendor if the quality level is not what was agreed on. Producer‘s risk-: Sometimes inspite of good quality. the size of the sample inspected from the lot (n). . We encounter making decisions on sampling in our daily affairs. and the number of samples that will be taken. a lot size of 50 cookies is evaluated for acceptance by randomly inspecting 10 cookies from the lot. such a risk is known as consumer‘s risk. performing 100% inspection is generally not economical or practical. Single Sampling Plans In this. Consumer‘s Risk-: Sometimes the quality of the lot is not good but the sample results show good quality units as such the consumer has to accept a defective lot. such type of risk is known as producer‘s risk. Risks in Acceptance sampling 1. inspection can also be done on finished goods before deciding whether to make the shipment to the customer or not. Because of its economy. If 4 or more of the 10 Prepared by: Dr. Vandana Mittal. a good sampling plan may actually give better results than that achieved by 100 percent inspection. Due to the effect of inspection fatigue involved in 100 percent inspection. For example. Acceptance sampling determines whether a batch of goods should be accepted or rejected. Acceptance Sampling Plans: A sampling plan is a plan for acceptance sampling that precisely specifies the parameters of the sampling process and the acceptance/rejection criteria. 2. therefore. the number of defects above which a lot is rejected (c). Role of Acceptance Sampling: Acceptance Sampling is very widely used in practice due to the following merits: 1. 2.Sequential Sampling (Additional samples are drawn until an inference can be made) etc. For example. Each item in the sample is examined and is labeled as either ―good‖ or ―bad.

In this section we focus primarily on single sampling plans. In double sampling we first sample a lot of goods according to preset criteria for definite acceptance or rejection.Raj Kumari. a water treatment plant may sample the quality of the water ten times in random intervals throughout the day.Ansar-Ul-Haque.cookies inspected are bad. we want to get a large sample and sample only once. The opposite is true when the cost of collecting the sample is low but the actual cost of testing is high. The decision as to which sampling plan to select has a great deal to do with the cost involved in sampling. where collecting the water is inexpensive but the chemical analysis is costly. Because the actual cost of getting the sample is high. In general. if the cost of collecting a sample is relatively high. An extreme example is collecting a biopsy from a hospital patient. However. Multiple Sampling Plan: Multiple sampling plans are similar to double sampling plans except that criteria are set for more than two samples. Prepared by: Dr. the entire lot is rejected.05 percent and . such as . a sample of water containing between . and the maximum number of defects at which a lot is accepted is c _ 4. the lot size N _ 50. Double Sampling Plan: This provides an opportunity to sample the lot a second time if the results of the first sample are inconclusive.Dr. and the cost of passing on a defective item.05 percent chlorine and . if the results fall in the middle range. Criteria may be set for acceptable or unacceptable water quality. In this example. This may be the case with a water treatment plant. the sample size n_ 10. Vandana Mittal. For example.they are considered inconclusive and a second sample is taken.Dr.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . single sampling is preferred. However.1 percent chlorine is inconclusive and calls for a second sample of water. These parameters define the acceptance sampling plan.1 percent chlorine. the time consumed by sampling.

Methodology and Tools – Use of appropriate methodology and tools ensures that non-conformances are identified.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . Vandana Mittal. 3. including:         Executive Management – Top management should act as the main driver for TQM and create an environment that ensures its success. Decision Making – Quality decisions should be made based on measurements.Raj Kumari. Adopt the new philosophy. measured and responded to consistently. a set of management practices to help companies increase their quality and productivity: 1. Total Quality Management (TQM) is an approach that seeks to improve quality and performance which will meet or exceed customer expectations. This can be achieved by integrating all quality-related functions and processes throughout the company. products. Employee Involvement – Employees should be encouraged to be pro-active in identifying and addressing quality related problems. Company Culture – The culture of the company should aim at developing employees ability to work together to improve quality.Ansar-Ul-Haque. A core concept in implementing TQM is Deming‘s 14 points. TQM can be defined as the management of initiatives and procedures that are aimed at achieving the delivery of quality products and services. Prepared by: Dr. TQM takes into account all quality measures taken at all levels and involving all company employees. services and the culture in which they work.Dr. quality control and maintenance. TQM looks at the overall quality measures used by a company including managing quality design and development. Customer Focus – Improvements in quality should improve customer satisfaction. Training – Employees should receive regular training on the methods and concepts of quality.Dr. and quality assurance. all members of an organization participate in improving processes. Cease dependence on inspection to achieve quality. Create constancy of purpose for improving products and services. Principles of TQM A number of key principles can be identified in defining TQM.An Introduction to Total Quality Management (TQM) At its core. Continuous Improvement – Companies should continuously work towards improving manufacturing and quality procedures. In a TQM effort. 2. quality improvement. Total Quality Management (TQM) is a management approach to long-term success through customer satisfaction.

6. a team of volunteer production employees and their supervisors whose purpose is to solve quality problems. exhortations and targets for the workforce. 8. Scatter diagram Pareto analysis which means identification of vital few from many at a glance. and different types of teams solve different types of problems. 9. 5. Break down barriers between staff areas. The circle is usually composed of eight to ten members. Open discussion is promoted. 13. Institute training on the job.Ansar-Ul-Haque.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . 7. they do important work for the company and have been very successful in many firms. minimize total cost by working with a single supplier. it is serious business. One of the most common types of teams is the quality circle. discussion. teams work regularly to correct problems. measurement. and quality control tools. The contributions of teams are considered vital to the success of the company. The ―head‖ of the fish is the quality problem. companies set aside time in the workday for team meetings. 2.Dr.‖ Rather. End the practice of awarding business on price alone. Team Approach TQM stresses that quality is an organizational effort. They are often called fishbone diagrams because they look like the bones of a fish. Vandana Mittal. Prepared by: Dr. 12. Improve constantly and forever every process for planning. The teams usually meet weekly during work hours in a place designated for this purpose. instead. Teams vary in their degree of structure and formality. The use of teams is based on the old adage that ―two heads are better than one. and decisions are made through group consensus.4. The seven tools of Quality Control: 1. 14. Cause and effect analysis Flowcharts Checklists Control techniques including Statistical quality control and control charts. production and service.‖Using techniques such as brainstorming. it places great emphasis on teamwork. such as damaged zippers on a garment or broken valves on a tire. A general cause-and-effect diagram is shown in Figure 5-8. 7. Institute a vigorous program of education and self-improvement for everyone. Adopt and institute leadership. They follow a preset process for analyzing and solving quality problems. 3. and eliminate the annual rating or merit system. workers. These causes could be related to the machines. Eliminate slogans. This is used for fixing the priorities in tackling a problem.Raj Kumari. Cause-and-Effect Diagrams Cause-and-effect diagrams are charts that identify potential causes for particular quality problems. 4. Remove barriers that rob people of pride of workmanship. 6. Eliminate numerical quotas for the workforce and numerical goals for management. 11. Histograms. Drive out fear. and criticism is not allowed. 10.Dr. For this reason. Quality circles are not mere ―gab sessions. suppliers. Although the functioning of quality circles is friendly and casual. To facilitate the solving of quality problems. The diagram is drawn so that the ―spine‖ of the fish connects the ―head‖ to the possible cause of the problem. Put everybody in the company to work accomplishing the transformation. 5.

Vandana Mittal. by going to the source of supply or seeing whether the material rips during a particular production process. called the upper control limit (UCL) and the lower control limit (LCL). such as an inverted. This means that the plant needs to focus on this specific problem—for example. Each of these possible causes can then have smaller ―bones‖ that address specific issues that relate to each cause. the width of a tire. so does the number of defects. The checklist in Figure 5-7 shows four defects and the number of times they have been observed. It is clear that the biggest problem is ripped material. Scatter Diagrams Scatter diagrams are graphs that show how two variables arerelated to one another. For example. we could measure the weight of a sack of flour. a checklist can be developed that measures the number of occurrences per shift. Similarly. These charts are used to evaluate whether a process is operating within expectations relative to some measured value such as weight. or per operator. In this fashion we can isolate the location of the particular defect and then focus on correcting the problem. the less correlation exists between the variables. as production speed increases. It is a simple yet effective fact-finding tool that allows the worker to collect specific information regarding the defects observed. Control Charts Control charts are a very important quality control tool. per machine. we say that it is ―in control. width.materials. Above and below the center line are two lines. Of course.Ansar-Ul-Haque.Dr. On the other hand. Two variables could also be correlated negatively.Raj Kumari. such as location or time. poor supervision. increased production speed and number of defects could be correlated positively.‖ To evaluate whether or not a process is in control. Specific causes of problems can be explored through brainstorming.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . Checklists A checklist is a list of common defects and the number of observed occurrences of these defects. other types of relationships can also be observed on a scatter diagram.Dr. or volume. so that an increase in one of the variables is associated with a decrease in the other. When a measured observation falls outside of these limits. a problem with workers could be related to lack of training. We will study the use of control charts at great length in the next chapter. It provides a visual tool that is easy to use and understand. between two variables. if a defect is being observed frequently. old equipment. The chart has a line down the center representing the average value of the variable we are measuring. everyone develops a clear picture of how the operation works and where problems could arise. or tooling problems. the process is in control and there is no problem with quality. They are particularly useful in detecting the amount of correlation. The greater the degree of correlation. For example. This may be Prepared by: Dr. the more scattered the observations in the diagram. increased worker training might be associated with a decrease in the number of defects observed. a problem with machines could be due to a need for adjustment. and many other aspects of the production process. For example. we regularly measure the variable of interest and plot it on a control chart. The development of a cause-and-effect diagram requires the team to think through all the possible causes of poor quality. By seeing the steps involved in an operation or process. Flowcharts A flowchart is a schematic diagram of the sequence of steps involved in an operation or process. the more linear are the observations in the scatter diagram. As long as the observed values fall within the upper and lower control limits. Cause-and-effect diagrams are problem-solving tools commonly used by quality control teams. there is a problem. or fatigue. A checklist can also be used to focus on other dimensions. For example. or the volume of a bottle of soft drink. or the degree of linear relationship.When the production process is operating within expectations. For example.

the case when one is observing the relationship between two variables such as oven temperature and number of defects, since temperatures below and above the ideal could lead to defects. Pareto Analysis Pareto analysis is a technique used to identify quality problems based on their degree of importance. The logic behind Pareto analysis is that only a few quality problems are important, whereas many others are not critical. The technique was named after Vilfredo Pareto, a nineteenth-century Italian economist who determined that only a small percentage of people controlled most of the wealth. This concept has often been called the 80–20 rule and has been extended too many areas. In quality management the logic behind Pareto‘s principle is that most quality problems are a result of only a few causes. The trick is to identify these causes. One way to use Pareto analysis is to develop a chart that ranks the causes of poor quality in decreasing order based on the percentage of defects each has caused. For example, a tally can be made of the number of defects that result from different causes, such as operator error, defective parts, or inaccurate machine calibrations. Percentages of defects can be computed from the tally and placed in a chart like those shown in Figure 5-7.We generally tends to find that a few causes account for most of the defects. Histograms A histogram is a chart that shows the frequency distribution of observed values of a variable. We can see from the plot what type of distribution a particular variable displays, such as whether it has a normal distribution and whether the distribution is symmetrical. In the food service industry the use of quality control tools is important in identifying quality problems. Grocery store chains, such as Kroger and Meijer, must record and monitor the quality of incoming produce, such as tomatoes and lettuce. Quality tools can be used to evaluate the acceptability of product quality and to monitor product quality from individual suppliers. They can also be used to evaluate causes of quality problems, such as long transit time or poor refrigeration. Similarly, restaurants use quality control tools to evaluate and monitor the quality of delivered goods, such as meats, produce, or baked goods.

Prepared by: Dr. Vandana Mittal,Dr.Ansar-Ul-Haque,Dr.Raj Kumari,Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal

ISO 9000 Standards Increases in international trade during the 1980s created a need for the development of universal standards of quality. Universal standards were seen as necessary in order for companies to be able to objectively document
Prepared by: Dr. Vandana Mittal,Dr.Ansar-Ul-Haque,Dr.Raj Kumari,Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal

their quality practices around the world. Then in 1987 the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) published its first set of standards for quality management called ISO 9000. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is an international organization whose purpose is to establish agreement on international quality standards. It currently has members from 91 countries, including the United States. To develop and promote international quality standards, ISO 9000 has been created. ISO 9000 consists of a set of standards and a certification process for companies. By receiving ISO 9000 certification, companies demonstrate that they have met the standards specified by the ISO. The standards are applicable to all types of companies and have gained global acceptance. In many industries ISO certification has become a requirement for doing business. Also, ISO 9000 standards have been adopted by the European Community as a standard for companies doing business in Europe. In December 2000 the first major changes to ISO 9000 were made, introducing the following three new standards: • ISO 9000:2000–Quality Management Systems–Fundamentals and Standards: Provides the terminology and definitions used in the standards. It is the starting point for understanding the system of standards. • ISO 9001:2000–Quality Management Systems–Requirements: This is the standard used for the certification of a firm‘s quality management system. It is used to demonstrate the conformity of quality management systems to meet customer requirements. • ISO 9004:2000–Quality Management Systems–Guidelines for Performance: Provides guidelines for establishing a quality management system. It focuses not only on meeting customer requirements but also on improving performance. These three standards are the most widely used and apply to the majority of companies. However, ten more published standards and guidelines exist as part of the ISO 9000 family of standards. To receive ISO certification, a company must provide extensive documentation of its quality processes. This includes methods used to monitor quality, methods and frequency of worker training, job descriptions, inspection programs, and statistical process-control tools used. High-quality documentation of all processes is critical. The company is then audited by an ISO 9000 registrar who visits the facility to make sure the company has a well-documented quality management system and that the process meets the standards. If the registrar finds that all is in order, certification is received. Once a company is certified, it is registered in an ISO directory that lists certified companies. The entire process can take 18 to 24 months and can cost anywhere from $10,000 to $30,000. Companies have to be recertified by ISO every three years. One of the shortcomings of ISO certification is that it focuses only on the process used and conformance to specifications. In contrast to the Baldrige criteria, ISO certification does not address questions about the product itself and whether it meets customer and market requirements. Today there are over 40,000 companies that are ISO certified. In fact, certification has become a requirement for conducting business in many industries. ISO 14000 Standards The need for standardization of quality created an impetus for the development of other standards. In 1996 the International Standards Organization introduced standards for evaluating a company‘s environmental responsibility. These standards, termed ISO 14000, focus on three major areas: • Management systems standards measure systems development and integration of environmental responsibility into the overall business. • Operations standards include the measurement of consumption of natural resources and energy. • Environmental systems standards measure emissions, effluents, and other waste systems.
Prepared by: Dr. Vandana Mittal,Dr.Ansar-Ul-Haque,Dr.Raj Kumari,Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal

Prepared by: Dr.Ansar-Ul-Haque.Dr. ISO 14000 may become an important set of standards for promoting environmental responsibility. Vandana Mittal.Raj Kumari.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal .Dr.With greater interest in green manufacturing and more awareness of environmental concerns.

animal and human populations in terms of rate of population growth. It‘s interesting to note that natural resources had been stored virtually untouched in the Earth for millions of years. economic. which studies the relationship between human biological factors and the natural environment. Vandana Mittal. But since the start of the industrial revolution vast amounts of these resources had been exploited within a period of just a couple of hundred of years at unimaginable rates.Raj Kumari. Introduction Environmental pollution had been a fact of life for many centuries but it became a real problem since the start of the industrial revolution. and social and technology considerations that impact on engineering and in turn are impacted by the results of engineering. 2. living habits. with all the waste from this exploitation going straight in to the environment (air.Ansar-Ul-Haque. it had seen the growth of truly global proportions only since the onset of the industrial revolution during the 19th century. (1) Prepared by: Dr. political. land) and seriously damaging its natural processes. Definitions: Environmental Pollution is ―the contamination of the physical and biological components of the earth/atmosphere system to such an extent that normal environmental processes are adversely affected‖.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . This includes consideration of plant.V unitEnvironmental Issues: Environmental Pollution – various management techniques to control Environmental pollution – Various control acts for Air. technology and society. Environmental Pollution Although pollution had been known to exist for a very long time (at least since people started using fire thousands of years ago). Water. Ecology In general ecology pertains to the study of relationship between various organisms and their environment. Environmental pollution is a problem both in developed and developing countries. which studies the relationship among natural environment. population. Social ecology.Dr. Detrimental effects of increased waste and water and air pollution are controlled through the implementation of environmental specifications and standards. The ecology study of man may be divided in to two fields: 1.Dr. reproductive habits and ultimate death. Solid waste and Noise pollution. Environment refers to the ecological. Factors such as population growth and urbanization invariably place greater demands on the planet and stretch the use of natural resources to the maximum. water. Human ecology. food habits. which in turn place more stringent constraints on future technology.

water. gas. as well as in the powergenerating industry. a wide range of chemicals for industrial use.‖ ―Any use of natural resources at a rate higher than nature's capacity to restore itself can result in pollution of air. Not only do we use fossil fuels for our obvious everyday needs (such as filling a car).Raj Kumari. solvents.Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the environment that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms. there is a lack of knowledge on the part of humans on how to decompose these pollutants artificially.Dr. etc. Vandana Mittal. and. fossil fuels (oil.‖ Pollution is habitat contamination‖. anthropogenic pollutants). Pollution occurs. poisonous gas emissions) in due course without any structural or functional damage to its system. lubricating oils. on the other. and land. Prepared by: Dr. but are considered contaminants when in excess of natural levels. on the one hand. coal) transcended virtually all imaginable barriers and firmly established themselves in our everyday lives. detergents.Dr. heat or light‖. Why does pollution matter? It matters first and foremost because it has negative impacts on crucial environmental services such as provision of clean air and clean water (and many others) without which life on Earth as we know it would not exist. ―Pollutants can be naturally occurring substances or energies. asphalt. In one word.. Sources of Environmental Pollution Fossil Fuel Sources of Environmental Pollution In modern industrialized societies.Ansar-Ul-Haque. or that damage the environment‖ which can come ―in the form of chemical substances.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . because the natural environment does not know how to decompose the unnaturally generated elements (i. they (specifically oil) are also present in such products as all sorts of plastics.e. or energy such as noise. environmental pollution takes place when the environment cannot process and neutralize harmful by-products of human activities (for example.

agriculture (livestock farming) is worth mentioning as the largest generator of ammonia emissions resulting in air pollution. Fossil fuels also contribute to soil contamination and water pollution. Common sources of fossil fuel pollution are: Industry:      Power-generating plants Petroleum refineries Petrochemical plants Production and distribution of fossil fuels Other manufacturing facilities Transport:    Road transport (motor vehicles) Shipping industry Aircraft Fossil fuel combustion is also a major source of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and perhaps the most important cause of global warming. Vandana Mittal. For example. Factors Causing/affecting Environment Pollution      Population Density.Ansar-Ul-Haque.Dr. it‘s been recently noted that packaging of products sold in supermarkets and other retail outlets is far too excessive and generates large quantities of solid waste that ends up either in landfills or municipal incinerators leading to soil contamination and air pollution. which may lead water pollution and soil contamination as well. Power-generating plants and transport are probably the biggest sources of fossil fuel pollution. Amount of waste treatment Prepared by: Dr. Trading activities may be another source of pollution.Raj Kumari.Dr. Residential sector is another significant source of pollution generating solid municipal waste that may end up in landfills or incinerators leading to soil contamination and air pollution. Other (Non-Fossil Fuel) Sources of Environmental Pollution Among other pollution sources.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . Standard of living. Degree of recycling. Chemicals such as pesticides and fertilizers are also widely used in agriculture. Learn more about the causes and effects of global warming here.Combustion of fossil fuels produces extremely high levels of air pollution and is widely recognized as one of the most important ―target‖ areas for reduction and control of environmental pollution. Technology.

We are discussing the effects of air pollution and specific air pollutants in more detail in the Air Pollutants article. Poisoning.Dr. Environmental Pollution Effects on Humans We know that pollution causes not only physical disabilities but also psychological and behavioral disorders in people. How can we control environmental pollution? It's clear that fossil fuels are among the biggest sources of pollution. Disorders due to Repeated Trauma.Dr.Environmental Pollution Effects on Humans. Diseases of Lungs. plants & trees (including tropical rainforests) as well as the wider environment. The effects in living organisms may range from mild discomfort to serious diseases such as cancer to physical deformities (for example. Mantel Disorders. extra or missing limbs in frogs).Ansar-Ul-Haque. Other Animals & Plants There is no doubt that excessive levels of pollution are causing a lot of damage to human & animal health.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . Skin Diseases. We need to find alternative renewable sources of energy which can replace fossil fuels in the future. The following effects of environmental pollution on humans have been reported: Effects of Pollution on Human Health        Respiratory Diseases. This can really make a positive difference to the environment and reduce current pollution levels.Raj Kumari. Building your own solar panels and using diy solar energy systems to meet at least part of your home electricity needs is another emerging opportunity for diy enthusiasts. Types of Environmental Pollution There are four major types of environmental pollution:  Air pollution Prepared by: Dr. Green investment provides a great platform to explore and develop new and clean sources of energy such as solar electricity. Physical Disability. water and soil pollution – have an impact on the living environment. All types of environmental pollution – air. Vandana Mittal. Experts admit that environmental pollution effects are quite often underestimated and that more research is needed to understand the connections between pollution and its effects on all life forms.

This is also produced due to any fuel burning appliance and appliances such as gas water heaters. carbon monoxide. gas dryers. The manufacturing process of most products would require the use of this gas.  Nitrogen dioxide is one more gas that is emitted into the atmosphere as a result of various human activities. whether industrial or commercial that cause the increase in the Prepared by: Dr. Harmful Gases:  Carbon dioxide is one the main pollutants that causes air pollution. Nitrogen dioxide when combined with sulfur dioxide can even cause a harmful reaction in the atmosphere that can cause acid rain.Dr. In other words. liquid or solid material suspended in the air which creates an undesirable effect. An excess of the same has a harmful effect on our system. woodstoves.  Sulfur dioxide is yet another harmful pollutant that causes air pollution. Air Pollutants: Some of the most important air pollutants are sulfur dioxide. which add to the increased proportion of this gas into the atmosphere. nitrogen dioxide. The burning of fossil fuels in big cities which is seen at most factories. Stratospheric ozone depletion due to air pollution has long been recognized as a threat to human health as well as to the Earth's ecosystems. or biological materials that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms. into the atmosphere. offices and even a large number of homes. is now considered to be a major pollutant. The release of other harmful gases all adds to the state that we see today. chemical and coal burning power plants etc. Sulfur dioxide is emitted largely to the excessive burning of fossil fuels.Raj Kumari.Ansar-Ul-Haque.   Water pollution Soil pollution (contamination) Noise Pollution Air pollution: Air pollution may be defind as any gaseous. Although carbon dioxide plays an important role in various other processes like photosynthesis. gas stoves. although was present in the atmosphere earlier. This gas is harmful when emitted from other sources. Air pollution is injurious to life and property. There are various human activities that add to the increased proportions of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. particulate matter. or cause damage to the natural environment or built environment. The atmosphere is a complex dynamic natural gaseous system that is essential to support life on planet Earth. Vandana Mittal.  Jet planes etc all cause the release of several primary pollutants into the air. Sources of Air Pollution: 1. Air pollution is the introduction of chemicals.Dr. breathing an excess of the same also causes harmful effects towards one‘s health. with radioactive pollutants probably among the most destructive ones (specifically when produced by nuclear explosions). There are many reasons why carbon monoxide can be released into the atmosphere as a result of human activities. it is no wonder that air pollution is increasing at an alarming rate. ozone. Carbon dioxide gas is used in various industries such as the oil industry and the chemical industry. Many researches show that amongst the various gasses emitted during a volcanic eruption. fireplaces. The combustion of fossil fuels and the harmful effects of deforestation have all contributed towards the same. An excess of nitrogen dioxide mainly happens due to most power plants seen in major cities. Scientists have now therefore identified carbon dioxide as one of those elements that have contributed to global warming. which are caused due to human activity. volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and airborne particles. the burning of fuels due to various motor vehicles and other such sources. carbon dioxide remains to be at least 40% of the emission. petroleum refineries.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal .  Carbon monoxide is another such gas which.  The combustion of fuels in automobiles. yard equipments as well as automobiles.

Ansar-Ul-Haque. Air pollution is also responsible for Agricultural damage. power and transportation. nitrogen oxides. 3. 6. These and a number of other hazardous air pollutants are emitted with the various numbers of activities that we carry out during the day which are the main causes of air pollution. 5. Vandana Mittal.Dr. changes in blood chemistry etc.Dr. Psychological Effects. reproductive and immune systems Neurobehavioral disorders Cardiovascular problems Cancer Premature death       Air pollution is responsible for Visibility reduction produced by the scattering of light from the surfaces of air-borne particles. forage and crops have been shown to be damaged by air pollutants.  Prepared by: Dr. They can kill plants and trees by destroying their leaves. Heat. Factory Chimneys Home Furnaces Burning Refuse Burning fuel for light. 2. 4. especially fish in highly polluted rivers. fabrics and other materials is a frequent and widespread effect of air pollution.Raj Kumari. and sulfur dioxide also have harmful effects on natural ecosystems. surface coatings. Physiological effects on Man and Domestic Animals like lung carcinoma. and heart disease may all eventually appear in people exposed to air pollution. Effects of Air Pollution:             Irritation of eyes.levels of nitrogen dioxide. Air pollutants such as ozone. and can kill animals. mouth and throat Reduced lung functioning Asthma attacks Respiratory symptoms such as coughing and wheezing Increased respiratory disease such as bronchitis Reduced energy levels Headaches and dizziness Disruption of endocrine. Gaseous emissions from automobiles. lung cancer.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . nose. A large number of food. optic irritation. Diseases such as bronchitis. Material Damage to structural metals. Many diseases could be caused by air pollution without their becoming apparent for a long time.

Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . Oil will form surface films. B. Reuse things such as paper and plastic bags. D. Classification of Water Pollutants These may be classified into the following categories: A.Prevention of Air Pollution  Carpool. The major consideration with respect to organic materials is the depletion of dissolved oxygen. even in every small quantities.Ansar-Ul-Haque. Whenever possible. Undesirable results from the discharge of inorganic materials include changes in the PH of the water caused by soluble salts and toxicity caused by heavy metals or other toxic materials. Avoid the use of firecrackers. You don‘t really need it to express your feeling of happiness. C. Always buy recycled products.Raj Kumari. Physiological Pollutants Undesirable taste and odor present in water used for drinking or food processing is objectionable to the consumer. Water pollution It may be defined as something that adversely and unreasonably impairs the beneficial use of water. Biological Pollutants Prepared by: Dr. Chemical Pollutants These may be organic and inorganic pollutants.Dr.Try to use minimum amounts of natural gas and even electricity. If you really cannot avoid using your car.Dr. Physical Pollutants These include the following: (a) Color (b) Turbidity (c) Temperature (d) Suspended Solids (e) Foam (f) Radio-Activity.This will help to reduce the number of vehicles on the already congested roads. Vandana Mittal. avoid      the use of air conditioner and use a fan instead. Go in for water-based paints instead of varnishes. phenols will affect the taste and odor of water and refractory organics will cause death of fish and other aquatic life. This will contribute a lot towards reducing the effects of air pollution and global warming.  Save energy. Water pollution may also be defined as the addition to a natural body of water of any material which diminishes the optimal economic use of the water by the population which it serves.  Always keep your car tuned properly so that it remains in a good condition. It includes addition of anything to water which changes the natural quality of water so that the downstream user does not receive the natural water of the stream. Taste and odor of water can easily change if chlorophenols is present in it. paper etc. plan your work systematically to reduce air pollution.

they are fatal to marine life. The heavy metals in water have also been linked to severe birth defects. Radioactive substances are produced in the form of waste from nuclear power plants.0001 percent. and developmental problems in children. Industrial processes produce toxic waste containing heavy metals. Either way. Besides the supertankers. these chemicals seep into the ground water or run off into lakes.Ansar-Ul-Haque. They may also use chemicals to enhance the growth of their crops. The previously mentioned Exxon Valdez is an example of this type of water pollution. causing health problems and sometimes death.Dr. E. a damaged or suppressed immune system.Raj Kumari. Specific forms of waste are uranium and thorium mining and refining.Dr. These decreases in temperatures are caused when a discharge of cooling water by factories and power plants occurs. fertility problems.The single most important process in the water treatment plant is disinfections. When heavy metals filter into water. Rivers and lakes are also polluted from heavy silt or sediment run-off from construction sites. lubricants. cancer. ADDITIONAL FORMS OF WATER POLLUTION Three last forms of water pollution exist in the forms of petroleum. cholera etc. which helps insure the absence of pathogenic organisms in the drinking water. and from the industrial. Humans are affected by the heavy metals ingested by the fish and shellfish. Radioactive Pollutants The discharge of radioactive waste material into a receiving body. Shellfish and fresh fish are staple menu items for people around the world. The last form of water pollution is heat. One estimate is that one ton of oil is spilled for every million tons of oil transported. Petroleum often pollutes waterbodies in the form of oil. causing water pollution. Farmland that is irrigated and treated with chemicals in the form of fertilizers or pesticides is a major contributor to water pollution. medical. The construction industry is also at fault for contaminating our water resources with cement. off-shore drilling operations contribute a large share of pollution. volatile organic compounds (VOCs). resulting from oil spills. These pollutants cause bacterial bone diseases. Heat is a pollutant because increased temperatures result in the deaths of many aquatic organisms. This is equal to about 0. plastics and metals. Vandana Mittal. radioactive substances. These large-scale accidental discharges of petroleum are an important cause of pollution along shore lines. Prepared by: Dr. pollutants from livestock operations. heavy metals. Other Water pollutants include insecticides and herbicides. or rivers.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . Causes of Water Pollution Farmers often use chemicals to hinder bug infestations or other diseases from damaging or ruining their crops. creeks. chemical waste and others. amoebic dysentery. and heat. and scientific use of radioactive materials. food processing waste.

is the source of many organic and inorganic pollutants in surface waters and groundwater. Sources of Water Pollution       Domestic Life Industry Agriculture Wildlife Watering Propagation of Fish and other aquatic life Swimming and bathing pools Prepared by: Dr. During primary treatment. and a variety of other methods.Wastewater Treatment Raw sewage includes waste from sinks. Tertiary treatment is necessary when the water will be reused. and industrial processes. Agriculture. including commercial livestock and poultry farming. secondary. Vandana Mittal. limited biological treatment in aerobic or anaerobic lagoons. chambers. In a treatment plant. Animal wastes are high in oxygen demanding material. or released back into local water systems. The three general phases of treatment are primary. toilets. Wastes from commercial feeders are contained and disposed of on land.Raj Kumari. Control may involve settling basins for liquids. Treatment of the sewage is required before it can be safely buried. nitrogen and phosphorus.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal .Dr. and tertiary. and chemical processes to reduce its bulk and toxicity.Dr. therefore. is from runoff and leaching. and they often harbor pathogenic organisms. The focus of secondary treatment is reducing organic material by accelerating natural biological processes.Ansar-Ul-Haque. 99 percent of solids are removed and various chemical processes are used to ensure the water is as free from impurity as possible. their main threat to natural waters. a large percentage of the suspended solids and inorganic material is removed from the sewage. used. These contaminants include both sediment from erosion cropland and compounds of phosphorus and nitrogen that partly originate in animal wastes and commercial fertilizers. the waste is passed through a series of screens.

ear ache. 5) Marine food sources are contaminated or eliminated by water pollution.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . temperature and conductivity. The delicate balance between nature and humans can be protected. Infectious diseases such as typhoid and cholera can be contracted from drinking contaminated water. vomiting. When toxins are in the water. especially lakes and rivers. skin lesions. and damage to the nervous system.Dr.Raj Kumari. 3) Acid rain contains sulfate particles. In fact. 2) Diseases can spread via polluted water. but it will take efforts on all fronts to prevent and eliminate water pollution locally and globally. causing changes in acidity. Additional effects of water pollution include: 1) The food chain is damaged. Other Effects: Waterborne diseases caused by polluted drinking water:      Typhoid Amoebiasis Giardiasis Ascariasis Hookworm Waterborne diseases caused by polluted beach water:   Rashes. the effects of water pollution are said to be the leading cause of death for humans across the globe.Dr. which can harm fish or plant life in lakes and rivers. The human heart and kidneys can be adversely affected if polluted water is consumed regularly. Vandana Mittal. 4) Pollutants in the water will alter the overall chemistry of the water. These factors all have an affect on the marine life. pink eye Respiratory infections Prepared by: Dr. the toxins travel from the water the animals drink to humans when the animals‘ meat is eaten. Some water pollution effects are recognized immediately.   Boating poands/lakes Water power generation Transport etc. Major Effects of Water Pollution The effects of water pollution are numerous (as seen above). Water pollution effects have a huge impact on our environment and health. whereas others don‘t show up for months or years. 6) Altered water temperatures (due to human actions) can kill the marine life and affect the delicate ecological balance in bodies of water. This is called microbial water pollution. Other health problems associated with polluted water are poor blood circulation.Ansar-Ul-Haque.

They also have the ability to control or eliminate water pollution. Hepatitis. Numerous diseases. delayed or incomplete mental development. learning deficits. nausea. hydrocarbons. and even death Other notes: The effects of water pollution are far-reaching and affect not only the environment.Dr. Causes cancers including leukaemia     Lead in soil is especially hazardous for young children causing developmental damage to the brain Mercury can increase the risk of kidney damage. rivers. Human beings have the most crucial impact on our water resources. Water pollution affects our oceans.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . heavy metals etc):       Cancer. and drinking water. Vandana Mittal. making it a widespread and global concern. incl. heart disease. persistent organic pollutants. encephalitis. cyclodienes can lead to liver toxicity Causes neuromuscular blockage as well as depression of the central nervous system Also causes headaches. but human beings and animals as well. prostate cancer and non-Hodgkin‘s lymphoma Hormonal problems that can disrupt reproductive and developmental processes Damage to the nervous system Liver and kidney damage Damage to the DNA Exposure to mercury (heavy metal): o o In the womb: may cause neurological problems including slower reflexes.Dr.    Water pollution may also result from interactions between water and contaminated soil. autism and brain damage In adults: Parkinson‘s disease.Raj Kumari.Ansar-Ul-Haque. gastroenteritis. diarrhoea. multiple sclerosis. and even fatalities have been associated with water pollution. vomiting. pathogens. or contaminants are detected. fatigue. Water is considered polluted when chemicals. as well as from deposition of air contaminants (such as acid rain) Damage to people may be caused by fish foods coming from polluted water (a well known example is high mercury levels in fish) Damage to people may be caused by vegetable crops grown / washed with polluted water (author‘s own conclusion) Soil contamination Some soil pollutants are: hydrocarbons. solvents and heavy metals. and stomach aches Conditions related to water polluted by chemicals (such as pesticides. Alzheimer‘s disease. health problems. lakes. eye irritation and skin rash Other notes: Prepared by: Dr.

biomass sludge. parks. Land Pollution Comprises Of: Solid Waste and Soil Pollution Solid Waste: Semisolid or solid matter that are created by human or animal activities. Wastes from Industries: Industrial waste matter that can cause land pollution can include paints. schools etc) or indirect (by inhaling soil contaminants which have vaporized) Soil contamination may also result from secondary contamination of water supplies and from deposition of air contaminants (for example. via acid rain) Contamination of crops grown in polluted soil brings up problems with food security Since it is closely linked to water pollution. dirty. Soil Pollution: Soil pollution is chiefly caused by chemicals in pesticides. like paper. such as poisons that are used to kill agricultural pests like insects and herbicides that are used to get rid of weeds. while also reducing the uses of the land for other. Harmful practices of irrigation methods. and which are disposed because they are hazardous or useless are known as solid waste. Ashes: The residual matter that remains after solid fuels are burned. paper. wood.    Contact with contaminated soil may be direct (from using parks.Dr. and settled solids. cans. Vandana Mittal. Some of the sources of solid waste that cause land pollution are: Wastes from Agriculture: This comprises of waste matter produced by crop. and farm residues. metal. soil pollution results from:   Unhealthy methods of soil management. The soil gets polluted by the chemicals in pesticides and herbicides used for agricultural purposes along with waste matter being littered in urban areas such as roads. Thus. more useful purposes. when they accumulate they pose a health threat to people. Hence. and even used cars and electronic goods are not biodegradable. and misusing the soil by harmful agricultural practices.Dr. Wastes from Mining: Piles of coal refuse and heaps of slag. Solids from Sewage Treatment: Wastes that are left over after sewage has been treated. Land pollution includes visible litter and waste along with the soil itself being polluted. and unsightly places to reside in. dumping of industrial waste. cloth. and so on. animal manure. Prepared by: Dr. which means they do not get broken down through inorganic or organic processes.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . Moreover. plus. Garbage: This comprises of waste matter from food that are decomposable and other waste matter that are not decomposable such as glass. and so on.Raj Kumari. it also causes damage to terrestrial organisms. bottles.Ansar-Ul-Haque. and streets. Most of the solid wastes. plastic containers. chemicals. mineral exploitation. plastic. decaying wastes also attract household pests and result in urban areas becoming unhealthy. many effects of soil contamination appear to be similar to the ones caused by water contamination Land Pollution Land pollution basically is about contaminating the land surface of the Earth through dumping urban waste matter indiscriminately.

plastic. which leaches into the nearby land areas. Prepared by: Dr. Noise is defined as unwanted sound. Vandana Mittal. The word noise is derived from the Latin term nausea. What are the Consequences of Land Pollution? Land pollution can affect wildlife. Chemicals that are used for purposes like sheep dipping also cause serious land pollution as do diesel oil spillages. namely. This is the gift of modern living.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . which pleases the listeners. Section 2 (a) of the Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act. population poverty and pollution if they have to survive. Pollution being the most dangerous problem likes cancer in which death is sure but slow. Unless timely action is taken we have a forbid and bleak future for the world.Dr. glass and metals should be reclaimed and then recycled Noise Pollution Definition: The present generation and the coming generations have to solve three grave problems. Sound. a potential hazard to health and communication dumped into the environment with regard to the adverse effect it may have on unwilling ears. industrialization and urbanization. 1981 includes noise in the definition of ‗air pollutant‘. is music and that which causes pain and annoyance is noise. plants. According to Encyclopedia Britannica: In acoustic noise is defined as any undesired sound.Dr. such as:     Cause problems in the respiratory system Cause problems on the skin Lead to birth defects Cause various kinds of cancers The toxic materials that pollute the soil can get into the human body directly by:     Coming into contact with the skin Being washed into water sources like reservoirs and rivers Eating fruits and vegetables that have been grown in polluted soil Breathing in polluted dust or particles How can Land Pollution be prevented?      People should be educated and made aware about the harmful effects of littering Items used for domestic purposes ought to be reused or recycled Personal litter should be disposed properly Organic waste matter should be disposed in areas that are far away from residential places Inorganic matter such as paper. Section 2(a) air pollution means any solid. Environment pollution is assuming dangerous proportions all through the globe and India is not free from this poisonous disease.Ansar-Ul-Haque. and humans in a number of ways.Land pollution is caused by farms because they allow manure to collect.Raj Kumari. At times. liquid or gaseous substance including noise present in the atmosphere such concentration as may be or tent to injurious to human beings or other living creatures or plants or property or environment. what is music for some can be noise for others. It has been defined as unwanted sound.

80 db is the level at which sound becomes physically painful. which translates to levels as high as 138. the main sources of traffic noise are the motors and exhaust system of autos .Bombay-85.Raj Kumari. city streets. 60 db is normal conversation.e. Air Craft Noise: Now-a-days . construction. and consumer products 1. wilderness areas . Pollution. from traffic or aero plane engines. The zero on a decibel scale is at the threshold of hearing.a sound. Kolkata . Construction Noise: The noise from the construction of highways. Urbanizations and 3.g.Noise. To smith. Product of industrialization. 3. smaller trucks. namely. Chennai-89 db etc. Road Traffic Noise: In the city. 20 db is whisper. Most leading noise sources will fall into the following categories: roads traffic. 40 db the noise in a quiet office . e.industrial. and buildings is a major contributor to the urban scene. high level screech that can reach peak levels of 120 dB at a distance of 100 feet. This type of noise can be augmented by narrow streets and tall buildings. 3 Sources of Noise Pollution: Noise pollution like other pollutants is also a by1. Measurement: A decibel is the standard for the measurement of aircraft operations over national parks. and other areas previously unaffected by aircraft noise has claimed national attention over recent years. Vandana Mittal.80 db. 4. industry. a harsh disagreeable sound. The Noise quantum of some of the cities in our country indicate their pitch in decibel in the nosiest areas of corresponding cities. the problem of low flying military aircraft has added a new dimension to community annoyance. Noise from railroads: The noise from locomotive engines. buses. i. 2. Broadly speaking. Delhi. which produce a canyon in which traffic noise reverberates. or 140 dB at the railroad worker‘s ear. 2. Noise can be described as sound without agreeable musical quality or as an unwanted or undesired sound.Ansar-Ul-Haque. e. and motorcycles. non harmonious sounds or vibrations that are unpleasant and irritating to ear. aircraft. Modern civilization.g. the lowest sound pressure that can be heard. horns and excessive or annoying degree of noise in a particular area. and switching and shunting operation in rail yards can impact neighboring communities and railroad workers. Prepared by: Dr.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal .87. a din. or such sound. Non. natural and manmade. on the scale acc. railroads. the noise pollution has two sources.Dr. Thus noise can be taken as a group of laud. For example. industrial and non. as the nation seeks to improve its nap-of the.industrial source of noise includes the noise created by transport/vehicular traffic and the neighborhood noise generated by various noise pollution can also be divided in the categories. rail car retarders can produce a high frequency.Dr. The industrial source includes the noise from various industries and big machines working at a very high speed and high noise intensity. noise in buildings.

Fatigue:. although their contribution to the daily noise dose is usually not very large. Improperly insulated walls and ceilings can reveal the soundof-amplified music. Vandana Mittal.For better quality of work there should be concentration . bulldozers. Unpleasant sounds make a lady of irriative nature.induced hearing loss is unfortunately common. 7. can be audible and annoying. The effects of Noise Pollution on Human Being. so intense. In this case. Sudden Noise causes abortion in females. It attacks on the person‘s peace of mind. mostly all the offices are on main road. boilers. III. External noise from emergency vehicles. These interior noise sources have significant impacts on industrial workers. Lack of concentration:. It causes Blood Pressure: . II. The noises are recognized as major contributing factors in accelerating the already existing tensions of modern living. such as vacuum cleaners and some kitchen appliances have been and continue to be noisemakers. among whom noise.Because of Noise Pollution. especially when the building is not well designed and constructed. Animal and Property: Noise has always been with the human civilization but it was never so obvious. These tensions result in certain disease like blood pressure or mental illness etc. Noise in building: Apartment dwellers are often annoyed by noise in their homes. 5. Noise from Consumer products:Certain household equipment.Dr. internal building noise from plumbing. V.Ansar-Ul-Haque.Noise Pollution causes certain diseases in human. It decreases the efficiency of a man:. Prepared by: Dr. Thus they have to give their more time for completing the work and they feel tiring IV. air conditioners. A study by Sinha & Sinha in India suggested that reducing industrial booths could improve the quality of their work. Noise in Industry: Although industrial noise is one of the less prevalent community noise problems. and pavement breakers. and fans. motors. Noise pollution makes men more irritable. voices. Animal and property are as follows: I. and even through building walls.Construction noise sources include pneumatic hammers. The effect of noise pollution is multifaceted & inter related. loaders.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal .Dr. dump trucks (and their back-up signals). and compressors mounted on the outside of buildings Interior noise can also be transmitted to the community through open windows and doors. generators. Harmful Effects of Noise Pollution: On Human Being. so varied & so pervasive as it is seen in the last of this century. refuse collection. footfalls and noisy activities from neighboring units. In big cities .There should be cool and calm atmosphere during the pregnancy. especially when windows are open or insufficiently glazed. 6. and other city noises can be a problem for urban residents.Regarding the impact of noise on human efficiency there are number of experiments which print out the fact that human efficiency increases with noise reduction. The noise of traffic or the loud speakers of different types of horns divert the attention of the people working in offices.Raj Kumari. air compressors. Thus human efficiency is related with noise. Abortion is caused: . neighbors of noisy manufacturing plants can be disturbed by sources such as fans. Noise causes lack of concentration. people cannot concentrate on their work. traffic.

. bridges and monuments. For prevention of danger to human life.VI. Animal looses the control of its mind. Legal Control: Constitution of India Right to Life: . Right to Information:. Under Crpc. morals under Sections 268. safety.The state has the object to make the enviorment pollution free.. telephone operators etc.P. Fundamental Duties: . 288. locomotive drivers. It is well settled by repeated pronouncements of the Supreme Court that right to life enshrined in Article 21 is not of mere survival or existence. EFFECT ON ANIMAL:. 270. VII. 280. 290 291 294.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . They are also as sensitive as man. Loud noise causes temporary or permanent deafness. EFFECT ON PROPERTY:. It creates waves which struck the walls and put the building in danger condition. Directive Principal of State Policy: . It weakens the edifice of buildings. Any one who wishes to live in peace. Public Nuisance 268-295 Chapter IV of Indian Penal code deals with offences relating to public health.C. Mechanics . 269.Dr.P.. permit the industry which effect the environment. comfort and quiet within his house has a right to prevent the noise as pollutant reaching him.Noise pollution damage the nervous system of animal.C. VIII. 80 to 100 db is unsafe. Noise pollution causes poor quality of crops in a pleasant atmosphere. Impairment as a result of noise at the place of work. Private Prepared by: Dr. Section 133 Here Section 133 is of great importance. 287.Right to religion does not include right to perform religious activities on loud speaker and electronic goods which produce high velocity of noise. Section 133 the magisterial court have been empowered to issue order to remove or abate nuisance caused by noise pollution Sec 133 empower an executive magistrate to interfere and remove a public nuisance in the first instance with a conditional order and then with a permanent one.Dr. Vandana Mittal.Loud noise is very dangerous to buildings. 279. physicians & psychologists are of the view that continued exposure to noise level above. It guarantees a right of persons to life with human dignity.Article 21 of the Constitution guarantees life and personal liberty to all persons. Physictist. (b) Cr.decency . EFFECT ON VEGETATION Poor quality of Crops:. The provision can be utilized in case of nuisance of environment nature. (c) I. All have their hearing . He can adopt immediate measure to prevent danger or injury of a serious land to the public.Now is well known to all that plants are similar to human being.every citizen of the country has the fundamental duty to clean the environment.The effect of nose on audition is well recognized.. Noise pollution can be penalized with the help of above section.Raj Kumari. They become dangerous. There should be cool & peaceful environment for their better growth. Right to Religion and Noise: . IX.Every one has the right to information know about the norms and conditions on which Govt. health or safety the magistrate can direct a person to abstain from certain acts. Temporary of permanent Deafness:.Ansar-Ul-Haque.

(e) Factories Act Reduction of Noise and Oil of Machinery:. limits for noise exposure for work zone area have been prescribed.Dr. shall be punished with fine. which may extend to Rs.remedies suits in the area may related to public nuisance under A299. 3. 2. Provision Relation to use of horn and change of Engine:. # State government shall take measure for abatement of noise including noise emanating from vehicular movement and ensure that the existing noise levels do not exceed the ambient air quality standards specified under these rules. or annoyance to the pubic or to the people in general who dwell or occupy property in the vicinity or which must necessarily cause injury. A common nuisance is not excused on the ground that it causes some convenience or advantage. 200. # An area not less than 100 m around hospitals educations institutions and court may be declare as silence are for the purpose of these rules. This article punishment in case of Public nuisance law of torts covers. As a general rule either the presence or absence of malice does not matter. Schedule (see rule 3(l) and 4(l) Ambient Air Quality Standards in respect of Noise Area Code Category of Area/Zone Limits in dB(A) Leq * Day Time NightTime (A) Industrial area 75 70 (B) Commercial area 65 55 (C) Residential area 55 45 Prepared by: Dr. under the Modal Rules. unde the Third Schedule Sections 89 and 90 of the Act. (d) Law of Torts Noise pollution is considered as civil wrong:Under law of torts . Vandana Mittal. noise induced hearing loss. danger. Who ever commits a public nuisance in any case not otherwise punishable by this code. # A loud speaker or a public address system shall not be used except after obtaining written permission from the authority and the same shall not be used at night. Interference should be with the use & enjoyment of land. A person is guilty of public nuisance who does any act or is guilty of an illegal omission which causes any common injury. obstruction danger or annoyance to persons who may have occasion to use any public right. But in some cases deviation from the rule has been made.Dr. (f) Motor Vehicle Act. a civil suit can be filed claiming damages for the nuisance. (g) Noise Pollution Control Rule 2000 under Environment Protection Act 1996 :Further for better regulation for noise pollution There are The Noise Pollution ( Regulation and Control ) Rules. For filing a suit under law of torts a plaintiff is required to comply with some of the requirement of tort of nuisance which are as follows:1.Raj Kumari. There should be reasonable interference. 2000 – in order to curb the growing problem of noise pollution the government of India has enacted the noise pollution rules 2000 that includes the following main provisions:# The state government may categories the areas in the industrial or commercial or residential # The ambient air quality standards in respect of noise for different areas have been specified. Similarly.In Motor veichle Act rules regarding use horns and any modification in engine are made.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal .The Factories Act does not contain any specific provision for noise control. In an action for nuisance actual damage is required to be proved. However. Between 10 pm to 6 am # A person found violating the provisions as to the maximum noise permissible in any particular area shall be liable to be punished for it as per the provision of these rules and any other law in force.Ansar-Ul-Haque. is mentioned as notifiable disease.

Dr.Ansar-Ul-Haque. liver and kidney damage. phosphates etc) causes overgrowth of toxic algae eaten by other aquatic animals. and damage to the nervous system Mercury in water can cause abnormal behavior. Vandana Mittal. nutrient pollution can also cause outbreaks of fish diseases Chemical contamination can cause declines in frog biodiversity and tadpole mass Oil pollution (as part of chemical contamination) can negatively affect development of marine organisms.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . reduced reproduction.Raj Kumari. deformities and death of fish life Too much sodium chloride (ordinary salt) in water may kill animals (24)    Other notes:  We also assume that some higher forms of non-aquatic animals may have similar effects from water pollution as those experienced by humans. and death Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) may cause declines. which cause noise pollution. family get-togethers and celebrations etc. increase susceptibility to disease and affect reproductive processes. in our country the people generally lack consciousness of the ill effects which noise pollution creates ad how the society including they themselves stand to beneficiary preventing generation and emission of noise pollution. The target area should be educational institutions and more particularly school.(D) Silence Zone 50 40 Conclusion:We have made the law relating to noise pollution but there is need to creating general awareness towards the hazardous effects of noise pollution. may cause skin cancer in wildlife Ozone in the lower atmosphere may damage lung tissues of animals Water Pollution (23)    Nutrient pollution (nitrogen. Environmental Pollution Effects on Animals Air Pollution    Acid rain (formed in the air) destroys fish life in lakes and streams Excessive ultraviolet radiation coming from the sun through the ozone layer in the upper atmosphere which is eroded by some air pollutants. which teach civic sense to the children and teach them how to be good and responsible citizen which would include learning by heart of various fundamental duties and that would obliviously include learning not to create noise pollution and to prevent if generated by others. Suitable chapters can be added into textbooks. and thus have a negative effect on predator animal species Small life forms may consume harmful chemicals which may then be passed up the food chain to larger animals. Particularly. as described above (author‘s own conclusion) Soil Contamination (25)   Can alter metabolism of microorganisms and arthropods in a given soil environment. can also cause gastrointestinal irritation. this may destroy some layers of the primary food chain.Dr. religious and social functions. slower growth and development. The young children of impressionable age should be motivated to desist from playing with firecrackers. use of high sound producing equipments and instruments on festivals. Holding of special talks and lectures can be organized in the schools to highlight the menance of noise pollution and the role of the children in preventing it . this may lead to increased mortality rates and even animal extinction Prepared by: Dr. and may cause death.

Ansar-Ul-Haque.Dr.Environmental Pollution Effects on Trees and Plants Air Pollution    Acid rain can kill trees.Dr.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . we all depend on each other‘s actions and the way we treat natural resources. herbicides are chemicals which are most harmful to plants Soil Contamination   May alter plant metabolism and reduce crop yields Trees and plants may absorb soil contaminants and pass them up the food chain Environmental Pollution Effects on Wider Environment Apart from destroying the aquatic life in lakes and streams. The Tran boundary nature of environmental pollution makes it even more difficult to manage – you cannot build stone walls along the borders of your country or put customs cabins at every point of entry to regulate its flows into your country. destroy the leaves of plants. Everything on our planet is interconnected. Vandana Mittal. driving many animal species to endangerment and even extinction. clay and other similar materials Plants may be killed by herbicides in water. damage surfaces of buildings and monuments. can infiltrate soil by making it unsuitable for purposes of nutrition and habitation Ozone holes in the upper atmosphere can allow excessive ultraviolet radiation from the sun to enter the Earth causing damage to trees and plants Ozone in the lower atmosphere can prevent plant respiration by blocking stomata (openings in leaves) and negatively affecting plants‘ photosynthesis rates which will stunt plant growth. acid rain can also corrode metals. and cause soil acidification. Prepared by: Dr.Raj Kumari. ozone can also decay plant cells directly by entering stomata Water Pollution      May disrupt photosynthesis in aquatic plants and thus affecting ecosystems that depend on these plants Terrestrial and aquatic plants may absorb pollutants from water (as their main nutrient source) and pass them up the food chain to consumer animals and humans Plants may be killed by too much sodium chloride (ordinary slat) in water Plants may be killed by mud from construction sites as well as bits of wood and leaves. Environmental Pollution .Conclusion Environmental pollution is causing a lot of distress not only to humans but also animals. and while the nature supplies us with valuable environmental services without which we cannot exist. Pollution of water may cause oxygen depletion in marine environments and severely affect the health of whole ecosystems.

Dr.It‘s widely recognized that we are hugely overspending our current budget of natural resources – at the existing rates of its exploitation. Perhaps we should adopt a holistic view of nature – it is not an entity that exists separately from us.Raj Kumari.Dr. Vandana Mittal.Ansar-Ul-Haque. Only then can we possibly solve the problem of environmental pollution. we are an inalienable part of it. the nature is us. there is no way for the environment to recover in good time and continue ―performing‖ well in the future.Ms Surat Pyari & Ms Anuja Agarwal . Prepared by: Dr. and we should care for it in the most appropriate manner.

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