ADEEL AFZAL 431106623

Non Linear Communication Models
The Riley¶s ' model:

White Riley, a husband and wife team of sociologists, point out the importance of the sociological view in communication in another way. The two sociologists say such a view would fit together the many messages and individual reactions to them within an integrated social structure and process. The Rileys developed a model to illustrate these sociological implications in communication. The model indicates the communicator (C) emerges as part of a larger pattern, sending messages in accordance with the expectations and actions of other persons and groups within the same social structure. This also is true of the receiver (R) in the communications process. In addition, both the communicator and receiver are part of an overall social system. Within such system, the communication process is seen as a part of a larger social process, both affecting it and being in turn affected by it. The model clearly illustrates that communication is a two-way proposition. The important point the Rileys' model makes for us is that we send messages as members of certain primary groups and that our receivers receive our messages as members of primary groups. As you likely can visualize, group references may be a positive reinforcement of our messages; at other times they may create a negative force.

1|P a ge

the helix can gradually free itself from its lower-level distortions. the helix gives geometrical testimony to the concept that communication while moving forward is at the same moment coming back upon itself and being affected by its past behavior.´ ii.ADEEL AFZAL 431106623 Dance¶s Helical Spiral. even though slowly. the helix is interesting not so much for what it says as for what it permits to be said.´ 2|P a ge . ³The helix represents the way communication evolves in an individual from his birth to the existing moment. The helical communication model offers a flexible communication process´. like the helix.: Background: i.³As a heuristic device. for the coming curve of the helix is fundamentally affected by the curve from which it emerges.³At any and all times. it exemplifies a point made earlier: It is important to approach models in a spirit of speculation and intellectual play. is constantly moving forward and yet is always to some degree dependent upon the past. Hence. The communication process. Strengths: i. Yet. which informs the present and the future. Depicts communication as a dynamic process.

some would claim that it does not meet the requirements of a model at all. does not the helix imply a false degree of continuity from one communicative situation to another? Do we necessarily perceive all encounters as actually occurring in an undifferentiated. May not be a model at all: too few variables. or unproductive? Countless other questions could be raised. unbroken growth include events we consider meaningless. but leaves much unanswered. forced. and so forth? Is all communication a matter of growth.nonrepeatable events which are defined in ways the organism develops to be self-consistent and socially meaningful. no pure redundancy. In short. Indeed. in an ever-broadening range of encounters? If the helix represents continuous learning and growth. no fixed beginning. and accumulative. The model brings problems of abstraction into the open. it is not a systematic or formalized mode of representation. and pathology? And does not the unbroken line of a helix tacitly ignore the qualitative distinctions that inevitably characterize different communicative events? Also. artificial. and discovery. And that is the point. intermittent periods. More specifically. false starts. that is. or unproductive? Countless other questions could be raised. All experience contributes to the shape of the unfolding moment. ³ 3|P a ge . how can the same form also account for deterioration and decay? What about the forces of entropy. The model brings problems of abstraction into the open. what about movements which we define as utterly wasted. the helix underscores the integrated aspects of all human communication as an evolving process that is always turned inward in ways that permit learning.Generates Questions. It describes in the abstract but does not explicitly explain or make particular hypotheses testable. Neither does it formalize relationships or isolate key variables. ³rtificial. additive. growth. each phase of activity depends upon present forces at work as they are defined by all that has occurred before. And that is the point. Weaknesses i. All communicative experience is the product of learned. decay. upward and onward. or contrived? Along similar lines. Mortensen: ³If judged against conventional scientific standards. no closure. inertia. the helix does not fare well as a model.´ ii. ³For example. The helix implies that communication is continuous. there is no break in the action. unbroken sequence of events? Does an unbroken line not conflict with the human experience of discontinuity. unrepeatable. how can the idea of continuous.ADEEL AFZAL 431106623 ii.

Westley and MacLean realized that communication does not begin when one person starts to talk.ADEEL AFZAL 431106623 Westley and MacLean¶s Conceptual Model: Background: i. but rather when a person responds selectively to his immediate physical surroundings. ii. Each interactant responds to his sensory experience by abstracting out certain objects of orientation. Some items are selected for further interpretation or coding (X¶) and then are 4|P a ge .

Westley and MacLean¶s model accounts for many more variables in the typical communication interaction. Strengths: i.g. It is. Becker¶s Mosaic Model: 5|P a ge . who may or may not be responding to the same objects of orientation (X. E.b).ADEEL AFZAL 431106623 transmitted to another person.Accounts for a sensory field or. Accounts for different modes. interpersonal vs. It cannot account for the multiple dimensions of the typical communication event involving a broad context and multiple message. in Newcomb¶s (1953) words.Accounts for non-binary interactions²more than just two people communicating directly. however. Weaknesses: i. mass mediated communication. Accounts for Feedback ii. iv. still two-dimensional. ³objects of co-orientation.´ iii.

It also accounts for variations in exposure to messages. ³Becker likens complex communicative events to the activity of a receiver who moves through a constantly changing cube or mosaic of information . Some relationships are confined to isolated situations.´ Strengths: i. as depicted in the model. in social situations. ii. In the tracing of various elements of a message. but a person constructs it for himself. Some items are separated by gaps in time. Each section of the cube represents a potential source of information. ³Becker assumes that most communicative acts link message elements from more than one social situation. from an obscure quotation read years before. they entail a complex set of relationships between a given message and the larger backdrop of information against which it is interpreted. in others they may encounter only a few isolated items. while others focus on more diffuse units. or in the number of persons present. public debate. others by gaps in modes of presentation. and from numerous other dissimilar situations²moments of introspection. It depicts the incredible complexity of communication as influenced by a constantly changing milieu. In short. iv. In some circumstances receivers may be flooded by relevant information. and so on. iii. it does not easily account for all the possible dimensions involved in a communication event.ADEEL AFZAL 431106623 Background: i. the elements that make up a message ordinarily occur in bits and pieces. One comprises the information in a given social milieu. The layers of the cube correspond to layers of information. Individual differences also influence level of exposure. from a recent TV commercial. others to recurrent events. Different kinds of relationships between people and messages cut through the many levels of exposure. some relationships center on a particular message. Even though this model adds a third dimension. daydreaming. 6|P a ge . Moreover.´ ii. coffee-shop banter. some people seem to be attuned to a large range of information. while others miss or dismiss much as extraneous. note that some are blocked out in recognition that at any given point some bits of information are not available for use. It may be useful to conceive of an interaction between two mosaics. Weaknesses: i. that is. it is clear that the items may result in part from a talk with an associate. Other layers correspond to potentially relevant sets of information. the other includes the private mosaic of information that is internal to the receiver. The internal mosaic is every bit as complex as the one shown in the model.

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