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VOLUME 32 2004

Home Register New Account Search About IBRO Funding Options Member Directory IBRO Publications Education & Training Events News Science Window Science Issues NeuroScience Links IBRO-Edu

Jennifer Lund, IBRO's new Secretary-General since January 2004, succeeded Albert Aguayo who for the last three years pursued relentlessly the aims of IBRO to provide top-class training to neuroscientists around the world. The first 6 months of 2004 were a time of hectic activity in IBRO. Our 6 world Regional Committees have led the way with more schools than ever, supplemented by the busy Visiting Lecture Team Programme of neuroscience courses. All the programme committees have very active schedules and IBRO’s Journal Neuroscience goes from strength to strength, with rapidly rising submissions and increasing ratings.The IBRO web site has been redesigned and is an outstanding source of information and news for the world’s neuroscientists.The Workshops & Symposia and Fellowships & Travel Grants awards programmes have never been busier. Overall, 2005 promises to be a most successful year for the IBRO community. I have been greatly impressed by the hard work of the Regional and standing Committees. The positive feedback from our Alumni is very encouraging. It is they who will form the future of neuroscience in their respective countries and we try through the Alumni programme to track and help them as they develop their careers. I have also been impressed by the excellent image that IBRO has in the world and the respect with which its programmes are viewed. IBRO is one of the most active of the international basic science unions with an unrivalled scale of activities.With its limited budget, IBRO has been able to support so many ventures through major support from foundations and government agencies and also through the many smaller partnerships IBRO has made. Often the help is not monetary, but of many other kinds, from deans and faculty who go out of their way to facilitate IBRO events. Principal partners in the programmes of IBRO’s Regional Committees are the individual national neuroscience societies and scientific academies whose representatives make up IBRO’s Governing Council, as well as the large multinational neuroscience federations such as FENS, SONA and FAONS. My hopes for IBRO’s future are for its continued success in serving the international neuroscience community. I have initiated some new programmes that I hope will add to that aim: a Clinical/Basic Science Links programme to help emphasize the need to find solutions to human disease; a Public Education/Brain Campaign Committee to extend the work of the Dana Foundation and EDAB to all regions of the world outside North America and Europe - it is essential to inform the public of the rationale and results of neuroscience research since they are both the funders and beneficiaries of this work; a Return Home programme that will work to improve the conditions for neuroscientists in countries struggling to maintain active scientific research.This last endeavour is the most ambitious and difficult of the new aims of IBRO. Jennifer Lund IBRO Secretary-General

Fogarty Donates to IBRO Schools IBRO to Waive Dues for Small Corporate Members HINARI Free Access to Journals p. 1 p. 7 p. 7


IRNTP Lists Neuroscience Training Programmes p. 7

Fogarty International Center, a division of the US National Institutes of Health (NIH) made a substantial donation of US$75,000 to help support 4 IBRO Neuroscience Schools in 2004.The schools were: IBRO/INMHA School:Topics in Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience, Cordoba, Argentina, September 6-24; IBRO Africa Region Neuroscience School: Neurodegeneration and Regeneration, Grahamstown, South Africa, September 10-18; IBRO Advanced Neuroscience Crimea School: Receptors, Channels, Messengers Crimea, Ukraine, September 16-28; and a school in Bamako, Mali, Africa on Environmental Influences on the Brain and Neural Health (date not firm at time of going to press).

In a major new drive to increase public awareness of neuroscience around the world IBRO joined forces with the European Dana Alliance for the Brain (EDAB) and the Federation of Neuroscience Societies (FENS), with input from the IBRO US/Canada Regional Committee, to establish a worldwide Brain Campaign.To help promote the campaign IBRO this year formed the Public Education Committee. All IBRO Affiliated Organizations were invited to form local Brain Campaign groups, which could raise the profile of brain research. Local groups will include clinicians, schoolteachers, politicians, media people, charity workers, young postgraduates. The IBRO Regions have also been invited to set up the Brain Campaign by appointing an RC member to assist national societies in the campaign to encourage local groups to carry out public activities throughout the year. The Public Education Committee will support a range of efforts and events to improve Brain Awareness internationally.This includes supporting Brain Awareness Week. The committee is building a collection of educational material and public information on the brain available in several languages and accessable from the IBRO web site's IBRO Edu pages. We have commissioned the translation of the BNA booklet 'Neuroscience: Science of the Brain'. Initially versions will be produced in Spanish, French and German. A Mandarin translation is already available. Esther Lennon Chair, Public Education Committee

Winning Neuroscience cover p. 8

The entry during 2004 of the Society for Neuroscience of Peru (SONEP), the Canadian Association of Neuroscientists (CAN) and the Dutch Neurofederation as Corporate Members of IBRO brings the number of Affiliated Organizations to well over 70, a 30% increase in the last 3 years. Affiliated Organizations are represented on IBRO's Governing Council, which has the ultimate power to establish policy and direction and thus continue to fulfil IBRO's aim to create an international basis for neuroscience.The GC works with IBRO's Regional Committees to help promote IBRO's training programmes around the world.

IBRO School, Seville, Spain p. 5



IBRO FUNDING 2005-2006
Application forms for all Fellowships and Travel Grants can be found on the IBRO web site at: http://www.ibro.info/Pub_Main_Display.asp?Main_ID=3 Applications from Qualified Applicants for: • IBRO Research Fellowships 2006 • John G. Nicholls/ IBRO Fellowship 2006 • IBRO Travel (Conference) Grants July-Dec 2005 • IBRO Travel (Conference) Grants Jan-June 2006 • SfN/IBRO International Travel Fellowships 2005 Please note that all applicants should fill in the appropriate fellowship or travel grant application form which should be submitted, preferably electronically to: ibro4@wanadoo.fr. Hard copy of documents required, as indicated in the application forms, are to be sent by regular mail or courier (no faxes) to: IBRO Secretariat, 255 rue Saint Honoré, 75001 Paris, France. Applicants should apply for not more than one category of funding for travel (IBRO Travel Grant, SfN/IBRO International Travel Fellowship) or fellowship (IBRO Research Fellowship, John G. Nicholls Fellowship, SSN/IBRO Fellowship).

IBRO Research Fellowships 2006 Application Deadline: 1 March 2005
The IBRO Fellowship Program aims to foster quality neuroscience especially in the less-developed and less well-funded countries. It welcomes highquality scientists (under the age of 45) from diverse geographic and scientific areas wishing to broaden the scope of their training in neuroscience by working 1 month to 1 year abroad in good laboratories. Priority will be given to those who have not obtained an IBRO Fellowship within the past 3 years and who, after completion of the training funded by this Fellowship, are willing to return to their home countries, bringing with them new knowledge and skills to advance neuroscience in their regions. The funding for a 12-month fellowship is US$25,000. An 'Outstanding IBRO Fellowship' of additional US$5,000 will be awarded to the distinguished candidate.

John G. Nicholls/ IBRO Fellowship 2006 Application Deadline: 1 March 2005
One John G. Nicholls IBRO Fellowship has been created in honour of Dr John G. Nicholls, the founding Director from 1994 to 2002 of the IBRO Visiting Lecture Team Programme (VLTP). Under his leadership the team has taught some 1000 students in 21 neuroscience courses held in 18 different countries. The John G. Nicholls IBRO Fellowship aims to assist 1 promising researcher younger than 30 years of age who wishes to further his/her training in neuroscience at a distinguished foreign laboratory for 1 year.The successful candidate is expected to return to his/her home country after the training, bringing new knowledge and skills in the neurosciences. Candidates should be younger than 30 years old at the time of application and resident in one of the 18 countries where the IBRO Visiting Lecture Team Programme (VLTP) has been held under Dr Nicholls’ direction: APRC (6): China, India, Malaysia, Philippines, Sri Lanka and Vietnam ARC (1): Nigeria CEERC (3): Bulgaria, Iran and Poland LARC (8): Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Cuba, Mexico, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela

IBRO invites requests for partial funding of Symposia and Workshops on important topics in neuroscience with the aim particularly of encouraging neuroscience research and scholarship in regions of the world with limited funds for science. Participants should represent the international neuroscience community as well as regional interests. Meetings should have a clear focus on a particular topic. Preference will be given to activities that include younger scientists and offer training for scientists from countries in which little money is available for research or teaching. Applicants are encouraged to include a component available publicly on the web that could involve participant discussion either before or after a regular symposium or workshop. Such discussions might, for example, include opportunities for students and others to ask questions, make suggestions and provide relevant information. Symposia should deal with topics of key interest, specialized or broad, with background talks to help those unfamiliar with the material, as well as accounts of current research. Workshops are more technical and practical in orientation. A major portion of the programme should involve discussion, practical teaching of techniques and the presentation of concepts and controls necessary for experimental work. Workshops that bring useful techniques and donate permanent equipment to less well-funded countries are encouraged. Deadlines for receiving proposals are February 1 and September 1. Guidelines for applicants can be found on the IBRO web site’s Funding pages. Ken Muller, Symposia & Workshops Programme

The a) b) c) d) e) The application must include: Two letters of reference from local scientists who can speak about the applicant's research potential, and endorse the application. The name one of the IBRO VLTP teachers who could act as the applicant’s referee.Teacher's reference will be an advantage. A letter from the proposed supervisor indicating that he/she is willing to accept the candidate and agrees on the proposed project. A description no longer than 2 pages of the project that the candidate wishes to pursue. A letter from indicating applicant’s wish to return to home country upon completion of the Fellowship. funding for a 12-month fellowship is US$25,000.

IBRO Travel Grants July-December 2005 Application Deadline: 1 March 2005
IBRO offers Travel Grants for high-quality neuroscientists especially from the less-developed and less well-funded countries to present their findings at international neuroscience meetings. Priority will be given to those who have not obtained an IBRO Travel Grant in the past 3 years. If there is more than one author for the same abstract, only one will be considered for the same application. Evidence of travel, attendance (conference registration, air-ticket copy) and presentation (copy of abstract in conference program) at the conference will be required.Written confirmation will be required from supervisor that no other funding support is available for the same travel. Please note that applications for Travel Grants for the six-month period: a) July-Dec 2005 should be submitted by 1 March 2005 b) Jan-June 2006 should be submitted by 1 Sept 2005 The funding for travel will be up to US$1,500 per award.

SfN/IBRO International Travel Fellowships 2005 Application Deadline: 1 March 2005
The Society for Neuroscience offers Travel Fellowships of up to US$1,500 each, for neuroscientists under the age of 35 from the less-developed countries of the 5 IBRO regions (Africa, Asian/Pacific, Central and Eastern Europe, Latin America,Western Europe) to attend the 35th SfN Annual Meeting.The applicant should be the first author of an abstract to be presented at the annual meeting. Copy of abstract submitted to SfN for a poster or a platform presentation is required. Kwok-Fai So Chair, Fellowships and Travel Grants Committee

SSN-IBRO Fellowship for Young Investigators 2005
The Swiss Society for Neuroscience (SSN), with the financial support of the Swiss National Science Foundation, is offering a 1-year fellowship for a foreign postgraduate student to carry out a basic or clinical research project related to neuroscience in an academic institution in Switzerland.The fellowship is a co-sponsored collaboration with IBRO.The amount of the fellowship is to be decided by the Swiss National Science Foundation. In 2003, it was SF40,000 (approximately Euro27,000). More information can be found on the SSN web site: www.swissneuroscience.ch Eligibility: Candidates should be below 45 years of age at the time of the application and should have an MD or PhD degree, or equivalent. In the case of comparable qualifications, preference will be given to applicants from less privileged countries.

Application: The application must include: a summary (max. 3 pp) of the research project; a letter of support from the host laboratory, stating that it will provide with laboratory space and research expenses; the candidate's curriculum vitae and list of publications, which should be submitted to the President of the Swiss Society for Neuroscience. If possible send by email to sn@pharma.unizh.ch. Deadline for application: December 31, 2004 Decisions will be made in the spring of 2005. The fellowship starts on June 1, 2005. Jean-Marc Fritschy President, SSN Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland

IBRO Outstanding Fellow 2003
Francisco Capani, chosen Outstanding Fellow 2003, worked for 1 year with Professor Oleg Shupliakov, Dept. of Neuroscience at the Karolinska Institutet, Sweden on the coupling between the endocytosis and actin-based transport of vesicles. He is now back in Argentina working at the Instituto de Biología Celular y Neurociencias Profesor 'Eduardo De Robertis', Buenos Aires, Argentina. "Two different actin systems have been described in the synapse. One system is responsible for transport of vesicles along the axon; the other is involved in transport of vesicles from the endocytic zone back to the synaptic vesicle cluster. In the experiments that I performed in Sweden I demonstrated that these systems interact at sites of synaptic vesicle recycling. Giant reticulospinal synapse in the lamprey was used as a model system in these experiments. Injection of phalloidin into the giant axon caused formation of actin bundles in axons and resulted in mislocalization of recycled synaptic vesicles from endocytic zones.Together with Dr Oleg Shupliakov, I am currently preparing a manuscript. We also started a project aimed at unravelling mechanisms controlling synaptic vesicle size.To achieve this objective we use electron tomography and 3-D reconstruction techniques.The organization of endocytic intermediates 'trapped' at different stages of synaptic vesicle recycling is investigated. In this project we are working in collaboration with the National Center of Microscopy and Imaging Research, University of California, San Diego, USA and the Cell and Molecular Biology Department, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.”


The number of IBRO Alumni is now over 800. The Alumni Programme was set up to facilitate interactions between students and students and faculty who have participated in IBRO's educational programmes and to create a community of young scientists who will remain in contact with IBRO and with each other. IBRO tries wherever possible to assist Alumni with guidance and mentorship on scientific issues and career selection. Proposed activities include: expansion of the web site Directory of Alumni with e-mails and addresses of former students of IBRO schools and VLTP courses; reunions at national and international meetings; a web site map with links to items of interest (training programmes, Map & Compass, Neuro-Grants Info, Grants to Return Home); email circulation of material of interest to Alumni; assisting Alumni seeking interactions on scientific, social and other topics of interest. Sigismund Huck (sigismund.huck@meduniwien.ac.at), a member of IBRO's Neuroscience School Board, is the coordinator of the Alumni programme. He is now assisted by Connie Atwell

Four IBRO Alumni Enrol for MBL Courses,Woods Hole
Four IBRO-sponsored students were selected to participate in Marine Biology Laboratory courses in the summer of 2004 at Woods Hole, MA, USA.The students are all IBRO Alumni, having taken part either in IBRO Neuroscience Schools or the Visiting Lecture Team Programme. Thabelo Khoboko is a graduate student at the Faculty of Health Sciences at the University of Cape Town, South Africa. In 2002 she won the IBRO Levi-Montalcini Award for African Women in Neuroscience to pursue a higher degree at Cape Town University’s Dept. of Human Biology. Her research involves measurement of glutamate receptor function in a rat model for Parkinson's disease. Her aim is to develop her skills in electrophysiological techniques to study how synaptic connectivity within neural circuits has been modified by neurological disorders. She was enrolled in the Summer Program in Neuroscience, Ethics and Survival. Milena Winograd is a doctoral student in the Neuroscience Institute at the University Miguel Hernandez, San Juan de Alicante, Spain. Her thesis research is on the cortical network mechanisms underlying prefrontal oscillations and involves experimental design, preparation of slices, intra and extracellular recordings and data analysis. Milena was enrolled in the course Methods in Computational Neuroscience. Maria Castello, PhD works in the Dept. of Comparative Neurophypsiology and also in the Dept of Histology, Faculty of Medicine, Instituto de Investigaciones Biologicas Clemente Estable, Montevideo, Uruguay. Dr Castello is part of a research group whose main interest is in the study of perception. She uses the electrosensory system as a model, in particular the electrosensory system of Gymnotus carapo. She was enrolled in the Neural Systems and Behavior course. Emiliano Merlo is a doctoral student in the Biology Dept of the School of Exact and Natural Sciences at the University of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Emiliano's thesis research focuses on studying the role of NF-kappaB signaling pathway that leads to memory extinction in the crab Chasmagnathus. He was enrolled in the Neurobiology course.

Habiba Vongtau (Nigeria), one of IBRO's many Alumni
(atwell@ninds.nih.gov), who brings to the programme a great deal of experience from her former job at NIH.

Cuban neuroscientist spends year in Australia Pavel Prado-Gutiérrez, age 27 and a PhD student at the Cuban Center for Neuroscience, Havana, Cuba, was awarded an IBRO Fellowship to work for one year in 2003 at the Department of Otolaryngology, University of Melbourne, Australia. 'At the moment I am completing the analysis of data collected from experiments performed in the Department of Otolaryngology, University of Melbourne, Australia.This work was focused on the effect of electrical stimuli with different pulse duration and interphase gap on the auditory response of deafened animals. Part of the results was presented in the seminar 'A tool for measuring peripheral neural survival in implantees?' in the Bionic Ear Institute, Melbourne, Australia.This work will be also presented at the 2nd Meeting of Neural Degeneration, Havana 2004 and 8th International Cochlear Implant Conference, Indiana, USA. Also a paper will be written for publication in a peer-reviewed journal. In the second half of the present year (2004) I will start working on the project 'Effect of deafened on auditory learning'. The IBRO Fellowship program is an important contribution in the development of neuroscience in third world countries.With this program young researchers have the opportunity of broadening their research experience while living in another culture.The fellowship program also allows the development of long-term scientific collaboration between institutions of different countries due to the relation that develops between the researcher and the host center. In my case, visiting the Department of Otolaryngology, University of Melbourne, Australia was a very important scientific and cultural experience.There I learned different techniques and methods needed to carry out my research and was exposed to new techniques associated with cochlear implants. New research techniques included new deafening techniques, procedures for implantation of intra-cochlear electrodes arrays for electrical stimulation, techniques for recording electrically evoked neural activity in the auditory system and procedures for histology. I also had the opportunity of working on a scientific project, which will result in a publication in a peer-reviewed journal." Ukraine researcher in Paris Bohdan Kolomiets, of the Bogomoletz Institute of Physiology, Kiev, Ukraine, was awarded in 2002 an IBRO Fellowship, which he took up at the University of Paris' Laboratory of Neurobiology Adaptation Processes during the year 2003. The onset is usually insidious and the course is progressive. Consumption of cassava food, which provided about two-thirds of the calories for the affected population, was implicated in the causation of endemic ataxic polyneuropathy in the 1950s and 1960s. Cyanide, which is released from the cyanogenic compounds in cassava foods, or thiocyanate, a metabolite of cyanide, were considered possible toxicants which induced neuron damage. I investigated the relationship of consumption of cassava foods and occurrence of endemic ataxic polyneuropathy in a doctoral thesis, ‘Endemic ataxic polyneuropathy in Nigeria’, which I defended at Karolinska Institutet in April 2002. The studies in the thesis showed that ataxic polyneuropathy persists in the endemic area in southwestern Nigeria. It was shown that cassava is still the major food in the endemic area, and that thiocyanate was higher in the endemic area than in the non-endemic areas. A case-control study, however, did not show a difference in the intake of cassava food and exposure to cyanide between cases and controls. A comparative study of two communities with high exposure to cyanide from cassava foods, one in the endemic area and one in the non-endemic areas, showed high occurrence of ataxic polyneuropathy only in the endemic community. An experimental study, which was conducted to quantitate exposure to cyanide from cassava foods, showed that the amount of cyanide that is released from a typical meal of cassava food was too small to cause acute cyanide toxicity. It was concluded that exposure to cyanide is not causally related to occurrence of endemic ataxic polyneuropathy. Following these findings, other putative etiological agents for endemic ataxic polyneuropathy were considered. An investigation of two subjects, not published, showed mild increase in mononuclear cells in the CSF, while MRI imaging showed hyper-intense signals on T2 weighted images mainly in the frontal cerebral areas.These results suggest that inflammation may be involved in the pathogenesis of endemic ataxic polyneuropathy. Subsequently the proposed studies that were based on putative association of exposure to cyanide, which IBRO had supported, were revised. It was concluded that immunohistochemistry and molecular biology techniques would be needed to further the investigation of endemic ataxic polyneuropathy in Nigeria.”

IBRO Fellow Steven Oluwole
"Currently, I am completing my research work in the Laboratory of Neurobiology of Adaptation Processes, University of Paris VI (Paris, France). The project funded by IBRO was aimed on the elucidation of the relationship between patterns of neuronal activity occurring at different stages of learning and induction of synaptic plasticity in rat prefrontal cortex. Based on the results of the behavioral part of project, we were able to isolate certain patterns of burst-like activity occurring during the critical learning stages and we successfully applied the sequence of stimuli with parameters mimicking burst-like activity in our in vitro studies so as to evoke long-term plasticity changes (NMDA-receptor dependent long-term potentiation) in the pyramidal neurons of rat prefrontal cortex. Our data revealed that certain patterns of activity seen in prefrontal cells during the learning task are capable of modifying for a considerable time the synaptic transmission and thus participate in the long-term memory storage processes. A part of our results was presented at the IBRO Congress 2003 in Prague and at the CNRS meeting at the University of Paris VI in 2004. Results will be also presented at the 4th Forum of European Neuroscience, Lisbon, Portugal and at the 34th Annual Meeting of the Society for Neuroscience in San Diego, USA. A full-length paper has been submitted for publication in a peer-reviewed journal. By providing fellowships to young researchers from developing countries IBRO offers them a unique possibility of acquiring new, state-of-theart techniques and approaches, of extending their research experience, as well as establishing new scientific contacts with outstanding neuroscience laboratories for further fruitful collaboration after their return to the home institution. I am very much obliged to IBRO for granting me the fellowship and I appreciate the excellent organization of my research stay in France, thanks to the Director of the Fellowship Programme, Dr Kwok-Fai So, and to the IBRO Secretariat." Nigerian researcher spends year at Karolinska Institutet Steven Oluwole, Senior Lecturer in Neurology at the Department of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria, took up a 1-year IBRO Fellowship from May 2003 to April 2004 at Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden, where he worked with Professor Kristen Kristensson in the Division of Neurodegenerative Diseases Research, Dept. of Neurosciences. "The objective of the fellowship was to investigate if thiocyanate, the major metabolite of cyanide, is toxic to dorsal root ganglion neurons.The planned studies were designed to test the hypothesis that exposure to cyanide is the causal agent of endemic ataxic polyneuropathy. Endemic ataxic polyneuropathy is a neurological syndrome of distal symmetrical sensory polyneuropathy, sensory gait ataxia, optic neuropathy, and deafness. It has been reported predominantly from southwestern Nigeria, but also from other African countries like Senegal and Tanzania.


"What lies behind the VLTP courses is the noble aim of IBRO: with its worldwide long-range perspective, it endeavours to encourage knowledge for its own sake and research wherever it is done. IBRO recognizes that people working in poor universities and medical schools have just the same right to be interested in basic science and have just the same right to hear about it from world experts." John Nicholls, Director VLTP, 1994-2002
The VLTP in Izmir,Turkey: The VLTP course at Ege University School of Medicine, Izmir (Bornova),Turkey, September 10-18, 2003 was organized by Sakire Pogun (Ege University School of Medicine) and U. J. McMahan (VLTP Director). The lecturers were Prof. John Nicholls (SISSA), Prof. Hugo Arechiga (UNAM, Mexico), Prof. Peter Sargent (UCSF, US), Prof. Caroline Damsky (UCSF, US), Dr Yuan Liu (NIH, US), Prof. Eric Schwartz (University of Chicago School of Medicine, US) and Prof. U. J. McMahan (Stanford University School of Medicine, US).The lectures included mechanisms of synaptic transmission and sensory transduction; the structure and function of channels, receptors and pumps; the organization of extracellular matrix and its role in neural function and disease; the cellular and molecular regulation of circadian rhythms and other behaviours; the structural, functional organization of vertebrate and invertebrate visual systems; and steps and mechanisms in neural development and regeneration. Dr Yuan Liu, of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke at the NIH, USA, spoke to students about opportunities for funding and career development. She was also a lecturer on the VLTP course at the Medical University of Qingda, Qingdao, China, July 21-29, 2004. The 68 students included Masters and PhD students in Physiology, Biochemistry, Biophysics, Psychology and Physical Therapy as well as medical students, residents in Neurology and Psychiatry, junior faculty members and a few advanced undergraduates. Some students gave 10-minute talks: Elif Kirmizi Alsan, Sinan Canan, Meral Yuksel, Bilge Ozerman, Alper Karakas, Aysegul Kucuk, Cagri Yalgin, Gulgun Kayalioglu, Cosan Terek. The course was overshadowed by the sudden death of one of its lecturers, Hugo Arechiga, from a massive heart attack, which occurred in his hotel room near the course's halfway point. Widely recognized for his leadership in science policy at the National University of Mexico (UNAM) and throughout Latin America, as well as for his many research accomplishments, Hugo was a wonderfully generous, highly cultured IBRO colleague, who had lectured in 9 VLTP courses.

VLTP Bucharest
University of Science and Technology. With the intellectual interests at the Medical School currently drawn along classical lines, at the interest group meeting the VLTP members provoked a discussion of the usefulness of such interdepartmental training programs in the neurosciences as are offered at US and UK universities. As a result, Dr Ebuk Moses, an electrophysiologist in the Dept. of Physiology, undertook to organize MUNUSO (Makerere University Neuroscience Organization), which includes all students in the university interested in the neurosciences.With Dr Moses its Director, MUNUSO meets monthly to discuss recent research publications in the field. Because it is difficult for universities in economically developing countries to have access to recent publications, Dr Muller has been helping to provide them. San Jose, Costa Rica: The aim of the VLTP course at the University of Costa Rica, San Jose, Costa Rica, January 14-22, 2004 was to provide students, teachers, research workers and medical clinicians in neuroscience in Costa Rica and from nearby countries with a forum for the detailed discussion of both specific topics of current interest in the field and opportunities for career development.The course lasted 9 days, the final day devoted to 10-min talks by the students, research lectures by local faculty in the neurosciences, and a discussion of training opportunities abroad including those funded by the NIH, the Grass Foundation, the Wellcome Trust, and various German agencies. The local organizer was Jaime Fornaguera, Prof. of Biochemistry at the University of Costa Rica Faculty of Medicine, who created the Program in Neuroscience at the University, which includes a variety of educational facilities including its own laboratory space.The lecturers were John Nicholls (SISSA, Italy), Elaine del Bel (University of Sao Paolo, Brazil), Lawrence Cohen (Yale University Medical School, USA), Alasdair Gibb (University College London, UK),Walter Stühmer (Max-Planck Institute for Experimental MedicineGoettingen, Germany) and Jack McMahan (Stanford University School of Medicine, USA). The lectures included mechanisms of synaptic transmission and sensory transduction; the structure and function of channels, receptors and pumps; the structural, functional organization of the vertebrate olfactory and visual systems; steps and mechanisms in neural development and regeneration, and the molecular basis of certain diseases. Elaine del Bel (Ribeirao Preto, Brazil) gave 2 lectures on molecular neurobiology and Parkinson's disease as well as conferences during the first 3 days.The local faculty lecturers were Henriette Raventos (genetics of familial schizophrenia), Alejandro Leal (genetics of hereditary motor and sensory neuropathies) and Carolina Arevalo (activation of ryanodine receptors). Of the 83 students, 47 were from Costa Rica and the rest were from Mexico, Guatamala, Honduras, Panama, Colombia, Cuba, Barbados,Venezula and Jamaica.The students' backgrounds were highly varied.The course was a wonderful success and came at exactly the right time for the University of Costa Rica as it plans to set up a neuroscience curriculum. It helped to energize the students, faculty and administrators for the setting up of this new enterprise. Bucharest, Romania: The University of Buchares welcomed the VLTP who presented a course, May 3-11, 2004, organized by Alexandru Babes and U. J. McMahan.There were 81 students, teachers, research workers and medical clinicians in neuroscience and related fields from various academic institutions in Romania and nearby countries in Eastern Europe. Five VLTP members gave 35 lectures (7 each) over 9 days. Assisting local organizer Dr Alex Babes were Dr Florentina Pluteanu and several local students: Ramona Linte, Nicoleta Neacsu, Gabriella Stanila, Christina Vasuta and Corina Prica.The lecturers were Prof. John Nicholls (SISSA,Trieste, Italy), Prof. Jonathan Ashmore (Dept. of Physiology, University College, London, UK), Prof. Mendell Rimer (Neuroscience Section, University of Texas, Austin,Texas, USA), Professor Jerzy Mozrzymas (Department of Biophysics,Wroclaw Medical University,Wroclaw, Poland) and Prof. U. J. McMahan (Dept of Neurobiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA).The lectures covered the structural and functional organization of the visual and auditory systems; mechanisms of channel and receptor function; the structure, function and formation of synapses; and principles of nervous system development and regeneration. Of the 81 students, 7 were from Poland, 2 from Bulgaria, 3 from Turkey. Of the 69 Romanian students, 44 were from various institutes in Bucharest.

VLTP, 1994-2004
1994: Mexico 1995: Chile: Santiago de Chile; Argentina: Buenos Aires;Venezuela: Caracas; India: Bombay, Bangalore 1996: Malaysia: Kuala Lumpur, Khota Baru 1997: People's Republic of China: Beijing, Xian; Shanghai 1998: Brazil: Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo; India: Mahalebeshwar; Bulgaria: Sofia 1999: Philippines: Diliman, Manila:Course in Neuroscience; Sri Lanka 2000: Brazil: Ribeirao Preto 2001: India: Bangalore; Uruguay: Montevideo; Cuba: Havana;Vietnam 2002: Iran:Tehran; Argentina: Cordoba; Poland:Wroclaw;Vietnam: Ho Chi Minh City ; China: Fudan University, Shanghai; Peru: University of Cusco, Cusco 2003:Turkey: Ege University School of Medicine, Izmir; Peru: University of Chiclayo, Chiclayo; Uganda: University Faculty of Medicine, Kampala 2004: Cuba: University of Granma, Manzanillo; Costa Rica: University of Costa Rica, San Jose; Iran: School of Cognitive Sciences-IPM,Tehran; Romania: University of Bucharest, Bucharest; China: Medical University of Qindao, Qindao

Sakire Pogun, local organizer, VLTP Izmir
Peru medical students organize their own VLTP course: A small group of medical students from the outlying University of Chiclayo, Peru, who had attended the Cusco VLTP course in December 2002, were so inspired by neuroscience that they, led by a fourth-year student named Gaudi Lozano, decided to organize a course in basic neuroscience covering the normal functioning of the nervous system.The course was enthusiastically supported by VLTP director Jack McMahan, who provided funds. The three essential ingredients for success were the organizer, Gaudi Lozano; the teachers (who taught on the Cusco course), Jaime Eugenin, Rommy von Bernhardi (Chile), Osvaldo Uchitel (Argentina), Francisco Fernandez de Miguel (Mexico), Elaine del Bel (Brazil); and the 70 students, selected from many different medical schools in Peru. Kampala, Uganda: The VLTP and African Regional Committee held a Workshop and Interest Group Meeting at Makerere University Faculty of Medicine, Kampala, Uganda, December 11-12, 2003. In addition to Drs Kenneth Muller and U. J. McMahan of the VLTP, participating in both events were Dr Raj Kalaria, Chair, IBRO-ARC, and Dr Willie Daniels, an ARC member. Dr Angelina Kakooza Mwesige (Dept of Pediatrics) and Dr Edward Nyatia (Faculty of Agriculture) were the local organizers. The lectures covered the chemical basis of signaling in the nervous system, the structure and function of synapses, neural plasticity, and the aging brain.There were 52 participants besides the lecturers and organizers, including Prof. Sam Luboga, Assoc. Dean of Education at Makerere Medical School, as well as Makerere medical students, residents and faculty in the Depts. of Anatomy, Physiology, Pharmacology, Pathology, Medicine (including Neurology), Psychiatry and Pediatrics. One participant, Dr Amadi Ogonda Ihunwo, was from the Dept. of Anatomy at the Mbarara

The Grass Foundation (USA) has extended its period of funding for the IBRO Visiting Lecture Team Programme (VLTP) from 2003 to 2005. In June 2003 Steve Zottoli, President of the Grass Foundation, made the generous offer to provide funding for the VLTP for 2003.The Trustees of the Foundation then agreed to extend funding until the end of 2005.The Grass Foundation is a philanthropic institution devoted to neuroscience and allied fields of medicine and science.

Prof Fornaguera dances at the gala dinner, San Jose


In 2004 IBRO's Neuroscience School Programme will fund 17 schools around the world.These schools will enrol some 400 students. Some of the schools are co-funded by IBRO and other national and international organizations as well as by generous donors
INMHA/IBRO African School, Cape Town: An IBRO/INMHA-sponsored Advanced School was held in Cape Town, South Africa, 1-7 September 2003. After receiving more than 115 applications from all over Africa, the organizers selected 22 students for the 1-week courses offered by this school.The courses were held at the University of Stellenbosch, South Africa, under the overall heading 'Electrical Activity in the Nervous System'.The faculty included scientists from Italy (2), Canada (4), the US (1), the UK (1), Kenya (1), France (1) and South Africa (4).The students came from Morocco (3), Cameroon (1), Benin (1), Kenya (3), Uganda (2),Tanzania (1), Tunisia (1), South Africa (6), Botswana (1), Lesotho (2), Mauritius (1). The 2 main sponsors of the school were the Canadian Institute of Neuroscience, Mental Health and Addiction (INMHA) and IBRO. IBRO's African Regional Committee (ARC) and the Society of Neuroscientists of Africa (SONA) also helped organize the school. Other Advanced Schools are planned for 2004 in cooperation with INMHA and the International Society for Neurochemistry (ISN).They will cover other themes of interest to scientists and clinicians in the 4 corners of Africa. IBRO/FENS Summer School, Dubrovnik and Zagreb: An IBRO/FENS International Summer School, 'Development and Plasticity of the Human Cerebral Cortex', was held in Dubrovnik and Zagreb, Croatia, 20 September–4 October 2003.The Summer School, sponsored by IBRO and FENS, was organized by Ivica Kostovic (Zagreb, Croatia) and held at the International Center of Croatian Universities (ICCU) in Dubrovnik (invited lectures) and in laboratories of the Croatian Institute for Brain Research (CIBR) in Zagreb (practical tutorials). The course was intended for advanced Ph.D. students or post-docs in neuroscience and related fields from Western Europe, the IBRO-CEERC, and other IBRO regions.The school was attended by 12 eminent lecturers and 26 young scientists from 15 countries: Hungary (3), Romania (1), Georgia (1), UK (1), USA (1), Sweden (1), Russia (4), Croatia (3), Germany (2), Poland (2), Finland (2), Czech R (1), Iran (1), India (1), France (2).Topics of the school included: synaptogenesis; development of dendrites and thalamocortical, corticocortical and monoaminergic connections; areal specification; early cortical activity, development and plasticity of hippocampal circuitry; neuroprotection in early life; plasticity, recovery and neurodevelopmental outcome after perinatal damage.The school successfully promoted research and education on development and regeneration of the nervous system in invertebrate and vertebrate systems. The course began with a 2-day symposium, where nearly 150 graduate, undergraduate students and faculty learned about the ontogeny of the nervous system, axonal pathfinding and target selection, synapse formation, circuit development, and regeneration, cell death, regeneration of synapses and the possible role of transplants in the induction of regeneration.The speakers were Pierre Drapeau (McGill University), Francisco F. De-Miguel (IFC-UNAM), René Drucker Colín (IFC-UNAM), Jorge Hernández (CINVESTAV, IPN), Eduardo Macagno (UCSD), U. Jack McMahan (Stanford University), Julio Morán (IFC-UNAM), Kenneth J. Muller (U. Miami),Wesley Thompson (University of Austin), Alfredo Varela E. (INB-UNAM), and David Weisblat (UC Berkeley). The symposium was followed by a 2-week practical course for 12 selected students, who received hands-on training in a selected range of methodologies, using invertebrate and vertebrate systems.The practical course consisted of a series of experiments that were carried out by the students, following the scheme of the courses given at Woods Hole and in the 2001 workshop here in Mexico.The faculty of the practical course were Francisco F. De-Miguel (IFC-UNAM), Araceli Espinoza-Jeffreys (UCLA), Julio Morán (IFCUNAM), Kenneth J Muller (Miami University), Juan Riesgo Escovar (INB-UNAM), Citlali Trueta Segovia (INP, Mexico), Alfredo Varela Echavarría (INB-UNAM) and David Weisblat (UC Berkeley). 5th IBRO African Region School: The School 'Essential and Behavioural Neuroscience' was held in Nairobi, Kenya, 14-21 December 2003 and was organized by Profs Abdul Mohammed (SONA) and Nilesh Patel (IBRO-ARC). It was held for the second time at the International Centre for Insect Physiology and Ecology (ICIPE) in Duduville, on the outskirts of Nairobi. Almost all the 25 students were engaged in neuroscience research and a few were completing doctoral degrees in their home institutions in Ethiopia, Kenya, Morocco, Nigeria, South Africa, Uganda and Zimbabwe. The teaching faculty were from France, Italy, Sweden, South Africa, the USA, the UK, Switzerland and Kenya.The instructors included two members of the IBRO VLTP, Jack McMahan and Ken Muller. Students learned about the most modern methods on quantification of behaviour in laboratory and field animals. Faculty also demonstrated how to monitor circadian rhythms and build upon simple maze learning paradigms to track subtle behaviours. Finite ways of measuring behaviour using transponder tagged technology and radiotelemetry were also the order of the sunny days. Dr Jean Altman (Princeton), on fieldwork at the Amboseli Game Reserve, gave a fascinating guest lecture on hormones and behaviour in baboons (Science, 2003 Nov 14; 302:1231-4). In addition to these, the students assimilated lectures on neuronal death mechanisms, cognitive testing in man, and brain ageing and dementia. At the beginning of the week in Nairobi the IBRO African Schools 'veteran' instructor and friend of SONA, Prof. Marina Bentivoglio (Italy), was recognized for her outstanding service to African neuroscience. In accord with the IBRO tradition, Michael Kihara (Kenya) was elected as the class representative for the alumni. Contributions from our local sponsor, the Avenue Hospital Group, and AstraZeneca and IBRO were acknowledged and asante sana was also said to Mr Kurt Iten and his staff at the ICIPE Guest Centre, who made this sub-Saharan school a great success. 3rd Latin-American Doctorate Program, University Pablo de Olavide, Seville, Spain, March 31-June 15, 2004: 27 students started training 2 years ago, attending the first set of courses of the Doctorate Progam (March 31-June 15, 2002).They were from Spanish universities and research institutions, centers from

Women students at the 5th IBRO African School
Latin-American countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Cuba, Colombia, Mexico and Venezuela), and from the UK and Italy.This part of the Program was divided into 5 courses (30 credits) covering the main aspects of modern Neurosciences (Biophysics, Cell and Molecular Biology, Neuroanatomy and Development of the Nervous System, Electrophysiology, Neuropharmacology and Neurotoxicology, and Neurophysiology of Sensory and Motor Systems).Training included regular lectures, laboratory work, demonstrations (video and computer rooms), and invited lectures. The courses were presented by 27 scientists from Europe and the USA and took place at the campus of the Pablo de Olavide University, a new and active Spanish public center. Lab work was mostly carried out at the División de Neurociencias, a research facility devoted to comparative and multidisciplinary studies on Neurosciences.The Program was co-directed by Drs J. M. Delgado-García, from the University Pablo de Olavide, and A. Ferrús, from the Instituto Cajal, CSIC, Madrid, Spain. The second part of the Doctorate Program took place this year, April 5-June 18, 2004, and was devoted to Higher Brain Functions, Behavioral Biology, Neural Substrates of Learning and Memory, and Plasticity and Regeneration (9 credits).Training included regular lectures, lab work, and invited lecturers. Sixteen scientists from Europe and the USA presented the courses. Students also had to prepare a dissertation in order to obtain their Diploma de Estudios Avanzados As a special event within the Program, the international symposium 'Neural Oscillators Underlying Perception, Cognition and Behavior' was organized. It was aimed to introduce the students to the exciting research area of Neuroscience today and was presented by internationally known speakers. The Doctorate Program was supported by IBRO, the students' own laboratories, by fellowships from the Spanish Ministry of Research and Technology, and the University Pablo de Olavide. The Spanish Ministry of Education covered the travel and living expenses of most of the invited teachers and speakers.The University Pablo de Olavide generously allowed the use of their teaching and research facilities.The Fundación Ramón Areces sponsored the introductory international course on 'Neural Oscillators'. The directors of the Doctorate Program are well aware of the importance of the reintegration of our students to their original universities or research centers.They do not wish to contribute to a brain drain from Latin-American countries. It must be indicated that during the successive Master and Doctorate Courses organized under the auspices of IBRO, since 1995, more than 180 young investigators (mainly from Latin-American countries) have been introduced to basic aspects of modern Neuroscience.The organizers believe that IBRO could contribute to facilitate their reinstallation in their places of origin with a program to collect discarded (but still useful) equipment from more developed research centers from the USA, Europe and Japan. IBRO Neuroscience School, Hong Kong, April 19-30, 2004: The Neuroscience School, with the assistance of the Hong Kong Society of Neurosciences, aimed to provide a platform for senior PhD students and junior post-doctoral fellows in the Asia-Pacific region to acquire knowledge of both theoretical and technological advances in key areas of neuroscience research. Besides lectures and tutorials, 5 mini-projects ran as a strand through the practical sessions in different research laboratories. Each student chose one of these 5 themes for practical sessions. At the end of the school, students had a half-day presentation of their work in the school. During the school, students also attended an International Symposium on Neural Plasticity, Development and Repair (April 22-23, 2004) and presented their own research work as posters. The 25 students were from Australia (3), China (11), India (3), Iran (2), Philippines (1), Singapore (2),Taiwan (1), and Thailand (2).While travel and accommodation expenses for the students came from IBRO-APRC, the overseas teachers (Australia, Japan, Korea, USA) were supported by the Croucher Foundation (Hong Kong).The local teachers were from the University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, the Chinese University of Hong Kong, and Hong Kong Baptist University.

INMHA (Institute of Neurosciences, Mental Health and Addiction, Canada) is to co-fund Neuroscience Schools in Africa and Latin America in 2004-5. After a highly successful Advanced School sponsored by IBRO and INMHA in Cape Town, South Africa in September 2003, it has been announced that INMHA is to co-fund 2 more IBRO schools in Africa and a school in Latin America planned for 2004-5. Remi Quirion, Scientific Director of INMHA, commented on the implications for international neuroscience: "Increasing the international presence of Canadian neuroscientists is one of the priorities of INMHA.The successful IBRO school program gives us a unique opportunity to do that at the same time as helping scientists in Africa and Latin America to refresh their knowledge of a specific area of the neurosciences that is especially relevant to them. "

Summer School, Dubrovnik and Zagreb
the development, organization and pathology of the human brain. IBRO-UNAM-ISN School of Neuroscience, Mexico City: The School of Neuroscience in Mexico, October 2-17, 2003 was aimed at graduate and undergraduate students from Latin America. Students received hands-on training in modern methodologies used to study


Out of Africa: Highlights of IBRO-ARC activities: Over the past year the African Regional Committee's activities include 2 Neuroscience Schools in Africa, a regional meeting co-sponsored by the VLTP in Uganda and success stories of Africa IBRO schools alumni, such as those of the first two recipients of the Rita Levi-Montalcini Fellowships (IBRO) who send encouraging reports on their progress in the USA and South African laboratories. The ARC represents the interests of 5 African neuroscience organizations: the Society of Neuroscientists of Africa (SONA), Moroccan Association of Neuroscience (MAN) Southern African Neuroscience Society (SANS), Kenyan Society for Neuroscience (KSN) and Nigerian Society for Neuroscience (NSN), all members of the IBRO Governing Council.The ARC is working with neuroscience interest groups in Congo, Egypt, Senegal and Uganda to become members of IBRO. 'Neuropharmacology and Molecular Neuroscience', co-sponsored by the International Society for Neurochemistry (ISN) and IBRO and organized by N. Patel (Kenya), R. Butterworth (Canada) and R. Halliwell (USA), will be held in Nairobi, Kenya, 1-8 November 2004. Further refinement in the organization of the African Neuroscience schools has been achieved by establishing a central processing centre in Nairobi.This schools secretariat (wango@uonbi.ac.ke) is set up in collaboration with the SONA office to receive, review and inform outcomes of all school applications. There are also plans to support a Regional neuroscience meeting in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC).The APRONES organization of Congo will host the second Regional neuroscience meeting in Kinshasa, Congo. The meeting on neurological diseases, 8-10 November 2004, will be organized by P. Luabeya and colleagues (DRC). Furthermore, there are tentative plans to hold a short neuroscience course on brain ageing and dementia in Tunis, Tunisia in December 2004. In 2005 the ARC will help in the organization of the SONA 2005 Biennial Conference of African Neuroscience in South Africa.This congress to be held 20-22 April will also be an IBRO Regional Congress and hailed to be the largest Neuroscience meeting in Africa. Other activities 2005 include the full VLTP in Uganda in February 2005, an IBRO School in Morocco co-sponsored by the International Society of Neurochemistry (ISN), and a Neuroscience course in Bamako (Mali) through the support of the Fogarty Center (USA).The latter activity will open yet another part of Africa. 21 from Thailand, 3 from Philippines, 2 from Malaysia, 2 from Laos, 1 from Bhutan, 1 from Vietnam. Most were MD and MSc students, with a few junior PhD students. Six overseas teachers (Australia, Hong Kong) and 2 local teachers delivered talks in the school. After attending lectures, students, under the supervision of local instructors, used PubMed to search for relevant articles and information. Student presentations were conducted in groups. The 2nd Associate School (Chongqing, China), May 26-30, 2004 was held in the Third Military Medical University in collaboration with the Chongqing Neuroscience Society.Thirty-six students attended the school: 29 from China, 4 from Thailand, 2 from India, 1 from Vietnam. Most were MSc students and junior PhD students. Six overseas teachers (Australia, Korea, Hong Kong) delivered talks in the school. The format was modified from that of the Chiang Mai School. Before coming to the Associate School, students were given 10 research articles related to the topics of the lectures. Students were divided into groups for the PubMed search sessions. Ample time was given to group discussion. Students also had 2 sessions in conducting computer-assisted practicals. On the last day, students presented what they had learned in the school and discussed results of their PubMed search. The IBRO Neuroscience School held in Hong Kong (April 19-30, 2004) with the assistance of the Hong Kong Society of Neurosciences provided a platform for senior PhD students and junior post-doctoral fellows in the Asian-Pacific region to acquire knowledge of both theoretical and technological advances in key areas of neuroscience research. During the school, disadvantaged countries, to attend conferences. Earmarked funds were also awarded to candidates to attend the RIKEN Summer Program (3) and the MBL Course (1).Two of these candidates are alumni of former IBRO schools. Funding was provided to 2 Symposia and Workshops (China, Sri Lanka) to support young neuroscientists to attend the events. Through the IBRO Book Fund an agreement was reached with the publisher Science Press, Beijing whereby 100 books were purchased at a nominal price of the Chinese translation of the book From Neuron to Brain by John Nicholls et al. After consultation with the Chinese Society for Neuroscience, 80 books were distributed to various university libraries in China and the remaining books as book prizes in the Biennial Congress of the Chinese Society for Neuroscience (September 2005). The 3rd IBRO Associate School took take place in Cochin, India (September 2004); the 5th IBRO School will take place in Bangkok,Thailand (December 2004); the 2nd round of applications for the APRC Exchange Fellowships will be launched in the last quarter of 2004. Ying-Shing Chan Chair, APRC Central and Eastern Europe Regional Committee: The Region consists of more than 25 countries of the former Soviet Union and Eastern bloc. Though diversified, the Region has a unifying good tradition in neuroscience that ubiquitously suffers from inadequate funding. Several of our countries joined the European Union on May 1, 2004, providing a major milestone for the Region and offering hopes for the others.The special status of these countries, belonging to both Western and Eastern Europe, is deserved, as it creates a bridge between those less and more politically and economically favoured.The major task for our Committee is to establish a research area allowing for collaboration, exchange of people, resources and ideas. The most important IBRO activity last year in the Region was the IBRO Congress in Prague, organized in July 2003 by Eva Sykova and Josef Syka.The Congress was a great success. The CEERC provided 30 fellowships allowing young researchers from the Region to participate in the Congress. The Committee has supported 7 symposia and 4 short research visits within the Region.We would like to receive many more such applications, as it enables neuroscientists from this part of Europe to maintain tighter links with researchers from e.g. North America and West Europe. In 2003 there were two IBRO schools in the Region.The traditional Summer School that has been our landmark held in Warsaw (Poland), 'IBRO-CEERC School of Molecular Neurobiology: Communicating Between Synapse and Nucleus: From Receptors to Genes to Extracellular Matrix' was organized by Bozena Kaminska, Jacek Kuznicki, Ryszard Przewlocki and Leszek Kaczmarek.Twenty-four students from 7 countries attended the school which included morning lectures and afternoon practicals. In addition a special IBRO-WERC/CEERC and FENS school was organized by I. Kostovic in Zagreb and Dubrovnik (Croatia) on cortical development; 26 students attended. Leszek Kaczmarek Chair, CEERC Latin-American Regional Committee: The LARC held two excellent neuroscience schools: Development and Regeneration of the Nervous System, October 2-19, 2003, Mexico City directed by Prof. F. Fernández de Miguel and the IX Latin-American School of Neuroscience, April 19-May 17, 2004, Santiago de Chile, which alternates from this year with the regular Montevideo school and a Second School of Neuroscience in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil ...cont. p. 7

Prof.Willie Daniels, Dept. of Medical Physiology and Biochemistry, Stellenbosch University, South Africa, is to be the next President of the Society of Neuroscientists of Africa (SONA). He will take up the post on the occasion of the Fifth SONA Conference in Cape Town, South Africa, 20-22 April 2005. He succeeds Prof. Polycarp Nwoha (Nigeria). Prof. Daniels is currently Chair of the South African National Committee for IBRO, Chair of the Southern African Neurosciences Society and is a member of the IBRO-ARC. He has taught at a number of IBRO Neuroscience Schools and has been a member of IBRO's Visiting Lecture Team Programme.

Graduate students and young faculty from Cameroon, Ethiopia, Kenya, Lesotho, Mauritius, Morocco, Nigeria, Rwanda, South Africa,Tanzania, Tunisia, Uganda and Zimbabwe participated in the 2 IBRO schools in South Africa and Kenya.The 4th IBRO Neuroscience School 'Neurophysiology and Epilepsy' was held in Cape Town, 1-7 September 2003, in collaboration with the INHMA (Institute of Neuroscience, Mental health and Addiction, Canada) in Cape Town.The 5th IBRO Neuroscience School 'Essential and Behavioural Neuroscience' was held 14-21 December 2003 in Nairobi, Kenya. The ARC also organized a 2-day regional event with the help of the IBRO VLTP faculty (Jack McMahan and Ken Muller) in the 'Pearl of Africa'. A two-day intensive neuroscience course covering CNS structure, receptor function, neuronal plasticity and neurodegenerative disorders was held in Kampala, Uganda, 9-10 December 2003. The lectures were attended by 50 biologists, physiologists, neurologists and psychiatrists. This was the first ever neuroscience activity to take place in Uganda, which resulted in the formation of the Ugandan Neuroscience Interest Group. Drs Moses Ebuk and Angelina Kakooza Mwesige of Makerere University were elected as the first officers of this group. The ARC will have overseen 3 Basic and Advanced IBRO Neuroscience Schools in 2004: 1) The 6th IBRO School with ISN (Neuropathology) support took place in Grahamstown, South Africa, 12-19 September, 2004.The theme was 'Neurodegeneration and Regeneration' and organized by S. Daya (SA) and V. R. Russell (SA) (the Society for Neuroscience team also held a workshop 'Neurobiology of Epilepsy', 19-20 September after the school, organized by J. Noebels (USA) and S. Daya (SA). 2) The 7th INMHA/IBRO School 'Hormones and Brain' took place in Rabat, Morocco, 2-9 October 2004, organized by N. Lakhdar-Ghazal (Morocco) and Q. Pittman (Canada). 3) The 8th IBRO School

VLTP at Makerere University: 1st row: lecturers Willie Daniels (2nd from left), Kenneth Muller (4th from left), Raj Kalaria (2nd from right); back row: Ebuk Moses, Dept. of Physiology, Makerere University (2nd from left)
Seven centres in the continent continue to benefit from the Development Aid for African Libraries.These centres have invariably taken advantage of the Science Direct, HINARI and Greenfield’s Neuropathology (Arnolds) initiatives. IBRO is also aiding SONA to develop a fully functional web site that will also be used to publicize ARC activities.The webmaster of this site is based at the University of Nairobi, site of the SONA Secretariat. The ARC continues to budget $5,000 per year for small (regional) Travel Grants and short-term visit Fellowships to African members. The deadlines for these are the same as those the IBRO awards programme but emergency applications have also been considered. Four individuals have been helped in the past 12 months to attend international conferences and visit other neuroscientists within Africa. Two African neuroscientists participated at the FENS congress in Lisbon, 10-13 July 2004. Raj Kalaria Chair, ARC Asian-Pacific Regional Committee: The 1st Associate School (Chiang Mai,Thailand), February 23-27, 2004, was held in Chiang Mai University in collaboration with the Thai Neuroscience Society and the Neurology Society of Thailand.Thirty students attended the school: students also attended an International Symposium on Neural Plasticity, Development and Repair (April 22-23, 2004) and presented their own research work as posters. The 25 students were from Australia (3), China (11), India (3), Iran (2), Philippines (1), Singapore (2),Taiwan (1) and Thailand (2).While travel and accommodation expenses for the students came from IBRO-APRC, the overseas teachers (Australia, Japan, Korea, USA) were supported by the Croucher Foundation (Hong Kong).The local teachers were from the University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, the Chinese University of Hong Kong, and Hong Kong Baptist University. An Exchange Fellowship Scheme (age limit 40) was launched in February 2004. Both applicant and host laboratory have to be in our region. Applicants must also provide strong justification that he/she will return to the home country after the exchange. In the first exercise, awards were given to 4 candidates (from China and India) for them to perform 6-month research periods in Australia, Japan, Hong Kong and Singapore. In collaboration with FAONS, IBRO-APRC provided travel support for 15 young neuroscientists (China, India, Japan, Korea, and Vietnam) to present papers at the 2nd Symposium of FAONS (Tehran, May 17-19, 2004). IBRO-APRC also offered travel support to 4 young neuroscientists, especially those from


IBRO to Waive Dues for Small Corporate Members At the Executive Committee and Governing Council meetings held in Lisbon at the FENS 2004 Forum, it was decided, as of 2005, to waive the payment of dues for Corporate Membership in IBRO for societies with less than 250 members that claim limited financial resources. It is hoped that this measure will facilitate the creation and entry into IBRO of small neuroscience organizations. International Registry of Neuroscience Training Programme The IRNTP (Chair, Andrew Gundlach; Assistant Caitlin McOmish, Australia) provides on the IBRO web site a comprehensive listing of neuroscience training programmes operating worldwide. It is envisaged that national and regional neuroscience societies and federations will work with IBRO to establish and maintain national web-based registries based on their own requirements and resources.The creation and maintenance of the Registry will help define and make better known training possibilities worldwide. IBRO Science Advisory Programme to carry out first institution review The ISAP (Chair,Walter Stühmer, Germany), has received its first request for the evaluation of a neuroscience institution from Dr Tamás Freund, Director of the Institute of Experimental Medicine, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, Hungary. The advisory board chosen to perform the review is Marina Bentivoglio (Italy), Jean-Claude Lacaille (Canada), Henry Markram (Switzerland), Roger Nicoll (USA) and Larry Swanson (USA). Institutions or university departments engaged in brain research anywhere in the world wishing to have their scientific and teaching activities evaluated may apply to the ISAP for a review. The review should i) help the institution and its director develop a strategy to support the best programmes and most promising research groups; ii) represent an independent evaluation of a research facility by top international authorities; iii) help both the institution reviewed, as well as the governmental or other agencies running the institutes to improve public relations and influencing governmental science policies. The reports will form the backbone of an IBRO database of neuroscience institutions worldwide, which will be maintained in the form of a World Map of Brain Research on the IBRO web site. More free books for IBRO Schools and Students The IBRO Book Fund this year delivered neuroscience textbooks to IBRO Neuroscience Schools and students around the world.The Book Fund was set up in 2003 as a collaborative venture between IBRO, Elsevier Ltd, the Society for Neuroscience and the American Association of Neuroscience Training Programs (ANTP). Donations also came from the International Society of Neuropathology (ISN) (Greenfield's Neuropathology) and the Ipsen Foundation (France).The Fund aims to provide up-to-date scientific books to trainees, young investigators, research institutions and academic libraries with few resources. In March 2003 Michael Zigmond et al.'s Fundamental Neuroscience were sent to the 30 students at the IBRO School of Neuroscience, Montevideo, Uruguay. In October 2003 76 volumes of the Russian edition of From Neuron to Brain by J. G. Nicholls et al. were sent to a number of Russian institutes.The books were purchased by IBRO's Central and Eastern European Regional Committee (CEERC) at a special price and were distributed free of charge to young Russian students (under 25 years) participating in scientific research and to young scientists (under 33 years) at provincial institutes that do not have access to new scientific literature. An agreement was reached with the publisher Science Press, Beijing whereby 100 books were purchased at a nominal price of the Chinese translation of From Neuron to Brain. After consultation with the Chinese Society for Neuroscience, 80 books were distributed to various university libraries in China and the remainder as book prizes in the Biennial Congress of the Chinese Society for Neuroscience (September 2005). Richard Brown (rebrown@dal.ca) of IBRO's Neuroscience Libraries Committee is coordinating free subscriptions to ScienceDirect, an electronic publication to which a number of eligible institutions are given access as a result of a contractual agreement between Elsevier Ltd and IBRO. He is also helping institutions worldwide to subscribe to the HINARI programme. IBRO Animals in Research Committee in Latin America and Africa The Committee planned three projects for 2004. The first was to hold workshops in Santiago, Chile and Montevideo, Uruguay, June 8-12, to provide information on international standards of animal use to scientists working in the region. The team included Drs Sharon Juliano (Chair, Animals in Research Committee), Pedro Rico (Chief Veterinarian at USAMRIID) and Dorcas O’Roarke (International Council of AAALAC). Local scientists and veterinarians took part in the Santiago workshop at the Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Chile, including Drs Pedro Maldonado and Camilo Arriza. Prior to the lecture series, the IBRO panel met with the host Animal Care and Use Committee to provide specific information about issues at the Medical School of the University of Chile. At the Instituto de Investigaciones Biológicas, Montevideo, Uruguay our local organizers were Drs Ana Silva and Omar Macadar. The second project involved Africa, with two representatives Sharon Juliano (IBRO) and Rick Van Sluyters (AAALAC, IBRO) attending the IBRO course 'Neurodegeneration and Regeneration' in Grahamstown, South Africa, September 10-18, to submit information regarding international standards, to encourage discussion about the possibility of including this topic into the local curriculum, and to engage in a dialogue about the mechanisms by which African countries wish to approach this subject. The third project was to create a teaching module targeted at medical students. Individuals were contacted in one of our target countries (GMC, UK).The committee has also begun a dialogue with groups who may help to produce and finance the project (NABR, Fogarty Foundation, and a private video production group). IBRO Web Site gets total makeover Not only did the home page of the IBRO web site receive a bright new face halfway through 2004, but the site was entirely reconstructed. Innovations included a new menu system, a new search engine, a reconstructed member database with new registration and search tools.The online support of IBRO programmes means that all formal procedures for funding applications, entry of school abstracts and course details will be handled online via the web site.

The World Health Organization's Health InterNetwork Access to Research Initiative (HINARI) provides developing countries with free or nearly free online access to biomedical and related social sciences literature.Through this programme accredited public institutions may gain free or reduced-price access to over 1500 biomedical journals and publications. There are currently 113 eligible countries, with some 629 institutions that have registered from 61 of the 69 countries eligible for free access, and 414 institutions registered from 39 of the 454 countries eligible for very low-cost access. Eligible categories include: universities; schools of medicine, nursing, dentistry, pharmacy and public health; research institutes; government offices; teaching hospitals; national medical libraries. Visit the HINARI web site at http://www.healthinternetwork.org/scipub.php IBRO has given strong support to this initiative and encourages its Affiliated Organizations to do everything possible to ensure that their membership take full advantage of these opportunities.

...cont. from p. 6 (September-October 2004).Two new special schools were held in September 2004: one in Juriquilla-Mexico, financed by the Grass Foundation and co-organized with the Society for Neuroscience; the other in Cordoba, Argentina, financed and organized with INMHA (Canada). Over the year we sponsored 12 courses in the region, including Argentina, Brazil (2), Colombia, Cuba,Trinidad-Tobago,Venezuela. All courses had excellent feedback from organizers, visiting professors and students. Fourteen young neuroscientists from the region were supported. Candidates selected were graduate students who went to another country within the region to complement experiments or learn techniques that were important for their dissertation. For the next round we are requesting 24 fellowships. Omar Macadar Chair, LARC US/Canada Regional Committee: The joint US/Canada Regional Committee (also known as the IAC-USNC IBRO/SfN International Affairs Committee/National Academy of Sciences US National Committee for IBRO) is jointly appointed by the Society for Neuroscience (SfN) and the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) and represents the interests of both organizations in IBRO.The committee is supported by funding from the National Institutes of Health, specifically, the National Institute on Drug Abuse, the National Institute on Mental Health, and the National Institute on Neurological Disorders and Stroke. The committee has embarked on several outreach activities to meet the needs of the

global neuroscience community.Via the internet (www.iac-usnc.org) the committee continues to organize a lecture series to bring up-to-date neuroscience information to researchers in developing countries.The web-based neuroscience lectures are accessible by scientists worldwide and feature narrated slides by prominent neuroscientists. Currently featured on the site is a web symposium entitled The Neurobiology of Stress, Fear, and Anxiety: Basic and Clinical Aspects. Also posted is the Neurobiology of Disease Workshop, Epilepsy: Genes and Molecular Plasticity, featured at the 2003 SfN Annual Meeting in New Orleans.The IAC-USNC, in collaboration with the SfN Education Committee and the faculty of the 2003 Neurobiology of Disease Workshop, have made this material available for the IAC-USNC web site.The committee is also in the process of organizing 'cyber seminars' around the Epilepsy Workshop. The Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, MA was again designated by the IAC-USNC as the 2004 North American IBRO neuroscience school, and as such the IAC-USNC encouraged international neuroscientists to apply to the MBL neuroscience programmes. Successful applicants from economically disadvantaged countries, who are designated IBRO Fellows for Advanced Summer Courses in Neuroscience in North America, are eligible for substantial financial support, which, in addition to expenses associated with course attendance, includes a two-year SfN membership and a $1,500 travel fellowship to attend the following year’s SfN annual meeting. MBL was chosen in 2004 for the third year running to be the North American Neuroscience School. Four IBRO Fellows were awarded places on the summer 2004 courses (see p.3).

The IAC-USNC organized a workshop 'Neurobiology of Epilepsy', September 19-20, 2004 at Rhodes University in Grahamstown, South Africa.This 2-day workshop, offered in conjunction with the 'Neurodegeneration and Regeneration' IBRO course, was relevant to a range of experts and non-experts, so clinicians, graduate level students considering further study in neuroscience, postdoctoral fellows, and faculty were among the participants. Jeffrey Noebels (Baylor College of Medicine) directed the workshop with Santy Daya (Rhodes University) the local organizer. Many of the faculty members from the 2003 SfN Neurobiology of Disease Workshop were instructors at the workshop including Dan Lowenstein (University of California San Francisco), Peter B. Crino (University of Pennsylvania), John Huguenard (Stanford Medical School) and Frances Jensen (Harvard Medical School).The workshop was supported by the National Institutes of Health funding of the committee, and support for the faculty travel was contributed by the American Epilepsy Society. The IAC-USNC intends to plan a course in conjunction with the IBRO-Latin American Regional Committee in Venezuela for 2005. The course would cover neuroanatomy and neurophysiology, as well as neurogenetics. Gregory Quirk of Ponce School of Medicine in Puerto Rico will be the IAC lead on this activity. As in previous years, the committee provided 15 travel fellowships for students from developing countries to present an abstract at the 2004 SfN annual meeting in San Diego, CA. SfN also awarded travel fellowships to 15 students nominated by SfN regional North American chapters to attend and present their work at the FENS Forum in Lisbon, Portugal. Bruce McEwen Chair, US/CanadaRC

Western Europe Regional Committee's objectives The WERC's activities and initiatives reflect the specific functions and scope of WERC within IBRO.These are: 1) Putting the resources, experience and cultural background of 'old Europe’s' neuroscience at the service of IBRO’s mission; 2) Working in close collaboration with FENS, CEERC and the entire European group of National Societies affiliated to IBRO, now numbering 35, nearly one half of all IBRO's member organizations (21 of these are encompassed by WERC and 14 by CEERC); 3) Launching initiatives to obtain funding from other organizations; 4) Promoting European participation in the education and training of young neuroscientists from economically disadvantaged countries around the world; 5) Fostering information exchange and collaboration between neuroscientists in Europe and the rest of the world through IBRO’s programmes. Regional Schools in 2004: FENS/Hertie/IBRO Winter School, Kitzbuel, Austria; IBRO/FENS Cognitive Neuroscience Summer School on Working Memory, Bled, Slovenia; School of Computational Neuroscience, Obidos, Portugal; Third Latin-American Doctoral Program on Neuroscience and Behavioural Biology, Seville, Spain. IBRO-WERC/FENS PhD Fellowship Programme: awards went to: J. Bentes Hughes (Brazil) to H. Kettenmann (Berlin, Germany; A.Vias (India) to B. Kieffer (Strasbourg, France); Marcia Mellado (Cuba) to Ian Russell (Brighton, UK). Gaetano di Chiara Chair,WERC


During the FENS Forum 2004 in Lisbon, a symposium on Public Awareness of Brain Research was organized by IBRO, FENS (Federation of European Neuroscience Societies) and EDAB (European Dana Alliance for the Brain), as part of a concerted effort to bring to the public a greater understanding of scientists' research, often issues that have a direct impact on society. Communicating brain research can be achieved in many ways: from talks to schoolchildren to 'sci-art' exhibitions. The speakers, experienced in communicating at all levels, from grassroots to national broadcasting, included Eva Sykova (Institute of Experimental Medicine, Czech Republic), who spoke about activities organized in the Czech Republic to increase public awareness during the worldwide Brain Awareness Week (March 15-21 2004). Paulo Battaglini (University of Trieste, Italy) also described Brain Awareness Week in Italy, emphasizing the importance of choosing the right scientists to inform the public about neuroscience. Chris Stock (University of Manchester, UK) talked about how to get the message across to teenagers. Pierre Magistretti, FENS President, ended the symposium with a message about the Brain Campaign, recently launched by IBRO, EDAB and FENS (see p. 1).

Members of IBRO may make financial contributions beyond the annual membership dues to support IBRO programmes. Individuals or organizations may give financial support to a range of IBRO programmes or specifically targeted programmes. Donations may also come from commercial companies, foundations or other bodies wishing to contribute financially to the objectives of IBRO. Such supporting members will pay an annual subscription to IBRO, in return receiving specific benefits. If you would like to support IBRO, please contact the IBRO Secretariat at ibro3@wanadoo.fr.

Brain Awareness Week 2004 at the Centre for Neuroscience, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin, India
Brain Awareness Week, now in its 7th year, is a worldwide event that takes place each March. It gives scientists and clinicians an opportunity to show the public what is being accomplished in scientific laboratories, provide information about the brain that everyone can understand, and inform the public about what is being done to diagnose, treat and prevent disorders of the brain, such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, stroke, schizophrenia and depression, which affect the lives of millions of people. The BAW campaign now includes more than 1700 partners in 57 countries. For information or advice about participating in Brain Awareness Week 2005 email enquiries@edab.net

The winning image of the first Neuroscience cover competition was the cover of vol. 119, no. 3, from the article 'Experience-dependent regulation of synaptic zinc is impaired in the cortex of aged mice' by R. H. Dyck and C. E. Brown, Department of Psychology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Much of the research in the authors' laboratory is concerned with the functional role of distinct populations of neurons in the mammalian forebrain that sequester zinc into synaptic vesicles within their axon terminals. The winners received $1000 worth of books from Elsevier Ltd, the publishers of IBRO's journal Neuroscience.

In her new capacity as Secretary-General, Jenny Lund has added 3 new programmes to the constantly expanding IBRO list. The Clinical/Basic Science Links Programme (Chair, Patrik Brundin, Sweden) will explore a variety of means to emphasize the interrelationship between basic neuroscience research and clinical practice.The committee will set up links with other organizations and will work with the IBRO Regional Committees, the IBRO Visiting Lecture Team and IBRO Schools Programmes to provide workshops, symposia and contributions to IBRO schools, emphasizing neuroscience contributions to the treatment of neural diseases. The Public Education Committee (Chair, Esther Lennon, UK) aims to achieve a primary goal of IBRO: to increase public awareness of brain research and its application to human diseases. Most research effort and the education of individuals to carry out research are supported by public funds. It is therefore of great importance that the public understands and supports this activity and realizes its implications for health in the community. The Return Home Programme (Chair, Carlos Belmonte, Spain) aims to develop ways to lend practical support to the concept of trying to retain in their home countries young neuroscience researchers from less advantaged countries who have trained overseas, particularly in the USA or Western Europe. Many fail to return to their home country to practise their research or fail to be productive in their home setting.

Neuroscience TOCs now reach the entire IBRO membership by e-mail on publication of each issue. A new programme of Special Issues is devoted to specific topics within neuroscience, preferably 'emergent topics' that open new fields in neurobiological research.The Special Issues will be published as separate volumes with

prominent neuroscientists as guest editors. Neuroscience is able to accept on-line submissions through its 'Editorial Manager' program.Web submissions are now the preferred choice and offer users many advantages over the traditional hard-copy route. Average response time to authors with a decision is now 30 days. Visit the Neuroscience web site at www.neuroscience-ibro.com for information about the journal.

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE President Torsten Wiesel (USA) Secretary-General Jennifer Lund (USA Secretary-General (Past) Albert Aquayo (Canada) Treasurer Steve Redman (Australia) Chairs of Regional Committees R. N. Kalaria (Africa) Y. S. Chan (Asian/Pacific) L. Kaczmarek (Central and Eastern Europe) O. Macadar (Latin America) B. S. McEwen (US/Canada) G. Di Chiara (Western Europe) IBRO SECRETARIAT Executive Director Olga Popoff Assistant Executive Director Stephanie de La Rochefoucauld Rue Saint-Honoré 75001 Paris, France Phone:+33-1-46-47-92-92 Fax: +33-1-46-47-42-50 ibro@wanadoo.fr www.ibro.info 'IBRO News' Editor-in-Chief Andrée Blakemore andree.blakemore@physiol.ox.ac.uk

Animals in Research Sharon Juliano sjuliano@usuhs.mil Board of IBRO Schools John G Hildebrand jgh@neurobio.arizona.edu By-laws & Procedures Eduardo Roberto Macagno dean@biology.ucsd.edu Clinical/Basic Science Links Programme Patrik Brundin patrik.brundin@neurol.lu.se Fellowships & Travel Grants Kwok-Fai So hrmaskf@hkucc.hku.hk Finance Steve J. Redman redman@jcsmr.anu.edu.au Committee on Neuroscience History Charles G. Gross cggross@phoenix.princeton.edu IBRO Cyber-Journal Clubs Paul Patterson php@caltech.edu IBRO-Edu Ante L. Padjen ante.padjen@mcgill.ca IBRO on the Web Board of Editors Andree Blakemore andree.blakemore@physiol.ox.ac.uk

International Registry of Neuroscience Training Programmes Andrew Gundlach a.gundlach@hfi.unimelb.edu.au Membership and Partnerships Sten Grillner sten.grillner@neuro.ki.se Neuro-Grants A. Bulloch bulloch@acs.ucalgary.ca Neuroscience Libraries To be appointed Nominating Annica Dahlström annica.dahlstrom@anatcell.gu.se Public Education Programme Esther Binns Estherlennon@ntlworld.com Publications Piergiorgio Strata piergiorgio.strata@unito.it Return Home Programme Carlos Belmonte carlos.belmonte@umh.es Symposia & Workshops Kenneth J. Muller kmuller@miami.edu World Congress Josef Syka syka@biomed.cas.cz



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