© 2004 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved 1.3.4 Oil Characterization.pdf
The petroleum characterization method in HYSYS will convert laboratory analyses of condensates, crude oils, petroleum cuts and coaltar liquids into a series of discrete hypothetical components. These petroleum hypocomponents provide the basis for the property package to predict the remaining thermodynamic and transport properties necessary for fluid modelling. HYSYS will produce a complete set of physical and critical properties for the petroleum hypocomponents with a minimal amount of information. However, the more information you can supply about the fluid, the more accurate these properties will be, and the better HYSYS will predict the fluid's actual behaviour. In this example, the Oil Characterization option in HYSYS is used to model a crude oil. The crude is the feed stock to a Pre-heat Train, followed by the Atmospheric Crude Column, which will be modelled in a subsequent module.
Once you have completed, you will be able to use the Oil Characterization option in HYSYS.
Before beginning this module you need to understand the basics of the Fluid Package (refer to Getting Started).
Building the Simulation
Before you can start the actual characterization process, you will first learn how to modify the Unit Set which is very useful in a Refinery. For example, you can work with barrels/day instead of m3/h. 1. Start a new case.
Modifying the Unit Set
HYSYS allows you to have your own set of units. For this case, the unit for Standard Density will be API_60 instead of kg/m3 as in the SI. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. From the Tools menu select Preferences, and go to the Variables tab. Select the SI unit set as the default. You cannot edit the default set, but you can make a copy of it by clicking the Clone button. Rename the cloned unit set to Refinery. Move the cursor to the Standard Density cell. Select API_60 from the drop-down list.
Close the Preferences view.
Defining the Simulation Basis
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
Basis Environment icon
On the Fluid Packages tab, click the Import button and select the fluid package you exported in Module 1: Refinery. Highlight the Refinery Package and click the View button. We are going to delete the components we do not need: C6 and C7+. Go to the Components tab and highlight n-Hexane and click the Remove button. Do the same with the C7+. Close this window to return to the Basis Environment. Go to the Oil Manager tab and click the Enter Oil Environment button. You could also click the Oil Environment icon on the toolbar. The Oil Characterization view displays.
Oil Environment icon
The petroleum characterization in HYSYS accepts different types of information about the oil. The more information you can supply about your sample, the more accurate the representation will be. There are three steps involved in characterizing any oil in HYSYS: 1. 2. 3. Characterize the Assay Generate Hypocomponents Install the Oil in the Flowsheet
The minimum amount of information that HYSYS requires to characterize an oil is: • • a laboratory distillation curve. at least one of the following bulk properties: Molecular Weight, Density, or Watson K Factor.
Characterize the Assay
The assay contains all of the petroleum laboratory data, boiling point curves, light ends, property curves and bulk properties. HYSYS uses the supplied Assay data to generate internal TBP molecular weight, density , and viscosity curves, referred to as Working Curves.
Accurate volatility characteristics are vital when representing a petroleum fluid in your process simulation. HYSYS accepts the following standard laboratory analytical assay procedures. • True Boiling Point (TBP). Performed using a multi-stage batch fractionation apparatus operated at relatively high reflux ratios. TBP distillations conducted at atmospheric or vacuum conditions are accepted by the characterization. ASTM D86. Distillation employing batch fractionation but conducted using non-refluxed Engler flasks. Generally used for light to medium petroleum fluids. HYSYS can correct for barometric pressure or cracking effects. You must provide the data on a liquid volume basis. D1160 distillation. Distillation employing batch fractionation but conducted using non-refluxed Engler flasks. Generally used for heavier petroleum fluids. Curves can be given at atmospheric pressure or corrected for vacuum conditions. You must provide the data on a liquid volume basis. D86_D1160. This is a combination of the D86/D1160 distillation data types. You can correct for thermal cracking and enable vacuum distillation for sub-atmospheric conditions. You must provide data on a liquid volume basis. ASTM D2887. Simulated distillation analysis from chromatographic data. Reported only on a weight percent basis at atmospheric conditions. Equilibrium Flash Vaporization (EFV). Involves a series of experiments at constant atmospheric pressure, where the total vapour is in equilibrium with the unvaporized liquid. Chromatographic Analysis. A gas chromatograph analysis of a small sample of completely vaporized oil, analysed for paraffin, aromatic and naphthenic hydrocarbon groups from C6 to C30. Chromatographic analyses may be entered on a mole, mass or liquid volume basis.
For all the distillation curves, you are required to enter at least five data points.
• • •
Light Ends are defined as pure components with low boiling points. Components in the boiling range of C2 to n-C5 are most commonly of interest. HYSYS provides three options to account for Light Ends: • • Ignore. HYSYS will characterize the Light Ends portion of your sample as hypocomponents. This is the least accurate method and as such, is not recommended. Auto Calculate. Select this when you do not have a separate Light Ends analysis but you want the low boiling portion of your assay represented by pure components. HYSYS will only use the pure components you have selected in the Fluid Package. Input Composition. Select this when you have a separate Light Ends assay and your petroleum assay was prepared with the Light Ends in the sample. HYSYS will provide a form listing the pure components you selected in the Fluid Package. This is the most accurate method of representation.
Bulk Properties for the sample may also be supplied. The bulk properties are optional if a distillation curve or chromatograph have been supplied. • • • • • • Molecular Weight. This is the Molecular Weight of the bulk sample. It must be greater than 16. Mass Density. The mass density must be between 250 and 2000 kg/m3. Watson (UOP) K Factor. This must be between 8 and 15. Bulk Viscosity. Given at two reference temperatures, typically 37.7°C and 98.89°C (100°F and 210°F). The units for density can be mass density, API or specific gravity, chosen from the drop down list in the Edit Bar The Watson K Factor is an approximate index of paraffinicity.
Physical Property Curves
HYSYS accepts different types of physical property curves • • • Molecular Weight Curve Density Curve Viscosity Curve
Physical property analyses are normally reported from the laboratory using one of the following two conventions. • • An Independent assay basis, where a common set of assay fractions is NOT used for both the distillation curve and the physical property curve. A Dependent assay basis, where a common set of assay fractions is utilized for both the distillation curve and the physical property curve.
As you supply more information to HYSYS, the accuracy of the Petroleum Characterization increases. Supplying any or all of the bulk molecular weight, bulk density, or bulk Watson K factor will increase the accuracy of your pseudo component properties. You can also supply laboratory curves for molecular weight, density, and/or viscosity, which will increase the accuracy further.
Adding Assay Data
1. 2. 3. On the Assay tab of the Oil Characterization view, select the Add button to display the Input Data tab of the Assay view. In the Name cell, change the assay name to Crude. We will use three types of data here. Use the drop-down lists to select the following in the Assay Definition group box.
Select... Used TBP Input Composition
For this option... Bulk Properties Assay Data Type Light Ends
Select the Distillation radio button in the Input Data group box. Select the Assay Basis as Liquid Volume (use the drop-down menu). Click the Edit Assay button; this will allow you to enter the assay information below.
Temperature -12°C (10.4°F) 32°C (90°F) 74°C (165°F) 116°C (241°F) 154°C (310°F) 224°C (435°F) 273°C (523°F) 327°C (620°F) 393°C (740°F) 450°C (842°F) 490°C (914°F) 516°C (961°F)
Assay Percent 0.0000 4.000 9.000 14.00 20.00 30.00 40.00 50.00 60.00 70.00 76.00 80.00
Select the Light Ends radio button and enter the data given below:
Composition 0.0065 0.0225 0.3200 0.2400 1.7500 1.6500 2.2500
Light Ends Methane Ethane Propane i-Butane n-Butane i-Pentane n-Pentane
You need to enter the light components in the Fluid Package for them to be available to the Oil Manager. 7. 8. 9. Select the Bulk Props radio button to enter the Bulk information. In the Standard Density cell, enter an API Gravity of 29 for the crude. Once you have entered all of the data, click the Calculate button. The status message at the bottom of the Assay view will display Assay Was Calculated.
Once the Assay is calculated, the working curves are displayed on the Plots and Working tabs. The working curves are regressed and extrapolated from the Assay input. From the user-supplied data, HYSYS generates curves for NBP molecular weight, mass density, and viscosity. , These working curves are used in determining the properties of the hypocomponents generated in the Blend step. 10. Close the view and return to the Oil Characterization view. You should still be on the Assay tab of the view. Notice that all of the buttons on the view are now accessible.
Hypocomponent Generation/Blending the Oil
The Cut/Blend characterization in HYSYS splits the internal working curves for one or more assays into hypocomponents. The Blend tab of the Oil Characterization view provides two functions, Cutting the Oil into Hypocomponents and Blending two or more Assays into one set of hypocomponents.
You have three choices for the Cut Option Selection: •
Range 37.78 - 425°C (100 - 797°F) 425 - 650°C(797 - 1202°F) 650 - 871°C(1202 - 1600°F)
Auto Cut. HYSYS cuts the assay based on internal values
Cuts 28 (4 per 37.78°C/100°F) 8 (2 per 37.78°C/100°F) 4 (1 per 37.78°C/100°F)
User Points. You specify the number of hypocomponents required. HYSYS proportions the cuts according to an internal weighting scheme.
Internal Weighting 4 per 37.78°C/100°F 2 per 37.78°C/100°F 1 per 37.78°C/100°F
Cutpoint Range IBP - 425°C(IBP - 797°F) 425 - 650°C(797 - 1202°F) 650°C - FBP(1202°F - FBP)
User Ranges. You specify the boiling point ranges and the number of cuts per range.
Cutting the Assay
Once the Assay has been calculated, you can cut the Assay into individual hypocomponents. 1. 2. 3. Move to the Cut/Blend tab of the Oil Characterization view. Select the Add button to create a new Blend. In the Name cell, change the name from the default, Blend-1 to Crude. From the list of Available Assays (there should only be one), select Crude and click the Add button. This will add the Assay to the Oil Flow Information table and a Blend (Cut) will automatically be calculated. The Blend is calculated using the default Cut Option, Auto Cut. Instead of using the default Auto Cut option, change the Cut Option Selection to User Ranges. Select 20 cuts for a Cut Point temperature of 425°C (800°F), 5 cuts at 620°C (1150°F), and 2 cuts for the range up to 720°C (1328°F).
Click the Submit button to accept the ranges and cut the oil.
The results of the calculation can be viewed on the Tables tab of the Blend view. Go to the composite plot tab to verify the calculated curve matches the input one.
Installing the Oil in the Flowsheet
The final step of the characterization is to transfer the hypocomponent information into the Flowsheet. 1. 2. Close the Blend view, and move to the Install Oil tab of the Oil Characterization view. The Blend, Crude, appears in the Oil Install Information group.
In the Stream Name column, enter the name Raw Crude to which the oil composition will be transferred.
HYSYS will assign the composition of your calculated Oil and Light Ends into this stream, completing the characterization process. Return to the Basis Environment by clicking the Return to Basis Environment button. When you return to the Basis Environment, the hypocomponents that you have generated in the Oil Characterization are placed in the current fluid package. You can view the fluid package and examine the individual hypothetical components which make up your oil. Hypotheticals are named according to the blend group to which they belong and to their normal boiling point. For example, a component named NBP118* was generated by the first blend in the case and has a boiling point of 118°F.
Save your case!
Answer the following questions:
What are the two lowest boiling points for the hypocomponents? _________ What are the Ideal Liquid Density for those hypocomponents? ___________
Exploring the Simulation
HYSYS allows you to introduce a Sulphur Curve as a User Property. This is done in the Oil Environment. Go to the User Property tab of the Oil Characterization and click the Add button. All the default options will be used in this case except for the Mixing Basis fields. Sulphur is quoted on a weight basis, so select Mass Fraction from the drop-down list. Click on the Edit component user property values button located at the bottom of the User Property view. The User Property Value appears. Enter a value of 0 in the User Property Value cell for all the light products (C1, C2, C3, i-C4, n-C4, i-C5, and n-C5). Click Submit when finished. You can also provide a descriptive Name for the property, such as Sulphur.
Now that you have created it, you can return to the Assay Property view, User Curves tab, and add it to your Assay. The view displayed should look like this:
Click the Edit button to enter the sulphur curve data.
Assay (%) 16 27 36 52 64 72 85 90 Sulphur Value 0.083 0.212 1.122 2.786 2.806 3.481 4.984 5.646
Click the Calculate button on the Assay view. You can now print the new plots, especially that of the sulphur, to analyse them.
Tip: Go to the Blend tab, and then to the Composite Plot.
Save your case!
Exploring the Simulation
Exercise 2: Heavy Oils Characterization
Heavy oils are traditionally defined as those whose specific gravity is lower than 20 API and viscosity is higher than 1000 cP. In the past, commercialization and transportation of heavy oils has not been very profitable, but recently developed technologies are now making them much more attractive. One of the inherent practical difficulties of heavy oils is their high viscosities. Transportation of heavy oil for instance is difficult due to the high energy losses and pressure drops generated by the large friction effects. In order to facilitate their transport, an attractive option could be to mix the heavy oil with a lighter one––often termed a “diluent”. This way the resulting mixture’s density and viscosity could become much more appropriate for the transportation and further commercialisation of the oil. If we have a good representation of both the heavy oil and the diluent(s) in our simulation it is possible to model different scenarios and quickly evaluate them. HYSYS can thus be an invaluable tool in helping us to make the best decision! In this example, we will use our existing crude from the previous exercise (Raw Crude) as a diluent and mix it with a heavy oil of 15 API, in order to see what the new calculated properties of the resulting mixture are. In characterizing the heavy oil, we have its bulk density (15 API), a TBP curve, and will also use viscosity curves provided by the lab.
Remember: API density is inversely proportional to Specific Gravity so the lower it is, the higher the density value.
Another way to transport heavy oil would be to operate at elevated temperatures however this can have adverse effects like increasing the solubility of the water in the crude oil, as well, some materials may lose mechanical strength at elevated temperatures.
141.5 API gravity ( degrees ) = --------------------------------------------------------------- – 131.5 60Specific Gravity at --------60F
How HYSYS Calculates Oil Viscosity
HYSYS automatically selects the model best suited for predicting the phase viscosities of the system under study. The model selected is from one of the three available in HYSYS: a modification of the NBS method (Ely and Hanley) for vapours and light hydrocarbons, Twu's model for heavy hydrocarbons, or a modification of the Letsou-Stiel correlation for non-ideal liquids. When supplied viscosity assays are used to regress the parameters used in the viscosity correlations. The parameters (known as shape factors) are specific to each hypothetical component. Average crude oils (including water and acid gases) are well represented by the modified NBS method, however the Twu method is found to do a better job of predicting the viscosities of heavier hydrocarbons (NBP>155oF). The method used for the mixed oil stream will depend on its composition (NBP).
Adapted from HYSYS 3.2 Simulation Basis Guide Appendix A.5 Physical and Transport Properties.
For a proper characterization of a heavy oil it is crucial to know its bulk density and its viscosity at two different temperatures; providing the Watson K factor is also recommended. Physical Property curves can improve the accuracy of your oil characterization, particularly when combined with bulk property data. The hypothetical component physical properties will be correlated so that the property curves are matched. If the user does not supply property curves HYSYS Oil Manager must generate its own internal curves for density and viscosity using API recommended correlations and known bulk property data.
Physical Property Curves
Physical property curves are normally reported from the laboratory using one of the following two conventions:
Adapted from HYSYS 3.2 Simulation Basis Guide Characterization Assays
An Independent assay basis, where different sample assays are done––one for the distillation curve, and a different one for each of the physical property curves. The assay fractions will likely be different for each curve. A Dependent assay basis, where a common set of assay fractions is used for both the distillation curve and the physical property curves.
Calculated hypothetical component physical properties are average values for the given boiling point range, and hence are midpoint values. Distillation data reports the temperature when the last drop of liquid boils off for a given assay range and therefore distillation is an endpoint property. Since all dependent input property curves are reported on the same endpoint basis as the distillation curve, they are converted by HYSYS to a midpoint basis. Independent property curves are not altered in any manner as they are already defined on a midpoint basis. As with distillation curves, there is no limit to the number of data points you provide. The order in which you input the points is not important, as HYSYS sorts the input data. A minimum of five data points is required to define a property curve in HYSYS. It is not necessary that each property curve point have a corresponding distillation value. Using bulk properties. If a bulk molecular weight or mass density is going to be supplied, then the corresponding Molecular Weight or Density working curve generated from your input is smoothed to ensure a match with the bulk property. If you do not enter bulk properties, then they are calculated from the unsmoothed working curves. 1. Enter the Assay data for the Heavy Oil.
From the existing case, go to the Oil Environment and add a new Assay with the following data: • • • • S. Joaquin Crude Standard density 15.3 API Viscosity @ 70 F 2040 cSt Viscosity @ 100 F 337 cSt
TBP %LV 0.446 0.854 2.444 4.824 10.004 15.814 24.904 65.304
T (C) 70 100 150 190 235 280 343 565
Kinematic Viscosity @ 100 F 0.408 1.59 2.38 5.18 5.81 9.09 40.4 0.447 0.631 1.03 1.85 3.89 9.01 144
Kinematic Viscosity @ 210 F 0.446 0.854 2.444 4.824 10.004 15.814 24.904 65.304 0.326 0.343 0.430 0.592 0.860 1.340 2.250 20.3
Create a new blend for the heavy oil.
There are two methods for blending oils in HYSYS: • • If the 2 oils are blended within Oil Manager only 1 set of hypo components is created, representing the blended mixture. However, when different crudes are coming from very different sources, it is a good idea to blend them separately (creating two different blends) and mix them in the Simulation Environment instead. The reason for this is that in blending the crudes within Oil Manager, HYSYS must generate a set of common hypocomponents that can well predict the properties both of the source oils––not necessarily a reasonable expectation for very different crudes.
The S Joaquin Crude in this case differs greatly from the "Raw Crude" we created earlier in this module (both in NBP and in physical properties). For this reason the user is encouraged to create another blend, instead of creating a common set of hypocomponents from the two crudes.
Test this out yourself––after completing this exercise in full, create a new blend in the Oil Manager that is a mix of both assays. Then compare the properties of this blend with the those of the mixed stream created in Step #6 below.
Validate the generated pseudo/hypo components:
After you've created the blend, go to the Composite Plot tab and compare the generated curves with the input data. (You can change the scale of the graph in order to have a better view of the viscosity by right clicking on the plot). 4. 5. Install the S Joaquin oil in the PFD. Go to the Install tab of the Oil Manager and enter the stream name "S Joaquin". Enter the Simulation Environment and view the S Joaquin stream.
What is the current API density of the SJoaquin stream at1 bar and 60 F? ____________________________________________________________________
You can see the importance of using the bulk density in the characterization of the oil: go back to the Oil Environment and delete the value that is entered there. Go back to the Simulation Environment.
What is the calculated SJoaquin density? _______________________________ And the Raw Crude one? ______________________________________________
Restore the value 15 API for the bulk density of the heavy oil assay in the Oil Environment before continuing. 6. Mix the Heavy Oil and Diluent:
As mentioned, to make a crude lighter for transporting by pipeline, Heavy Oil is mixed with a diluent such as naphtha or a lighter crude oil. We want to transport 600000 Kg/h of San Joaquin Crude but in this example our transportation system will only accept crudes starting from 21 API. We have studied several scenarios and the best one seems to be mixing the heavy Oil with another one, the Raw Crude.
What is the minimum quantity of Raw Crude we need to add? (Hint: Use an Adjust) _____________________________________________________________ Is the viscosity of the mixed stream better for transportation now? _______
Save this case for your records and load the one we created prior to the Exploring the Simulation exercise. The rest of the course materials are built using the lighter "Raw Crude" stream as the oil source.