Deforestation

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search For other uses, see Deforestation (disambiguation).

Jungle burned for agriculture in southern Mexico.

Deforestation in the Gran Chaco, Paraguay

Deforestation and increased road-building in the Amazon Rainforest are a significant concern because of increased human encroachment upon wild areas, increased resource extraction and further threats to biodiversity. Deforestation is the removal of a forest or stand of trees where the land is thereafter converted to a nonforest use.[1] Examples of deforestation include conversion of forestland to farms, ranches, or urban use. The term deforestation is often misused to describe any activity where all trees in an area are removed. However in temperate mesic climates, the removal of all trees in an area²in conformance with sustainable forestry practices²is correctly described as regeneration harvest.[2] In temperate mesic climates, natural regeneration of forest stands often will not occur in the absence of disturbance, whether natural or anthropogenic.[3] Furthermore, biodiversity after regeneration harvest often mimics that found after natural disturbance, including biodiversity loss after naturally occurring rainforest destruction.[4][5] Deforestation occurs for many reasons: trees or derived charcoal are used as, or sold, for fuel or as timber, while cleared land is used as pasture for livestock, plantations of commodities, and settlements. The removal of trees without sufficient reforestation has resulted in damage to habitat, biodiversity loss and aridity. It has adverse impacts on biosequestration of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Deforested regions typically incur significant adverse soil erosion and frequently degrade into wasteland. Disregard or ignorance of intrinsic value, lack of ascribed value, lax forest management and deficient environmental laws are some of the factors that allow deforestation to occur on a large scale. In many countries, deforestation, both naturally occurring and human induced, is an ongoing issue. Deforestation causes extinction, changes to climatic conditions, desertification, and displacement of populations as observed by current conditions and in the past through the fossil record.[4] Among countries with a per capita GDP of at least US$4,600, net deforestation rates have ceased to increase.[6][7]

Contents
[hide]
y y

y y y

y

y

y y y y

1 Causes 2 Environmental problems o 2.1 Atmospheric o 2.2 Hydrological o 2.3 Soil o 2.4 Ecological 3 Economic impact 4 Forest transition theory 5 Historical causes o 5.1 Prehistory o 5.2 Pre-industrial history 6 Industrial era o 6.1 Rates  6.1.1 Regions 7 Control o 7.1 Reducing emissions o 7.2 Farming o 7.3 Monitoring Deforestation o 7.4 Forest management  7.4.1 Sustainable practices o 7.5 Reforestation o 7.6 Forest plantations 8 Military context 9 See also 10 References 11 External links

Causes
There are many causes of contemporary deforestation, including corruption of government institutions,[8][9] the inequitable distribution of wealth and power,[10] population growth[11] and overpopulation,[12][13] and urbanization.[14] Globalization is often viewed as another root cause of deforestation,[15][16] though there are cases in which the impacts of globalization (new Àows of labor, capital, commodities, and ideas) have promoted localized forest recovery.[17] In 2000 the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) found that "the role of population dynamics in a local setting may vary from decisive to negligible," and that deforestation can result from "a combination of population pressure and stagnating economic, social and technological conditions."[11]

could account for up to onethird of total anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions.[18] The degradation of forest ecosystems has also been traced to economic incentives that make forest conversion appear more profitable than forest conservation. Developing countries feel that some countries in the developed world. others that the poor lack the ability to pay for the materials and labour needed to clear forest. commercial agriculture is responsible for 32% of deforestation. cut down their forests centuries ago and benefited greatly from this deforestation.[26][27][28][29] Deforestation is a contributor to global warming.[30][31] and is often cited as one of the major causes of the enhanced greenhouse effect. and that it is hypocritical to deny developing countries the same opportunities: that the poor shouldn't have to bear the cost of preservation when the rich created the problem. and hence. and so on.[34] Trees and other plants remove carbon (in the form of carbon dioxide) from the atmosphere during the process of photosynthesis and release oxygen back into the atmosphere during normal respiration.[32] According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change deforestation.[19] From the perspective of the developing world. the benefits of forest as carbon sinks or biodiversity reserves go primarily to richer developed nations and there is insufficient compensation for these services. Only when actively growing can a tree or forest remove carbon over .According to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) secretariat.[33] But recent calculations suggest that carbon dioxide emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (excluding peatland emissions) contribute about 12% of total anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions with a range from 6 to 17%.[23] Some commentators have noted a shift in the drivers of deforestation over the past 30 years.[19] Many important forest functions have no markets.[21] One study found that population increases due to high fertility rates were a primary driver of tropical deforestation in only 8% of cases. such as the United States of America. the overwhelming direct cause of deforestation is agriculture. Tropical deforestation is responsible for approximately 20% of world greenhouse gas emissions. including extractive industries. during late 19th century and the earlier half of the 20th century. Subsistence farming is responsible for 48% of deforestation. India.[21][22] Some argue that poor people are more likely to clear forest because they have no alternatives. large-scale cattle ranching. no economic value that is readily apparent to the forests' owners or the communities that rely on forests for their well-being.[20] Experts do not agree on whether industrial logging is an important contributor to global deforestation. mainly in tropical areas.[24] Whereas deforestation was primarily driven by subsistence activities and government-sponsored development projects like transmigration in countries like Indonesia and colonization in Latin America. Java. By the 1990s the majority of deforestation was caused by industrial factors. and extensive agriculture. logging is responsible for 14% of deforestation and fuel wood removals make up 5% of deforestation.[25] Environmental problems Atmospheric Deforestation is ongoing and is shaping climate and geography.

Instead of trapping precipitation. so that erosion. in deforested north and northwest China. however. the wood must be harvested and turned into long-lived products and trees must be re-planted.[38] although it is now accepted by scientists that rainforests contribute little net oxygen to the atmosphere and deforestation will have no effect on atmospheric oxygen levels.[citation needed] Hydrological The water cycle is also affected by deforestation. but is lost in runoff and returns directly to the oceans. flooding and landslides ensue. resulting in a much drier climate. According to one study. which lessens atmospheric moisture which in some cases affects precipitation levels downwind from the deforested area. Tropical deforestation releases 1. When part of a forest is removed. the land heats up faster and reaches a higher temperature. the average annual precipitation decreased by one third between the 1950s and the 1980s. and plants in general. That quicker transport of surface water can translate into flash flooding and more localized floods than would occur with the forest cover.[citation needed] Trees. Deforestation reduces the content of water in the soil and groundwater as well as atmospheric moisture.[37] Rainforests are widely believed by laymen to contribute a significant amount of world's oxygen. Both the decay and burning of wood releases much of this stored carbon back to the atmosphere.[45] Shrinking forest cover lessens the landscape's capacity to intercept. thus contributing to biosphere stability.[41] Forests are also able to extract carbon dioxide and pollutants from the air. Deforestation also contributes to decreased evapotranspiration.an annual or longer timeframe. In deforested areas. retain and transpire precipitation. The idea consists in providing financial compensations for the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from deforestation and forest degradation". which contributes to global warming.[36] Reducing emissions from the tropical deforestation and forest degradation (REDD) in developing countries has emerged as new potential to complement ongoing climate policies. affect the water cycle significantly: . the incineration and burning of forest plants to clear land releases large amounts of CO2. forests are a major source of aquifer depletion on most locales.[39][40] However. leading to localized upward motions that enhance the formation of clouds and ultimately produce more rainfall. Forests are stores of carbon and can be either sinks or sources depending upon environmental circumstances.[42] Deforestation reduces soil cohesion. Mature forests alternate between being net sinks and net sources of carbon dioxide (see carbon dioxide sink and carbon cycle). as water is not recycled to downwind forests.[43][44] Forests enhance the recharge of aquifers in some locales.[35] Deforestation may cause carbon stores held in soil to be released. the trees no longer evaporate away this water. In order for forests to take up carbon.5 billion tones of carbon each year into the atmosphere.[31] Scientists also state that. which moves much faster than subsurface flows. Trees extract groundwater through their roots and release it into the atmosphere. which then percolates to groundwater systems. deforested areas become sources of surface water runoff.

Tropical rainforests produce about 30% of our planet's fresh water. their litter and other organic residue change soil properties that affect the capacity of soil to store water. Forestry operations themselves also increase erosion through the development of roads and the use of mechanized equipment.[citation needed] Deforestation generally increases rates of soil erosion. The hill depicted is Morro da Covanca. stems and trunks slow down surface runoff. This in turn changes erosion rates and the availability of water for either ecosystem functions or human services. This can be an advantage in excessively leached tropical rain forest soils. in the soil or groundwater.[46] As a result. or in the atmosphere.[38] Soil Deforestation for the use of clay in the Brazilian city of Rio de Janeiro. in Jacarepaguá Undisturbed forests have a very low rate of soil loss.y y y y y y their canopies intercept a proportion of precipitation. their roots create macropores ± large conduits ± in the soil that increase infiltration of water. approximately 2 metric tons per square kilometer (6 short tons per square mile). they contribute to terrestrial evaporation and reduce soil moisture via transpiration. their litter. which is then evaporated back to the atmosphere (canopy interception). their leaves control the humidity of the atmosphere by transpiring. the presence or absence of trees can change the quantity of water on the surface. which overwhelm the storage capacity of forest soil if the soils are at or close to saturation. The forest may have little impact on flooding in the case of large rainfall events. . 99% of the water absorbed by the roots moves up to the leaves and is transpired. by increasing the amount of runoff and reducing the protection of the soil from tree litter.

and reduce erosion. and providing the sediment that gives the Yellow River its yellow color and that causes the flooding of the river in the lower reaches (hence the river's nickname 'China's sorrow').000 species per year for all species. The bare intercanopy areas become highly erodible. The US Forest Service. is studying how to restore the former ecosystem. The trees themselves enhance the loss of grass between tree canopies.[63] Most predictions of forestry related biodiversity loss are based on species-area models. Since then it has been eroding.[58] Others state that tropical rainforest deforestation is contributing to the ongoing Holocene mass extinction. in Bandelier National Monument for example.[61] Such predictions were called into question by 1995 data that show that within regions of Southeast Asia much of the original forest has been converted to monospecific plantations.[54][55] removal or destruction of significant areas of forest cover has resulted in a degraded[56] environment with reduced biodiversity.[57] It has been estimated that we are losing 137 plant. In certain regions of southwest US. by removing the trees. Tree removal on steep slopes with shallow soil thus increases the risk of landslides.[51] Since the tropical rainforests are the most diverse ecosystems on Earth[52][53] and about 80% of the world's known biodiversity could be found in tropical rainforests. negating the landslide.[50] With forest biotopes being irreplaceable source of new drugs (such as taxol). creating dramatic incised valleys. approximately 1 species per year from mammals and birds which extrapolates to approximately 23. providing habitat for wildlife.[62] Scientific understanding of the process of extinction is insufficient to accurately make predictions about the impact of deforestation on biodiversity.[64] However.[59][60] The known extinction rates from deforestation rates are very low.[48] Forests support biodiversity. shrubs and trees have been encroaching on grassland. Ecological Deforestation results in declines in biodiversity. animal and insect species every single day due to rainforest deforestation. However most deforestation only affects the trunks of trees.000 species a year. allowing for the roots to stay rooted.[49] moreover. deforestation can destroy genetic variations (such as crop resistance) irretrievably. Predictions have been made that more than 40% of the animal and plant species in Southeast Asia could be wiped out in the 21st century. Tree roots bind soil together. and if the soil is sufficiently shallow they act to keep the soil in place by also binding with underlying bedrock.[47] The removal or destruction of areas of forest cover has resulted in a degraded environment with reduced biodiversity. many such models have been proven to be wrong and loss of habitat does not necessarily lead to large scale loss of . but that potentially endangered species are few and tree flora remains widespread and stable.China's Loess Plateau was cleared of forest millennia ago. which can threaten people living nearby. forests foster medicinal conservation. Removal of trees does not always increase erosion rates. which equates to 50. with an underlying assumption that as the forest declines species diversity will decline similarly.

West Africa. a major report concluded at the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) meeting in Bonn. "in most areas studied. have played a key role in human societies. developed countries continue to utilize timber for building houses. typically leads to loss of long-term income and long term biological productivity (hence reduction in nature's services).[69] Rapidly growing economies also have an affect on deforestation. compared with the 2% growth rate for developed countries. including timber and fuel wood. a very important part in our daily life.[64] Species-area models are known to overpredict the number of species known to be threatened in areas where actual deforestation is ongoing. or overexploitation of wood products. Connecting all of the new expansions will be roads. and greatly overpredict the number of threatened species that are widespread. Most pressure will come from the world's developing countries. the various ventures that prompted deforestation rarely generated more than US$5 for every ton of carbon they released and frequently returned far less than US$1". The price on the European market for an offset tied to a one-ton reduction in carbon is 23 euro (about US$35). In developing countries almost three billion people rely on wood for heating and cooking. Today. Illegal logging causes billions of dollars of losses to national economies annually. which have the fastest-growing populations and most rapid economic (industrial) growth. new homes.[71] Forest transition theory .[70] About 90% of the deforestation has occurred within 100 km of roads in most parts of the Amazon. Short-term economic gains made by conversion of forest to agriculture. Rural roads promote economic development but also facilitate deforestation.[67] The new procedures to get amounts of wood are causing more harm to the economy and overpowers the amount of money spent by people employed in logging. Southeast Asia and many other regions have experienced lower revenue because of declining timber harvests.[65] Historically utilization of forest products.species.[70] In 1995.[66] The forest products industry is a large part of the economy in both developed and developing countries. comparable to the roles of water and cultivable land. Madagascar.[62] Economic impact Damage to forests and other aspects of nature could halve living standards for the world's poor and reduce global GDP by about 7% by 2050. communities. and expansions of cities will occur. and wood pulp for paper.[68] According to a study.´[70] As our population grows. economic growth in developing countries reached nearly 6%.

higher prices of forest products) that lead to forest cover stabilization. high forest cover ± high deforestation rate).[25] Then deforestation rates accelerate (HFHD. while it tends to overestimate BAU deforestation for countries at the later stages (LFHD and LFLD). whereby at early stages in its development a country is characterized by high forest cover and low deforestation rates (HFLD countries).[72] The forest area change may follow a pattern suggested by the forest transition (FT) theory.The forest transition and historical baselines. low forest cover ± high deforestation rate). after which forest cover stabilizes and eventually starts recovering. and government policies. and forest cover is reduced (LFHD. where forest scarcity triggers forces (for example. including forests. Countries with high forest cover can be expected to be at early stages of the FT. FT depicts a broad trend. or it might through good policies be able to ³bridge´ the forest transition.´ and the pattern is influenced by national context (for example. and (ii) an economic development path. and an extrapolation of historical rates therefore tends to underestimate future BAU deforestation for counties at the early stages in the transition (HFLD). low forest cover ± low deforestation rate). human population density. before the deforestation rate slows (LFLD. A country may reach very low levels of forest cover before it stabilizes. structure of the economy). where new and better off-farm employment opportunities associated with economic growth (= increasing GDP per capita) reduce profitability of frontier agriculture and slows deforestation. GDP per capita captures the stage in a country¶s economic development. stage of development. FT is not a ³law of nature. which is linked to the pattern of natural resource use. global economic forces.[25] Historical causes Further information: Timeline of environmental events Prehistory . The choice of forest cover and GDP per capita also fits well with the two key scenarios in the FT: (i) a forest scarcity path.

at this time climate became cooler and drier. An array of Neolithic artifacts. They include the noted Langdale axe industry in the English Lake District. The change was abrupt. In Europe there is little solid evidence before 7000 BC. conditions that are not favourable to the growth of rainforests and much of the biodiversity within them. Evidence of deforestation has been found in Minoan Crete. starting in southern Europe and gradually moving north to Great Britain. including bracelets. may represent land clearing by fire at the onset of Neolithic agriculture.[74] The first evidence of deforestation appears in the Mesolithic period. but also made penetration of wood easier. shade-tolerant species such as oak and ash are replaced in the pollen record by hazels. In Great Britain. Removal of the forests led to decreased transpiration. This step not only increased the mechanical strength of the axe. Widespread decrease in elm pollen across Europe between 8400± 8300 BC and 7200±7000 BC. Rainforests once covered 14% of the earth's land surface. while reptiles fared better. but from a wide variety of hard rocks from across Britain and North America as well. chisels. resulting in the formation of upland peat bogs. Rough-outs were made locally near the quarries.[73] Small scale deforestation was practiced by some societies for tens of thousands of years before the beginnings of civilization.[75] It was probably used to convert closed forests into more open ecosystems favourable to game animals. Flint was still used from sources such as Grimes Graves but from many other mines across Europe.[76][77] Stone axes were being made from about 3000 BC not just from flint.[4] was an event that occurred 300 million years ago. for example the environs of the Palace of Knossos were severely deforested in the Bronze Age. and fire became the prime tool to clear land for crops. and some were polished locally to give a fine finish.The Carboniferous Rainforest Collapse.[74] With the advent of agriculture. larger areas began to be deforested. specifically. grasses and nettles. Mesolithic foragers used fire to create openings for red deer and wild boar. brambles. The Neolithic period saw extensive deforestation for farming land. Climate change devastated tropical rainforests causing the extinction of many plant and animal species. being ecologically adapted to the drier conditions that followed. effects on amphibians were particularly devastating. This sudden collapse affected several large groups. axe heads. Rainforests were fragmented forming shrinking 'islands' further and further apart. quarries developed at Penmaenmawr in North Wales and numerous other locations.[78] . now they cover a mere 6% and experts estimate that the last remaining rainforests could be consumed in less than 40 years. and polishing tools.

wherever adequate evidence exists. and the examples of Ephesus. He attributed the collapse to deforestation and over-exploitation of all resources. ranging from the later Neolithic to the Early Bronze Age. Central America.[citation needed] Major parts in the spread (and thus more durable growth) of the population were played by monastical 'pioneering' (especially by the Benedictine and Commercial orders) and some feudal lords' recruiting farmers to settle (and become tax payers) by offering relatively good legal and . In ancient Greece. Easter Island has suffered from heavy soil erosion in recent centuries. or to graze pigs) for wildlife to remain viable. which would provide wood for some industry (for example. The disappearance of the island's trees seems to coincide with a decline of its civilization around the 17th and 18th century. intermittent pulses of soil erosion in numerous places. timber and fruits. The historic silting of ports along the southern coasts of Asia Minor (e. by about 500-1. humans were hunter gatherers who hunted within forests. mining and metallurgy often led to deforestation and city abandonment. In early medieval Riez in upper Provence.[82][83] The famous silting up of the harbor for Bruges. local wood supplies become difficult to obtain near enough to remain competitive. as happened repeatedly in Ancient Asia Minor. shipbuilding.[citation needed] With most of the population remaining active in (or indirectly dependent on) the agricultural sector. pottery).g.[81] Jared Diamond gives an extensive look into the collapse of the ancient Easter Islanders in his book Collapse. Tjeered van Andel and co-writers[80] summarized three regional studies of historic erosion and alluviation and found that. aggravated by agriculture and deforestation. construction. where harbors had to be abandoned because of the silt deposited by the Meander) and in coastal Syria during the last centuries BC.000 years the introduction of farming in the various regions of Greece. and the Caribbean. which moved port commerce to Antwerp.[citation needed] A typical progress trap was that cities were often built in a forested area.Pre-industrial history Throughout most of history. Enough wild green was usually left standing (and partially used. which slowly buried the Roman settlement in alluvium and gradually moved new construction to higher ground. Clarus. to collect firewood. concurrently the headwater valleys above Riez were being opened to pasturage. leading to the city's abandonment. Because of fuel needs. alluvial silt from two small rivers raised the riverbeds and widened the floodplain. the tropics. however. such as the Amazon. In most areas. When deforestation occurs without proper replanting. The elite's (nobility and higher clergy) protection of their own hunting privileges and game often protected significant woodlands. a major phase of erosion follows. also followed a period of increased settlement growth (and apparently of deforestation) in the upper river basins. Priene and Miletus. the main pressure in most areas remained land clearing for crop and cattle farming.[79] only after shortages of wood and other forest products occur are policies implemented to ensure forest resources are used in a sustainable manner. for example. The thousand years following the mid-first millennium BCE saw serious.

Stuart England was so widely deforested that it depended on the Baltic trade for ship timbers. When populations were quickly decreased by causes such as the Black Death or devastating warfare (for example. By 1500 Europe was on the edge of a fuel and nutritional disaster [from] which it was saved in the sixteenth century only by the burning of soft coal and the cultivation of potatoes and maize. as in Spain. this could lead to settlements being abandoned.fiscal conditions. They were faced with a nutritional decline because of the elimination of the generous supply of wild game that had inhabited the now-disappearing forests. Industrial era In the 19th century.000 mature oaks for its construction. and looked to the untapped forests of New England to supply the need. Thirty Years' War in Germany). with increased and more severe flooding one of the environmental results. plantations. such as the Mississippi River. They believed flooding was linked to widespread forest clearing upstream. the masts were no longer required because shipping had changed. Each of Nelson's Royal Navy war ships at Trafalgar (1805) required 6. Genghis Khan's Mongol hordes in eastern and central Europe. Between St. When the oak plantations matured in the mid-19th century. mining. The large-scale building of wooden sailing ships by European (coastal) naval owners since the 15th century for exploration. From 1100 to 1500 AD. After 1250 they became so skilled at deforestation that by 1500 they were running short of wood for heating and cooking. etc. This led to a weakening of the domestic economy after Columbus' discovery of America. The steamboat crews cut wood every day from the riverbanks to fuel the steam engines. but the secondary forests usually lacked the original biodiversity. significant deforestation took place in Western Europe as a result of the expanding human population. Louis and the confluence with the Ohio . slave trade±and other trade on the high seas consumed many forest resources. colonisation. even in Stuart England. settlers needed an agricultural belt around or sometimes within defensive walls.)[citation needed] In Changes in the Land (1983). Piracy also contributed to the over harvesting of forests. trade. as the economy became dependent on colonial activities (plundering. Even when speculators sought to encourage towns. Colbert planted oak forests to supply the French navy in the future. which throughout medieval times had provided the staple of their carnivorous high-protein diet. In France. Cantor's summary of the effects of late medieval deforestation applies equally well to Early Modern Europe:[84] Europeans had lived in the midst of vast forests throughout the earlier medieval centuries. the relatively primitive production of charcoal has already reached an impressive level. The massive use of charcoal on an industrial scale in Early Modern Europe was a new type of consumption of western forests. William Cronon analyzed and documented 17th-century English colonists' reports of increased seasonal flooding in New England during the period when new settlers initially cleared the forests for agriculture. The land was reclaimed by nature. cattle. introduction of steamboats in the United States was the cause of deforestation of banks of major rivers. Norman F.

such as Kaskaskia. and changed its channel laterally.[85] The wholescale clearance of woodland to create agricultural land can be seen in many parts of the world.9 million to 3 million sq mi) of the original 15 million to 16 million km2 (5. Rates Orbital photograph of human deforestation in progress in the Tierras Bajas project in eastern Bolivia Global deforestation sharply accelerated around 1852.[86] Estimates vary widely as to the extent of tropical deforestation.[86] 80% will have been lost. now only cover 5±7%.[89][90] Some scientists have predicted that unless significant measures (such as seeking out and protecting old growth forests that have not been disturbed)[88] are taken on a worldwide basis.[86][89] with another 10% in a degraded condition.8 million hectares per year) was roughly 23% lower than the most commonly quoted rates. Cahokia and St.[86][87] It has been estimated that about half of the Earth's mature tropical forests²between 7. such as the Central forest-grasslands transition and other areas of the Great Plains of the United States. They claim that that rainforests 50 years ago covered 14%[citation needed] of the world's land surface. Specific parallels are seen in the 20th-century deforestation occurring in many developing nations.2 million sq mi) that until 1947 covered the planet[88]²have now been destroyed. Attempts to improve navigation by the use of snagpullers often resulted in crews' clearing large trees 100 to 200 feet (61 m) back from the banks.[91][92] Scientists estimate that one fifth of the world's tropical rainforest was destroyed between 1960 and 1990[citation needed].River to the south. Several French colonial towns of the Illinois Country. Illinois were flooded and abandoned in the late 19th century. a newer analysis of satellite images reveals that deforestation of the Amazon rainforest is twice as fast as scientists previously estimated. Philippe. by 2030 there will only be 10% remaining. and that all tropical forests will be gone by the middle of the 21st century.5 million and 8 million km2 (2.8 million to 6. with a loss to the cultural record of their archeology. the Mississippi became more wide and shallow.[93] A 2002 analysis of satellite imagery suggested that the rate of deforestation in the humid tropics (approximately 5.[94] Conversely. and with them hundreds of thousands of irreplaceable species.[95][96] .

have declared their deforestation a national emergency.Some have argued that deforestation trends may follow a Kuznets curve.[98][99] A 2005 report by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) estimates that although the Earth's total forest area continues to decrease at about 13 million hectares per year. Regions Main article: Deforestation by region Rates of deforestation vary around the world.[114] Mexico.[112][113] As of 2007.[109] The regions with the highest tropical deforestation rate between 2000 and 2005 were Central America²which lost 1. Ghana and the Côte d'Ivoire. Liberia. Guinea. Bangladesh. including habitat loss such as deforestation.[110] Brazil has lost 90±95% of its Mata Atlântica forest.[102] The London-based Rainforest Foundation notes that "the UN figure is based on a definition of forest as being an area with as little as 10% actual tree cover. and each harboring at least 1500 endemic plant species (species found nowhere else in the world).[108] Much of what remains of the world's rainforests is in the Amazon basin. Malaysia. less than 1% of Haiti's forests remained. India. Myanmar."[103] Other critics of the FAO data point out that they do not distinguish between forest types. the extinction of species). Sri Lanka.[107] In South Asia.[117][118] The World Wildlife Fund's ecoregion project catalogues habitat types throughout the world. which would therefore include areas that are actually savannahlike ecosystems and badly damaged forests. the Philippines.[119] Top 10 Most Endangered Forests 2011 Endangered Region Remaining Predominate Notes . Nigeria. where the Amazon Rainforest covers approximately 4 million square kilometres. Indonesia. In 2011 Conservation International listed the top 10 most endangered forests.[97] which if true would nonetheless fail to eliminate the risk of irreversible loss of non-economic forest values (for example. about 88% of the rainforests have been lost.[111] Madagascar has lost 90% of its eastern rainforests. there is agreement that destruction of rainforests remains a significant environmental problem.3% of its forests each year²and tropical Asia.[105] which do not take into account unofficial activities like illegal logging.[100][101] Still others claim that rainforests are being destroyed at an ever-quickening pace. Laos. two-thirds of lowland tropical forests have been turned into pasture since 1950 and 40% of all the rainforests have been lost in the last 40 years. China. Thailand.[104] and that they are based largely on reporting from forestry departments of individual countries. Up to 90% of West Africa's coastal rainforests have disappeared since 1900. notably Brazil. have lost large areas of their rainforest. showing for example that even in the rich forests of parts of Canada such as the Mid-Continental Canadian forests of the prairie provinces half of the forest cover has been lost or altered.[115][116] Several countries. the Democratic Republic of the Congo.[103] In Central America.[106] Despite these uncertainties. the global rate of deforestation has recently been slowing. characterized by having all lost 90% or more of their original habitat.

broadleaf forests Vietnam. Seychelles. Mauritius.[126] Mozambique. Thailand.[123] Forests along Brazil's Tropical and Atlantic coast. from Saudi Arabia in the north to Zimbabwe in the south. Comoros.[124] Temperate coniferous forest Tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forests Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests Montane grasslands and shrublands See note for region covered.[125] See note for region covered.[121] broadleaf forests Western half of the IndoTropical and Malayan archipelago subtropical moist including southern Borneo broadleaf forests and Sumatra. Tanzania.[120] Tropical and See note for region subtropical moist covered. extends to subtropical moist parts of Paraguay. Laos.forest AsiaPacific habitat vegetation type Rivers.[122] Tropical and Forests over the entire subtropical moist country including 7. Somalia. Cambodia. floodplain wetlands.100 broadleaf forests islands. Myanmar subtropical moist (Burma). Argentina broadleaf forests and Uruguay. Kenya.[128] Forests scattered along the eastern edge of Africa.[129] Indo-Burma 5% New Caledonia AsiaPacific AsiaPacific AsiaPacific 5% Sundaland 7% Philippines 7% Atlantic Forest Mountains of Southwest China California Floristic Province Coastal Forests of Eastern Africa Madagascar & Indian Ocean Islands South 8% America AsiaPacific 8% North 10% America Africa 10% Africa 10% Eastern Afromontane Table source:[119] Africa 11% Control Reducing emissions . Tropical and mangrove forests. Reunion. India.[127] Madagascar.

are highly self-maintaining. In cyclic agriculture. but at the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Conference of the Parties-15 (COP-15) in Copenhagen in December 2009. however. include the Center for Global Development's FORMA (Forest Monitoring for Action) initiative [131] and the Group on Earth Observations' Forest Carbon Tracking Portal. quantifying the damage and its possible consequences is a more important task.[citation needed]The most promising approach. Intensive farming can also decrease soil nutrients by consuming at an accelerated rate the trace minerals needed for crop growth. such as high-yield hybrid crops. that will approach USD 30 billion for the period 2010 ± 2012. These tools. The blanket term Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD) describes these sorts of programs. From an environmental point of view. These methods are often dependent on chemical inputs to maintain necessary yields. an accord was reached with a collective commitment by developed countries for new and additional resources.[135] Deforestation rate and total area . Funding has been an issue. These systems have low dependence on fossil fuels and agrochemicals. is the concept of food forests in permaculture.[135] Another method includes hot-spot analysis (that is. which consists of agroforestal systems carefully designed to mimic natural forests. One method is the ³visual interpretation of aerial photos or satellite imagery that is labor-intensive but does not require high-level training in computer image processing or extensive computational resources´.Main article: Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation Major international organizations. including the United Nations and the World Bank. including forestry and investments through international institutions. have begun to develop programs aimed at curbing deforestation. and biodiversity. Monitoring Deforestation Reducing and monitoring deforestation is a new chapter of this dense keywords lifetime.S. while conservation efforts are more focused on forested land protection and development of land-use alternatives to avoid continued deforestation.[130] Significant work is underway on tools for use in monitoring developing country adherence to their agreed REDD targets. which rely on remote forest monitoring using satellite imagery and other data sources. There are multiple methods that are appropriate and reliable for monitoring deforestation. Cyclic agriculture actually increases the fertility of the soil. government. greenhouse. which use direct monetary or other incentives to encourage developing countries to limit and/or roll back deforestation.[135] Deforestation is typically assessed by quantifying the amount of area deforested. autonomous building gardens. with an emphasis on plant and animal species of interest for food. cattle are grazed on farm land that is resting and rejuvenating. locations of rapid change) using expert opinion or coarse resolution satellite data to identify locations for detailed digital analysis with high resolution satellite images.[134] Farming New methods are being developed to farm more intensively.[132] Methodological guidance for forest monitoring was also emphasized at COP-15 [133] The environmental organization Avoided Deforestation Partners leads the campaign for development of REDD through funding from the U. and with strong positive impact on soil and water quality. and hydroponics. measured at the present time. timber and other uses. highly productive.

deforested. which becomes even more complicated with the increasing needs for resources. However. as against only 12% two decades ago [139] Reforestation Main article: Reforestation . Certification represents a shift from regulatory approaches to market incentives to promote sustainable forest management. whilst in areas with a strong dry season there is always a risk of forest fires destroying a tree crop before it matures. By promoting the positive attributes of forest products from sustainably managed forests. "A major condition for the adoption of sustainable forest management is a demand for products that are produced sustainably and consumer willingness to pay for the higher costs entailed. This is because on older and less fertile soils trees grow too slowly for silviculture to be economic.[136] while during the 17th and 18th centuries in Tokugawa. According to the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). contributes to tackling deforestation by creating market demand for timber from sustainably managed forests. as provided by global certification systems such as PEFC and FSC. is not only a durable carbon sequestration method. In Tonga. Japan. have been widely used for monitoring deforestation in many regions. one of the richest soils on the planet and the only one known to regenerate itself. including the Brazilian Amazon deforestation monitoring by INPE. but it also is an extremely beneficial amendment to the soil. In 16th century Germany landowners also developed silviculture to deal with the problem of deforestation. certification focuses on the demand side of environmental conservation. given back to the soil."[138] Some nations have taken steps to help increase the amount of trees on Earth. Mixed with biomass it brings the creation of terra preta. paramount rulers developed policies designed to prevent conflicts between short-term gains from converting forest to farmland and long-term problems forest loss would cause. The biochar thus created. Forest management Efforts to stop or slow deforestation have been attempted for many centuries because it has long been known that deforestation can cause environmental damage sufficient in some cases to cause societies to collapse.55% of China's land mass.[41] Monitoring deforestation is a very complicated process. these policies tend to be limited to environments with good rainfall. Sustainable practices Certification.[137] the shoguns developed a highly sophisticated system of long-term planning to stop and even reverse deforestation of the preceding centuries through substituting timber by other products and more efficient use of land that had been farmed for many centuries. no dry season and very young soils (through volcanism or glaciation). In the areas where "slash-and-burn" is practiced. switching to "slash-and-char" would prevent the rapid deforestation and subsequent degradation of soils. China created National Tree Planting Day Forest and forest coverage had now reached 16. In 1981.

In many parts of the world, especially in East Asian countries, reforestation and afforestation are increasing the area of forested lands.[140] The amount of woodland has increased in 22 of the world's 50 most forested nations. Asia as a whole gained 1 million hectares of forest between 2000 and 2005. Tropical forest in El Salvador expanded more than 20% between 1992 and 2001. Based on these trends, one study projects that global forest will increase by 10%²an area the size of India²by 2050.[141] In the People's Republic of China, where large scale destruction of forests has occurred, the government has in the past required that every able-bodied citizen between the ages of 11 and 60 plant three to five trees per year or do the equivalent amount of work in other forest services. The government claims that at least 1 billion trees have been planted in China every year since 1982. This is no longer required today, but March 12 of every year in China is the Planting Holiday. Also, it has introduced the Green Wall of China project, which aims to halt the expansion of the Gobi desert through the planting of trees. However, due to the large percentage of trees dying off after planting (up to 75%), the project is not very successful.[citation needed] There has been a 47million-hectare increase in forest area in China since the 1970s.[141] The total number of trees amounted to be about 35 billion and 4.55% of China's land mass increased in forest coverage. The forest coverage was 12% two decades ago and now is 16.55%.[142] An ambitious proposal for China is the Aerially Delivered Re-forestation and Erosion Control System and the proposed Sahara Forest Project coupled with the Seawater Greenhouse. In Western countries, increasing consumer demand for wood products that have been produced and harvested in a sustainable manner is causing forest landowners and forest industries to become increasingly accountable for their forest management and timber harvesting practices. The Arbor Day Foundation's Rain Forest Rescue program is a charity that helps to prevent deforestation. The charity uses donated money to buy up and preserve rainforest land before the lumber companies can buy it. The Arbor Day Foundation then protects the land from deforestation. This also locks in the way of life of the primitive tribes living on the forest land. Organizations such as Community Forestry International, Cool Earth, The Nature Conservancy, World Wide Fund for Nature, Conservation International, African Conservation Foundation and Greenpeace also focus on preserving forest habitats. Greenpeace in particular has also mapped out the forests that are still intact [143] and published this information on the internet.[144] World Resources Institute in turn has made a simpler thematic map[145] showing the amount of forests present just before the age of man (8000 years ago) and the current (reduced) levels of forest.[146] These maps mark the amount of afforestation required to repair the damage caused by people. One of the causes of the disaster is deforestation carried by thieves, but we don't know who they are. ~ Hadi Supeno It's unlikely that any past deforestation -- legal or illegal -- has really played a significant role in causing that landslide.

~ Patrick Durst
A forest bird never wants a cage. Henrik Ibsen

Read more: http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/keywords/forest.html#ixzz1M903bEIU
A people without children would face a hopeless future; a country without trees is almost as helpless. -Theodore Roosevelt (1858-1919), 26th President of the United States

Nothing is more beautiful than the loveliness of the woods before sunrise.
-George Washington Carver (1864-1943)

Nothing is more beautiful than the loveliness of the woods before sunrise.
-George Washington Carver (1864-1943)

For in the true nature of things, if we rightly consider, every green tree is far more glorious than if it were made of gold and silver. -Martin Luther (1483-1546)

When you plant a tree, never plant only one. Plant three ± one for shade, one for fruit, one for beauty. -African proverb

A fool sees not the same tree that a wise man sees. -William Blake (1757-1827), The Marriage of Heaven and Hell, 1790-93

National Integration
India has many races, nationalities, castes, subscastes and communities but so far the hear of India is concerned it is one. It is true that societies that have been integrated into bonds of unity have always enjoyed peace, stability, prosperity and permanence. And those torn by mutual distruptive tendencies among various sections of the society have always been short lived and become non- existent. The national integration is the process of uniting different people from all walks of life into a single whole. The most serious problem being faced by India in present circumstances is, how to develop an atmosphere of national consciousness among so varied a people. Indians already have suffered for long periods, the pangs of enslavement and servitude. It is India in the whole world which has to suffer under foreign rulers for more than seven hundred years. The separatist tendencies among people and kings have always resulted in the fall of our kingdoms. Our country was always divided into large number of small kingdoms which were mostly at daggers end. There has been a lack of national consciousness. The internal disputes among the Rajput kings allowed Muslim invaders to establish their foothold here. Then the Britishers were able to create rifts between various kings and princes and thus established their supremacy. It was only overthrown when Indian nationhood joined together by unparalled acumen of some great Indian leaders who became creators of history. There is a need to make efforts for creating emotional integration or a sense of unity. The need of the hour is national integration. It should be taught at the very beginning, in all schools and colleges all over the country that India is one and only one. The difference between various cultures are just superficial and basically it is only one. What is needed is superior interpretations, synthesis of the power of the mind that can give rise to a vision of the whole and oneness. The school and college teaching material should be suitably revised wherein importance and need of oneness should be emphasised. From one end of the country to the other end, regular long distance tours must be conducted so as to foster emotional integration among the young students of our country. Steps must be taken to see that, there are no sectional appeals so that disunity among the people does not increase manifold. To bring about national integration, there are many techniques. It can be forced out, or can be made to strengthen from within the core of hearts. The result by way of exercise of power would always be weak, unsuccessful and it would be for a temporary phase only. But when the sense of national integration stems from within, it would be strong stable and ever-lasting. British government brought about national integration by way of their needs. For the first time during the British rule, the whole of India came to be governed from one centre and all regions of the country from West to East and South to North

Each raga is regarded appropriage to a certain emotion. The intellectuals must come out of their narrow cells of detachment and awake up to their responsibilities towards the general masses. dance. The national unity became more emotional when the country fought a united struggle for freedom.[1][2] . sculpture and theatre. fine arts and paintings. Our seers and sages have left behind a tradition of piety. Today the intellectuals of Indian society can give the right direction as the country is standing at the crossroads of failures and achievements. In the modern times. the caves of Khajuraho and Ajanta and Ellora which are glittering examples of proficiency of India in the field of architecture and sculpture. a power and strength. newspapers. Mass media Mass media refers collectively to all media technologies. Our cultural unity is further exemplified by the great temples of the South. This was because the God of freedom was the same and realized all over the country. and radio. solidity and solidarity and an element of cohesiveness which will impart to us further permanence and stay in present struggling world. There is a rich cultural heritage in India. We will carry with us. conquest of passion and spiritual greatness. which are used for mass communications. a certain mood suitable for a specified time of the day or night. drama. television. India classical music is built on the concept of ragas and talas.obeyed instructions and advice from the central power. people like Pandit Ravi Shanker have taken the Indian music to great heights in the whole world and thus have bridged the gap between the East and the West in the field of music. All of us are inheritors to several grand treasurers in the fields of music. Through national integration. we will prosper and flourish and dominate the others who are characterized by divisive forces. and to the organizations which control these technologies. penance. Emotional integration is the basic foundation on which the main structure of national integration can be created. including the Internet.

[6][7][8] Newspapers Main article: History of newspapers and magazines The first high-circulation newspapers arose in the eastern United States in the early 1800s.[9][10][11] .2 Electrical telegraph o 1.[4] Contents [hide] y y y y y y y y 1 History o 1. and were made possible by the invention of high-speed rotary steam printing presses. by enabling the publication of books and newspapers on a scale much larger than was previously possible. video games 2 Purposes 3 Technologies 4 See also 5 Notes 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External links History The phrase "the media" began to be used in the 1920s.1 Newspapers o 1. but referred to something that had its origins much further in the past. mobile devices. however. with many media industries already highly concentrated and dominated by a very small number of firms.7 Internet.3 Movies o 1.4 Radio o 1. The increase in circulation.5 Television o 1.Since the 1950s. in the countries that have reached a high level of industrialization. radio and TV have a key role in political power.6 Political role in advanced capitalism o 1.[3] Contemporary research demonstrates an increasing level of concentration of media ownership. making newspapers a more one-way medium. led to a decline in feedback and interactivity from the readership.[5] The invention of the printing press in the late 15th century gave rise to some of the first forms of mass communication. the mass media of cinema. and railroads which allowed large-scale distribution over wide geographical areas.

with a show hosted by Arturo Toscanini and starring comedian Milton Berle."[3] Mass media play a significant role in shaping public perceptions on a variety of important issues. Television Main article: History of television The first television broadcasts for a mass audience began in 1936 Germany and UK.[15] They also play a large role in shaping modern culture. Radio Main article: History of radio The first commercial broadcasts in the United States began in the 1920s. they shape reality to be more in line with that interpretation.[16] . The first films with a narrative bagan to be distributed in 1987. high-circulation newspapers have been a medium for conditioning public opinion. values. and traditions (an entire way of life). when cinema. with the first commercial exhibition of film. as reality.[15][16] Up to the point that it emerged the idea that when a country has reached a high level of industrialization.[7] Movies Main article: History of film Cinema began to be a large-scale entertainment industry in 1894. That is. by selecting and portraying a particular set of beliefs. radio and TV began to be the primary or the only source of information for a larger and larger percentage of the population. by portraying a certain interpretation of reality. the country itself "belongs to the person who controls communications.[13][14] Regular mass TV broadcasts in the United States only began in 1948. both through the information that is dispensed through them. Political role in advanced capitalism Since the '50s. enabling messages to be transmitted instantaneously over large distances. and through the interpretations they place upon this information. these media began to be considered as central instruments of mass control.Since the beginning. the first commercial electrical telegraph was developed.[12] Electrical telegraph Main article: Telegraphy In the 1840s. allowing to separate communications from transportation.

and video) Mobile phones. Public service announcements. (March 2011) Electronic media and print media include: y y y y y y y Broadcasting. video games Purposes A panel in the Newseum in Washington. and sports. D. these were mainly used for music. and political communication. The Internet ± examples include Blogs and podcasts (such as news. and advertising Publishing. propaganda. horoscopes. Editing help is available. Many instances of various types of recorded discs or tapes. This can include advertising. along with light reading. in the narrow sense. which have developed into a mass form of media[citation needed] Enviorment . public relations. Entertainment. Video and computer uses followed. music. music. both for business and social concerns. Technologies This article is in a list format that may be better presented using prose. for radio and television. alerts. mobile devices. games. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. including electronic publishing Video games. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. marketing. if appropriate. which can be used for rapid breaking news and short clips of entertainment like jokes. music. shows the September 12 headlines in America and around the world This section does not cite any references or sources.C. pre-recorded speech. but also for documentaries. (March 2011) Mass media can be used for various purposes: y y y Advocacy. traditionally through performances of acting.. Film. most often used for entertainment. You can help by converting this article to prose. since the late 20th century also through video and computer games.Internet. In the 20th century.

~Mohandas K. ~Robert Orben . had they happened to be within the reach of predatory human hands.Thank God men cannot fly. The Dance of Life. ~Havelock Ellis. and lay waste the sky as well as the earth. the moon and the stars would have disappeared long ago.. Gandhi There's so much pollution in the air now that if it weren't for our lungs there'd be no place to put it all. ~Henry David Thoreau The sun.. 1923 There is a sufficiency in the world for man's need but not for man's greed.

You can leave the corpse for all to see. It was yours. Eddison In America today you can murder land for private profit.good planets are hard to find. ~Quoted in Time . ~Alan M. ~Paul Brooks. New York Times. 1971 Don't blow it .It wasn't the Exxon Valdez captain's driving that caused the Alaskan oil spill. 25 February 1990 Modern technology Owes ecology An apology. and nobody calls the cops. ~Greenpeace advertisement. The Pursuit of Wilderness.

~William Ruckelshaus. 1985 Because we don't think about future generations. 18 June 1990 When a man throws an empty cigarette package from an automobile. Ogilvy on Advertising.Nature provides a free lunch. ~Pat Brown. Business Week. they will never forget us. he is liable to a fine of $50. When a man throws a billboard across a view. he is richly rewarded. quoted in David Ogilvy. I'm an . but only if we control our appetites. ~Henrik Tikkanen I'm not an environmentalist.

~Michel de Montaigne.Earth warrior. Defense of our resources is just as important as defense abroad. translated We never know the worth of water till the well is dry. quoted in Smithsonian. ~Thomas Fuller. 1732 . Gnomologia. April 1990 I think the environment should be put in the category of our national security. she better understands her own affairs than we. 1985 Let us a little permit Nature to take her own way. Yosemite National Park dedication. ~Darryl Cherney. Otherwise what is there to defend? ~Robert Redford.

we borrow it from our children.or even sinful . Jr. 1964 Newspapers: dead trees with information smeared on them. We are all crew.that you burned up a gallon of gasoline to fetch a pack of cigarettes! ~Paul MacCready.Your grandchildren will likely find it incredible . ~Native American Proverb There are no passengers on Spaceship Earth. ~Marshall McLuhan. "Electronic Frontier" . ~Horizon. We do not inherit the earth from our ancestors.

. quoted in Linda Botts.. quoted in The Observer. Loose Talk. we would have had solar energy centuries ago. 8 March 1982 I have no doubt that we will be successful in harnessing the sun's energy. ~Sir George Porter. ~James G. Watt. quoted in Newsweek. 1980 We abuse land because we regard it as a commodity belonging to us. If sunbeams were weapons of war.. ed.They kill good trees to put out bad newspapers. ~Ralph Nader.. . 26 August 1973 The use of solar energy has not been opened up because the oil industry does not own the sun.

in the end. a cook time of two minutes and a landfill dead-time of centuries. A Sand County Almanac The earth we abuse and the living things we kill will. 1958 The packaging for a microwavable "microwave" dinner is programmed for a shelf life of maybe six months. ~Marya Mannes. More in Anger.When we see land as a community to which we belong. for in exploiting their presence we are diminishing our future. Buzzworm. November 1990 . ~David Wann. take their revenge. ~Aldo Leopold. we may begin to use it with love and respect.

New York Times Magazine.. ~John Clapham.. A Concise Economic History of Britain. that the bulldozer and not the atomic bomb may turn out to be the most destructive invention of the 20th century. And . 4 June 1978 Economic advance is not the same thing as human progress.So bleak is the picture. ~Philip Shabecoff. and this was good because Man could then take his automobile and buy all his food in one place and He could save that which was good to eat in the refrigerator and throw away that which had no further use. 1957 And Man created the plastic bag and the tin and aluminum can and the cellophane wrapper and the paper plate.

Rather it is that. and Man shook his head and cried: "Look at this Godawful mess. Samuelson. then names the streets after them. Newsweek. 12 June 1967 Suburbia is where the developer bulldozes out the trees. ~Paul A.soon the earth was covered with plastic bags and aluminum cans and paper plates and disposable bottles and there was nowhere to sit down or walk." ~Art Buchwald. 1970 The problem is no longer that with every pair of hands that comes into the world there comes a hungry stomach. ~Bill Vaughn . attached to those hands are sharp elbows.

. ~Jacques Barzun. The House of Intellect. Australia while allowing ample access for visitors. it can rise again from the Wastepaper Age.For 200 years we've been conquering Nature. the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation. For other uses. quoted in Francesca Lyman. see Environment (disambiguation). The Greenhouse Trap. 1959 Natural environment From Wikipedia. See also: Nature Land management policies have been developed to preserve the natural characteristics of Hopetoun Falls. ~Tom McMillan. Now we're beating it to death. search This article is about the natural environment. 1990 If civilization has risen from the Stone Age.

not originating from human activity. The natural environment encompasses all living and non-living things occurring naturally on Earth or some region thereof. electric charge. such as air.Bachalpsee in the Swiss Alps. water. . which comprises the areas and components that are strongly influenced by humans.[1] The concept of the natural environment can be distinguished by components: y Complete ecological units that function as natural systems without massive human intervention. soil. rocks. if the human impact on it is kept under a certain limited level (similar to section 1 above). Universal natural resources and physical phenomena that lack clear-cut boundaries. It is an environment that encompasses the interaction of all living species. and magnetism. as well as energy. atmosphere and natural phenomena that occur within their boundaries. including all vegetation. the world's largest hot desert and third largest desert after Antarctica and the Arctic. and climate. microorganisms. A geographical area is regarded as a natural environment (with an indefinite article). y The natural environment is contrasted with the built environment. generally mountainous areas are less affected by human activity. radiation. A satellite image of the Sahara desert.

3 Lakes  3.1 Principal layers  4.Contents [hide] y y y y y y y y y y y y y y 1 Composition 2 Geological activity 3 Water on Earth o 3.2 Rivers  3.1 Ponds 4 Atmosphere.1 Atmospheric layers  4.1 Oceans o 3.1.2 Climate o 4. climate and weather o 4.3.3 Weather 5 Life 6 Ecosystems 7 Biomes 8 Biogeochemical cycles 9 Wilderness 10 Challenges 11 See also 12 References 13 Further reading 14 External links [edit] Composition .1 Streams o 3.1.2.2 Effects of global warming o 4.

biology. air. (1) inner core. [edit] Water on Earth . the geosciences or the Earth Sciences). as well as the pedosphere (corresponding to soil) as an active and intermixed sphere. is an all-embracing term for the sciences related to the planet Earth. The mantle though solid is in a state of rheic convection. [edit] Geological activity Main article: Geology The Earth's crust. The resulting process is known as plate tectonics. chronology and mathematics to build a qualitative and quantitative understanding of the principal areas or spheres of the Earth system. or lithosphere. Some scientists include. namely geography. chemistry. These major disciplines use physics. geology. Main article: Earth science Earth science generally recognizes 4 spheres. (5) lithosphere. It has been generated largely by igneous processes in which magma (molten rock) cools and solidifies to form solid rock. (6) crust A volcanic fissure and lava channel. (2) outer core. as part of the spheres of the Earth. albeit slowly. and the biosphere[2] as correspondent to rocks. the cryosphere (corresponding to ice) as a distinct portion of the hydrosphere.[3] There are four major disciplines in earth sciences. and life. the hydrosphere. the lithosphere. is the outermost solid surface of the planet and is chemically and mechanically different from underlying mantle.The Earth's layered structure.[4][5][6] Volcanoes result primarily from the melting of subducted crust material or of rising mantle at mid-ocean ridges and mantle plumes. water. This convection process causes the lithospheric plates to move. (3) lower mantle. (4) upper mantle. geophysics and geodesy. the atmosphere. Earth science (also known as geoscience. Beneath the lithosphere lies the mantle which is heated by the decay of radioactive elements.

state of Hawaii. Earth's oceans (World Ocean) Arctic Ocean Atlantic Ocean Indian Ocean Pacific Ocean Southern Ocean y y y y y A rocky stream in the U.S. [edit] Oceans Main article: Ocean .Coral reefs have significant marine biodiversity.

these waters comprise one global. a river simply flows into the ground or dries up completely before reaching another body of water. a continuous body of water that is customarily divided into several principal oceans and smaller seas. The water in a river is usually in a channel. Small rivers may also be termed by several other names. In a few cases. and nearly all seawater has a salinity in the range of 30 to 38 ppt. the Indian Ocean. made up of a stream bed between banks. flowing toward an ocean. [edit] Streams Main article: Stream . interconnected body of salt water often referred to as the World Ocean or global ocean. and a component of the hydrosphere.000 meters (9. various archipelagos.S.800 ft) deep. Flood plains may be very wide in relation to the size of the river channel.[7][8] This concept of a global ocean as a continuous body of water with relatively free interchange among its parts is of fundamental importance to oceanography. groundwater recharge. the Atlantic Ocean.[9] The major oceanic divisions are defined in part by the continents.5%). creek and brook.[10] usually freshwater. states of Oregon and Washington. Average oceanic salinity is around 35 parts per thousand (ppt) (3. Water within a river is generally collected from precipitation through surface runoff. and the release of water stored in glaciers and snowpacks. Main article: River A river is a natural watercourse. along the border of the U. Though generally recognized as several 'separate' oceans. More than half of this area is over 3. [edit] Rivers The Columbia River. including stream. and other criteria: these divisions are (in descending order of size) the Pacific Ocean. a lake. the Southern Ocean and the Arctic Ocean. a sea or another river. Approximately 71% of the Earth's surface (an area of some 362 million square kilometers) is covered by ocean.An ocean is a major body of saline water. Rivers are a part of the hydrological cycle. springs. In the United States a river is generally classified as a watercourse more than 60 feet (18 metres) wide. In larger rivers there is also a wider floodplain shaped by flood-waters over-topping the channel.

USA. Other lakes are found in endorheic basins or along the courses of mature rivers. Florida. there are many lakes because of chaotic drainage . brooks.A stream is a flowing body of water with a current. Argentina. A lake (from Latin lacus) is a terrain feature. tributaries.[12][13] Natural lakes on Earth are generally found in mountainous areas. and is fed by a river. which do not reach an ocean and connect with another stream or river. is larger and deeper than a pond. [edit] Lakes The Lácar Lake is a lake of glacial origin in the province of Neuquén. Main article: Lake A swamp area in Everglades National Park. The study of streams and waterways in general is known as surface hydrology. Streams play an important corridor role in connecting fragmented habitats and thus in conserving biodiversity. is not part of a ocean. In some parts of the world.[11] Types of streams include creeks. and areas with ongoing or recent glaciation. A body of water is considered a lake when it is inland. which are typically small streams and sometimes sourced from a spring or seep and tidal inlets. rift zones. confined within a bed and stream banks. a body of water that is localized to the bottom of basin.

Ponds and lakes are distinguished from streams via current speed. as they will slowly fill in with sediments or spill out of the basin containing them. such as stream pools and tide pools. fish ponds designed for commercial fish breeding. creating a blue halo when seen from space.patterns left over from the last Ice Age. . and solar ponds designed to store thermal energy. including water gardens designed for aesthetic ornamentation. [edit] Ponds Main article: Pond A pond is a body of standing water. that is usually smaller than a lake. A wide variety of man-made bodies of water are classified as ponds. These features distinguish a pond from many other aquatic terrain features. All lakes are temporary over geologic time scales. [edit] Atmosphere. either natural or man-made. A view of Earth's troposphere from an airplane. While currents in streams are easily observed. ponds and lakes possess thermally driven micro-currents and moderate wind driven currents. climate and weather Atmospheric gases scatter blue light more than other wavelengths.

carbon dioxide. fluorine compounds. Air also contains a variable amount of water vapor and suspensions of water droplets and ice crystals seen as clouds. which typically occurs during thunderstorms. sea spray. these layers are: y y Exosphere: The outermost layer of Earth's atmosphere extends from the exobase upward. this serves to protect life at the surface. elemental mercury. and sometimes during volcanic eruptions or dust storms. nitrous oxide.[15] among which are the greenhouse gases such as water vapor. volcanic ash. 1% argon and other inert gases. Dry air consists of 78% nitrogen. The atmosphere also retains heat during the night. and meteoroids. methane.[14] The atmosphere of the Earth serves as a key factor in sustaining the planetary ecosystem. called the exobase. and ozone. pollen and spores. These layers are mainly determined by whether temperature increases or decreases with altitude. and sulphur compounds such as sulphur dioxide [SO2]. mainly composed of hydrogen and helium. including dust. such as carbon dioxide. 21% oxygen. such as chlorine (elementary or in compounds).Lightning is an atmospheric discharge of electricity accompanied by thunder. From highest to lowest. Many natural substances may be present in tiny amounts in an unfiltered air sample. Thermosphere: The top of the thermosphere is the bottom of the exosphere. The remaining gases are often referred to as trace gases. Various industrial pollutants also may be present. Filtered air includes trace amounts of many other chemical compounds. [edit] Atmospheric layers Main article: Earth's atmosphere [edit] Principal layers Earth's atmosphere can be divided into five main layers. The ozone layer of the Earth's atmosphere plays an important role in depleting the amount of ultraviolet (UV) radiation that reaches the surface. The thin layer of gases that envelops the Earth is held in place by the planet's gravity. thereby reducing the daily temperature extremes. Its height varies with solar activity and ranges from about 350±800 km (220± . As DNA is readily damaged by UV light.

so on average the lowest part of the troposphere is warmest and temperature decreases with altitude. between 320 and 380 km (200 and 240 mi). the lightest element.000 ft). mainly through turbulent diffusion.000 ft). The tropopause is the boundary between the troposphere and stratosphere. It forms the inner edge of the magnetosphere.000 ft) at the equator. It is mainly located in the lower portion of the stratosphere from about 15±35 km (9. The ionosphere.000 to 3. 170. y y y The ozone layer is contained within the stratosphere. y [edit] Effects of global warming Main article: Global warming .000 ft) at the poles and 17 km (56.000 ft). stratosphere. which is the boundary between the stratosphere and mesosphere. The International Space Station orbits in this layer. The planetary boundary layer is the part of the troposphere that is nearest the Earth's surface and is directly affected by it.y y y 500 mi.000±280. stretches from 50 to 1. Stratosphere: The stratosphere extends from the tropopause to about 51 km (32 mi. 160. Mesosphere: The mesosphere extends from the stratopause to 80±85 km (50±53 mi. The troposphere is mostly heated by transfer of energy from the surface. 260. 1.000 ft).000 to 180.300. The upper part of the heterosphere is composed almost completely of hydrogen.000 km (31 to 620 mi.3±22 mi. It is the layer where most meteors burn up upon entering the atmosphere. 160. The stratopause.000 ft). and mesosphere.600. typically is at 50 to 55 km (31 to 34 mi.100.000 ft) and typically overlaps both the exosphere and the thermosphere. About 90% of the ozone in our atmosphere is contained in the stratosphere. Other layers Within the five principal layers determined by temperature are several layers determined by other properties.000±2. 49. though the thickness varies seasonally and geographically. with some variation due to weather. the part of the atmosphere that is ionized by solar radiation.000±110. Troposphere: The troposphere begins at the surface and extends to between 7 km (23. The homosphere and heterosphere: The homosphere includes the troposphere.

and have adverse effects upon the planet. evaluate. focusing on a market-based cap-and-trade system. 1991 and 2002). again with the objective of reducing greenhouse gases in an effort to prevent anthropogenic climate change. animal and plant species. which is the protocol to the international Framework Convention on Climate Change treaty.[17] The Western Climate Initiative. its natural environment and humans' existence. can act interactively.The Retreat of glaciers since 1850 of Aletsch Glacier in the Swiss Alps (situation in 1979. or human-made releases of greenhouse gases. to stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. [edit] Climate . regions and nations in adjusting to the effects of global warming. Some examples of recent collaboration to address climate change and global warming include: Another view of the Aletsch Glacier in the Swiss Alps and because of global warming it has been decreasing y The United Nations Framework Convention Treaty and convention on Climate Change. Efforts have been increasingly focused on the mitigation of greenhouse gases that are causing climatic changes. this view could be defended when looking at processes which change slowly and short time series. The potential dangers of global warming are being increasingly studied by a wide global consortium of scientists. most notably carbon dioxide. Of particular concern is how climate change and global warming caused by anthropogenic. to identify. and implement collective and cooperative ways to reduce greenhouse gases in the region. to assist humans. Methodologically.[16] The Kyoto Protocol. while the problem arrives when fast processes turns essential in the object of the study. A common solution is to adapt a static view neglecting natural variances to exist.[18] y y A significantly profound challenge is to identify the natural environmental dynamics in contrast to environmental changes not within natural variances. ecosystems. These scientists are increasingly concerned about the potential longterm effects of global warming on our natural environment and on the planet. due to global warming. on developing adaptative strategies to global warming.

The Thornthwaite system. most commonly temperature and precipitation. humidity. wind. The most commonly used classification scheme is the one originally developed by Wladimir Köppen. rainfall. incorporates evapotranspiration in addition to temperature and precipitation information and is used in studying animal species diversity and potential impacts of climate changes. atmospheric particle count and numerous other meteorological elements in a given region over long periods of time. which is the present condition of these same elements over periods up to two weeks. atmospheric pressure.[19] in use since 1948. Main article: Weather .[citation needed] Climates can be classified according to the average and typical ranges of different variables.Worldwide climate classifications map Main article: Climate Climate encompasses the statistics of temperature.[citation needed] [edit] Weather Rainbows are optical and meteorological phenomenon that causes a spectrum of light to appear in the sky when the Sun shines onto droplets of moisture in the Earth's atmosphere.[citation needed] Climate can be contrasted to weather.

Weather forecasting is the application of science and technology to predict the state of the atmosphere for a future time and a given location. Because the Earth's axis is tilted relative to its orbital plane. sunlight is incident at different angles at different times of the year. such as extratropical cyclones. temperatures usually range 40 °C (100 °F to í40 °F) annually. changes in the Earth's orbit have affected the amount and distribution of solar energy received by the Earth and influence long-term climate Surface temperature differences in turn cause pressure differences. Over thousands of years. which varies by latitude from the tropics. to day-to-day temperature and precipitation activity. Weather systems in the mid-latitudes. are caused by instabilities of the jet stream flow. Human attempts to control the weather have occurred throughout human history. Weather occurs due to density (temperature and moisture) differences between one place and another. "weather" is understood to be the weather of Earth.[21][22] just below the stratosphere. Higher altitudes are cooler than lower altitudes due to differences in compressional heating. On the Earth's surface. The atmosphere is a chaotic system. generally.[23] When used without qualification.Weather is a set of all the phenomena occurring in a given atmospheric area at a given time. [edit] Life . Weather refers. and small changes to one part of the system can grow to have large effects on the system as a whole. The strong temperature contrast between polar and tropical air gives rise to the jet stream.[20] Most weather phenomena occur in the troposphere. whereas climate is the term for the average atmospheric conditions over longer periods of time. These differences can occur due to the sun angle at any particular spot. and there is evidence that human activity such as agriculture and industry has inadvertently modified weather patterns.

An example of the many animal species on the Earth. Living organisms undergo metabolism. There are many different hypotheses regarding the path that might have been taken from simple organic molecules via pre-cellular life to protocells and metabolism. archaea. maintain homeostasis. and Biosphere Evidence suggests that life on Earth has existed for about 3. Biology. Although there is no universal agreement on the definition of life. theories on the origin of life attempt to find a mechanism explaining the formation of a primordial single cell organism from which all life originates. possess a capacity to grow.[24] All known life forms share fundamental molecular mechanisms. and bacteria² are a carbon. through natural selection. adapt to their environment in . adaptation. protists. animals. respond to stimuli.7 billion years. including the capacity for growth. In biology. functional activity and the continual change preceding death.[26][27] A diverse array of living organisms (life forms) can be found in the biosphere on Earth. reproduce and. scientists generally accept that the biological manifestation of life is characterized by organization.There are many plant species on the planet. Main articles: Life. fungi. response to stimuli and reproduction.[25] Life may also be said to be simply the characteristic state of organisms. metabolism. the science of living organisms. growth. "life" is the condition which distinguishes active organisms from inorganic matter.and water-based cellular form with complex organization and heritable genetic information. and based on these observations. and properties common to these organisms²plants.

successive generations. More complex living organisms can communicate through various means. one of the founders of the science of ecology."[29] .: exchange of materials between living and nonliving parts) within the system is an ecosystem. animals and micro-organisms (biotic factors) in an area functioning together with all of the non-living physical (abiotic) factors of the environment. An ecosystem(also called as environment) is a natural unit consisting of all plants.[28] Central to the ecosystem concept is the idea that living organisms are continually engaged in a highly interrelated set of relationships with every other element constituting the environment in which they exist. biotic diversity. [edit] Ecosystems Main article: Ecosystem Rainforests often have a great deal of biodiversity with many plant and animal species. This is the Gambia River in Senegal's Niokolo-Koba National Park.e. Eugene Odum. stated: "Any unit that includes all of the organisms (ie: the "community") in a given area interacting with the physical environment so that a flow of energy leads to clearly defined trophic structure. and material cycles (i.

and can describe any situation where there is relationship between living organisms and their environment. A greater number or variety of species or biological diversity of an ecosystem may contribute to greater resilience of an ecosystem. state of Oregon. such as communities of plants. savanna). as well as with the abiotic constituents of their biotope. woodland. and climate. in the U. and soil organisms. and grasses). leaf types (such as broadleaf and needleleaf).Old-growth forest and a creek on Larch Mountain[disambiguation needed]. Biomes are often identified with particular patterns of ecological succession and climax vegetation. The human ecosystem concept is then grounded in the deconstruction of the human/nature dichotomy.S. shrubs. [edit] Biogeochemical cycles . often referred to as ecosystems. Main article: Biome Biomes are terminologically similar to the concept of ecosystems. and are climatically and geographically defined areas of ecologically similar climatic conditions on the Earth. or historical similarities. because there are more species present at a location to respond to change and thus "absorb" or reduce its effects. Unlike ecozones. taxonomic. This is not universally the case and there is no proven relationship between the species diversity of an ecosystem and its ability to provide goods and services on a sustainable level. [edit] Biomes Map of Terrestrial biomes classified by vegetation. although some genuine wilderness areas continue to exist without any forms of human intervention. Fewer areas on the surface of the earth today exist free from human contact. and the emergent premise that all species are ecologically integrated with each other. This reduces the effect before the ecosystem's structure is fundamentally changed to a different state. Biomes are defined on the basis of factors such as plant structures (such as trees. animals. such as human ecosystems and human-influenced ecosystems. biomes are not defined by genetic. plant spacing (forest. The term ecosystem can also pertain to human-made environments.

above. Although the balance of water on Earth remains fairly constant over time. The phosphorus cycle is the movement of phosphorus through the lithosphere. The water cycle. carbon. oxygen. Water can change states among liquid. The carbon cycle is the biogeochemical cycle by which carbon is exchanged among the biosphere. The main driving factor of the oxygen cycle is photosynthesis. is the continuous movement of water on. It is a cycle which includes gaseous components. and the lithosphere. geosphere. individual water molecules can come and go. hydrosphere. and below the surface of the Earth. pedosphere. which is responsible for the modern Earth's atmospheric composition and life. These are Chloroplasts visible in the cells of Plagiomnium affine ² Many-fruited Thyme-moss. and atmosphere of the Earth. The oxygen cycle is the movement of oxygen within and between its three main reservoirs: the atmosphere.Chloroplasts conduct photosynthesis and are found in plant cells and other eukaryotic organisms. hydrosphere. and biosphere. Environmental Pollution in India Environmental Pollution Air Pollution River water Pollution Groundwater exploitation Plastic Pollution Environmental Pollution News Copenhagen climate summit . most notably those of water. the biosphere.[30] y y y y y The nitrogen cycle is the transformation of nitrogen and nitrogen-containing compounds in nature. Main article: Biogeochemical cycles Global biogeochemical cycles are critical to life. The atmosphere does not play a significant role in the movements of phosphorus. and ice at various places in the water cycle. nitrogen and phosphorus. vapor. because phosphorus and phosphorus compounds are usually solids at the typical ranges of temperature and pressure found on Earth.

infrastructure.Municipal solid waste Pollution due to Mining Pollution due to biomedical waste Pollution due to e-Waste Delhi's air is choking with pollutant PM 2. and the country¶s natural resources. .5 Greenhouse Gas Emissions Pollution of Indian Seas Indian satellite to monitor green house emission Environmental Pollution and chronic diseases Mahatma Ghandhi on Environmental pollution Invasive alien species Pollution trading Poverty is the biggest polluter The most polluted places in India Emissions of gaseous pollutants: satellite data Is nuclear energy a solution of global warming? Pollution due to Distilleries Reduce pollutions: suggestions References Environmental Pollution The skies over North India are seasonally filled with a thick soup of aerosol particles all along the southern edge of the Himalayas. soil erosion. urbanization. Overexploitation of the country's resources be it land or water and the industrialization process has resulted environmental degradation of resources. 2011 a Meltdown threat after hydrogen blast at Japanese nuclear plant smoke ascends from the Fukushima nuclear plant's Unit 3 More. The increasing economic development and a rapidly growing population that has taken the country from 300 million people in 1947 to more than one billion people today is putting a strain on the environment. deforestation..NASA research findings. rapid industrialization. Environmental pollution is one of the most serious problems . Bangladesh and the Bay of Bengal..Courtesy Nasa The environmental problems in India are growing rapidly. Air pollution . Industrial pollution. and land degradation are all worsening problems. On March 14.

That's small compared to China and the U. Now..763 kilograms) and 42. The study is based on evaluation of ³absolute´ environment impact of 179 countries.S. India's per capita carbon dioxide emissions were roughly 3. Plastic ship Plastiki Each year in the U.500 pounds (19. Brazil was found to be worst on environmental indicators whereas Singapore was the best. United States was rated second worst and China was ranked third. one man has come up with a unique way to bring attention to this environmental threat. according to the study. Adelaide University and University of Singapore 0n January 12. 2010 inked an agreement to establish a bilateral energy cooperation programme to promote clean and energy-efficient businesses. on November 8. found that the environmental pollution levels in 10 major industrial hubs had reached a ³very alarmingly high´ level. 2011. companies inked joint venture deals worth $175 million in the renewable energy sector. Space Shuttle view of haze and pollution over Northern India swept in from Tibet.185 crore for environment management projects in India on NASA's Terra satellite platform University of Illinois atmospheric scientists have documented some surprising trends in aerosol pollution concentration. Princeton. Eco-adventurer and .360 kilograms) in 2007.S. Funding for the centre is expected from national budgets and the private sector.facing humanity and other life forms on our planet today. undertaken by IIT Delhi and the CPCB.278 kilograms) respectively that year. The World Bank Group has sanctioned two loans worth around Rs1.S. The proposed centre is part of the Partnership to Advance Clean Energy (PACE). with 10. The study said that the European Union and Russia also have more emissions than India.S.. Credit: NASA India has been ranked as seventh most environmentally hazardous country in the world by a new ranking released recently. alone. distribution and composition over the Indian subcontinent published in first week of September 2010. Indian and U. The US President Barack Obama and Prime Minister Manmohan Singh announced the setting up of Joint Clean Energy Research and Development Centre. Each government proposes to commit $25 million over the next five years.500 pounds (4. India and US clean energy pact: India and the U. whose data was available and has been done by researchers in Harvard. which forms the core of the ³green partnership´. NASA makes all MISR data freely available to the public. and a great deal it ends up in our oceans. A Comprehensive environmental assessment of industrial clusters. we discard more than 31 million tons of plastic.000 pounds (1.

heart disease. On April 12. Further.000 recycled plastic drinking bottles! His goal to sail this plastic ship Plastiki on a 8. CNG is not without environmental drawbacks says a new Central Pollution Control Board study on January 05. Rs897crore will go for the Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) project and the remaining for Capacity Building for Industrial Pollution Management project. Almost all CNG car engines in India are retrofitted. The study says burning CNG has the highest rates of potentially hazardous carbonyl emissions.5 microns in size is called PM2. the existing . thermal power plants. lung infections and even cancer. a greenhouse gas. According to him. Among the study's finds were that retrofitted CNG car engines emit 30% more methane than original CNG engines. industries and refineries. There are four reasons of air pollution are emissions from vehicles.000 people every year. Air Pollution The World Health Organization estimates that about two million people die prematurely every year as a result of air pollution. while many more suffer from breathing ailments. household heating. .Fine particles or microscopic dust from coal or wood fires and unfiltered diesel engines are rated as one of the most lethal forms or air pollution caused by industry." said Bikash. transport.Particluate matter in the air which is very fine and is less than 2. integrated steel plants with a capacity of 1 million tonnes per annum and cement plants with a capacity of 3 million A recent report by MIT tonnes per annum. coal pollution kills more than 300. Methane. The problem of indoor air pollution in rural areas and urban slums has increased. National Clean Energy Fund in Union Budget Union Budget 2011-12 has earmarked Rs 200 crore from the National Clean Energy Fund for protection of forests. environmentalist David de Rothschild is building a six-person catamaran made entirely from more than 12. 2011 the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF) has Industrial pollution tightened pollution monitoring norms for power projects with a generation capacity of 500 Mw and above. 2011. is a key contributor to climate change. Union Budget (2011-12) India¶s environmental problems are exacerbated by its heavy reliance on coal for power generation. Studies conducted in various parts of the world have revealed a strong link between type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases and continuous exposure to ultra fine particulate matter present in the air. a fuel that emits a high amount of carbon and greenhouse gases.July 22. The study also made a case for regulating CNG and other fuels for methane emissions. cooking and ageing coal or oil-fired power stations. 2010.5 and has been known to cause diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Of this. "More than 80 per cent of energy is produced from coal.000-mile voyage.

would be made sufficiently high without any ceiling on the quantum of penalty amount for serious offences. CHENNAI: Exhaust from vehicles. According to the Society of Indian Automobile Manufacturers. industrial pollution has risen four times over the same period. Serious offences are likely to be made cognizable by police and non-bailable. This could be possible only through an amendment to this Act. Studies estimate that 10 per cent of Bangalore¶s 60 lakh population and over 50 per cent of its children below 18 years suffer from air pollution. India¶s auto production has doubled from 7 million units in fiscal year 2004 to over 14 million units in fiscal year 2010 largely on the back of a buoyant domestic market. A recent report by Massachussets Institute of Technology (MIT) researchers says that the harmful pollutants emitted by an aircraft at an altitude of 35.quantum of penalty prescribed under the Environment (Protection) Act of 1986. The report says that nitrogen and sulphur oxides emitted by aircraft at approximately 35. Aircraft pollutants: According to a study published in the journal Environmental Science and Technology (EST) in the first week of October 2010.000ft are fatal for people. Chennai. Vehicle emissions are responsible for 70% of the country¶s air pollution.000ft combine with other gases in the atmosphere to create noxious particulate matter. Delhi. In the famous ³Tajmahal Case´ a very strong step was taken by Supreme Court to save the Taj Mahal Case being polluted by fumes and more than 200 factories were closed down. Mumbai. 2010 Fog over Indian cities The brilliant white of the Taj Mahal is slowly fading to a sickly yellow. etc. Exhaust from vehicles has increased eight-fold over levels of twenty years ago.. Bangalore holds the title of being the asthma capital of the country. Air pollution from vehicle exhaust and industry is a worsening problem for India. dust researchers says that the harmful pollutants emitted by an aircraft at an altitude of 35. almost 8. Multi-storeyed residential buildings stand behind an expanse of slums in Mumbai . The economy has grown two and a half times over the past two decades but pollution control and civil services have not kept pace. and 3.500 of them would be from India and China. which is too meagre. not with a lack of laws. The major problem with government efforts to safeguard the environment has been enforcement at the local level.000ft are fatal for people Blame air pollution for New Delhis blanket of fog on January 8.000 people will die due to aircraft pollutants this year. Air quality is worst in big cities like Kolkata.related ailments.

industrial waste. or dust.00010.000 litres of perfume to spray on the city¶s enormous waste dumps at Deonar and Mulund landfill sites after people living near the landfill sites complained of the stench.000 have since died from gas-related diseases. The government of Madhya Pradesh has confirmed a total of 3. in Mumbai¶s air have continued to increase over the past three years. On July 14.259. So are respiratory diseases. was first used by the British in 1927. including asthma. director (in-charge). one of India¶s largest. The levels of Respirable Suspended Particulate Matter (RSPM). The effects of air pollution are obvious: rice crop yields in southern India are falling as brown clouds block out more and more sunlight. And the brilliant white of the famous Taj Mahal is slowly fading to a sickly yellow.from construction debris. the festering pile covers more than 120 hectares and is eight storys high. Today.000 litres of perfume recently to spray on the city¶s enormous waste dumps at Deonar and Mulund landfill sites . The air pollution in Mumbai is so high that Mumbai authorities have purchased 42. At least six of the 10 top causes of death are related to respiratory disease.787 deaths related to the gas release Others estimate 8. At midnight on 3 December 1984. The first official immediate death toll was 2. Bhopal: Bhopal gas tragedy was the greatest industrial disaster in the world that took place at a Union Carbide pesticide plant in the Indian city of Bhopal. burning of municipal and garden waste are all on the rise in the city. Mumbai authorities have purchased 42. 2010 Chlorine gas leaked from the Sewri industrial area on land owned by the Mumbai Port Trust and nearly 76 people were treated in hospital. Madhya Pradesh. says Dr D Ranganathan. The Deonar landfill site. In the ³Tajmahal Case´ a very strong step was taken by Supreme Court to save the Tajmahal being polluted by fumes and more than 200 factories were closed down. but the worst pollutant after vehicular emissions has grown at an alarming rate.000 died within 72 hours and 25.000 people to MIC and other chemicals. exposing more than 500. the plant accidentally released methyl isocyanate (MIC) gas. making it the deadliest man-made environmental disaster in history. Mumbai: Not only are levels of Suspended Particulate Matter above permissible limits in Mumbai. Institute of Thoracic Medicine.

Over 700 million people in India suffer from high levels of indoor air pollution affecting women and young children as 75 per cent homes use biomass fuel like wood. holy to the country's 82 percent Hindu majority.Birds and species affected: Studies conducted by the high altitude zoology field station of the Zoological Survey of India (ZSI) based in Solan town of Himachal Pradesh have recorded a drastic fall in butterfly numbers in the western Himalayas. ' The population of 50 percent of the 288 species recorded in the western Himalayas. famous for their biodiversity. comprising areas of Himachal Pradesh and Jammu and Kashmir. Gas leak in Mumbai . 2010 on World Water Day that calls for turning unsanitary wastewater into an environmentally safe economic resource. According to the report -. is dying slowly due to unchecked pollution.8 million children youngerthan 5 die every year from water-related diseases.' Avtar Kaur Sidhu.2 million people a year from diarrheal diseases caused by unsafe drinking water and poor hygiene. Additionally. It was primarily due to a rise in vehicular traffic by the tourists. At least 1.90 percent of wastewater discharged daily in developing countries is untreated. A growing number of bodies of water in India are unfit for human use. and these diseases can be prevented. London in November 2010.titled "Sick Water?" -. have declined more than half in just 10 years. 26 years after Bhopal gas tragedy The greatest industrial disaster in the world River water Pollution Contaminated and polluted water now kills more people than all forms of violence including wars. according to a United Nations report released on March 22. told IANS on World Environment Day 2010. says a prevalence study conducted by Pune-based Chest Research Foundation (CRF) and the Imperial College. We noticed a large number of dead butterflies on the Khardung La (the world's highest motorable road in Ladakh) during one of our visits. the NIEHS is developing and testing new technologies to help determine environmental triggers and reduce asthma symptoms.' she said. and in the River Ganga. diagnosed and treated. Indoor air pollution: Indoor air pollution is the most important cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in India. contributing to the deaths of some 2. Fully 80 percent of urban waste in India ends up in the country's rivers. The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) is working to understand how exposures to environmental agents trigger diseases such as Asthma. and unchecked urban growth across the country combined with poor government oversight means the problem is only getting worse. crop residue and dung cakes. a scientist with the field station.

000 percent higher than what is considered safe for bathing. Nearly 20 billion rupees. Samples taken recently from the Ganges River near Varanasi show that levels of fecal coliform. Only 55 percent of the 15 million Delhi residents are connected to the city's sewage system. seeking to know whether a fine should be . on March 22. Nearly two million people die from diarrhea each year. New Delhi's body of water is little more than a flowing garbage dump. and many of them children under the age of five. poor. 2011 each year. It is that three billion liters of waste are pumped into Delhi's Yamuna (River Yamuna) each day. A division bench of Allahabad High Court. with fully 57 percent of the city's waste finding its way to the Yamuna. Plastic Pollution Plastic bags. According to the Centre for Science and Environment. and poor hygiene. Combined with industrial runoff. 2010 at least 18 babies in several hamlets of Bihar¶s Bhojpur district have been born blind in the past three months because their families consume groundwater containing alarming levels of arsenic. According to the World Health Organization on World Water Day 2011. and living in the developing world. waste water and just about everything else down pipes and into drains. Apart from guarding the coastline. Groundwater exploitation Groundwater exploitation is a serious matter of concern today and legislations and policy measures taken till date.affected blocks of the district. plastic thin sheets and plastic waste is also a major source of pollution. most of them empty into the Yamuna. 31st March 2010 confirmed the cases of blindness in newborns in arsenic. the Coast Guard also play the role of environmental crusaders. were some 3. or almost US $500 million. a dangerous bacterium that comes from untreated sewage. between 75 and 80 percent of the river's pollution is the result of raw sewage. the garbage thrown into the river and it totals over 3 billion liters of waste per day. comprising Justice Ashok Bhushan and Justice Arun Tandon. Groundwater Quality and Pollution is most alarming pollution hazards in India. On April 01. 2010. inadequate sanitation. The remainder flush their bath water. confirmed by Bihar¶s Health Minister Nand Kishore Yadav on Wednesday. by the state governments (water is a state subject) have not had the desired effect on the situation. has been spent on various clean up efforts. in May 03.Indian Coast Guard: The green crusaders. 2010 had directed the Ganga Basin Authority and the state government to take appropriate action to ban the use of polythene in the vicinity of Ganga in the entire state. Also Plastic Bag Pollution in the country is the biggest hazards. The frothy brew is so glaring that it can be viewed on Google Earth. an estimated four billion people get sick with diarrhea as a result of drinking unsafe water. Much of the river pollution problem in India comes from untreated sewage. On August 2.

the Supreme Court has directed the Union government to file its reply in six weeks." he said. An aluminum refinery in Orissa blithely continues to pollute the surrounding villages. Ammonia. pollution. as many as 34 fall under the 150 most backward districts identified in the country. which contains obnoxious substances like Ash. despite the recommendations of the Supreme Court's Central Empowered Committee that it be closed since it poses environmental and health hazards.The court passed the order on an oral mention made by advocate Prashant Bhushan who said that the report of the Karnataka Lokayukta clearly stated that mining activities were being carried not only illegally but also stretched to areas categorised as forest land. Red Mud. The effluents from chlorine plant cause chloride and sodium toxicity to the river Rushikulya ± the lifeline of southern Orissa. the challenge of managing municipal solid waste (MSW) in an environmentally and economically sustainable manner is bound to assume gigantic proportions. MSW management has been considered to be almost the sole responsibility of urban governments. Heavy Metals. 2011 sale of plastic or polythene bags has been banned in the vicinity of rivers or any other water body after Uttar Pradesh Governor B L Joshi gave his assent to an ordinance in this regard. Rengopalli in the east and west cells of the Red Mud pond built for the refinery's alkaline waste disposal.6 billion tonnes of waste and overburden from coal. The CSE report has made extensive analysis of environment degradation and pollution due to mining. asbestosis and asthma. Municipal solid waste is solid waste generated by households. Until now. tuberculosis. From January 20. The Phosphoric Fertilizer Industry discharges effluent containing Nitric. abject poverty keeps driving villagers in many parts of the Rajasthan state to illegal mining. 2011 ordered a probe by its committee into alleged illegal mining in Bellary and other forest areas of Karnataka. the pollution would increase manifold in the coming years. have urged that this issue be addressed with multiple stakeholder participation. which generate about 40 million tonnes of MSW per year today. Sulphuric and Phosphoric acids into river Mahanadi. Grease.7 per cent and 500-odd mines awaiting approval of the Centre. Oil. into the River Nandira (A tributary of River Brahmani). silicosis. iron ore. 2007 said mining was causing displacement. Despite stone mining¶s links to several occupational diseases such as pneumoconiosis. A bench headed by Chief Justice S. which is the final waste product from bauxite. The state produces 5 crore tonnes a year. Municipal solid waste India¶s urban population slated to increase from the current 330 million to about 600 million by 2030. Pollution due to Mining New Delhi-based Center for Science and Environment (CSE) on December 29. this could well touch 260 million tonnes per year by 2047. The Centre and the Supreme Court. however. Rajasthan is the largest producer of dimensional stones in the country. "The Governor has given his assent to UP Plastic and Bio-Degradable Garbage and Waste (Use and Disposal) Ordinance which makes areas around river and water bodies no-polythene zone. forest degradation and social unrest. Going by estimates of The Energy Research Institute (TERI). wherein it has said. Municipal solid waste management is more of an administrative and institutional mechanism failure problem rather than a technological one. Kapadia asked the apex court-appointed Central Empowered Committee to conduct the probe and file its report within six weeks. The country has over 5. without the participation of citizens and other stakeholders. Phosphorus. With the annual growth of mining at 10. commercial establishments and offices and does not include the industrial or agricultural waste.H. Fluorides.000 cities and towns. limestone and bauxite have added to environment pollution. Cities in India spend approximately 20% of the city budget on solid waste services. Urea and Sulphuric Acid. in 2005-06 alone 1. The mines of Mahanadi Coal Fields and NTPC draw about 25 Cr litres of water per day from the River Brahmani and in return they release thousands of gallons of waste water.imposed on paan masala or gutkha packet manufacturers for polluting and choking the drainage systems. . The Supreme Court on February 25. According to the Centre for Science and Environment ( CSE) report the top 50 mineral producing districts.

However. shown above. a sport is a game based in physical athleticism. for example though jogging or playing catch are usually classified as forms of recreation. a ton of toxic waste is dumped for every ton of alumina produced in the refinery Sport From Wikipedia. and fair play. and congratulating the winner when losing. while failures and accomplishments are widely announced in sport news. the degree of skill and performance in some sports such as diving. and observe standards of conduct such as being respectful of opponents and officials. While practices may vary. Sports are most often played just for fun or for the simple fact that people need exercise to stay in good physical condition. where skill does not have to be shown and the criteria are not as well defined. sports participants are expected to display good sportsmanship. This is in contrast with other judged activities such as beauty pageants and body building. Records are kept and updated for most sports at the highest levels. However. Sports are governed by a set of rules or customs. . Sport in childhood. strategy. see Sport (disambiguation). Association football ("soccer"). search For other uses. and skillful activity requiring commitment. professional sport is a major source of entertainment. Non-competitive activities may also qualify. in which a winner can be defined by objective means. A sport is an organized. Physical events such as scoring goals or crossing a line first often define the result of a sport. Activities such as board games and card games are sometimes classified as "mind sports.In the currently operational west cell. competitive. is a team sport which also provides opportunities to nurture social interaction skills. dressage and figure skating is judged according to well-defined criteria. Generally speaking. the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation. entertaining. they may also be informally called "sports" due to their similarity to competitive games." but strictly speaking "sport" by itself refers to some physical activity.

The oldest definition of sport in English (1300) is of anything humans find amusing or entertaining. American English uses the term "sports" to refer to this general type of recreational activity. the free dictionary. meaning "winning". The Persian word for sport is based on the root bord. hunting. and games and diversions. whereas other regional dialects use the singular "sport". "Sport" comes from the Old French desport meaning "leisure". The Chinese term for sport.Contents [hide] y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y 1 Etymology and meaning 2 History 3 Sportsmanship 4 Professional sports 5 Politics 6 Physical art 7 Technology 8 Terminology 9 Spectator sport 10 Youth sports 11 Gender and sports opportunities o 11.[1] Other meanings include gambling and events staged for the purpose of gambling.[3] [edit] History Main article: History of sport . ) connotes physical training.[2] Roget's defines the noun sport as an "activity engaged in for relaxation and amusement" with synonyms including diversion and recreation. tiyu ( . including ones that require exercise.1 Gender gap in physical education 12 Notes 13 See also 14 References 15 Further reading [edit] Etymology and meaning Look up sport in Wiktionary. The modern Greek term for sport is (athlitismos). directly cognate with the English terms "athlete" and "athleticism".

Electronic sports organizations are becoming more and more popular. 2nd century AD There are artifacts and structures that suggest that the Chinese engaged in sporting activities as early as 2000 BC. greater participation in athletic activities. A wide range of sports were already established by the time of Ancient Greece and the military culture and the development of sports in Greece influenced one another considerably. and increased accessibility. were well-developed and regulated several thousands of years ago in ancient Egypt. high jump. and the internet²all while enjoying the exercise and competition associated with amateur participation in sports. Sports became such a prominent part of their culture that the Greeks created the Olympic Games. including swimming and fishing. Industrialization has brought increased leisure time to the citizens of developed and developing countries. as sports fans began following the exploits of professional athletes through radio. further adding to the increase in sport's popularity. which in ancient times were held every four years in a small village in the Peloponnesus called Olympia. In the New Millennium.[7] Sports have been increasingly organized and regulated from the time of the ancient Olympics up to the present century. Professionalism became prevalent. television.Roman bronze reduction of Myron's Discobolos. . These trends continued with the advent of mass media and global communication. Monuments to the Pharaohs indicate that a number of sports.[6] Among other sports that originate in ancient Persia are polo and jousting. Ancient Persian sports such as the traditional Iranian martial art of Zourkhaneh had a close connection to the warfare skills.[5] Other Egyptian sports included javelin throwing.[4] Gymnastics appears to have been a popular sport in China's ancient past. and wrestling. leading to more time for citizens to attend and follow spectator sports. new sports have been going further from the physical aspect to the mental or psychological aspect of competing.

is not winning but taking part" are typical expressions of this sentiment. The well-known sentiment by sports journalist Grantland Rice. Athletes. Rioting or hooliganism are common and ongoing problems at national and international sporting contests. and grace in victory or defeat. fans..Motorized sports have appeared since the advent of the modern age. coaches. This has resulted in some conflict. where the paycheck are more important than recreational aspects. or celebration. and parents sometimes unleash violent behaviour on people or property. together with the increase of mass media and leisure time. However the term is . Violence in sports involves crossing the line between fair competition and intentional aggressive violence. in misguided shows of loyalty. "professional sport" does not and cannot exist. since sport by definition is a leisure activity. dominance.[8][9][10] Sportsmanship expresses an aspiration or ethos that the activity will be enjoyed for its own sake. courtesy toward teammates and opponents. has led to "professionalism" in sports. [edit] Professional sports Modern sports have complex rules and are highly organized. it's the only thing Sportsmanship is an attitude that strives for fair play. or where the sports are changed simply to make them more profitable and popular. anger. and the modern Olympic creed expressed by its founder Pierre de Coubertin: "The most important thing. that it's ³not that you won or lost but how you played the game". ethical behaviour and integrity. [edit] Sportsmanship Main article: Sportsmanship See also: Gamesmanship and Winning isn't everything. thereby losing certain valued traditions.. Indeed. Main article: Professional sport The aspect of sports.

hurling. particularly in rugby union. but the advent of the Good Friday Agreement in 1998 led to the eventual removal of the ban. or commentators and audiences can adopt a partisan view. The entertainment aspect also means that sportsmen and women are often elevated to celebrity status in media and popular culture. where an ideology was developing which used the event to strengthen its spread through propaganda. Until the mid 20th century a person could have been banned from playing Gaelic football. (May 2010) Main article: Politics and sports At times. or other games seen to be of British origin. [edit] Politics This section needs additional citations for verification. Some feel this was an effective contribution to the eventual demolition of the policy of apartheid. many journalists have suggested that sports should not be reported by the general media but only by specialist magazines[11]. but was modified to allow football and rugby to be played in Croke Park while Lansdowne Road was redeveloped into Aviva Stadium. or other sports administered by the Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA) if she/he played or supported football. such tensions can lead to violent confrontation among players or spectators within and beyond the sporting venue. For this reason. under Rule 21. Please help improve this article by adding reliable references. These trends are seen by many as contrary to the fundamental ethos of sports being carried on for its own sake and for the enjoyment of its participants.[12] The 1936 Summer Olympics held in Berlin was an illustration. the GAA also banned members of the British security forces and members of the RUC from playing Gaelic games. This ban is still enforced. others feel that it may have prolonged and reinforced its worst effects. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Gaelic sports were connected with cultural nationalism. which is performed by persons for reward with the intent to entertain spectators. [edit] Physical art . perhaps best recognised in retrospect. regarded by the general population as sport. Nationalism is often evident in the pursuit of sports. On occasion.commonplace and accepted to mean a game or other activity. or in its reporting: people compete in national teams. as in the Football War. adopted the conscientious approach that they should not appear in competitive sports there. Until recently the GAA continued to ban the playing of football and rugby union at Gaelic venues. sports and politics can have a large amount of influence on each other. Until recently. In the history of Ireland. When apartheid was the official policy in South Africa. many sports people.

is related to this ancient Greek term arete. see Natural science. dancesport. performance art. yoga. running. Similarly. a sporting performance such as jumping doesn't just impress as being an effective way to avoid obstacles.Gymnastics Sports have many affinities with art. artistic gymnastics. martial arts. such as bodybuilding. sculpture and architectures. All sports involve physical and mental activities that are pursued for more than simply utilitarian reasons. For the specific topics of study by scientists. occurs for reasons beyond simply moving from one place to another. skill. poetry. prowess and arete displayed by participants. figure skating. . Value is gained from this activity when it is conducted simply for its own sake. which were celebrations of both sporting and artistic achievements. drum corps. skateboarding. search This article is about the general term. the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation. and Tai chi can be considered artistic spectacles. when done as a sport. Science From Wikipedia. Art and sports were clearly linked at the time of Ancient Greece. For instance. For instance. particularly as it refers to experimental sciences. an aesthetically pleasing car is one which doesn't just get from A to B. The modern term art as skill. and charisma. free running. In the same way. which in Spain is reported in the arts pages of newspapers. dressage. This is similar to the concept of aesthetic value. The closeness of art and sport in these times was revealed by the nature of the Olympic Games. professional wrestling. For example. which is seeing something over and above the strictly functional value coming from an object's normal use. poise. and culinary arts. there are other activities that have elements of sport and art in their execution. and style that is demonstrated in its performance. It impresses because of the ability. when gymnastics and calisthenics invoked admiration and aesthetic appreciation for the physical build. but which impresses with its grace. Perhaps the best example is bull-fighting.

Science is an earnest attempt to pull away Nature's veil.For other uses. Part of a series on Science Formal sciences[show] Physical sciences[show] Life sciences[show] Social and Behavioural sciences[show] Applied sciences[show] . see Science (disambiguation).

2 Experimentation and hypothesizing o 3. This is now the dominant sense in ordinary use.1 Fields . science is "often treated as synonymous with µnatural and physical science¶.[9] Contents [hide] y y y y y 1 History and etymology 2 Basic classifications 3 Scientific method o 3. "natural philosophy" (which is today called "natural science") had begun to be considered separately from "philosophy" in general. and Newton's laws of motion. geology and biology. In this period it became more common to refer to natural philosophy as "natural science". the word "science" became increasingly associated with the disciplined study of the natural world including physics. and thus restricted to those branches of study that relate to the phenomena of the material universe and their laws.3 Certainty and science 4 Mathematics 5 Scientific community o 5. based on early examples such as Kepler's laws. "science" continued to be used in a broad sense denoting reliable knowledge about a topic. "science" and "philosophy". in the same way it is still used in modern terms such as library science or political science.1 Basic and applied research o 3. chemistry.[5] Since classical antiquity science as a type of knowledge was closely linked to philosophy. which was resolved by classifying these areas of academic study as social science. This sometimes left the study of human thought and society in a linguistic limbo. such as formal science and applied science. sometimes with implied exclusion of pure mathematics. Similarly. several other major areas of disciplined study and knowledge exist today under the general rubric of "science". were sometimes used interchangeably in the English language. for whom scientific knowledge was a body of reliable knowledge that can be logically and rationally explained (see "History and etymology" section below).[6][7] However. Over the course of the 19th century. In modern use.Related topics[show] v·d·e Science (from Latin: scientia meaning "knowledge") is an enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the world. In the early modern era the two words.[1][2][3][4] An older and closely related meaning still in use today is that of Aristotle. Galileo's laws."[8] This narrower sense of "science" developed as a part of science became a distinct enterprise of defining "laws of nature". By the 17th century.

fringe science.2 Media perspectives o 9. by Aristotle and Pliny the Elder).1 Philosophical critiques o 9.y y y y y y y y y 5. by methodical experimentation aimed at defining "laws of nature" while avoiding concerns with metaphysical concerns such as Aristotle's theory of causation. the free dictionary. and scientific methods have been employed since the Middle Ages (for example. Main articles: History of science and Scientific revolution Personification of "Science" in front of the Boston Public Library While descriptions of disciplined empirical investigations of the natural world exist from times at least as early as classical antiquity (for example.3 Politics and public perception of science 10 See also 11 Notes 12 References 13 Further reading 14 External links o o o History and etymology Look up science in Wiktionary. and junk science 9 Critiques o 9.4 Women in science 6 Philosophy of science 7 Science policy 8 Pseudoscience. the dawn of modern science is generally traced back to the early modern period during what is known as the Scientific Revolution of the 16th and 17th centuries.[11] .2 Institutions 5. by Alhazen and Roger Bacon).3 Literature 5.[10] This period was marked by a new way of studying the natural world.

[12][13] In philosophical contexts. Prior to the 18th century. In other Latin influenced languages. and did not treat the gathering of experience and raw data as part of science itself. The word "science" is from Old French. but suggesting that 'natural philosophy' could not be deduced in the same way as mathematics and logic. and Italian. The word "science" in English was still however used in the 17th century to refer to the Aristotelian concept of knowledge which was secure enough to be used as a prescription for exactly how to accomplish a specific task.) Science only became more strongly associated with natural philosophy than other sciences gradually with the strong promotion of the importance of experimental scientific method. by people such as Francis Bacon..[15] "Science" therefore had the same sort of very broad meaning that philosophy had at that time. and in turn from Latin scientia which was one of several words for "knowledge" in that language. With respect to the transitional usage of the term "natural philosophy" in this period. though it often retained a very broad meaning. by the early 19th century natural philosophy had begun to separate from philosophy. logic.Rapid accumulation of knowledge. . the philosopher John Locke wrote in 1690 that "natural philosophy is not capable of being made a science".[17] Locke's assertion notwithstanding. especially Aristotle. epistemology. begins a more widespread and open criticism of Aristotle's influence which had emphasized theorizing and did not treat raw data collection as part of science itself. the preferred term for the study of nature among English speakers was "natural philosophy". including French. "moral philosophy" is more-or-less synonymous with "ethics". ² Joseph Ben±David. which had acquired a specific definition in Greek philosophy. With Bacon. ethics and aesthetics) were typically referred to as "moral philosophy".[10] This modern science developed from an older and broader enterprise. Aristotle's influential emphasis was upon the "theoretical" steps of deducing universal rules from raw data. Spanish. The new kind of scientific activity emerged only in a few countries of Western Europe. which has characterized the development of science since the 17th century. science continued to stand for reliable knowledge about any topic. metaphysics.g. something which is easier to do in some fields than others. as a type of reliable knowledge which is built up logically from strong premises. the word corresponding to science also carried this meaning. scientia and "science" were used to translate the Greek word epistem .[16] However. Portuguese. scientific knowledge has been assimilated by the rest of the world). 1971. which was still common until the 20th century. had never occurred before that time.[14] From the Middle Ages to the Enlightenment. while other philosophical disciplines (e. (Since the 19th century. In contrast to modern science. in the same way it is still used today in the broad sense (see the introduction to this article) in modern terms such as library science. An opposed position became common: that what is critical to science at its best is methodical collecting of clear and useful raw data. science or scientia continued to be used in this broad sense. and it was restricted to that small area for about two hundred years. In many cases. it may be that Locke was not using the word 'science' in the modern sense. and can be communicated and taught. (Today.

the definition. These groupings are empirical sciences. many English speakers were increasingly differentiating science (i. in the narrow sense of the habitual use of the scientific method and the knowledge derived from it. to be corrected. Kepler's laws. such as engineering and medicine. helps to produce these laws..[18] Whatever people actually meant by these terms at first. and computer science.things must be learned only to be unlearned again or. practiced by a distinct group and pursued through a unique method. the natural sciences) from all other forms of knowledge in a variety of ways.." Feynman also observed. simple.. By the 20th century.political science. or motherhood. it became more popular to refer to natural philosophy as natural science. which means the knowledge must be based on observable phenomena and capable of being tested for its validity by other researchers working under the same conditions. and social sciences. which study human behavior and societies. But what is the source of knowledge? Where do the laws that are to be tested come from? Experiment. was essentially in place.e.[18] The word "scientist. Within these categories . (as opposed to an intuitive or empirically minded one) was coined in 1833 by William Whewell. the modern notion of science as a special kind of knowledge about the world. The now-familiar expression ³scientific method. Experiment is the sole judge of scientific 'truth'.[18] Over the 20th century. is the following: The test of all knowledge is experiment. but became widespread after the 1870s. as: "The principle of science. as natural philosophy became linked to an expanding set of well-defined laws (beginning with Galileo's laws. and Newton's laws for motion).[2] There are also related disciplines that are grouped into interdisciplinary and applied sciences. there was an increased tendency to associate science with study of the natural world (that is. moreover." meant to refer to a systematically working natural philosopher.. Over the course of the 19th century. As Martin Rees explains. grew in the last half of the 19th century. progress in scientific understanding and technology have been synergistic and vital to one another. and then to experiment to check again whether we have made the right guess. but very strange patterns beneath them all. they ultimately depicted science. itself. the non-human world). even if their attributes were up for debate. as something deeply distinguished from all other realms of human endeavor. This move sometimes left the study of human thought and society (what would come to be called social science) in a linguistic limbo by the end of the century and into the next.. ". But also needed is imagination to create from these hints the great generalizations ² to guess at the wonderful."[21] Basic classifications Scientific fields are commonly divided into two major groups: natural sciences. advertising.[18] Through the 19th century. links between science and technology also grew increasingly strong. though there was rarely total agreement about just what it entailed. engineering.there is an expanding frontier of ignorance. more likely. almost. It was used to give legitimacy to a variety of fields through such titles as "scientific" medicine. which study natural phenomena (including biological life).[19] Discussion of scientists as a special group of people who did science. to his students.´ which refers to the prescriptive part of how to make discoveries in natural philosophy. In the more narrow sense of science. in the sense that it gives us hints. was almost unused until then.[20] Richard Feynman described science.

and laws.[2] both in discovering and describing how things work (natural sciences) and how people think and act (social sciences). which is classified as a formal science. It is similar to empirical sciences in that it involves an objective. careful and systematic study of an area of knowledge. . is vital to the empirical sciences.are specialized scientific fields that can include parts of other scientific disciplines but often possess their own terminology and expertise. which also include statistics and logic.[22] Mathematics. theories. Major advances in formal science have often led to major advances in the empirical sciences.[23][24] has both similarities and differences with the empirical sciences (the natural and social sciences). it is different because of its method of verifying its knowledge. The formal sciences are essential in the formation of hypotheses.[2] The formal sciences. using a priori rather than empirical methods.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful