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at the International Organization for Standardization. It is a way of sub-dividing a communications system into smaller parts called layers. A layer is a collection of conceptually similar functions that provide services to the layer above it and receives services from the layer below it. On each layer an instance provides services to the instances at the layer above and requests service from the layer below. For example, a layer that provides error-free communications across a network provides the path needed by applications above it, while it calls the next lower layer to send and receive packets that make up the contents of the path. Conceptually two instances at one layer are connected by a horizontal protocol connection on that layer. OSI model 7. Application Layer NNTP · SIP · SSI · DNS · FTP · Gopher · HTTP · NFS · NTP · SMPP · SMTP · DHCP · SNMP · Telnet · Netconf · (more) 6. Presentation Layer MIME · XDR · TLS · SSL 5. Session Layer Named Pipes · NetBIOS · SAP · L2TP · PPTP 4. Transport Layer TCP · UDP · SCTP · DCCP · SPX 3. Network Layer IP (IPv4, IPv6) · ICMP · IPsec · IGMP · IPX · AppleTalk 2. Data Link Layer ATM · SDLC · HDLC · ARP · CSLIP · SLIP · PLIP · IEEE 802.3 · Frame Relay · ITU-T G.hn DLL · PPP · X.25 1. Physical Layer EIA/TIA-232 · EIA/TIA-449 · ITU-T V-Series · I.430 · I.431 · POTS · PDH · SONET/SDH · PON · OTN · DSL · IEEE 802.3 · IEEE 802.11 · IEEE 802.15 · IEEE 802.16 · IEEE 1394 · ITUT G.hn PHY · USB · Bluetooth PDU-protocol Data Unit
availability) of transmitted data. In particular. integrity. it defines the relationship between a device and a transmission medium. This includes the layout of pins. voltages. hubs. .Layer 1:Physical layer The Physical Layer defines the electrical and physical specifications for devices. network adapters. cable specifications. These services are aimed to improve the CIA triad (i. repeaters. host bus adapters (HBA used in storage area networks) and more. such as a copper or optical cable. confidentiality.e. Actually the availability of communication service is determined by network design and/or network management protocols.
Originally. which deals with addressing and multiplexing on multiaccess media. Layer 2: Data Link Layer The Data Link Layer provides the functional and procedural means to transfer data between network entities and to detect and possibly correct errors that may occur in the Physical Layer. detect and may correct errors. in addition to framing. They are also capable of controlling the rate of transmission. This layer manages the interaction of devices with a shared medium. contention resolution and flow control. characteristic of wide area media in the telephone system WAN Protocol architecture Connection oriented WAN data link protocols. A WAN Data Link Layer might implement a sliding window flow control and acknowledgment mechanism to provide reliable delivery of frames IEEE 802 LAN architecture In this protocol.The major functions and services performed by the Physical Layer are: Establishment and termination of aconnection to a communications medium. which is the function of a Media Access Control (MAC) sublayer. this layer was intended for point-to-point and point-to-multipoint media. For example. . Above this MAC sublayer is the media-independent IEEE 802.2 Logical Link Control (LLC) sublayer. Participation in the process whereby the communication resources are effectively shared among multiple users.
If a mapping is available. or simplex operation. and also for session checkpointing and recovery. presentation service data units are encapsulated into session protocol data units. which is not usually used in the Internet Protocol Suite. Layer 4: Transport Layer The Transport Layer provides transparent transfer of data between end users. The OSI model made this layer responsible for graceful close of sessions. The Transport layer also provides the acknowledgement of the successful data transmission and sends the next data if no errors occurred. The Transport Layer controls the reliability of a given link through flow control. providing reliable data transfer services to the upper layers. and error control. It provides for full-duplex. termination. Some protocols are state and connection oriented.Layer 3: Network Layer The Network Layer provides the functional and procedural means of transferring variable length data sequences from a source host on one network to a destination host on a different network.The Network Layer performs network routing functions. Layer 6: Presentation Layer The Presentation Layer establishes context between Application Layer entities. and might also perform fragmentation and reassembly. which is a property of the Transmission Control Protocol. and passed down the stack. half-duplex. Layer 5: Session Layer The Session Layer controls the dialogues (connections) between computers. and restart procedures. It establishes. The Session Layer is commonly implemented explicitly in application environments that use remote procedure calls. . segmentation/desegmentation. adjournment. This means that the Transport Layer can keep track of the segments and retransmit those that fail. in which the higher-layer entities may use different syntax and semantics if the presentation service provides a mapping between them. and establishes checkpointing. and report delivery errors. manages and terminates the connections between the local and remote application.
When identifying communication partners. The seven layers are: Layer 7: The application layer . the application layer must decide whether sufficient network or the requested communication exists. The presentation layer transforms data into the form that the application accepts. usually part of an operating system.. and synchronizing communication. although some applications may perform application layer functions. which means that both the OSI application layer and the user interact directly with the software application. the application layer determines the identity and availability of communication partners for an application with data to transmit. When determining resource availability. and any constraints on data syntax are identified. Main Points OSI divides telecommunication into seven layers..This is a layer.. Messages intended for this computer pass to the upper layers.This is the layer at which communication partners are identified. quality of service is identified. The upper four layers are used whenever a message passes from or to a user. This layer interacts with software applications that implement a communicating component.This layer provides independence from data representation (e. encryption) by translating between application and network formats. user authentication and privacy are considered. This layer formats and encrypts data to be sent across a network. determining resource availability. The layers are in two groups. (This layer is not the application itself. Such application programs fall outside the scope of the OSI model. It is sometimes called the syntax layer Layer 7: Application Layer The Application Layer is the OSI layer closest to the end user.) Layer 6: The presentation layer .g.. that converts incoming and outgoing data from one . The lower three layers are used when any message passes through the host computer. Application layer functions typically include identifying communication partners. Messages destined for some other host are not passed up to the upper layers but are forwarded to another host..
. determining whether all packets have arrived) and errorchecking. Layer 5: The session layer .This layer provides synchronization for the physical level and does bit-stuffing for strings of 1's in excess of 5. Layer 1: The physical layer .. coordinates.presentation format to another (for example. Layer 3: The network layer .This layer handles the routing of the data (sending it in the right direction to the right destination on outgoing transmissions and receiving incoming transmissions at the packet level). and terminates conversations.. Sometimes called the syntax layer..This layer sets up... It ensures complete data transfer. Layer 4: The transport layer . and dialogs between the applications at each end. It furnishes transmission protocol knowledge and management. from a text stream into a popup window with the newly arrived text).This layer conveys the bit stream through the network at the electrical and mechanical level. It deals with session and connection coordination. The network layer does routing and forwarding. Layer 2: The data-link layer ..... It provides the hardware means of sending and receiving data on a carrier. .This layer manages the end-to-end control (for example. exchanges.
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