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# Topology Optimization

## Radhouane KHLISSA, Frédéric GILLON, Noureddine TAKORABET

L2EP, GREEN

Introduction
‘The art of structure is where to put holes ‘ Robert Le Ricolet
A part of the cogging torque in the permanent magnet synchronous machines is due to the voltage ripple caused by the magnetic flux wave shape. The shape of the air gap directly affects the quality of
the torque generated by the motor.
Topology optimization is a technique used to find the optimal topology of a structure submitted to certain constraints, without taking any restriction. It is widely used in mechanical structures design. This
technique is a promising approach to solve the problem of cogging torque due to the air gap shape.
In this paper, topology optimization of the magnet with the homogenization method is presented and explained. The implementation and test are being realized. A FEM model is used for analysis. The
model used is of a machine designed and conceived by GREEN in Nancy. Homogenization method is implemented with some constraints imposed buy the FE software limits. Optimization is realized
under Matlab, with SQP algorithm.

## Dependence to the air gap shape Algorithm

 1

0.9
Optimization process Begin
Initial densities vector in input
0.8

0.7 FE Analysis

0.6

0.5

0.4

## 0.3 Sensitivity Analysis HOMOGENIZATION

0.2

0.1
Densities variables change
0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
Optimization solver
Magnetic flux saturation Magnetic flux density wave form
in the air gap
Magnetic flux density harmonics SQP
Of the iron
NO
The Torque is given by: Converge ? Optimal densities vector input,
yes
Introduction of penalization
Ni
T   ht .Br     kbn Bn e j ( n k ) t  Tem  Tcog parameter p
 k n FE Analysis

Harmonics of Magnetic flux density affects directly torque quality: to reduce cogging torque a suitable
winding and a sinusoidal magnetic flux density wave form are needed.
 Sensitivity Analysis
Densities variables change PENALIZATION

## Homogenization method Optimization solver

SQP
Topology optimization consists of optimizing material layout within a given design space, and for a given NO
set of constraints such that the resulting structure meets a prescribed set of performance targets. Converge ?
Homogenization is one of the most used methods of topology optimization: it consists in dividing the yes
design domain in segments, for each segment a material density ρi is attributed . Optimization process End

finds the optimal values of densities minimizing the objective function and respecting the constraints.
To obtain a discrete material, a penalization process is applied.

 
RELAXATION DISCRETIZATION
  Penalization
PENALISATION

Homogenization process gives continuous values of magnet density, to converge
Domain: continue Domain: continue Domain: discrete Domain: discrete
to a discrete range of density values, a penalization is applied.
Material : discrete Material : continue Material : continue Material : discrete
[T.Touya : " Méthodes d'optimisation pour l'espace et l'environnement " , rapport de thèse, Université de Toulouse 2008. ] • Density values are taken to the power of a penalization factor, this will force these

## Relaxation and discretization values to converge to 0 or 1.

 •

Values given by the homogenization are taken as initial point.
Extra optimization iterations are needed.
Magnet is no longer one piece, it
is discretized, Resolution used
depends on software limits.
Optimization process decides
between magnet or air to be put
in each element.

Implementation

Optimization problem: Minimization of flux density harmonics in order to minimize torque ripple
[Il-Han Park, Jin-Kyu Byun, Joonsun S. Kang, and Wansoo S. Nah: Topology Optimization Method for Superconducting System With Critical Current Condition]
due to air gap shape.
- Design domain: Magnet domain.
- Design variable: Magnet density
- Constraints: Maximum flux density Conclusion
  [ 1 , 2 ,..n ]
 Topology optimization is a new tool for fully automatic design.
B (  )²  B5 (  )²  ....  B2 k 1 (  )²
min f (  )  3  This approach permits to explore new topologies .
i [ 0 ,1] B1 (  )²
 Optimization execution time rises when resolution is higher.
B1 (  )  Bref
Used tools :  Quality of results is be better with higher number of elements .
FEM: Vector Fields PC Opera13
Optimization: Matlab  Results are to be given after the completion of works.
L2EP Matlab-Opera coupling plate-form