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Evaporative Condenser Engineering Manual
Bulletin E 115/3-2
Evaporative Condenser Design and Installation Recommendations A. Refrigeration Heat Rejection Systems A. Evaporative Condenser Engineering Manual E115. Condenser Piping -7 1. Single Condensers . rigging and installation instructions.10 E. Source of non-condensables . The installer of this equipment must ensure proper system purging of air. pressure at the inlet of the spray water distribution system is not to exceed 14 kPa. Introduction . Capacity Control . Pan heaters . REFRIGERANT CONNECTIONS ON SITE All connections in the external refrigerant pipework (installed by others) must be leak free and tested accordingly.12 B.9 3.3 III.The operator must ensure that during operation of the equipment these conditions are not exceeded.14 E. and for maintenance requirements.6 1.14 Refer to other published Baltimore Aircoil Bulletins for evaporative condenser selection data.I Tab/e of Contents Genera//nformation OPERATING CONDITIONS I.11 Evaporative Condensers are designed for operating conditions specified below. Acceptable Refrigerants: R-717. Closed Circuit Fluid Cooling .11 F.7 D. "Once-through" Condensing System . In case the evaporative condenser(s) are installed in vibration rails or springs. For pumps supplied by others (remote sump) it is recommended to install a pressure gauge at the inlet of the water distribution system. Location .10 4. Mu Itiple Circuit Condenser Coils . CONNECTING PIPING All refrigerant piping external to the evaporative condenser(s} must be supported separately from the equipment. follow the instructions of the BAC. Purging . Standard spray water pumps supplied and installed by BAC.6 2. Remote sump .11 PURGE REQUIREMENTS V.5 IV.13 C. Purge connections . Halocarbon Refrigerants and HFC's Coil design pressure: 22 bar max. Evaporative Condensers .3 II. Two speed fan motors . . Air entrained in the system can obstruct the proper drainage of liquid refrigerant. Purge piping . Refrigerant Liquid Subcooling . do not exceed this pressure limit and require no extra installation of pressure gauges.7 2. Special Applications A. To verify absence of non-condensibles in the system. Auxiliary Cooling Using Condenser Pan Water . prior to operation of the installation.11 2. Desu perheaters . Air-cooled Condensers.14 D.11 1. Modulating fan discharge dampers . The Refrigeration System . Inc.4 C.) Maximum temperature of superheated vapour: 120 DC Minimum temperature of refrigerant in coil(s): . Miscellaneous pi ping guidelines . Multiple Condensers . physical dimension data.4 B. 2 © 1991 Baltimore Aireoil Company. Dry Operation . reduce condensing capacity and result in higher operating pressures than design.6 1. Checking the system for non-condensables 3.20°C SPRAY PRESSURE Max. Evaporative Condensers in Parallel with Shell-and-Tube Condensers . Fan Cycling .11 4.6 B. the piping must contain compensators to eliminate vibrations carried through the refrigerant piping.5 D.7 C. Refrigerant Condenser and Cooling Tower . Winterization . (Note that high pressure coils with a design pressure of 28 bar are available upon request.6 3.6 2. .
Evaporative condensers offer important cost-saving benefits for most refrigeration and air-conditioning systems. Therefore. The refrigerant liq uid at Point 0 is passed through a throttling device (orifice. The compressor and further superheated vapor enters the heat rejection device (condenser) at Point B. and in the receiver itself. at lower first cost. and to reject that heat to the environment in some acceptable manner. capillary. than systems utilizing conventional air-cooled condensers.Introduction The objective of a mechanical refrigeration system is to remove heat from a space or product. it is essential that an evaporative condenser be correctly engineered to specific job requirements. The corresponding heat transfer processes can be represented on a plot of pressure versus enthalpy as shown in Figure 2. The evaporative condenser is essentially a combination of a water-cooled condenser. As with all mechanical equipment. but this is quickly dissipated in the drain line from the condenser to the receiver. The refrigeration at Point E consists of liquid and vapor. The evaporation of the remaining liquid from Point E to Point F represents the useful work of heat pick-up in the evaporator. It is the purpose of this manual to provide engineering and application data to accomplish this task. CONDENSER RECEIVER THROTTLING DEVICE COMPRESSOR A EVAPORATOR Figure 1 . From Point C to Point 0. condensation of the refrigerant occurs at constant pressure until the refrigerant reaches a saturated liquid state at Point D. They require substantially less fan horsepower than air-cooled condensers of comparable capacity and cost. They eliminate the problems of pumping and treating large quantities associated with water-cooled systems. systems utilizing evaporative condensers can be designed for a lower condensing temperature and subsequently lower compressor energy input. and where these two phases coexist. So. the vapor resulting from the "flashing" of some of the liquid in order to cool the remanining liquid from condensing temperature (Point D) to the evaporation temperature (Point E). And most importantly. The Refrigeration System A schematic of a basic vapor compression system is shown in Figure 1. the refrigerant liquid going to the evaporator should be saturated as represented by Point D. where the superheat is quickly removed and the saturated vapor state (point C) is reached. The amount of suction gas superheat (F-A) is a function of the type of the evaporator and the heat absorbed from the atmosphere as the gas travels along the suction line from evaporator to the compressor. or valve) where the pressure is reduced at a constant enthalpy to the system suction pressure at Point E.Pressure Enthalpy Diagram for Compression Refrigeration System Refrigerant vapor enters the compressor from the evaporator at a slightly superheated condition (A) and is compressed to the condensing pressure (B). Evaporative condensers are frequently used to reject heat from mechanical refrigeration systems. c D " There may be some subcooling of the liquid refrigerant near the outlet of the evaporative condenser.Vapor Compression Refrigeration system 3 . The only exception to this is when a separate subcooling device is used to subcool the liquid after it leaves the receiver. the lower heat content of the subcooled liquid condenses some of the refrigerant vapor until an equilibrium condition is reached at a saturated temperature corresponding to the condensing pressure. The drain line and the receiver contain both refrigerant liquid and vapor. utilizing the principle of heat rejection by the evaporation of water into an airstream traveling across the condensing coil. from a practical standpoint. PRESSURE IN/em') ENTHALPY (kJ/kg) Figure 2 . it is impossible for the liquid temperature to remain below the saturation temperature.
LIQUID OUT 38°C Figure 4 . For each kg of water evaporated. Halocarbon refrigerant systems may be and usually are designed for somewhat higher condensing temperatures than ammonia systems. and restrictions on thermal pollution have made this type of system uneconomical and obsolete. WELL.5 kW per 10 kW of refrigeration and a water temperature rise 11 ° C in the condenser. the condenser water circulation rate and the design condensing temperature often must be increased in comparison to a "once-through" system. in most ( WATER RECIRCUlATED at 0. approximately 0.08 lis per 1 kW of refrigeration and the 3° C water temperature increase are representative of those existing in an ammonia refrigeration system. The 38° C condensing temperature is about the practical minimum that could be obtained at a 25° C design wet bulb temperature. VAPOR IN 33°C/ Figure 3 . In a cooling tower. relatively high pumping head is required. high sewerage charges. the savings is approximately 95%.heat rejection from refrigeration and air-conditioning systems. "ONCE-THROUGH" CONDENSING SYSTEM Water. REFRIGERANT CONDENSER AND COOLING TOWER One of the early modifications to the "once-through" system was the addition of a cooling tower to permit recirculation of the cooling water and thus conserve water. VAPOR IN AIR DISCHARGE ttt COOLING TOWER 25°C WET BULB 30 lis /1 kW REFRIG. For an average heat rejection of 12. Therefore. well or surface water directly through a refrigerant condenser and then dumping that water into the sewer. however. This "once-through" type of system at one time was used almost universally for refrigerant condensing. and interconnecting piping.048 lis per 1 kW versus 0. The recirculated water flow rate of 0. OR SURFACE WATER 16°C 0. The simplest heat rejection system is one using city. the heated water from the condenser is brought in contact with air. and a small portion of the water is evaporated into the airstream. and heat transfer charasteristics. to compensate for the higher cooling water temperature. and the additional step of heat exchange introduced by the cooling tower. AIR-COOLED CONDENSERS The air cooled condenser is another type of heat rejection device used for refrigeration and air-conditioning systems."Once-through" Condensing Systems ground.27 lis 110 kW /30°C HOT WATER TO SEWER 27°C PUMP REFRIG. a theoretical savings of 98% of the water required by the "oncethrough" system. to the REFRIG. LIQUID OUT 30°C CITY. This permits a higher water temperature rise through the condenser.3 x 1031/sof water is used per 10 kW of refrigeration.65 kWh are removed from the remaider of the recirculated water.08 lis through 0. However. because of its seemingly inexhaustible supply. cooling tower. design wet bulb temperatures are such that the temperature of the water leaving the cooling tower is substantially higher than well or surface water temperatures. only 4. 4 . or back to the surface water source (Figure 3).Refrigerant Condenser with Cooling Tower Figure 4 sows a typical arrangement for a cooling towerl refrigerant condenser system. Therefore. The heat removed in the condenser is dependent upon the tem peratu re rise and the flow rate of the water.08 lis I 1 kW (HIGH PUMPING HEAD) REFRIG.Refrigeration Heat Rejection Systems areas. has long been the principal medium used tor. The temperature of the water leaving the cooling tower is determined by ambient air wet bulb temperature.27 liS of water per 10 kW must be supplied to and wasted from the refrigerant condenser. but increases the compression horsepower. Water circulation is normally 0. approximately 0. In actual practice.096 lIs per 1 kW required for an ammonia system. because a small amount of water must be "bled-oft" from the system in order to control the concentration of impurities in the recirculated water. stability. the increasing cost of water. Since the pump must circulate water through the refrigerant condenser.
The evaporative condenser combines the cooling tower.Figure 5 shows a typical air-cooled condenser. t ~ ( ( t t c:==:::x==:::. like the cooling tower. This reduces the cost of handling and installing separate components of the cooling tower/condenser system. It eliminates the sensible heat transfer step of the condenser water which is required in the cooling tower/refrigerant condenser system. Since it does not utilize the evaporative principle. Fan horsepower is comparable to cooling tower/condenser systems and is about one-third that of an equivalent air-cooled unit. resulting in a compressor horsepower savings of 100/0or more over cooli ng tower/condenser systems and more than 300/0 over air-cooled systems. Therefore. but at the expense of increased power consumption by the compressor and the condenser. removing heat from the refrigerant. VAPOR IN t REFRIG. EVAPORATIVE CONDENSERS Evaporative condensers reject heat from refrigeration and air-conditioning systems while using minimum quantities of energy and water. VAPOR IN III WATER DIST. thus saving about 950/0of the water normally required by a "once-through" system.. minimum compressor energy input. minimum pumping head is required. 30 I/s/l kW -- - Figure 6 . water is pumped from the pan section and is distributed over the exterior of the condensing coil by a series of distribution troughs or spray nozzles. Evaporative condensers require only about 50% of the plan area of a comparable sized air-cooled-installation. Because of the low pumping head and reduced water flow. 2.Air-cooled Condenser Air-cooled condensers reject heat from the refrigerant by sensible heating of the ambient air that flows through them. Ut 35°C D. The evaporative condenser offers a number of important advantages over other condensing systems: 1. Since the evaporative condenser utilizes the efficiency of evaporative cooling. condenser surface. As shown in Figure 6. resulting in increased compressor horsepower. Condensing temperatures within 8° C of design wet bulb are practical and economical. The net result of the use of an air-cooled condenser is a savings of water. with corresponding high fan horsepower and large condenser plan area. all of the heat rejection is by evaporation. These conditions would result in a lower condensing temperature and lower compressor energy input could be obtained with a larger condenser at this same wet bulb temperature. This permits a condensing temperature substantially closer to design wet bulb temperature. and condensing it inside the coil. Design dry bulb temperatures are normally 8° C to 10° C higher than design wet bulb temperatures. and fewer fan motors are required resulting in an initial material cost savings of 300/0to 50% over a comparable air-cooled condenser. water pumping horsepower is approximately 25% of that required for the normal cooling tower/condenser installation. A fan system forces air through the falling water and over the coil surface.> I) REFRIG. SYSTEM AIR DISCHARGE ~_-+- --:._-. The evaporate condenser essentially combines a cooling tower and a refrigerant condenser in one piece of equipment. fewer fans. Space savings. and water piping in one assmbled piece of equipment. The temperatures and water flow rate shown in Figure 6 are typical of an evaporative condenser applied to a refrigeration or air-conditioning system at the designated design wet bulb temperature with either ammonia or a halocarbon refrigerant.B. and consequently. The flow rate of water need only be enough to thouroughly wet the condensing coil to ELIMINATORS (<< « («( « «« REFRIG. The evaporative condenser saves valuable space by combining the condensing coil and cooling tower into one piece of equipment. the amount of cooling in the air-cooled condenser is a function of the ambient dry bulb temperature. Initial cost savings.B.Evaporative condenser 5 . 3. AIR DISCHARGE provide uniform water distribution and prevent accumulation of scale. less heat transfer surface. INLET AIR 130Vs/l kW t t \_ t LIQUID OUT 45°C Figure 5 . so condensing temperatures using aircooled equipment will be at least that much higher than condensing temperatures using evaporative cooling. A small portion of the water is evaporated. The low specific heat of air results in a large volume flow rate of air required (approximately four times that of evaporative cooling equipment)._ 25°CW. water circulating pump. Low system operating costs. Therefore. and eliminating the need for large water pumps and piping associated with the cooli ng tower/condenser system.
pipe friction (in supply and suction lines) plus the specified pressure required at the inlet header of the water distribution system. and pump discharge pipe (up to overflow connection) should be traced with heating tape and insulated. However. condensers is available from your BAC. The amount of water in suspension plus the amount of water in the condenser pan during remote sump operation for BAC. representative. In addition. In such cases. Figure 7 shows a typical arrangement of an evaporative condenser with a remote sump tank. This is particularly useful on single fan motor units which normally have only one step of capacity control using simple fan cycling. Therefore. Two speed Fan Motors Figure 7. Halocarbon systems generally utilize evaporators controlled by thermal expansion valves. Fan Cycling Fan cycling is the simplest method of capacity control on evaporative condensers. because of the condenser location or space limitations. The indoor remote sump must be sized to Pan heaters Occasionally. CAPACITY CONTROL Most refrigeration and air-conditioning systems are subject to wide load variations and substantial changes in ambient temperature conditions. fan cycling of the evaporative condenser will usually provide satisfactory capacity control on the high side of the system. Recirculatinq water pumps for remote sump applications must be selected fot the required flow at a total head which includes the vertical lift. On this type of system. plus that in the pipe lines between the condenser and sump. Remote Sump A most satisfactory method involves the use of an auxiliary sump tank with a spray water recirculating pump located within a heated space. such as 1500/750 rpm. All of the water in the condenser pan drains to the indoor sump whenever the recirculating pump is not operating. The number of steps of capacity control can be doubled by using two speed fan motors in conjunction with fan cycling. Normally the two speed fan motor will be selected so that the low speed is half of the full speed.Evaporative Condenser Operation and Installation Recommendations WINTERIZATION Most evaporative condenser installations operate yearround so consideration must be given to protection against freezing of the recirculated water in locations where the ambient temperature falls below 00 C. An additional benefit of two speed fan motors is reduced fan horsepower at low speed. On ammonia systems. most evaporators are fed by high pressure or low pressure float valves or float switches which are less sensitive to variations in head pressure. EVAPORATIVE CONDENSER (OUTDOORS) FLOW ADJUSTMENT VALVE 6 . A balancing valve must be installed in the discharge line from the pump to permit adjusting flow to the condenser. the pump suction line. This includes water in suspension in the condenser and the water in the condenser pan during normal operation. so the unit will be operating at half speed and hence sharply reduced brake horsepower much of the time. pump. this type of system requires a closer degree of evaporative condenser capacity control than can be obtained with fan cycling (See "Modulating Fan Discharge Dampers"). this method can result in relatively large fluctuations in condensing pressures. There are several protection methods that can be employed. Brake horsepower varies as the cube of the fan speed. some form of capacity control is required. A reasonably constant pressure differential across the thermal expansion valve is required for its proper operation.Evaporative Condenser with Remote sump Tank provide an operating suction head for the pump and with a surge volume above this operating level to hold all the water that will drain back when the pump is shut down. electric heaters or steam coils can be installed in the condenser pan to prevent freezing at low ambient temperatures when the condensor is completely idle. Maximum load and maximum wet bulb temperature occur infrequently. Where refrigerant control requires a reasonably constant condensing pressure. where the evaporative condenser may have several fan motors which can be cycled in steps. An evaporative condenser will deliver approximately 63% of its rated capacity at half speed operation. a remote sump application may be impractical. so the unit will use only about one eighth of the full load brake horsepower when operating at low speed.
i.50 C condensing temperature penalty is considered acceptable design. and when condensing pressure changes. air turbulence created by the fans will blow water throughout the interior of the unit. alternate wetting and drying of the condenser coil promotes formation of scale on the condensing surface. Dry operation of an evaporative condenser is intended to be a seasonal process.50 C penalty is the basis for the pipe capacity tables in the pipe sizing chapter in the ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals. Evaporative condensers should not be operated dry in sub-freezing ambient temperatures while the recirculated water is stored in the pan of the unit. located in the fan discharge of centrifugal fan units. provide an infinitie numbers of capacity control steps. This reduces the capacity of the unit to more nearly match the reduced load. located in the pan.. Modulating Fan Discharge Dampers Modulating fan dampers.5 m corresponding to a 0.Evaporative Condenser with Modulating Fan Discharge Dampers (Single Coil Circuit Unit) Multiple Coil Circuit Units On multiple circuit condensers where it is necessary to control condensing pressures for two or more circuits. Modulating dampers also affect a reduction in fan motor horsepower which is approximately proportional to the reduction in CFM as the dampers move toward the closed position. without recirculated water flow. when the refrigeration load may be reduced and the ambient air temperature is far below the design conditions. Water pump cycling should not be used for capacity control.Single Evaporative Condenser with Top Inlet Receiver The compressor discharge line should be sized to reflect the design pressure drop allowance between the compressor and condenser. Note: This system will not provide control if the pan is drained for dry condenser operation in winter. These heaters are designed to prevent freezing only when the pumps and fan are idle. depending on the sound frequency.Another benefit of two speed motors is that when an evaporative condenser is operating at low speed it will have substantially lower operating sound levels. and cause icing on the cold surfaces. That chapter also provides data for calculating pipe sizes for other design pressure drops and for determing total line loss for a specific system.e. a pressure drop per 30. the evaporative condenser may be operated dry. It is recommended that the evaporative condenser be completely drained of water when dry operation is desired. The flow of cold air through the unit may freeze the water. The pressure controller is electrically connected to damper motor. _ VAPOR IN '---------. a condensing pressure sensing element is located in the compressor discharge line or in the receiver (see Figure 8). In addition. The sound pressure levels of both centrifugal and propeller fan evaporative condenser will be reduced by four to ten decibels..::---+--- -LIQUID OUT MODULATING FAN DISCHARGE DAMPER INLET AIR Figure 8 .-LL- II AIR DISCHARGE PRESSURE CONTROLLER Single condensers Figure 9 indicates the recommended piping for one or more compressors discharging into a single evaporative condenser. Figure 9 . Furthermore. DRY OPERATION During winter operation. Single Coil Circuit Units Damper control is recommended for any system using evaporators controlled by thermal expansion valves. CONDENSER PIPING .--+-~~~~--rl/ <<«<<<<<<<<<(( r--------+. a signal is sent to the damper motors to reposition the dampers and provide more or less airflow as required. the condensing temperature in that circuit cannot fall below the spray water temperature. This 0. On a single circuit condenser. is substistuted for the condensing pressures on the multiple condenser cicuits. Normally. even if electric heaters or steam coils have been provided for freeze protection. so that this method of control often results in short cycling of the recirculating pump. Even with a very light load on one circuit. Condenser capacity changes greatly with and without spray water. a spray water temperature sensing controller. 7 .
76 m/s 60 92 130 225 384 497 874 Nom. The receiver provides surge capacity to accomodate fluctuations in refrigerant charge in both the high and low sides as the system capacity varies. then allowance must be made in the compressor or condenser selection for the actual pressure loss. Centrifugal compressors have critical head characteristics and discharge line pressure drop must be considered carefully in either the compressor or condenser selection.2 kPa R. This equalization can be accomplished either through the refrigerant drain line itself or through an external equalizer. and with a total discharge line pressure drop of 41 kPa. For example.76 m/s 53 62 92 79 107 160 92 138 145 218 126 188 239 207 359 311 340 511 295 443 526 789 456 684 1175 906 1360 783 Copper Tubing 0. R12 mm 29 35 41 54 67 80 105 0.76 m/s 52 78 90 135 122 183 200 301 288 432 444 666 765 1147 0.For close coupled systems. Table 1 shows capacity in kW for discharge lines for R-12.40 Nom Width 1" 1 1/4" 1 1/2" 2" 21/2" 3" 4" R12 25 32 38 50 64 76 100 mm mm mm mm mm mm mm 17 35 51 100 116 278 576 R22 31 61 95 184 289 510 R500 22 45 66 123 236 330 650 R502 25 49 73 142 224 397 81:'1 R717 91 180 268 523 823 1486 ?~71 1020 Copper Tubing 0. Equivalent pressure drop per 30. 22.76 m/s 63 109 149 245 350 540 910 0. 2.5 m equivalent pipe length corresponding to a 0.76 m/s 338 587 798 1276 1820 2800 4853 " 1 1/8 1 3/8" 1 5/8" 2 1/8" 25/8" 3 118" 4 1/8" 8 . would require a condenser selected for a condensing temperature of 35° C (1234 kPa) instead of 1276 kPa. 35° C condensing.5 m/s 49 75 107 186 286 409 716 0.76 m/s 0.8 kPa R-502: 21. R-22. 4° C suction for R-12. 500 and 502.76 m/s 71 108 153 266 411 585 1032 R502 0.5 m equivalent pipe lenght corresponding to a 0. Discharge line losses are particularly important in the case of centrifugal compressor systems with evaporative condensers.5 m for each refrigerant is: R.12: 25.5 m/s 56 84 120 208 322 458 804 R22 0. The condenser coil is permitted to drain freely and there is no loss of condenser capacity due to refrigerant back-up in the condenser coil. Tables based on 40° C condensing. R-502.50 C change in saturation temperature.7 kPa Table 2 .5° C penally results in a negligible pressure differential between the pressure at the compressor discharge and that at the condenser inlet. and R-717 based on a line friction pressure drop per 30.5 m/s 0.0 kPa R-500: 15.5 m/s 0. 1 1/8 1 3/8" 1 5/8" mm 29 35 41 54 67 80 105 R12 21 35 57 116 205 331 686 R22 38 66 104 219 382 598 1279 R500 30 53 83 176 308 505 1077 R502 34 58 92 191 336 534 1114 21/8" 2 5/8" 3 1/8" 4 1/8" NOTES: 1.76 rn/s 74 113 160 279 430 613 1075 0. Width " mm 1 25 1 1/4 32 1 1/2 38 2 50 21/2 63 3 76 4 102 R12 0. Maximum tons for inlets based on a line friction pressure drop per 30. the pipe size selection based on the 0. The receiver must be equalized to some part of the system high side so that the condenser coil can drain freely. _6° C suction for R-717 (Ammonia).50 C change in saturation temperature. if the discharge lines are long and lor sized for a larger design pressure drop. All the following piping recommendations include a highpressure receiver.0.Condenser liquid Drain Line Capacity in kW.76 m/s 84 127 179 312 483 687 1207 R500 0.0. an ammonia system designed for 1276 kPa discharge pressure at the compressor.5 m/s 42 73 99 163 233 360 606 R502 0. Table 1 . Steel Pipe (Sch.5 rn/s 40 61 87 150 232 331 582 0.Compressor Discharge Line (Condenser Inlet) Capacity in kW1 Steel PiIle_l_Sch.22: 21. However.5 rn/s 0.7 kPa R-717: 22.5 rn/s 47 72 102 177 274 390 668 0.5 rn/s 225 391 532 850 1213 1868 3235 R717 0. 40) R22 R500 0.
it is essential to use trapped vertical liquid legs from each coil out/et to equalize any difference in coil outlet pressures. R-500. equidistant from each of the condensers. the liquid drain line will be trapped and an external equalizer must be used as shown on Figure 10.5 m for R-12. so that all liquid in the line drains to the receiver on shutdown. Table 3 . R-22.76 mls refrigerant velocity.Parallel Evaporative Condensers wih Bottom In/et Receiver 9 . The most significant piping change is in the liquid line connections between the condensers and the receiver. causing condensation of vapor inside the receiver. Figure 10 . It must carry gas from the condenser to the receiver any time the dry bulb temperature at the receiver is lower than the condensing temperature. Instead. as nearly as possible. 19 mm 307 395 1538 25 mm 32 mm 527 879 1143 659 4264 2462 1 1/2" 2" 38 mm 50 mm 1230 2022 1582 2560 5800 9580 Figure 11 . Since the liquid drain line will carry only refrigerant liquid. This would again result in refrigerant back up in the coils with low coil outlet pressures. The equalizer line does not lend itself to a positive method of sizing. Evaporative condensers are frequently provided with liquid outlet connections that are oversized for the design load and refrigerant. However. These dimensions are minimum and increased heights are desirable wherever possible in order to take care of wet bulb temperatures. evaporative condensers. as shown in Figure 9.5 or 0. Table 3 gives selections for equalizer lines that will be satisfactory for most systems. Different coil pressure drops might result from use of condensers of different sizes. the receiver is equalized with the gas inlet to the condensers. all reductions in liquid drain line size must be made in the vertical portion of the piping. It is permissible to reduce the drain line size in the connecting piping. provided that the liquid velocity at design load does not exceed 0. the receiver must not be equalized with the coil outlets. variations in piping. this line must not be trapped and should be sized for a maximum liquid refrigerant velocity of 0.Single Evaporative Condenser with Bottom Inlet Receiver Table 2 shows the refrigerant capacity in kW for liquid lines between condenser and receiver for both 0.When equilization is through the refrigerant drain line. or variable load conditions.76 rn/s for most of the common refrigerants. and R-502. the trapped line may be sized on the basis of 0.76 mis. 13. because of possible variations in coil outlet pressures. permitting a free flow of Iiquid refrigerant from the condenser to the receiver through the liquid drain line. depending on the type of receiver inlet. Multiple Condensers The requirements for multiple evaporative condensers connected in parallel to a single receiver are extremely important if maximum efficiency is to be obtained under all operating conditions. The line should also be sloped toward the receiver. at least 20 mm per m.5 and 0. liquid refrigerant would back up in the coil with the greatest pressure drop (lowest outlet pressure) until the liquid head was sufficient to overcome the pressure differential. With multiple condensers. For standard BAC.5 m/s. resulting in different coil outlet pressures. 12. If for any reason there is a greater pressure drop in one coil than in another. The minimum liquid leg heights should also be increased to account for the pressure drop of any stop valves at the condenser inlet and outlet.Recommended Equalizer Line Pipe Size 3/4" MAX. This line equalizes the pressure between the receiver and condenser coil outlet. (_kW) R717 1" 1 1/4" Similarly. The equalizer line carries gas from the receiver to the condenser any time the dry bulb temperature at the receiver is higher than the condensing temperature. causing some flashing of the liquid refrigerant in the receiver. differences in coil outlet pressures are corrected with varying liquid levels in the vertical drop legs without backing up liquid into the condenslnq coil and reducing its operating efficiency. Comments regarding the compressor discharge line are the same as previously covered. Figures 11. and 14 indicate recommended piping practices for two or more evaporative condensers operating in parallel.except that the discharge piping for the multiple condensers should be as symmetrical as possible in order to equalize the gas line pressure drop to each individual condenser. If a bottom inlet receiver is used. The point at which the equalizer is tied to the compressor discharge should be. One condensing coil might be shut down completely and therefore have essentially zero pressure drop. the height of the vertical liquid leg "H" should be at least 1 m for ammonia (R-717) and 2. With the trapped liquid legs. R 12 SYSTEM R 22 CAP.
76 mls maximum. . Consider and allow for future expansion in the initial installation. With this arrangement. If the liquid header is not trapped. ~\-~~~~IJ~(. and should be sloped a minimum of 20 mmlm toward the receiver.5 m/s. where there will be erratic condenser operation untill all liquid leg seals are stabilized.~. The vertical drain line from the trap to the receiver should be sized for a maximum liquid velocitv of 0. The drop legs and the common liquid header should be sized for a maximum liquid ~f-"t-I ~s' ~ ~. Figure 13 . the drop legs and the liquid header may be selected for liquid velocities of 0. These two methods are equally acceptable and will give the same results. Also.•• Figure 14 .-"~" Figure 12 .. if the header is trapped.76 m/s. There is no need to trap the individual drop legs when a vertical trap is used. Trapping the header will insure a stable operating condition for the condensers. A piping system should never be completely rigid. it need not be sloped toward the receiver. The liquid header must also act as liquid reservoir for the drop legs. and contraction.\ >. the individual drop legs are trapped into a common liquid header above the receiver.. In Figure 12.. expansion. The refrigerant pressure drop th rough the shelland-tube condenser is very small and requires only that the condenser be located above the receiver to obtain liquid flow. particularly at initial plant start-up. The top of the vertical trap must be connected to the equalizing line to prevent a siphoning effect from the liquid header to the receiver. velocity of 0. The trapped liquid header is connected to the equalizing line to prevent a siphoning effect from the liquid header to the receiver. The recommended piping for operating the two in parallel is shown in Figure 14. The volume of the vertical trap between the bottom inlet connection and the top outlet connection must be equal to the combined volume of the liquid in all of the drop legs. Figure 13 indicates an alternate method of trapping the main liquid header using a vertical trap. there may be times.76 m/s. Untrapped liquid headers must be sized for 0. The traps may be as short as piping practice will permit. Design the piping with some flexibility to allow for vibration. . 2.Parallel Evaporative Condensers with Common Liquid Header Above Receiver Level: Alternate 1 It is desirable. The drop legs and the trapped liquid header may be sized for a maximum liquid velocity of 0.. but not essential.5 mls drain velocities.'> ?v~~~Il' (. and it should have a volume equivalent to the volume of liquid in the drop legs. The vertical drain line from the common liquid header to the receiver must be sized for a maximum liquid velocity of 0.Paralleling an Evaporative Condenser and a Shell & Tube Condenser Miscellaneous Condenser Piping Guidelines 1.Figure 11 shows recommended piping for a bttom inlet receiver. This may be advantageous on large jobs with several condensers where sloping the liquid header might require increased elevation of the condensers.. Figures 12 and 13 show two recommended piping methods for multiple condensers with top inlet receivers. there is no advantage to a long trap.5 m/s.0 ¥~.. to trap the liquid header as shown in Figure 12. 10 ..Parallel Evaporative Condensers with Common Liquid Header Above Receiver Level: Alternate 2 Evaporative Condensers in Parallel with Shell-and-Tube Condensers Many times evaporative condensers are added to existing systems having shell-and-tube condensers.
However. Figure 15 illustrates those dimensions which must be taken into consideration when locating evaporative condensers. only one purge valve should be open at a time. connected to an automatic purger. Chemical breakdown of oil and/or refrigerant. 5. enough to assure that if any non-condensables are present they are pumped over to the high side. The hood increases the discharge air velocity and elevates the point of discharge to a heigth where recircu lation is minimized. then pump down the system sligthly. Operate the evaporative condenser for at least two hours or until the water temperature in the pan or remote sump is the same as the entering wet bulb temperature. cross connect the discharge line at the compressors and use a single line to the condensers. at the high point of the system and at each condensing coil outlet. Any refrigerant valves in a horizontal pipe run must be installed with the valve system in the horizontal position. condenser coi I design.3. LOCATION In order to obtain specified performance from an evaporative condenser installation. purging at the condenser coil outlet can be effectively accomplished during system operation. 2. Elevating the condenser increases the area for airflow from beneath the unit and permits placing the condenser closer to an adjoining wall. on halocarbon systems it may be desirable to isolate each compressor circuit to facilitate oil return to the compressor. Note in Figure 15 that the top (discharge) of the condenser should be at the same or higher level than an adjoining building or wall in order to minimize recirculation caused by down draft between the condenser and wall. with the refrigerant liquid and vapor and tend to accumulate in the condensing coil outlet header and connection where the temperature and velocity are relatively low. (Be sure that all gauges are accurate when checking for non-condensables. the refrigerant outlet connection is tangent to the top of the coil header so noncondensables cannot trap in the header. Avoid any restriction to flow in the horizontal run leaving the condenser. therefore increased power input to the compressors. However. Opening two or more valves tied together equalizes the coil outlet pressures and the effect of the vertical drop legs is lost. it is not possible to raise the condenser (see Figure 16). If multiple halocabon circuits are not isolated. PURGE AND PURGE PIPING Source of Non-Condensables Air and other non-condensables gases collect in refrigeration systems from several sources: 1. However. first close the valve in the liquid line running from the receiver to the evaporator (king valve). Such a down draft might be created by winds blowing across the condenser discharge towards the wall. 11 . Poor evacuation of a new system low side if operation is at pressures below atmospheric. representatives can provide specific location recommendations for the various models of BAC.. If permitted to accumulate. i. However. Then the temperature corresponding to the pressure in the evaporative condenser should correspond. to the wet bulb temperature of the entering air.) Purge Connections The several recommended piping arrangements each show purge valves at two different locations. 4. If this temperature is higher than the wet bulb temperature by more than 10 C the system has an excessive amount of non-condensables. 3. When two or more parallel ammonia compressors are used with any number of condensers. However. If for some reason. Purging at the high point of the system can only be effective when the system is down. non condesables in the system cause high condensing pressures and. then a oil return systems must be provided to return oil to each compressor in the proper am mount. Purge Piping All of the purge connections on the condenser coils plus the purge connection in the receiver may be cross connected to a single purge line. close the discharge valve on the compressor. Failure to evacuate completely after part of a system has been open for repair. During normal operation the non-condensables are dispersed throughout the high velocity refrigerant vapor and too much refrigerant would be lost when pruging from this high point. Checking the System for Non-Condensables To check the system for non-condensable gases. In the BAC.Condenser Spacing Parameters A single condenser located outdoors will seldom pose any layout problem. Each connection must be valved so that each coil can be purged separately. BAC. it is essential that the unit or units be located as to guarantee design airflow to each unit while minimizing recirculation of the discharge air. there is no spacing advantage to elevations greater than 3 meters in this respect. The non-condensables will carry through the condenser coil 0-1 FIGURE 15 . multiple units or a single unit with a fan side facing an adjoining building or wall must be located with reference to the wall (or to each other) to allow ample space for airflow to the fans. Immediately after pump-down. or nearly so. A 12 or 18 mm purge connection should be cut into the top of the liquid outlet along the horizontal run. Locate any valve or reducer in the refrigerant drain line from the condenser in a vertical section of piping. evaporative condensers that are available.e.
Consequently. there is normally no control over the amount of heat removed from the refrigerant vapor in the desu perheater coil. It is economically impractical to provide a desuperheater on an evaporative condenser with enough heat transfer surface to remove all of the superheat in the ammonia refrigerant. In some cases. This claim has merit. 12 . it may be necessary to increase the design wet bulb temperature for which the condensers are selected.Discharge Hoods to Increase Discharge A desuperheater is an air-cooled finned coil usually installed in the discharge airstream of an evaporative condenser. and when liquid refrigerant mixes with liquid oil. with the numerous size increments available in today's evaporative condensers. the desuperheater coil often becomes a condensing coil. an oil separator is installed between the desuperheater coil and the wetted condenser coil. The air-cooled desuperheater is not as efficient as wetted condenser surface. Figure 18 shows a typical arrangement. and the temperature difference between refrigerant temperature and the temperature of the air leaving the condenser. condenser spacing can be decreased by using discharge hoods. discharge hoods cannot be provided. where condenser space is limited. the addition of a desuperheater may permit a smaller plan area unit. The anticipated capacity increase on an ammonia condenser with a standard desuperheater is in the area of 10% rather than the 16% theoretically possible. The theory is that cooling of the hot discharge refrigerant vapor will promote condensation of the oil vapor from the refrigerant-oil mixture and separation of oil from the refrigerant in the oil separator. condenser airflow.Decking Between Condenser and Wall or Between Condensers Occasionally. However. Desuperheaters have been recommended by some manufacturers to assist in oil removal from the ammonia vapor and also to minimize scaling of the upper tubes of the wetted condensing coil by reducing entering refrigerant gas temperatures to the wetted coil. complete superheat removal is never attained under design conditions of load and ambient wet bulb temperature with the standard desuperheater coils furnished by evaporative condenser manufacturers. The amount of superheat removed is a function of the desuperheater surface.Special Applications DESUPERHEATERS Air Velocity Figure 16 . the condenser space can be decreased accordingly. Its primary function is to increase the condenser capacity by removing some of the superheat from the discharge vapor before the vapors enters the wetted condensing coil. Occasionally. For oil removal. Practically. By "decking over" between the condensers (Figure 16) to increase discharge air velocities and carry the airstream to a height where recirculation is minimal. It is recommended that the layout parameters of any installation other than a single unit on an open roof be reviewed by the manufacturer's representative. Some such installations virtually create their own environment and all potential problems of airflow and recirculation are magnified. However. the application of a desuperheater is limited where discharge temperatures are relatively high (120° C to 1500 C). Therefore. The oil separator can be located in the engine room where it can be monitored by the operating engineer and where it is not exposed to the ambient temperatures that would cause refrigerant condensation. As as alternate to decking. Today there are many oil separators with high efficiencies for removing oil from from the hot discharge vapor as it leaves the compressors. Condenser installations involving large capacities and/or multiple units do not lend themselves to the application of rigid layout guidelines. separation becomes quite difficult. the minimum spacing cannot be provided. By "decking over" between the condensers or between a condenser and a adjoining wall (Figure 17). so it is more economical to select a condenser with additional wetted surface to achieve greater capacity. Figure 17 . such instances are rare. At less than design load or wet bulb temperature.
80 C.Evaporative Condenser With Oesuperheater Coil From the scaling standpoint.DESUPERHEATER COil EVAPORATIVE CONDENSER exists. the specified amount of subcooling must be added to that required for liquid line pressure drop and static head loss.6 m (86kPa). Therefore.11 kPa per cm rise for Refrigerants 22. DISCHARGE· ~==l~~~ SUBCOOLING COil RECEIVER Figure 19 . and 502. sometimes to the point of starving the evaporator. plus 55 kPa friction pressure drop. proper bleed-off to prevent concentration of solids. which further reduces the pressures at the expansion device.Recommended Piping for Evaporative Condenser with Liquid Subcaaling Coil 13 . Assume that detailed calculations of friction pressure drop indicate a line loss of 55 kPa (Data for calculating line pressure drops can be obtained from the piping section of the ASH RAE "Handbook of Fundamentals. But the increase is relatively small and seldom justifies the cost of the subcooling device and piping for this reason alone.60 m above the refrigerant receiver. If the evaporator is above the receiver. de-mister type oil traps furnished as part of the screw compressor package minimize problems of oil carryover. it is necessary to subcool the liquid refrigerant after it leaves the receiver.") The static head loss for a vertical rise of 7. The resulting coil surface temperature at the inlet is not appreciably different from the coil surface temperature in the condensing portion of the coil.50 C condensing temperature (1450 kPa) with a thermal valve fed evaporator 7. scaling in an evaporative condenser becomes primarily a function of adequate water distribution over the coil. As an example of the calculation to determine the amount of subcooling required. efficient.7° C or 3. A refrigerant remains in liquid form only as long as the liquid pressure is at or higher than the saturation pressure corresponding to its temperature. Therefore. REFRIGERANT LIQUID SUBCOOLING (R12. 500. the minimum amount of subcooling to prevent flashing is 40. etc. The increasing use of screw compressors for industrial refrigeration systems further obsoletes the use of a desuperheater. the static head loss is approximately 0. Any pressure reduction in the liquid line between the receiver and the expansion device causes flashing or vaporization of some of the liquid.70 C. and proper water treatment where water conditions are paticularly bad. The primary factor that determines the tendency to form scale on the wetted coil of an evaporative condensers is the external surface temperature of the coil. with the cooled oil injected into the compressor in contact with the refrigerant vapor. if the evaporator is located above the receiver. and even lower on refrigerant liquid injected screw compressors (approximately 490 C). and add to it the pressure drop equivalent to the static head loss between the receiver and the thermal valve at the evaporator. To determine the degree of subcooling required. Subcooled liquid at the expansion valve of the evaporator does increase system capacity since it increases the refrigeration effect per pound of refrigerant ciculated. discharge temperatures are relatively low on water-cooled screw compressors (71 to 880 C). where compressor Figure 18 . Larger. At normal condensing temperatures. the internal heat transfer coefficient is quite low. and approximately 0. Consequently. it is necessary to calculate the liquid line pressure drop including valves. The static head loss due to a vertical rise in the liquid line is a function of the the refrigerant density. 500 AND 502 SYSTEMS) In the case of air-conditioning or refrigeration systems. At the inlet of the wetted coil where only hot refrigerant vapor exists. any capacity gain of a desuperheater used on a screw compressor installation is negligible.. tees. However. ratings based on subcooled liquid are used. R22. strainers. Some compressor manufacturers publish their compressor ratings based on a fixed amount of subcooling at the thermal expansion valve. Despite the high vapor temperature at the inlet (1200 C to 1500 C).13 kPa per em rise for Refrigerant 12. the pressure at the expansion device feeding the evaporator(s} can be substantially lower than the receiver pressure due to liquid line pressure losses.. result in a total pressure drop of 141 kPa. ells. To avoid liquid line flashing where the above conditions COMPRESSOR ----. Because the cooled oil is in direct contact with the refrigerant vapor. the static head at the evaporator is less than at the receiver. the low internal coefficient reduces the rate of heat transfer through the coil tubes at that point. oil cooled unit. The screw compressor is an oil seal. The presence of this flash gas will cause erratic operation of the thermal expansion valve and reduce the valve capacity. the presence or absence of a desuperheater is immaterial.50 C (condensing temperature) minus 36. So the pressure at the expansion valve is 1450-141 or 1309 kPa and the saturation temperature corresponding to 1309 kPa is 36. assume a Refrigerant 22 system designed for 40. The minimum amount of subcooling required is the temperature and the saturation temperature corresponding to the pressure at the saturation temperature corresponding to the pressure at the expansion valve.
or a split circuit coil in the evaporative condenser. subcooling coils in an evaporative condenser are seldom. and it is good design practice to isolate each compressor. In order to avoid oil return problems. MULTIPLE CIRCUIT CONDENSER COILS The coil in a single condenser can be split in sections to provide a number of individual circuits. the recirculated spray water is maintained at a temperature some point higher than the inlet air wet bulb temperature and lower than the condensing temperature. the degree of miscibility being a function of the refrigerant. In general. CLOSED CIRCUIT FLUID COOLING To eliminate the problem of system contamination associated with using spray water for auxiliary cooling. these sections will normally furnish 5. Consult your local BAC. The density of ammonia liquid is approximately 592. the type of oil. 14 . 3. such as jacket cooling for reciprocating and rotary compressors. the condenser coils can be split internally to accomodate the capacity of the individual systems. The increased condenser capacity will result only in lower operating condensing temperatures. located below the condensing coil (see Figure 19). However. If multiple compressor halocarbon systems are not designed with isolated Circuits. and oil cooling for screw compressors.R22. some oil is lost from the crankcase of the reciprocating compressor and this oil travels around the refrigerant circuit with the refrigerant. Depending upon the subcooling coil surface.R500. Using a portion of the recirculated spray water for external cooling purposes is an effective and simple concept. increases in temperature.One method commonly used for supplying subcooled liquid for halocarbon systems is to provide a subcooling coil section in the evaporative condenser. 4. if ever. However. The water flows through the heat source. the pressure and temperature of the mixture. This practice is not followed with R717 (ammonia) systems. A multiple circuit coil is used primarily with the common halocarbon refrigerants (R12. Therefore. An increase in temperature of the recirculated water by virtue of an external cooling load has the effect of reducing condensing capacity. BAC. Water is taken from the pan of the condenser or the remote sump and is pumped to the source of heat. there is a significant drawback to this cooling system that does not always make it desirable. In most cases. and static head losses are proportionally less. are two good solutions. this water can be considered as a source of relatively cool fluid for auxiliary cooling requirements on refrigeration plants. It is essential that the oil lost from the compressor be returned to it. representative for specific evaporative condenser performance data on systems utilizing pan water for auxiliary cooling.50 C to 8.67 kq/rrr'. The high latent heat of ammonia (approximately 1110 kJ/kg versus 163 kJ/kg for R22) results in comparatively small amounts of flash gas with a liquid line properly sized for low pressure drop. A separate closed circuit evaporative cooler. The reason for this is that proper oi I return to the compressors can be a problem on these systems. The heated water then mixes with the pan water producing a mixture temperature somewhat higher than the normal recirculated water temperature. AUXILIARY COOLING USING CONDENSER PAN WATER During normal evaporative condenser operation. thus limiting the amount of subcooling that can be obtained. multistage ammonia refrigeration systems often use liquid subcooling between stages for more economical operation. it is common practice on the smaller (870 kW and below) halocarbon refrigeration and air-conditioning systems to design indepent refrigerant circuits where two or more reciprocating compressor systems are involved. to be effective the subcooling must be piped between the receiver and evaporator as shown in Figure 19. Consequently this can create serious clogging of compressor jackets or heat exchanger or sophisticated filtering equipment is usually required. and holding them in suspension in the recirculated water. stripping dirt and dust particles from the air circulating through it. but the penalty is relatively small. The same result will occur if the condensing coil is piped directly to the subcooling coil. the halocarbon refrigerants are highly miscible with oil. Low temperature. In order to use a single evaporative condenser. 2. and is then returned to the condenser pan or remote sump.R502) on small air-conditioning or refrigeration systems with two or more reciprocating compressors. NOTE: Increasing the evaporative condenser size over the capacity required for the system will not produce liquid subcooling. recommends that a closed system be used for that cooling whenever possible. less than half that of the normally used halocarbons. with one circuit for condensing the refrigerant and the other for cooling the liquid. During normal operation. An evaporative condenser characteristically behaves as an air washer. jacket cooling for air compressors and vacuum pumps.50 C of liquid cooling. The exact recirculated water temperature is determined by these two operating parameters. Oil and ammonia are practically immiscible so that most of the oil carried over from the discharge line oil separators and returned either directly to the individual compressor crankcase or to an oil receiver and then to the compressor crankcase. usually by a separate pump (see Figure 20). However. used with an ammonia refrigeration system fore several reasons: 1. an oil return system must be provided to return oil to each compressor crankcase in the proper amount. only a fraction of the evaporative condenser flow rate is required for cooling purposes. The expansion devices and system designs normally used for ammonia systems are less sensitive to small amounts of flash gas. Design condensing temperatures are generally lower with ammonia.
which precludes the contamination of system fluid. particularly on smaller installations. A separate closed circuit evaporative cooler for fluid cooling cannot always be justified. 3. thus minimizing freeze up problems. Both functions are handled within the same unit.. It is important to note that if the closed circuit evaporative cooler is installed in a freezing climate.Auxiliary Cooling Using Condenser Pan Water As an example. Using an evaporative condenser for both condensing and fluid cooling also limits the permissible inlet and outlet fluid temperatures on the fluid cooling circuit. This approach lacks one of the faetures of the separate unit arrangement. CLOSED CIRCUIT EVAPORATIVE COOLER ~VAPO~AT'VE CONDENSER Figure 21 . i. Consequenlly it is necessary to sacrifice close control of one of these parameters. Consult your local BAC.EVAPORATIVF.' Cooling Oil for Refrigeration Screw Compressors 15 . usuailly the leaving fluid temperature. a closed cicuit evaporative cooler could be used to cool water or an ethylene glycol solution for oil coolers of refrigeration screw compressors. Provides closed loop cooling. If a closed circuit evaporative cooler coil containing water is not provided with a supplementary heat load after shutdown. representative for specific recommendations on split circuit evaporative condensers. For instance.Evaporative Condenser with Closed Circuit Evaporative Cooler for Fluid Cooling. on refrigerated plants involving only one or two water-cooled scew compressors. Permits the evaporative condenser to be operated as an air-cooled condenser in cold weather. and is exposed to ambient temperature below 0° C the water could freeze and rupture the coil. the fluid cooling and condensing functions cannot be controlled independenlly. Figure 21 shows a typical arrangement. an antifreeze (ethylene glycol) solution must be used instead of water. but the heat rejection capacity of the unit must be controlled by either the condensing pressure or the leaving fluid temperature. it may be more economical to furnish an evaporative condenser with a split circuit coil. with one circuit for condensing refrigerant and the other isolated for fluid cooling. Other winterizing precautions similar to those described earlier in this manual for evaporative condensers apply equally to closed circuit evaporative coolers.~~~~--~/ STANDARD CONCENSER PUMP Figure 20 . CONOENSER ~--~_.e. Provides independent control of the condensing and water-cooling systems by separating these two functions into two or more units. Careful engineering analysis is required to establish satisfactory temperature criteria and properly select the evaporative condenser. 2. This is the ideal cooling system because it provides the following important advantages: 1.
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