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Ioan TOFAN

Aurelian Claudiu VOLF

Ring Arithmetic, Field Extensions and Applications

Table of Contents

Foreword..............................................................................................7 I. Arithmetic in integral domains ....................................................10 I.1 Divisibility...................................................................................10 I.2 Euclidian domains .......................................................................22 I.3 Euclidian rings of quadratic integers...........................................26 I.4 Principal ideal domains ...............................................................31 I.5 Unique factorization domains .....................................................36 I.6 Polynomial ring arithmetic..........................................................43 Exercises ...........................................................................................50 II. Modules.........................................................................................58 II.1 Modules, submodules, homomorphisms....................................58 Exercises ...........................................................................................72 II.2 Factor modules and the isomorphism theorems.........................74 Exercises ...........................................................................................80 II.3 Direct sums and products. Exact sequences ..............................81 Exercises .........................................................................................102 II.4 Free modules ............................................................................104 Exercises .........................................................................................116 III. Finitely generated modules over principal ideal domains ....118 III.1 The submodules of a free module...........................................118 Exercises .........................................................................................128 III.2 Finitely generated modules over a principal ideal domain.....130 Exercises .........................................................................................138 III.3 Indecomposable finitely generated modules ..........................140 Exercises .........................................................................................149

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III.4 The endomorphisms of a finite dimensional vector space ..... 150 Exercises ........................................................................................ 167 IV. Field extensions ........................................................................ 169 IV.1. Algebraic extensions ............................................................. 169 Exercises ........................................................................................ 190 IV.2 Roots of polynomials. Algebraically closed fields ................ 193 Exercises ........................................................................................ 207 IV.3 Finite fields ............................................................................ 209 Exercises ........................................................................................ 221 IV.4 Transcendental extensions ..................................................... 223 Exercises ........................................................................................ 230 V. Galois Theory ............................................................................. 232 V.1 Automorphisms ....................................................................... 233 V.2 Normal extensions................................................................... 238 Exercises ........................................................................................ 242 V.3 Separability.............................................................................. 244 Exercises ........................................................................................ 259 V.4 The Fundamental Theorem of Galois Theory ......................... 262 Exercises ........................................................................................ 271 VI. Applications of Galois Theory ................................................ 273 VI.1 Ruler and compass constructions........................................... 273 VI.2 Trace and norm ...................................................................... 289 Exercises ........................................................................................ 296 VI.3 Cyclic extensions and Kummer extensions ........................... 297 Exercises ........................................................................................ 312 VI.4 Solvability by radicals............................................................ 313 VI.5 Discriminants, resultants........................................................ 320 Exercises ........................................................................................ 326 Appendices ...................................................................................... 331 1. Prime ideals and maximal ideals................................................ 331 2. Algebras. Polynomial and monoid algebras............................... 333 3. Symmetric polynomials ............................................................. 348 4. Rings and modules of fractions.................................................. 354 5. Categories, functors.................................................................... 362 6. Solvable groups.......................................................................... 373 Index ................................................................................................ 379 Bibliography.................................................................................... 387

Foreword

The book is aimed at undergraduate students in Mathematics, Computer Science or technical universities having a background of standard courses of Abstract Algebra and Linear Algebra as well as at general Mathematics readers with an interest in Algebra. The topics covered by the book are mandatory algebraic background of any mathematics graduate: arithmetic in integral domains, module theory basics, the structure of the finitely generated modules over a principal ideal domain with applications in abelian groups and Jordan forms of matrices, field extensions and Galois theory with applications. Throughout the book the reader is motivated by concrete applications and exercises. The book is reasonably self contained, in the sense that the reader is assumed to be familiar with general notions on algebraic structures (monoids, groups, rings, fields), factor rings and isomorphism theorems, vector spaces and bases, matrices, polynomials, permutation groups basics, elementary arithmetic of cardinals. Some topics less likely to appear in standard general Algebra courses are presendted in the Appendix. The language of Category Theory is used beginning with the chapter on Modules, the reader being invited to refer to the appendix (or to a book on Categories) when categorical notions appear in the text. We

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{0. . The chapters on Modules (II.! marks the end or the absence of a proof. 1. 2. …} * .| A | denotes the cardinal of the set A (the number of elements of A. Some notations used in the text: . The section VI. if A is finite). . III) can be read independently of the rest of the book. is not a prerequisite for the other sections in chapter VI.x := y means “x is equal by definition to y” (where y is already defined) or “we denote y with x" . {1. 2.1.8 think that the Categories are particularly useful for a better understanding and for unifying many algebraic concepts and proofs. Ruler and compass constructions.N is the set of positive natural numbers. …} Z is the set of integers .N is the set of natural numbers.

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principal ideal domains and unique factorization domains).I. three classical and important classes of domains are studied (Euclidian domains.1 Divisibility The classical definition for the relation of divisibility in the ring of integers Z generalizes easily to an arbitrary ring R: 10 . Arithmetic in integral domains The set Z of integers. The definitions of these classes of rings originate in fundamental arithmetic properties of Z. is the prototype for the familiar concept of ring. endowed with the operations of addition and multiplication. I. After a general study of the divisibility in integral domains. the integral domains. Field Extensions and Galois Theory. Such a generalization is interesting by itself and it also illuminates and yields nontrivial results on the divisibility in Z. The classical divisibility theory in Z (the arithmetic of Z) can be extended with outstanding results to a large class of rings. The material in this chapter is at the very basis of all Algebra. and vital in Algebraic Number Theory.

We say that a divides b in R (and write a | b) if there exists c ∈ R such that b = ac.7). C.: d ≠ 0. This can also be said: for any nonzero x.. but of course not in Z! We shall omit any reference to R in the notation a | b if the ring R is clear from the context. which exists in F since F is a field and x ≠ 0). we have xy ≠ 0.. other difficulties arise if R is not commutative or if R has zero divisors. contradiction. 0 denotes the zero element of the domain and 1 its identity element.2 Definition. if d ∈ Z is squarefree (i. 2 | 3 in Q.3 Examples. In what follows. for short) if it has identity (denoted by 1). it is commutative and has no zero divisors: for any x. 1. One says “a divides b in R” because the ring R plays an essential role here. R.e. in a ring without identity element. though (cf. All subrings considered are unitary (they contain the identity element of the ring). b) Every subring of a domain is itself a domain. If the ring R lacks some natural properties. For instance. then xy = 0 implies (by −1 multiplying with x . So. y ∈ R. the theory of divisibility in R can be very poor or very peculiar when compared to the classical theory in Z. The fact that a | b can be also expressed by writing b ! a (read “b is divisible by a”).I. The theory of divisibility in fields is trivial.b if a does not divide b. Let R be a ring and let a. Write a . a) Any field F (for instance Q. 1. For instance. if x. xy = 0 implies x = 0 or y = 0.1 Definition. A ring R is called an integral domain (a domain. y ∈ R. . an element may not divide itself.) is a domain.1 Divisibility 11 1. . y ∈ F are nonzero. This motivates the following definition: 1. all rings we consider are domains. every subring of a field is a domain. that y = 0. Indeed. Other ways of reading a | b are: “a is a divisor of b” or “b is a multiple of a”. b ∈ R. In particular.

. We have ac = bc ⇔ ac − bc = 0 ⇔ (a − b)c = 0. Proof. associated) if a | b and b | a.5 Proposition. b) For any a. denoted by " [ d ] .6 Definition. The ring " [ −1 ] is called the ring of Gauss integers. c ∈ R such that a | b and a | c. d) For any x. we have a | (bx + cy). a − b = 0 or c = 0. The proof of the following properties is an easy exercise: 1. b.12 I. simply. But c ≠ 0. In a domain. Notation: a ∼ b.. 1.1 c) If R is a domain and n ∈ N*. Let R be a domain. 1 Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777 − 1855). so a − b = 0.4 Proposition.. then a = b. Then: a) For any a ∈ R. ! We will develop a theory of divisibility in R. one can simplify the nonzero factors: 1. b in R are called associated in divisibility (or. b. Arithmetic in integral domains d ≠ 1 and d is not divisible by the square of any integer greater than 1). with a. b ∈ Z. we have a | c.. we have a | 0 and 1 | a. the subring of C generated by 1 and d . The elements a. famous German mathematician. c ∈ R such that a | b and b | c. b. If ac = bc. with Z as a model (and a particular case). y ∈ R and a. ! Properties a) and b) say that the divisibility relation on R is reflexive and transitive. Since R is a domain. Xn]. R[X1. One easily checks that " [ d ] consists of the complex numbers of the form a + b d . c) For any a ∈ R. is a domain. Let R be a domain and let a. with c ≠ 0.. a | a. c ∈ R. then the polynomial ring in n indeterminates with coefficients in R. is a domain.

we have: a ∼ b ⇔ there exists u ∈ R such that a = bu. we have: u ∈ U(R) ⇔ u ∼ 1 ⇔ u | a. U(R) is a group with respect to the ring multiplication (as a straightforward checking shows) and is called the group of units of R. 1}. Let R = Z[ d ]. U(K[X]) = { f ∈ K[X] | deg f = 0} = K* (we identify nonzero elements in K with the polynomials of degree 0). a ∈ R. Then : a) For any u ∈ R. then: U{Z[ d ]} = { a + b d | a. very important.7 Proposition. because u ∼ 1 (so u behaves just like 1 from the divisibility standpoint). One can say they are indistinguishable as far as divisibility is concerned. ! For a given domain R. 1. knowing the group U(R) is a first step. The relation "∼" defined above is an equivalence relation on R (exercise!) and it is very important when studying the arithmetic of R: two elements associated in divisibility have exactly the same divisors and the same multiples. c) If d ∈ Z is squarefree. defined as : Proof. 1.8 Examples. b) For any a. (∀) a ∈ R ⇔ uR = R. where σ(α) is the conjugate of α. . Let U(R) denote the set of all invertible elements of R: U(R) = {x ∈ R | (∃) y ∈ R such that xy = 1}.1 Divisibility 13 For d. b) If K is a field. nor associated with a. in the study of divisibility in R. b ∈ Z. Let R be a domain. It is useful to define the “norm” N : R → Z. b ∈ Z. for any a.I. An invertible element u ∈ R is called a unit of R. 2 2 σ (a + b d ) = a − b d . d is called a proper divisor of a if d | a and d is neither invertible in R. a) U(Z) = {−1. a − db = ±1} by N(α) = ασ(α). b ∈ R.

.. an) a GCD of a1........ an. . .. .. . We define the central concepts of greatest common divisor and least common multiple. Arithmetic in integral domains So N (a + b d ) = a 2 − db2 .. so N(u) = ±1. We call the element d ∈ R a greatest common divisor (abbreviated GCD) of the elements a1.. it follows that e | d (d is the “greatest” among the common divisors of a1. an). [a1. . Let u = a + b d ∈ U(R)..... . an | m. b ∈ Z. a − db = ±1} = = {α ∈ Z[ d ] | N(α) = ±1}... Assume R is a domain. ∀α.. . if N(u) = ±1.9 Definition. an ∈ R. .. shows: . if it exists. an) or GCD(a1.. If 1 is a GCD of a1 and a2. an | e. .. This implies: if α. if it exists... d | an. it follows that m | e. (d is a common divisor of a1. we call a1 and a2 coprime or mutually prime (or relatively prime).. an if: i') a1 | m. an. b ∈ Z.. An easy computation N(α)N(β) = N(α)N(β). . an) denotes a LCM of a1.. then (a + b d )(a − b d ) = ±1 .. 1. .. .... Since an order relation like the one on N is not available. We call m ∈ R a least common multiple (LCM for short) of a1. Thus: 2 2 U{Z[ d ]} = { a + b d | a. Similarly....14 I.. ∀ a.. an) ii) For any e ∈ R such that e | a1.. n ∈ N* and a1.. an if: i) d | a1. an] or LCM(a1. β ∈ R. we use the divisibility relation itself to order the common divisors.. .. e | an... then N(α) | N(β) in Z. so ± (a − b d ) is the inverse of u. Then N(u) = a 2 − db 2 divides 1 in Z. We denote by (a1.. β ∈ R with α | β in R. . . Conversely. ii') For any e ∈ R such that a1 | e.

an) means that d is associated with a GCD of a1... This can lead to some oddities: in Z... d) For any domain R and any a ∈ R. Writing d = (a1.. an) =: d and exists (ra1. .... c) Note that a1. . y) may not exist (see the Exercises for some examples).. Let R be a domain and let a1. an... a) Given a1.. y ∈ R possess a GCD is called a GCD domain. The same remark applies to the LCM. an. then µ = rm.. an ∈ R. . For a given domain R and given x. A domain R with the property that any two elements x. then e is a GCD of a1... 0) = a.. ... but this does not imply that 1 = −1 (of course.. b) If there exists (a1.. an). an. equal to 1. a2 are coprime if and only if all their common divisors are units in R. ran) =: e. ... then there exists GCD(a. Moreover. say d ∈ R..... if there exists a GCD for a1.1 Divisibility 15 1.. ... ran] =: µ. . then d is uniquely determined up to association in divisibility: if e is also a GCD of a1. then e ∼ d. . if e ∼ d. . an.. r ∈ R \{0}. an] = m and exists [ra1.. we use occasionally a subscript. . ran) = r(a1. .. a) If there exists d = (a1. an). then a1/d. there exists GCD(a. . then e = rd. u) = u... an/d have a GCD... an)R. an]....I. an.. y ∈ R. Z is a GCD domain...... Thus: (ra1. b) When the domain R in which we work is not clear from the context..11 Proposition... c) If there exists [a1.. . . .. ran] = r[a1. . like in the notation (a1. a GCD(x. 2) = −1.10 Remarks.. it implies that 1 ∼ −1). What can you say about the LCM in these cases? If d ≠ 0 and d|a. If u is a unit. .. Thus: [ra1. . For instance... we can write 1 = (1. a/d denotes the unique element x ∈ R with a = dx.. 1.

bc) = c. bi = xit. d = eb. If ∈ K. Thus. d ≠ 0. u | 1.13 Corollary. µ = raixi. b ≠ 0 and (a. then de is a common divisor of a1.. Let R be a GCD domain and a. (a. b) Since rd | rai. a1x1 = . xn. So. Then a | c. Proof. the situation is not entirely symmetric (the existence of the .12 Corollary.. n . n .. b. i = 1.. c) Because rm is a common multiple of rai. bc) = c. then let e = GCD(c. d). we have µ | rm. i = 1. If e ∈ R is a common divisor of x1. m | aixi . Let xi. It is enough to prove that u | 1. Then d c = ea. an. for some a. b) = 1 (use the statement a) c a above). n . by a). b ∈ R. i = 1. n . bi ∈ R. Simplifying. we also get mr | µ. so de | d. This implies e | 1. . 1. Let u ∈ R with e = rdu. part b). . It follows that u is a common divisor of the elements xi.. an. i = 1. We can write m = aibi. so rm = µt. yi ∈ R such that ai = dxi and rai = eyi. ! 1. d ∈ R. the definition of the GCD ensures that a | (ac.. i = 1. Moreover. for some t ∈ R. We have rm = raibi = µt = raixit. with (a. = . Then every element in K can be written as a quotient a . c ∈ R such that a | bc and (a. b ∈ R. Also. we get rd | e. ! d b The next result is ubiquitous in divisibility arguments. whose GCD is 1. i = 1.. i = 1. rai = rdxi = rduyi..16 I. n . imply that (ac. with c. b c Proof. = anxn is a common multiple of a1. b) = 1. a) Let xi ∈ R such that ai = dxi. b) = 1 and the preceding result. n . . for some xi. For any i = 1. with a... Let R be a GCD-domain and let K be the field of quotients of R. n . Since µ = raixi. Since a | ac and a | bc. Arithmetic in integral domains Proof. ! Although the definitions of the GCD and the LCM are “dual” to each other.. n . b) = 1.

So. y exists. Then ers is a common multiple of x and y.. Suppose now that x and y are nonzero.. . b). b) Let a. This shows that m is a LCM of a and b. Using the properties of the norm N (see 1. So m divides µy = dxyz and µx = dxyt. d = te. but not conversely. Likewise. in general). The definition of the LCM implies m | xy. Let µ be another common multiple of a and b. c) If any two elements in R have a GCD.c. b ∈ R \ {0} and let d = (a. s ∈ R such that x = er and y = es. [0. Since . e | y and pick r. y). which means m divides also (µx. N(d ) | 2 in Z. so m | ers. (x. There exist x.). Take e ∈ R with e | x. c) Induction on n. b = dy. The element m = dxy is obviously a common multiple of a and b. Let t ∈ R such that mt = ers. (Exercise!).. y] = m ∈ R. y] exists and it is 0. a) When x = 0. Simplifying by m. for any n ∈ N. b) If any two elements in R have a GCD. any n elements a1. but no LCM. We need only prove that d = (x. so e | d. y](x. In R = Z [ − 5 ] . We have dm = xy = e 2 rs = tem .14 Proposition. x = 1 + − 5 and y = 2 have a get N(d ) | N(x) = 6 and N(d ) | N(y) = 4 in Z. µy) = µ(x. n > 1. d | x. [x. and xy ∼ [x. t ∈ R such that µ = az = dxz and µ = bt = dyt. than a GCD of x. y) = y.8. y ∈ R. b ∈ Z) be a common 1. ! divisor of x and y. Similarly. 1. Indeed.I. y) = µ. y). so y = ad ⇒ d | y. y ∈ R with a = dx. Proof. Let d. y). then. b ∈ R with xy = md and m = xa. let d = a + b − 5 (a. then any two elements in R have a LCM. a.1 Divisibility 17 LCM implies the existence of the GCD. Then: a) If a LCM of x. m = yb.15 Example. There exist z. We have xy = xad. an in R have a GCD and a LCM. y exists. we GCD. Let R be a domain and x. (0.

We proved that any common divisor of x and y is a unit. Suppose a LCM µ ∈ R of x and y exists. let R° designate the set of nonzero and non-invertible elements in R: R° := R \ {0}\ U(R) In Z. Arithmetic in integral domains N(d ) = a 2 + 5b2 . so N(µ) | 12.18 I. Thus. In other words. so x and y have GCD equal to 1. The element p ∈ R° is called prime (in R) if. The element p ∈ R° is called irreducible (in R) if it has no proper divisors. any divisor of p is either a unit or is associated to p: ∀d ∈ R. We emphasize that a prime element or an irreducible element is by definition nonzero and non-invertible. b ∈ R. prime numbers play a central role in divisibility questions. Then 6 | N(µ) and 4 | N(µ) in Z. for any a. so they are common N (2 )N (1 + − 5 ) = 24 in Z. .16 Definition. Thus. 6 = 2·3= (1 − − 5 )(1 + − 5 ) multiples of and 2(1 + − 5 ) are common multiples of x and y. d is invertible. so 12 | N(µ) in Z. the (elementary) definition for the notion of prime number is “the natural number p > 1 is prime if its only divisors in N are 1 and p”. 1. Combining with 12 | N(µ). The generalization to the case of a domain of this definition leads to the notion of irreducible element (also compare with the notion of prime element below). d | p ⇒ d ∼ 1 or d ∼ p. If R is a domain. Let R be a domain. µ. which is impossible (the equation a 2 + 5b 2 = 12 has no solutions in Z). On the other hand. N(µ) divides N(6) = 36 and we get N(µ) = 12. Usually. a case-by-case inspection leads to the conclusion that a = ±1 and b = 0. p | ab ⇒ p | a or p | b.

irreducible and x.I. Every prime element is also irreducible.19 Proposition. In " [ −5 ] . ! The notion of divisibility can be translated in the language of ideals. 2 divides (1 − −5 )(1 + −5 ) = 6 . but 2 divides neither factor.1 Divisibility 19 A quick argument shows that. So. the notion of prime element depends heavily on the ring in which it is considered: 2 is prime in Z. p | xy and (p.13 guarantees that p | y. So p | dx. there exists x ∈ R (nonzero) such that p = dx. The same remark applies to the notion of irreducible element. Indeed. if p is prime and p divides a product of m factors in R. 1. Then any irreducible element in R is prime in R. y ∈ R such that p | xy.x. then p divides one of the factors. which implies p | d (and we are finished) or p | x. so d ∼ 1. then the GCD of p and x (which exists!) is 1. 2 or 4. On the other hand. then N(d ) can only be 1. Let p ∈ R be prime. An examination of the possible cases shows that d is ±1 or ±2. Proof. but not in " [ −5 ] . we cannot have d ∼ p (we would get p | x). so p = ux. Corollary 1. Let p ∈ R. ux = dx = p and thus u = d is a unit. 2 is irreducible and it is not prime. Proof. Indeed. This approach allows extending classical results on the divisibility . 1. If p . But p | x means that p ∼ x (since x | p).18 Example. Let R be GCD domain. If d ∈ R is a divisor of p. ! The notions of prime element and irreducible element (which coincide for Z. The GCD domains do not have the peculiarity described in the example above: 1. if d is a divisor of 2. with u a unit. if d | x and d | p. x) = 1.17 Proposition. Thus. as we will see) are not the same in general. Thus. for any m ∈ N*.

e) a is irreducible in R if and only if Ra is a maximal ideal among the principal proper ideals of R (more precisely: ∀ x ∈ R such that Ra ⊆ Rx. b) a ∼ b if and only if Ra = Rb. . The converse is false in general..... f ) a is a common divisor of x1. + Rxn = Ra. xn ∈ R... denoted by Ra or aR and is called the principal ideal generated by a. see the section Principal Ideal domains... The sum of two ideals I and J of R is the ideal: I + J := {i + j | i ∈ I. + ) is a subgroup in the additive group (R..2 h) a is a common multiple of x1. ∀r ∈ R ⇒ rx ∈ I. + ): ∀x. the primary decomposition theory).. b) ∀x ∈ I. y ∈ I ⇒ x + y ∈ I. .20 Proposition. Arithmetic in integral domains in Z to much more general classes of rings (for instance. .+ Rxn is included in Ra. then a = (x1. n ∈ N* and a.. The ideal I is proper if I ≠ R. d) a is prime in R if and only if Ra is a prime ideal. xn if and only if Rx1 ∩… ∩ Rxn includes Ra. 1. Recall that a subset I of the commutative ring R is called an ideal of R if: a) (I.20 I. g) If Rx1 +.. c) a ∈ U(R) if and only if Ra = R.. Write I ≤ R if I is an ideal in the ring R. xn if and only if Rx1 +. b.. For a ∈ R. 2 . we have Ra = Rx or Rx = R). Let R be a domain.. For a counterexample. Then: a) a | b if and only if Ra ⊇ Rb. the ideal generated by a is the set {ra | r ∈ R}. . j ∈ J}. xn).. x1.

Proof. so there exists c ∈ R such that 1 = ca. Since d | x1. We have xy ∈ Ra ⇔ a | xy. g) From f ).. such that a = bq + r and | r | < | b | or r = 0. so any element in the ideal Rx1 +... and d ∈ R is a divisor of a. then 1 ∈ Ra. …. f ) If a is a common divisor of x1. If a is prime. This means d ∼ a or d ∼ 1. b ≠ 0. ∃ c1. Let d ∈ R be another common divisor. a is a common divisor of x1. So. So 1 ∈ Ra ⇒ Ra = R. Because a ∈ Rx1 +… + Rxn. for any r1..+ Rxn is divisible by a. then a | x or a | y. x ∼ a. xn. The other implication is left to the reader. From this theorem. h). then a | r1 x1 + . If Ra is a prime ideal and a | xy. . one deduces other two fundamental properties of Z: Every ideal of Z is principal (of the form nZ. + rn xn . But x cannot be a unit because Rx ≠ R. . so x ∈ Ra or y ∈ Ra ⇔ a | x or a | y. d | xn. cn ∈ R with a = c1x1 + …+ cnxn.. xn.. x ∈ Ra or y ∈ Ra. ! An essential role in the arithmetic of Z is played by the theorem of division with remainder: For any a. then ∃ c ∈ R with ca = 1. for some n ∈ Z). we obtain d | a.e. then x | a. there exist q. Then Ra ⊆ Rd. Rx = Ra. …. then xy ∈ Ra.. i. i. i) are left to the reader. x is associated with a or it is a unit. a) a | b ⇔ ∃ c ∈ R with b = ca ⇔ b ∈ Ra ⇔ Rb ⊆ Ra. so Rd = Ra or Rd = R. e) Suppose a is irreducible. b ∈ Z.. Since a has no proper divisors. . …. y ∈ R.... If Rx is a proper principal ideal of R with Ra ⊆ Rx.1 Divisibility 21 i) a = [x1. d) Let x. xn] if and only if Rx1 ∩ …∩ Rxn = Ra.I. by a). b) Obvious. Conversely. c) If a is invertible. . r ∈ Z. if Ra = R. Suppose now Rx is maximal among principal proper ideals. e.. rn ∈ R.. which shows that Ra is prime.

Of course. Arithmetic in integral domains Any nonzero non-invertible integer can be written as a finite product of prime integers and this writing is unique up to the order of factors and an association of the factors in divisibility. A domain R is called an Euclidian domain if there exists a mapping ϕ : R \ {0} → N satisfying: For any a. Abstracting these properties of Z. principal ideal domain (a domain whose every ideal is principal) and.22 I. the definition above originates in the division with remainder theorems in Z (where ϕ is the absolute value | | : Z \ {0} → N). respectively.1 Definition. q is called traditionally the quotient and r is called the remainder of the division of a by b. The following sections are devoted to the study of these classes of rings. This result is called „the fundamental theorem of integer arithmetic” or „the unique integer factorization theorem”. We say in this case that R is an Euclidian domain with respect to ϕ. The property (DRT) is called the “Division with remainder theorem in R”. b ∈ R. with K a field (where ϕ is the . r ∈ R such that: (DRT) a = bq + r and (r = 0 or ϕ(r) < ϕ(b)). unique factorization domain (a domain in which every nonzero non-invertible element can be written as a product of primes).2 Euclidian domains 2. respectively in K[X]. b ≠ 0. there exist q. I. one obtains the notions of Euclidian domain (a domain in which a property analogous to the theorem of division with remainder holds).

b. 2. then b ∈ U(R). b ∈ R. if r = 0 then d := b. and ϕ(b) = 0. so r = 0. for some q ∈ R. in the definition of an Euclidian domain. This extra condition is not essential and in fact defines the same class of rings as the definition above (see 4. else a := b. b ∈ R \ {0}. Sometimes.9). Stop. Clearly. The Euclidian domains are GCD rings. and (r = 0 or ϕ(r) < ϕ(b) = 0). the following condition on ϕ is also required: For any a. else (Step 1) Find q. go to Step 1 end . 2.2 Euclidian domains 23 degree function deg : K[X] \ {0} → N). The converse is false in general (give a counterexample!). Let R be an Euclidian domain and let a. a.I. r ∈ R with a = bq + r and (r = 0 or ϕ(r) < ϕ(b)). These rings are also the most important examples of Euclidian domains. If b ∈ R. Stop. with b ≠ 0.3 Remark. the natural number ϕ(r) cannot be < 0. b ∈ R. d) Input: a.2 Remark. a | b implies ϕ(a) ≤ ϕ(b). b ≠ 0. Output: d = GCD(a. This follows from the fact that the Euclidian algorithm can be performed in these rings and guarantees the existence of GCD's: 2. b := r. Then a GCD of a and b exists and it can be found by the following algorithm: Algorithm Euclid (R. Indeed. the remainder r of the division of 1 to b satisfies 1 = bq + r. b) ∈ R.4 Theorem (Euclidian Algorithm). begin if b = 0 then d := a.

The relation (n) shows rn − 1 | rn − 2. We must prove that rn − 1 (the last nonzero remainder) is a GCD of a and b. e divides We hope that the algorithm is clear to the reader. this algorithm is intended to serve a theoretical purpose. so there exists n ∈ N with rn = 0 (which means that the algorithm terminates in a finite number of steps).. decision algorithms of the equality of two elements in R.. (n) rn − 2 = rn − 1 qn + rn with rn = 0.24 I. addition and multiplication algorithms in R etc. (2). implementing this algorithm must take into account computer representations of the elements of R. (3) r1 = r2q3 + r3 with r3 = 0 or ϕ(r3) < ϕ(r2). The relation (n − 1) implies rn − 1 | rn − 3. then e also divides r1 = a − bq1. Now let e ∈ R be a common divisor of a and b. Arithmetic in integral domains Moreover. (3). The algorithm above implies the following sequence of divisions with remainder performed in R: (1) a = bq1 + r1 with r1 = 0 or ϕ(r1) < ϕ(b).. . we obtain (by induction) that rn − 1 | b and rn − 1 | a. Using relations (n − 2). Also.. ri ∈ R with the properties above is guaranteed by the condition (1) in the definition of the Euclidian domain. The existence of the elements qi. …) and merely uses the fact that these elements exist. 3 Proof. . Using (2). there exist (and can be algorithmically determined) u. r at step 1 does not imply a description of a concrete procedure (such procedures can be given for particular rings as Z. for instance.. We do not want to present a rigorous “pseudo-programming language” or use strict syntax rules from a particular language. “finding” the elements q. must terminate. The strictly decreasing sequence of natural numbers * ϕ(b) > ϕ(r1) > ϕ(r2) > . (n − 1) rn − 3 = rn − 2 qn − 1 + rn − 1 with rn − 1 = 0 or ϕ(rn − 1) < ϕ(rn − 2). Q[X]. (1).. v ∈ R such that d = au + bv. Moreover. (2) b = r1q2 + r2 with r2 = 0 or ϕ(r2) < ϕ(r1).. (n − 2) rn − 4 = rn − 3qn − 2 + rn − 2 with rn − 2 = 0 or ϕ(rn − 2) < ϕ(rn − 2). These important issues are not discussed here. 3 .

Find q. . there exist q. We shall prove (by induction) that for every a ∈ N. t := v. go to Step 1 end ! 2. by induction exist q. v1 := t.2 Euclidian domains 25 r2 = b − r1q2. with r = 0 or |−r | < b. By induction. stop. By induction. In order to obtain d = rn − 1 written as au + bv. u1 := u1 − qu. Since a − b < a. v ∈ R such that d = au + bv. r2 can be written as au' + bv' and so on. else u1 := 1. b). Output : d = GCD(a. so e | rn − 1. begin if b = 0 then d := a. We leave the case b < 0 to the reader. rn − 1 is of the form au + bv. r = a satisfy these conditions. t := u. u := 0. Here is a proof. b := r. v := 1. v with d = (a. we note that r1 = a − bq1 is a linear combination of a and b. u. If a ≥ b.I. v := v1. so a = b(−q) + (−r).5 Examples. r ∈ N satisfying a = bq + r and r = 0 or r < b. This implies a = b(q + 1) + r and the claim is proven. if r = 0 then d := b. a) Z is an Euclidian domain with respect to the absolute value. − a ∈ N. b) ∈ R and u. Stop. Thus. u1 := t. replacing r1 in (2) with a − bq1. b ∈ R. suppose that the claim is true for any n < a and we prove it for a. q = 0. v1 := 0. u := 1. v1 := v1 − qv. e | ri for any i < n. r ∈ R with a = bq + r and r = 0 or ϕ(r) < ϕ(b). r ∈ N such that a − b = bq + r and r = 0 or r < b. Let b ∈ Z. r ∈ N such that − a = bq + r and r = 0 or r < b. If a < b. so there exist q. If a < 0. else a := b. Step 1. The following version of Euclid's algorithm (the extended Euclidian algorithm) outputs d. b) and d = au + bv. v := 0. rn − 1 = (a. u := u1. b > 0. Note that the variables u and v are such that the last remainder in the computation is always au + bv) : Input: a.

by induction.6 Definition. We prove by induction on n = deg f. b ∈ Z}. b) The ring K[X] of polynomials in one indeterminate X with coefficients in the field K is Euclidian with respect to deg : K[X] \ {0} → N. b ∈ Z are congruent modulo n if n | a − b. with deg r < m. Arithmetic in integral domains Given a. r = f. Note that q and r are unique (prove!). Let n ∈ N be fixed. called the ring of integers modulo n.26 I. If n < m. set q = 0. Let f = a0 +… + an X and m g = b0 + … + bm X ∈ K[X]. important examples of Euclidian domains are among the rings of the form Z[ d ] = {a + b d | a. then q and r are unique. I. . we recall: 2. with g ≠ 0 (i. 3 = 2·1 + 1 = 2·2 + (−1). the quotient q and remainder r of the division of a by b are not unique: for instance. Two integers a. h −1 = f − bm an g has degree less than n (the degree n terms cancel out) and. r ∈ K[X]. The proof originates in the procedure of long n polynomial division taught in school. Thus.e. ( ) For further reference. there exist q. b ∈ Z. h = gq + r. If n ≥ m. often denoted by Zn.3 Euclidian rings of quadratic integers Besides Z and the polynomial ring in one indeterminate with coefficients in a field. We have a ≡ b (mod n) ⇔ a − b ∈ nZ ⇔ a and b yield the same remainder when divided by n. bm ≠ 0). We denote this fact by a ≡ b (mod n). If we require that the remainder should be positive. Recall that the relation defined here is an equivalence relation on Z and the set of equivalence classes is structured as a ring (which is in fact the factor ring Z/nZ). f = g q + bm −1an X n − m + r .

Prove! 4 .1. the numbers in Z are called rational integers. In the following. Define the norm N : Q[ d ] → Q and the trace Tr : Q[ d ] → Q.5 An element of a quadratic number field that is integral over Z is called a quadratic integer.2. 2 is integral over Z. see for instance LANG [1964]. For a systematic treatment of the theory of algebraic integers. Fix d ∈ Z. If α = a + b d ∈ Q[ d ]. Sometimes. for avoiding confusions. A complex number that is the root of a monic4 polynomial in Z[X] is called integral over Z (or algebraic integer). an important topic in (algebraic) number theory. Definition. b ∈ Q}.3 Euclidian rings of quadratic integers 27 A somewhat surprising fact is that the ring Z[ (1 + d ) 2 ] = {a + b (1 + d ) 2 | a. 3.I. but 1/2 is not. Using elementary tools of field extensions theory. For instance. This fact is closely connected to the theory of the rings of quadratic integers. 5 Because every algebraic integer over Z which is rational (in Q) must be in Z. squarefree. The unproven statements below are proposed as exercises (some of them in the next chapters). some elementary facts on these rings are presented. where d ∈ Z is squarefree. one can readily show that any quadratic number field is of the form Q[ d ] = {a + b d | a. b ∈ Z} has sometimes better arithmetic properties than Z[ d ]. Definition. N(α) := α α = a2 − db2 A polynomial is called monic if the coefficient of its monomial of maximum degree is 1. A subfield of C that has dimension 2 viewed as a vector space over Q is called a quadratic number field. 3. the element α = a − b d is called the conjugate of α. One can prove that: a quadratic integer is a root of a monic polynomial in Z[X] of degree 2.

Arithmetic in integral domains Tr(α) := α + α = 2a for any α = a + b d ∈ Q[ d ] (a. ∀α ∈ Z[θ ]. The quadratic integers in Q[ d ] form a ring. Z [(1 + i 3 ) 2]. If d ≡ 1(mod 4). b ∈ Z} and θ=⎨ ⎧ ⎩ (1 + d ) 2 if d ≡ 1 (mod 4). β ∈ Q[ d ]. Z[ 2 ]. ∀α ∈ Z[θ ]. One can prove that. We obtain a mapping: |N| : Z[θ ] → N. as we saw above. d if d ≡ 2 or 3 (mod 4) ! In what follows. Tr(α + β) = Tr(α) + Tr(β). see the Exercises): 3. b ∈ Q}. The norm N is multiplicative and the trace Tr is additive: for any α. respectively real if d > 0). Z [(1 + 5 ) 2] are examples of rings of quadratic integers. v ∈ Z having the same parity. The norm N : Q[ d ] → Q has the property that N(α) ∈ Z. This ring is traditionally called a ring of quadratic integers (imaginary if d < 0. for a fixed d ∈ Z. N(αβ) = N(α)N(β). A natural problem arises: . According to the above. then Z[θ ] = {a + b (1 + d ) 2 | a. for any x ∈ Q[ d ] : x is integral over Z (x is a quadratic integer) ⇔ Tr(x) ∈ Z and N(x) ∈ Z. b ∈ Q). with u. b ∈ Z} can also be described as the set of complex numbers of the form (u + v d )/2. θ denotes the number above. Z[i]. We remark also that Q[ d ] = Q[θ ] = {a + bθ | a. where Z[θ ] = {a + bθ | a. The ring of integers of Q[ d ] is Z[θ ]. We have the following (for the proof. squarefree. called the ring of integers of Q[ d ] .3 Proposition.28 I. |N|(α) = |N(α)|.

β ∈ R. So. with |N|(δ ) < |N|(β) or δ = 0. If d < 0. 3. ∀x. d ≡ 2 or 3 (mod 4) d ≡ 1 (mod 4) If d > 0. Then R := Z[θ ] is Euclidian with respect to |N| if and only if for any x ∈ Q[ d ] . squarefree. ∃α. squarefree. β ≠ 0 such that x = α/β.3 Euclidian rings of quadratic integers 29 For which d ∈ Z. moreover. |N|(x − y) is the Euclidian distance between the points x and y. Z[θ ] is Euclidian with respect to |N|? We remark first that. Z[θ ] is a (dense) subset of R and no geometric interpretation is available. Since R is Euclidian with Q respect to |N|. |N| : Z[θ ] → N is also multiplicative. there exists γ ∈ R such that |N|(x − γ) < 1. δ ∈ R such that α = βγ + δ. “⇒” Q[ d ] is the field of quotients of R.I. with |N|(x − γ) = |N|(δ /β) = |N|(δ )/(β) < 1. Proof. for any x.: ∀x ∈ [ d ] . y ∈ Q[ d ] ). Let d ∈ Z. i. .4 Lemma. the representation of the complex numbers in Z[θ ] in the plane yields a grid (rectangular if d ≡ 2 or 3 (mod 4) and oblique if d ≡ 1(mod 4)). y ∈ Q[ d ] . x = α/β = γ + δ/β. since the norm N : Q[ d ] → Q is multiplicative (N(xy) = N(x)N(y). ∃γ.e.

e.5 Proposition. ! 6 7 For any z ∈ C and any ε ∈ R. Arithmetic in integral domains “⇐” Let α. ∃γ ∈ R with |N|(x − γ) < 1. b) If d ≡ 1 (mod 4). .30 I. there exists x ∈ Q[ d ] such that |z − x| < ε. d < 0. −7. Proof. β ∈ R. at the distance of 1 − d 2 to any vertex. α = βγ + βδ . the grid forms isosceles triangles with base 1 and height − d 2 . −7. Thus. d = −1 or d = −2. Z[ d ] is Euclidian with respect to |N| if and only if d = −1 or d = −2. i. with βδ = α − βγ ∈ R and |N|(βδ ) = |N|(β)·|N|(δ ) < 1. An easy geometric reasoning shows that the distance from P to the third vertex is ( − d − 3 ) 2 . the lemma can be rephrased as follows: The ring Z[θ ] is Euclidian with respect to |N| if and only if any point in the complex plane is situated at a distance smaller than 1 to some point in the grid Z[θ ]. Let δ = x − γ ∈ Q[ d ] . The points inside the triangle have distance less than 1 to some vertex if and only if the circles of radius 1 centered in base vertices intersect in a point P situated at a distance less than 1 to the third vertex. a) If d is congruent with 2 or 3 (mod 4). because Q[ d ] is dense 6 in C. a) Z[ d ] is Euclidian with respect to |N| if and only if all points inside a rectangle of the grid are situated at a distance less than 1 from some vertex of the rectangle. Z[(1 + d ) 2] is Euclidian with respect to |N| if and only if d ∈ {−3. We must have then ( − d − 3 ) 2 < 1 ⇔ d > −7 − 4 3 ⇔ d ∈ {−3. Dickson. −11}. ε > 0. For x = α/β ∈ Q[ d ] . 3. This result was obtained in 1923 by L. b) In this case. −11}. E.7 Let d ∈ Z. The greatest distance to the vertices is attained at the intersection of the diagonals. ! If d < 0. We have 1 − d 2 < 1 if and only if d > −3. squarefree.

so r ∈ I ! and ϕ(r) < ϕ(a) contradict the choice of a. we obtain elements q.2 Theorem. In order to prove the opposite inclusion. r ∈ R such that b = aq + r.1 Definition. for every ideal I of R. x ≠ 0} (a may not be unique). b ∈ I. such that ϕ(a) = min{ϕ(x) | x ∈ I. In other words. Ra ⊆ I. ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ One can prove that these are all the imaginary Euclidian rings of quadratic integers (not necessarily with respect to |N|). " ⎡(1 + i 3 ) 2 ⎤ . x ≠ 0} contains a minimum element: ∃a ∈ I.4 Principal ideal domains 31 We obtain that the following rings are Euclidian with respect to |N|: Z[i]. Let R be Euclidian with respect to ϕ and let I be a nonzero ideal of R. Applying the division with remainder in R. A domain R is called a principal ideal domain (PID) if any ideal of R is principal. 8 Sometimes the fields are not considered principal ideal domains by definition. But a. " ⎡(1 + i 7 ) 2 ⎤ . The most important examples of PIDs are given by the following result.I. The real case d > 0 has no geometric interpretation and is considerably more difficult. r ≠ 0 (since b ∉ Ra) and ϕ(r) < ϕ(a). suppose by contradiction that there exists b ∈ I \ Ra. " [i 2 ] . Any field is a PID 8 . " ⎡(1 + i 11 ) 2 ⎤ . 4. The set of natural numbers {ϕ(x) | x ∈ I. We claim that a is a generator of the ideal I. . a ≠ 0.4 Principal ideal domains 4. Proof. I. there exists a ∈ R such that I = Ra. Obviously. Any Euclidian domain is a principal ideal domain.

the notation (a. a) Since R is a PID. Proof. b) The proof is similar to the one above and is proposed as an exer! cise. We have a. Let R be a PID and let a.3 Proposition. The proposition above shows that this notation is consistent to the fact that it designates also the GCD of a and b (which is a generator of the ideal aR + bR). so d | a. this means d | e. dR = eR = aR + bR. Thus. a generator of I is a polynomial g ∈ I of minimum degree among the degrees of nonzero polynomials in I. Let R be a domain that is not a field and take r ∈ R nonzero and non invertible. ∀x.32 I. b ∈ dR. In particular. ∃d ∈ R such that the ideal aR + bR = {ax + by | x. If e is a generator of aR + bR. If e ∈ R is such that e | a. the element d ∈ R is a GCD of a and b if and only if dR = aR + bR. Recall that. v ∈ R. b ∈ R. there exists their GCD. Then the ideal (r. if I ≠ 0 is an ideal in K[X]. for a. 4. Since d ∈ aR + bR. for some u. Then: a) A GCD d of a and b exists and. But e is also a common divisor of a and b. Arithmetic in integral domains For instance. b ∈ R. d divides a and b. d | b. if K is a field. b ∈ R. then e | ax + by. Thus. y ∈ R. y ∈ R} is generated by d. for any a. Conversely. if d is a GCD of a and b. Thus. Moreover. dR ⊇ aR + bR. b) is used to designate the ideal generated by a and b. d = au + bv . X) in R[X] is not princi- . so d is associated to e. aR + bR. b) The element m ∈ R is a LCM of a and b if and only if mR = aR ∩ bR. K[X] is a PID. so dR ⊇ aR and dR ⊇ bR.4 Example. v ∈ R such that d = au + bv. e | b. namely any generator of the ideal aR + bR: 4. any generator d of aR + bR is a GCD of a and b. The principal ideal domains are GCD-domains. e | d. there exist u.

as Example 1. The case R = Z of the following proposition is known as the “the fundamental theorem of integer arithmetic”. we obtain: 4.18 shows. such a ring is Z[ − 5 ]. Y]. Any maximal ideal is of the form pR. Using Proposition 1. Then f | r. 1. setting X = 0 in this equality of polynomials. . It is sufficient to remark that any nonzero prime ideal is principal. suppose that for some f ∈ R[X]. q ∈ R[X] are such that 1 = hr + qX. there exists g ∈ R[X] with X = fg. so (Prop. a contradiction. which means r is invertible. Thus. an element is irreducible if and only if it ! is a prime element. Recall that R° = {x ∈ R | x is nonzero. In particular. the prime nonzero ideals are maximal ideals.20. We obtain deg f = 0.6 Corollary. Thus. non-invertible}. Proof. so f = 1. it follows that 1 = h(0)·r.4 Principal ideal domains 33 pal. Indeed.5 Proposition. generated by a prime p (Prop. where p is irreducible in R. the rings Z[X].19 and the fact that any PID is a GCD-domain.I.d)). are not PID's. But the ideal generated by r and X does not contain 1: if h. In a PID. so R[X] is not a PID. with K a field. so f is invertible in R. we have ( f ) = (r. In a PID R. Moreover. so f ∈ R. X).20. The other state! ments are obvious. the domains containing irreducibles that are not primes are not principal ideal domains. the GCD of r and X is 1.e)) the ideal pR is maximal. Since f | X. 1. 4. The element p is irreducible. p ∈ R is irreducible if and only if pR is a maximal ideal. K[X.

I is an ideal in R: if x. This reasoning applies to r1.e. r0 is reducible. Since the sequence (In)n ≥ 0 is ascending. so r0 = r1s1. hence x + y ∈ It ⊆ I. for some i. So aR = I = Im + i. y ∈ It. at least one of them (say r1) is not a product of irreducibles. as the following lemma shows.8 Lemma. Let I be the union of all ideals In. Suppose by contradiction that there exists r0 ∈ R° such that r0 cannot be written as a finite product of irreducibles. there exists a sequence (rn)n ≥0 of elements in R. So. the element itself is a prime). If r ∈ R. Let R be a PID.7 Theorem. x ∈ Ii. and r2 is not a product of irreducibles. with r1. Then there exists m ∈ N such that Im = Im + i . then. where t = max(i. . we obtain a strictly increasing sequence of ideals r0R ⊂ r1R ⊂ … ⊂ rnR ⊂ rn+1R ⊂ …. So x. ∀i ∈ N. rn + 1 is a proper divisor of rn. r1 ¿ r and r1 is not a product of irreducibles. Since R is a PID. A ring R satisfying the ascending chain condition (ACC): every ascending sequence of ideals of R. the primes in R coincide with the irreducibles in R. Since a ∈ I.. y ∈ I. there exists m ∈ N such that a ∈ Im. rx ∈ Ii ⊆ I. so we get r2 ∈ R°. s1 ∈ R°. In particular. r2 | r1. Let R be a PID and let (In)n ≥ 0 be a sequence of ideals in R such that In ⊆ In + 1. But R is a PID. not associated with r0. Then every nonzero non-invertible element r in R is a finite product of prime elements. for any n ∈ N. 4. j). j ∈ N. I0 ⊆ I1 ⊆ …. every ascending sequence of ideals is stationary).34 I. (In other words. then r0 is too. is stationary (there ex- 9 The products may contain a single factor (i. for any i ∈ N. so there exists a ∈ R such that I = aR.9 Proof. with the property that for any n ∈ N. By induction. r2 ¿ r1. so aR ⊆ Im ⊆ ! I = aR. Proof. We obtain thus r1∈ R° with r1 | r. This is impossible in a PID. If r1 and s1 are finite products of irreducibles. false. n ∈ N. In other words. Arithmetic in integral domains 4. y ∈ Ij.

example is Z ⎡ ⎢ 2 ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ 10 Emmy Noether (1882–1935). Proof.10 We have shown that every PID is Noetherian. r ∈ R such that a = b0q + r and r = 0 or ϕ(r) < ϕ(b0). So ψ(a) =ψ(c) ≤ ψ(b). as shown by Dedekind in 1894. There exist q. ∀i ∈ N) is called a Noetherian ring. b ≠ 0 and let b0 be associated with b such that ψ(b) = ϕ(b0). Note that the proof above can be slightly modified to obtain the theorem: A ring in which every ideal is finitely generated is Noetherian. . but the examples are not easy to find. b ∈ R . 4.I. b ∈ R* with a | b. Let R be a Euclidian domain with respect to ϕ : R*→ N. ! Are there any principal ideal domains that are not Euclidian? The answer is affirmative. x ∼ y implies ψ(x) = ψ(y). The converse is also true. Let ψ : R* → N. since b ∈ aR. Since b0 = bu. Now let a. Clearly. a | b implies ψ(a) ≤ ψ(b). Let a. We claim that R is Euclidian with respect to ψ. b ∈ R. an extra condition is re* quired: for any a. b ∈ R*. We show that this condition is not essential. ∀x ∈ R. x ≠ 0}. a | b implies ϕ(a) ≤ ϕ(b). we have a = b(uq) + r and r = 0 or ψ(r) ≤ ϕ(r) < ϕ(b0) = ψ(b).2. Then there exists ψ : R*→ N such that R is Euclidian with respect to ψ and. defined by ψ(x) = min{ϕ(y) | y ∼ x}. Such an 1 + i 19 ⎤ . As seen in the proof of 4. for some unit u.9 Proposition. We have remarked that sometimes in the definition of the Euclidian domain R with respect to ϕ : R \ {0} → N. for any a. a generator of the ideal aR is an element c (which must be associated with a) such that ψ(c) = min{ψ(x) | x ∈ aR. Noetherian rings are an important topic in Commutative Algebra. German.4 Principal ideal domains 35 ists m ∈ N such that Im = Im + i.

then m = n and there exists a permutation σ of the set {1.3 Proposition. 5. Let R be a domain and r ∈ R°. The next Proposition justifies and explains the epithet “unique” in the name of a UFD. …. Let R be a UFD and let p be irreducible in R.1 Definition. Every irreducible element in a UFD is also a prime. ∀i ∈ {1. 5. Every field is a UFD. Let r = p1 … pn be a prime decomposition of r. …. n} such that pi ∼ qσ(i). then this decomposition is unique up to an ordering of the factors and an association in divisibility. Proof. because it has no nonzero and non-invertible elements. Products may have a single factor.36 I. This means that: if r = p1…pn = q1…qm are two prime decompositions of r. But this product can have only one factor.2 Proposition. Define l(r) as the * smallest n ∈ N such that there exists a prime decomposition of r of length n.5 Unique factorization domains 5. If r has a prime decomposition. n}. So. Proof. Since p ∈ R°.7 shows that any principal ideal domain (thus also any Euclidian domain) is a UFD. Such a product is also called a prime decomposition of the element. ! otherwise p would not be irreducible. 11 . A domain R with the property that every nonzero and non-invertible element is a finite product11 of prime elements is called a unique factorization domain (UFD). p is a product of primes. Call the natural number n the length of the decomposition. Theorem 4. p is itself a prime. Arithmetic in integral domains I.

5. qm are invertible. …. qm primes. Simplifying by pn. This is an important property of the UFD's. n} such that pn | qi. qm prime.2.3. r = p1 … pn = q1 … qm. If m ≥ 2. r divides one of the factors. Suppose the claim is true for any x ∈ R° with l(x) < n. pn. But q1 is irreducible. …. pn − 1 are associated with ! q1. …. we obtain the relation p1 … pn−1 = vq1 … qi−1qi+1 … qm. But qi is irreducible. qi + 1. The induction hypothesis applied to p1 … pn−1 shows that n − 1 = m − 1 and p1. q1. then let r = p1 = q1 … qm.4 Theorem. Several other characterizations are collected in the next theorem. with p1. d)Every element in R° has a decomposition in irreducible factors and every two elements have a GCD. a)⇒b) It follows from Prop. vpn = qi. Because pn is prime. The following statements are equivalent: a) R is a UFD. so pn ∼ qi. simplifying by q1 in q1u = q1 … qm.I. …. …. Thus r = q1u. Proof. Let R be a domain. we obtain q2 … qm = u. Since r is a prime and r divides the product q1 … qm. unique up to a reordering of the factors and an association in divisibility. q1. If l(r) = 1.5 Unique factorization domains 37 We prove the claim by induction on l(r). with p1. say q1 (relabel if necessary). ∃i ∈ {1. We must prove that m = 1. . contradiction. b)⇒c) It follows from Prop. that is. …. …. so we have r ∼ q1. qi − 1. possibly in other order. so q2. qm. 5. b) Every element in R° is a finite product of irreducibles and every irreducible is a prime. …. c) Every element in R° has a decomposition in irreducible factors. Let r ∈ R. with u invertible. A UFD is also a GCD-domain. with v a unit. 5.

…. Let ri r r = min(si. So wi ≤ ri and e | d. s1. The implication is now obvious.5 Example. Indeed. We have d | a. define q q qi = max(si. ti). with w1.19 makes sure that any irreducible is a prime. To be precise. t1. The reader can also check that 6 has two decompositions as a product of irreducibles in Z [ − 5 ] : 6 = 2·3 = (1 + − 5 )(1 − − 5 ) . their LCM can be determined by taking “all prime factors in the decompositions.18). …. . So w w e = p1 1 … pn n q . 1. at the smallest power”. e | b.38 I. otherwise a (or b) would possess two decompositions in irreducible factors. u. The uniqueness claim follows the uniqueness assertion in c). Ex. v ∈ U(R) such that s t s t a = p11 … pnn u and b = p11 … pnn v . 1. If e | a. at the greatest exponent”. This means that every irreducible in R is associated to exactly one element in P. pn ∈ P. the element m = p1 1 … pn n is then a LCM of a and b. q ∈ U(R). n . b ∈ {0} ∪ U(R). b ∈ R° (if a. one containing c and the other one not. …. From e | a it follows that wi ≤ si. contradicting the uniqueness property. since ! R is a GCD domain. Given two prime decompositions of a and b. d | b. This implies c ∈ {p1. since 2 is irreducible and not a prime (cf. i = 1. ti) and define d = p11 … pnn . and e | b implies wi ≤ ti. Arithmetic in integral domains c)⇒d) Let a. Note that in a UFD any two elements a and b have a LCM. 5. pn}. sn. and 2 is not associated with 1 + − 5 or with 1 − − 5 . Property c) assures that there exist and are unique distinct p1. tn ∈ N. let P be a system of representatives of the equivalence classes of the irreducible elements in R (with respect to the association in divisibility). Z [ − 5 ] is not a UFD. wn ∈ N. A GCD of a and b can be determined by “taking the common prime factors. …. …. with the notations in the proof above. it is trivial to exhibit a GCD of a and b). then every irreducible c ∈ P that divides e divides also a and b. d)⇒a) Prop.

by contradiction. Let R be a domain. due to Kaplansky. Let us prove first that such an ideal exists. we show that . We have to prove the existence of P. b1…bn) = 1.5 Unique factorization domains 39 5. The UFDs have many characterizations. 1 ≤ j ≤ n such that p | bj. Suppose now that any nonzero prime ideal in R contains a prime element. First. Consider the set of ideals (ordered by inclusion): J = {I ideal in R | I ∩ S = ∅ and aR ⊆ I }. then R is a UFD. The idea is to use Zorn's Lemma. If (a. then a is also a unit.6 Proposition. there exists i such that pi ∈ P. that there exists a ∈ R. Take a ∈ P. contradiction. It is enough to show that there is no prime p that simultaneously divides a and b1…bn. Suppose R is a UFD and P ≠ 0 is a prime ideal. 5. b ∈ S. nonzero. Proof. together with the hypothesis. We will prove that any ideal I. Since p | a. Because P is a prime ideal. This fact. Suppose. maximal with the properties I ∩ S = ∅ and aR ⊆ I. The following. bi) = 1. since aR ∈ J.I. Proof. If ar is a product of primes.7 Theorem. n ∈ N* and a. Consider S = {a ∈ R | a ∈ U(R) or a is a product of prime elements}. J is not empty. for any 1 ≤ i ≤ n. So we must have S = R – {0}. if ar ∈ S for some r ∈ R. then (a. We note that S is a multiplicative system (1 ∈ S and ∀a. Then there exists a prime ideal P in R containing a. implies the existence of a prime element p ∈ P. …. ! p is invertible. is inspired from Commutative Algebra techniques. Therefore. If p is such an element. If S = R – {0}. then ar is a unit or is a product of primes. so a decomposes in prime factors: a = p1 … pn. we have p | (a. Let R be a UFD. If ar is a unit. Since P ≠ R. then there exists j. contradiction. Then R is a UFD if and only if any prime nonzero ideal of R contains a prime element. contradicting P ∩ S = ∅. Indeed. bn ∈ R. with P ∩ S = ∅. with a ∉ S. ab ∈ S). a ≠ 0. is prime. b1. bj) = 1. But p ∈ S. a is not a unit.

Since P is maximal. by absurd. 5. then the polynomial ring in one indeterminate R[X] is a UFD. a ∈ S. contradiction. y ∈ R. with p a prime implies p ∼ r (so a is a unit) or p ∼ a (so a ∈ S). then p1| a or p1| r. The following important result shows the property of R being a factorization domain is inherited by the polynomial ring R[X]. If ar = p1 … pn with p1. . let r = cp1. Then U(R[X]) = U(R) and R[X]° = R° ∪ {f ∈ R[X] | deg f ≥ 1}. so a ∈ S. The proof of this theorem needs some preparations. indexed by some set L. In particular. simplifying. If p1| r. consider the ideals P + Rx and P + Ry. 5. The induction hypothesis shows that b ∈ S.8 Theorem. we determine the units of R[X].9 Proposition. Again by induction. is bounded above in J by ∪l∈L Il. there exist some elements s ∈ S ∩(P + ! Rx) and t ∈ S ∩(P + Ry). br = p2 … pn. so ac = p2 … pn. by induction on the number of factors. it is not obvious that every polynomial in n indeterminates with coefficients in Z decomposes uniquely in irreducible factors. If R is a UFD. if K is a field. J is inductively ordered: every chain in J. which strictly include P. The checking is straightforward and is left to the reader. with x ∉ P and y ∉ P. which are also interesting on their own. First. Zorn's Lemma guarantees now that some maximal element P ∈ J exists. If. for some c. Let R be a domain.40 I. then a = bp1. U(K[X]) = K* and K[X]° = {f ∈ K[X] | deg f ≥ 1}. xy ∈ P. pn primes. This has far from trivial consequences: for instance. Arithmetic in integral domains a ∈ S. The ideal P is prime: let x. (Il)l∈L. …. then st ∈ S ∩ P. If ar = p. If p1 | a.

Since R is a domain.10 Definition. 5.5 Unique factorization domains 41 Proof. a1.11 Proposition. Any f ∈ R[X] can be written f = c{ f }·g. . with a ∈ R and g primitive. A polynomial with content (associated with) 1 is called a primitive polynomial. Proof. Let f = a0 + a1X + … n m + anX . Note that f is primitive if and only if there exists no prime p in R such that p divides all the coefficients of f.ai .I. too. then p is prime in R[X]. if f = a·g. From p . 0 ≤ i ≤ n. Similarly. Also. a) Let R be a domain. ! If K is a field.g. aibj is not divisible by p and the other terms are divisible by p (as products of two factors. then c{ f } = a. which means that f. deg f + deg g = 0. U(R) ⊆ U(R[X]) is evident. Then the coefficient of X in fg is ∑ ak bl k + l =i + j n In this sum. The GCD of the coefficients a0. denoted c{ f }. such that p . Then the product fg is also primitive. g ∈ R. Take i minimal with p . …. a) Note first that: p divides a polynomial in R[X] if and only if p divides all the coefficients of the polynomial.12 c) Let R be a UFD and let f. 5. there is some g such that fg = 1. From fg = 1 we deduce that f ∈ U(R). Then c{ f g} = c{ f }·c(g). b) Let R be a UFD and let f.bj. g ∈ R[X]. g be primitive in R[X]. g = b0 + b1X + … + bmX ∈ R[X] such that p . then U(K) = K* and the other claims follow. so deg f = 0 = deg g. If p is prime in R.f and p . Let R be a UFD and let f = a0 + a1X + … + anX ∈ R[X].ai. Let us prove that p . If f is a unit R[X]. for some primitive g ∈ R[X].fg. let j be minimal i+j such that p . an is called the content of f.f we deduce that there exists i. at least one of which is divisible 12 This is called “Gauss' Lemma”.

which is often easier to accomplish.b). Let us prove that f is irreducible in K[X]. Then f is clearly primitive. g = c(g)·g1. by multiplying with the LCM of the denominators of the coefficients of g and h. c) Let f = c{ f }·f1. h1 ∈ R[X] and some a ∈ R. ! with f1g1 primitive by b). simplifying by a( = c(g1)c(h1)). Arithmetic in integral domains i+j by p). If f = gh. But deg g = deg g1 = deg g2 and similarly for h. with primitive g2. where f1 and g1 are primitive. we get something like af = g1h1. there exists p ∈ R. it is sufficient to prove it is irreducible in R[X].12 Proposition. such that p | fg. it has no proper divisors (of degree ≥ 1) in K[X]. Computing the contents. prime. Let R be a UFD and let K be its field of quotients. with g. deg g2 = 0 or deg h2 = 0. since c{ f } = 1. Le R be a UFD. We will use the characterization in 5. b) If fg is not primitive. This result is also important from a practical point of view: in order to prove that some polynomial with coefficients in R is irreducible in K[X]. Then a polynomial f in R[X] of degree ≥ 1 is irreducible in R[X] if and only if f is primitive and irreducible in K[X]. h2 ∈ R[X]. we have a = c(g1)c(h1). Let us prove that f is a prime. with g.8. It is clear now that c{ fg} = c{ f }c(g).42 I. we obtain f = g2h2. So af = c(g1)·c(h1)·g2·h2. Since f is irreducible in R[X]. contradiction. 5. so it does not have divisors of degree ≥ 1 in R[X]. f has no non-invertible factors of degree 0. irreducible. h ∈ K[X]. so deg g = 0 or deg h = 0. for some polynomials g1. h1 = c(h1)·h2. K its field of quotients and f ∈ R[X]. We have g1 = c(g1)·g2. Proof. Let f be irreducible in R[X].4. So. ! Since f is primitive. Then fg = c{ f }c(g)·f1·g1. h ∈ . If f | gh. The previous paragraph implies p | f or p | g. We can give now the Proof of the Theorem 5. the coefficient of X is not divisible by p and neither is the polynomial fg . Conversely. if f is irreducible in K[X].

We can write q = c(q)·q1. we infer that f1 is a product of irreducibles in R[X]. ! Thus. If deg f > 0. We prove this by induction on the degree of f. This implies a·c(g) = c(q). we must show that any nonzero non-invertible polynomial f ∈ R[X] is a product of irreducibles. R designates a domain and K its field of quotients. f1 has a proper divisor in R[X]. we are finished. the following rings are unique factorization domains: Z[X]. I. It is sufficient to prove the existence of a decomposition for f1. h ∈ R[X]. where K is a field. Z[X1. we have f | g or f | h in K[X]. f1 = gh. which must be a polynomial of degree strictly less than deg f ( f1 has no proper divisors in R.I. then R[X] is Noetherian. such that ag = fq. if not. . Thus ac(g)·g1 = f·c(q)·q1. because f is irreducible in K[X] (and thus also prime in K[X]). having degrees smaller than f. Xn]. An analogous result holds for Noetherian rings: if R is a commutative Noetherian ring. Thus.6 Polynomial ring arithmetic In this section. Recall that R° denotes the set of nonzero and non-invertible elements in R.6 Polynomial ring arithmetic 43 R[X]. g1 primitive in R[X]. write f = c{ f }f1. with f1 primitive. factors that are also irreducible in R[X]. Xn]. being primitive). (David Hilbert's Basissatz). we have g1 = fq1. then f ∈ R° and it has a decomposition in irreducible factors in R. Applying the induction for g and h. Next. …. with g. simplifying by c(q). If f1 is irreducible. q ∈ R[X]. …. with q1. g = c(g)·g1. K[X1. so f | g in R[X]. Say f | g in K[X]. If deg f = 0 and f is not a unit in R[X]. so there exist a ∈ R.

if f. Recall that. then f is invertible and thus reducible. with r = 0 or deg r < deg f . r ∈ R[X] such that f = gq + r. deg h < n. If the leading coefficient of g is a unit in R. A rich collection of irreducibility criteria is thus very useful in such problems. If R = K (R is a field).44 I. In practice. then f ∈ R.5. so the theorem of division with remainder does not hold in R[X]. 6. Let f ∈ R[X] and a ∈ R. when R is a UFD. with g. g ∈ R[X].2 Proposition. Given f ∈ R[X]. in this case. However. the following simple facts are worth remembering: .1 Remark. R[X] is not principal (and certainly not Euclidian). g ∈ R[X]. The proof of the following result is left to the reader: 6. then there exist q. The fact that f has no non-invertible divisors of degree 0 amounts to saying that the GCD of the coefficients of f exists and is 1.if deg f = 0. h ∈ R[X] and 1 ≤ deg g. The following statements are equivalent: . In this case. (Integer division theorem) Let f. If R is a domain and not a field. . f is irreducible in R[X] ⇔ f is primitive and f is irreducible in K[X]. Arithmetic in integral domains The problem of deciding the irreducibility of a polynomial in R[X] is important and often nontrivial. ! An important consequence is the “Theorem of Bézout”: 6. f is irreducible in R[X] if and only if it is irreducible in R.if deg f = n > 0. the argument of the proof of the division with remainder theorem for K[X] (K a field) still holds (see Example2. this condition reads “f is primitive”.b)).3 Theorem. and g has as leading coefficient a unit. then f is irreducible in R[X] if and only if f has no non invertible divisors of degree 0 and there are no decompositions f = gh.

so f (a) = 0 is equivalent to r = 0. 6. r ∈ R[X] such that f = (X − a)q + r.6 Proposition. yet it is obviously reducible in Q[X]. we have: 6. Of course. Proof. Since f is irreducible in K[X] and deg f > 1.f . where deg r = 0 or r = 0. But f (a) = (a − a)q(a) + r(a) = r. ! The converse of this statement is false: (X + 1) has no roots in Q. Conversely. Nevertheless. Then a polynomial f of degree 2 or 3 in K[X] is irreducible if and only if f has no roots in K. if R is a UFD. There exist q. 2 2 If the ring R is not a UFD. which has a root in K.4 Definition. f has roots in Q.6 Polynomial ring arithmetic 45 a) a is a root of f. Let f ∈ R[X].5 Corollary. b) the polynomial X − a divides f in R[X].7 Examples. a is called a multiple root of m m+1 multiplicity m for f if (X − a) | f and (X − a) . then f is reducible in R[X] (it is divisible with X − a).I. Note that X − a divides f if and only if r = 0. deg f > 1. The remaining claims follow from “f is irreducible in R[X] if and only if f is primitive ! and irreducible in K[X]”. but has no roots in Z. Proof. If f ∈ R[X] and a ∈ R. if f is reducible and has degree 2 or 3. 2 . by looking at the degrees of the factors in a decomposition of f. the field of quotients of Z. f has no roots in K. a primitive polynomial of degree 2 or 3 in R[X] is irreducible in R[X] if and only if it has no roots in K. A root of multiplicity 1 is called a simple root. a) f = (2X + 1) is reducible in Z[X]. then the criterion above may not work: 6. If f has a root a ∈ R. In particular. then. Let K be a field. one concludes that f has a divisor of degree 1. the natural number m is called the multiplicity of the root a. ! This theorem is the basis of the notion of multiple root: 6.

Then f is irreducible if and only if n r{ f } = an + an − 1X + … + a0X n . with p. q) = 1. then p | 2 and q | 1. the field of quotients of R. 6. ( p. A quick check shows that R is a 2 subring in Z[i]. −1. −2}. By direct testing. The polynomial X + 1 is irreducible in R[X] (prove!). we have: n −a0q = a1 pq + … + an p . f has no rational roots. ! 6. If p/q ∈ Q is a root of f. The following criterion is widely used to find all rational roots of a polynomial in Z[X] (also see Exercise 26). We remark first that every element of K can be written as p/q. the rational roots of f belong to the set {1. (p. q) = 1. with p and q coprime. so p | a0. q ∈ R. n n so p | a0q . f ≠ 0. so it is a domain. d ∈ R. being primitive). If p/q ∈ K is a root of f. Then f is irreducible if and only if f (cX + d) is irreducible. b ∈ Z}. Let f = X − X + 2 ∈ Z[X]. Since f has degree 3. So. Proof. but has the roots i. 6. 2. This means that a polynomial of degree 2 or 3 in R[X] that has roots in Q(R) is not necessarily reducible in R[X]. A similar proof can be given for q | an. where c is a unit in R. Arithmetic in integral domains b) Let R = {a + 2bi | a. a) Let c. −i in Q[i]. q) = 1. Let f = a0 + a1X + … + anX ∈ R[X].10 Proposition.46 I.9 Example. Since ( p. Writing that f(p/q) = 0 and multiplying with q . we get that none of these numbers is a root. we also have ( p. then p | a0 and q | an. q ) = 1 (R is a UFD). So. f is irreducible in Q[X] (also in Z[X]. b) Suppose f(0) = a0 ≠ 0. 3 n n−1 n Here are some general tricks that may prove useful in irreducibility problems. Let R be a UFD and f = a0 + a1X + … + n anX ∈ R[X].8 Proposition.

f = gh ⇔ ϕ{ f } = ϕ(g)ϕ(h).6 Polynomial ring arithmetic 47 (the reciprocal of f ) is irreducible. So. d) (Eisenstein criterion) Let R be a UFD. for any d ∈ R. Since ϕ preserves the degrees and ϕ | R = idR. consider the equality in K(X). ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝X⎠ ⎝X⎠ ⎝X⎠ Because r preserves the degrees and. we have 1 1 1 r ( gh ) = X m + p ( gh )⎛ ⎞ = X m g ⎛ ⎞ X p h ⎛ ⎞ = r ( g )r (h ) . then f is irreducible in R[X]. ∀q ∈ R[X]. if deg g = m. In other words.an . a) Let ϕ : R[X] → R[X] be the unique homomorphism of R-algebras (that is. Suppose f = gh. we have d | f ⇔ r(d) | r{ f }. p -a0. 1 Indeed. with g. ϕ{ f } is obtained by replacing the indeterminate X in f with cX + d. deg h = p. where n = deg f (for a rigorous ⎜ ⎟ ⎝X⎠ argument. h ∈ R[X]. Therefore. then f is irreducible in K[X] (thus f is irreducible in R[X] if it is primitive). If there exists a prime ele2 ment p ∈ R such that p | ai. with nonzero g(0) and h(0). ∀ i < n. note that r ( f ) = X n f ⎛ ⎞ . h ∈ R[X]. c) Suppose f has no divisors of degree 0 other than units. we obtain that degψ(g) = deg g and . one obtains that: f is irreducible if and only if ϕ{ f } is irreducible. ψ is a ring homomorphism and ψ |R = ϕ) satisfying ϕ(X) = cX + d. the condition ϕ(an) ≠ 0 ensures that degψ(g) + degψ(h) = degψ{ f } = n. we get the conclusion. The element c is a unit if and only if ϕ is an isomorphism of R-algebras (the homomorphism of R-algebras −1 −1 ψ : R[X] → R[X] that takes X to c X − c d is the inverse of ϕ). c) Let ψ : R[X] → S[X] be the unique homomorphism of R-algebras such that ψ(X) = X. Since degψ(q) ≤ deg q. h ∈ R[X]. We must prove that ψ{ f } is irreducible implies f is irreducible. the field of quotients of K[X]). Proof. b) If g.I. ∀g. then r(gh) = r(g)r(h). If S is a commutative ring and ϕ : R → S is a unitary ring homomorphism such n that ϕ(an) ≠ 0 and ϕ(a0) + ϕ(a1)X + … + ϕ(an)X is an irreducible polynomial in S[X]. Thenψ{ f } = ψ(g)ψ(h) . p .

where m > 0. applied repeatedly. Mathematica. Axiom. g ∈ U(R). Since f has no 0 degree non-invertible divisors. Macaulay. of degrees > 1.11 Remark. thus p divides exactly one of b0 and c0. ! 6. there exists a decomposition of f of the form f = gh. c0. By replacing f with f1. Such an algorithm (due to Kronecker) that also outputs a factor of the polynomial if it is not irreducible is described in Exercise 31. such that p . p does not divide all the bi's.b0c0 . Arithmetic in integral domains degψ(h) = deg h. cp ∈ R. …. so ψ(g) (to make a choice) is a unit.an. contradicting the hypothesis. The modern symbolic computation software (Maple. It is sufficient now to prove that f is irreducible in R[X]. If f ∈ R[X] is a monic reducible polynomial. Suppose p | b0 and p . The proof is proposed as an exercise. etc. concrete cases will give an idea on the strategies of approaching the problem of irreducibility of a polynomial. The exist algorithms that decide if a given polynomial in Z[X] is irreducible. we can assume f is primitive.bic0 and ai = bic0 + ∑ b j ci − j j =1 i −1 is not divisible by p.48 I. Then p . then: n m p f = a0 + a1X +…+ anX = (b0 + b1X +…+ bmX ) (c0 + c1X +…+ cpX ). Because p .c0.bi and p | bj. thus there exists some i. This algorithm. …. b1. cp ≠ 0. So. A few instances of using the above criteria on. where g. with f1 primitive. ∀j < i. d) Write f = c{ f }·f1. bm. This simple remark is useful in reducibility issues. 0 = degψ(g) = deg g. If f were reducible.) have powerful routines that decide polynomial irreduci- . p > 0. c1. We have that f and f1 are associated in K[X]. bm ≠ 0. Butψ{ f } is irreducible. of degree 0. so p | b0c0 and p . b0. h ∈ R[X] are monic. We 2 have b0c0 = a0. yields a factorization algorithm (producing a decomposition in irreducible factors) for any polynomial in Z[X] or Q[X]. 1 ≤ i ≤ m.

6 Polynomial ring arithmetic 49 bility. see SPINDLER [1994]. by a) above. For details and developments. 6. c) Let p be a prime number and let 9 2 f=X p−1 +X p−2 + … + X + 1 ∈ Z[X]. where L is a finitely generated extension of K. Indeed. X − p is irreducible in Q[X] and in Z[X] (use Eisenstein again). Note that Z can be replaced with any UFD of characteristic ≠ 2. . then there exists one or L[X]. f is irreducible. polynomials with coefficients in algebraic extensions of Q or in a finite field. since p divides all the binomial coefficients p i ( ) . The Eisenstein criterion cannot be applied directly to f. WINKLER[1996]. n b) For any prime p and any n ∈ N*. 5 2 e) Consider f = X + X + 1 ∈ Z2[X]. A decomposition of f may look only like: 5 2 3 2 2 X + X + 1 = (X + aX + bX + 1)(X + cX + 1). The polynomial f has no roots in Z2 (easy check: Z2 has 2 elements. a UFD. One can prove that. consider f as a polynomial in Y with coefficients in Z[X]. so the proper divisors of f can be of degrees 2 or 3. 0 and 1). if there exists a factorization algorithm for K[X]. a) The polynomial 6X + 13X + 26 is irreducible in Q[X] (and in Z[X]. by the Eisenstein criterion with p = 13. including polynomials in several indeterminates. 9 9 7 2 d) The polynomial f = Y + X Y − 3X Y + 2X is irreducible in Z[X. it is primitive).I. Apply Eisenstein with p = X (X is irreducible in Z[X]).12 Examples. g is irreducible and. Consider the polynomial p ( X + 1) − 1 = p p X i −1 g = f ( X + 1) = ∑ i X +1−1 i =1 () Remark that the Eisenstein criterion can be applied to g. Thus. Y]. with K a field. with 1 ≤ i < p.

2. R is a domain and K is its field of quotients (unless specified otherwise).10. for some n ∈ N conveniently chosen. for instance. Let R be a finite domain. Identifying the coefficients. b.c) are satisfied. which is irreducible. b. 5 3 2 f = 7X + 4X − X + 6 X + 9 ∈ Z[X]. c ∈ Z2. Let R be a commutative unitary ring that has zero divisors and let a ∈ R be a zero divisor. 3. then U(R) is infinite. contradiction. is injective. 7 2 g) 10X + 5X + 2 is irreducible in Z[X]: its reciprocal is 7 5 2X + 5X + 10. irreducible by Eisenstein with p = 5. Prove that the set R° of the nonzero non-invertible elements in R is infinite. (denoted with ψ{ f } in the Proof).10. Let R be an infinite unitary ring. (Hint: If R° is finite. prove that ax + b = 0 has no solutions in any ring S that includes R as a subring. 1. ∀a ∈ R°.c) for a polynomial f with integer coefficients is to “reduce the coefficients modulo n”. Hence. Exercises Throughout the exercises. The conditions in 6.50 I. The mapping ϕ : U(R) → S(R°). Let S(R°) be the set of all bijections from R° to R°. x & ϕx. If b ∈ R \ {0} is not a zero divisor. we obtain a system of equations in a. Prove that R is a field. The polynomial f reduced 5 2 modulo 2 is X + X + 1 ∈ Z2[X]. which is readily seen to have no solutions in Z2. f) A typical use of 6. so f is irreducible in Z[X] (also in Q[X]). c. More precisely. f is irreducible in Z2[X]. Take.) . consider the unique ring homomorphism ϕ : Z → Zn and investigate the “polynomial f reduced modulo n”. ϕx(a) = xa. Arithmetic in integral domains with a.

2b ∈ Z and 4a − 4b d ≡ 0 (mod 4). Use 3. 8. b ∈ Z. 12.4 and Q[ 5 ] = Q[θ ]). 7. e) For d < 0.Exercises 51 4. Show that Z[ 2 ] is Euclidian. b ∈ Q) is a quadratic integer ⇔ 2 2 2a ∈ Z. What can you say about the uniqueness of such a representation? 5. with a. 9. Let R be a GCD domain. Then any element in K can be written as a/b. Write a formula for the norm N : Z[θ ] → Z and determine U(Z[θ ]). where θ is given by Prop. Let d ∈ Z be squarefree. Prove that Z[(1 + 5 ) 2] is Euclidian. with a. Let θ = (1 + i 3 ) 2 . Show that the norm N : Z[θ ] → Z is 2 2 N(a + bθ) = a + ab − b . Let θ = (1 + 5 ) 2 . determine explicitly U(R). b ∈ Q. c) Show that x = a + b d (with a. 6. (b ≠ 0). b) Suppose known that any quadratic integer is a root of a monic polynomial of degree 2 with integer coefficients. Use 3. b ∈ R. a) Any element in Q[ d ] can be uniquely written as a + b d . pR[X]. Determine U(Z[ d ]).) 10. is prime if and only if p is a prime element in R. Show that a commutative ring R is a domain if and only if R[X] is a domain. . (Hint. Deduce a new proof for 5.11. 3.a). (Hint: R[X]/(pR[X]) ≅ (R/pR)[X]).3. Show that: x = a + b d ∈ Q[ d ] (a. ∀a. Prove that the ideal generated by p in R[X]. b ∈ Q) is a quadratic integer ⇔ Tr(x) = 2a 2 2 ∈ Z and N(x) = a − db ∈ Z. Let d ∈ Z. Let p ∈ R°. The elements 6 and 2 + − 5 have no GCD (and thus no LCM) in Z[ − 5 ]. d < 0 be squarefree. (Hint. 11.4. d) Show that R := {α ∈ Q[ d ] | α is a quadratic integer} is a subring of Q[ d ] and R = Z[θ ]. coprime.

β ∈ Z[ d ] such that αβ ∈ Z. Show that the 2 equation x + 1 = 0 has no solutions in Zp ( = Z/pZ. ⇔ p ≡ 1(mod 4). b ∈ Z such that α = aγ and ⎯ ⎯ β = b γ ( γ is the conjugate of γ). . d | a + bi in Z[i] ⇔ d | a and d | b in Z. b ∈ Z such that p = a + b (p 2 can be written as a sum of two squares) ⇔ the equation x + 1 = 0 has solutions in Zp. p −1⎞ e) If p is a prime in Z and p ≡ 1(mod 4). then x ∈ R. K is its field of quotients and x ∈ K is integral over R.52 I. if R is a GCD-domain. An element of S is called integral over R if it is a root of a nonzero monic polynomial in R[X]. 14. then ⎛ ⎜ ⎟! ≡ −1(mod p ) ⎝ 2 ⎠ (Hint. Let R be a unitary subring of the commutative ring S. h) Prove that a prime p ∈ Z can be written as a sum of two squares 15. b) Suppose that p ∈ Z is a prime in Z and in Z[i]. Let d ∈ Z be squarefree and α. 1 − i and the primes p in Z with p ≡ 3(mod 4). the field of integers mod p). Prove that. a) Prove: for any d ∈ Z and any a + bi ∈ Z[i]. (A domain R with this property is called integrally closed). f) Prove that a prime p ∈ Z is also prime in Z[i] if and only if g) Prove that all the prime elements in Z[i] (up to association in divisibility) are: 1 + i. then p cannot be written as a sum of two squares. Show that there is some γ ∈ Z[ d ] and a. Use Wilson's Theorem: (p − 1)! ≡ −1(mod p)). 2 2 c) Let p be prime in Z. d) If p is a prime in Z and p ≡ 3(mod 4). we find the primes in Z that can be written as a sum of two squares. The purpose of the exercise is to determine all primes in Z[i]. As a bonus. p ≡ 3(mod 4). Arithmetic in integral domains 13. Then: (∃) a.

Then Z[ d ] is not a GCD-domain.Exercises 53 16.3). K[X]. (Hint. such that the group of units U(R) is finite. Show that R is not Euclidian. Then S R is an Euclidian domain. Let R be an Euclidian domain with respect to the function ϕ and −1 let S be a multiplicatively closed system in R. Show that Z contains an infinity of prime elements not associated in divisibility to each other. Then R contains an infinity of prime elements not associated in divisibility to each other. 3. (Ind. 24. If R is Euclidian. a UFD) is inherited by the unitary subrings of R? 20. Then find y ∈ R such that u does not divide any of y or y ± 1). Does the property of a domain R of being Euclidian (respectively a PID. Let R be a UFD and let S be a multiplicatively closed system in R. ∃q ∈ R such that x − qu is a unit or 0. Take S saturated. Take x = 2 and deduce that u ∈ Z and u = ±2 or ±3.) 21. (Hint. Let d ∈ Z be squarefree. Let R be Euclidian with respect to ϕ. −1 Then S R is a UFD. If p1. 1}. …. −1 Then the ring of quotients S R is a PID. 19. let u ∈ R given by the preceding exercise. R = Z[θ ]. min {ϕ(v) | v ∈ R°} = ϕ(u) for some u ∈ R°.) . with θ as in Prop. 22. 17. (Hint. Show that U(R) = { −1. d squarefree and denote by R the ring of integers of Q[ d ] (so.) 23. pn are all the primes – up to association in divisibility –. Use exercise 4. Is this result a particular case of Proposition 3. Let R be a UFD that is not a field. we have u | x or u | x ± 1. then there exists m ≥ 1 m such that 1 + (p1…pn) ∈ R°. d ≡ 1 (mod 4). Then. Find such a u for R = Z. 2 is irreducible and not a prime. Let R be a PID and let S be multiplicatively closed system in R. ∀x ∈ R.) 18. Show that there exists u ∈ R nonzero and not a unit with the property: ∀x ∈ R. Let d ≤ −13.5? (Ind.

deg h ≥ 1. If deg g. (The Lagrange interpolation polynomial) Let K be a field. fix n + 1 distinct elements x0. Write down explicitly the conclusions for an = 1. then g(0) and h(0) are divisible by p. then the mapping ~ R ϕ : R[X] → R . n n n b) Let g = an −1a0 + an −2a1 X + … + an −1 X n −1 + X n . If f = a0 + a1 X + … + an X satisfies the hypothesis of the criten rion and f = gh. ϕ{ f } = f . then p | a0. Let R be a UFD and let p ∈ R be a prime. Prove that the following statements are equivalent: a) Any nonzero polynomial f ∈ R[X] has at most deg f roots in R. Let R be a commutative ring.) 26. If f ∈ R[X]. (Hint. q ∈ R and ( p. 29. Let R be a commutative ring. xn ∈ K and (not necessarily n . a) If p/q ∈ K is a root of f. ∀f ∈ R[X]. Is the conclusion still valid if one does not assume that R is infinite? 30. n ≥ 1 an integer. Using the canonical homomorphism π : R → R/pR and its extension to a homomorphism ψ : R[X] → (R/pR)[X]. is injective. Consider the field of quotients of R and use the previous problem). Let K be a field. give a new proof for the Eisenstein criterion. ∀r ∈ R. …. q | an and (p − qr) | f (r). c) R is a domain.54 I. q) = 1. defined by: ∀x ∈ R. define the polynomial ~ ~ function f : R → R. Then an −1 f ( X ) = g(anX). b) Any polynomial of degree 1 has at most one root in R. Prove that any nonzero polynomial f ∈ K[X] has at most deg f roots in K (every root is counted with its multiplicity). n (Hint. What connection is between the roots of g and the roots of f? 3 2 c) Find the rational roots of 2X + 5X + 9X − 15 and 3 2 4X − 7X − 7X + 15. Prove that. 27. if R is an infinite domain. Arithmetic in integral domains 25. thenψ { f } = π(an)X = ψ(g)ψ(h). 28. where p. f (x) = f (x) (the value of f in x). Let R be a UFD and f = a0 + a1 X + … + an X ∈ R[X].

What properties should R have in order to adapt the algorithm above to R[X]? f) Suppose R is a UFD and there exists a factorization algorithm for R[X]. m+1 b) Choose m + 1 distinct integers. dm) ∈ Z | di| p(xi). then X − xi is a factor of p and STOP. (x0. primitive. n 4 2 . ∀i}. Propose a choice for (x0. 33. …. If there exists d ∈ D with Ld ∈ Z[X] and Ld | p. Prove that there exists a unique polynomial L ∈ K[X] satisfying: deg L ≤ n and L(xi) = yi.Exercises 55 distinct) y0. 32. If not. xm) ∈ Z . …. 0 ≤ i ≤ n. then Ld is a factor of p and STOP. …. and deg Ld ≤ m. If not. Let D = {d = (d0. If ∃i with p(xi) = 0. a) Show that p is reducible in Z[X] ⇔ p has a divisor of degree between 1 and m. 31. yn ∈ K. m+1 2. go to 2. d) Suppose m = 2. For any d ∈ D. ∀i. Decide the irreducibility of X + X + 2X − 1 ∈ Z[X]. xm). then p is irreducible. Let p ∈ Z[X]. D is a finite set. deg p = n and let m = the largest integer ≤ n/2. c) Deduce an algorithm of deciding the irreducibility of polynomials in Q[X]. e) Suppose there is available a factorization algorithm for R (an algorithm that produces a decomposition of any element in R° in prime factors). let Ld ∈ Q[X] be the Lagrange interpolation polynomial with Ld(xi) = di. Show that a0 + a1 X + … + an X ∈ Z2[X] (an ≠ 0) has no roots in Z2 if and only if a0(a0 + a1 + … + an) ≠ 0. Then there exists a factorization algorithm for K[X]. Show that the following algorithm terminates in a finite number of steps and outputs a nontrivial factor of p of degree ≤ m or proves that p is irreducible: 1. ….

If f has at least m + 1 roots in R.…. Xn] are equal if and only if the associated polynomial functions are equal. T] = R[X1. with pi ∈ R[ X ].…. (Hint. with deg(g. ∀a1 ∈ S. respectively b. b) The product of two homogeneous polynomials of degrees a. Deduce that two polynomials in R[X1. ….56 I. then g = 0.…. then g = 0. Then any divisor of p in R[ X ] is homogeneous. an) = 0.) . …. TXn) = T p(X1. where gi is homogeneous of degree i. then f = 0. 5 prove that X − X − 1 ∈ Q[X] is irreducible.…. a2) ⊆ R with |S(a1. Xn]. d) (Generalization of b) Let R be infinite and let g ∈ R[X1. ∀an ∈ S(a1. Xn] =: R[ X ] is called homogeneous of degree q if all the monomials in p have total degree q (see the Appendix). 0 ≤ a ≤ m and ga ≠ 0 ≠ gm. (∀) a1 ∈ S. Suppose that (∃) S ⊆ R with |S| > m1. an) = 0.…. c) Give an example of a finite field K and distinct polynomials in K[X] that have the same associated polynomial function. …. a) Let f ∈ R[X]. Arithmetic in integral domains 34. Xn][ T ]). (∃) S(a1) ⊆ R with |S(a1)| > m2. write g = ga + … + gm. an) ∈ R . Xn) (equality in R[X1. If g(a1. If g(a1.…. d) Let p ∈ R[ X ] be homogeneous. Let R be a domain. b) Let g ∈ R[X1. ∀a3 ∈ S(a1. n ∀(a1. A polynomial in n indeterminates p ∈ R[X1. Show that: a) Any p ∈ R[ X ] can be written uniquely as: p = p0 + p1 + … + pm. For p = gh. an). q c) p is homogeneous of degree q ⇔ p(TX1. Xn]. is homogeneous of degree a + b. Xi) = mi. ….…. (∃) S(a1. a2)| > m3 and so on.…. (∀) a2 ∈ S(a1). Using the equality (in Z2[X]): 5 3 2 2 X + X + 1 = ( X + X + 1)( X + X + 1). (∀) a1 ∈ S. Xn. It suffices to prove that a = m. 36. 35. ∀a2 ∈ S(a1). homogeneous of degree i. …. with R infinite. a2). deg f = m.

f) Is it true that any symmetric polynomial in R[ X ] has all its divisors symmetric polynomials in R[ X ]? 37. Generalization. 1 ≤ i. β) ≠ (0. Prove that. β) = 0. (Hint. Let K be a field. Xn]. xn). Y]. The cases char K = 3 and char K ≠ 3 should be treated separately). Y]. 0). Prove that p is reducible in 2 2 K[X. Let K be a field of characteristic not equal to 2 (1 + 1 ≠ 0 in K) and p a homogeneous polynomial of degree 2 in K[X.1 ≤ i. for g ∈ K[X. X2][X3].…. with p(α. with a. then p is homogeneous of degree q q ⇔ p(tx1. (α. Assume K is a field and p = a0Y + a1 Y X + … + an X homogeneous polynomial of degree n in K[X. .Exercises 57 e) If R is infinite and p ∈ R[ X ].…. char K ≠ 3 and f = X1 + … + Xn ∈ K[X1. 41.e. n p(X. (Hint. 1) | p(X. b.…. n n−1 n is a Let any and 39. txn) = t p(x1. x1. g | p in K[X. For n = 3. j ≤ n. j ≤ n]. 2 2 p = aX + bXY + cY . 1) in K[X]. ∀t. Prove that a commutative ring R is Noetherian if and only if every ideal in R is finitely generated. Show that f is irreducible if and only if n ≥ 3.1 ≤ i. Consider n indeterminates Xij. xn ∈ R. Use then an induction on n. 43. Y] if and only if g is homogeneous g(X. β ∈ K. Then the polynomial: 2 3 3 det A = ∑{X1σ(1)… Xnσ(n) | σ ∈ Sn} is irreducible in Z[Xij. 38. 1) = a0 + a1 X + … + an X ∈ K[X]. apply Eisenstein to f ∈ K[X1. and consider the n×n matrix A = (Xij)1 ≤ i.….) 42. j ≤ n ∈ Mn(Z[Xij. 1) is irreducible in K[X]. Y] ⇔ b − 4ac is a square in K ⇔ b − 4ac = 0 or there exist α. c ∈ K. i. X2]. Write a decomposition in irreducible factors for 3 3 X1 + X2 ∈ K[X1. Prove that p is irreducible in K[X. 40. Let K be a field and let p ∈ K[X. j ≤ n]). Y]. Y] ⇔ p(X. Y] be homogeneous.

submodules. Also.II. algebra structure theorems. group representation theory.1 Modules. homomorphisms The notion of a module over a ring can be obtained by replacing the word “field” with the word “ring” in the definition of the vector space. Although the volume Algèbre linéaire (1961) of the famous Bourbaki series “Eléments de Mathématique” begins with the definition of the… module. The theory is fundamental in many areas of mathematics: commutative algebra. II. algebraic number theory. module theory illustrates and uses concepts of category theory (we use some elementary notions from category theory in this chapter. Modules Module theory can be seen as a generalization of the classic linear algebra (which studies vector spaces over an arbitrary field1). notions that can be found in the Appendix). 1 58 . Module theory language and results are indispensable throughout most of modern algebra. homological algebra etc.

1 Modules. submodules. for any r. ∀r. i. The usual notation for the “scalar multiplication” in the case of right R-modules is “with the scalars on the right”. 1. Let R be a ring with identity (not necessarily commutative) and (M. This notational abuse (which is widely used) should not confuse the reader. i.1 Definition. The axioms for the right R-module become in this case: i') (x + y)r = xr + yr.e. . the scalar multiplication is a function µ : M × R → M. ∀r ∈ R. y ∈ M: i) r(x + y) = rx + ry. a function µ : R × M → M (notation: µ (r. r) = xr. ∀x ∈ M). If the axiom iii) is replaced by: iii') (rs)x = s(rx). For instance. 2 Also called “multiplication of elements in M with scalars in R”. homomorphisms 59 1. whereas the + in the RHS denotes the addition in R. The addition in R is denoted by + . in axiom ii). ∀x ∈ M. s ∈ R and x. iii) (rs)x = r(sx). the zero element in R is denoted by 0. iv') x1 = x. the + in the LHS denotes the addition in R.2 Remark. ii') x(r + s) = xr + xs. Also. s ∈ R. ii) (r + s)x = rx + sx. iii') x(rs) = (xr)s. We say that M is a left R-module (or left module over R) if there exists an “external operation on M with operators in R”2. ∀x ∈ M. x) =: rx. satisfying. we say that M is a right R-module. ∀r ∈ R. +) an Abelian group. like the zero element in M.e.II. iv) 1x = x. as the addition in M. with the notation µ (x.

*) is the opposite of the ring R (R and R have the same underlying Abelian group R. …. yn) = (x1 + y1. n (y1. …. where (R . yn) ∈ R .60 II. The n-fold Cartesian product n R = {(x1. If R is an arbitrary ring and M is a right R-module. then M becomes op op op a left R -module. R is canonically a right R-module. s ∈ R. ∀(x1. d) Let R be a ring and let n ∈ N*. The construction above shows that a result that holds for any ring R and any right R-module is valid also for any left R-module. For n ∈ Z and a ∈ A. If R is commutative. na = (−a) + … + (−a) (n terms)). In the same way. but the multiplicaop tion * in R is defined by r*s = sr. all definitions for left modules have a natural correspondent for right modules. c) Any Abelian group (A. denoted R R. xn). The theory of Abelian groups is thus a particular case of module theory. 1. a) If K is a field. namely R M. na is defined as the “multiple” of a in the additive group A (if n ∈ N. R has a (canonical) structure of left R-module. . “M is a right R-module” is denoted by MR. …. xn) + (y1. xn) | xi ∈ R. then the notions of left R-module and right R-module are the same (look at axiom iii'). Similarly. …. ∀r. a K-module is exactly a K-vector space. +) is canonically a Z-module. Indeed. denoted RR. This is the only external operation that endows A with a Z-module structure (exercise!). and conversely. +. b) If R is a ring with identity.3 Examples. xn + yn). s) & rs. 1 ≤ i ≤ n} becomes an R-module if the addition and the scalar multiplication are defined component-wise: (x1. ∀r. There is a handy notation for the fact that M is a left R-module. +) is an Abelian group. …. the “external operation” R × R → R is the ring multiplication: (r. …. y ∈ M. s ∈ R and x. Modules for any r. if n < 0. (R. na = a + … + a (n terms). s ∈ R).

M has a natural structure of left R-module: ∀A ∈ M2(Z) = R. ∀x ∈ M. f) Let R := M2(Z) (the ring of 2×2 matrices with entries in Z) and M := M2. homomorphisms n 61 r(x1. rxn). …. xn) ∈ R . + . and “◦” is the usual map composition: ∀u. ∀r ∈ R. If M is a left S-module. then M has a structure of left R-module by “restriction of scalars”: ∀r ∈ R. v ∈ End(M). 1(Z) (the Abelian group of 2×1 matrices with entries in Z). v ∈ End(M). the set Mm. defined as follows: “+” is homomorphism addition: ∀u.◦) is the endomorphism ring of the Abelian group M. r(aij) := (raij) (multiply every entry of the matrix with r). ∀U ∈ M2. (u◦v)(x) = u(v(x)).4 Remark. In particular. ∀(x1. AU ∈ M is the usual matrix product. where (End(M). ∀x ∈ M. ∀x ∈ M. like u(x). But 3 . 1. ….1 Modules. (u + v)(x) := u(x) + v(x).n(R) of m×n matrices with entries in R is an Abelian group endowed with usual matrix multiplication and becomes an R-module by defining the “multiplication of matrices with scalars”: for r ∈ R. e) If R is a ring and m. submodules. this forces the definition of the composition of functions in the “usual” manner defined above. For a ring R and an Abelian group M. rx := ϕ(r)x. emphasizing that the functions are written at the left of the argument. A = (aij) ∈ Mm. This example generalizes a situation often encountered in field extensions: any field S is a vector space over any subfield R. xn) = (rx1. Can you generalize this example? Can M be endowed with a “natural” structure of a right R-module ? g) Let ϕ : R → S be a unitary ring homomorphism. S becomes a left R-module (and also a right R-module). n(R). n ∈ N*. ….II. 3 Sometimes this ring is called the ring of left endomorphisms of M. defining a left R-module structure on M amounts to defining a unitary ring homomorphism λ : R → End(M). Checking the module axioms is straightforward and it boils down to the known properties of matrix operations. 1(Z) = M.

b) 0 = r0 = r(x + (−x)) = rx + r(−x). ∀r ∈ R. Modules Indeed. +). the opposite of rx in (M. All modules are left R-modules (unless specified otherwise). Since M is a group. define λ : R → End(M) by λ(r)(x) = rx. R denotes a ring with identity. we have: a) 0x = r0 = 0. if one writes (x)u for the value of u at x. What corresponds to a structure of right R-module of M? Throughout this section. The fact that L is a right R-submodule of M is written L ≤ MR. Let M be an R-module. b) r(−x) = (−r)x = −(rx). is r(−x). ∀x ∈ L ⇒ rx ∈ L. ii) ∀r ∈ R.62 II. x) & rx := λ(r)(x). y ∈ L ⇒ x − y ∈ L. if M is a left R-module. So −(rx). simpler. Usually one says L is a submodule of M if no confusions can occur. +): ∀x. End(M) is called the ring of right endomorphisms of M and it is the opposite of the ring of left endomorphisms of M.5 Proposition. ∀x ∈ M. ∀r ∈ R. define scalar multiplication R × M → M by (r. 1. (x)(uv) = ((x)u)v. ∀x ∈ M. A non-empty subset L of M is called left R-submodule of M if i) L is a subgroup in (M. The reader should check the details. given λ : R → End(M). The. a) Let M be a left R-module. for any x ∈ M and r ∈ R. a) 0x = (0 + 0)x = 0x + 0x. With this multiplication. ! We define the natural notion of submodule: 1. Conversely. Proof. then the composition of u and v is defined as . L ≤ M ). by simplification we deduce that 0x = 0.6 Definition. The same method shows r0 = 0. Notation: L ≤ R M (or.

b)⇒c) Induction on n (exercise). Let M be an R-module and ∅ ≠ L ⊆ M. submodules.II. b) The left submodules of the canonical module R R are exactly the left ideals of the ring R. Thus. is called a proper submodule of M. the notation I ≤ R R means “I is a left ideal of R”. a Z-submodule of M is the same thing with a subgroup of M. y ∈ L. denoted simply by 0.7 Proposition. b) For any r. xn (r1. xn ∈ L. ! Proof. a) For any R-module M. 1. x1. c) For any n ∈ N*. +).…. s ∈ R and x. Since any submodule L of a module M is a subgroup of the additive group (M. rn ∈ R. not equal to M. then rx + 0y = rx ∈ L and 1x + (− 1)y = x − y ∈ L. A submodule of M. M is an R-submodule of M. then a) implies that rx and (−s)y ∈ L. r1. rn are called the coefficients of the linear combination). . b)⇒a) If r ∈ R and x. it follows that rx + sy ∈ L. Also. xn ∈ M. Also. y ∈ L. L has a structure of left R-module: the external operation is the restriction at R × L of the external operation of M. y ∈ L. 1. ∀x. rn ∈ R and x1. we have 0 ∈ L. …. so L contains also rx − (−s)y = rx − (−sy) = rx + sy. s ∈ R and x. L ≤ R M iff any linear combination of elements in L is still in L.8 Examples. …. {0} is an R-submodule in M. ! An element of the form r1x1 +… + rnxn. if L ≤ RM. it follows that r1x1 +… + rnxn ∈ L. with r1. y ∈ L ⇒ x − y ∈ L and rx ∈ L). The following statements are equivalent: a) L ≤ RM: (∀r ∈ R.…. ….1 Modules. c) If M is an Abelian group (= Z-module). …. homomorphisms 63 The definition above is the natural generalization of the notion of vector subspace. a)⇒ b) If r. is called a linear combination of x1.

one says also that X is a system of generators for L (or that X generates L).9 Proposition. is a submodule of M. Modules 1. Let M be an R-module and X ⊆ M. If L ≤ R M and < X > = L. If L is a submodule in M that includes X. b) Define the set of linear combinations of elements in X with coefficients in R as the set RX. So X ⊆ RX. So. a) Evidently. ! 1. Let (Mi)i∈I be a family of submodules of RM.c) implies RX ⊆ L.11 Proposition. rn ∈ R.10 Definition. ∩ i∈I Mi . then < X > ⊆ L because L is a member of the family of submodules the intersection of which is L. ! This simple result allows us to define the notion of submodule generated by a subset: 1. x = 1x ∈ RX. < X > is a submodule and includes X.12 Definition. …. b) < X > = RX. The case X = ∅ is trivial. a) The intersection of all submodules of M that include X is a submodule of M. xn ∈ X}. the submodule generated by {a} is Ra = {ra | r ∈ R} and it is also called the cyclic submodule . Then: a) < X > is the smallest (inclusion-wise) submodule of M that includes X. Proof. …. The difference of two linear combinations in RX and the product of any r ∈ R with a linear combination is still in RX. 1. 1. If X = ∅. where RX := {r1x1 + … + rnxn| n ∈ N.7. If X ≠ ∅ and x ∈ X. that is.64 II. b) We show that X ⊆ RX and that RX is the smallest submodule that includes X. For any a ∈ RM. define R∅ = {0}. RX is a submodule. the submodule generated by X is the same as the set of linear combinations of elements in X with coefficients in R. Then the intersection of this family. called the submodule generated by X and denoted by R < X > (or simply < X >). If L is a submodule that includes X. Let M be an R-module and let X be a subset of M. r1. then x is a linear combination. x1.

1 Modules. a finite subset F of M such that < F > = M. E + F is just another notation for < E ∪ F >. Proof.e. Thus. f ∈ F}. A straightforward verification shows that S is a submodule. Let M be an R-module and let E. we introduce the following notion: for a set I (seen as a set of indexes). en ∈ En}. …. ∀f ∈ F. F be submodules in M. the union of a family of submodules is not a submodule in general. The sum of the submodules E1. an R-module M . then e + f ∈ L. homomorphisms 65 generated by a. the submodule generated by ∪i∈I Ei is called the sum of the family of submodules (Ei)i∈I. denoted ∑i∈I Ei or ∑I Ei. If L is a submodule containing E and F. F are submodules of RM. En is denoted E1 + … + En or ∑ Ei . 1. Thus. S ⊆ L and S is the smallest submodule including E ∪ F. a) Let S := {e + f | e ∈ E. 1. then the sum of E and F is E + F = {e + f | e ∈ E. ∀e ∈ E.13 Definition. i. a) If E.14 Proposition.II. submodules. For an arbitrary family (Ei)i∈I of submodules of M. The R-module M is called finitely generated if there exists a finite system of generators for M. b) If E1. then E1 + … + En = {e1 + … + en | e1 ∈ E1. The submodule generated by E ∪ F is called the sum of the submodules E and F. and is denoted E + F. f ∈ F}. En are submodules of M. …. ! In order to formulate a similar result for the case of the sum of an arbitrary (possibly infinite) family of submodules. i =1 n The sum of the family of submodules (Ei)i∈I is the smallest submodule of M including all submodules Ei. …. While the intersection of a family of submodules is a submodule.

Let S = {∑ e i∈I i ei ∈ Ei .16 Remark. and inf F = ∩F. So S = < ∪i∈I Ei>. in ∈ I . 1. Note that a “family (ei)i ∈ I of elements of M” is in fact a function f : I → M . 1. its sum is defined as ∑i∈I ei := ∑i∈J ej. furthermore. ∀i ∈ I . ( ei )i∈I having finite support = } {∑ e i∈I i ei ∈ Ei . ⊆) is a complete lattice: 5 for any subset F of LR(M) (i. define the support of the family (denoted Supp((ei)i∈I)): Supp((ei)i∈I) := {i ∈ I | ei ≠ 0} For any family (ei)i∈I having finite support J ⊆ I. clearly Ei ⊆ S. ∀i ∈ I. 5 An ordered set A is called a complete lattice if.… .… . Modules and a family of elements4 (ei)i∈I. i∈I } As above. if e. and Supp(ei)i∈I finite. On the other hand. Likewise. since Ei i∈I is a submodule. ei1 ∈ Ei1 .66 II. ∀i ∈ I. Proof. with ei ∈ M. If L is another submodule of M that in! cludes all submodules Ei.e. ∀i ∈ I. we show that S is a submodule: if r ∈ R. then S ⊆ L. then re = ∑ rei ∈ S. with ei ∈ Ei. f ∈ S. The set LR(M) of all submodules of the R-module M is ordered by inclusion. sup F is the sum of the family F.15 Proposition. and e = ∑ ei ∈ S. ∀i ∈ I . i1 . then ∑ i∈I Ei = = {ei1 + … + ein n ∈ '.. 4 (denoting f (i) = ei. for any B ⊆ A. there exists sup B (the smallest upper bound of B) and inf B (the largest lower bound of B) in A. ( ei )i∈I having finite support . then e − f ∈ S. (LR(M). ∀i ∈ I ). any family of submodules of M). ein ∈ Ein } . If (Ei)i∈I is a family of submodules of M.

Proof.II. ∀i ∈ I. Take a chain (Ei)i∈I. 1. P is ordered by inclusion. The submodule L ≤ M is called a minimal submodule if L is minimal among the nonzero submodules: ∀E ≤ R M with E ≠ 0. for some i. E ⊆ L implies E = L.18 Definition. First. If R is a field. 1. This chain of submodules is bounded above in P by ∪i∈I Ei =: E. submodules.: ∀E ≤ R M with E ≠ M. Let P be the set of proper submodules of M that include L. its maximal elements (if they exist!) are exactly the maximal submodules of M that include L. Indeed. For this reason. i. x ∈ Ei and y ∈ Ej.e. J of the left canonical module R R is the same with the sum of the left ideals I and J. note that P ≠ ∅ since L ∈ P. Here is a (singular) situation when the union of a family of submodules is a submodule. y ∈ E. Let M be a nonzero finitely generated R-module. We use Zorn's lemma to prove that maximal elements exist in P. the submodules of an R-module M are the vector subspaces of M “sum of submodules” means “sum of vector subspaces”. The lattice LR(M) always has a greatest element (M itself) and a smallest element (the submodule 0). j ∈ I. E is a submodule6: if x. homomorphisms 67 1. The sum of the submodules I. L ≠ M and let {x1. the notions of maximal submodule and minimal submodule are defined as follows.19 Theorem.1 Modules. then. L ⊆ E implies L = E. Then any proper submodule of M is included in some maximal submodule. xn} be a finite generator set of M. The following theorem is very important. …. Let L ≤ R M. with Ei ∈ P. The submodule L of the R-module M is called a maximal submodule if L is maximal among the proper (distinct from M) submodules. 6 .17 Remark. M has a maximal submodule. In particular.

the existence of a maximal submodule in M is proven. ∀x ∈ E. Then every left proper ideal of R is included in some maximal left ideal. German mathematician. Zorn's Lemma provides us with a maximal element of P. An R-module homomorphism ϕ : M → M is called an endomorphism of M. so. …. We deduce M = < x1. xn > ⊆ Ej. ∀r ∈ R. linear transformation 8 . We must also prove that E ≠ M.68 II. x − y ∈ E.20 Corollary (Krull's Lemma 7 ) Let R be a ring with identity. Modules (Ei)i∈I being a chain. xn} ⊆ Ej. ∀r ∈ R. Anyway. ∀x. …. in} such that Eit ⊆ Ej. . …. Taking L = 0. ∀x ∈ M. we have Ei ⊆ Ej or Ej ⊆ Ei. R has a maximal left ideal. ! 1. ϕ(rx) = rϕ(x). E ≤ M and E includes L. we have rx ∈ E. ∀t ∈ {1. there exists it ∈ I such that xt ∈ Eit . ∀t ∈ {1. Proof. so ∃j ∈ {i1. Other names: R-linear application. 1. A function ϕ : M → N is called a left R-module homomorphism (or simply module homomorphism) or R-homomorphism if it preserves the module operations: ϕ(x + y) = ϕ(x) + ϕ(y). R-morphism. So. Let M and N be left R-modules. So x − y ∈ Ej (because Ej ≤ R M) or x − y ∈ Ei. …. The canonical left R-module R R is finitely generated (by ! {1}). n}. A geometric terminology. xn} ⊆ E = ∪i∈I Ei. n}. 7 8 Wolfgang Adolf Ludwig Helmuth Krull (1899-1971). Then {x1. Thus {x1. y ∈ M. …. Suppose E = M. used mainly for vector space homomorphisms.21 Definition. In particular. Similarly. …. contradicting Ej ≠ M (since Ej ∈ P). But (Ei)i∈I is a chain.

We denote sometimes: Hom(R M. is also a homomorphism. 1. N). submodules. If L has an R-module structure such that the canonical inclusion ι : L → M is a module homomorphism. we denote HomR(M.1 Modules. homomorphisms 69 The first condition in the definition of the module homomorphism ϕ : M → N means that ϕ is an Abelian group homomorphism. b ∈ R. the “multiplication by x”. EndR(M) := HomR(M.II. The identity application idM : M → M. respectively End(R M) . Let L ⊆ M. For any R-modules M. ∀a. N. . rx(ba) = (ba)x = b(ax) = brx(a). Indeed. ∀x ∈ M. 0(x) = 0. λr : M → M. then L ≤ M. ϕ(0) = 0 (0 denotes the zero element of M. Conversely. Also: ϕ(− x) = − ϕ(x). the identity homomorphism of M. is a module homomorphism. 0 : M → N. rx(a + b) = (a + b)x = ax + bx = rx(a) + rx(b). ϕ is an R-module homomorphism}. ∀a ∈ R.24 Definition. 1. ∀a ∈ R. ∀x ∈ M. if L ≤ M. Note that the commutativity of R is effectively used. then ι : L → M is a module homomorphism. ∀x ∈ M. ∀x ∈ M. a) For any R-modules M and N. 1. then the “multiplication by r”.22 Remark. rx : R R → M defined by rx(a) = ax. Thus. called the zero homomorphism. N) := {ϕ | ϕ : M → N. c) If R is commutative ring and r ∈ R. is a homomorphism: it is obviously additive and λr(ax) = r(ax) = (ra)x = (ar)x = a(rx) = aλr(x). ∀x ∈ M. is an R-module homomorphism. M).for left modules. idM(x) = x.23 Examples. b) If M is an R-module and x ∈ M. as well as the zero element of N ). λr(x) = rx.

Moreover. Then the restriction of ψ to ! E. rn ∈ R such that x = r1x1 + … + rnxn. ∀x ∈ E. 0(x) = 0. As a consequence. HomR(M. it contains at least the zero homomorphism 0 : M → N. Then ϕ = ψ iff ϕ|S = ψ|S. If x ∈ E. HomR(M. ∀x ∈ M. respectively End(MR) . the unity element being the identity homomorphism idE.25 Remark. (EndR(E). …. is an R-module homomorphism.ψ|E : E → G. Let E. . Modules Hom(MR. Suppose ϕ|S = ψ|S.27 Proposition. a) Let E. b) Let E. F be R-modules. F. c) Let E be a submodule of the R-module F and let ψ : F → G be an R-module homomorphism. ϕ(x) = ϕ(r1x1 + … + rnxn) = r1ϕ(x1) + … + rnϕ(xn) = ! r1ψ(x1) + … + rnψ(xn) = ψ(x). HomR(E.26 Proposition. A homomorphism is perfectly determined by its values on a generating set: 1. ψ : E → F module homomorphism. Proof. …. the opposite of ϕ is (−ϕ). ψ : F → G be R-module homomorphisms. Then their composition ψ ◦ϕ : E → G is also an R-module homomorphism. + . So. is an R-module homomorphism. N). Then the sum ϕ +η : E → F. F) is an Abelian group with respect to homomorphism addition. N) is an Abelian group with respect to homomorphism addition. S a system of generators of E and ϕ.70 II. N) is always nonempty. there exist x1. ∀x ∈ E. (−ϕ)(x) = −ϕ(x). η : E → F be R-module homomorphisms.for right modules. defined below: 1. xn ∈ S and r1. 1. G be R-modules and let ϕ : E → F. the zero element is the 0 homomorphism. F be R-modules and let ϕ : E → F. defined by: (ϕ +η)(x) := ϕ(x) + η(x). ◦) is a ring.

∀y ∈ F. homomorphisms 71 1. In particular. 1. ψ(ry) = rψ(y). since ϕ(x1 + x2) = ϕ(x1) + ϕ(x2) = y1 + y2. Let ϕ : M → N be an R-module homomorphism. So. Kerϕ is a submodule of M. Consider the subset of M defined by: −1 Kerϕ := {x ∈ M |ϕ(x) = 0} = ϕ (0) Kerϕ is called the kernel of ϕ. Then the inverse of the map ϕ exists. N' ≤ N. where x is the unique element in E with ϕ(x) = y. ! 1. If ϕ : M → N is an R-module homomorphism −1 and M' ≤ M.28 Definition. Recall that. An isomorphism ϕ : E → E is called an automorphism of E. so it is a bijection. and Imϕ is a submodule of N. Suppose ϕ is a bijective homomorphism. then it is an invertible map. ψ(y) = x. −1 Proof. then ϕ(rx) = rϕ(x) ∈ N'. Let x. If ϕ is an isomorphism. Let Imϕ denote the image of ϕ: Imϕ := {y ∈ N| ∃x ∈ M such that y = ϕ(x)} = {ϕ(x)| x ∈ M}. 1. Let ϕ : E → F be a homomorphism. ∀r ∈ R. ψ : F → E. and ϕ(M) is a submodule of N.II. An R-module homomorphism is an isomorphism iff it is bijective. Let y1. y ∈ ϕ (N'). ∀y ∈ F.30 Definition. Then ϕ(x − y) = ϕ(x) − ϕ(y) ∈ N'. We must prove that ψ is a homomorphism. An R-module homomorphism ϕ : E → F is called an R-module isomorphism if there exists a homomorphism ψ : F → E such that ϕ ◦ψ = idF and ψ ◦ϕ = idE. We write in this case E ≅ R F (or E ≅ F if it is clear that it is an R-module isomorphism ). If r ∈ R.29 Proposition.31 Proposition. x2 ∈ E such that ψ(y1) = x1 and ψ(y2) = x2. We have ψ(y1 + y2) = x1 + x2.1 Modules. Similarly. then ϕ (N') is a submodule of M. ψ(y1 + y2) = x1 + x2 = ψ(y1) + ψ(y2). submodules. The R-modules E and F are called isomorphic if there exists an R-module isomorphism ϕ : E → F. so −1 −1 x − y ∈ ϕ (N'). so rx ∈ ϕ (N') . y2 ∈ F and x1. Proof.

associativity. Prove that the commutativity of the addition of a module is a consequence of the other axioms of the definition of the module. B. and ! rz = rϕ(x) = ϕ(rx) ∈ ϕ(M'). . 5. Modules Let z. e) The set of all polynomials of even degree. 1. b) The set of all polynomials of degree at most 7. 2. Which of the following subsets of the K-module K[X] is a K-submodule? a) The set of all polynomials of degree 7. Let ϕ : M → N be an R-module homomorphism. Let M be an R-module. t = ϕ(y).32 Proposition. ! b) ϕ is surjective iff Imϕ = N. then A∩(B + C) = B + A∩C (one says that LR(M ) is a modular lattice). c) The set of all monic polynomials. We have z − t = ϕ(x) − ϕ(y) = ϕ(x − y) ∈ ϕ(M'). C ≤ M. Which of the sets above is a K[X]-submodule? 3. Show that E ∪ F is a submodule of M iff E ⊆ F or F ⊆ E. Let M be an R-module and let A. If B ≤ A.72 II. Let K be a field. Then there exist x. 4. t ∈ ϕ(M') and r ∈ R. d) The set of all polynomials of degree 1 that have the root 1. Exercises 1. Then: a) ϕ is injective iff Kerϕ = 0. Let E and F be submodules of the R-module M. existence of neutral elements…). distributivity. y ∈ M' such that z = ϕ(x). Study the properties of the operations + and ∩ on LR(M ) (such as commutativity.

11. A. −1 −1 −1 d) u (A' ∩ B') = u (A') ∩ u (B'). for any R M. submodules. for any R M. Let (G. M. (Hint. c) The translation by the vector v = (x. M) ≅ M. Determine all submodules of the R-module R . −1 −1 −1 c) u (A' + B') = u (A') + u (B'). M') ⊆ HomZ(M. LR(M ) is not distributive). B. 13. Study the validity of the statements: a) u(A + B) = u(A) + u(B). Then G has a canonical structure of Zn-module. 12.1 Modules. b) u(A ∩ B) = u(A) ∩ u(B). b) The rotation of angle α around (0. let M be a left R-module S and let S be a set. d) The symmetry with respect to a line. +) be an Abelian group and n ∈ N* such that na = 0. Let R be a ring. 7. Which of the following transformations of the plane is a linear 2 2 transformation (an R-module homomorphism) from R to R ? a) The rotation of angle α around (0. Define a left S R-module structure on R . HomR(M. 1). ∀a ∈ G.. More generally. Try a vector space.II. seen as an R-vector space. y). Give examples of R. Identify the Euclidian plane with R . e) The projection on a line. HomR(R. S 2 2 . More generally. 0). let S be a set and R := {ϕ : S → R}. M' such that the inclusion is strict. R M'. M'). homomorphisms 73 6.e. 10. Show that EndR(R) ≅ R. Is the converse true? Generalization. B ≤ R M and A'. C ≤ M such that A∩(B + C) ≠ A∩B + A∩C (i. Let R be a ring. Let R be a commutative ring. Define a left R-module structure on M = {ϕ : S → M}. Let u : M → M' be an R-module homomorphism.) 8. 9. B' ≤ R M'. Show that. Give an example of a module M and A.

A) = 0. Show that R[X] is not a finitely generated R-module. Which is the general form of such a homomorphism? Generalization. so we can construct the factor group M/L. Let R be a commutative ring. Give examples of an R-module M and of an endomorphism ϕ : M → M such that: a) ϕ is injective. ∀RB ⇔ HomR(B. Find necessary and sufficient conditions for n {v1. Write 4 distinct homomorphisms from the R-module R to R. inherited from the R-module structure on M. but not surjective. B) = 0. vin). 18. b) ϕ is surjective. ∀RB. L is a subgroup in M. 16. Modules 14. Then: u is injective ⇔ u is surjective ⇔ u is an isomorphism. Considering only the Abelian group structure on M. vn ∈ K .2 Factor modules and the isomorphism theorems The method used to construct the factor ring (given a ring and an ideal in the ring) can be applied to modules. …. which is also an Abelian group. …. The Abelian group M/L can be endowed with a natural R-module structure. Let V be a finite dimensional K-vector space and let u ∈ EndK(V).74 II. 2 n II. 20. 17. with minor modifications. …. where vi = (vi1. vn} to be a system of generators for the K-module K . Let A be an R-module. . but not injective. Let K be a field. Does the Z-module Q have minimal submodules? 19. 15. Prove that A = 0 ⇔ HomR(A. n ∈ N* and v1. Let M be a left R-module and let L be a submodule in M.

A routine exercise shows that M/L becomes a left R-module. i. ∀l ∈ L). − (x + L) = (− x) + L. the neutral element is 0 + L (equal to l + L. rx + L = ry + L. ∀r.2 Factor modules and the isomorphism theorems 75 We briefly recall the construction of the factor group M/L. the set {y ∈ M | x ∼ y (mod L)} is x + L.1 Definition. An easy check shows that this is indeed an equivalence relation and that the equivalence class of x ∈ M. ∀x ∈ M. π(x) = x + L. rx − ry ∈ L. y ∈ M : x ∼ y (mod L) ⇔ x − y ∈ L. The R-module M/L defined above is called the factor module of M with respect to L. Thus. is a surjective module homomorphism. The map π : M → M/L. y ∈ M. Getting back to the module case. ∀x + L ∈ M/L. define an external operation R × (M/L) → M/L: ∀r ∈ R. with x + L = y + L. For instance. so r(x − y) ∈ L (since L ≤ R M). set r(x + L) := rx + L. s ∈ R. where x + L := {x + l |l ∈ L} (called “the class of x modulo L”) Define now the set M/L as the set of all equivalence classes: M/L = {x + L | x ∈ M} Make M/L into an Abelian group by putting: (x + L) + (y + L) := (x + y) + L. +) is an Abelian group. .II.e. One proves that: the operation above is well defined (it does not depend on the representatives of the classes modulo L) and (M/L. Define on M the equivalence relation (also called “modulo L congruence”) by: ∀x. ∀x.e. ∀x ∈ M. then x − y ∈ L. ∀x ∈ M: (r + s)(x + L) = (r + s)x + L = (rx + sx) + L = (rx + L) + (sx + L) = r(x + L ) + s(x + L). This definition is correct: if r ∈ R and x. called the canonical homomorphism or the canonical surjection. y ∈ M. 2. i.

We remark that ϕ(A) = π(A). If B ≤ R M/L. . …. m + nZ. The following notions are general concepts in category theory. through the canonical homomorphism π : M → M/L.76 II. m|n}. Modules 2. then π (B) = {x ∈ M | x + L ∈ B} is a sub−1 module of M that includes L. L ⊆ A. ϕ(A) := {a + L | a ∈ A}. ϕ ◦u = ϕ ◦v implies u = v. a) ϕ is called a monomorphism if. b) ϕ is called an epimorphism if. So. for any R A and any homomorphisms u. m|n}. Let M be an R-module and let L be a submodule.5 Definition. Also. ! The rest of the proof is left to the reader. which are {mZ | m ∈ N. (n/m − 1)m + nZ}. given by ϕ : {A ≤ R M | L ⊆ A} → LR(M/L). any submodule is the kernel of some homomorphism. v : N → A. ϕ is surjective. Let ϕ : M → N be an R-module homomorphism. mZ/nZ = < m + nZ > is the unique submodule having n/m elements in Z/nZ:{0 + nZ. Let n ∈ N. Proof. Then there is a natural one-to-one increasing map between the lattice of the submodules of M that include L and the lattice of submodules of M/L. L(Z/nZ) = {mZ/nZ | m ∈ N. So. 2. the image. of the submodule A. for any R A and any homomorphisms u. Let us find the submodules of the Z-module Z/nZ (also known as Zn). To mZ ⊇ nZ corresponds mZ/nZ ≤ Z/nZ. ∀A ≤ R M. 2. and ϕ(π (B)) = B.4 Example. then Kerπ = {x ∈ M | x + L = 0 + L} = L and Imπ = M/L. The above says that L(Z/nZ) is in one-to-one correspondence to the submodules of Z that include nZ. So. So. v : A → M.2 Examples. If L ≤ R M and π : M → M/L is the canonical homomorphism. u◦ϕ = v◦ϕ implies u = v. −1 ϕ(A) ≤ R M/L. applied to the category R-Mod of the left R-modules: 2.3 Proposition.

(The fundamental isomorphism theorem) Let M ϕ : M → N be an R-module homomorphism. y ∈ M are such that x + Kerϕ = y + Kerϕ.7 Theorem. M) such that ϕ◦u = ϕ◦v. For any a ∈ Kerϕ. ∀a ∈ A. Checking that ψ is a homomorphism is simple. there exists a unique isomorphism ψ : M/Kerϕ → Imϕ such that the following diagram is commutative: M ⎯ϕ ⎯→ N π ↓ ↑ι ψ ⎯→ Im ϕ M Kerϕ ⎯ i. where ι is the inclusion and π is the canonical surjection. we deduce u(a) = v(a). This means N/Imϕ = 0⇔N = Imϕ. The converse is left to the reader. ∀x ∈ M. So. Consider the factor module N/Imϕ and π : N → N/Imϕ (canonical surjection) and 0 : N → N/Imϕ.6 Proposition. Proof. then x − y ∈ Kerϕ ⇔ ϕ(x − y) = 0 ⇔ ϕ(x) = ϕ(y). but only on the equivalence class x + Kerϕ. Kerϕ More precisely. π ◦ϕ = 0◦ϕ. a) Suppose ϕ injective. Since ϕ is injective. v ∈ HomR(A. ι = 0 ⇔ Kerϕ = 0. Thus. Consider ι : Kerϕ → M the inclusion homomorphism and 0 : Kerϕ → M the zero homomorphism. So. ψ : M/Kerϕ → Imϕ is well defined: if x. so. Suppose now ϕ is a monomorphism and let A = Kerϕ. ϕ ◦ι(a) = ϕ(a) = 0 = ϕ ◦0(a).e. ϕ(u(a)) = ϕ(v(a)).e. Let R A and u. we show that Kerψ = {0 + Kerϕ}: if x ∈ M . We have π ◦ϕ (x) = ϕ(x) + Imϕ = 0 + Imϕ = 0◦ϕ (x).2 Factor modules and the isomorphism theorems 77 2. b) Let ϕ be an epimorphism. For the injectivity. Proof. ∀x ∈ M.II. Then ≅ Imϕ. ψ is given by ψ(x + Kerϕ) = ϕ(x). i. ψ(x + Kerϕ) does not depend on x. b) ϕ is an epimorphism if and only if ϕ is surjective. Then: a) ϕ is a monomorphism if and only if ϕ is injective. π = 0. ϕ = ι ◦ψ ◦π. ψ is surjective: Imψ = {ψ(x + Kerϕ)| x ∈ M} = {ϕ(x)| x ∈ M} = Imϕ. ! 2. Let ϕ : M → N be a homomorphism.

algebras. ∀x ∈ M. ⇔ x + Kerϕ = 0 + Kerϕ. ! then. Also.78 II. It easy to see that ϕ is a surjective module homomorphism. ∀x ∈ F. with x + E = y + E. A typical use for the isomorphism theorem is as follows: suppose B ≤ R A and we want to prove that A/B ≅ C. F ≤ M such that E ⊆ F. E E∩F Proof. ϕ(x) = x + E. Let R M and E. One looks for a surjective homomorphism ϕ : A → C. Modules with ψ(x + Kerϕ) = 0. ϕ(x + E) = x + F. Let ϕ : M/E → M/F. Then F/E is a submodule of M/E and: M E M ≅ (R-module isomorphism). x − y ∈ F and x + F = y + F. ϕ is surjective: ∀(e + f ) + E ∈ (E + F)/E. rings. So. The mapping ϕ is a module homomorphism. Since F/E = {x + E | x ∈ F}. ι ◦ψ ◦π (x) = ψ(x + Kerϕ) = ϕ(x). F ≤ R M. η(x + Kerϕ) = ιηπ(x) = ϕ(x). Kerϕ = {x + E | x ∈ M. so x ∈ Kerϕ. Let R M and E. 2. The isomorphism theorem provides then the required isomorphism. Then E+F F ≅ . so η = ψ. If η : M/Kerϕ → Imϕ is a homomorphism such that ϕ = ι ◦η ◦π. F E F Proof. F/E ⊆ M/E = {x + E | x ∈ M}. . being the restriction of the canonical homomorphism E + F → (E + F)/E to the submodule F of E + F. ! 2. ∀x ∈ M. then x − y ∈ E. with Kerϕ = B. then ϕ(x) = 0. with e ∈ E. The following corollaries illustrate this technique (which is used also for groups. Let ϕ : F → (E + F)/E. f ∈ F. Moreover.8 Remark. Apply now the fundamental isomorphism theorem.10 Corollary. (e + f ) + E = f + E = ϕ( f ). The map ϕ is well defined: if x.9 Corollary. ∀x ∈ M. x + F = 0 + F} = F/E. …). y ∈ M. 2.

∀x ∈ E.e. Since ϕ is surjective. then x − x' ∈ Kerϕ ⊆ Kerψ. x ∈ Kerϕ. η = η'. so ϕ(x) = y = 0. The definition is independent on the choice of x ∈ E with ϕ(x) = y. E⎯ ⎯→ F ψ η ϕ G Proof. there exists x ∈ E with ϕ(x) = y. so.! The following result is often used in module theory arguments: 2. G) has the property that η'◦ϕ = ψ. Then η(ϕ(x)) = 0. If Kerϕ ⊆ Kerψ. x' ∈ E such that ϕ(x) = ϕ(x') = y. b) η is injective if and only if Kerϕ = Kerψ. Suppose now that Kerϕ = Kerψ and take y ∈ F with η(y) = 0. η(ϕ(x)) = ψ(x) = 0. ! . so ϕ(x) = 0. η(ϕ(x)) = ψ(x). i. Also. Indeed. Apply the fundamental isomorphism theorem. which means x ∈ Kerψ. then: a) “ψ factorizes through ϕ”: there exists a unique homomorphism η : F → G such that ψ = η ◦ϕ . Then ∃x ∈ E with ϕ(x) = y. Since ϕ is surjective. with ϕ surjective.11 Proposition. ∀x ∈ E. Define η(y) := ψ(x). b) Suppose η is injective.2 Factor modules and the isomorphism theorems 79 Kerϕ = {x ∈ F | x + E = 0 + E} = {x ∈ F | x ∈ E} = E ∩ F. if x.II. Therefore Kerϕ = Kerψ. so ψ(x) = ψ(x'). If η´ ∈ HomR(F. Since Kerϕ = Kerψ. Let x ∈ E with ψ(x) = 0. x ∈ Kerϕ. then η(ϕ(x)) = η'(ϕ(x)). η is a homomorphism (standard check) and. Let ϕ : E → F and ψ : E → G be R-module homomorphisms. a) Let y ∈ F. we get F/(E ∩ F) ≅ (E + F)/E.

b) HomZ(Zm. Write all (up to isomorphism) simple Z-modules and all simple K[X]-modules. Z) = 0 and HomZ(Z. 4. Generalize the result. Zn) ≅ Zd. Let m.80 II. Modules Exercises 1. 7. 3. Show that there exists n n ∈ N and a surjective homomorphism ϕ : R → M. Prove that: a) HomZ(Zn. Prove that every R-module homomorphism u : M → N can be written as u = v◦w. +)? 6. where K is a field. Then there exists a canonical isomorphism M ϕ (M ) ≅ . n ∈ N*. Let M be a finitely generated R-module. Let m. Prove the following version of the fundamental isomorphism theorem: Let ϕ : M → N be an R-module homomorphism and let L ≤ R M such that Ker ϕ ⊆ L. L ϕ (L ) 8. if M is cyclic (generated by one element). Z8. where I is a maximal left ideal in R. Show that M is simple if and only if it is isomorphic to a module of the type R/I. Prove that every factor module of a finitely generated module is finitely generated. Determine all the submodules in: Z6. Deduce that. where d = GCD(m. then M is isomorphic to a R-module of the form R/I. . 5. 2. n ∈ N. Zn) ≅ Zn. where I ≤ R R. Z24. An R-module is called simple if it has no submodules other than zero or itself. where v is an injective homomorphism and w is a surjective homomorphism. +) has a Zn-module structure? Does there exist a Zn-module structure on (Z. n). Under what conditions the Abelian group (Zm.

Exact sequences The methods of constructing new structures (from a given collection of structures) are extremely important. x2) | x1 ∈ M1. together with the homomorphisms π1 and π2. x2) ∈ M1 × M2. rx2). ∀(x1. Let K be a field.) II. It is trivial to check the R-module axioms. x2). x2) := x2. Let ξ1. ∀(x1. X2 in T. x2) := x1 and π2(x1. x2) ∈ M1 × M2. S = K[Xn. y2) := (x1 + y1. x2 ∈ M2} is made into an Abelian group by defining: (x1. rings…) some of the most used constructions are the direct product and the direct sum. by: π1(x1. The homomorphisms π1 and π2 are called the canonical projections of the direct product . Exact sequences 81 9. x2) + (y1. The Abelian group M1 × M2 becomes a left R-module by defining: r(x1. x2 + y2). ∀ (x1. (y1. x2) := (rx1. We begin with the case of two R-modules M1 and M2. Then Tξ1∩Tξ2 is not a finitely generated T-module. ξ2 be the images of X1. ∀r ∈ R. The Cartesian product M1 × M2 = {(x1. n ∈ N] and T = S/I. where I is the ideal of S generated by {(X1 − X2)Xi | i ≥ 3}. M1 × M2 is in fact the direct product of the groups (M1. Is it true that any intersection of finitely generated submodules is a finitely generated submodule? (Hint. In the case of modules (and also groups. and The R-module M1 × M2. is called the direct product of M1 and M2. Define the homomorphisms π1 : M1 × M2 → M1 π2 : M1 × M2 → M2. y2) ∈ M1 × M2. +).3 Direct sums and products.II.3 Direct sums and products. +) and (M2.

likewise. there exists a unique homomorphism v : E → M1 × M2 such that v1 = π1◦v and v2 = π2◦v (the diagram below is commutative. Let v : E → M1 × M2 be a homomorphism with the required property. ! The construction above can be generalized for an arbitrary family (possibly infinite) of modules. then v(e) = (v1(e). ∀e ∈ E. v2(e)). g ∈ ∏i∈I Mi. v2 : E → M2. x2 = v2(e). The direct product satisfies the following universality property: 3.2}): 9 i M 1 × M 2 ⎯⎯→ M i π v E vi Proof. Define an operation of addition on ∏i∈I Mi by: ∀f. for i ∈ {1. Let I be a set (seen as a set of indices) and let (Mi)i∈I be a family of R-modules indexed by I.1 Theorem. (the universality property of the direct product) Let M1 and M2 be R-modules. We have x1 = π1(v(e)) = (π1◦v)(e) = v1(e) and.82 II. Let e ∈ E and suppose v(e) = (x1. An element f ∈ ∏i∈I Mi is usually written as (xi)i∈I or (xi)I (where we denoted f (i) = xi ∈ Mi. So. ∀i ∈ I). On the other hand. Then. 9 So. ∀i ∈ I}. v1 factorizes through π1 and v2 factorizes through π2. We prove first the uniqueness. x2) ∈ M1 × M2. ∀i ∈ I. if there exists v as required. the map v defined in this way is clearly a module homomorphism. . Modules M1 × M2. for any R-module E and any homomorphisms v1 : E → M1. Recall that the Cartesian product of this family is ∏i∈I Mi = { f : I → ∪i∈I Mi | f (i) ∈ Mi. ( f + g)(i) := f(i) + g(i).

∀f ∈ ∏i∈I Mi. (yi)I ∈ ∏i∈I Mi.2 Theorem. define the homomorphisms πj : ∏i∈I Mi→ Mj by: πj( f ) := f ( j). ∀i ∈ I. using the notation (xi)I : πj((xi)I) := xj. (Mi)i∈I. With the alternate notation: ∀r ∈ R. ∀(xi)I ∈ ∏i∈I Mi. Define the external operation: ∀r ∈ R. The direct product satisfies a universality property: 3. (rf )(i) := rf (i). which shows that r( f + g) = rf + rg. we have (r( f + g))(i) = r·( f + g)(i) = r( f (i) + g(i)) = rf (i) + rg(i) = (rf + rg)(i). ∀(xi)I.3 Direct sums and products. ∀i ∈ I. ∀f. For any j ∈ I. for any R-module E and any family of homomorphisms indexed by I. i ∈ I. Exact sequences 83 With the alternate notation: (xi)I + (yi)I := (xi + yi)I. i ∏i∈I M i ⎯⎯→ M i π v E vi . together with the family of homomorphisms (πi)i∈I. ∀f ∈ ∏i∈I Mi. there exists a unique homomorphism v : E → ∏i∈I Mi. ∀(xi)I ∈ ∏i∈I Mi. are called the canonical projec- The R-module ∏i∈I Mi. Then. ∏i∈I Mi is an Abelian group with respect to this operation.II. i ∈ I. such that vi = πi◦v. r(xi)I := (rxi)I. ∀i ∈ I. (the universality property of the direct product) Let (Mi)i∈I be family of R-modules. g ∈ ∏i∈I Mi. is called the direct product of the family of modules tions. vi : E → Mi. Proving that ∏i∈I Mi becomes an R-module with the operations above is routine: for instance. The homomorphisms πi. ∀r ∈ R.

the di- A remarkable fact is that the universality property of the direct product characterizes the direct product up to a unique isomorphism: 3. ∀e ∈ E. Suppose that an R-module P. i ∈ I. It is basically the same as for two modules. pi : P → Mi. ∀i ∈ I. then v(e)(i) = vi(e). then there exists a unique isomorphism ϕ : P → Q such that pi = qi ◦ϕ. In (U). The direct product of the family (Mi)i∈I is denoted also ×i∈I Mi. the notation is M1 ×…× Mn or I n ∏ M i . If the i =1 n elements). Proof. vi : E → Mi. Since Q satisfies also 10 This is exactly the universality property of the direct product. there exists a unique homomorphism v : E → P such that vi = pi◦v. We obtain a (unique) homomorphism ψ : Q → P such that qi = pi◦ψ. For any i ∈ I. i ∈ I. and the family of homomorphisms indexed by I. ∀i ∈ I. f (i) = πi( f ) = πi(v(e)) = (πi◦v)(e) = vi(e).3 Theorem. Modules Proof. Let (Mi)i∈I be a family of R-modules. Mn. Let e ∈ E and denote v(e) by f ∈ ∏i∈I Mi. together with the family of homomorphisms qi : Q → Mi. if such a homomorphism v exists. For a finite family M1. satisfies also property (U) above. ∀i ∈ I. …. v defined this ! n way is a module homomorphism. . satisfies the property: “For any R-module E and any family of homomorphisms indexed by I. having modules of the family (Mi)i∈I are all equal to some module M. On the other hand.” 10 (U) If the R-module Q. set E = Q and vi = qi.84 II. Suppose there exists a homomorphism v : E → ∏i∈I Mi with the desired property. So. rect product of the family is denoted by M (or M if I is finite. i ∈ I.

for any module E and any family of homomorphisms (vi)i∈I. there exists a unique homomorphism ϕ : P → Q. ! guaranteed by (U). (πi)i∈I). Exact sequences 85 (U).3 Direct sums and products. Dualizing (“reversing the arrows”) in the universality property of the direct product. one obtains the universality property of the direct sum (taken as a definition of this notion): 3.5 Definition. we get ϕ ◦ψ = idQ. vi : Mi → E.II. apply (U) for P with the homomorphisms (pi)i ∈ I. together with a family of homomorphisms (σi)i∈I. σi : Mi → S. An R-module S. the universality property above is taken as a definition of the direct product in a category C (replace “module” with “object in C” and “module homomorphism” with “morphism in C”). ∀i ∈ I. 3. Similarly. The direct product of a family of modules in C (if it exists) is uniquely determined up to an isomorphism: the proof of the proposition above is valid in any category. Theorem 3. there exists a unique homomorphism v : S → E such that v◦σi = vi. For this reason. By uniqueness.4 Remark.2 says that in R-Mod the direct product of an arbitrary family of objects (Mi)i∈I exists. ∀i ∈ I): i M i ⎯⎯→ S σ vi E v . namely (∏i∈I Mi. ∀i ∈ I. ϕ ◦ψ : Q → Q satisfies qi◦(ϕ ◦ψ) = (qi◦ϕ)◦ψ = pi◦ψ = qi. in this case) and homomorphisms. ∀i ∈ I (the diagram below is commutative. is called a direct sum of the family (Mi)i∈I if. Indeed. ψ ◦ϕ = idP. Let (Mi)i∈I be a family of R-modules. but the homomorphism idQ : Q → Q has the same property: qi◦idQ = qi. without involving any elements of the underlying sets of the modules. The universality property of the direct product is articulated only in terms of objects (modules. We show that ϕ and ψ are inverse one to each other. such that pi = qi◦ϕ.

Note that ∀(xi)I ∈ (i∈I Mi. (i∈I Mi := {f ∈ ∏i∈I Mi | Supp f is finite}. The canonical injections are indeed injective. we have (the sum is finite. if i = j and xi = 0. (σi)i∈I). where xi = f (i) ∈ Mi. For a fixed j ∈ I. if i ≠ j (σj(x))(i) := ⎨ . 3. in the definition above set E = Mj and vi : Mi → Mj defined as follows: vi = 0 if i ≠ j and vj = idMj. Modules The homomorphisms (σi)i∈I are called the canonical injections of the direct sum (S. Define. The homomorphism v : S → Mj. ⎩ x. so σj is injective. If f ∈ ∏i∈I Mi. Indeed. Consider the following subset of ∏i∈I Mi: the “family of elements” (xi)i∈I. which is finite). given by the definition.6 Remark. ∀i ∈ I. (xi)I = ∑i∈I σi(xi) . ∀j ∈ I. i ≠ j. by: ⎧0. The direct sum is also called coproduct (a categorical name. then Supp( f + g) ⊆ Supp f ∪ Supp g. i runs only on Supp((xi)I). the family (xi)i∈I has finite support. if σj(x) = (xi)i∈I. recall that the support of f is the set Supp f := {i ∈ I | f (i) ≠ 0}. satisfies v ◦σj = id. ∀j ∈ I. so f + g has finite support. If r ∈ R. then xj = x. emphasizing the duality with the product). if f. g ∈ (i∈I Mi. then Supp(rf ) ⊆ Supp f. ∀i ∈ I. We claim that (i∈I Mi is a submodule of ∏i∈I Mi. We now construct an object satisfying the definition of the direct sum. In other words. Identify f ∈ (i∈I Mi with σj : Mj → (i∈I Mi ∀x ∈ Mj. It is easy to check that σj is a homomorphism.86 II.

If we define v in this way. as in the case of the direct product. v(r(xi)I) = v((rxi)I) = ∑i∈I vi(rxi) = ∑i∈I rvi(xi) = r∑i∈I vi(xi) = rv((xi)I). (σi)i∈I) and is not the same with the direct product {∏i∈I Mi. Let (Mi)i∈I be a family of R-modules. ∀(xi)I ∈ (i∈I Mi. the module direct sum ⊕i∈I Mi = (i∈I Mi coincides with the module direct product ∏i∈I Mi in 3. ∀r ∈ R. 3. (πi)i∈I}. If the set of indices I is finite. is a direct sum of the family (Mi)i∈I. Let E be an R-module and let vi : Mi → E.7 Theorem. ∀i ∈ I. Mn. ⊕i∈I Mi is denoted by M (I) . the notation is M1 ⊕…⊕ Mn or ⊕ M i . the direct sum is a couple (⊕i∈I Mi.11). (i∈I Mi is sometimes called external direct sum. . As in the case of the direct product. (yi)I ∈ (i∈I Mi.II. ∀i ∈ I. v is indeed a homomorphism: ∀(xi)I. The reader is invited to formulate this precisely and prove it. the universality property characterizes the direct sum of a family of modules up to an isomorphism.8 Remark. This shows that the homomorphism v is uniquely determined by the condition v◦σi = vi. ∀i ∈ I.2. together with the homomorphisms (σi)i∈I. then. …. If the modules in i =1 n the family (Mi)i∈I are all equal to the same module M.! The module (i∈I Mi is often denoted ⊕i∈I Mi. If v : (i∈I Mi → E is a homomorphism with v◦σi = vi. In order to avoid the confusion with the notion of inter- nal direct sum of submodules (see 3. Exact sequences 87 3. For a finite family M1. Proof. Nevertheless. v((xi)I + (yi)I) = v((xi + yi)I) = ∑i∈I vi(xi + yi) = ∑i∈I vi(xi) +vi( yi) = v((xi)I) + v((yi)I).3 Direct sums and products. we have: v((xi)I) = v{∑i∈I σi(xi)} = ∑i∈I (v◦σi)(xi) = ∑i∈I vi(xi). Then the module (i∈I Mi.

9 Example. ∀i ∈ I. R[X] is ( ) isomorphic with the direct sum R N of a countable family of copies of R R. The following statements are equivalent: a) L is the external direct sum of the modules (Li)i∈I. ∀i ∈ I. such that ∑i∈I xi = 0. x = ϕ((xi)i∈I) = ϕ{∑i∈I σi(xi)} = ∑i∈I (ϕ ◦σi)(xi) = ∑i∈I ηi(xi) = ∑i∈I xi. having finite support. ⎜ i∈I \{ j} ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ d) For any family (xi)i∈I. Let L denote their sum. If (yi)i∈I is another family having finite support. and the (ηi)i∈I are the canonical injections. So. Proof. Modules 3. with (σi)i∈I the canonical injections. such that x = ∑i∈I xi. where Li are seen are modules by themselves can be also constructed.10 Proposition. ∀i ∈ I. with xi ∈ Li. there exists (xi)i∈I ∈ (i∈I Li such that ϕ((xi)i∈I) = x. with xi ∈ Li. having finite support. Let M be an R-module and let (Li)i∈I be a family of submodules of M. Let R be a commutative ring and let R[X] be the polynomial ring in the indeterminate X. (xi)i∈I = (yi)i∈I. L := ∑i∈I Li. Since ϕ is an isomorphism. xi ∈ Li. We defined the notion of sum of a family (Li)i∈I of submodules of R M. such that ∑i∈I xi = ∑i∈I yi. The direct sum of the family (Li)i∈I. a)⇒b) Let (i∈I Li be the direct sum constructed as in 3.88 II. let ϕ : (i∈I Li → L be the unique isomorphism with ϕ ◦σi = ηi. ∀i ∈ I. having finite support. Lj ∩ ⎜ ∑ Li ⎟ = 0. we have xi = 0. then ϕ((xi)i∈I) = ϕ((yi)i∈I). ∀i ∈ I. For any x ∈ L. with yi ∈ Li. which means that x is the sum of the family (xi)i∈I. As an R-module. there exists a unique family (xi)i∈I. b) For any x ∈ L. . When are these sums “the same”? 3.7. and let ηi : Li → L be the inclusion homomorphisms. ∀i ∈ I. ⎛ ⎞ c) For any j ∈ I.

xi ∈ Li. then (ϕ ◦ηj)(xj) = ϕ(xj) = vj(xj). Exact sequences 89 ⎛ ⎞ b)⇒c) Let xj ∈ Lj ∩ ⎜ ∑ Li ⎟ . where yi = xi. Then there exists a family of finite ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ i∈I \{ j} ⎠ support. we obtain that this family is unique: if ∑i∈I xi = ∑i∈I yi. So. ∀i ≠ j and yj = −xj. ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ i∈I \{ j} ⎠ d)⇒a) We show that (L. ϕ(x + y) = ∑i∈I vi(xi + yi) = ∑i∈I vi(xi) + ∑i∈I vi(yi) = ϕ(x) + ϕ(y). ∀x ∈ L. We must show that ϕ is unique with this property. c)⇒d) Let (xi)i∈I. yi ∈ Li.II. where (xi)i∈I is the unique family of finite support with xi ∈ Li. (yi)i∈I are the unique families of finite support with xi. ∀i ∈ I. ∀j ∈ I. ∀i ∈ I and such that x = ∑i∈I xi. there exists a family of finite support (xi)i∈I (xi ∈ Li. The map ϕ thus defined is an R-module homomorphism: if x. Let . Similarly one sees that ϕ(rx) = rϕ(x). (ηi)i∈I) satisfies the definition 3.3 Direct sums and products. which shows that ϕ ◦ηj = vj. be such that ∑i∈I xi = 0. such that x = ∑i∈I xi. 0 is the sum of the family (0)i∈I). If j ∈ I and xj ∈ Lj. and x = ∑i∈I xi. From d). xj = 0. xj = 0. Let RE and let a family of homomorphisms (vi)i∈I. If x ∈ L. ∀i ∈ I. ⎛ ⎞ Then xj ∈ Lj. y ∈ L. So. Since 0 has a unique writing as a sum of a finite support family (evidently. ∀i ∈ I. put ϕ(x) := ∑i∈I vi(xi). and (xi)i∈I. Define the homomorphism ϕ : L → E by: ∀x ∈ L. ∀r ∈ R. we obtain xi = 0. ∀i ∈ I). vi : Mi → E. y = ∑i∈I yi. then x + y = ∑i∈I xi + ∑i∈I yi = ∑i∈I(xi + yi). We obtain that 0 is the sum of the finite support family (yi)i∈I. ∀i ∈ I. where (xi + yi)i∈I has finite support and xi + yi ∈ Li. so xi = yi. ∀i ∈ I \ {j}. So.5. ∀i ∈ I. such that xj = ∑i∈I \ {j} xi. since xj = ∑i∈I \ {j}(−xi). xi ∈ Li. Let j ∈ I. (xi)i∈I \ {j}. we get xj ∈ ⎜ ∑ Li ⎟ . then ∑i∈I (xi − yi) = 0. with yi ∈ Li. ∀i ∈ I.

there exists a unique pair (a. 3. ∀i ∈ I. The following statements are equivalent: a) M = A ⊕ B. ! 3. B ≤ R M. and let x ∈ L. ! 3. It is usual to identify Mi with Imσi and call S the direct sum of the modules Mi. b) M = A + B and A ∩ B = 0. one also says that (Li)i∈I is an independent family of submodules. . We say that “the sum of the family (Li)i∈I is a direct (internal) sum” if and only if one of the equivalent statements of the proposition above is satisfied. 0 ≠ ab ∈ A ∩ B. Indeed. b) If R is a domain. then any vector subspace U of V is a direct summand in V. ∀i ∈ I and: ψ(x) = ψ(∑i∈I xi) = ∑i∈Iψ( xi) = ∑i∈Iψ(ηi( xi)) = ∑i∈I vi(xi) = ϕ(x). A submodule A of M is called a direct summand of M if there exists 0 ≠ B ≤ R M such that M = A ⊕ B (a submodule B having this property is called a complement of A).12 Corollary.13 Examples. then S is the internal direct sum of its submodules (Imσi)i∈I. xi ∈ Li. and Mi ≅ Imσi.90 II. 3. with canonical injections (σi)i∈I. Let M be an R-module and let A. a) If V is a K-vector space. for any nonzero submodules A and B of R R. Modules ψ : L → E be a homomorphism with ψ ◦ηi = vi. b) ∈ A × B such that x = a + b. In this situation.11 Definition. Let (Li)i∈I be a family of submodules of an R-module M. we have A ∩ B ≠ 0: for 0 ≠ a ∈ A and 0 ≠ b ∈ B. then R R has no nonzero submodule that is a direct summand. a) The notions of (internal) direct sum of submodules and external direct sum are very close: if S is a direct sum of the modules (Mi)i∈I. c) ∀x ∈ M. ∀i ∈ I.14 Remark. Then x = ∑i∈I xi. i ∈ I.

15 Proposition. Ker p = B. ! 3. Considering M as a submodule of the direct product ∏i∈I Mi. with y ∈ M. Proof. If x ∈ Im p ∩ Ker p. Im p = A.e. such that x = a + b. If M = A ⊕ B. For any x ∈ M. write x = p(x) + (x − p(x)). the mapping pj : M → Mj. Ker p = B. let p ∈ EndR(M) be an idempotent. Conversely. 2 We have p(x) ∈ Im p and p(x − p(x)) = p(x) − p (x) = 0. (where x = ∑i∈I σi(xi) . with morphism. x & xj. Then p(x) = a. with xi ∈ Mi.16 Proposition. j j pj◦σj is the identity of Mj : M j ⎯⎯→ ∏ M i ⎯⎯→ M j . then. then 2 p(x) = 0 and x = p(y).II. so x − p(x) ∈ Ker p. ∀i ∈ I) is a module homo- b) If M = ⊕i∈I Mi is the direct sum of the modules (Mi)i∈I. x = p(y) = p (y) = p(x) = 0 and Im p ∩ Ker p = 0. i. Therefore. then p := iA◦pA (where pA : M → A is the canonical projection and iA : A → M is the canonical injection) is an idempotent of EndR(M) and Im p = A. M = Im p + Ker p. with b ∈ B. Let M be an R-module. 2 p◦p = p = p. Then . We have: p(p(x)) = p(a) = a = p(x). (An element e of a ring S is 2 called an idempotent if e = e). Exact sequences 91 canonical injections (σi)i∈I. Evidently. called the canonical projection on Mj. We have p(x) = 0 iff x = 0 + b.3 Direct sums and products. pj is exactly the restriction to M of the canonical projection πj of the direct product. 3. Furthermore. σ p The direct summands of an R-module M are closely related with the idempotents of the ring EndR(M). Let M and N be R-modules and let u : M → N and v : N → M be homomorphisms such that v◦u = idM. Then M = Im p ⊕ Ker p. ∀j ∈ I. So. Thus. 2 Suppose now that p ∈ EndR(M) and p = p. which means that M = Im p ⊕ Ker p. there exist unique a ∈ A. For any x ∈ M. b ∈ B.

Let p = u◦v : N → N. vj◦πj : ∏ Mi → Nj is a homomorphism. In particular. Because v is surjective. since u is injective.15. Modules N = Im u ⊕ Ker v. (ρi)i∈I)) be the direct product of the family (Mi)i∈I (respectively (Ni)i∈I). If I = {1. The universality property of the ∏i=1 vi n or v1 ×…× vn. We define the direct product and the direct sum of the family of homomorphisms (vi)i∈I. Similarly one defines the direct sum of the family of homomorphisms (vi)i∈I. Im p = Im u◦v = Im u. …. (πi)i∈I) (respectively (∏Ni. . ! 3. τj◦vj : Mj → ⊕Ni is a homomorphism.2). Ker u◦v = {x ∈ N | u(v(x)) = 0} = {x ∈ N | v(x) = 0} = Ker v.92 II. N = Im p ⊕ Ker p by 3. For any j ∈ I. n}. 2 Proof. For any j ∈ I. (σi)i∈I) (respectively (⊕Ni. {∏i∈I vi}(x) = (vi(xi))i∈I ∈ ∏ Ni.17 Definition. Let (⊕ Mi. the notations are For any x = (xi)i∈I ∈ ∏ Mi. ∀j ∈ I: The homomorphism v is called the direct product of the family of homomorphisms (vi)i∈I and is usually denoted by ∏i∈I vi or ×i∈I vi. M is isomorphic to a direct summand of N. The universality property of the direct product (3. produces a unique homomorphism j ∏ M i ⎯⎯→ M j π v vj j ⎯ ∏ N i ⎯⎯→ N j ρ v : ∏ Mi → ∏ Ni such that ρj◦v = vj◦πj. Since p = u◦v◦u◦v = u◦id◦v = u◦v = p. Also. Let vi : Mi → Ni (i ∈ I) be a family of R-module homomorphisms. (τi)i∈I)) be the direct sum of the family (Mi)i∈I (respectively (Ni)i∈I). Let (∏ Mi.

then (⊕i∈I vi)(x) = ∑i∈I vi(xi) ∈ ⊕ Ni. 3.19 Definition. where xi ∈ Mi and the family (xi)i∈I has finite support11. ! (note that HomR(A. . Then: a) If vi is injective (surjective). then {∏i∈I ui}◦{∏i∈I vi} = ∏i∈I ui◦vi and {⊕i∈I ui}◦{⊕i∈I vi} = ⊕i∈I ui◦vi. Let vi : Mi → Ni (i ∈ I) be a family of module homomorphisms. b) If ui : Ni → Pi (i ∈ I) are homomorphisms. (The Hom functors) For any A ∈ R-Mod. Exact sequences 93 direct sum (3.II. h (B) := HomR(A.18 Proposition. n}. 3. If I = {1. Let R-Mod be the category of the left R-modules and Ab the category of Abelian groups. If x = ∑i∈I xi ∈ ⊕ Mi. B) is an Abelian group with respect to homomorphism addition). then ∏i∈I vi and ⊕i∈I vi are injective (surjective).5) yields a unique homomorphism w : ⊕ Mi → ⊕ Ni such that w◦σj = τj◦vj. define A the (covariant) functor h : R-Mod → Ab: A ∀ B∈ R-Mod.3 Direct sums and products. ∀j ∈ I. w is denoted by ⊕in=1 vi or v1⊕…⊕vn. 11 We identify xi with its image through the canonical injection σi(xi). …. j M j ⎯⎯→ ⊕ M i ⎯ σ vj w j N j ⎯⎯→ ⊕ N i τ The homomorphism w is called the direct sum of the family (vi)i∈I and is denoted by (i∈I vi or ⊕i∈I vi. B).

We study the behavior of HomR(A. for any u : B → B' in R-Mod. h (u) : HomR(A. for any R-module B and any R-module A homomorphisms u : B → B' and ∀v : B' → B". The “direct proof” uses the form of the elements in the concrete constructions of the direct sum and the direct product and defines a natural homomorphism from HomR(S. that h (1B) = 1hA(B) A A A and that h (v◦u) = h (v)◦h (u). also denoted by HomR(A. A). a “direct proof” and a “category proof”. Mi).94 II. ∀g ∈ HomR(B'. A). it satisfies the universality property of the direct product) and applies then 3. A A A HomR(⊕i∈I Mi. A) is a direct product in Ab of the family (HomR(Mi. The functor hA is denoted also by HomR(-. B) → HomR(A. A) to ∏i∈I HomR(Mi. -) and HomR(-. ∏i∈I Mi) ≅ ∏i∈I HomR(A. Define α : HomR(S. B') It is immediate that h (u) is a morphism in Ab. A) is given by hA(u)(g) := g◦u. ∀g ∈ HomR(A. A) with respect to direct products and direct sums. A). For any B ∈ R-Mod. hA(B) := HomR(B. A) as fol- is defined as h (u)(g) := u◦g. Proof. We prove the second isomorphism (the first is proposed as an exercise).20 Proposition. A). So. h is a functor. . hA(u) : HomR(B'. The “category proof” shows that HomR(S. we then show this is an isomorphism. Then there exist canonical isomorphisms in Ab: HomR(A. A) → ∏i∈I HomR(Mi. A))i∈I (more precisely. A) ≅ ∏i∈I HomR(Mi. Modules A ∀u : B → B' morphism in R-Mod. Let A be an R-module and let (Mi)i∈I be a family of R-modules. In a similar manner one defines the contravariant functor hA : R-Mod → Ab. Let S = ⊕i∈I Mi and let σi : Mi → S be the canonical injections. We give two proofs. -). B). A) → HomR(B. A).3. Direct proof. 3.

hA(σi) : hA(S) → hA(Mi) is a morphism in Ab. ϕ(x) : S → A is a homomorphism with τi(x) = hA(σi(ϕ(x)) = ϕ(x)◦σi. ∀x. i. If (gi)i∈I ∈ ∏i∈I HomR(Mi. the universality property of the direct sum S = ⊕i∈I Mi (definition 3. there exists a unique morphism τ : X → hA(S) in Ab such that τi = hA(σi)◦τ. This means that we have to prove that. for any X ∈ Ab and any morphisms τi : X → hA(Mi) in Ab. ∀x ∈ X. for instance). A). So. We obtain τ : X → HomR(S. Indeed. If ϕ : X → hA(S) is a homomorphism with τi = hA(σi)◦ϕ.3 Direct sums and products. τ(x) + τ(y) : S → A is an R-homomorphism satisfying (τ(x) + τ(y))◦σi = τ(x)◦σi + τ(y)◦σi = τi(x) + τi(y) = τi(x + y). y ∈ X. If α(g) = (g◦σi)i∈I = (0)i∈I. We show that hA(S) is a direct product of the Abelian groups {hA(Mi)}i∈I. α is surjective. i ∈ I.e. for any family having finite support (xi)i∈I. so τ(x) = ϕ(x). ∀x ∈ X. ∃! τ(x) : S → A homomorphism such that τi(x) = τ(x)◦σi.5) supplies a unique homomorphism g : S → A such that g◦σi = gi. τi(x) : Mi → A is a morphism in R-Mod. A) = hA(S). τ(x + y) = τ(x) + τ(y). x & τ(x). with canonical projections hA(σi). τ = ϕ. . Category proof: For any i ∈ I. which is a morphism in Ab.II. But τ(x) is unique with this property. so g = 0. then g(∑i∈I σi(xi)) = ∑i∈I g(σi(xi)) = 0. This proves that α is injective. It is routine to check that α is a homomorphism. then. with xi ∈ Mi. Exact sequences 95 lows: for any homomorphism g : ⊕i∈I Mi → A. α(g) =: (g◦σi)i∈I ∈ ∏i∈I HomR(Mi. Since τ(x + y) is the only homomorphism with this property. ! Many facts in Algebra have a convenient form in the language of exact sequences (used intensively Homological Algebra. ∀i ∈ I. So. ∀x ∈ X. By the universality property of the direct sum. A).

b) If A ≤ R B. 3. b) A sequence of the form 0 → E ⎯u F is exact if and only if u ⎯→ is a monomorphism. a) Often.96 II. d) The sequence 0 → E ⎯u F → 0 is exact ⇔ u is an isomor⎯→ phism. A semiexact sequence of modules is called a complex of modules. (S): … ⎯ E ⎯u F ⎯v G ⎯ The sequence (S) is called semiexact at F if v◦u = 0. This may be rephrased as Im u ⊆ Ker v. a) If ϕ : E → F is a homomorphism. Ker u = 0 ⇔ Ker u = Im 0. 3. then the following sequence is exact: 0 → Kerϕ ⎯ι E ⎯ϕ F ⎯ ⎯→ ⎯→ ⎯→ F Im ϕ → 0 The inclusion homomorphism is denoted by ι and the canonical surjection by π. The sequence (S) is called semiexact (respectively exact) if it is semiexact (respectively exact) at any term. The sequence (S) is called exact at F if Im u = Ker v. then the sequence 12 π π Called in the sequel sequence of modules. the homomorphisms that are uniquely determined (or clear from the context) are not marked on the arrows. For instance. ⎯→ c) A sequence of the form E ⎯u F → 0 is exact if and only if u is an epimorphism. Indeed. since the only homo⎯→ morphism defined on the module 0 is the zero homomorphism.21 Definition.22 Remarks. write 0 → L instead of 0 ⎯0 L . Modules 3. . Thus.23 Examples. we have an exact sequence: 0 → Kerϕ ⎯ι E ⎯ϕ F ⎯ ⎯→ ⎯→ ⎯→ Cokerϕ → 0 . The module F/Imϕ is called the cokernel of ϕ and is denoted by Cokerϕ. Consider a (finite or infinite) sequence of R-modules and module homomorphisms:12 ⎯→ ⎯→ ⎯→ ⎯→ ….

A homomorphism g that makes the diagram commutative is called a homomorphism of extensions. It is natural in this sense to consider the following definition: 3.II. This is the reason B is also called an extension of A by C (cf. Let A and C be two modules and consider two extensions of A by C: 0 → A ⎯u B ⎯v C → 0 . 3.3 Direct sums and products. ⎯→ ⎯→ ′ ′ 0 → A ⎯u B′ ⎯v C → 0 . A is isomorphic to the submodule Im u = Ker v of B. and B/Im u = B/Ker v is isomorphic to C. Exact sequences 97 0 → A ⎯ι B ⎯π B A → 0 ⎯→ ⎯→ is exact. For such a sequence. So A ⊕ C is an extension of A by C. Example b) above). 3. then the sequence πC 0 → A ⎯ι A A ⊕ C ⎯⎯→ C → 0 ⎯→ is short exact. In other words. . If A and C are two R-modules.24 Definition. ⎯→ ⎯→ We say that the extensions are equivalent if there exists a homomorphism g : B → B' such that g◦u = u' and v'◦g = v.26 Definition. ιA : A → A ⊕ C is the canonical injection and πC : A ⊕ C → C is the canonical projection (recall that A ⊕ C = A × C).25 Example. The problem of finding all extensions of A by C is highly nontrivial. An exact sequence of the form 0 → A ⎯u B ⎯v C → 0 ⎯→ ⎯→ is called a short exact sequence. the diagram below is commutative: ⎯→ B ⎯v ⎯→ C → 0 0 → A ⎯u g ↓ ↓ ↓ ′ ′ 0 → A ⎯u ⎯→ B′ ⎯v ⎯→ C → 0 (the vertical unmarked homomorphisms are identity homomorphisms).

27 Proposition. The complexes E and F are called isomorphic if there exists an isomorphism from E to F. (gi )i∈Z is also a homomorphism of complexes. such that gi + 1◦ui = vi◦gi. Consider two complexes: i −1 E: … → Ei −1 ⎯u⎯ Ei ⎯ui Ei +1 → … ⎯→ ⎯→ F: … → Fi −1 ⎯vi −1 → Fi ⎯vi Fi +1 → … . then v'(b') ∈ C and the surjectivity of v implies that. so b ∈ Ker v = Im u. we obtain 0 = g(b) = gu(a) = u'(a).26. 13 . In particular. Let b ∈ B with g(b) = 0. v(b) = v'(b'). Since v'g(b) = v(b). since u' = gu. gi : Ei → Fi.13 Let us show that Ker g = 0. which means g(b) − b' ∈ Ker v' = Im u'. the following diagram commutes: i −1 ⎯→ Ei ⎯ui ⎯→ Ei +1 → … … → Ei −1 ⎯u⎯ ↓ gi −1 ↓ gi ↓ gi +1 vi −1 vi … → Fi −1 ⎯⎯→ Fi ⎯ ⎯→ Fi +1 → … The homomorphism g is called an isomorphism if gi is an isomor−1 phism. Thus b' = g(b − u(a)) ∈ Im g. the relation defined at 3. The technique used is called “diagram chasing” and it is used extensively in arguments involving diagrams of module homomorphisms. a = 0. g(b) − b' = u'(a) = gu(a). Proof.98 II.26 is an equivalence relation on the class of all extensions of A by C. for some b ∈ B. ! 3. v'(g(b)) = v'(b'). Thus there exists a ∈ A with u(a) = b. Let b' ∈ B'. There exists a ∈ A with u'(a) = g(b) − b'. g is an isomorphism. In this case. since u' is injective. ∀i ∈ Z. In the definition 3. Then v'g(b) = 0 = v(b). ∀i ∈ Z. Modules 3.28 Definition. so b = u(a) = 0. In other words. ⎯ ⎯→ A homomorphism of complexes from E to F is a sequence of module homomorphisms g := (gi)i∈Z.

3 Direct sums and products. The homomorphisms that compose this isomorphism are u0 : A → Im u. in order to define w : C → B/Im u. πC 0 → A ⎯ι A A ⊕ C ⎯⎯→ C → 0 . The following statements are equivalent: a) B is isomorphic (as an extension of A by C) with πC 0 → A ⎯ι A A ⊕ C ⎯⎯→ C → 0 . Exact sequences 99 3. πC are the canonical projections. The exten⎯⎯ ⎯⎯ sions of A by C that are isomorphic to the extension direct sum A ⊕ C are characterized in the next proposition: 3.30. the fundamental isomorphism theo−1 rem). Let (S): 0 → A ⎯u B ⎯v C → 0 be a short ⎯→ ⎯→ exact sequence of modules (i.II.16. B is an extension of A by C). u0(a) = u(a). . b) Im u = Ker v is a direct summand in B. c) There exists a homomorphism u' : B → A such that u'◦u = idA. v0(b + Ker v) = v(b). the “direct sum” extension. Checking the commutativity of the diagram is left to the reader. ιC are the canonical injections of the direct sum A ⊕ C and πA. c)⇒b) and d)⇒b) follow from 3. ∀b ∈ B (cf. Proposition.. b) Any extension of Z2 by Z2 is isomorphic either to Z2⊕Z2 or to Z4. Set w = v0 . where ι is the inclusion ⎯→ ⎯→ and π the canonical surjection. idB : B → B.e. d) There exists a homomorphism v' : C → B such that v◦v' = idC. observe that the surjective homomorphism v induces a canonical isomorphism v0 : B/Ker v → C.29 Examples. Proof. a) The exact sequence 0 → A ⎯u B ⎯v C → 0 ⎯→ ⎯→ is isomorphic (in the sense given by the previous definition) to the sequence 0 → Im u ⎯ι B ⎯π B Im u → 0 . ∀a ∈ A. ⎯→ has the remarkable property that by reversing the arrows we obtain another exact sequence: 0 ← A ←π A A ⊕ C ←ιC C ← 0 . where ⎯→ ιA. The extension “direct sum” of A by C.

b)⇒a) Let B = Im u ⊕ D. b' = u(a') + d' ∈ B. then b + b' = u(a) + d + u(a') + d' = u(a + a') + d + d'. Define u' : B → A. a' ∈ A. ⎯→ An epimorphism B ⎯v C → 0 is called split if the short exact sequence 0 → Ker v → B ⎯v C → 0 splits (⇔ Ker v is a direct sum⎯→ mand in B). We have ϕu = (ιAα + ιCv)◦u = ιAαu + ιCvu = ιA πCϕ = πC (ιAα + ιCv) = πCιAα + πCιCv = v. α(b + b') = a + a' = α(b) + α(b'). we have vv' = vϕ ιC = πCιC = idC.31 Definition. We obtain a module homomorphism α : B → A. if b = u(a) + d. thus. ⎯→ A monomorphism 0 → A ⎯u B is called split if the short exact u sequence 0 → A ⎯ B → B Im u → 0 splits (⇔ Im u is a direct ⎯→ summand in B). v' = ϕ ιC. Indeed. ϕ is a homomorphism (and isomorphism) of extensions. ∃! a ∈ A and d ∈ D such that b = u(a) + d. d' ∈ D.14). ϕ = ιAα + ιCv. Consider ϕ : B → A⊕C. u' = πAϕ. ! 3. In the same way is shown that α preserves multiplication with scalars. So. “the sequence ⎯→ ⎯→ splits”) if it satisfies the equivalent conditions of the previous proposition. Define then α(b) = a ∈ A. with a. Modules a)⇒c). so d) holds.100 II. so. . d) Let ϕ : B → A ⊕ C be an isomorphism such that the diagram ⎯→ B ⎯v ⎯→ C → 0 0 → A ⎯u ϕ ↓ ↓ ↓ πC 0 → A ⎯ι A ⎯→ A ⊕ C ⎯⎯→ C → 0 commutes. A short exact sequence u v 0 → A ⎯ B ⎯ C → 0 is called split (or we say. d. ∀b ∈ B. Defining −1 −1 v' : C → B. Note that α◦u : A → A is idA. We have u'u = πAϕ u = πAιA = idA (see Remark 3. This proves c).

e. But u is injective. Then the following sequence 0 → h M ( A) ⎯h ⎯→ h M (B ) ⎯h ⎯→ h M (C ) ⎯(u ) ⎯(v ) is exact in Ab. M Proof. ∀a ∈ A) is an isomorphism. The next proposition says “the functor Hom is left exact”: 3. h (u)(u'◦ψ) = u◦u'◦ψ = ψ. In particular. Let R M be a module and let 0 → A ⎯u B ⎯v C → 0 ⎯→ ⎯→ be a short exact sequence. if u : A → B is an R-module monomorM phism. Then u'◦ψ : M → B is well defined M and it is a homomorphism. Since u is monomorphism. If u is monomorphism. The M reverse inclusion also holds: if ψ ∈ h (B) (i.II. We invite the reader to prove: 3.33 Proposition. ϕ : M → A is a homomorphM ism) such that h (u)(ϕ) = u◦ϕ = 0. then v◦ψ = 0. consider the exact sequence: 0 → A ⎯u B ⎯ B Im u → 0 ⎯→ ⎯→ M M and write that h is left exact to obtain that h (u) is monomorphism. Im h (u) ⊆ Ker h (v). let u' : Im u → A be the inverse of u0.! The contravariant functor hM is also left exact. Then the sequence 0 → hM (C ) ⎯hM ⎯→ hM (B ) ⎯hM ⎯→ hM ( A) ⎯(v ) ⎯(u ) M M . Also. M So. M M M M M M Since h (v)◦h (u) = h (v◦u) = h (0) = 0. ψ : M → B) is in M Ker h (v).3 Direct sums and products. Exact sequences 101 The behavior with respect to short exact sequences is primordial in the study of functors defined on categories of modules. ϕ = 0.e. We have to prove that h (u) is monomorphism and M M M Im h (u) = Ker h (v). then h (u) is an Abelian group monomorphism. so Imψ ⊆ Ker v = Im u. Let R M be an R-module and let 0 → A ⎯u B ⎯v C → 0 ⎯→ ⎯→ be a short exact sequence. Ker h (u) = 0.32 Proposition. so u0 : A → Im u (u0(a) = u(a). Let ϕ ∈ h (A) (i.

Modules is exact in Ab. Let R be a ring and let I be a left ideal of R. with xi ∈ Mi. Let A and B be R-modules. Prove that the R-module P is a direct product of family of R-modules (Mi)i∈I. then IA = ⊕s∈S IAs. b) If A = ⊕s∈S As (internal direct sum). then the inclusion is in fact an equality. ∀i ∈ I. then hM(v) is a monomorphism. …. the same applies to IAs). Prove that the R-module S is a direct sum of the family of R-modules (Mi)i∈I. . ! Exercises In the exercises. …. then IA ⊆ ∏s∈S IAs (we identify As with its image in ∏s∈S As. R denotes a fixed ring with identity.102 II. ∀i ∈ I. 5. Prove that there exists a (canonical) isomorphism A⊕B ≅ B⊕A. c) If A = ∏s∈S As. with xi ∈ Mi. 4. define the submodule of A: IA := <{ia | i ∈ I. a ∈ A}>. Generalization. If I is finitely generated. i1. an ∈ A}. in ∈ I. ∀i ∈ I. a1. Taking the universality property of the direct product as its definition. For any module R A. prove that the canonical projections are surjective. 1. there exists a unique x ∈ P such that πi(x) = xi. having finite support. 3. a) Prove that IA = {i1a1 + … + inan | n ∈ N. with canonical projections (πi)i∈I. such that x = ∑i∈I σi(xi). with canonical injections (σi)i∈I. there exists a unique family of elements (xi)i∈I. if and only if for any x ∈ S. if and only if for any family (xi)i∈I. Prove that he inclusion may be strict. 2. In particular. if v : B → C is an R-module epimorphism.

v are epimorphisms. v. then β is monomorphism. γ and v are epimorphisms. Exact sequences 103 6. 11. b) If α. Let R be a PID. Give an example of an R-module M with a direct summand S in M that has an infinity of complements. d) If β is an epimorphism and u'. but v does not split. Let R be a ring and let M be an R-module. then γ is an epimorphism. 8. Suppose that the following diagram of R-modules commutes and has exact rows: A ⎯u ⎯→ B ⎯v ⎯→ C ↓α ↓β ↓γ u′ v′ ⎯→ B′ ⎯ ⎯→ C ′ A′ ⎯ Prove. using diagram chasing. Find homomorphisms u. then β is an epimorphism. γ and u' are monomorphisms. Then any R-epimorphism ϕ : M → R splits.II. Is it true that for any ring R and for any R-module M. v such that uv splits. w such that the following sequence is exact: 0 → Z3 ⎯u Z9 ⎯v Z9 ⎯w Z3 → 0. that: a) If α. Prove that the R-module M is cyclic (generated by one element) ⇔ there exists an exact sequence of the form 0 → R → R → M → 0. .3 Direct sums and products. ⎯→ ⎯→ ⎯→ 7. γ are monomorphisms. Give an example of monomorphisms u. any R-monomorphism ψ : R → M splits? 9. c) If β is a monomorphism and α. then α is a monomorphism. Show that any composition of split monomorphisms (epimorphisms) is a split monomorphism (epimorphism). 10.

2. …. …. xn are distinct. 4. for any r1. This is the reason we can speak about a linearly dependent (finite) subset of M. xn is 0 if and only if all its coefficients are 0. Let M be an R-module. is called a relation of linear dependence of the family x1. …. This suggest the following definition: the annihilator of x in R is 14 * The reference to the ring R is often omitted. The existence of a basis is not guaranteed for a module. rx = 0 implies r = 0. xn. xn is linearly independent (over R)14 if. xn is linearly dependent: the linear combination xi − xj is 0. …. with r1. …. not all zero. . A relation of the form r1x1 + … + rnxn = 0. Modules II.104 II. In this section. It is natural to define and to study the class of modules that “have a basis”. Thus. n ∈ N and let x1. then the family x1. in studying linear independence we may suppose that x1. and this increases considerably the difficulty in the study of modules in comparison to the vector spaces. rn ∈ R. a) If there exists i ≠ j with xi = xj. xn be a family of elements of M. 4. Remarks. ….4 Free modules Many nice properties of the vector spaces are consequences of the fact that any vector space has a basis. r1x1 + … + rnxn = 0 implies r1 = … = rn = 0. b) The set {x} (containing a single element x ∈ M ) is linear independent if and only if ∀r ∈ R. …. On the other hand. A family of elements in M that is not linearly independent is called linearly dependent. rn ∈ R. …. We say that the family x1. xn.1. Definition. the notion of linear independence does not depend on the indexing of x1. R is a ring with identity and all modules are left R-modules. any linear combination of x1. In other words. ….

More generally. c) Every subset of an linearly independent set is linearly independent. a) The empty subset of M is linearly independent. We say that X is linearly independent over R (or free over R) if any finite subset of X is linearly independent over R in the sense of the remark above.3. Definition.∀i ∈ I (prove this!).4 Free modules 105 AnnR(x) := {r ∈ R | rx = 0} (sometimes denoted by lR(x)). X is linearly dependent if and only if there exists a finite linearly dependent subset of X. ρx(r) = rx. {r} is linearly dependent ⇔ r is a right zero divisor in R (∃s ∈ R. If X is not linearly independent. The family {xi}i∈I is linearly independent if and only if. AnnR(x) is a left ideal in R and (by the isomorphism theorem) the submodule Rx = Imρx is isomorphic as a left R-module to R/AnnR(x). ∑i∈I rixi = 0 implies ri = 0. In fact. for any family {ri}i∈I of elements of R. ∀r ∈ R. such that sr = 0). Examples.5. ∀i ∈ I. we say that X is linearly dependent over R.4. with finite support.II. Remarks. containing only the unity of the ring R (seen as a left R-module) is linearly independent. 4. Summarizing: {x} is linearly independent ⇔ AnnR(x) = 0 ⇔ ρx is an isomorphism from R to Rx. b) Let {xi}i∈I be a family of elements of the R-module M. ∀r ∈ R. 4. a) The set {1}. Since AnnR(x) is exactly the kernel of the R-module homomorphism ρx : R → M. {xi}i∈I is linearly independent if and only if the sum of the family of submodules {Rxi}i∈I is direct and AnnR(xi) = 0.11). Let X be a subset of R M. 4. Thus. . s ≠ 0. It follows that the sum of the family of submodules {Rxi}i∈I is direct (see 3.

. Let M be an R-module and let B be a subset of M. the set { 1 } is linearly independent over Z3.7 Proposition. Let B = {ei}i∈I be a basis of R M and let x ∈ M. Definition. ∀i ∈ I. if any element in M is written uniquely as a linear combination of elements of B. Examples. 3x = 0 . an ∈ R) is 0 if and only if a0 = … = an = 0. 4. This amounts to saying that a polynomial a0 + n a1X + … + an X (a0. The linear independence of B implies si = ri. More generally. Conversely. {r} is a basis of R R if and only if r is right invertible in R. then ∑i∈I (si − ri)ei = 0.106 II. Since B generates M. the elements {ri}i∈I in R with x = ∑i∈I riei are called the coordinates of x in the basis B = {ei}i∈I. a1. in the R-module R[X] the set {X | n ∈ N} is linearly independent. The module M is called a free module if it has a basis. n c) If R is a domain. 4. such that x = ∑i∈I riei. Can you generalize this? Of course. as seen at example a). we obtain that B is linearly independent.6. Modules b) The Z-module Z3 has no Z-linearly independent subsets: for any ˆ ˆ x ∈ Z3. a) {∅} is a basis (the only one!) of the module {0}. if {fn | n ∈ N} is a family of polynomials such that deg fn ≠ deg fm if m ≠ n. Writing the fact that 0 has a unique writing as a linear combination of elements of B. 4. More generally. with x = ∑i∈I siei. for x ∈ M. there exists a family {ri}i∈I of elements in R with finite support.8. …. A subset B of an R-module M is called a basis of M if it is simultaneously linearly independent and a system of generators for M. then the family {fn | n ∈ N} is linearly independent. Proof. b) {1} is a basis of R R. If {si}i∈I is another family of elements in R. ! With the notations above. then B is a system of generators of M. Then: B is a basis of M if and only if any x ∈ M is written uniquely as a linear combination of elements of B.

(I) (I) where ei = σi(1).4 Free modules (I) 107 c) If I is a set. ∀i ∈ I. If B = (ei)i∈I. a basis being {ei}i∈I. 0. en = (0. for an arbitrary generating set. there exists a unique homomorphism v : L → M such that v(ei) = yi. Uniqueness claim: suppose v.II. If I = {1. 0. where M is an R-module and u : B → M is a map. (I) with canonical injections σi : R → R ) is free. …. this can be formulated: For any module M and any family (yi)i∈I of elements of M. Proof.…. e2 = (0.9 Proposition. 1. there exists a unique homomorphism v : L → M with v◦i = u. we have: a) v is injective ⇔ u(B) is linearly independent. ∀i ∈ I. n}. b) v is surjective ⇔ u(B) is a system of generators for M. The same thing is obtained for w. w ∈ HomR(L. In the privileged case of free modules.…. This basis is called the canonical basis of R . u).…. Moreover. the canonical basis of the free R-module R are e1 = (1. 1). For the existence claim. R is also called the free R-module on the set I (or the free R-module of ban sis I ). a unique homomorphism takes the respective values on the elements of the basis: 4. the R-module R (the direct sum of | I | copies of R. 0). …. for any choice of the values on the elements of a basis. c) v is an isomorphism ⇔ u(B) is a basis. we have to prove that . i) has the following universality property: For any pair (M. Let x ∈ L. since (ei)i∈I is a basis. there exists a unique family (ri)i∈I of elements in R such that x = ∑i∈I riei. The pair (L. there may be no homomorphism that takes prescribed values on the elements of the generating set. We have v{∑i∈I riei} = ∑i∈I riv(ei) = ∑i∈I riyi. But. 0). (The universality property of the free module of basis B) Let L be a free R-module of basis B and let i : B → L be the inclusion map. A module homomorphism is determined by its values on a generating set. M) satisfy v(ei) = yi = w(ei).

with (ri)i∈I. ! The R-modules of the type R (I) = ∑i∈I ariyi + ∑i∈I bsiyi = av(x) + bv(y). for any x ∈ L there exists a unique family (ri)i∈I of elements in R such that x = ∑i∈I riei.10 Proposition. then 0 = u(x) = ∑i∈I riei. Then R L ≅ R R . Proof. Let M := ⊕i∈I Mi. for any x = ∑i∈I riei with (ri)i∈I family of elements in R. so x = 0. By the result above. If x = ∑i∈I rixi ∈ Ker u (with (ri)i∈I family of elements in R). having a finite support. (I) are “all” free R-modules: 4. ∑i∈I riyi = 0}. Let x = ∑i∈I riei and y = ∑i∈I siei be elements in L. v is well defined. Since Im u includes {ei}i∈I. By 3. ! A direct sum of free modules is also free: 4. (si)i∈I families of elements in R. (I) there exists a unique homomorphism u : L → R with u(xi) := ei. b ∈ R. For any j ∈ I. let σj : Mj → M be the canonical injection and let Bj be a basis of Mj. It is clear that Ker v = 0 ⇔ (yi)i∈I is linearly independent. Then the (external) direct sum ⊕i∈I Mi is a free R-module. which generates R . ri = 0. (I) Proof. ∀i ∈ I. Let L be a free R-module and let (xi)i∈I be a basis (I) of L. Modules v(x) := ∑i∈I riyi. Since {ei}i∈I is a basis. Let (Mi)i∈I be a family of free R-modules. Let (ei)i∈I be the canonical basis in R . (I) ∀i ∈ I. it follows that u is surjective.108 II.10. For any a. We show that B := ∪i∈I σi(Bi) is a basis of M. M is the (internal) direct sum . Since. defines a module homomorphism. The rest of the proof is left to the reader. we have: v(ax + by) = v{∑i∈I ariei + ∑i∈I bsiei} = v{∑i∈I (ari + bsi)ei} = ∑i∈I (ari + bsi)yi = We prove a): Ker v = {∑i∈I riei | (ri)i∈I ∈ R .11 Proposition.

we obtain Imϕ = M. ∀i ∈ I. Here is another application of this principle: 4. Hence M ≅ R /Kerϕ. Such a sequence is called a free resolution of M. Since σi(Bi) generates Im σi. then ∑t∈Tk rktykt = −∑i∈I \{k}∑t∈Ti rityit. ∪i∈I σi(Bi) generates M. Let (es)s∈S be the canonical basis in R . The linear independence of B is easy to show (only the notations are complicated): let Bi = (eit)t∈Ti the basis of in Mi and let yit = σi(eit).! with 4. More precisely. where Ln is free. We have now the exact sequence . But Mk ∩{∑i∈I \{k} Mi} = 0. let L0 be free and let u0 : L0 → M be an epimorphism (as given by the Proposition above).4 Free modules 109 of the family of submodules (Im σi)i∈I.9). the structure of an arbitrary module is known. so rkt = 0. ∀s ∈ S (see 4. t ∈ Ti} is a finite support family elements of R. This method will be used to study the structure of finitely generated modules over a PID. then there exists an epimorphism ϕ : ( S) (S) R → M. and S generates M. then there exists an exact sequence: … → Ln+1 → Ln → … → L1 → L0 → M → 0. if M is an R-module and S is a system of generators of M. Every module is (isomorphic to) a factor module of a free module. ∀n ∈ N.II. But (ykt)t∈Tk is a basis in Mk. (S) (S) Proof. Since the submodule Imϕ includes S. Define ϕ : R → M by ϕ(es) = s.13 Example. Then we have an exact sequence: 0 → Ker u0 ⎯i L0 ⎯u0 M → 0 . ! This simple fact is very important: if one knows the structure of the submodules and of the factor modules of free modules. For the proof.12 Proposition. Apply again the proposi⎯→ ⎯→ tion for Ker u0 and obtain a free module L1 and an epimorphism u1 : L1 → Ker u0. ∀k ∈ I. ∀k ∈ I. ∀t ∈ Tk. If {rit | i ∈ I. so ∑t∈Tk rktykt = 0. ∑i∈I∑t∈Ti rityit = 0. If M is an R-module.

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)u1 0 → Ker u1 → L1 ⎯i⎯→ L0 ⎯u0 M → 0 ⎯→ since Ker u0 = Im i◦u1. One continues by induction on n such that exists an exact sequence of the form: 0 → Kn → Ln → … → L1 → L0 → M → 0, with Li free, 1 ≤ i ≤ n.

In a vector space, any two bases have the same cardinal. In the case of a free module over an arbitrary ring, this fact is not guaranteed. Nevertheless, the free modules over a commutative ring have this property; in fact, the proof of this result reduces the problem to the case of vector spaces.

4.14 Proposition. Let R be a commutative ring and let M be a free R-module. Then any two bases of M have the same cardinal. Proof. Let us try to connect the R-module M to a vector space over a field. Recall that, if I is a maximal ideal in R, then R/I is a field. A maximal ideal I of R exists (see 1.20). Then R/I is a field (see Appendix, Prime and maximal ideals). The module M has no natural structure of R/I-vector space: the natural “multiplication” given by (r + I)x = rx, for r ∈ R, x ∈ M, is not well defined unless ix = 0, ∀i ∈ I. This is the reason we need to “kill off” the elements x of M for which ix ≠ 0 for some i ∈ I, as follows: Let IM := {a1x1 + … + anxn | n ∈ N, ai ∈ I, xi ∈ M, ∀i = 1, …, n}. A straightforward check shows that IM is an R-submodule of M and that the factor module M/IM is also an R/I-module (i.e. an R/I-vector space!) with respect to the external operation: (r + I)(x + IM) := rx + IM, ∀r ∈ R, ∀x ∈ M. Let π : M → M/IM be the canonical surjection, π(x) = x + IM, ∀x ∈ M. We prove that: if (eα)α ∈ A is a basis of R M, then (π(eα))α ∈ A is a basis in the R/I-vector space M/IM.

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Indeed, (π(eα))α ∈ A generates the R-module M/IM, since π is surjective and (eα)α ∈ A generates M. It easily seen that it is also generates M/IM as an R/I-module. Let us show that (π(eα))α ∈ A is R/I-linear independent. Let (rα + I)α ∈ A be a family of elements of R/I (where rα ∈ R, ∀α ∈ A), of finite support, such that ∑α∈A (rα + I)π(eα ) = 0 + IM. This means: ∑α∈A rα eα ∈ IM. Note that, for any x ∈ IM, x = a1x1 + … + amxm ∈ IM, for some ai ∈ I, xi ∈ M, ∀i = 1, …, m. Writing every xi as a linear combination of (eα)α ∈ A, it follows that x is of the form ∑α∈A bα eα , where bα ∈ I, ∀α ∈ A (since ai ∈ I and I is an ideal). Thus, ∑α∈A rα eα = ∑α∈A bα eα But (eα)α ∈ A is a basis, so rα = bα ∈ I, ∀α ∈ A. Thus, rα + I = bα + I = 0 + I, ∀α ∈ A. Now, taking two bases (eα)α ∈ A and (vβ)β ∈ B of R M, we obtain that (π(eα))α ∈ A and (π(vβ))β ∈ B are bases in the R/I-vector space M/IM. Since two bases of a vector space have the same cardinal, we obtain |A| = |B|. !

4.15 Definition. Let R be a commutative ring and let L be a free R-module. The cardinal of a basis of R L is called the rank of L, denoted rankR L (or, simply, rank L). The previous result ensures that the definition is independent of a choice of the basis in R L. If R is a field, the rank of a vector space is the same as its dimension.

We study now the homomorphisms between free modules of finite rank. The idea is to mimic the vector space situation: for two fixed bases in the modules, we associate a matrix to a homomorphism. In this manner, the operations with (and the properties of) module homomorphisms translate in matrix language (and conversely). We

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suppose that the ring R is commutative, although some results hold for any ring with identity.

4.16 Definition. Let E and F be free R-modules and let ϕ : E → F be a homomorphism. Fix e = (e1, …, em) an ordered basis in E and f = (f1, …, fn) an ordered basis15 in F. For any i ∈ {1, …, m}, there exist and are unique aij ∈ R, ( j ∈ {1, …, n}) such that ϕ(ei) = ai1 f1 + … + ain fn. The matrix (aij)1≤i≤m, 1≤j≤n ∈ Mm, n(R) is denoted by Me, f(ϕ) and it is called the matrix of the homomorphism ϕ (in the pair of bases (e, f)). In other words, the i-th row of Me, f(ϕ) is made up of the coordinates ai1, …, ain of ϕ(ei) in the basis f. If E = F, one usually takes e = f and Me, f(ϕ) is denoted simply Me(ϕ). The importance of ordering the bases is quite clear now: a permutation of the basis (e1, …, em) leads to another matrix of ϕ, whose rows are a permutation of the rows of the initial matrix. 4.17 Remark. This is the “algebraic” convention of writing the matrix Me, f(ϕ). Of course, one can agree to the “geometric convention”: write the coordinates of ϕ(ei) in the basis f on the i-th column (which t means considering the transpose matrix Me,f(ϕ)). Choosing this rule t leads to changing property b) in the next sentence into: Me, f(ψ ◦ϕ ) = t t Mf, g(ψ )· Me, f(ϕ ). 4.18 Proposition. a) The mapping: Me, f : HomR(E, F) → Mm, n(R), ϕ & Me, f(ϕ) is an R-module isomorphism.

15

We consider the bases as being totally ordered (the place of the element in the

basis matters).

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b) If G is a free R-module, g = (g1,…, gp) is a basis in G, and ψ:F→G is an R-module homomorphism, then Me, g(ψ ◦ϕ) = Me, f(ϕ)·Mf, g(ψ). c) The mapping Me : EndR(E) → Mm(R) is an R-algebra antiop isomorphism (i.e. Me : EndR(E) → Mm(R) is an R-algebra isomorphism). Proof. a) Let η : E → F be another homomorphism and let (bij)1≤i≤m, 1≤j≤n = Me, f(η). Then (ϕ +η)(ei) = ϕ(ei) +η(ei) = ∑j aij fj + ∑j bij fj = ∑j (aij + bij) fj So, Me, f(ϕ +η) = (aij + bij)1≤j≤n, 1≤i≤m = Me, f(ϕ) + Me, f(η), so Me, f is an Abelian group homomorphism. If Me, f(ϕ) = 0 (the matrix 0 ∈ Mm, n(R)), then ϕ(ei) = 0, 1≤ i ≤ m. Since (ei)1≤i≤m is a basis in E, ϕ = 0; this shows that Me, f is injective. For the surjectivity, let A = (aij) ∈ Mm, n(R). The universality property of the free module yields a unique homomorphism ϕ ∈ HomR(E, F) such that ϕ(ei) = ai1 f1 + … + ain fn, i.e. Me, f(ϕ) = A. If r ∈ R and ϕ ∈ HomR(E, F), a simple computation shows that Me, f(rϕ) = rMe, f(ϕ). b) Let Mf, g(ψ) = (bjk)1≤j≤n, 1≤k≤p. We have (ψ ◦ϕ)(ei) = ψ{ ∑j aij fj } = ∑j aijψ( fj ) = ∑j aij∑k bjk gk = ∑k { ∑j aijbjk} gk.

So, Me, g(ψ ◦ϕ) = Me, f(ϕ)·Mf, g(ψ). c) The statement follows from a) and b): a) implies that Me is an R-module homomorphism and b) implies that op Me : EndR(E) → Mm(R) is a ring homomorphism. !

In the setting above, if e = (e1,…, en) and f = (f1,…, fn) are ordered bases of the free module E, then every element of the basis f is written uniquely as a linear combination of ei's:

f i = ∑ sij e j , sij ∈ R

j =1 n

We obtain the basis change matrix Te, f = (sij) ∈ Mn(R). If g is another basis in E, then a straightforward computation yields: Te, g = Tf, g·Te, f

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In particular, In = Te, e = Te, f ·Tf, e, i.e. the basis change matrix is invertible in Mn(R). When is a matrix in Mn(R) invertible? If A ∈ Mn(R), the adjoint matrix of A is A* (the entry (i, j) of A* is i+j (−1) det(Aji), where Aji is the matrix in Mn−1(R) obtained by suppressing the row j and the column i of the matrix A). Then A·A* = A*·A = det(A)·In. This shows that, if det(A) ∈ U(R), then A is −1 −1 invertible in Mn(R) and A = (det A) A*. Conversely, if A is invert−1 −1 ible, A·A = In implies (taking determinants) that det(A·A ) = −1 det(A)det(A ) = 1, so det(A) ∈ U(R). Thus, we have:

4.19 Proposition. Let R be a commutative ring and let n ∈ N*. a) A matrix S ∈ Mn(R) is invertible in Mn(R) if and only if det(S) is invertible in R.

b) Let E be a free R-module of rank n and let e = {e1,…, en}, f, g be bases in E. Then: Te, g = Tf, g·Te, f In particular, any basis change matrix Te, f is invertible. Conversely, if S = (sij) is invertible in Mn(R) and f i = then {f1,…, fn} is a basis in E.

∑ sij e j , 1 ≤ i ≤ n,

j =1

n

!

The facts not already proven in the proposition above have proofs that can be taken word for word from the case of the vector spaces. The multiplicative group of the n×n invertible matrices with entries in R, U(Mn(R)) = {S ∈ Mn(R) | ∃T ∈ Mn(R) such that ST = TS = I} = {S ∈ Mn(R) | det S ∈ U(R)} is also denoted GL(n, R) or GLn(R) and is called the linear general group of degree n over R. The following formalism is useful in many situations involving vectors and matrices. Let R be a commutative ring and let E be an R-module. If m, n, p are positive integers, let Mn, p(E) denote the set of n×p matrices with entries in E. It is evident that Mn, p(E) is an Abelian

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group with respect to usual matrix addition. For any A = (aij) ∈ Mm, n(R) and any X = (xjk) ∈ Mn, p(E), define the product AX ∈ Mm, p(E) by

AX = (yik) ∈ Mm, p(E), yik = E.

∑ aij x jk , ∀i ∈ {1, …, m}, ∀k ∈ {1, …, p},

j =1

n

Of course, aijxjk is the product given by the R-module structure of We obtain an “external operation” · : Mm, n(R)×Mn, p(E) → Mm, p(E), with the following properties (the proof of which is straightforward): (A + B)X = AX + BX, A(X + Y) = AX + AY, ∀ A, B ∈ Mm, n(R), ∀ X, Y ∈ Mn, p(E). * Moreover, if q ∈ N , then for any A ∈ Mq, m(R), B ∈ Mm, n(R), X ∈ Mn, p(E) we have: (AB)X = A(BX). If I is the identity matrix in Mn(R), then IX = X, ∀X ∈ Mn, p(E). Thus, Mn, p(E) is a left module over the ring Mn(R). As an application, let us see how the matrix of a homomorphism of free modules changes when we change bases in the modules.

4.20 Proposition. Let E and F be free R-modules, rank E = n, rank F = m and let e = (e1,…, en), e' = (e'1,…, e'n) be bases in E, ′ f = { f1,…, fm}, f' = ( f1′,… f m ) bases in F. Let S = (sij) ∈ Mn(R) be the basis change matrix from e to e' and let T = (tij) ∈ Mm(R) be the basis change matrix from f to f'. If ϕ : E → F is a homomorphism, then: −1 Me, f(ϕ) = S·Me', f'(ϕ)·T . Proof. Let Me, f(ϕ) = A = (aij) ∈ Mn, m(R), i.e.: ϕ(ei) = ∑j aij fj, ∀i ∈ {1, …, n}.

t

We view e = (e1, …, en) as a column matrix, e ∈ Mn, 1(E) and, similarly, f ∈ Mm, 1(F). The relations above can be written as ϕ(e) = A·f,

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t

where ϕ(e) = (ϕ(e1), …, ϕ(en)). In the same way, if B = Me', f'(ϕ), then −1 ϕ(e') = B·f'. Also we have e' = S·e and f' = T·f, or f = T ·f'. Since ϕ is an R-module homomorphism, we have ϕ(S·e) = S·ϕ(e) (prove this!). Thus: −1 −1 ϕ(e') = ϕ(S·e) = S·ϕ(e) = S·(A·f) = (SA)·f = (SA)·(T ·f') = (SAT )·f', which says that the matrix of ϕ in the bases e' and f' is SAT .

−1

!

Exercises

1. Let R be a ring and let L be a free R-module. Then any R-epimorphism ϕ : M → L splits. In particular, if K is a field, any short exact sequence of K-linear spaces 0 → U → V → W → 0, is split. 2. a) Let R be a domain and g1, …, gn ∈ R[X], with deg gi ≠ deg gj if i ≠ j. Then g1, …, gn are linearly independent in the R-module R[X]. b) Let K be a field of characteristic 0 (i.e. n·1 ≠ 0, ∀n ∈ N*, where 2 1 is the identity of K) and let a ∈ K. Then {1, X − a, (X − a) , …, n (X − a) , …} is a basis in the K-vector space K[X]. If p ∈ K[X], compute the coordinates of p in this basis. (Hint. Recall the Taylor series expansion, applied to polynomials.) 3. Prove that in the Z-module Q any subset having at least two elements is linearly dependent and that Z À ZQ. Deduce that ZQ is not free. 4. Let G be a finite Abelian group. Can G be a free Z-module? 5. Characterize the ideals I of the commutative ring R that are free R-modules.

Consider the statements: (i) I ≅ J (as R-modules). for any R N and any function ϕ : B → N. J be ideals in R.4 Free modules 117 6. Let M be an R-module with the following property: There exists a subset B of M such that. 10. (iii) R/I ≅ R/J (as rings). (the converse of Prop. b) Using the isomorphism theorems. Let W be a finite dimensional K-vector space and let U. 8. a) Show that dim(W/U) = dim W − dim U. 7. V ≤ KW.II. 4. express |M| as a function of |R| and |B|. Which are the valid implications between the above statements? 9. factor module) of a free module is still a free module? . Then M is free and B is a basis of M. Is it true that any submodule (resp. prove that dim(U + V) = dim U + dim V − dim(U ∩ V).9). (ii) R/I ≅ R/J (as R-modules). Let R be a commutative ring and let I. If M is a free R-module of basis B. there exists a unique R-homomorphism ψ : M → N with ψ|B = ϕ.

Another important application is to the problem of invariant subspaces of an endomorphism of a finitely dimensional vector space: we obtain the existence of a basis in which the given endomorphism has a “simple” matrix (the Jordan canonical form). Recall that. unless otherwise specified. Finitely generated modules over principal ideal domains In the case of finitely generated modules over PID's very precise structure theorems are available.1 The submodules of a free module Any module is a factor module of a free module.III. any free R-module E has the property that any two bases have the same cardinal (called the rank of E). Applying these theorems for Z. III. In order to build a factor module we need a submodule. a complete description of finitely generated Abelian groups is obtained. 118 . In this section. It is therefore natural to study first the submodules of a free module. if R is commutative. R denotes a principal ideal domain.

a1. {e1. so there is some a0 ∈ R such that x + G = a0 f0 + G. with a ∈ R. This means that x − a0 f0 ∈ G. free of rank n. But E/L is free. Let us show that it is a generating system. of basis {e2. Let {f1. so x − a0 f0 = a1 f1 + … + am fm.…. Let x ∈ F. fm} is a basis in F. we are done.…. and G = F ∩ L ≤ L. Let L := Re2 + … + Ren and G := F ∩ L. then a0 f0 + G = 0 + G (since a1 f1 + … + am fm ∈ G). Indeed. so F = F ≅ F+L ≤ E G L∩F L L Accordingly.1 The submodules of a free module 119 1. any submodule of H is free.III. fm} being a basis in G). for any free R-module H of rank n − 1. Therefore. We claim that B = {f0. this is true : any nonzero ideal of R is of the form Ra. the statement of the theorem becomes: any submodule ( = ideal) of R is free. ! . for some ai ∈ R. Thus. In this case. x = a0 f0 + a1 f1 + … + am fm. Take R E. but {f0 + G} is a basis in F/G.…. We get a1 f1 + … + am fm = 0. Then L is free. with a0 f0 + a1 f1 + … + am fm = 0. fm} be a basis in G and {f0 + G} a basis in F/G. if a0. en}. By induction. f1.…. so its rank is n − 1. Proof. of basis {e1 + L} (easy check) and thus F/G is free of rank 1 (by the case n = 1. Then F is free and rank F ≤ n. Let E be a free R-module of rank n and let F be a submodule of E. If n = 1 let {e} be a basis of E. Suppose that. We use an argument by induction on n. so {a} is a basis of Ra. we may suppose F ≠ 0. Since R is a PID. note that F + L ≤ R E. Evidently. en} a basis in E and F ≤ R E. of rank ≤ n − 1. which implies f1 = … = fm = 0 ({f1. of rank ≤ 1. G is free of rank m ≤ n − 1. If not.…. B is linearly independent. Then x + G ∈ F/G. If G = F. 0 ≠ F/G is isomorphic to a submodule of E/L. so a0 = 0. Then E = Re ≅ R.1 Theorem.…. am ∈ R. already proven).

−1 Comparing with f = De. such that m ≤ n. any fi is written uniquely as a linear combination of {e1. For any basis e' = (e'1. en} is a basis of E and {f1. …. n(R).….2 Theorem. en) and f = { f1. E a free R-module of rank n and F a submodule of E.…. 1(R).…. fm} as in the statement of the theorem. fi = diei. e' = Ve and f' = Uf. m}. fm} is a basis of F. We see that the existence of the bases e and f with the desired property is equivalent to the following: given A ∈ Mm. fm) in F. m}. en) in E and a basis f = ( f1.…. then these relation are written shortly: f' = Ae'.….…. Can we choose the bases in E and F such that A has a simple (e. so −1 f = U (AV)e. (see the discussion preceding 4. e' ∈ Mn.….. dm ∈ R and d1|d2|…|dm. ∀i ∈ {1.… f m ) in F. Replacing in f' = Ae'. we obtain D = U AV. We obtain a matrix A = (aij) ∈ Mm. Then the unique matrix D = (dij) ∈ Mm. we have Uf = A(Ve) = (AV)e. 1(E). Thus. as above. n(R) with f = De has the properties : dij = 0 if i ≠ j and d11|d22|…|dmm. Then there exists a basis e = (e1.20) and f' as a matrix in Mm. If we see e' i as a column matrix.…. (Beginning of) Proof. diagonal) form?1.g. Finitely generated modules over principal ideal domains Let R E and F ≤ R E. Let R be a principal ideal domain. where d1. 1. If {e1. Let V ∈ GLn(R) the basis change matrix from basis e to basis e' and U ∈ GLm(R) the basis change matrix from basis f to basis f'.120 III. The next theorem says the answer is Yes. with aij ∈ R. Suppose the problem is solved: we have two bases e = (e1.….…. ∀i ∈ {1. there exist 1 What about the case of vector spaces? . there exists a unique matrix A = (aij) ∈ Mm. e'n) in E and any ′ basis f' = ( f1′. n(R). en}: fi = ∑j aijej. n(R) such that f ' = ∑j aije'j.

Then any matrix A ∈ Mm. If r = min(m.n)) canonically diagonal (or in Smith normal form) if d1|d2|…|dr. with the additional condition d11|d22|…|dmm. c) The matrices A. ∀i ∈ {1.n) and d1. dr) ∈ Mm. Let m. n(R) is a diagonal matrix (i ≠ j implies dij = 0). the Smith normal form of A is unique in the following sense: if D = diag(d1. Let R be a PID and let m. which is interesting on its own: the proof is in fact an algorithm used to compute the Smith normal form of a matrix. …. r}. dr) := ⎢ ! * ! ! ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0 … d r 0⎥ ⎣ ⎦ denotes the diagonal matrix (dij) ∈ Mm. This is an equivalence relation on Mm. We finish the proof of theorem 1. dr ∈ R.2 by proving the next theorem.… .… . dr) and D' = diag(d'1. Moreover. ⎡d1 … 0 0⎤ diag(d1. n(R) (exercise!). a) A matrix D = (dij) ∈ Mm.…. b) We call a diagonal matrix D = diag(d1.1 The submodules of a free module −1 121 invertible matrices U and V such that U AV = D = (dij) ∈ Mm. 1.…. d'r) are in Smith nor- . n(R) (where r = min(m. n(R) with dii = di. n(R) are called arithmetically equivalent (denoted A ∼ B) if there exist invertible matrices U ∈ Mm(R) and V ∈ Mn(R) such that B = UAV. The following definitions are helpful: 1. n ∈ N*. We reduced the statement to a problem concerning matrices with elements in R.III.… .4 Theorem.3 Definitions. B ∈ Mm. n ∈ N*. n(R) is arithmetically equivalent to a matrix in Smith normal form. n(R) is called a diagonal matrix if its entries not situated on the main diagonal are zero: i ≠ j implies dij = 0.

j ∈ {1. such that the resulting matrix is arithmetically equivalent to A. Before proving the theorem. it is uniquely determined up to an association in divisibility of the entries on the diagonal.Type I : Tij(a). We shall see that these are the transformations that arise when computing determinants: swapping rows (or columns). j ∈ {1. 1. ….Type II : Pij. Tij(a) is obtained from I by adding to the row i the row j multiplied by a. D is called the Smith normal form of A.122 III. .5 Definitions. where a ∈ R. where i ∈ {1.Type III : Di(u). then d1 ∼ d'1. …. i. If D is in Smith normal form and is arithmetically equivalent to A. Di(u) is the matrix obtained from I by multiplying row i by u. Let m ∈ N* and let I be the identity matrix of the ring Mm(R). let us review the transformations that can be performed on the matrix A. . Finitely generated modules over principal ideal domains mal form and are arithmetically equivalent. m}. dr ∼ d'r (" ∼ " means here “associated in divisibility”). An elementary matrix is a square matrix in Mm(R) which is of one of the following types: . m}. m} and u ∈ U(R). i j 1 i Tij(a) = j ! * ! ! ! 0 + + 1 + a ! * ! + + 0 + 1 * 0 1 . where i. i ≠ j. ….…. addition to a row (column) of another row (column) multiplied by some element. i ≠ j. Pij is the matrix obtained from I by swapping row i with row j.

so Tij(a)Tij(−a) = Tij(0) = I. . This follows from the following relations. and Tij(a). b ∈ R. ∀a. If we take elementary matrices in Mn(R) and multiply A on the right with these matrices. Type II: APij is obtained from A by swapping the column i with the column j. Pij A is obtained from A by swapping the row i with the row j. All elementary matrices are invertible. Di(u)A is obtained from A by multiplying the row i by u. easy to prove: Tij(a)Tij(b) = Tij(a + b). we obtain the elementary transformations of the columns of A: Type I: ATij(a) is obtained from A by adding to the column i the column j multiplied by a. Di(u) are elementary matrices in Mm(R) as above.III. II. n(R).1 The submodules of a free module 123 i j i 1 ! * ! ! ! 0 1 0 0 1 Di(u) = ! ! * ! 0 0 i ++ 0 + 1 Pij = ! * ! j ++ 1 + 0 i +++ u * * 0 0 + 1 0 1 0 If A ∈ Mm. Type III: ADi(u) is obtained from A by multiplying the column i by u. Pij. respectively III). a direct calculation shows that: Tij(a)A is obtained from A by adding to the row i the row j multiplied by a. The transformations described above are called elementary transformations of the rows of A (of type I.

6 Proposition. any matrix obtained from A by elementary transformations of rows and/or columns is arithmetically equivalent to A. n(R). called the length of a. we obtain: 1. define the length of A: l(A) := min{l(aij) | i ∈ {1. We can finally prove theorem 1.4: The proof is by induction on m. where: P(m): For any matrix A ∈ Mm. n −1 ⎦ dimensions of the matrix. m}. By convention. a ≠ 0. l(0) = −∞. n−1(R) such that d1 divides all the entries of A' and . n −1 ⎤ ⎡ d1 form): ⎢ ⎥ . j ∈ {1. Define the number l(a).1 Am −1. For example. We prove P(m) by induction on l(A). l(1) = 0. set l(a) = 0. n(R). …. the inverse of an elementary matrix exists and is also an elementary matrix (of the same type). ∀u. where the subscripts indicate the ′ ⎣0m −1. l(a) is the number of prime factors (not necessarily distinct) of a decomposition of a in prime factors. if a is nonzero and not a unit. Finitely generated modules over principal ideal domains PijPij = I. as follows: if a is a unit. n}}. l(24) = 4.124 III. For any A ∈ Mm. we prove that P(m) holds for any m. n(R). a) Let R be an UFD and a ∈ R. More precisely. l(8) = 3. …. Looking at the definition of the relation of arithmetic equivalence between matrices. in Z. v ∈ U(R). −1 Dij(u)Dij(v) = Dij(uv). there exists d1 ∈ R and a matrix A is arithmetically equivalent to the matrix (written in block 01. ! We also need: 1.7 Definition. In other words. A' ∈ Mm−1. b) If A = (aij) ∈ Mm. so Dij(u)Dij(u ) = Dij(1) = I.

Subcase 2. This case is essentially Case 1. Indeed. Clearly. The condition that a11 divides all entries of A' is fulfilled (a11 is invertible!). Similarly.1. we make 0's on the first row and obtain a matrix of the form: 0⎤ ⎡a B = ⎢ 11 ⎥ ⎣ 0 A'⎦ with B ∼ A.1). We may suppose that a11 does not divide an entry of the first row or of the first column. which finishes the proof of P(m) by induction on l(A). n(R) with l(C) < l(A). A is arithmetically equivalent to a matrix of the form B. Let aij be a unit. l(A) ≥ 1. Indeed. the matrix obtained has 0 on the first column. with aij in the position (1. A is in Smith normal form. In this case we prove that A is arithmetically equivalent to a matrix C ∈ Mm. Let aij be the entry of A for which l(aij) = l(A). For 2 ≤ i ≤ m. In the same way we can annihilate the entries of the first row. We now obtain a matrix that has 0 on the column 1 (except for a11): for each i.2. we may suppose (swapping some rows and/or some columns) that l(a11) = l(A). then swap the columns j and 1. Thus. As in case 1. To simplify notations. except a11.III. a11 divides all the entries of A. Swap the rows i and 1. Subcase 2.1 The submodules of a free module 125 If A = 0 (l(A) = −∞). 2 ≤ i ≤ m. otherwise a11 divides all entries of the first . a11 divides the entries of the new matrix (these entries are linear combinations of the entries of A). add to the row i the row 1 multiplied by (−bi). A has an entry that is a unit (⇔ l(A) = 0). as in case 1. add to the row i −1 the row 1 multiplied by (−a11 ai1) (which amounts to multiply A on −1 the left with Ti1(−a11 ai1)). Case 1. since a11|ai1. Case 2. a11 does not divide all the entries of A. ∃ bi ∈ R with ai1 = a11bi. The matrix obtained is arithmetically equivalent to A. we may suppose thus from the beginning that a11 is invertible.

there exists an entry aij (with i. j > 1) such that a11 . n). so C := UA ∼ A. Finitely generated modules over principal ideal domains row and of the first column. arithmetically equivalent to A. dau + dbv = a11u + a21v = d. for some a. We cannot have d ∼ a11. because this implies a11|a21. false. i. But C has as the (1. so l(C) ≤ l(d) < l(a11) = l(A). a21). b) = 1 and R is a PID. We prove now the uniqueness part in theorem 1.4. then I does not appear anymore.n(R) and 1 ≤ k ≤ min(m. swap rows to achieve this). a21 = db. whose (1. we obtain a matrix with a11 the only nonzero entry of the first row and of the first column. Consider the matrix (written in block form): u v 0 U = -b a 0 0 0 I where I is the (m − 2)×(m − 2) identity matrix (if m = 2. suppose that a11 does not divide an element on the first column (the proof in the other case is similar. Working as in subcase 2. Let d = GCD(a11.aij. U is a 2×2 matrix). So. 1) . Since (a.entry is d (thus l(C) ≤ l(d) < l(A)). Suppose a11-a21 (if not. This finishes the proof of the existence part.e. 1)-entry ua11 + va21 = d. Let a11 = da. let ∆k(A) be the GCD of the minors determinant of a matrix obtained as follows: choose k rows and k columns of A and retain only the entries located at the intersection of the of order k of the matrix A (Recall that a minor of order k of A is the . there exist u. The matrix U is invertible (det U = ua + vb = 1). l(d) < l(a11) = l(A). we are done! If a11 does not divide all the entries of the matrix. To fix the ideas. We exhibit a matrix C. v ∈ R such that au + bv = 1.1.126 III. b ∈ R. the difference being that one multiplies on the right with adequate invertible matrices – see below). we obtain an entry on the column 1. Since d |a11. If a11 divides all the entries of the matrix. For any A ∈ Mm. By adding to the column 1 the column j. not divisible by a11.

In this case. lk. lk) the matrix having the rows l1. involving the prime factorizations of the 2 relation holds: det(al1 + bl'1. ∆r(A) and d1 ∼ ∆1(D)∼ ∆1(A). R is an Euclidian ring. for k ≥ 2. …. lk) + bdet(l'1. The claim now follows. if U ∈ Mm(R). So.e. …. …. Similarly. it follows that a minor of order k of UA is a linear combination of minors of order k of A. …. ik of UA) are linear combinations of the rows of A (truncated to contain only the entries on the columns i1. if A ∼ D. These relations indicate another method to compute effectively d1. the rows of UA are linear combinations (with coefficients in R) of the rows of A. lk) = adet(l1. If D = diag(d1. There are ⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟ minors of order k in an ⎝ k ⎠⎝ k ⎠ m×n matrix). d1. lk). dr) is in Smith normal form. …. Note that. …. dr (although the amount of computation is prohibitive if m. b ∈ R (similarly for any row li). So. …. ∆k(A) ∼ ∆k(B). an easy check show that ∆k(D) ∼ d1…dk. In practice.8 Remark. The existence part of the proof above is in fact an algorithm to find the Smith normal form of a given matrix. n are not small). Thus. then ∆k(A)|∆k(AV). if V ∈ Mn(R).III. the function length defined at 1. ∀a.7 (whose computation is costly. then ∆k(A)|∆k(UA). ! 1. i. ik). ….1 The submodules of a free module 127 ⎛ m ⎞⎛ n ⎞ chosen rows and columns. Applying the fact that the determinant of a matrix is a multilinear function of the rows of the matrix2. by symmetry. dr are determined (up to association in divisibility) by ∆1(A). …. …. By denoting (l1. ∆k(B)|∆k(A). the following . if A ∼ B. Indeed. dk ∼ ∆k(A)/∆k−1(A) . then ∆k(A)|∆k(B) and. the rows of a minor of order k of UA (corresponding to the choice of columns i1. ….

. n}}. 1) of the matrix UA. and A = (aij) ∈ Mm. To be precise. …. j ∈ {1. define ϕ(A) = min{ϕ(aij) | i ∈ {1. Find the Smith normal form of the matrix: ⎡2 6 9 ⎤ ⎢5 10 12⎥ ∈ M3(Z). which has thus ϕ(UA) < ϕ(A). R denotes a principal ideal domain. if R is Euclidian with respect to ϕ. 6. 9).e. rank L and the factor module 3 Z /L.n( R). 10. the quotient in the division with remainder of a21 to a11). v3 = (0.128 III. The proof above is rewritten word for word (replace everywhere l with ϕ). 3 . subtract from the row 2 of A the row 1 multiplied by q. This places r on the entry (2. 12). at the subcase 2. Finitely generated modules over principal ideal domains elements of the matrix) can be advantageously replaced by the function ϕ in the definition of the Euclidian ring. unless otherwise specified. 12). …. We invite the reader to check the details and apply the algorithm in the proof in concrete cases (see also the exercises). v2 = (5. m}. replace the matrix U with T21(− q). 1.2. ⎥ ⎢ ⎢0 6 12⎥ ⎦ ⎣ If L is the submodule of Z generated by v1 = (2. 6. Exercises In the exercises. determine a basis of L. where a21 = a11q + r. with ϕ(r) < ϕ(a11) = min{ϕ(aij)} (i.

Find the Smith normal form of a diagonal matrix diag (a1. 0.…. …. R) such that the first row of V is (a1.) 3. Let m. Let n ∈ N . an) ∈ Mn(R). b ∈ R. 0. b). 5. Let n ∈ N and let a1. 9. …. fm > can be obtained as follows: * n m * * . dr nonzero. R) such that (x1. …. where 1 appears r times (r is the rank of the matrix A). Consider the Smith normal form of the row matrix (x1. 10. xn ∈ R and d = GCD(x1. (Hint. xn). …. Show that a basis in F = < f1. Let U ∈ GL(m. …. …. n(R) (in the canonical bases). 4. …. ….…. R) and V ∈ GL(n. Show that the Smith normal form of ⎢ ⎥ is ⎣ 0 b⎦ ⎡d 0 ⎤ ⎢ 0 m ⎥ . Use the invari⎣ ⎦ ants ∆k. 8. where d = GCD(a. en) is a basis in L and {f1. 7. namely diag(d1. b). …. x1. 0.1. xn)V = (d. Let a.…. …. 6. Determine all subgroups of (Z×Z. …. Then the Smith normal form of A is diag(1. +). Find the Smith normal form of a row matrix (a1.…. 0). xn)). Show that a basis in Kerϕ is (vr+1. dr.III. n ∈ N and let ϕ : R → R be an R-homomorphism whose matrix is A ∈ Mm. (Ind. n) and d1. R) such that UAV is in Smith normal form. 0). with r ≤ min(m.…. n(R). where vi is the column i of the man trix V (vi is seen as an element in R ). an ∈ R. m = LCM(a. an) if and only if GCD(a1. vn). Show that: there exists V ∈ GL(n. …. an) = 1. Show that there exists V ∈ GL(n. an) ∈ M1. …. ….1 The submodules of a free module 129 ⎡ a 0⎤ 2. Suppose L is a free R-module of rank n. fm} ⊆ L. Let K be a field and let A ∈ Mm. (e1. 0). n(K).

Consider the equation * Ax = b. Then a basis in F is {gi | 1 ≤ i ≤ m. 1(R). the order of an element in M is defined up to an association in divisibility. Let gi := ∑j uij fj ∈ F. n(R) such that fi = ∑j aijej (1 ≤ i ≤ n) and let U ∈ GLm(R). n + 1(R) (the first n columns of A are the columns of A. (see also exercise 8. Thus. 0).1 Definition. the task is now easy. where D is the Smith normal form of A and 0 is the zero column in Mm. M is an R-module and x ∈ M. and a detailed description of any submodule of a finitely generated free module is available (Theorem 1. Finitely generated modules over principal ideal domains Let A = (aij) ∈ Mm. denoted by o(x). this is the Kronecker-Capelli theorem. n ∈ N . Consider the “extended matrix” A = (A. Since any module is a factor of a free module. gi ≠ 0}.2 Finitely generated modules over a principal ideal domain We are now ready to describe the structure of finitely generated modules over a principal ideal domain. n(R) and b ∈ Mm.2 ). we have . b) ∈ Mm. 11.130 III. A generator of the ideal AnnR(x) is called an order of x. the last column is b). We need only some preparations: 2. Show that: Ax = b has solun tions x in R if and only if the Smith normal form of A is (D. 1(R). Therefore. If R is a PID. V ∈ GLn(R). then AnnR(x) (= {r ∈ R | rx = 0}) is a principal ideal of R. Let m. Note that if R is a field. x ∈ R (a linear system of m equations and n unknowns). A ∈ Mm. with UAV in Smith normal form.) n III.

If ϕ : E → F is an R-module isomorphism and x ∈ E.3 Theorem.III. Let πj : ⊕I Mi → Mj be the canonical surjections. Since x = ∑i∈I πi(x). Rx ≅ R/Ro(x). m ∈ N. then the sum of the submodules (Ni)i∈I is direct and we have a canonical isomorphism : ⊕ Mi M i∈I ≅⊕ i . there exist n.2 Finitely generated modules over a principal ideal domain 131 AnnR(x) = Ro(x). it follows that Kerϕ = ∑i∈I Ni = ⊕I Mi. 2. One easily checks i∈I N i that ϕ is a surjective homomorphism (in fact. More precisely. Let R be a ring and let M be a left R-module such that M is the direct sum of a family of submodules (Mi)i∈I. and x1. Apply now the isomorphism theorem. Recall that R° is the set of nonzero noninvertible elements of R. (Invariant factors theorem) Let R be a principal ideal domain and let M be a finitely generated R-module. ϕ is the direct sum of the family of homomorphisms ηi◦πi : M → Mi/Ni. ∀i ∈ I}. …. M = ⊕I Mi.2 Lemma. Define M ϕ : M → ⊕ i by ϕ(x) = (πi(x) + Ni)i∈I. which determines the structure of finitely generated modules over a principal ideal domain. ∀i ∈ I. then o(x) = o(ϕ(x)) since AnnR(x) = AnnR(ϕ(x)). Then M is a direct sum of a finite number of cyclic submodules. This notion generalizes the usual concept of order of an element in an Abelian group. If Ni ≤ R Mi. ⊕ N i i∈I N i i∈I Proof. ∀x ∈ M. xn ∈ M such that : M = Rx1⊕ …⊕ Rxm ⊕ Rxm+1…⊕ Rxn. (D) . with m ≤ n. 2. We have Kerϕ = {x ∈ M | πi(x) ∈ Ni. ! We state now the following important theorem. where ηi : Mi → Mi/Ni is the canonical surjection).

in the following sense: if n'. with di ∈ R.2 provides us with a basis e = (e1.…. Changing notations if necessary. dk ∈ U(R) and dk+1. 1 ≤ i ≤ n. dm are non invertible. ek+1. ∀i ∈ {1. m ∈ N and the orders o(xi) ∈ R.…. ∀i ∈ {1. Let (S) n = |S|. dm+1 = … = dn = 0. en) in E and a basis f = (f1. fk+1.….…. (S) given by ϕ(es) = s. Besides. m' ∈ N. 1 ≤ i ≤ k.2): R e1 Re Re Re M≅E/F ≅ ⊕ … ⊕ k ⊕ k +1 ⊕ … ⊕ m ⊕ R em+1 ⊕ … ⊕ R en R e1 R ek Rf k +1 Rf m Re Re = k +1 ⊕ … ⊕ m ⊕ Rem +1 ⊕ … ⊕ Ren Rf k +1 Rf m ≅ Rek +1 ⊕ … ⊕ Rem ⊕ Rem +1 ⊕ … ⊕ Ren Rf k +1 ⊕ … ⊕ Rf m Thus.…. we may suppose from the beginning that d1. The “orders” o(xi) are called the invariant factors of the module M. m} and d1|d2|…|dm . …. ∀s ∈ S ((es)s∈S is the canonical basis of R ). E = R . dm ∉ U(R). (D') and o(yi) =: ei satisfy : ei ∈ R°. Then Rfi = Rdiei = Rei. m'} and e1|e2|…|em' . en. yn' ∈ M such that : M = Ry1⊕ …⊕ Rym' ⊕ Rym' +1…⊕ Ryn'. …. …. and y1. n = n' and di ∼ ei. The existence part: if S ⊆ M is finite and generates M.…. i = 1 n with the ’ above properties are uniquely determined. n}. em'+1 = … = en' = 0. Finitely generated modules over principal ideal domains Moreover. then m = m'.…. Proof. where F is the kernel of ϕ. fm. then (S) there is an isomorphism ψ : R /F → M. fm) in F (with m ≤ n) such that fi = diei. Theorem 1.132 III. di ≠ 0 and d1|d2|…|dm. with m' ≤ n'. ∀i ∈ {1. so {xi |1 ≤ i ≤ n} generates M. the structure of M is determined by dk+1. …. and we can write (applying lemma 2.…. . There exists k ∈ N (0 ≤ k ≤ m) such that d1. We have M = Rx1⊕…⊕Rxn because {ei + F |1 ≤ i ≤ n} generates E/F. o(xi) =: di ∈ R satisfy the conditions: di ∈ R°. Let ψ(ei + F) = xi ∈ M. The numbers n. dm.

∀x ∈ M} is called the annihilator of the module M. if 1 ≤ i ≤ m and o(xi) = 0 if m + 1 ≤ i ≤ n. so r = 0 if m + 1 ≤ i ≤ n and r = sidi if 1 ≤ i ≤ m. p ||d ⇔ k is the exponent of p in the prime factor decomposition of d). we need some “invariants”. if t(M) = 0. if M ≅R N. For the uniqueness part. Also. 2.5 Proposition. This finishes the proof of existence of a decomposition (D) of M. rxi = 0 ⇔ rei ∈ F ⇔ ∃si ∈ R such that ∑1 ≤ i ≤ n riei = ∑1 ≤ i ≤ m sidiei. Let R be a domain and let M be an R-module. since ∑1 ≤ i ≤ n ri(ei + F) = 0 + F ⇔ ∃si ∈ R such that ∑1 ≤ i ≤ n riei = ∑1 ≤ i ≤ m sidiei ⇔ ri = sidi. let za(M) := {x ∈ M | ax = 0} (called the annihilator of a in M. o(xi) = o(ei + F) = di. then t(M) ≅ t(N). 1 ≤ i ≤ n. M is called a torsion module. t(M) is called the torsion submodule of M). for any r ∈ R.4 Definitions.III. c) If a ∈ R. p ||d means p |d and p -d (if R is a UFD. k k k+1 k If d ∈ R and k ∈ N. a) t(M) is a submodule of M and t(M/t(M)) = 0. b) If M = ⊕i∈I Mi. . for m + 1 ≤ i ≤ n ⇔ ri(ei + F) = 0 + F. a) Define t(M) := {x ∈ M | ∃r ∈ R \{0} with rx = 0}. If M = t(M). Let R be a domain and let M be an R-module. b) Let p ∈ R be a prime element. Define tp(M) := {x ∈ M | ∃n ∈ N n cu p x = 0} (called the p-torsion submodule of M or the p-submodule of M). M is called a torsion-free module. 2. d) AnnR(M) := {r ∈ R | rx = 0. then t(⊕i∈I Mi) = ⊕i∈I t(Mi). The elements of t(M) are called torsion elements. for any 1 ≤ i ≤ m and ri = 0.2 Finitely generated modules over a principal ideal domain 133 E/F = R(e1 + F)⊕…⊕R(en + F). also denoted sometimes by AnnM(a) or rM(a)). We need to collect the basic proprieties of these invariants. Indeed.

This shows that ⊕i∈I t(Mi) ⊆ t(M). Let R be a PID. ∀i ∈ I. . Proof. with xi ∈ Mi. Evidently. y ∈ t(M) and let r. c) Take a decomposition (D) of M. ∀j ∈ J. Then there exists 0 ≠ a ∈ R such that ax = ∑i∈I axi = 0. a finitely generated torsion-free module is free. then tp(⊕i∈I Mi) = ⊕i∈I tp(Mi). then tp(M) ≅ tp(N). b ∈ R. since J is finite). Then there exists 0 ≠ b ∈ R with bax = 0. b) Let (xi)i∈I have finite support. Let x + t(M) ∈ t(M/t(M)): there exists 0 ≠ a ∈ R with ax ∈ t(M). rn ∈ R such that x = r1x1 + … + rmxm +… + rnxn and ax = ar1x1 + … + armxm +… + arnxn = 0. xi ∈ t(Mi).… xm ∈ t(M). denoting by L the free module ⊕i > m Rxi. Because the sum of the submodules Rxi is direct. there is some family (rj)j∈J. If x ∈ t(M). x + t(M) = 0 + t(M). since dixi = 0 and di ≠ 0. M = t(M)⊕L. a) tp(M) is a submodule in M and tp(M/tp(M)) = 0. a) Let x. there is some 0 ≠ a ∈ R and r1. so Rx1⊕…⊕Rxm ⊆ t(M). If xi ∈ t(Mi) such that J := supp((xi)i∈I) is finite. ∀i ∈ I. r ≠ 0 and r∑i∈I xi = 0. s ∈ R.6 Proposition. Finitely generated modules over principal ideal domains c) Let R be a PID. We have ab ≠ 0 and ab(rx + sy) = 0. so rx + sy ∈ t(M). nonzero. Then there exist a.…. x1. with 0 ≠ rj ∈ R and rjxj = 0. Obviously. i = 1 n . then ’ ari ∈ AnnR(xi) = 0. arixi = 0. Thus.e. If M is finitely generated. if M ≅R N. From M = ⊕i∈I Mi it follows that axi = 0. i. So. If i > m.134 III. such that ∑i∈I xi := x ∈ t(M). so ri = 0. such that ax = by = 0. such that M = t(M)⊕L. free. Let r := ∏j∈J rj (well defined. then t(M) is a direct summand in M and there exists L ≤ R M. t(M) ⊆ ⊕i∈I t(Mi). b) If M = ⊕i∈I Mi. It is now clear that. We show that t(M) = Rx1⊕…⊕Rxm. We deduce that x ∈ Rx1⊕…⊕Rxm. ! 2. let M be an R-module and p ∈ R a prime element. In particular. so x ∈ t(M) (since ba ≠ 0).

Since (d. i. ϕ(r) = rb + Rd. so r + Rd = 0.c)). We have rx = 0 ⇔ ∑i∈I rxi = 0 ⇔ rxi = 0. ∀i ∈ I (since rxi ∈ Mi. let r + Rd ∈ tp(R/Rd). p) = 1. k We have R/Rp ≅ Rb/Rd by the isomorphism theorem applied to ϕ : R → Rb/Rd. The idea is to apply the invariants t.2 Finitely generated modules over a principal ideal domain k k 135 c) Let d ∈ R and k ∈ N such that p ||d. Consider the surjective homomorphism ϕ : R → Ra/Rd. ! 2. p) = 1. Then tp(R/Rd) ≅ R/Rp . and the sum is direct) ⇔ xi ∈ zr(Mi). So. ∀r ∈ R. tp to the decompositions (D) and (D'). b) If M = ⊕i∈I Mi . ∀i ∈ I. then zr(M) ≅R zr(N). a) zr(M) is a submodule in M. ∀i ∈ I. So. Proof. a) and b) have similar proofs with 2. zp(R/Rd) = Ra/Rd. Proof. b) Let x = ∑i∈I xi.e. Since t(M) = Rx1⊕…⊕Rxm = Ry1⊕…⊕Rym' (see 2. ∀r ∈ R. ϕ(r) = ra + Rd.5. so Ra/Rd ≅ R/Rp. if x ∈ M and o(x) = d. with c ∈ R.III. then zp(Rx) = 0 if p-o(x) and zp(Rx) ≅ R/Rp if p|o(x). So b| p r and (b. There exist s ∈ N such that p r ∈ Rd.7 Proposition. Ins deed. then tp(Rx) = 0. k c) Let b ∈ R such that d = p b. then tp(Rx) ≅ R/Rp . c) Let p . We claim that tp(R/Rd) = Rb/Rd. s k s p r = dc = p bc.d and r ∈ R. In k particular. this implies d | r. if x ∈ M. with xi ∈ Mi.3. if p-d. if M ≅R N. we get: .5 and are proposed as an exercise. a) Exercise. In particular. which imply b|r. then zp(R/Rd) = 0 if p-d and zp(R/Rd) ≅ R/Rp if p|d. ! We can proceed now to prove the uniqueness part in 2. c) If R is a PID. Let p|d and a ∈ R with d = pa. For any r ∈ R. The other inclusion is obvious. We have Kerϕ = Rp. zp. p ∈ R is a prime element and d ∈ R. Let M be an R-module and let r ∈ R. then zr(M) = ⊕i∈I zr(Mi). pr ∈ Rd = Rpa ⇔ r ∈ Ra. r ∈ Rb and tp(R/Rd) ⊆ Rb/Rd. We have p(r + Rd) = 0 + Rd ⇔ pr ∈ Rd ⇔ d | pr.

It is clear that this is also an R/Rp-module isomorphism. 1 ≤ i ≤ m. 1 ≤ i ≤ m. 1 ≤ i ≤ m. 1 ≤ i ≤ m. Indeed. so m ≤ m'. if M ≅ R/Rd1⊕…⊕R/Rdm. yn'} are bases in the free module M/t(M). Use now (**). with d1|d2|…|dm. AnnR(M) = Rdm (prove!). such that p divides ei. so they have the same number of elements: n − m = n' − m'. 1 ≤ i ≤ m. Of course. (**) then m = m' and di ∼ ei. we can write the R-module isomorphisms: zp(M) ≅ zp(Rx1⊕…⊕Rxm) ≅ zp(Rx1)⊕…⊕zp(Rxm) ≅ R/Rp⊕…⊕R/Rp (m terms). By (**). so dm ∼ em'. (we used that p|di. Consider zp(M). By symmetry. . Let us show that di ∼ ei. with e1|e2|…|em'. Since d1|d2|…|dm. Note first that dm ∼ em'. so m = m'.136 III. let k be the number of those indices i. Let p be an arbitrary prime factor of dm and let αi (respectively βi) be the exponent of p in the decomposition of di (respectively ei). By 2. since two isomorphic R/Rp-vector spaces have the same dimension. But {xm+1. Finitely generated modules over principal ideal domains M/t(M) ≅ Rxm+1⊕…⊕Rxn ≅ Rym'+1⊕…⊕Ryn'. m k So. Since Rxi ≅ R/Rdi. by (*). m' ≤ m. It is sufficient to show that αi = βi. k ≤ m'. we have to prove that. ∀x ∈ M} is an ideal in R. 1 ≤ i ≤ m). …. xn} and {ym'+1. we suppose in the sequel that M = t(M) = Rx1⊕…⊕Rxm = Ry1⊕…⊕Rym'.7 and (*). Let p be a prime divisor of d1. Suppose that is not so: then there exists j. It remains to prove that m = m' and di ∼ ei. 1 ≤ i ≤ m. …. (R/Rp) ≅ (R/Rp) (R-module isomorphism). so m = k. To this end. 1 ≤ i ≤ m. Ryi ≅ R/Rei. ei ∈ R°. AnnR(M) = Rem'. But R/Rp is a field (p is prime and R is a PID). (*) M ≅ R/Re1⊕…⊕R/Rem'. di ∈ R°. with 1 ≤ i ≤ m'. We have : zp(M) ≅ zp(Ry1)⊕…⊕zp(Rym') ≅ R/Rp⊕…⊕R/Rp (k terms). 1 ≤ i ≤ m'. AnnR(M) = {r ∈ R| rx = 0. we have α1 ≤ α2 ≤ … ≤ αm (and also β1 ≤ β2 ≤ … ≤ βm). Then p|di.

III.2 Finitely generated modules over a principal ideal domain

137

1 ≤ j ≤ m, minimal with the property that αj ≠ βj (thus αi = βi if i < j). Say, for instance, that αj < βj. Apply tp. By (*) and 2.6, we have: tp(M) ≅ tp(Rx1)⊕…⊕tp(Rxm) ≅ R Rpα1 ⊕ … ⊕ R Rpαm “Multiply” tp(M) by p j (i.e., consider the submodule p j t p (M ) ). We

α

**By (**), tp(M) ≅ tp(Ry1)⊕…⊕tp(Rym) ≅ R Rp β1 ⊕ … ⊕ R Rp βm .
**

α

obtain from (*):

α

p jtp (M ) ≅ p

αj

(R

Rpα1 ⊕ … ⊕ p ⊕ … ⊕ R Rp

)

αj

( R Rp )

αm

≅ R Rp

α j +1 −α j

α m −α j

We have used the proprieties (whose proof is immediate): if α β M = ⊕i∈I Mi and r ∈ R, then rM = ⊕i∈I rMi ; p {R/Rp } ≅ 0 if β ≤ α; α β β −α p {R/Rp } ≅ R/Rp if β > α. From (**), with a similar argument, we have : α α α p j t p ( M ) ≅ p j R Rp β1 ⊕ … ⊕ p j R Rp βm

(

)

(

)

≅ R Rp

β j −α j

⊕ … ⊕ R Rp

β m −α j

Therefore, α −α α −α β −α β −α R Rp j +1 j ⊕ … ⊕ R Rp m j ≅ R Rp j j ⊕ … ⊕ R Rp m j These are decompositions of the type (*), as one easily sees. Let k be the number of indices i for which αi > αj (evidently, 0 ≤ k ≤ m − j). In the left hand side we have k nonzero terms and in the right hand side there are m − j + 1 nonzero terms. The first part of the proof shows that k = m − j + 1, contradicting k ≤ m − j. Thus, we must have αi = βi, 1 ≤ i ≤ m. !

2.8 Remark. An R-module M can have several decompositions of type (D). But the sequence of ideals AnnR(x1) ⊇ AnnR(x2) ⊇ … ⊇ AnnR(xn) is uniquely determined. The generators (uniquely determined up to an association in divisibility) d1, d2, …, dn ∈ R of these ideals are called the invariant factors of the R-module M. Sometimes this name is

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III. Finitely generated modules over principal ideal domains

given to the sequence of ideals above. If in the principal ideal domain R there is a natural way to choose a generator of an ideal, the invariant factors are the “natural” generators of the annihilator ideals above. For example, in Z the positive generator is chosen, in K[X] (K a field) the monic polynomial that generates the ideal is chosen. ˆ ˆ 2.9 Example. Let Z2 = { 0, 1 }, Z6 = { 0 , 1 , …, 5 } and the Z-module Z2×Z6. We have the following decompositions: Z2×Z6 = Zx1⊕Zx2 = Zy1⊕Zy2, ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ where x1 = ( 1, 0 ), x2 = ( 0, 1 ), y1 = ( 1, 3 ), y2 = ( 0, 5 ) (check this!). Of course, these are distinct decompositions, but AnnR(x1) = AnnR(y1) = 2Z and AnnR(x2) = AnnR(y2) = 6Z. The sequence of invariant factors of the Z-module Z2×Z6 is: 6, 2.

Exercises

1. Give an example of a finitely generated Z-module such that its torsion submodule has at least two complements. (cf. Prop. 2.5.) 2. Let R be a domain and let u : M → N be an R-module homomorphism. Then u(t(M)) ⊆ t(N). State and prove a similar propriety for tp(M) (R is a PID and p is a prime element in R) and zr(M) (where r ∈ R). 3. Assume R is a domain, M is an R-module and L ≤ R M. Then M/L is torsion-free if and only if t(M) ⊆ L. 4. This exercise gives an example of a Z-module M such that t(M) is not a direct summand in M. (Thus, by 2.5.c), M cannot be finitely generated). Let P = {pn |n ≥ 1} be the set of prime natural numbers and let M := ∏p∈P Zp. Show that:

III.2 Finitely generated modules over a principal ideal domain

139

**a) t(M) = ⊕p∈P Zp ( = {(ap)p∈P | ∀p ∈ P, ap ∈ Zp and supp((ap)P) finite}). b) ∀n ∈ Z, n ≠ 0, n·(M/t(M)) = M/t(M). c) ∀x ∈ M, ∃p ∈ P such that x ∉ pM. d) If M = t(M)⊕S, with S ≤ R M, then S ≅ M/t(M). e) t(M) is not a direct summand in M.
**

5. Let p be a prime natural number and let G = Zp×Zp. Prove that the subgroups of G coincide with the Zp-vector subspaces of G. How many vector subspaces of dimension 1 are there in G? In how many ways can ZG be written as a direct sum of two proper submodules? (Hint: the sum of any two nonzero distinct subspaces is direct, equal to G). 6. State a structure theorem for finitely generated Abelian groups. 7. Give an example of an Abelian group G that is neither cyclic, nor a direct sum of cyclic groups. (Hint: G cannot be finitely generated. An example is Q). 8. Determine all Abelian groups with 100 elements. 9. Let G be a finite Abelian group whose order is squarefree (not divisible with the square of any prime). Then G is cyclic. 10. If G is a finite Abelian group and n is the exponent of G ( = GCD of the orders of the elements of G), then G contains an element of order n. (Hint: use the theorem of invariant factors). Give an example of a group G such that n is a proper divisor of the order of G. 11. Let G be a finite Abelian group. Show that, for any divisor d of |G|, there exists a subgroup of G having d elements. 12. For n ∈ N*, let gn denote the number of isomorphism types of Abelian groups having n elements. For what n ∈ N* we have gn = 1? Determine {n ∈ N | n ≤ 100, gn ≥ 4}. 13. Using the structure theorem of finite Abelian groups, show that * any finite subgroup G of the multiplicative group K (where K is a

140

III. Finitely generated modules over principal ideal domains

field) is cyclic. (Hint. If G has more than one invariant factor and d is the greatest invariant factor, then any element of G is a root of a d X − 1 and d < |G|).

14. Determine the finitely generated Abelian groups with the property that their lattice of subgroups is a chain ( = totally ordered with respect to inclusion).

**III.3 Indecomposable finitely generated modules
**

Theorem 2.3 says that any finitely generated R-module (if R is a PID) is a direct sum of cyclic submodules. Can such a decomposition be refined? In other words, can we decompose further these submodules as direct sums of proper submodules?

3.1 Definition. Let R be a ring (not necessarily commutative). An R-module M is called indecomposable if M ≠ 0 and M has no proper direct summands (if L, N ≤ R M are such that M = L⊕N, then L = 0 or N = 0). An R-module that is not indecomposable is called decomposable. 3.2 Examples. a) The Z-module Z6 is decomposable: Z6 = 2Z6⊕3Z6. b) If R M is isomorphic to a direct product of modules of the type A×B, with A, B nonzero, then M is decomposable. b) If K is a field, a K-vector space V is decomposable if and only if dim V > 1. (Besides, any proper subspace of a vector space is a direct summand). c) The Z-module Z2 is indecomposable (it has no proper submodules altogether).

III.3 Indecomposable finitely generated modules

141

3.3 Proposition. If the lattice of submodules of the R-module M is a chain (it is totally ordered) with respect to inclusion, then M is indecomposable. Proof. Suppose M = A⊕B, with A, B ≤ R M. But the lattice of submodules of M is a chain, so A ⊆ B or B ⊆ A. Thus, A ∩ B = 0 im! plies A = 0 or B = 0. 3.4 Corollary. Let R be a PID, p ∈ R a prime element and k ∈ N. k Then the cyclic module R/Rp is indecomposable. Proof. Suppose k ≥ 1. It is enough to check that the lattice of ideals k k of R that include Rp is a chain (see II.2.3). But the ideal I includes Rp k if and only if I = Ra (I is principal), where a ∈ R, a|p . The divisors of k t t p are p , 0 ≤ t ≤ k, so a ∼ p for some t ≤ k. This says that the ideals k k k−1 2 that include Rp are chained: Rp ⊆ Rp ⊆ …⊆ Rp ⊆ Rp ⊆ R. If k = 0, we have to show that R R is indecomposable. This is true for an arbitrary domain: the intersection of any two nonzero submodules ( = ideals) I, J of R is nonzero: if a ∈ I, b ∈ J are nonzero, then ! 0 ≠ ab ∈ I ∩ J.

If R is a PID, the cyclic modules (isomorphic to) R/Rp , with p prime in R and k ≥ 0, are all finitely generated indecomposable R-modules. This follows from the following result, valid in any commutative ring.

3.5 Theorem. (Chinese remainder theorem) Let R be a commutative ring, n ≥ 2 and I1,…, In ideals of R. a) If Ii + Ij = R for i ≠ j,3 then the product 4 I1·…·In is equal to the intersection I1 ∩…∩ In and there is a natural isomorphism of rings

k

(and of R-modules) η:

The ideals Ii şi Ij are called in this case comaximal. For example, the ideals Za and Zb of Z are comaximal if and only if a and b are coprime.

3

142

III. Finitely generated modules over principal ideal domains

R R R R = ≅ ×… × , I1 ⋅ … ⋅ I n I1 ∩ … ∩ I n I1 In

η(r + I1 ∩…∩ In) = (r + I1, …, r + In), ∀r ∈ R.

b) Conversely, if the homomorphism ϕ : R → R R ×… × , I1 In

ϕ(r) = (r + I1, …, r + In), ∀r ∈ R is surjective (inducing an isomorphism R R R ≅ ×… × as above), then Ii and Ij are comaxiI1 ∩ … ∩ I n I1 In mal ideals, for any i ≠ j. Proof. a) We prove by induction on n that I1·…·In = I1 ∩…∩ In and that η is an isomorphism. For n = 2, I1 + I2 = R implies the existence of x ∈ I1, y ∈ I2 such that x + y = 1. Let z ∈ I1 ∩ I2. Then z = z·1 = zx + zy, with zx, zy ∈ I1·I2, so I1 ∩ I2 ⊆ I1I2. Thus, I1 ∩ I2 = I1I2. R R Let ϕ : R → × , ϕ(r) = (r + I1, r + I2), ∀r ∈ R. ϕ is a ring (and I1 I 2

surjections R → R/Ij). We have:

an R-module) homomorphism (it is the direct product of the canonical Kerϕ = {r ∈ R| (r + I1, r + I2) = (0 + I1, 0 + I2)} = I1 ∩ I2 The isomorphism theorem implies that R/I1 ∩ I2 ≅ Imϕ and the

isomorphism is precisely η. Let us prove that ϕ is surjective (which R R will finish the proof). Let (r1 + I1, r2 + I2) ∈ × . We must exhibit I1 I 2

r ∈ R with r − r1 ∈ I1, r − r2 ∈ I2. Such an element is r = r1 y + r2 x. Indeed, r − r1 = r1y + r2x − r1x − r1y = (r2 − r1)x ∈ I1.

Recall that the product IJ of two ideals I and J is the ideal generated by all the products ij, i ∈ I, j ∈ J. The product of ideals is associative and always IJ ⊆ I ∩ J.

4

III.3 Indecomposable finitely generated modules

143

Similarly, r − r2 ∈ I2. Suppose now that for any k < n and any ideals I1,…, Ik, pairwise comaximal , we have I1·…·Ik = I1 ∩…∩ Ik and η is an isomorphism. Take n pairwise comaximal ideals I1,…, In. Since Ij + In = R, 1 ≤ j ≤ n − 1, there exist aj ∈ Ij, bj ∈ In, such that aj + bj = 1. Multiply these n − 1 equalities:

**∏ (a j + b j ) = a1·…·an−1 + b = 1, where b ∈ In, a1·…·an−1 ∈ I1·…·In−1.
**

j =1

n −1

So, I1·…·In−1 + In = R. Applying the case n = 2 to the comaximal ideals I1·…·In−1 and In, I1·…·In−1·In = (I1·…·In−1) ∩ In = (I1 ∩…∩ In−1) ∩ In We also used the induction hypothesis I1·…·In−1 = I1∩…∩ In−1. Also, case n = 2 says that R R R ≅ × , (I1 ⋅… ⋅ I n−1 ) ⋅ I n I1 ⋅… ⋅ I n−1 I n

r + I1·…·In & (r + I1…In−1, r + In), ∀r ∈ R.

**On the other hand, by induction, we have the isomorphism: R R R ≅ ×… × , I1 ⋅ … ⋅ I n −1 I1 I n −1
**

r + I1·…·In−1 & (r + I1, …r + In−1), ∀r ∈ R.

Combining these isomorphisms, we obtain the result. b) We prove that I1 and I2 are comaximal. Let (1 + I1, 0 + I2, …, R R 0 + In) ∈ × … × . There exists y ∈ R such that (y + I1, y + I2, …, I1 In

y + In) = (1 + I1, 0 + I2, …, 0 + In), i.e. y ∈ I2 and y − 1 =: x ∈ I1. So, ! 1 = −x + y ∈ I1 + I2, which means I1 + I2 = R.

3.6 Corollary. a) Let R be a PID and let a1, …, an ∈ R. If (ai, aj) = 1, ∀i ≠ j, then:

…. then (a. (applying ϕ) M = Rx1⊕…⊕Rxn. with o(x) = d = a1·…·an ∈ R° and (ai. b ∈ R. …. isomorphic to R (in this case M is torsion-free) or M is cyclic. then there exist xi ∈ M. Proof. being isomorphic to R Rpiki . ∀i ≠ j. Apply now the Chinese remainder theorem for Ra1. o(xi) = o(yi) = ai. So. b) If M is a cyclic R-module M = Rx (x ∈ M). r + Ran). Ran. b) = 1 ⇔ Ra + Rb = R. there is an isomorphism ϕ : R/Ra1 ×…× R/Ran → M. Finitely generated modules over principal ideal domains R R R ≅ ×… × Ra1 … an Ra1 Ran r + Ra1…an & (r + Ra1. then M ≅ R is indecomposable. there exist xi ∈ M such that M = Rx1⊕…⊕Rxt. such that o(xi) = ai and M = Rx = Rx1⊕…⊕Rxm c) Any cyclic R-module can be written as a direct sum of indecomposable submodules. If k d = 0. let d = p1 1 … ptkt the prime factor decomposition of d (where p1. By a). piki and p j j are coprime if i ≠ j. aj) = 1. 1 ≤ i ≤ n. b) is Ra + Rb. ! 3. Indeed. …. 1 + Rai. If d ≠ 0. (a. …. Let R be a PID and let M be a finitely generated R-module.7 Corollary. Then: . 0 + Ran) and xi := ϕ(yi).M is indecomposable if and only if: either M is cyclic. Let yi := (0 + Ra1. the ideal generated by GCD(a. So. b) We have M ≅ R/Rd. …. applying b). 1 ≤ i ≤ m. Clearly. c) This follows from a): let M = Rx. ∀r ∈ R. Also. b) = 1 if and only if Ra and Rb are comaximal. So Rxi is k indecomposable. with o(xi) = piki . we have R/Ra1 ×…× R/Ran ≅ R/Rd. isomorphic to some . R/Ra1 ×…× R/Ran = Ry1⊕…⊕Ryn. a) If a. pt are distinct primes in R). Obviously. so.144 III. with x ∈ M and let d = o(x).

p|di}. for all 1 ≤ i ≤ m. then M = Rx. There exists a decomposition (D). we see that M is indecomposable only if m = n = 1 or m = 0 and n = 1. ∃kq ∈ N such that q q yq = 0. Evidently. ∀q ∈ P.3. as in theorem 2. with yq ∈ tq(M). Let M be indecomposable finitely generated. So. From 2. with o(x) = d. also. …. ∀q ≠ p for which yq ≠ 0. pt are distinct primes in R).6 we deduce that. where p ∈ R is prime and k ∈ N* (in this case M is a torsion module). ax = . We claim that t = 1. More precisely. k k are nonzero). If M is a finitely generated torsion module over a PID R. so R/Rd ≅ R Rp1 1 × … × R Rptkt . n = 1. if P is a system of representatives of the equivalence classes (with respect to association in divisibility) of the prime elements in R. then tp(M) ∩ { ∑{tq(M) |q ∈ P.3 Indecomposable finitely generated modules k 145 R/Rp . then M is the direct sum of its p-torsion submodules. Let a = ∏ y q ≠0 q kq (finite number of factors!). and {p ∈ P | tp(M) ≠ 0} ⊆ {p ∈ P | ∃i. q ≠ p}} = 0. If m = 0. Let k d = p1 1 … ptkt be the prime decomposition of d (p1. ! k 3. So. So. if x be- x = ∑q≠p yq. Indeed. if p ∈ P p-di. If p ∈ P. Keeping the notations in 2.III. then tp(M) = 0. If t > 1. o(xi) = di ∈ R°. We know that M is a direct sum of cyclic submodules: M = Rx1⊕…⊕Rxm. If m = n = 1. Proof.8 Proposition.then M is free of rank 1. which is clearly decomposable.3. then p x = 0 for some k ∈ N. and thus isomorphic to R. The proof of the “if” part is easy: we saw that the modules k R/Rp are indecomposable. q ≠ p (only a finite number of yq longs to the intersection. M ≅ R/Rd. which is finite. then {p ∈ P | tp(M) ≠ 0} is finite and M is the finite direct sum: M = ⊕p∈P tp(M) Proof. piki and p j j are coprime if k i ≠ j.

6. then m = n and there exists a permutation σ ∈ Sn such that Ai ≅ Bσ(i).6). with o(xi) = . p|o(xi)} = ⊕{Ryj | 1 ≤ j ≤ n. with xi. i. M is a finite direct sum of cyclic submodules. Bj torsion free}).7. Then M is a finite direct sum of indecomposable submodules.6 says that every cyclic submodule is a finite direct sum of indecomposable submodules. Finitely generated modules over principal ideal domains k a∑q≠p yq = 0.b). o(xi). 1 ≤ i ≤ m. Also (p . Let d = o(x) ∈ R and k d = p1 1 … ptkt be its prime piki decomposition. Then x = (up + va)x = up x + vax = 0. We may suppose then that M = t(M) = Rx1⊕…⊕Rxm = Ry1⊕…⊕Ryn. Let R be a PID and let M be a finitely generated R-module. So. yj ∈ M and Rxi. note that the free module M/t(M) has rank equal to the cardinal of the set {i | 1 ≤ i ≤ m.146 III. v ∈ R such that k k k up + va = 1. ! Rx = Rx1⊕…⊕Rxt. We prove that x ∈ ∑ p∈P tp(M). Thus tp(M) = ⊕{Rxi | 1 ≤ i ≤ m. Let x ∈ M. The invariant factor theorem and the list of finitely generated indecomposable modules allow us to formulate the following structure theorem: 3. Proof. p|o(yj)}. since p is not associated to any prime q occurring in the decomposition of a.3. We have tp(Rxi) = 0 if po(xi) and tp(Rxi) = Rxi if o(xi) is a power of p (see 2.3. and 3. As in the proof of uniqueness in theorem 2. a) = 1. Let p be a prime in R. . xi ∈ t pi (M ) . there exist u. The following property of uniqueness holds: if M = A1⊕…⊕Am = B1⊕…⊕Bn are decompositions of M as direct sums of indecomposable submodules.e.9 Theorem. By 3. The existence part is proven as follows: from theorem 2. Ryj indecomposable (by 3. Ai torsion free} (and equal to the cardinal of the set {j | 1 ≤ j ≤ n. o(yj) are prime powers in R).

(2. dm) of natural example. Thus. (This definition can be generalized to any type of algebraic . by 3. 6 The class of all groups isomorphic to a given group G is called the type of isomorphism of G. then G ≅ Z d1 ⊕ … ⊕ Z d m .7. 1 ≤ i ≤ r. let {i | 1 ≤ i ≤ m. 24). r} and l {j | 1 ≤ j ≤ n. then the family of ideals (AnnR(xi))1≤ i ≤ m is independent of the chosen decomposition. p|o(xi)} =: {1. dm) are (60). p|o(yj)} =: {1.3 Indecomposable finitely generated modules 147 Relabeling if necessary. with k1 ≤ … ≤ kr and l1 ≤ … ≤ ls.10 Remark. Since M = ⊕p∈P tp(M) (see 3. s}. the proof is ! finished. for n = 60.3 says that r = s and o(xi) = o(yi) (so. Then tp(M) = Rx1⊕…⊕Rxr = Ry1⊕…⊕Rys. the possible choices for (d1. o(y1)|… |o(ys). 3.11 Examples. The uniqueness part of theorem 2. 3. and d1|…|dm is the sequence of its invariant factors. …. numbers (m ≥ 1). 2 . a) The elementary divisors of the Z-module 3 Z6⊕Z24 ≅ Z2⊕Z3⊕Z8⊕Z3 are (2. Its invariant factors are (6. The family of elements (o(xi))1≤ i ≤ m is thus uniquely determined (up to an association in divisibility and a permutation) by the module M and is called the family 5 of the elementary divisors of M. Rxi ≅ Ryi). d1·…·dm = n and d1|…|dm. Thus there are two types of isomorphism6 of a Abelian groups 5 We avoid the term “set”. For 30). If M is a torsion module and Rx1⊕…⊕Rxm is o decomposition of M as a direct sum of indecomposables.8). 3. so n = d1·…·dm . any Abelian group of order n is perfectly determined (up to an isomorphism) by an m-uple (d1. o(x1)|… |o(xr). because in a set all elements are distinct. …. The elementary divisors are powers of prime elements in R. b) If G is an Abelian group with n elements.III. such that o(xi) = p ki and o(yj) = p j . …. 3). …. such that: d1 ≥ 2. while the elementary divisors can occur more than once.

called classification. 5)) and Z2⊕Z30 ≅ Z2⊕Z2⊕Z3⊕Z5 (the elementary divisors are (2. the description of all types of isomorphism of the structure is a most important (and hard to attain. Which is this Z-module? structures: Abelian groups. 2. ordered sets…). in general) objective. 2 . Finitely generated modules over principal ideal domains 2 with 60 elements: Z60 ≅ Z4⊕Z3⊕Z5 (the elementary divisors are (2 . the theorem of invariant factors yields a classification of finitely generated Abelian groups. if the family of the elementary divisors of a Z-module 2 3 is (2. The product obtained is dm (the “largest” invariant factor – divisibility-wise). 3 . …. Continue until the elementary divisors are exhausted. fields.148 III. at the greatest power. Conversely. For a given type of algebraic structure. the elementary divisors can be obtained by decomposing in a product of powers of primes every di and writing down all the powers that occur. 3. 2. The classification of the finite simple groups (having no normal proper subgroups) is one of the great successes of group theory. which are the invariant factors of the Z-module. modules. dm) are given. c) If the invariant factors (d1. . For instance. 2. rings. For example. 2·3. 5)). 3. 5). following the procedure above we obtain succes2 3 sively: 2 ·3 ·5. Erase from the family of the elementary divisors the powers written in the product and repeat the procedure with what is left. 3. as many times that they arise. accomplished in the 1980's. the invariant factors are obtained as follows: write a product containing (only once) all primes in the family of the elementary divisors. if the family of the elementary divisors is given.

(Hint. ∀i ≠ j. Prove that R M is indecomposable ⇔ the ring EndR(M) contains no idempotents other than 0 and 1M. so it has a maximal element F. (G. (This generalizes the known fact: if a. Prove that: a) For any N ≤ R M. Can R be a PID? (Hint. Let b bi = max {b ∈ N | ∃x ∈ M with pi |o(x)} (bi ≤ ai). I = (XY) = XYK[X. 4. Then o(x)| r. Then o(x1 + … + xn) = o(x1)·…·o(xn). inductively ordered. with (o(xi). where the condition (*) is: ∀s ∈ R. Let R be a PID. xn ∈ M.III. XK[X. M an R-module with AnnR(M) = Rr. b ∈ G. 4. ∀x ∈ M. r = p1 1 … pn n . 2. r ≠ 0. b) There exists y ∈ M such that AnnR(y) = AnnR(M). …. then ∃ x0 ∈ C with sx = sx0. with pi prime in R and ai ∈ N*. We want to prove that M is a direct sum of cyclic submodules. o{∑ xi} = ∏o(xi) by ex. Also. Y]. Let R be a PID and M an R-module (not necessarily finitely generated) with AnnR(M) ≠ (0). 6. The idempotents of EndR(M) are 0 and 1M. Set y =∑ xi. ∀x ∈ M. Let K be a field. o(xj)) = 1. r = ∏ pibi . Y] + YK[X. Let a a AnnR(M) = Rr. then ord(x + y) = ord(x)·ord(y)). and (ord x. ∃xi ∈ M with o(xi) = pibi . R = K[X. (*) C is nonempty. 3. ord y) = 1. if sx ∈ C. +) an Abelian group. Y] and M = R/I. 5. so bi = ai) c) Let C = {C ≤ M | C is a direct sum of cyclic submodules and satisfies condition (*)}. Give an example of a ring R and an indecomposable R-module that has a decomposable factor module. Give an example of a ring R an indecomposable R-module that has decomposable submodules.3 Indecomposable finitely generated modules 149 Exercises 1. For any i. M an R-module and x1. . Let R be a PID. AnnR(M/N) ≠ (0). Y]}/I ≤ M and is decomposable).

1 Definition. We endow the Abelian group (V. M/C and obtain y∈M such that Apply b) to AnnR(M/C) = AnnR(y) =: µ. Let u ∈ EndK(V). where id is the identity automorphism of V. V is a finite dimensional K-vector space and u : V → V is a K-endomorphism (also called linear transformation or operator). III. we can apply the invariant factors theorem to obtain information on this K[X]-module (therefore on the endomorphism u). Furthermore.) e) F = M. So µy ∈ C and let y0 ∈ C with µy = µy0. 4. The idea of the theory we develop here is the following: The endomorphism u defines a natural structure of K[X]-module on V. Finitely generated modules over principal ideal domains d) ∀C ∈ C. keeping in mind the connection between endomorphisms and matrices. In other words. K is a field. Because K[X] is a PID. if C ≠ M. ∀v ∈ V.150 III. +) with a structure of K[X]-module (depending on u): n ∀f = a0 + a1X + … + anX ∈ K[X]. f·v is the image of the vector v by the endomorphn ism f(u) := a0id + a1u + … + an u . n where u = u◦…◦u (n times). the results obtained translate into matrix language. K[X] is the polynomial ring in the indeterminate X with coefficients in K. . Then set D := C + R(y − y0). given by (*). then there exists D ∈ C such that C ( D.4 The endomorphisms of a finite dimensional vector space Throughout this section. define: n f·v := a0v + a1u(v) + … + anu (v) ∈ V. (Ind.

X ·u v = u(v) and. as above. f & f(u). X ·w v = w(v). It is clear that ϕ is also a K-automorphism. w ∈ EndK(V). ∀v ∈ Vw. so ϕ(u(v)) = w(ϕ(v)). ∀v ∈ V.3 Proposition.2 Remark. Let ϕ : Vu → Vw be a K[X]-isomorphism. Let ·u denote the external operation of the K[X]-module Vu. The homomorphism η defines a K[X]-module structure on V (see remark II. are a consequence of the fact that: ( f·g)(u) = f(u)◦g(u) and ( f + g)(u) = f(u) + g(u). Then the K[X]-modules Vu and Vw are isomorphic if and only if there exists a K-automorphism −1 ϕ of V such that ϕ◦u◦ϕ = w. ϕ◦u = w◦ϕ.4) that is the same as the one defined above. Let u. ∀f ∈ K[X]. ∀f. The external operation defined above extends to K[X] × V the external operation (defined on K × V) of the K-vector space V. If n f = a0 + a1X + … + anX ∈ K[X]. Proof. n n η( f ) = f (u) = η(a0 + a1X + … + anX ) = a0idV + a1u + … + anu .1. is a ring homomorphism (more exactly. Can distinct endomorphisms of V define “the same” K[X]-module structure on V? 4. We have ϕ(X ·u v) = X ·w ϕ(v). g ∈ K[X]. g ∈ K[X] This means that the “evaluation map in u” from K[X] to EndK(V).4 The endomorphisms of a finite dimensional vector space 151 Checking the module axioms is simple. Note that the K[X]-module structure defined on V depends strongly on the endomorphism u. 4. i. a K-algebra homomorphism).e. The universality property of the polynomial ring K[X] ensures the existence of a unique K-algebra homomorphism η : K[X] → EndK(V) such that η(X) = u.III. Let Vu denote the K[X]-module V defined by the endomorphism u. . Let u ∈ EndK(V). For any v ∈ Vu. It is worth mentioning that the axioms ( f·g)·v = ( f )·(g·v) and ( f + g)·v = f·v + g·v ∀f.

152 III. Notation: u ≈ w. ∀n ∈ N. w ∈ EndK(V) are called −1 similar if there exists ϕ ∈ AutK(V) such that ϕ ◦u◦ϕ = w. From this we deduce that ϕ(X ·u v) = X ·w ϕ(v). a) The endomorphisms u. The endomorphisms u. Let u ∈ EndK(V) and W ≤ KV. A typical example of similar matrices is given by the matrices of an endomorphism in various bases of V. X·w ∈ W ⇔ W is a K[X]-submodule of Vu. recall that the rings EndK(V) and Mn(K) are (anti-)isomorphic by the mapping u & Mv(u). Finitely generated modules over principal ideal domains If ϕ : V → V is a K-isomorphism with ϕ◦u = w◦ϕ.4 Definition. ! for any a0 + a1X + … + anX ∈ K[X]. Indeed. n n ϕ((a0 + a1X + … + anX )·u v) = a0·wϕ(v) + a1X·wϕ(v) + … + anX ·wϕ(v).7 Proposition. then ϕ is a K[X]-isomorphism from Vu to Vw.6 Definition. B ∈ Mn(K). Let W be a nonempty set of V. 4.5 Remark. The K-subspace W of V is called invariant relative to u (or u-invariant) if u(W) ⊆ W. The similarity relation on EndK(V) and the similarity relation on Mn(K) are equivalence relations. 4. We say that V is indecomposable relative to u (or u-indecomposable) if V cannot be written as a direct sum of proper u-invariant subspaces. Then: W is an uinvariant subspace ⇔ ∀w ∈ W. 4. …. w ∈ EndK(V) are similar if and only if the matrices Mv(u) and Mv(w) are similar. since ϕ is K-linear. b) Let n ∈ N and A. vn) be a basis of V. To see that. . We call the matrices A and B similar (denoted by A ≈ B) if there exists an invertible matrix U ∈ Mn(K) −1 such that B = UAU . Let KV be finite dimensional and let v = (v1. 4. ϕ◦u = w◦ϕ is written n n ϕ(X ·u v) = X ·w ϕ(v).

…. a1. ∀v ∈ V. not all zero. u(W) ⊆ W if and only if ∀w ∈ W. “V is the direct sum of the u-invariant subspaces V1.2 and III.3. …. The converse is an ! easy exercise. a) The K[X]-module Vu is a finitely generated torsion module. The following statements (whose proofs are left to the reader) are further examples of translations from vector space language to K[X]-module language. with o(v) = p . …. finitely generated K[X]-module.8 Proposition. u is called a cyclic endomorphism). such that a0v + a1u(v) + … + n n anu (v) = 0 ⇔ (a0 + a1X + … + anX )·v = 0. since W is a linear subspace in V. b) V is u-indecomposable if and only if there exists v ∈ Vu such that k Vu = K[X]v. But Vu is a torsion. i “There exists v ∈ V such that V is generated by {u (v) | i ∈ N}” ⇔ “Vu is a cyclic K[X]-module (generated by v). there exist a0. ∀ai ∈ K..” (In this case. an ∈ K. then. u(w) ∈ W ⇔ X·w ∈ W. a) Any system of generators KV is also a system of generators for the K[X]-module Vu. …. Consequently. this n implies (a0 + a1X + … + anX )·w ∈ W. X ·w ∈ W. b) V is u-indecomposable if and only if Vu is an indecomposable K[X]-module. Vm” ⇔ “K[X]Vu is the direct sum of the K[X]-submodules V1.7.3: .III. By n induction. 4. “V is u-indecomposable” ⇔ “Vu is an indecomposable K[X]-module”. We apply to the K[X]-module Vu the structure theorems from III. ∀n ∈ N. Proof. u(v). Vm”.4 The endomorphisms of a finite dimensional vector space 153 Proof. where p is an irreducible polynomial in K[X] and k ∈ N*. If dimKV = n ∈ N*. III. the vecn tors v. u (v) cannot be linearly independent. ! Apply now Prop.

Vu is also a direct sum of indecomposable submodules: Vu = K[X]w1⊕…⊕K[X]wt. If dimKV = n and u ∈ EndK(V).….…. The same terminology is used for matrices: choosing a basis v in V. the invariant factors of a matrix A ∈ Mn(K) are the invariant factors of the unique endomorphism u with Mv(u) = A (similarly for the minimal polynomial. If dimK V = n ∈ N*. The natural number t and the monic polynomials o(w1).10 Definition. Let u. o(vm) ∈ K[X] with the properties above are uniquely determined (o(v1).3) ⇔ Vu and Vw have the same invariant factors ⇔ Vu ! and Vw have the same elementary divisors. where wi ∈ Vu and o(wi) are powers of irreducible polynomials in K[X]. o(vm) are the invariant factors of the K[X]-module Vu). the monic polynomial that generates AnnK[X](Vu) is called the minimal polynomial of the endomorphism u (and is denoted by µu). such that Vu is a direct sum of u-invariant subspaces Vu = K[X]v1⊕…⊕K[X]vm. 1 ≤ i ≤ t. Finitely generated modules over principal ideal domains 4. We have: Mv(u) ≈ Mv(w) ⇔ u ≈ w ⇔ Vu ≅ K[X]Vw (by 4. o(wt) are the ! elementary divisors of the K[X]-module Vu).154 III.…. w ∈ EndK(V). The monic polynomials that are the invariant factors (respectively the elementary divisors) of the K[X]-module Vu are called the invariant factors (respectively the elementary divisors) of the endomorphism u. then there exists m ∈ N* and v1.9 Proposition. the elementary divisors). Two endomorphisms (matrices) are similar ⇔ they have the same invariant factors ⇔ they have the same elementary divisors.11 Proposition.…. o(wt) ∈ K[X] are uniquely determined (o(w1). Proof. The natural number m and the monic polynomials o(v1). 4. …. . 4. vm ∈ Vu. cu o(v1)|…|o(vm).

…. ….III. If vi is a basis in Vi. using the definitions. and u( fj) is a linear combination of f1. …. V2 are u-invariant. ⎢ ⎥ Am ⎦ ⎣0 b) Conversely. Since V1. g(u) = 0 implies f |g. …. by sequencing the elements of the bases v1. g ≠ 0.13 Proposition. If f ∈ K[X] is monic. To keep notations manageable. f1.9. 4. v2 = ( f1. fq. then the matrix of u in the basis v is (written on blocks): 0⎤ ⎡ A1 ⎢ ⎥ Mv(u) = ⎢ * ⎥. …. fq). Then v = (e1. g(u) = 0. 7 . a) It is clear that v is a basis in V (see also II. unlike the minimal polynomial of an algebraic element in a field extension. We totally order the vectors in the basis v. Writing the matrix of u in the basis v. fq). ….4. Proof. …. ep. b) f (u) = 0 and ∀g ∈ K[X]. in the basis vi. implies deg f ≤ deg g. if the matrix of u in a basis v is of the form above. then the rows of the block Ai correspond to a set of vectors in v that generate an u-invariant subspace Vi (1 ≤ i ≤ m) and V = V1⊕…⊕Vm.12 Remark. µu is o(vm). 1 ≤ i ≤ m. ep). The proof is easy. in this order. the minimal polynomial of an endomorphism is not necessarily irreducible. 1 ≤ i ≤ m. p + q = n = dimV. With the notations in 4. If Ai is the matrix of the restriction of u to Vi.4 The endomorphisms of a finite dimensional vector space 155 4. u(ei) is a linear combination of e1. …. vm. a) Let V = V1⊕…⊕Vm. suppose m = 2 and v1 = (e1. then v1∪…∪vm =: v is a basis7 in V. The next result translates in matrix language the fact that V is a direct sum of u-invariant subspaces. c) f (u) = 0 and ∀g ∈ K[X]. ep. Vm are u-invariant subspaces. the highest degree invariant factor of u. the following properties are equivalent: a) f = µu. where V1. Note that.11).

9) the previous result allows us to study the restriction of u to each of the u-invariant subspaces in the direct sum. 4. k ∈ N*. ⎢ 0 A2 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ b) The task of detailing the proof is left to the reader. N = ⎢… ⎥ ⎢ 0 0 0 … 1 ⎥ ⎢0 0 0 … 0⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢1 0 0 … 0⎥ ⎢ a0 a1 a2 … ar −1 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ The matrix Cp is called the matrix companion of the polynomial p. If p ∈ K[X]. k k 8 Camille Jordan (1838-1922). define the r×r matrices with entries in K: ⎡ 0 1 0 … 0 ⎤ ⎡0 0 0 … 0⎤ ⎢ 0 0 1 … 0 ⎥ ⎢0 0 0 … 0⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ Cp = ⎢ ! * ⎥ . Finitely generated modules over principal ideal domains ⎡ A1 0 ⎤ Mv(u) = ⎢ ⎥.156 III. . ! We want to find a basis v of V such that Mv(u) has as “simple” a form as possible. o(v) = p . It is thus natural to study first the case in which Vu is indecomposable: k Vu = K[X]v.14 Definition. French mathematician. Define the rk×rk matrix (written in block form): Cp N 0 … 0 0 0 Cp N … 0 0 * * k J{ p } = ∈ Mrk(K) * * 0 0 0 … Cp N 0 0 0 … 0 Cp r r −1 J{ p } is called the Jordan cell 8 associated to the polynomial p . for some v ∈ V. p = X − ar −1 X −… − a1 X − a0. Since Vu is a direct sum of indecomposable submodules (theorem 4. p irreducible in K[X].

a matrix of the form k ⎡ J p1 1 ⎢ k J p2 2 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ 0 ( ) ( ) * ⎤ ⎥ ⎥. 9 . 4. …. with p1.III.15 Proposition. is called a Jordan canonical matrix9 over K. the name Jordan canonical matrix being given only if pi are polynomials of degree 1.4 The endomorphisms of a finite dimensional vector space 157 A matrix (written in block form) having on the diagonal Jordan cells (and 0 elsewhere). ⎥ ⎥ J ptkt ⎦ 0 ( ) where p1. J= ⎢ ⎢ ⎥ * ⎢ ⎥ J ptkt ⎦ ⎣ 0 ( ) ( ) ( ) Proof. ekr−1) such that k Me(u) = J{ p } : In other texts this matrix is called a rational canonical matrix. pt are monic irreducible polynomials in K[X]. pt irreducible and monic in K[X]. a) We exhibit a basis e = (e0.e. …. where r r−1 p = X − ar−1X −… − a1X − a0 ∈ K[X] is irreducible of degree r and k ∈ N*. Then dimKV = rk and there exists a basis v of KV such that the k k matrix of u in v is the Jordan cell J{ p } associated to p . k b) In the general case. let p1 1 . …. a) Suppose Vu is a indecomposable K[X]-module k and v ∈ Vu is such that Vu = K[X]v. with o(v) = µu = p . Then there exists a basis of V in which the matrix of u is the Jordan canonical matrix: k ⎡ J p1 1 0 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ k2 J p2 ⎥. i. ptkt be the elementary divisors of u.… .

Since o(v) = f. for any g0. (k − 1). with ai ∈ K. then h·v = 0. 1 ≤ i ≤ n. The n elements g0·v. The next lemma proves that e = (e0. …. ekr−1 = X p ·v = u(ekr−2). But the polynomials g0. 4. r−1 er = p·v. If u ∈ EndK(V) is an endomorphism such that Vu = K[X]v for some v ∈ V. each such subspace has a basis in which the k k restriction of u has the matrix of the form J{ p }. Proof of the lemma. we have: r−1 i−1 r i−1 r−1 i−1 u(eir−1) = X(X p ·v) = X p ·v = (p + a0 + a1X + … + ar−1X )p ·v i i−1 i−1 r−1 i−1 = p ·v + a0p ·v + a1Xp ·v + … + ar−1X p ·v = eir + a0e(i −1)r + a1e(i −1)r+1 + … + ar−1e(i −1)r+r−1 If i = k. er−1 = X ·v = u(er−2). Finitely generated modules over principal ideal domains r−1 e0 = v. Vu ≅ K[X]/(f ) (K[X]-module isomorphism. e2r−1 = X p·v = u(e2r−2).13. By a). gn−1·v form a basis of V. er+1 = Xp·v = u(er). then. Apply now Prop. so also a K-vector space isomorphism). with p elementary divisor of u. deg f = n. hence h = 0. and f = o(v). and deg h < n. …. …. gn−1 are linearly independent in the K-vector space K[X]. ! k . the vectors g0·v.9). hence dimKV = dimK K[X]/(f ) = deg f = n. These equalities. u(ekr−1) = a0e(k −1)r + a1e(k −1)r+1 + … + ar−1e(k−1)r+r−1. The vectors g0·v. … . …. which means they are a basis. …. b) Decompose Vu as a direct sum of u-indecomposable u-invariant subspaces (see 4. gn−1·v are linearly independent: if a0g0·v + … + an−1gn−1·v = 0. we have f |h. e(k −1)r+1 = Xp·v = u(e(k −1)r). so a0 = … = an−1 = 0. ekr−1) is a basis: Lemma. gn−1 ∈ K[X]. …. If 1 ≤ i < k. We get back to proving that Me(u) = J{ p }. since k p ·v = 0. gn−1·v are thus linearly independent in V. e1 = X·v = u(e0). where h = a0g0 + … + an−1gn−1. … k −1 r−1 k −1 e(k −1)r = p ·v. … . together with the relations (0). with deg gi = i. being of distinct degrees. …. prove the claim.158 III. …. whose dimension is n.

The homomorphism ϕ is surjective. where J is the matrix at 4. ptkt . The invariant factors of Vu are the noninvertible polynomials among d1.3) How do we find d1. The next theorem says: take the matrix XI − A and find its Smith normal form. …. Kerϕ =: F is a free submodule in E and E/F ≅ Vu. Since Vu is torsion. Let v = (v1. Recall the proof of the invariant factors theorem (2.b). arithmetically equivalent to B. 4. is exactly D = diag (d1. we need such a matrix B. Then the invariant factors of u (of the matrix A) are the polynomials of degree > 0 on the diagonal of the diagonally canonic matrix D ∈ Mn(K[X]). vn) be a basis in V such that Mv(u) =: A = (aij) ∈ Mn(K). dn? For any basis f in F.3): since (v1. there exists a matrix B ∈ Mn(K[X]) such that f = Be. εn) in E and φ = (φ1. dn). XI − A = ⎢ … ⎥ ⎢ −a − an 2 … X − ann ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ n1 Proof.….…. d2. Let fi =: Xei − (ai1e1 + ai2e2 + … + ainen) ∈ E. (see the proof of 2. rank F = n and there exist two bases ε = (ε1.…. φn) in F.16 Corollary.… . di ∈ K[X]. d1|d2|…|dn. such that φi = diεi. en) and the K[X]-homomorphism ϕ : E → Vu. The non constant polynomials on the diagonal are then the invariant factors of A.…. Thus. . dn. then ! A ≈ J. arithmetically equivalent to the matrix ⎡ X − a11 − a12 … − a1n ⎤ ⎢ −a X − a22 … − a2 n ⎥ 21 ⎢ ⎥ ∈ Mn(K[X]). …. free of basis e = (e1.4 The endomorphisms of a finite dimensional vector space 159 4. Then the diagonally canonical matrix D ∈ Mn(K[X]). d2. vn) generates K[X]Vu. Any matrix A ∈ Mn(K) is similar to a Jordan k canonical matrix. …. take a K[X]-module E. ….15. How do we find the elementary divisors of an endomorphism u (of a matrix A)? This amounts to finding its invariant factors. ϕ(ei) = vi. 1 ≤ i ≤ n. 1 ≤ i ≤ n.III. If the elementary divisors of A are p1 1 .17 Theorem. d2.

gei can be written in the same form. X ei is expressed as: m X ei = ∑j qj fj + ∑i rjej. for some qj ∈ K[X]. so ϕ(r) = ϕ(∑i ciei) = ∑i civi = 0. Let us prove that f is a system of generators for F. f2. So. 1 ≤ i ≤ n. contradiction. 1 ≤ j ≤ n. it follows that ∑i gi Xei = ∑i gi { ∑j aij ej} = ∑j{ ∑i aijgi }ej. rj ∈ K. hence r = 0. for some qj ∈ K[X]. 1 ≤ i ≤ n. g1 X = ∑j aj1 gj implies deg{∑j aj1 gj} ≤ max j(deg(aj1 gj)) ≤ max j(deg gj) < 1 + deg g1 = deg g1X. 1 ≤ i ≤ n. So. 1 ≤ i ≤ n. one easily sees that. Using (*). ci = 0. ∀g ∈ K[X]. (**) 2 From (**) we deduce that.160 III. f2. X ei = Xfi + ai1 Xe1 + ai2 Xe2 + … + ain Xen. For any 1 ≤ i ≤ n. we obtain: 2 X ei = ∑j qj fj + ∑i rjej. Finitely generated modules over principal ideal domains If f = (f1. Let g1 be the polynomial of maximal degree among the gi (relabel if necessary). Lemma. and r ∈ E is of the form ∑i ciei. with gi ∈ K[X]. Since (e1. (*) So. we obtain y = ∑i qi fi. Suppose ∑i gi fi = 0. with ci ∈ K. If g1 ≠ 0. But r = y − ∑i qi fi ∈ F. This shows that fi ∈ Kerϕ = F. fn). . Using (*). This shows that ( f1. ϕ(fi) = Xvi − (ai1v1 + ai2v2 + … + ainvn) = u(vi) − (ai1v1 + ai2v2 + … + ainvn) = 0. with gi ∈ K[X]. f =: ( f1.…. u(vi) = ai1v1 + ai2v2 + … + ainvn Thus. then y = ∑i giei = ∑i qi fi + r. fn) is linearly independent. for some qj ∈ K[X]. rj ∈ K. By inducm tion. f2. Let us prove the linear independence. deg gi ≤ deg g1.…. then these relations can be written f = (XI − A)e. Proof of the lemma. 1 ≤ i ≤ n. 1 ≤ i ≤ n.…. ∀m ∈ N*. en) is a basis. Note that: Xei = fi + ai1e1 + ai2e2 + … + ainen. Since v is basis in V. fn) is a basis in F = Ker ϕ. if y = ∑i giei ∈ F. Finally. gi X = ∑j aji gj. 1 ≤ j ≤ n. ….

…. 2.18 Definition. …. the minors obtained by selecting k rows {i1. dn). with c1. dn.….4 The endomorphisms of a finite dimensional vector space 161 We continue the proof of the theorem. Let A = (aij) ∈ Mn(K) and let n n−1 n−2 n fA = det(XI − A) = X − c1 X + c2 X + … + ( − 1) cn. cn are: c1 = a11 + a22 + … + ann =: Tr(A) (called the trace of A). …. …. The relations fi = Xei − (ai1e1 + ai2e2 + … + ainen) show that f = (XI − A)e.III. The polynomial fA := det(XI − A) ∈ K[X] is called the characteristic polynomial of the matrix A. cn = det(A). n}. one for each choice of a subset ⎝k ⎠ of k indices from {1. with d1|d2|…|dn.. Writing the definition of det(XI − A) and arranging the terms by the like powers of X. We used the fact that the matrix XI commutes with any matrix in Mn(K[X]). Let A ∈ Mn(K). ! 4. If u is an endomorphism of the K-vector space V and A is the matrix of u (in some basis).e. …. dk + 1. cn ∈ K. ck (1 ≤ k ≤ n) is the sum of the minors of order k of A on the main diagonal (i. If XI − A ∼ D = diag(d1. More generally. −1 −1 then: fB = det(XI − SAS ) = det(S·(XI − A)S ) = −1 = det(S)·det(XI − A)·det(S ) = fA. . ik} of the ⎛n⎞ matrix A). 4. d2. then the characteristic polynomial fu of u is by definition fA. There are ⎜ ⎟ such minors. ik} and the columns with the same indices {i1. This definition is correct: Two similar matrices A and B have the −1 same characteristic polynomial: if B = SAS .19 Remark. where k = min{i | di noninvertible}. then the invariant factors of Vu (of the endomorphism u) are dk. the coefficients c1. for some S ∈ GLn(K). ….

so XI − A ∼ XI − B. So. …. K) such that B = S AS. A and B are similar with the same Jordan canonical matrix. A and B have the same elementary divisors. Suppose now that XI − A ∼ XI − B and let D ∈ Mn(K[X]) be the canonical matrix with D ∼ (XI − A) ∼ (XI − B). where d1. K[X]). then there exists S ∈ GL(n. d1. and the coefficients c1. detS. whose matrix is A (in some basis of V). according to 4. −1 Then XI − B = S (XI − A)S. 4. The matrix XI − A is arithmetically equivalent to the matrix in Smith normal form D = diag(1.e. dm) ∈ Mn(K[X]). B ∈ Mn(K). ….21 Proposition. detT ∈ K*) such that XI − A = SDT. If A ≈ B. …. ! Let n ∈ N*.20 Proposition.162 III. By 4. c1 =: Tr(u) = Tr(A) is called the trace of u and cn =: det(u) = det(A) is called the determinant of u. but they can be translated in statements on endomorphisms of a K-vector space of dimension n. Thus. Then A and B are similar matrices if and only if XI − A and XI − B are arithmetically equivalent matrices in Mn(K[X]). Let A. 1. Finitely generated modules over principal ideal domains The same terminology applies for an endomorphism u ∈ EndK(V). as above. Its characteristic polynomial is fu = fA. There exist S. dimV = n.15. cn are uniquely defined by u. 4. since obviously S ∈ GL(n.17. The characteristic polynomial of a matrix A is the product of the invariant factors of A (and it is equal to the product of the elementary divisors of A). …. We have d1·…·dm = detD = det(S(XI − A)T) = detS·fA·detT . Proof. dm are the invariant factors of A. The following results are about matrices in Mn(K). A and B have the same invariant factors: the polynomials of degree > 0 on the diagonal of D. T ∈ U(Mn(K[X])) (i. −1 Proof.

22 Corollary. ( ) Arthur Cayley (1821-1895). dm(A) = 0 and dm| fA. is the Jordan canonical matrix that is similar to A uniquely determined? Of course. So. Let d1. it is clear that the product of the elementary divisors equals the product of the invariant factors. …. by reordering the elementary divisors. The next proposition shows that these are all the Jordan canonical matrices similar to A. ! Given a matrix A.23 Proposition. Then the elementary divisors of A are piki . a) (The Cayley-Hamilton theorem) 10 Any matrix A ∈ Mn(K) is a root of its characteristic polynomial: fA(A) = 0. Sir William Rowan Hamilton (1805-1865).4 The endomorphisms of a finite dimensional vector space 163 This means that the monic polynomials d1·…·dm and fA differ by the factor detS·detT ∈ K*. British mathematicians. 10 . which shows that they are equal. The Jordan cell J{ p } has only one elementary divisor. Proof. a) The minimal polynomial of A is dm (the invariant factor of highest degree).III. diverse Jordan canonical matrices are obtained. dm ∈ K[X] be the invariant factors of A. a) Let p ∈ K[X] be monic and irreducible and let k k ∈ N*. b) Let A be a Jordan canonical matrix whose diagonal is made up by the Jordan cells J piki . On the other hand. namely k p . German mathematician. 4. b) This is a consequence of d1·…·dm = fA and d1|…|dm. ! 4. 1 ≤ i ≤ t. thus fA(A) = 0. 1 ≤ i ≤ t. where pi ∈ K[X] are monic and irreducible. b) (The Frobenius theorem)11 The characteristic polynomial and the minimal polynomial of a matrix A ∈ Mn(K) have the same irreducible factors in K[X]. 11 Ferdinand Georg Frobenius (1849-1917).

Let ui be the restriction of u to Vi. By b). Vu. So. A and B have the same Jordan cells.1. ∀y ∈ V (the dot denotes the external K[X]-module operation of V). There exists k k a basis (as in 4. namely piki . . V is a K[X]-module (being a factor module of K[X]) and a K-vector space of dimension k·deg p =: n. then J is called the Jordan canonical form of A. k where v := 1 + { p } ∈ V. Then A and B have the same Jordan cells. Finitely generated modules over principal ideal domains c) Let A. The Jordan canonical form of A is uniquely determined up to an order of the Jordan cells on the diagonal. as in definition 4. So J{ p } has the k same elementary divisors as Vu. It is easy to see that these two structures of K[X]-module coincide and that V = K[X]v. Let u ∈ EndK(V). The endomorphism u defines on V a structure of a K[X]-module. Then V is written as a direct sum of u-invariant subspaces: Vu = V1⊕…⊕Vt.24 Definition. The matrix of ui is exactly J piki and the first part of the proof shows that piki is the only elementary divisor of ui. perhaps in different order. k Proof. V = Vu is an indecomposable k K[X]-module. and its only elementary divisor is o(v) = p . Vi being the u-invariant subspace corresponding to the Jordan cell J piki . B ∈ Mn(K) be Jordan canonical matrices such that A ≈ B. b) There exists KV and u ∈ EndK(V). If A ∈ Mn(K) and J is a Jordan canonical matrix such that J ≈ A. 1 ≤ i ≤ t. The classical notions of eigenvector and eigenvalue of an endomorphism are closely connected to its invariant subspaces of dimension one. c) If A ≈ B. 1 ≤ i ≤ t. ! ( ) ( ) 4. 1 ≤ i ≤ t.164 III. then A and B have the same elementary divisors (4.15) in which u has the matrix J{ p }. whose matrix is A (in some basis).11). a) Let V := K[X]/{ p }. u(y) = X·y. namely only p . The elementary divisors of u are obtained writing down all the elementary divisors of the restrictions ui.

(o(v) = 1 is impossible. o(v)| X − λ. g·v ∈ V is an eigenvector for the eigenvalueλ.27 Proposition. then X − λ| fu.25 Definition. which means that λ is a root of fu.4 The endomorphisms of a finite dimensional vector space 165 4. Proof. ! 4. o(v) = X − λ ∈ K[X].26 Proposition. a)⇒b) We have u(v) = λv. Proof. λ ∈ K is an eigenvalue of u if and only if λ is a root of fu. Conversely. b)⇒a) o(v) = X − λ implies u(v) = λv. By 4. Also µu | fu. Because fu and µu have the same irreducible factors. so X − λ| fu. i. In K[X]-module language for Vu. The following statements are equivalent: a) v is an eigenvector of u for the eigenvalue λ. µu. If u ∈ EndK(V). c) dimK (K[X]v) = 1 (the submodule of Vu generated by v has K-dimension 1). is in AnnK[X](v) = (X − λ). Then o(g·v) = X − λ.III. Suppose v ∈ V is an eigenvector of u for the eigenvalue λ. if fu(λ) = 0. 4. X − λ|µu. so µu = (X − λ)g for some g ∈ K[X]. using facts from the theory of systems linear equations. such that u(v) = λv. u ∈ EndK(V) and λ ∈ K. . there exists v ∈ V such that o(v) = µu. the characteristic polynomial of u. v ≠ 0.9. this means X·v = λv. thus (X − λ)·v = 0. b) Considering v ∈ K[X]Vu.e. Then o(v) = X − λ. b)⇔c) This follows from dimK K[X]v = deg o(v). Let v ∈ V. which is irreducible. we have X − λ|µu. ! The reader is invited to give an alternate proof. since the minimal polynomial of u. since it implies v = 0). Each such vector v is called an eigenvector of u for the eigenvalue λ. So. hence o(v) = X − λ. an element λ ∈ K is called an eigenvalue of u if there exists a vector v ∈ V.

k 2 a ∈ R (and the Jordan cell J{(X − a) } is the one above). Finitely generated modules over principal ideal domains Note that if fu has no roots in K. K = C). If K is an algebraically closed field (in particular. c ∈ R and b + 4c < 0. the monic irreducible polynomials in R[X] are X − a. then u has no eigenvalues and no eigenvectors. 1 J{(X − a) } = 0 0 0 0 k * * * * 0 0 … … a 0 a If K = R. 2 with b. in which case the Jordan cell 2 k J{(X − bX − c) } is: ⎡0 1 0 0 ⎤ ⎢c b 1 0 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 0 1 0 0 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ c b 1 0 ⎢ ⎥ * * * * ⎢ ⎥ 2 k J{(X − bX − c) } = ⎢ ⎥ ∈ M2k(R). k Thus the Jordan cell J{(X − a) } is: a 1 0 … 0 0 0 a 1 … 0 0 ∈ Mk(K) . or X − bX − c. a ∈ K . We describe now the Jordan cells in the important cases K = C and K = R. * * * * ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0 1 0 0⎥ ⎢ ⎥ c b 1 0⎥ ⎢ ⎢ 0 0 1⎥ ⎢ ⎥ c b⎦ ⎣ . then the irreducible monic polynomials in K[X] are of the form X − a.166 III.

K is a field. V is a finite dimensional K-vector space and u is an endomorphism of KV. Give an example of two matrices having the same minimal polynomial and the same characteristic polynomial. Prove that the eigenvectors corresponding to distinct eigenvalues of u are linearly independent. 5. A is called trigonable. Let A ∈ Mn(K) such that the characteristic polynomial of A splits in factors of degree 1 in K[X] (one says that A has all its eigenvalues in K). Compute the characteristic polynomial and the minimal polynomial of the following matrices: ⎡ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ 1 0 0 1 1 −1 0 0 1 − 2⎤ ⎡1 ⎥ ⎡ − 7 3 3⎤ ⎢0 0 0 ⎥. with T upper triangular. 4. …. Then A is similar to an upper triangular matrix T = (tij) ∈ Mn(K) (tij = 0 if i > j).III. Let A ≈ T. λn. In this case. Let A ∈ Mn(K) and let p ∈ K[X].) 7. Give an example of three matrices in M3(Q) whose only eigenvalue is 2 and any two matrices are not similar. . Determine the endomorphisms u ∈ EndK(V) whose minimal polynomials are of degree 1. p(λn). there exists t −1 U ∈ GL(n. If A has all its eigenvalues λ1. then p(A) has the eigenvalues p(λ1). K). ⎢ ⎥ ⎢0 0 0⎥ ⎢ ⎢ − 6 2 4⎥ ⎢ ⎣ ⎦ 0 2⎥ ⎦ ⎣0 t 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0⎤ 1⎥ ⎥ 0⎥ 1⎥ ⎦ 8. 3. …. Can you exhibit four such matrices? Generalization. 2. symmetric. 1. Compute p(T). The diagonal of T is λ1. (Ind. but are not similar.4 The endomorphisms of a finite dimensional vector space 167 Exercises In the exercises. Then A is similar to A. ⎢ − 21 9 7⎥. λn in K. Is the converse true? 6. Moreover. …. such that A = U AU. Let A ∈ Mn(K).

Let V = U ⊕ W (direct sum of subspaces). Define π. Conversely.) 11. In the R[X]-module Eu the relations ∑j bijej = 0 hold. Let R be a commutative ring with identity and let n ∈ N*. (Hint: let A the matrix of u in a basis (e1. Let u ∈ EndK(V) be an endomorphism having the eigenvalue 0. A. Let u ∈ EndK(V) be a nilpotent endomorphism (∃r ≥ 1 such that r k u = 0). with U. …. W u-invariant subspaces and dim U = 1. Let u ∈ EndK(V). ∀k ≥ 1. …. Let f be the characteristic polynomial of u. Then V has no u-invariant proper subspaces ⇔ the K[X]-module Vu is simple ⇔ the characteristic polynomial of u is irreducible in K[X]. in the relation f(u) = 0 apply Tr and deduce that 0 is an eigenvalue of u. then u is nilpotent. Generalize the relevant notions and prove the Cayley-Hamilton theorem: if E is a free R-module of rank n and u ∈ EndR(E). if char K = 0 and k Tr u = 0. with u ∈ U. (Ind. 13. Let R be a commutative ring with identity and let A ∈ U(Mn(R)) be an invertible matrix. π(u + w) = u (π is called the projection on U along W) and ρ(u + w) = u − w. Let Bik ∈ R[X] be the algebraic complement of bik in the matrix B.) 14. Then V = U ⊕ W. (ρ is called the symmetry with respect to U along W). u has an invariant subspace of dimension dim V − 1. ∀w ∈ W. Then any v ∈ V can be uniquely written as v = u + w. .168 III. then u is a root of the characteristic polynomial: fu(u) = 0. ∀k ≥ 1.) 10. So. ρ : V → V by: ∀u ∈ U. multiply relation i with Bik and sum after i to obtain fu(X)·ek = 0 = fu(u)(ek). ∀i. 12. fu = det B. Then A is a R-linear combination of I. (Hint. For any fixed k. Then Tr u = 0. en) and XI − A = B = (bij) ∈ Mn(R[X]). Use the Cayley-Hamilton theorem. Finitely generated modules over principal ideal domains 9. w ∈ W. n−1 A . Show that π and ρ are K-endomorphisms of V and find their minimal polynomials.

prime and maximal ideals. a more detailed treatment is found in most Abstract (Modern) Algebra introductory texts.IV. with the property that every nonzero element is invertible with respect to multiplication. bases and dimension in vector spaces. Some elementary properties of cardinals and Zorn's Lemma are used in the proof of existence of the algebraic closure of a field. Knowledge of polynomial ring arithmetic is recommended (as provided in the chapter “Arithmetic in integral domains”). Standard facts about rings and vector spaces are a prerequisite: polynomial rings. 169 . ring isomorphism theorems. + . ·) with identity 1 (with 1 ≠ 0). Field extensions This chapter contains the basic concepts and results from the theory of field extensions. Any field has at least two elements: 0 and 1. IV. Most of these facts can be found in the Appendices. K is a domain): for any x.1. y ∈ K. factor rings. x ≠ 0 and y ≠ 0 implies xy ≠ 0. Algebraic extensions Recall that a field is a commutative ring (K. A field K has no zero divisors (in other words.

y ∈ K: σ(x + y) = σ(x) + σ(y) σ(xy) = σ(x)σ(y) σ(1) = 1. we call the triple (K. Recall that the nonempty set K of the field L is a subfield in L if it is closed under addition and multiplication and becomes a field with the induced operations. ∀x ∈ K. but R can be identified with the set of the couples (a. But C is usually constructed as the set of all couples (a. The homomorphism σ : K → L being injective. y ∈ K with y ≠ 0. σ) a field extension of K. b) with a. Field extensions All rings and all ring homomorphisms considered are supposed to be unitary. which is a subfield in L. if K. L are rings (with identity). the rigorous interpretation is the following: one defines the field homomorphism ϕ : R → C. we may identify the field K with its image σ(K). More generally.1 Definition. ϕ(a) = (a. then σ is −1 injective. If σ : K → L is a field homomorphism. We ex- . it is natural to consider that C is an extension of R. L.170 IV. R is not a subset of C. if σ : K → L is a field homomorphism. x ≠ 0 implies ∃x ∈ K. The objects we study are field extensions: if L is a field and K is a subfield in L. Indeed. the map σ : K → L is a homomorphism if and only if. so σ(x) is nonzero and thus Kerσ is {0}. In this setting. a ∈ R. In fact. For instance. b ∈ R. Thus. a) Let K. endowed with an addition and a multiplication that make it a field. L be fields. we −1 have x − y and xy ∈ K. 0) and then identifies R with its image ϕ(R). It is thus natural to consider the following definition: 1. we also say that “L is an extension of K”. ∀x. The subfield K of L is called proper if K ≠ L. which is a subfield of C. A widely used characterization is: K is a subfield of L if and only if for any x. This notion of field extension is too restrictive. so −1 −1 σ(x)σ(x ) = σ(xx ) = σ(1) = 1. 0).

the ring Zn of the integers modulo n is a field if and only if n is a prime. The extension K ⊆ L is called proper if the inclusion is strict (i. For any prime p. b) The field C of complex numbers is an extension of R. if a ∈ K and x ∈ L. then K(X). The intermediate field E is called proper if E ≠ K and E ≠ L. Let HomK(L. Algebraic extensions 171 press this by writing “K ⊆ L is a field extension”. ϕ is a K-algebra homomorphism). we identify σ(a) ∈ L with a ∈ K. If one considers the general definition above. In this context. and it is an } extension of Q. For example.2 Examples. τ : K → E. “L/K is a field extension” or “L is an extension of K”. σ(K) ⊂ L). there exist field homomorphisms σ : K → L. e) If n is a natural number. . is a field. This identification allows to consider K as a subfield of L. For any element a ∈ K. b ∈ . the field of rational numbers. We shall construct an extension of F2 at 1. E) denote the set of all K-homomorphism from L to E. we call ϕ : L → E a K-homomorphism if ϕ is a field homomorphism with ϕ ◦σ = τ (in other words.24. 1.IV. i.1.e. b) If K ⊆ L and K ⊆ E are extensions of K. we call an intermediate field (or subextension) of the extension K ⊆ L any subfield E of L that includes K. d) If K is a field. let Fp denote the field of integers modulo p.e. a mapping ϕ : L → E is called a K-homomorphism if ϕ is a ring homomorphism and ϕ|K = idK (the identity function of K). a) The real numbers field R is an extension of Q. [ 2 ] = a + b 2 ∈ - { a. c) The set . we write a·x instead of σ(a)·x. the field of rational fractions with coefficients in K (K(X) is the quotient field of the polynomial ring K[X]) is an extension of K. Note that L is an extension of K if and only if L is a field also structured as a K-algebra (the structural homomorphism is precisely σ).

n ·1 ≠ 0. One can define the degree of an extension of skew fields (division rings): if L Evariste Galois (1811-1832).if. Likewise. so x − y ∈ K . An extension is called finite if its degree is finite. very important in Galois theory39. Let 1 be the identity element of R and let n ∈ N. A basic tool is the concept of degree of an extension. so [C : R] = 2. xy ∈ K if y ≠ 0. What are the degrees of the other extensions? 1. for any n ∈ N*. Indeed. n ·1 denotes the multiple 1 + … + 1 (n terms).172 IV. then L is canonically a K-vector space: the multiplication of a “scalar” in K with a “vector” in L is their multiplication in L. If K ⊆ L is an extension. In example b) above. The set K := {x ∈ K|σ(x) = x. The fields that have no proper subfields are called prime fields. 39 40 is a skew field and K is a subfield (skew) of L. Field extensions f) A method to construct subfields. i} is a basis of C over R. {1. then L is naturally a K-vector space and one defines the degree [L : K] as dimKL. then char R = 0. The dimension of L as a K-vector space is called the degree 40 of the extension K ⊆ L and is denoted by [L : K] or (L : K).4 Definition. the characteristic of R. denoted char R. is the following: let K be a field and let H be a set of field endomorphisms of K (homomorphisms defined on K with values in H K). Recall the notion of characteristic of a ring R with identity. French mathematician. .3 Definition. is defined as follows: . We determine now all prime fields. if x. ∀σ ∈ H} is a subfield of K (called H the fixed subfield of H). 1. y ∈ K and σ ∈ End(K) then H −1 H σ(x − y) = σ(x) − σ(y) = x − y.

so a·1 = 0 or b·1 = 0. Proof. Proof. b ∈ N*. If char K = p > 0. then char R is the smallest n ∈ N* such that n ·1 = 0. 1. The characteristic of R can be defined also as follows: there exists a unique ring homomorphism ϕ : Z → R (prove!).5 Remark. ∀a.IV. a < n. The proof of the equivalence of these definitions is left to the reader.7 Proposition. Then the characteristic of R is 0 or a prime. with a. ϕ(n) = n·1. b ∈ Z. which is a subfield in K. Define the ring homomorphism ϕ : Z → K. Suppose n = char R ≠ 0. ∀n ∈ Z. Kerϕ = pZ.1. then there exists a unique isomorphism K ≅ Q.6 Proposition. Algebraic extensions 173 . Since for any n ∈ Z. If char K = p. char Z = char Q = 0. n·1 ≠ 0. 1. Then char R is the natural generator of the ideal Kerϕ. If char K = 0. Imϕ = K. If. But R has no zero divi! sors. b ≠ 0.if there exists n ∈ N* such that n ·1 = 0. Let K be a prime field. Define the homomorphism ψ : Q → K that extends ϕ. b < n. then there exists a unique isomorphism K ≅ Fp. where 1 is the identity of K. ! . A related notion is the characteristic exponent of a field: the characteristic exponent of the field K is 1 if char K = 0 and is p if char K = p > 0. n = ab. Suppose char K = 0. Since ψ(Q) is a subfield in K. Let R be a domain. then char R = char S. so ψ is an isomorphism. For example. −1 ψ(a/b) = ϕ(a)ϕ(b) . 1. the characteristic of a field is 0 or a prime. In particular. by contradiction. then 0 = n ·1 = (a·1)·(b·1). Z/pZ = Fp ≅ Imϕ. contradicting the minimality of n. if R is a unitary subring of S. n·1 is invertible in K. char F2 = 2. Since K has no proper subfields. applying the isomorphism theorem. we have ψ(Q) = K. The reader is invited to prove the uniqueness part.

The intersection of all subfields of K is a subfield P. and denoted by .e.174 IV. ∀i ∈ I. Let K ⊆ L be a field extension and let S be a subset of L. ! 1. then P ∩ Q is a subfield both in P and in Q.9 Theorem. y ∈ Li. so it is equal to both of them. This means there do not exist fields with 10 elements.if char K = 0. Proof. i. then char F cannot be 0 (otherwise F is an extension of Q. then K is an extension of Q. Use the characterization: K is a subfield of L if and only if −1 for any x. for instance.if char K = p > 0.11 Definition.10 Application. If (Li)i∈I is a family of subfields of the field L and x. so x − y ∈ Li. which cannot have proper subfields (any subfield F of P would be a subfield in K. n is finite and F is n isomorphic (as an Fp-vector space) to (Fp) . The intersection of any family of subfields of a field is a subfield. The intersection of all subfields of L that include K ∪ S is a subfield of L. this shows that P is the unique prime subfield in K. for some prime p and some n ∈ N*. so char F = p > 0 (for some prime p) and F is an extension of the field Fp. called the field generated by K and S. then K is an extension of Fp. If F is a field with a finite number of elements. y ∈ ∩Li. we have x − y and xy ∈ K. If Q is a prime subfield of K. If n is the degree [F : Fp]. The same argument works for −1 ! xy if y ≠ 0. 1. then x. x − y ∈ ∩Li. absurd!). Proof. In particular: . The rest of the statement follows from the list of prime subfields. ∀i ∈ I. so F includes P. Any field K contains a unique prime subfield. Field extensions 1.8 Lemma. 1. y ∈ K with y ≠ 0. the cardinal of a fin nite field is p . Thus. The following definition describes a basic construction in field extensions. Finite fields. which is infinite!). .

1. the composite of the fields (Ei)i∈I is the subfield of L generated by ∪i∈I Ei. K(α) = K(α + 1). the ring K[S] is a domain (it is a subring of the field L) and K[S] ⊆ K(S). An extension K ⊆ L with the property there exists a finite subset S of L such that L = K(S) is called a finitely generated extension. the extension K ⊆ L is called a simple extension. This notation is used also for ring extensions: if R is a subring of the ring A. included in L. One also says that K(S) is obtained by adjoining to K the elements in S. If S = {x1.IV. and S is a subset of A. A primitive element need not be unique: for instance.…. xn) and K[S] by K[x1. included in L. xn}. 41 . R[S] is the subring generated by R ∪ S in A (R[S] coincides with the R-subalgebra of A generated by S). for a family (Ei)i∈I of extensions of K. F be extensions of K. In general. xn]. The field of fractions of the domain K[S] is canonically isomorphic to K(S) (see the universality property of the field of fractions). then K(S) is denoted by K(x1.….1.12 Definition. Let K ⊆ L be a field extension and let E.41 It is easy to see that K(S) (respectively K[S]) is the smallest subfield (respectively subring) of L that includes K ∪ S. Do not confuse with the concept of finite extension (which means that its degree is finite)! If there exists α ∈ L such that L = K(α). and α is called a primitive element. Obviously. K(∪i∈I Ei). Algebraic extensions 175 K(S). We denote by K[S] the subring of L generated by K ∪ S (the intersection of all subring of L that include K ∪ S).…. The composite of the fields E and F (denoted by EF) is the subfield of L generated by E and F: EF = K(E∪F) = E(F) = F(E).

any subset) of S has a least upper bound and a greatest lower bound in L. On the other hand. F ∈ IF(L/K). namely: K[S] = ⎧ ⎪ i i ' ⎨ ∑ ai … i x1 … xn ⎪( i .…. An ordered set (S. any subring of L that includes K and S must also include T.i )∈' ⎩ 1 n 1 n 1 n n n ∈ '* . The set IF(L/K) of all intermediate fields of a given extension L/K is ordered by inclusion and IF(L/K) is a (complete) lattice 42: for any E. −1 b) K(S) = {αβ |α. One checks directly that T is a subring of L. a) Let T be the set of all polynomial expression in the elements of S. ai … i ∈ K . ' ⎪ ⎭ set 42 with two elements (resp. F} = E ∩ F. T is the smallest subring of L that includes K and S.e. Let L/K be an extension and let S. Then: a) K[S] is the set of all polynomial expression in the elements of S. 1. Proof. Field extensions 1. S2 be subsets of L. x1 . in ) ∈N n ai1…in ≠ 0} is finite. that includes K and S. with coefficients in K.14 Theorem. … . i. xn ∈ S . (Alternatively. ≤) is called a lattice (resp. ∀ ( i1 .… .176 IV. d) K(S) = ∪{ K(T) | T ⊆ S. β ∈ K[S].…. inf{E.13 Remark. in ) ∈ ' n ⎬ 1 n ⎫ ⎪ where ∑ means the sums are finite. F} = EF. a complete lattice) if any subset . with coefficients in K. Thus. the {(i1. sup{E. β ≠ 0}. T is the image in L via the evaluation homomorphism of polynomial ring in S indeterminates). T finite}. c) K[S1∪ S2] = K[S1][S2] = K[S2][S1] and K(S1∪ S2) = K(S1)(S2) = K(S2)(S1). S1.

… xn ) f ∈ K [ X 1 . β ≠ 0. If the element x is not algebraic over K (i. : K[x1. f = b0 + b1 X + … + n n bn X . x is transcendental over K if and only if evx induces a K-isomorphism between the polynomial ring K[X] and the subring K[x] generated by K and x in L. In other words. the element 2 braic over Q. g ∈ K[X]. xn] = { f ( x1 . If f ∈ K[X]. The following notion is central in all the theory we describe. 1.… xn ) ≠ 0⎬ .16 Examples. The usual notation for eva( f ) is f (a).… . g ( x1 .1. xn) = ⎨ ⎩ g ( x1 . 1. x is algebraic over K if and only if the evaluation homomorphism evx : K[X] → L is not injective. We say that is algebraic over K if there exists a nonzero polynomial f ∈ K[X] such that f (x) = 0. x is called transcendental over K. a) In the extension Q ⊆ R. evx is injective). If f (a) = 0. X n ]} ⎧ f ( x1 . Let K ⊆ L be a field extension and let x ∈ L. Algebraic extensions 177 b) Since K[S] ⊆ K(S) and K(S) is a field. g(a) ≠ 0}. where eva : K[X] → L is the unique K-algebra homomorphism with the property that eva(X) = a. K(x1. as a root of X − 2 ∈ Q[X]. But the set of all these elements is a subfield in L (standard check). called the “value of f in a”. xn ∈ L. …. is in K(S). then eva( f ) = b0 + b1a + … + bna ∈ L.… . we say „a is a root of f”. any element of the form αβ −1. K[a] = Im eva. xn}. d) Exercise.IV.… xn ) ⎭ If S = {a} ∈ L: K[a] = {f (a) | f ∈ K[X]} and K(a) = {f (a)/g(a) | f.15 Definition. eva is called the “homomorphism of evaluation in a”. Thus.… xn ) ⎫ f . g ∈ K [ X 1 . …. X n ]. Thus. 2 is alge- . with α. In the particular case S = {x1. …. with x1.e. …. β ∈ K[S]. ! c).

and is injective. g ≠ 0}. x is algebraic over K if and only if Ker evx ≠ {0}. then f = gh. d) A complex number that is algebraic (respectively transcendental) over Q is called by tradition algebraic number (respectively transcendental number). The following statements are equivalent: a) f (x) = 0 and deg f is minimal among the nonzero polynomials that vanish in x: deg f= min{deg g | g ∈ K[X]. Since g(x)h(x) = f (x) = 0. These facts were proven by Hermite in 1873 and Lindemann in 1882. g(x) = 0. the evaluation homomorphism evX : K[X] → K(X) is the canonical inclusion. X is obviously algebraic over K(X). d) f (x) = 0 and. Let K ⊆ L be a field extension and let x ∈ L. x is a root of g . for any g ∈ K[X]. deg g < deg f. for some g.178 IV. The element X in the extension K ⊆ K(X) is transcendental over K. Proof. However. which is fundamental in describing the extension K ⊆ K(x). c) f is a generator of the ideal Ker evx = {g ∈ K[X] | g(x) = 0}. g(x) = 0 implies f |g.17 Theorem. h ∈ K[X]. 1. Let f be a monic polynomial with coefficients in K. with 1≤ deg h. Field extensions b) Any element of K is algebraic over K. With the notations above. b) f (x) = 0 and f is irreducible. a)⇒b) If f were reducible. without any reference to Q. c) Let K(X) be the field of rational fractions in the indeterminate X with coefficients in the field K. This underscores the importance of identifying the field over which the element is algebraic. algebraic over K. Indeed. e) The real numbers e (the sum of the series ∑n≥0 (n!)−1 ) and π (the length of a circle of diameter 1) are transcendent (over Q). The generator of the ideal Ker evx (K[X] is a PID!) is a nonzero polynomial.

Q( 2 )) = X − 2 . More generally. In the PID K[X]. We call minimal polynomial of x over K the monic polynomial in K[X] that satisfies one of the equivalent properties in the previous proposition. using the form of the elements in Q( 2 )). because f is irreducible. g ≠ 0. Ker evx = { f } or Ker evx = K[X]. K) or min(x. c)⇔d) is evident. The minimal polynomial of x over K is denoted by Irr(x. But obviously 1 ∉ Ker evx (⇔ Ker evx ≠ K[X]). 1.IV. K) = X − a. 4 2 is a root and it is irreducible in Q[X] (by Eisenstein's criterion). so deg f ≤ deg g. b) K[x] is a field. The following statements are equivalent: a) x is algebraic over K. 1. R) = X − 4 2 . The fact X − 2 that has minimum degree among the polynomials with coefficients in Q( 2 ) that vanish in 4 2 is equivalent to 4 2 ∉ Q( 2 ). Let L/K be a field extension and let x ∈ L be algebraic over K. 4 4 . so { f } = Ker evx.20 Theorem (characterization of algebraic elements in an extension).1. a) Irr( 4 2 . 1. K). the ideal generated by f is maximal. whose degrees are less than deg f. Q) = X – 2 since X – 2 ∈ Q[X] is monic. Irr(a. for any field K and any a ∈ K. b)⇒c) Clearly. By the hypothesis. 2 2 c) Irr( 4 2 . d)⇒a) Let g ∈ K[X] with g(x) = 0. Let K ⊆ L be a field extension and let x ∈ L. contradicting the hypothesis. b) Irr( 4 2 . Algebraic extensions 179 or of h.18 Definition.19 Examples. (prove this. So. f |g. c) K[x] = K(x). ( f ) ⊆ Ker evx.

Besides. for some n ∈ N and a0. K)): [K(x) : K] = deg Irr(x. .K) ∈ K[X] and let evx : K[X] → L be the evaluation homomorphism in x. an − 1 ∈ K. This shows that x is algebraic over K. The ideal Ker evx of K[X] is generated by f. the ideal { f } is maximal and K[X]/{ f } is a field. If X. if x is algebraic over K.e. X. X n −1 + { f }} = 0 + { f }. X . ….. then all is evident.. x }. The isomorphism theorem implies K[X]/{ f } ≅ Im vx = K[x]. an ∈ K. there exists a n linear dependence relation. a1. a)⇒d) At a)⇒b) we saw that we have a K-isomorphism of fields K[X]/{ f } ≅ K(x). a0·1 + a1x + … + anx = 0.. −1 c)⇒a) If x = 0. So. Since f is irreducible in K[X]. Suppose x ≠ 0 and let x = a0 + n a1x + … + anx ∈ K[x] be the inverse of x. x. the division with remainder theorem shows that any class modulo f of a polynomial h ∈ K[X] has a un representative of degree less than n. n−1 form a basis. …. Field extensions d) The extension K ⊆ K(x) is finite. It is evident the b)⇔c). a0{1 + { f }} + a1{ X + { f }} + … + an − 1{ X n −1 where a0. i. so x is a root of a nonzero polynomial with coefficients in K. a0. a1. we have g = 0. In the K-vector space K[X]/{ f }. This means that h + { f } is a linear combination n −1 with coefficients in K of the classes of 1. a K-basis of the extension K(x) is {1. . K) n−1 If n = deg f. this is also a isomorphism of K-vector spaces.. Evidently. Multiplying by x.. On the other hand. i d)⇒a) The infinite family {x | i ∈ N} of elements of the finite dimensional K-vector space K(x) is linearly dependent. Proof. isomorphic to K[X]/{ f }. then the degree of the extension K ⊆ K(x) is the degree of the minimal polynomial Irr(x. Then K[x]. the classes of 1. …. is also a field. …. not all zero. a)⇒b) Let f = Irr(x. a1.. so f |g. we get 2 n+1 a0x + a1x + … + anx − 1 = 0. . Since deg f = n. then g = a0 + a1X + … + an − 1X ∈ { f }. Let n = deg f. an − 1 are 0.180 IV.

This result can be proven in a more “elementary” way. g + { f } ≠ 0 + { f }. This implies f . then K[X]/{ f } is a field. there exist (and can be effectively computed) u. By the extended Euclid algorithm.1. g) = 1. so GCD( f.21 Remark. K)) is called the degree of x over K. K) = f = X − 2 and 2 y = g( 3 2 ). x. The degree of the extension K ⊆ K[x] (equal to deg Irr(x. …. the inverse of 3 y = 1 + 3 2 + 3 4 . Using the extended Euclid algo3 2 rithm for X −2 and 1+X+X . g ≠ 0.IV. y = a0 + a1 X + … + an − 1 X −1 deg g < n. as follows. Let us find. x . The isomorphism K[X]/{ f } ≅ K(x) takes the basis 1 + { f }. where g = 1 + X + X . u ∈ K[X] are such that uf + vg = 1. Evaluating in 2 . Take g ∈ K[X]. Let x = 3 2 .22 Definition. Taking classes modulo ( f ). where g ∈ K[X]. Let K be a field and let x be algebraic over K. The factor ring K[X]/{ f } appears also in the following proof. n −1 n−1 + { f } in the basis 1. This also suggests a way to compute the inverse of an arbitrary elen−1 ment in K[x] expressed in the basis {1. x.g. ! …. X 1. v ∈ K[X] such that uf + vg = 1. then y is v(x). x }: for any element n −1 =: g(x). …. 1. we find that 3 2 3 1 = ( − 1)(X − 2) + (X − 1)(1 + X + X ). we obtain 1 = ( 3 2 − 1)(1 + 3 2 + 3 4 ). We have Irr(x. in the extension Q ⊆ Q (3 2 ) . Algebraic extensions 181 So. . The proof of a)⇒b) above uses essentially the fact that if f is irreducible in K[X]. where v. this relation shows that v + { f } is the inverse of g + { f } in K[X]/{ f }. dimK K(x) = dimK K[X]/{ f } = n. Keep the conventions above. We must show that any nonzero element in K[X]/{ f } has a multiplicative inverse. X + { f }.

suppose that n f = a0 + a1X + … + anX n Then f (α) = a0{1 + { f }} + a1{X + { f }} + … + an {X + { f }} = {a0 + a1X n ! + … + anX } + { f } = f + { f } = 0 + { f }.182 IV. In L. only polynomials with numerical coefficients were considered). Consider the factor ring K[X]/{ f } =: L. The importance of this result is not just theoretical. which is a field. extension of R. is of the form a + bX = a + b ⋅ X = a + b ⋅ i . the polynomial f is a product of irreducible polynomials. So. Then there exists an extension of K in which f has a root 43. Any element of this field is written uniquely as the class of a polyno2 mial of degree at most 1 modulo (X + 1). where a. ∀a ∈ K. Field extensions 1. whose proof is simple for a modern mathematician. Albert Girard. Let K be a field and let f ∈ K[X]. Here are two examples. it is sufficient to prove the claim for the case when f is irreducible. Proof. α = X + { f } is a root of f. Concrete fields can be constructed following the procedure in the proof. Moreover. 43 . is a field homomorphism.24 Examples.e. is a root of f. because the canonical mapping ϕ : K → K[X]/{ f }. Any root of a factor of f is also a root of f. denoted by i. i. was known intuitively for a long time and often tacitly accepted in 17th to 19th centuries’ mathematical arguments (of course. In 1792. 2 a) Let f = X + 1 ∈ R[X]. Pierre Simon de Laplace gives an elegant proof of the “Fundamental Theorem of Algebra” – any nonconstant polynomial with complex coefficients has a complex root – admiting though that the roots exist “somewhere”. if needed. L is an extension of K. R[X]/(X + 1) is a field. The class of X modulo (X + 1). ϕ(a) = a + { f }. 1. In the UFD K[X]. b ∈ R.23 Proposition. The polynomial f is irreducible in R[X]: it 2 has degree 2 and has no roots in R. Around 1629. Indeed. Replacing. that can be complex numbers or “other similar numbers”. Identifying the real This result. deg f ≥ 1. f with one of its irreducible factors. since f is irreducible. Let g be the class of the polynomial g ∈ R[X] modulo 2 2 (X + 1). states –without proof– that an equation of degree n has n roots.

K := F2[X]/{ f } is a field with 4 elements. we can uniquely write a generic element of 2 R[X]/(X + 1) in the form a + bi. There ex- . Fp) is an irreducible polynomial of degree n in Fp[X]. b ∈ F2. b. this construction can be taken as a definition of C. the addition and multiplication rules in K are given by the following rules: (a + bα) + (c + dα) = (a + c) + (b + d)α. b ∈ F2 (we identify any a ∈ F2 with its image a + { f } in F2[X]/{ f }). deg f = n. c. Let f ∈ K[X].25 Corollary. n b) Construction of a field with p elements. Thus. Since α is a root of f. ·) (see 3. Algebraic extensions 183 number a with its class a . If deg f = 1. ∀a. we have 2 α = α + 1. b ∈ R. If f ∈ Fp[X] is an irreducible polynomial of degree n n. if L is a field with p elements and α ∈ L is a generator of (L*. d ∈ R This field is isomorphic to the complex number field C. deg f = n ≥ 1. Thus. any element in K is written uniquely as a + bα. Induction by the degree of f. Let p be a prime number and let n ∈ N*. then Fp[X]/{ f } is a field with p elements. n Conversely. for any a.IV.4). 2 For instance. In fact. with a. 2 In this field we have i = −1. 1. Then there exists an extension L of K such that f is written as a product of polynomials of degree 1 in L[X] (one also says “f splits over L” or “f has n roots in L”). So. 2 (a + bα)·(c + dα) = ac + (ad + bc)α + bdα = ac + (ad + bc)α + bd(α + 1) = (ac + bd) + (ad + bc + bd)α. Let K be a field and let f ∈ K[X]. If α denotes the class of X modulo f. then Irr(α. Proof. the multiplication of two elements is given by: (a + bi)·(c + di) = (ac − bd) + (ad + bc)i.1. Suppose that. the polynomial f = X + X + 1 is irreducible in F2[X] (it has degree 2 and has no roots in F2). there exists an extension of F in which g splits. with a. take L = K. for any field F and any g ∈ F[X] with deg g < n.

we obtain that z is a linear combination of {xiyj | 1≤ i ≤ m. for some g ∈ E[X]. This translates the property of an element of being algebraic into a Linear Algebra property. for some aji ∈ K (1≤ i ≤ m). …. x1yn. xm} is a K-basis of L and {y1. then K ⊆ L and L ⊆ M are finite extensions. …. Apply now the induction hypothesis for the field E and g ∈ L[X] to obtain an extension field L ! of E in which g splits. We will study this concept in IV. xm y1. Obviously. Let us show that {xiyj | 1≤ i ≤ m.184 IV. because {y1. . yn} is a L-basis of M. yn} is an L-basis. For a given f ∈ K[X]. Proof. 1.2. 1 ≤ j ≤ n} generates the K-vector space L. Field extensions ists an extension E of K in which f has a root a. The following theorem and its consequences illustrate the strength of this translation. a) It is sufficient to prove the claim on bases. …. b) If K ⊆ M is a finite extension of fields and L is an intermediate field. …. bn ∈ L such that z = b1y1 + … + bnyn. xmyn } is a K-basis of M.…. if {x1. If z ∈ M. ….26 Theorem (The transitivity of finite extensions) a) Let K ⊆ L and L ⊆ M be a tower of finite field extensions. Using this in the expression for z. Each bj (1 ≤ j ≤ n) is of the form bj = aj1x1 + … + ajmxm. 1 ≤ j ≤ n} with coefficients in K. then {x1 y1. …. concerning the dimension of a vector space. 1 ≤ j ≤ n} is K-linearly independent. the “minimal” extension of K over which f splits is called the splitting field of f over K. f splits also in L. So X − a divides f in E[X]. there exists b1. Let us prove that {xiyj | 1≤ i ≤ m. hence f = (X − a)g.14. Then K ⊆ M is a finite extension and the degree is “multiplicative”: [M : K] = [M : L] [L : K] Moreover. We saw that “x is algebraic over K” is equivalent to “K(x) is a finite dimensional K-vector space”.

1. because Irr ( 3. with a. …. contradiction. Indeed. Algebraic extensions 185 ⎛ ⎞ ⎜ ∑ aij xi ⎟ y j = 0 .Q( 2 )) 2 = X − 3. 3 4 } . 3 2 . b ∈ Q. 3 ) has degree 4 and a Q-basis is {1. using 3 Thus. This means that any element of Q (3 2 ) is written * shows that for any n ∈ N .Q) = X − 2. if the extensions are not necessarily finite. the degree of the extension is 3 and a Q-basis of Q (3 2 ) is Eisenstein's criterion (or observing that X − 2 has no rational roots).1. since the proof does not use the commutativity of multiplication. because 3 ∉ Q ( 2 ) : if. for the proof. by absurd. n 2n −1 . a) The theorem is also true for division rings. The L-linear independence of {y1. The same argument { } . 6 }. n 2 . ⎜ ⎟ 1≤i ≤m ⎝ 1≤ j ≤n 1≤i ≤ m . b) The extension Q ⊆ Q( 2 . Hence aij = 0 for any i and j.27 Remarks. uniquely as a + b3 2 + c3 4 . Q) = X − 2) and a basis is {1. Irr ( 3 2 . with aij ∈ K. a) Consider Q (3 2 ) /Q. then 3 = a or 3 = 2b . 2 . b) More generally. If ab ≠ 0. yn} implies If ∑ aij xi y j = 0 .IV. The first extension has de2 gree 2 (since Irr ( 2 .…. ! …. for any i. then 2 2 3 = a + 2b + 2ab 2 .28 Examples. If 2 2 ab = 0. b ∈ Q (again a contradiction). then ∑ 1≤ j ≤ n that 1≤ j ≤ n ∑ aij xi = 0. 3 = a + b 2 . suppose that (xi)i∈I is a K-basis of L and (yj)j∈J is an L-basis of M. then 2 ∈ Q. with a. consider the tower of extensions Q ⊆ Q ( 2 ) ⊆ Q( 2 )( 3 ) = Q( 2 . 2 }. the extension Q ⊆ Q (n 2 ) has degree n and a Q-basis is 1. 3 {1. The extension Q ( 2 ) ⊆ Q( 2 )( 3 ) has also degree 2.j)∈I×J is a K-basis of M. 3. 1≤ j ≤ n ⎠ where ∑ aij xi ∈ L. 3 ) . with a. b. 1. X 2 − 3 is irreducible over Q ( 2 ) . because {x1. c ∈ Q. xm} are K-linearly independent. Then (xiyj)(i.

. u ∈ K(T).186 IV. so it must be equal to Irr(α. Let h = g(X)u − f (X) ∈ K(u)[X] (where g(X) is the polynomial in X obtained by replacing T with X in the polynomial g). The element 2 + 3 =: α is a primitive element: Q( 2 . We have α = 5 + 2 6 ⇒ (2 6 ) = (α 2 − 5) ⇒ (α 2 − 5) − 24 = 0 . u ∉ K and f. c) Here is a nontrivial example of a finite extension. At this stage. These are all the proper intermediate fields. g ∈ K[T] with u = f /g and ( f. 6 }. a basis of the extension Q ( 2 ) ⊆ Q( 2 )( 3 ) is {1. The inclusion Q( 2 + 3 ) ⊆ Q( 2 . 3 }. deg g). K(u)). Applying the method in the theorem of transitivity of finite extensions. β ∈ Q(α). Let 2 us show that 2 . a basis of the extension Q ⊆ Q( 2 . The polynomial Irr(α. Then the extension K(u) ⊆ K(T) is finite and [K(T) : K(u)] = max (deg f. Q) has degree equal to [Q(α) : Q] = [Q(α) : Q ( 2 ) ]·[ Q ( 2 ) : Q] = 2·2 = 4 2 2 2 2 2 Thus. K(u)) is associated to h = g(X)u − f (X) ∈ K(u)[X]. g) = 1. Q). Q ( 6 ) . Let us find Irr(α. in Q[X] and has degree 4. 3 ∈ Q(α). so 6 ∈ Q(α). Since K(T) = K(u)(T). K(T) the field of rational fractions with coefficients in K. 3 ) = Q( 2 + 3 ) . Note that this extension has the proper intermediate fields Q ( 2 ) . this is difficult to prove. Let K be a field. but it is an immediate consequence of Galois theory. Q). 3 ∈ Q(α). Field extensions Thus. which shows that T is algebraic over K(u). ⎨ ⎩ 2 + 3 =α where α. so K(u) ⊆ K(T) is finite. 3 ) is evident. We claim that Irr(T. 3. shows that 2 . α is the root of (X 2 − 5) − 24 . We have α = 5 + 2 6 . 2 . We have h(T) = 0. Q( 3 ) . [K(T) : K(u)] = deg Irr(T. 3 ) is {1. which is monic. The system ⎧3 2 + 2 3 = β . Thus 6α = 3 2 + 2 3 =: β ∈ Q(α).

d ∈ K[X] and r = g(X)Y − f(X) = (cY + d )q. then the leading coefficient of h is ub − a. where a. Proposition 1. The extension K ⊆ L is . so it is associated to Irr(T. g) = 1. Indeed. q ∈ K[Y. q ∈ K[X] and p = cY + d. K(u)) = deg h = max (deg f. X]. if deg f = deg g. A field extension K ⊆ L is called algebraic extension if each element in L is algebraic over K. note that u is transcendental over K. The polynomial h is irreducible and vanishes in T. Let degY r be the degree of r. seen as a polynomial in Y with coefficients in K[X]. we obtain that q|g and q| f in K[X]. 1. The irreducibility of g(X)u − f (X) ∈ K(u)[X] is thus equivalent to the irreducibility of r = g(X)Y − f(X) ∈ K(Y)[X]. First. since ( f. respectively g. deg g). So. It is interesting to remark that any intermediate field K ⊆ L ⊆ K(T) with K ≠ L is of the form L = K(u). with p.20 says that [K(T) : K(u)] = deg Irr(T. WALKER [1950]). This fact is known as “Lüroth’s Theorem” and is of significance in Algebraic Geometry (see MORANDI [1996]. considering the tower of extensions K ⊆ K(u) ⊆ K(T). Suppose r = pq. contradicting the assumption u ∉ K. u ∉ K. for some c. because otherwise u = ab ∈ K. We have to prove that h = g(X)u − f (X) ∈ K(u)[X] is irreducible. there is a K-isomorphism K[Y] ≅ K[u] (where Y is an indeterminate). Identifying the coefficients of the powers of Y. h is irreducible in K[Y][X].1. X]. Algebraic extensions 187 We have deg h = max (deg f. implying that q ∈ K*. deg g). this is equivalent to r being irreducible in K[Y][X] ≅ K[Y. the theorem of transitivity of finite extensions would imply that K ⊆ K(T) is finite).29 Definition. This is clear if deg f ≠ deg g. We −1 have ub − a ≠ 0.IV. so we may suppose degY p = 1 and degY q = 0. K ⊆ K(T) is infinite (T is transcendental over K) so K ⊆ K(u) must also be infinite (otherwise. respectively b. K(u)). for some u ∈ K(T). are the leading coefficients of f. Since K[Y] is a UFD and K(Y) is its field of quotients. Thus. We have 1 = degY r = degY p + degY q. Thus.

30 Proposition. 12. xn − 1)(xn) is thus finite.…. ….35. …. n ∈ N* and x1.20 shows that x is algebraic over K. …. In particular. the extension K(x1. Prop. . (transitivity of algebraic extensions) If K ⊆ L and L ⊆ M are algebraic extensions. xn) (see exercise 1. Let K ⊆ L be finite and let x ∈ L. Proof. any algebraic finitely generated extension is a finite extension. xn ∈ L are algebraic over K. …. 1. …. xn ∈ L are algebraic over K. For n = 1. the conclusion follows from Prop. 1. xn − 1) ⊆ ! K(x1. ! 1. then certainly L = K(x1. p. xn − 1. ….188 IV. xn). Since xn is algebraic over K. …. if K ⊆ L is an extension and x1.31 Proposition. 1. Then K ⊆ K(x) is finite (as an intermediate field of K ⊆ L) and Prop. The conclusion follows by applying the transitivity of finite extensions to the tower K ⊆ K(x1. xn − 1) ⊆ K(x1. An easy argument by induction on n ∈ N* shows that.32 Theorem. …. …. The converse of this result is nontrivial and it is known as "Zariski’s Lemma” (see for instance SPINDLER [1994]. We prove the claim by induction on n ∈ N .17). If {x1. xn) is a finite extension. so L is a finitely generated extension of K. xm} is a K-basis of L. then K[x1. * Proof. …. the induction hypothesis says that K ⊆ K(x1. Any finite extension is algebraic and finitely generated. 232). Then K ⊆ K(x1. …. xn is also algebraic over K(x1. xm). then K ⊆ M is an algebraic extension. …. xn] = K(x1.20. Suppose K ⊆ L is a field extension. xn − 1) is finite. Field extensions called transcendental if it is not algebraic (it contains at least one transcendental element over K). xn − 1). If n > 1. 1.

34 Definition. 20. as elements of K(a. Let a0. Let K ⊆ L be a field extension. 1. …. an) is finite. so it is an algebraic extension. Q'C is a subfield in C. Since x is algebraic over L. K ⊆ K'L.1. This shows that ! K'L is a subfield of L. Clearly. there exists 0 ≠ f ∈ L[X] such that f (x) = 0. ab are algebraic over K. an)(x). b) is finite. by Prop. Then K'L is a subfield of L and an extension of K. ….IV. Q ⊆ L is algebraic because L is the union of its intermediate fields of the form Q ({n 2 n ≤ m}) . an infinite algebraic extension of Q. 1. But Q ⊆ L is not finite: if. ! 1. In particular.36 Example. and each of these is algebraic (they are even finite). But Q ⊆ Q (n +1 2 ) has degree n + 1. we show that x is contained in a finite extension of K and apply then Prop. Then x is algebraic over K(a0. We have now the tower of finite extensions K ⊆ K(a0. …. the difference. If K ⊆ L is a field extension. 1. If a. ….35 Proposition. In order to prove that x is algebraic over K. Why? ({ }) . m ∈ N*.31. 1. the set of all elements in L that are algebraic over K is denoted by K'L and is called the algebraic closure of K in L. are algebraic over K. b). then each intermediate field would have the degree a divisor of n. The extension Q ⊆ L = Q n 2 n ∈ N* is algebraic and infinite.33 Example. Proof. Thus a + b. an)(x) is also finite. the sum. By transitivity. an ∈ L be the coefficients of f. a − b. K ⊆ K(a0. b ∈ L. …. an) and K ⊆ K(a0. [L : Q] = n ∈ N*. −1 ab. …. with b ≠ 0. an) ⊆ K(a0. 1. by contradiction. Algebraic extensions 189 Proof. the product and the quotient (if it exists) of two algebraic elements over K are also algebraic elements over K. Let x ∈ M. then K ⊆ K(a.

algebraic over K. … ⎪ ⎩am1x1 + … + amnxn = bm . Interpret this as a system of n + 1 equations. for any β ∈ K(α). Find a basis of the extension Q ⊆ Q[ 3 ]. then deg Irr(β. Suppose p(αi) = βi. Let K ⊆ L be an extension. Ki ⊆ Kj or Kj ⊆ Ki). deg p = n. Find Irr(1 + 3 . Show that L is a K-vector space with respect to: the addition of L and the “scalar multiplication” given by: ∀α ∈ K. (Hint. 3. 7. 8. The same problem for Q ⊆ Q(α) and 3 the element 1 − α. where α is a root of X + X + 1. Prove that ∪i ∈ I Ki is a subfield in K. bi ∈ K: Prove that: the system (S) has a solution in E ⇔ (S) has a solution in K. ∀x ∈ L. −1 ⎧a11x1 + … + a1nxn = b1 ⎪a21x1 + … + a2nxn = b2 (S): ⎨ . K) divides n. Let K ⊆ L be an extension and let α ∈ L. 1 ≤ i ≤ n + 1. j ∈ I. K) = n. Let K ⊆ L be an extension. Prove that x is transcendental over K if and only if K[x] is K-isomorphic to the K-algebra K[X] of polynomials in the indeterminate X. Q).) 5.190 IV. Let K ⊆ L be an extension and let x ∈ L. If S is a subset of the field L and K is a subfield in L. then the field of fractions of the domain K[S] is canonically isomorphic to K(S). Let K be a field and let (Ki)i ∈ I be a chain of subfields of K (∀i. with αi. 6. Field extensions Exercises 1. Express (1 + 3 ) in this basis. Prove that | p(K) ∩ K | ≤ n. Can you prove other similar properties of (S)? 4. Let K ⊆ L be an extension and let p ∈ L[X] \ K[X]. Prove that [L : K] = 1 if and only if K = L. Consider the linear system with coefficients aij. the unknowns being the coefficients of the polynomial. 2. If deg Irr(α. βi ∈ K. α·x = αx (the multiplication in L).

….IV. y ∈ L. d ≠ 1 and d is not the multiple of any square of a prime). …. Let K and L be fields and let ϕ : K → L be a field isomorphism. Then Q( m . K) = f is known. Let K ⊆ L be an extension such that L = K(x. Prove that Q( d ) ≅ Q( e ) ⇔ d = e. respectively X − b or X − X − b (if char K = 2). α. squarefree. 11. (Hint. x > 0 implies ϕ(x) > 0. n) = 1. n ∈ N* such that x ∈ K. algebraic over K. Use that ϕ|Q = id and that between any two real numbers there is a rational number. More generally. (Hint. Show that m ∉ Q( n ). x = a .) 12. xn ∈ L. with d ∈ Z squarefree (d ≠ 0. …. then K[S] = K(S). Suppose Irr(α. Let K ⊆ L be an extension of degree 2 (”quadratic extension”). Prove a similar property for extensions of Fp (where p is a prime).) b) Prove that ϕ = id. (Hint. …. y). where α ∈ L is a root of a polynomial of the form 2 2 2 X − b (if char K ≠ 2). a) Prove that ∀x ∈ R. 16. 15. then K(x. where deg f = n. xn). . For 0 ≠ β ∈ K(α) given as a K-linear n−1 −1 combination of 1. for some a ∈ R. Let ψ : K[X] → L[X] be the ring isomorphism that extends ϕ and with ψ(X) = X. n ) has degree 4 over Q. Algebraic extensions 191 9. n ∈ Z be distinct and squarefree. K). Show that L = K(α). Show that ϕ|Q = id. y ∈ K and (m. y) = K(xy). 10. 14. with x. describe a method to find β and Irr(β. n ∈ N* and let x1. Prove that p ∈ K[X] has a root in K ⇔ ψ(p) has a root in L. Let K ⊆ K(α) be an algebraic extension. xn] = K(x1. Let K and L be extensions of Q and let ϕ : K → L be a field homomorphism. Let ϕ : R → R be a field homomorphism. Prove that any quadratic extensions of Q is of the form Q( d ). Deduce ϕ is an 2 increasing map. if S is a subset of L consisting of algebraic elements over K. α . Then K[x1. Let m. for some b ∈ K. 13. Let K ⊆ L be an extension. e ∈ Z.1.) 17. If m n there exists m. Let d.

What is the form of an arbitrary element in sup{Ei | i∈I}? 20. Prove −1 that E(F) ( = the composite EF) is equal to the set {xy | x. are roots of a monic polynomial of degree 2 with integer coefficients. K) ≤ mn and deg Irr(xy. deg p = m. 25. . b) deg Irr(x. Show that IF(L/K) = {E | E is a subfield in L. Let L and E be intermediate fields of the extension K ⊆ F. Then [L(x) : L] ≤ [K(x) : K]. deg q = n. y) : K] = mn. y ≠ 0}. 1 + 3 3 . Let L/K be an extension. Let K ⊆ L be an algebraic extension. K). Under what assumptions is the composite EF equal to the set of all linear combinations of elements in F with coefficients in E? 19. K(y)) = m ⇔ deg Irr(y. K ⊆ E} is a complete lattice with respect to inclusion (any family of subfields (Ei)i∈I has sup and inf in IF(L/K)). Let E and F be intermediate fields of the extension K ⊆ L. Q) and a basis of x ∈ { 3 − i. 26. Let K ⊆ L ⊆ E be a tower of extensions and let x ∈ E be algebraic over K. Let x ∈ C be integral over Z. K). Deduce that the integral elements in Q ( d ) . Is the converse true? 21. give an example of extension of degree n of Q. Let R ⊆ S be an extension of domains (R is a subring of the domain S and 1 ∈ R). K) ≤ mn. 22. Field extensions 18. An x ∈ S is called integral over R if x is the root of a monic polynomial in R[X]. For any n ∈ N*. ∀ 24. c) Formulate a sufficient condition for [K(x. (1 − i )5 2 }. Let p = Irr(x. y ∈ L be algebraic over K.192 IV. where d ∈ Z is squarefree. y linear combinations of elements in F with coefficients in E. Q) ∈ Z[X]. K(x)) = n ⇔ [K(x. a) Prove that deg Irr(x + y. q = Irr(y. Let K ⊆ L be a field extension and let x. Show that any subring of L that includes K (any K-subalgebra of L) is a field. the extension Q ⊆ Q(x). y) : K] = mn. Prove that Irr(x. Find Irr(x. 23.

28. Reduce to the case when S is finite. Algebraically closed fields Let R be a domain. f) If [E : K] = 2 and K = L ∩ E. (p.2 Roots of polynomials. (Hint. then K = L ∩ E. 5 E is irreducible in Q(ω)[X]. then [EL : K] = [E : K]·[L : K]. where IV. then [EL : E] ≤ [L : K]. with p prime.IV. n) = 1. g) Give an example such that [E : K] = [L : K] = 3. Let K ⊆ L be an extension of degree n and let g ∈ K[X]. then E ⊆ EL is algebraic. It is thus natural to consider the following definition: . e) If [EL : K] = [E : K]·[L : K]. but [EL : K] < 9. then E < S > = EL. Algebraically closed fields 193 EL L L∩E K a) If K ⊆ L is algebraic. d) If the degrees [L : K] and [E : K] are finite and coprime. b) If S is a subset of L and K < S > = L (S generates the K-vector space L). If g is irreducible in K[X].2 Roots of polynomials.) c) If [L : K] is finite. 27. deg g = p. Bézout's theorem says that the polynomial f ∈ R[X] has the root a ∈ R if and only if X − a divides f in R[X]. K = L ∩ E. then [EL : E] = [L : K] and [EL : K] = [E : K]·[L : K]. then g is irreducible in L[X]. Show that X − 2 ω = cos(2π/5) + i·sin(2π/5).

( X − an )mn are pairwise relatively prime. 2. Let R be a domain and let f ∈ R[X]. Since ( X − an )mn divides ( X − a1 )m1 … ( X − an −1 )mn−1 g . f ∈ R[X] is a nonzero polynomial. …. of multiplicities m1.3 Corollary. By the induction hypothesis. …. Suppose R is a domain. When counting the roots of a polynomial. for some g ∈ R[X]. a ∈ R and n ∈ N. We say that a is a multiple root of f with n n+1 multiplicity n if (X − a) | f and (X − a) . We see f as a polynomial in K[X] and ap! ply the preceding proposition.1 Definition. Use induction on n. mn respectively. We now seek a criterion to decide if a polynomial has multiple roots. triple if n = 3 etc). each root is counted with its multiplicity. f = ( X 1 − a1 )m1 …( X n −1 − an −1 )mn−1 g . Proof. deg f = n. this is the definition. If n = 1. …. Suppose the claim is true for n − 1 and let f be as in the statement. It is useful to introduce the notion of formal derivative of a polynomial with coefficients in an arbitrary ring.194 IV. each root counts with its multiplicity (unless otherwise specified). I. a is called a multiple root of f (double if n = 2. Proof. Since the polynomials X − ai.f. If n > 1.5. If a1.6. By Prop. a is called a simple root of f. . Let R be a UFD and let f ∈ R[X] be nonzero. ( X − an )mn is coprime with ( X − a1 )m1 …( X − an −1 )mn−1 .2 Proposition. Then f has at most n roots in R. are irreducible and m pairwise not associated in divisibility. Let K be the field of fractions of R. If n = 1. Of course. ( X − a1 ) 1 . 1 ≤ i ≤ n. The natural number n is called the multiplicity of the root a. ! 2. then ( X 1 − a1 )m1 …( X n − an )mn divides f in R[X]. Field extensions 2. we obtain that ( X − an )mn divides g. an ∈ R are distinct roots of f.

we obtain f = (X − α)g + b0. then f = (a0+ a1α) + a1(X − α). ∀a ∈ R. we obtain the result. Let R be a domain. a) There exist and are unique b0. Writing g in the form given by the induction hypothesis and replacing in the previous equality. Let R be a commutative unitary ring and let n f = a0 + a1X + … + anX ∈ R[X].4 Definition. (1) Other notations: df = f ' or df = f . The uniqueness part amounts to the R-linear independence of i {(X − α) | i ∈ N} in R[X]. ∀f. by the integer division with remainder theorem applied to f and X − α (I. c) If f (α) = f '(α) = 0. ∀n ∈ N*. ∀n ∈ N* (apply the universality property of a free module). d = id. Note that d : R[X] → R[X] is the unique R-module homomorphism n n−1 with the property that d1 = 0 and dX = nX .5 Proposition. then α is a multiple root of f (of multiplicity at least 2). . let f ∈ R[X] of degree n > 0 and let α ∈ R. deg df ≤ deg f − 1. Algebraically closed fields 195 2. easy to prove.2). …. If f = a0 + a1X.6. Direct calculations show that the formal derivative has the usual properties of the derivative of a function as known from calculus: { f + g}' = f ' + g'. (i) b)0≤i ≤n is a root of multiplicity m (m ∈ N*) of f. Thus. Evidently. bn ∈ R such that f = ∑ bi ( X − α )i . deg g = n − 1. for If α any i ∈ {0. Composing the homomorphism d with itself n times (n ∈ N*) is den n n n−1 0 noted by d . d : R[X] → R[X]. …. 2. n (n) d f is often denoted by f . ∀f ∈ R[X]. If deg f = n > 1. a) Use induction on deg f. { fg}' = f 'g + fg'. m − 1}. then f (α) = 0. {af }' = af '.g ∈ R[X].2 Roots of polynomials. d = d◦d . The (formal) derivative of f is the polynomial n −1 df := a1 + 2a2 X + … + nan X . Proof.IV. with b0 ∈ R and g ∈ R[X].

m − 1}. Field extensions m b) By a). an ≠ 0. ∀i ∈ {0. …. f (α) = i!bi. ! Suppose K is a field. then ( f. Thus: 2. (X − α) | f.196 IV. xn ∈ R. we have: 44 In honor of François Viète. Proof. then g has a root α in Ω (the roots of g are among the roots of f ) and α is a multiple root of f since f(α) = f '(α) = 0. g ∈ K[X]. if g = GCD(f. (Viète's relations) 44 Suppose R is a domain. Let Ω be an extension of K in which f splits (IV. . Let K be a field and let f ∈ K[X]. ! Without knowing the roots of a polynomial. If f has multiple roots. ….1.25). French mathematician. We obtain f (α) = b0 = 0 and 2 f '(α) = b1 = 0. f ') has degree ≥ 1. 1540-1603. Applying the result above. c) Let f be written as in a). n} (proof by induction on (i) n). Then f has multiple roots (in some extension of K) if and only if f and f ' are not relatively prime.…. (X − α) divides f if and only if b0. Conversely.7 Proposition. we saw that f and f ' are not relatively prime. having the roots x1. bm−1 are all 0. 2. 1 ≤ k ≤ n. g)Ω[X].6 Proposition. we obtain that α is a multiple root of f if and only if is simultaneously a root of f and of its derivative: (X − α)| f and (X − α)| f ' in Ω[X]. b1. …. This implies that f (α) = 0. the criterion above allows to decide if it has multiple roots. But the GCD of two polynomials can be obtained using Euclid's algorithm and does not depend on the field considered: if f. α ∈ Ω and f ∈ K[X]. Ω is an extension of K. ∀i ∈ {0. g)K[X] = ( f. (i) On the other hand. n f = a0 + a1X +…+ anX is a polynomial in R[X]. So. This implies that the GCD of f and f ' in Ω[X] has degree ≥ 1. Then: f = an(X − x1)…(X − xn) For any k.

then g(x1. Let R be a subring of the domain S and let f ∈ R[X] be monic. Xn] such that g = h(s1. 2. The other ! equalities result by identifying the coefficients of g and f. Xn].…. sn(x1.…. which is an element of R. xn) ∈ R. They are characterized by the next theorem. b) There exist no proper finite extensions of K. where s1. for any symmetric polynomial g ∈ R[X1. xn ∈ S. . 1 k In particular. xn). 2.…. …. Since g and f have the same leading coefficient. The following statements are equivalent: a) There exist no proper algebraic extensions of K.2 Roots of polynomials.….…. By the fundamental theorem of the symmetric polynomials. Proof.n} xi1 … xik = (− 1)k an −k .9 Theorem. Let K be a field. sn). The polynomials g and f have the same degree and g | f. Thus: g(x1. xn) = h(s1(x1.IV. xn)).2.…. Algebraically closed fields 197 an ∑{i .2. The relations between roots and coefficients show that si(x1. If deg f = n and f has the roots x1.…. ! The fields that have no proper algebraic extensions are highly interesting.…. Proof.i }⊆{1.…. there exists h ∈ R[X1. so they are associated in divisibility in K[X] (K is the field of fractions of R).…. Xn. sn are the fundamental symmetric polynomials in the indeterminates X1. The polynomial g = an(X − x1)…(X − xn) divides f. xn) ∈ R. Consequently. any root in R of f divides a0. 2.….….…. an(x1 + … + xn) = – an − 1 an(x1 x2 + x1 x3 + … + xn −1 xn) = an − 2 … n an x1… xn = (–1) a0.8 Corollary. for any 1 ≤ i ≤ n. g = f. by prop.

10 Definition. b)⇒c) Let x ∈ K'L.11 Examples. ! so a ∈ K. f also splits over K. f has a root a ∈ K. Proof. deg f ≥ 1. Since f = (X − a)g. such that f does not split in K[X]. But deg g < deg f. f) The irreducible polynomials in K[X] are the polynomials of degree 1.23 ensures the existence of an extension L of K in which f has a root x. c)⇒d) Let f ∈ K[X]. since any finite extension is algebraic. d) Any polynomial of degree at least 1 with coefficients in K has a root in K. (“K is algebraically closed in L”).198 IV. a) A finite field is never algebraically closed. e)⇒f ) Evident. An extension L of the field K is called an algebraic closure of K if L is algebraically closed and K ⊆ L is an algebraic extension. 2. so K = K(x) and x ∈ K. contradiction. the algebraic closure of K in L coincides with K. 1. d)⇒e) Suppose by contradiction that there exists f ∈ K[X]. A field satisfying the equivalent properties above is called an algebraically closed field. e) Any polynomial f of degree n ≥ 1 with coefficients in K splits over K ( f has n roots in K). so g splits over K. . In- deed. x ∈ K. so f = (X − a)g. Prop. the polynomial f = 1 + ∏ a∈F ( X − a ) ∈ F[X] has degree n and f (a) = 1. Choose f of minimum degree with this property. if F is a field with n elements (n ≥ 2). f )⇒a) Let L be an algebraic extension of K and let a ∈ L. Since x is in K'L. Then K ⊆ K(x) is finite. deg f ≥ 1. 2. a)⇒b) Clear. so f has no roots in F. By hypothesis. Field extensions c) For any extension L of K. hence it has degree 1. K) is an irreducible polynomial in K[X]. ∀a ∈ F. Then Irr(a. with g ∈ K[X].

since ψ : Pn → K . An important problem is the existence (and uniqueness) of an algebraic closure of a given field K. is injective. On the n other hand. C is not an algebraic closure of Q. is an algebraic closure of Q. Note that P is the union of the disjoint sets (Pn)n ≥1 . also interesting in its own right. where Pn is the set of polynomials in P of degree n. |K| = |K| if K is infinite. More generally. First. then K'L is an algebraic closure of K (prove this!). 45 . n −1 n ψ(a0 + a1X + … + an − 1X + X ) = (a0. r). Proof. let ϕ(a) = ( f. Any f ∈ P has a finite number n{ f } of roots in L. if K ⊆ L is an extension and L is algebraically closed. Algebraically closed fields 199 b) The complex field C is algebraically closed. Of course. where f = Irr(a. Then |L| ≤ max(|K|. the algebraic closure of Q in C. Let P be the set of all irreducible monic polynomials in K[X] and let a ∈ L. n n so: |P| = |∪n≥1 Pn| = ∑n≥1 |Pn|. |N|). This fact is known as “The Fundamental Theorem of Algebra” 45 and will be proven later. although complex numbers continue to play an important role in mathematics. c) If K and L are isomorphic fields and K is algebraically closed. |Pn | ≤ |K| . so |L| ≤ |P| × |N| = max(|P|. let us prove a technical lemma. |N|).IV.2 Roots of polynomials. We establish an indexing of these. Let K ⊆ L be an algebraic extension. …. then L is algebraically closed. We have to show |P| ≤ max(|K|. |N|). This is no longer true since the 19th century. K) and a = ar.12 Lemma. Define ϕ : L → P × N as follows: if a ∈ L. The function ϕ is injective. But Q'C. …. an{ f }}. so |P| = ∑n≥1 |Pn| ≤ ∑n≥1 |K| = This name (kept for historic reasons) expresses the concept that Algebra studies mainly complex numbers. 2. an − 1). because C is uncountable and any algebraic extension of Q is countable (see next lemma). {a1.

Indeed. because R is not countable. Then an algebraic closure of K exists. the union of the elements in B is in A (prove!) and is an upper bound for B.a) suggests looking for the algebraic closure as a maximal element46 in the “set” of all algebraic extensions of K. Let M be a set such that47 | M | > max(|K|. E is an algebraic extension of K. 48 In fact. By the transitivity property of algebraic extensions. The problem is that the algebraic extensions of K do not form a set! Fortunately. Let E be an algebraic extension of F. thus. ! An immediate consequence is that any algebraic extension of Q is countable. F ≤ L if and only if F is a subfield of L.9. Th. 2. 2. Zorn's Lemma will be used. All proofs of the existence of the algebraic closure use some form of the Axiom of Choice. Field extensions n n |K × N| = |K|. The set A is nonempty (K ∈ A) and is inductively ordered. |N|) and K ⊆ M.13 Theorem. the extension Q ⊆ R is not algebraic. We want to be sure that M includes a "copy" of any algebraic extension of K. If K is finite. The previous lemma says that You guessed. then |K| is finite and |P| ≤ ∑n≥1 |K| = |N| (as a countable union of finite sets).48 Let A be the set of algebraic extensions of K included in M. The set A is ordered: for any F. Proof. we need just an injective function α : K → M. This means that there exist real transcendental numbers (even uncountably many!). but we assume K ⊆ M to simplify notations. Let K be a field. if B is a chain in A. 46 .200 IV. we can include K in a “sufficiently large” set M (that contains “all” algebraic extensions of K) and confine our search to algebraic extensions of K included in M. Zorn's Lemma assures the existence of a maximal element F of A. 47 This choice for | M | is suggested by the previous lemma. L ∈ A. We prove that F is an algebraic closure of K.

injective.15 Remarks. The splitting field of the family F over K is the field S obtained by adjoining to K all the roots in Ω of the polynomials in F. xn ∈ Ω. ….16 Examples. xn) = K[x1. For a field K and a polynomial (or a family of polynomials). This is the reason we say the (and not a) splitting field of F over K. Let K be a field. …. We shall prove though that any two splitting fields of F over K are K-isomorphic. so F = E. then the splitting field of f over K is K(x1. xn]. ϕ(E) becomes a field (for instance. Algebraically closed fields 201 | E | < | M |. S is called the splitting field of f over K. it is interesting to study the “smallest” field over which the polynomial (respectively. This shows that F is algebraically ! closed. let Ω be an algebraic closure of K and let F be a family of polynomials in K[X]. Because F is maximal in A. b) The algebraic closure of K is the splitting field over K of the family of all nonconstant polynomials in K[X]. So.2 Roots of polynomials. We can then define ϕ : E → M. every polynomial in the family F splits in the splitting field of F over K. Of course. …. 2. 2 b) The splitting field of X − 2 over R is R. ∀x. By transport of structure. 2 . If f ∈ K[X] has the roots x1. the addition in ϕ(E) is defined by ϕ(x) + ϕ(y) := ϕ(x + y).14 Definition. such that ϕ|F = idF. F = ϕ(E). a) At first glance. y ∈ E). any polynomial in the family) splits.IV. ϕ(E) ∈ A and F ⊆ ϕ(E). S := K({x ∈ Ω | ∃f ∈ F such that f(x) = 0}). the splitting field of a family F over K depends on the choice of an algebraic closure Ω of K. If F = { f }. a) The splitting field of X − 2 over Q is Q( 2 ). 2. Then ϕ : E → ϕ(E) is an F-isomorphism of fields and thus ϕ (E) is an algebraic extension of K. 2.

Proving the uniqueness (up to a K-isomorphism) of the splitting field of a family of polynomials over K requires some results on the extension of field homomorphisms. Indeed. then σ has a unique extension to a ring n homomorphism τ : K[X] → L[X]. xn ∈ L are the roots of f. the roots of X − 2 are 3 2 .202 IV. α ∈ E is a root of f ∈ K[X].17 Proposition. Apply the K-homomorphism ϕ to this equality: . and ϕ : E → L is a K-homomorphism. apply an induction to obtain that [L : K(x1)] ≤ (n − 1)! and so [L : K] ≤ n!. …. ω 2 3 2 ) . n Proof.ω ). where ω ∈ C is 2 3 a root of X + X + 1. namely τ(a0 + a1X + … + anX ) n = σ(a0) + σ(a1)X + … + σ(an)X . Let f = a0 + a1 X + … + an X ∈ K[X]. The following property is very simple. ω 3 2 . Then f(α) = a0 + a1α + n … + anα = 0. If E and L are extensions of K. in particular. K)) ≤ deg f = n. These results have also other important applications. and L is its splitting field over K. then [L : K] ≤ n!. the extension to K[X] of the homomorphism σ is denoted also by σ. but has deep implications. it is instrumental in the determination of the Galois group of an extension. then [K(x1) : K] = deg(Irr(x1. The existence and uniqueness of τ are a consequence of the universality property of the polynomial ring K[X]. We shall use frequently the following elementary fact: if σ : K → L is a field homomorphism. d) If f ∈ K[X] is a polynomial of degree n. Since deg g = n − 1. By a harmless abuse of notation. Field extensions 3 c) The splitting field of X − 2 over Q is Q( 3 2 . ω ) = Q (3 2 .ω 3 2 .ω 2 3 2 and Q (3 2 . then ϕ(α) is also a root of f. if x1. 2. Indeed. Note that L is a splitting field over K(x1) of g := f/(X − x1) ∈ K(x1)[X]. This is the unique ring homomorphism τ : K[X] → L[X] satisfying τ|K = σ and τ(X) = X.

Algebraically closed fields n n 203 0 = ϕ(a0 + a1α + … + anα ) = a0 + a1ϕ(α) + … + anϕ(α) = f(ϕ(α)). then K(α) is isomorphic to K'(α') by an isomorphism σ' that extends σ and σ'(α) = α'. let L be an algebraic extension of K. where α is algebraic over K and f = Irr(α. let Ω be an algebraic closure of K and let σ : L → Ω be a K-homomorphism. ϕ{h + { f }} = -1 σ (h) + { f '}. We also have an isomorphism ϕ : K[X]/{ f }→ K'[X]/{ f '}. f ∈ K[X] is irreducible and α is a root of f in some extension E of K. such that γ {X + { f '}} = α'. then there exists a K-homomorphism τ : E → Ω that extends σ. 2. Then γ ◦ϕ ◦η is the isomorphism σ' we need: K (α ) ⎯η ⎯→ K [ X ] ( f ) ⎯ϕ K ′[ X ] ( f ′) ⎯γ K (α ′) ⎯→ ⎯→ −1 ! The seemingly pointless degree of generality in the previous proposition (taking two isomorphic fields K and K' instead of just K) is in fact useful in the next Theorem. for an irreducible polynomial f ∈ K[X]. Proof. E = {(F. Suppose σ : K → K' is a field isomorphism. Proof.18 Proposition.2 Roots of polynomials. If α' is a root of f ' := σ { f } ∈ K[X] in some extension E' of K'. ϕ is a homomorphism. K). We saw that there exists a K-isomorphism η : K[X]/{ f }→ K(α) such that η{X + { f }} = α. ϕ) | F is a subfield of E. Let K be a field.IV. If E is an algebraic extension of L. K(α) is the same (up to a K-isomorphism). 2.19 Theorem. Similarly. Let E be the set of “extensions” of the homomorphism σ. L ⊆ F. ϕ : F → Ω . for any h + { f } ∈ K [ X ] ( f ) . . regardless of the choice of an extension E in which f has a root and regardless of the choice of a root (of f ) α ∈ E. ϕ|L = σ}.! The proposition below uses the isomorphism K[X]/{ f } ≅ K(α). In other words. there exists a K'-isomorphism γ : K'[X]/{ f '} → K'(α').

let f = Irr(x. F). b) If f ∈ K[X]. ϕ) ≤ (F'. Thus. x is a root of f (in E). Since ϕ(F)(x') ⊆ Ω. a maximal element (F. If F ≠ E. The canonical inclusion ι : K → Ω has an extension to a K-homomorphism σ : Ω → Ω' (by the previous theorem). then σ(α) is a root of f in Ω'. We have to prove that K(R) and K(R') are K-isomorphic. by Zorn's Lemma. so it is algebraically closed. as in a). Apply Prop. The element x is algebraic over F. Let K be a field. then any two splitting fields of the family F over K are K-isomorphic. A straightforward proof shows that " ≤ " is indeed an order relation. isomorphic to Ω (by σ). σ is an isomorphism. c) If F is a family of polynomials in K[X]. Thus.! 2. This shows that σ (R) ⊆ R'. Considering . Since Ω' is algebraic over σ(Ω). c) Let Ω and Ω' be algebraic closures of K. The image of σ is a subfield σ(Ω) of Ω'. ϕ' is an extension of ϕ to F(x). Field extensions E is ordered by " ≤ ". Let us prove that F = E. Let R (respectively R') the set of all roots in Ω (respectively Ω') of the polynomials in F. contradicting the maximality of (F.204 IV. ϕ}. Let σ : Ω → Ω' be a K-isomorphism. ϕ). if {(Fi. d) Let Ω be an algebraic closure of K.18 to the following situation: ϕ : F → ϕ(F) field isomorphism. then any two splitting fields of f over K are K-isomorphic. defined by: (F. ϕi)}i∈I is a chain in E. Moreover. a) Let Ω and Ω' be algebraic closures of K. which finishes the proof. it is bounded above by { ∪i∈I Fi. We obtain an isomorphism ϕ' : F(x) → ϕ(F)(x') that extends ϕ. σ(Ω) = Ω'. Then: a) Any two algebraic closures of K are K-isomorphic. Then any algebraic extension of K is K-isomorphic to a subfield of Ω that includes K. and α ∈ Ω is a root of f. E is inductively ordered and has. x' is a root of ϕ{ f } (in Ω). f ∈ F[X]. Proof. ϕ') if and only if F ⊆ F' and ϕ'|F = ϕ. If f ∈ F. pick x ∈ E \ F.20 Corollary. where ϕ : ∪i∈I Fi → Ω is defined by ϕ(x) = ϕi(x) if x ∈ Fi (this definition is independent of the choice of i ∈ I such that x ∈ Fi). ϕ). 2.

We prove the claim factor decomposition of n (2 | n and 2 by induction on s{ f }. The essential role is played in fact by the order properties of R. Let deg f = n ∈ N and let s{ f } be the exponent of 2 in the prime s{ f } s{ f } + 1 .n). then f has a real root. Gauss gives four correct proofs of this theorem. If we remember the form of the elements in K(R). d) Let K ⊆ L be algebraic.21 Theorem.2 Roots of polynomials. Proof. then deg f is odd and f has a real root. 1844) –“any holomorphic bounded function on C is constant”– proves the theorem in one line. Other proofs are due to Jean Argand (1814). The “theorem of Liouville” (which is due in fact to Cauchy. Thus. Algebraically closed fields 205 : Ω' → Ω. we obtain that σ (K(R)) = K(σ (R)) = K(R'). the first one in 1797. Jean le Rond d’Alembert proposes an incomplete proof in 1746. because fundamental (topological) properties of R do not possess purely algebraic descriptions. so σ establishes a bijection between R and R'. so the restriction of σ to K(R) is a K-isomorphism between K(R) and K(R').IV.F. C. L is K-isomorphic to ϕ(L). we obtain analogously that σ (R') ⊆ R. Then the canonical inclusion ι : K → Ω extends to a K-homomorphism ϕ : L → Ω by 2. the continuity of ϕ implies the existence of c ∈ R with ϕ(c) = f (c) = 0. If s{ f } = 0. This follows from the well known fact from analysis: the polynomial function ϕ : R → R associated to f has both positive and negative values (since the limits of ϕ at + ∞ and − ∞ are infinite and have opposite signs). (the Fundamental Theorem of Algebra)49 The field C is algebraically closed. Also known as the d’Alembert-Gauss theorem. Let us prove first that any polynomial f of degree ≥ 1 with real coefficients has a complex root. The present proof belongs to Pierre Samuel and has the advantage (?) of being more “algebraic”. Note that all proofs use some analysis. a subfield of K. b) is a particular case of c). 49 .19. 2. ! σ −1 −1 Part d) above says that a given algebraic closure Ω of K includes “all” the algebraic extensions of K. If deg f is odd. Augustin Louis Cauchy (1820).

On the other hand. K = C(t1. fix a ∈ R and let {i. s{ f } = s. j}∈P (X − uσ (i )σ ( j ) (a )) Since {{σ(i).8 implies that ga ∈ R[X]. as 2 roots of X − sX + p ∈ C[X]. the polynomial above coincides with ga. The polynomial ga has degree n(n − 1)/2 and (a priori) coefficients in K. the roots of ga are uij(a). …. j}∈P ( X − uij (a )) . b ∈ R. Consider the following element in K: uij(a) := titj + a(ti + tj) = uji(a). Let ga := ∏{i . Thus. j} ∈ P} = P. let us study how they change under a permutation of the roots t1. …. It follows immediately that s := ti + tj and p := titj are complex numbers and so ti. j} ∈ P. n (n − 1) We have = 2 s −1 m (2 s m − 1) . We claim ga has coefficients in R. with s s(g) < s.σ( j)} | {i. j} ∈ P. …. …. the polynomial obtained from ga by the action of σ on the roots (i. …. for any a ∈ R. Prop. deg f = n = 2 m. j} ∈ P. the coefficients of ga are polynomial expressions of t1. This means that ga has coefficients symmetric polynomials in t1. Let f ∈ R[X]. tn with real coefficients. If σ is a permutation of the set {1. Let t1. has a complex root. so there exists {i. with uij(a) ∈ C. Indeed. so s(ga) = s − 1 and the induc2 tion hypothesis applies to ga ∈ R[X]. . s > 0. tn. n}. ∀i) is ∏{i. there exist a.e. Suppose that any polynomial g ∈ R[X]. Let P be the family of subsets of {1. Because R is infinite and P is finite. tj ∈ C. ti & tσ(i).206 IV. …. …. ga has a complex root. The above proves that. n} having two elements. 2. a polynomial in K[X]. there exists {i. 2. tn). such that uij(a) ∈ C and uij(b) ∈ C. 2. tn with real coefficients. such that uij(a) ∈ C. with a ≠ b. Field extensions Let s ∈ N. tn be the roots of f in a splitting field of f over C. To show that these polynomial expressions are real.

If g (α) = 0. The following statements are equivalent: a) R is a domain. we are done.R. Exercises Throughout the exercises. c) Any polynomial of degree1 in R[X] has at most one root in R. b) Any polynomial p ∈ R[X] of degree n ≥ 1 has at most n roots in R (the roots being counted with their multiplicity). Algebraically closed fields 207 In the general case of a polynomial g ∈ C[X]. . 1. K is a field and Ω is an algebraic closure of K. then g has ! the root α . there exists α ∈ C with g (α)⋅g(α) = 0. 50 The skew field of quaternions was discovered (invented?) by W. ⎩⎝ − v u ⎠ ⎭ 50 a) Show that H is a skew field (division ring) with respect to addition and multiplication of matrices.2 Roots of polynomials. (The skew field of quaternions) Let ⎧⎛ u v ⎞ ⎫ H = ⎨⎜ ⎟ ∈ M 2 (C ) u. An elementary computation shows that g ⋅ g ∈ R[X] and the first part applies. Therefore. 2. v ∈ C ⎬ .IV. let g be the conjugate of g (the polynomial obtained by the complex conjugation of the coefficients of g). Hamilton. Let R be a commutative ring. If g(α) = 0.

Write down the multiplication table of Q. there exists a K-isomorphism ϕ : K(α) → K(β) = K(α) that takes α to . (Hint. j := ⎜ ⎟ . 6.3? e) Prove that H is an extension of C. where a. 4. then L = Ω. d ∈ R. 2 d) Prove that X + 1 ∈ H[X] has an infinity of solutions in H.208 IV. c) Let Q be the multiplicative subgroup of H* generated by i and j. Then K(α) = K(α + b). If α. …. (Q is called the quaternion group). β ∈ Ω are roots of g. Does this contradict 2. xn −1) is a splitting field of f over K. Suppose L = K(x1. If the extension K ⊆ L ⊆ Ω is such that any nonconstant polynomial in K[X] splits over L. f) Give an example of a countable skew field. 9. irreducible. Show that K(x1. 8. b ∈ K. Let char K = 0 and let g ∈ K[X]. …. xn be the roots of f in some extension L of K. then α − β ∉ K. where x1. Because g is irreducible. Let f ∈ K[X] be a polynomial of degree n and let x1. Prove that Q is not commutative and has 8 elements. xn). If E is a splitting field of f over K. 5. …. Show that E is a splitting field of f over K if and only if E a splitting field of f over L. Show that (Q'R)(i) = Q'C. where L is algebraically closed and L is not algebraic over K. 3. b. 7. …. Show ⎝0 1⎠ ⎝0 − i⎠ ⎝ −1 0⎠ ⎝ i 0⎠ that any element of H is written uniquely as a1 + bi + cj + dk. k := ⎜ ⎟ . Deduce that H is a skew field. Suppose α − β ∈ K and let β = α + b. Give an example of an extension K ⊆ L. Let K ⊆ L ⊆ E be a tower of extensions and let f ∈ K[X]. xn are roots of f (not necessarily all of them). Field extensions ⎛1 0⎞ ⎛i 0 ⎞ ⎛ 0 1⎞ ⎛0 i ⎞ b) Let 1 := ⎜ ⎟ . then E is a splitting field of f over L. c. deg g ≥ 2. Let K ⊆ L ⊆ E be field extensions and let f ∈ K[X]. i := ⎜ ⎟ .

g ∈ K[X].3 Finite fields 2 n 209 β = α + b. where β = β1. Then: f(g(X)) is irreducible in K[X] ⇔ f is irreducible in K[X] and g(X) − β is irreducible in K(β)[X]. ϕ(xy) = ϕ(x)ϕ(y). is it unique (up to isomorphism)? How can one construct it? 3. ∀x ∈ K. Let f. (Hint.|F| = p .… are roots of ϕ.3 Finite fields We now apply the results obtained so far (notably the existence of the algebraic closure of a field) to determine all finite fields. p a prime. [K(β) : K] = deg Irr(β. K(β)). Then α. n for any n. if F is a finite field. In the tower of extensions K ⊆ K(β) ⊆ K(α). n .10) that. ∀x. ϕ(α).F is a finite extension of Fp ( = Zp. then f(g(α)) = 0 and: f(g(X)) is irreducible in K[X] ⇔ [K(α) : K] = deg f(g(X)) = deg f ·deg g. We already know (1. nonconstant and let β be a root of f in Ω. These facts raise the following questions: Given a prime p and n n ∈ N*. βn ∈ Ω. Since ϕ (α) = α + nb and char K = 0. Let K be a commutative ring.IV. these are all distinct. . ϕ (α). K) and [K(α) : K(β)] = deg Irr(α. ϕ(ϕ(α)) = ϕ (α).1 Definition. ϕ(x) = x . Of course.char F is a prime p > 0. Let f = a∏(X − βi). y ∈ K. char K = p > 0. does there exist a finite field with p elements? If it exists. …. where n = [F : Fp].) IV. the field of integers modulo p). then: . Also: p . Let: ϕ : K → K.) 10. If α is a root of g(X) − β.….

ϕ = id : K → K. so x = x. Conversely. n a) Let n ∈ N* and let q := p . p p The last equality holds because p divides the binomial coefficients ( )= p i p ( p −1)…( p −i +1) i! . where K is a field of characteristic p). a subring in K. called the Frobenius endomorphp p ism51 of K. The image of ϕ is K : = {x | x ∈ K}. The prime subfield of F is Fp. 3. any element of q F is a root of the polynomial X − X. where m divides n. x = x. The group * (F .2 Theorem. We use this endomorphism especially if K is a field (but also for rings. The Frobenius endomorphism is the identity in the p case of the field Fp (by the little Fermat theorem. the Frobenius endomorphism is taken to be the identity function. there exists a finite field with p elements and any two fields n with p elements are isomorphic. then m |K| = p . . we obtain x ∀x ∈ F*. Field extensions ϕ(x + y) = (x + y) = p 0 ≤i ≤ p ∑ ( p) x i p −i yi = x + y . Let p be a prime and let Ω be an algebraic closure of the field Fp. There exists a unique subfield F of Ω q having q elements.210 IV. considered with coefficients in 51 Ferdinand Georg Frobenius (1849-1917). namely r K = {x ∈ F| x = x}. Consequently. ϕ is a ring homomorphism. a) Suppose F ⊆ Ω is a field with q elements. German mathematician. Proof. If char K = 0. for any divisor m of n there m exists a unique subfield of F with p =: r elements. n b) If F is a field with p elements and K is a subfield of F. for any x ∈ Fp. In parn ticular. for any 0 < i < p. ·) has q − 1 elements. see also the proof below). der of an element in a finite group. for example in K[X]. namely the splitting field of X − X over Fp. Thus. Applying the Lagrange theorem for the orq −1 q = 1.

which implies m|n. Let F be the set of all roots of g in Ω. q So. ψ(x) = x . On the other hand.6). ψ (x) = x r . Any subfield E of F with r elements is equal to L because all elements of E satisfy the equation r x = x. . Let Ω be an alger braic closure of F and let ψ : Ω → Ω. then n = mt for some t. Conversely. We have 2 t r t (ψ ◦ψ) (x) = ψ(x ) = x r and. q n ψ : Ω → Ω. then F is the subfield of all elements fixed by this homomorphism. We claim F is a subfield of Ω. We show that L ⊆ F. where m r r = p . the number of roots of g in Ω is exactly q: g has at most q roots and has no multiple roots. We deduce that F. b) Let K be a subfield of F (we suppose that F ⊆ Ω). an acronym for n n n “Galois Field”.3 Finite fields 211 Fp. x ∈ L ⇒ x ∈ F. This polynomial can have at most q distinct roots in Ω. q F = {x ∈ Ω | x = x}. thus. since q |F| = q. Let L := {x ∈ Ω | x = x} = {x ∈ Ω |ψ(x) = x}. ∀x ∈ Ω. Let us prove that there exists a field with q elements F ⊆ Ω. this is m mt n possible only if s is of the form p and p = p . has q elements. since p is a prime. L is a subfield with r elements of Ω. by induction. t t t n x ∈ L ⇒ ψ(x) = x ⇒ ψ (x) = x ⇒ x r = x . Let s := |K| n t and let t := [F : K]. ∀x ∈ Ω. The notation GF(p ).IV. who determined the structure of the finite fields in 1830. and F = n {x ∈ Ω | x p = x}. We have p = |F| = s . honors Evariste Galois. is a field homomorphism (ψ = ϕ where ϕ is the Frobenius). since q−1 its derivative is qX − 1 = −1 (see 2. ! The finite field with p elements (unique up to an isomorphism) is denoted by GF(p ) or F pn . ∀x ∈ Ω. let g = X − X. So. The q argument above says F must be the splitting field of X − X over Fp. if m divides n. the elements of F are exactly the roots of X − X in Ω. But r = p . ψ(x) = x . the splitting field of g over Fp. Indeed. This q means that F is the splitting field of X − X over Fp and F is the unique subfield with q elements of Ω.

where m ≥ 2 and C1. so G is cyclic. there exists an element x having order m in G (for an elementary proof of this. Let F be the splitting field of g = X − X over Fp. Thus.3 Proposition. Also. ! We prove now that any finite division ring is commutative (it is a field). Use the invariant factors theorem. applied to the finite Abelian group G. G ≤ (U(R). Proof. where n = d1·…·dm > dm. …. Another proof. |Cm| = dm and d1 | d2 |…| dm.212 IV. So. see exercise 3. n Fp[X]/{ f } is a field with p elements. Then G ≅ C1×…×Cm. …. |C1| = d1. f is irreducible of degree n in Fp[X]. The n element ζ ∈ K is called an nth root of unity in K if ζ = 1. ·). Lagrange's theorem implies that m | n. 3. Let K be a field and let n be a positive integer.2). any finite subgroup of K* (where K is a field) is cyclic. any element m in G is a root of X − 1. for any such polynomial f. For any n ∈ N*. n ≤ m and m = n. Let Un(K) . Field extensions 3. Fp[X]/{ f } ≅ Fp(α). number theory etc. where n q = p . In particular. ⋅) is a cyclic group. On the other hand. (the GCD of the orders of the elements of G). Let α be a generator of F* and let f = Irr(α. We have that F = Fp(α) and deg f = [Fp(α) : Fp] = [F : Fp] = n. Fp). there exists at least an irreducible polynomial of degree n in Fp[X]. Then X d m − 1 has n roots in R. The next lemma says that (F*. Since G is Abelian. The proof of this result needs some facts on roots of unity and cyclotomic fields.4 Lemma. Let G be a finite group with n elements. q Proof. then G is cyclic.5 Definition. If R is a domain and G is a finite subgroup of U(R) (the multiplicative group of units of R). Suppose G is not cyclic. ! 3. a field with q elements. Let m be the exponent of G. Cm are cyclic. which have also numerous other applications in algebra. generated by x. which has at most m roots in R. contradiction.

3. 1} if n is even and Un(Q) = {1} if n is odd. 4}. ∀m < n ⇔ ζ generates Un).7 Examples. We denote by Pn(K) (or simply Pn) the set of all primitive nth roots of unity in K: Pn(K) := {x ∈ Un(K) | ord x = n}. 2kπi n b) Un(C) = {e / | k ∈ {1. Un(K) := {x ∈ K | x = 1}. Un is a subgroup with at most n elements of the multiplicative group (K*. Thus. m) = 1. a) Un(Q) = { −1. namely e / . 3}. P4(F5) = {2. then Un(K) = Um(K). but ζ ≠ 1. n) = 1. n}}. 2kπi n where e / = cos(2kπ/n) + isin(2kπ/n). with (p. n) = 1.3 Finite fields 213 (or simply Un if K cannot be confused) be the set of the nth roots of n unity in K. The element ζ ∈ Un is called a primitive nth root of unity in K if the order of ζ in Un is n. Let Ω be an algebraic closure of the field K and let n ∈ N*. 6}. P4(F7) = ∅. the extension K ⊆ K(ζ ) is called a cyclotomic extension. a) Un(Ω) has n elements if and only if char K does not divide n. n Since X − 1 has at most n roots. (k. We have ϕ(n) = |U(Zn)|.IV. the number of invertible elements in the ring Zn. 2. If ζ is a root of unity in some extension of K. cu (k. The function ϕ : N* → N* is called the Euler phi function. c) U4(F5) = F5* = {1. ·). 3. Here ϕ(n) is the number of all integers k. There are ϕ(n) complex primi2kπi n tive nth roots of unity. …. t b) If char K = p > 0 and n = p m.6 Remark. 1 ≤ k < n. Un(K) is cyclic (as a finite subgroup of K*). . there exists a primitive nth root of unity in K if and only if Un(K) has n elements. 1 ≤ k < n. 3.8 Proposition. U4(F7) = {1. 3. (⇔ n m ζ = 1.

If char K = 0 (one usually takes K = C to ensure a primitive nth root of unity exists). there exists a primitive nth root of unity in some extension of K.10 Remark. the complex nth roots of unity are the vertices of a regular polygon with n sides inscribed in the unit circle. In this case.214 IV. But y & y . Thus.n )=1 is called the nth cyclotomic polynomial (dropping any reference to the field). then g divides f in K[X]. Let n ∈ N* and let K be a field containing a primitive nth root of unity. If x ∈ Un. it is sufficient to study Un(K) when char K does not divide n.! According to the above. . if g divides f in L[X]. is a field endomorphism (necessarily injective) of K (it is a power of the Frobenius endomorphq m ism). f. The polynomial (in K[X]) Φn := ∏ζ ∈P ( K ) ( X − ζ ) n is called the nth cyclotomic polynomial over K. Field extensions n Proof. g ∈ K[X] and h ∈ L[X] such that f = gh. Let p =: q. f } = 1 ⇔ {nX .( k . This justifies the name cyclotomic. 3. Then h ∈ K[X]. then q n q x = (x m ) = 1. X − 1} = 1⇔ n·1 ≠ 0 ⇔ char K does not divide n. a) Suppose K ⊆ L is an extension. In the complex plane. In other words. x ∈ Un implies x = 1. a) Un(Ω) has n elements if and only if f = X − 1 has no n −1 n multiple roots ⇔ { f '. so x ∈ Um. 3. of Greek origin and meaning approximately “circle dividing”. The roots of Φn are distinct and they are exactly the primitive nth roots of unity in K.11 Lemma. t b) In general. then Φn := ∏ (X − e 2 kπi n ) k <n .9 Definition. so y = 1 implies y = 1. 3. so deg Φn = ϕ(n). m | n implies Um ⊆ Un. ∀y ∈ K.

namely the nth roots of unity in K. we obtain f = ± f1 ∈ Z[X]. f1. with g ∈ Q[X]. The uniqueness of the quotient and of the remainder in L[X] implies that r = 0 and h = q ∈ K[X]. b) By a). Then: a) For any d dividing n. Then af. c) The coefficients of Φn are in the prime subfield P of K. where g ∈ Z[X] and g is monic. g1 have leading coefficients 1 or − 1. there exists a primitive dth root of unity in K. bg ∈ Z[X] and af·bg = abu. Let n ∈ N* and let K be a field containing a primitive nth root of unity.12 Proposition. then ζ is a primitive dth root of unity. g1 ∈ Z[X]. with deg r < deg g. then f ∈ Z[X] and u = fg. c) We prove by induction by m (1 ≤ m ≤ n) the statement: "for any d with 1 ≤ d ≤ m. u = fg. .IV.3 Finite fields 215 b) If f ∈ Q[X] is monic and divides (in C[X]) a monic polynomial u ∈ Z[X]. then Φn ∈ Z[X]. g1 ∈ Z[X]. Thus c(af )·f1·c(bg )·g1 = abu. a) The division with remainder theorem in K[X] guarantees the existence of q. since c(u) = 1. primitive. b) X n − 1 = ∏d n Φ d holds. with f1. bg = c(bg )·g1. Proof. and f1. since u is monic. The division with remainder in L[X] of f to g is f = gh + 0. b) The polynomials in the equality are monic and have the same roots. 3. r ∈ K[X] such that f = gq + r. Since f (which is monic) is associated in divisibility with f1. So af = c(af )·f1. Let a (respectively b) be the LCM of denominators of the coefficients of f (respectively g). Simplify by ab = c(af )·c(bg) to obtain f1·g1 = u. d | n implies Φd ∈ P[X]". Likewise. Taking the contents of the polynomials. m Proof. ! g ∈ Z[X]. c(af )·c(bg) = ab. a) If ζ is a primitive nth root of unity and m = n/d. d) If char K = 0 (for example K = C).

Apply now the lemma 3. ∀d < m. We suppose the claim true for any q < m and we prove for m. to obm tain that X − 1 = Φm·g. for d | n. 3 2 3 then Irr(α. 3. Why? Φn (for this. then X − 1 = Φm·g. F2) = X + X + 1 or X + X + 1. in terms of products of polynomials X − 1 or their inverses.13 Example. where g ∈ Z[X].g. If α is a primitive 7th root of unity.b) to deduce Φm ∈ Z[X]. By trial and error (or using a computer) we obtain 3 2 3 Φ7 = (X + X + 1)(X + X + 1).216 IV. d < n).n.11. Let 1 < m ≤ n. monic. d <m since by the induction hypothesis Φd ∈ P[X]. The Möbius inversion In characteristic 0 the behavior above is not present: the cyclotomic polynomials over C are irreducible (in Z[X] and in Q[X]): . d) Repeat word for word the proof of c) (replace P with Z). Any nonzero element of F8 is a primitive 7th root of unity. Φ7 is reducible in F2[X].11. d | m. From Φ1Φ7 = X − 1 we deduce 6 5 Φ7 = X + X +…+ 1. Thus. F2(α) is the field with 8 elements F8. all Φd are needed. So. d ∀n ∈ N*.a) to obtain that Φm is also in P[X]. there is nothing m to prove. One can use the formula X n − 1 = ∏d n Φ d to recursively compute formula (see e. Field extensions If m = 1. Consider the 7th cyclotomic polynomial Φ7 over an 7 algebraic closure of F2. where g = ∏ Φ d ∈ P[X]. If m | n. SPINDLER [1994]) gives an explicit expression for Φn. where the right hand side is the irreducible factorization of Φ7 in F2[X] (the polynomials have degree 3 and no roots in F2). If m . then Φ1 = X − 1 ∈ P[X]. d m . Φm ∈ Q[X]. ! Use lemma 3.

Indeed. Since α ∈ Pn. monic. so f | Φn. Then: . By lemma p 3. Suppose by contradiction that f (α ) ≠ 0.b) implies that f ∈ Z[X].11. f | g1 in Z[X] (by 3. ∀m ∈ N*. we obtain that all the primitive nth roots of unity are roots of f. Let ζ be a primitive complex nth root of unity and let f = Irr(ζ. We need now to prove that any primitive nth root of unity is a root of f. if β is a root of f. monic. with h ∈ Z[X]. This shows that any root of f is a root of Φn. for any prime p not dividing n. p p p p f (α )g(α ) = Φn(α ) = 0. let α ∈ Pn and let p be prime. We will show that: p If α ∈ Pn and f (α) = 0.b). so g1 = fh.14 Theorem. so p p α is a root of g. Since any primitive nth root m of unity is of the form ζ for some m coprime with n. for any m relatively prime to n.n. Thus. In what follows. π : Z[X] → Zp[X] is the unique extension to Z[X] of the canonical n homomorphism Z → Zp). n Since f divides X − 1 in C[X] and f is monic. Proof. for any q ∈ Z[X]. Let n ∈ N*. then K(ζ) and K(β) are K-isomorphic via an isomorphism that m takes ζ to β.3 Finite fields 217 3. Then Φn is irreducible in Z[X] and it is the minimal polynomial over Q of any complex primitive nth root of unity. 3. with g ∈ Z[X]. ζ = 1 if and only if m β = 1. so ord ζ = ord β. we have. In particular. in other words. Φn = fg. let π(q) denote the polynomial q reduced modulo p (π(q) is the polynomial in Zp[X] whose coefficients are the images in Zp of the coefficients of q.11). Because f = Irr(α. In order to prove (*).IV. α is a root for g1 := g(X ) ∈ Z[X]. p . Q). We show that f = Φn. we show that f and Φn have the same roots.11. Q). an inductive argument based on (*) shows that m f (ζ ) = 0. more precisely.(*) Since f (ζ ) = 0. then f (α ) = 0. Any root of f is a primitive nth root of unity. Let g = a0 + a1X + … + X .

∀y ∈ G} (called the center of G) is a normal Abelian subgroup of G. x ~ y if −1 and only if exists z ∈ G such that y = z xz. Then |Ca| = [G : C(a)] (the index of the subgroup C(a) in G). 3. . which will be used here to prove that any finite division ring is commutative. is an equivalence relation on G. c) The “conjugacy relation” in G. e) (conjugacy classes formula) We have: |G| = |C(G)| + ∑a∈S [G : C (a )] . since Φn | X − 1. Let G be a group and let a ∈ G. so all irreducible divisors of π{ f } divide also π(g). But then π(Φn) = π{ f }π(g) is divisible with h . c) have standard proofs and are left to the reader. so it has n multiple roots. Field extensions p n p p p p nX π(g ) = π(g) = (π(a0) + π(a1)X + … + X ) = π(a0) + π(a1) X + … + pn p pn X = π(a0) + π(a1)X + … + X = π(g1). We need now some elementary facts on the conjugacy classes of a finite group. Proof. d) Let Ca := {x ∈ G | x ~ a } (the conjugacy class of the element a). there exists an irreducible common factor h of π{ f } and π(g). b) The set C(a) := {x ∈ G | xa = ax} (called the centralizer of a in G) is a subgroup of G. we say that x is conjugate with y (or y is a conjugate of x). y ∈ G. If x ~ y. π(g1) = π(g) = π{ f }π(h). Because deg π{ f } = deg f. defined by: ∀x.n implies n invertible in Zp) and π(X − 1) is coprime to n −1 . ! We will encounter cyclotomic extensions again in the study of Galois Theory. so π(Φn) divides n n −1 π(X − 1).218 p IV. 2 deg h ≥ 1. This is absurd. Thus π{ f } | π(g) in Zp[X]. p p Since g1 = fh. a). a) The set C(G) := {x ∈ G | xy = yx. b). where the sum runs on a system S of representatives of the conjugacy classes of the elements not contained in the center of G.15 Proposition. who has no multiple roots: its derivative is nX ≠ 0 in n Zp[X] (p .

∀y ∈ K}. We can prove now the following celebrated result: 3. Then m n |C| = p := q and |K| = q . and C is a field (of characteristic p). The injectivity of ϕ also follows. Clearly. e) G is the disjoint union of the conjugacy classes.3 Finite fields −1 219 d) It is clear that Ca = {z az | z ∈ G}.IV. Suppose that n > 1. Because ϕ is obviously surjective. Let p = char K > 0. C := {x ∈ K | xy = yx. One easily verifies that C is a commutative subring of K. |Ca| = |G/C(a)| = [G : C(a)]. In−1 −1 −1 deed. taking cardinals and using ! |Ca| = [G : C(a)]. so. Let S be a system of representatives as in the statement. for any x. Let K be a finite division ring. Let G/C(a) := {C(a)x | x ∈ G} be the set of right cosets of the subgroup C(a) in G. a ∈ C(G) ⇔ C(a) = {a} ⇔ |Ca| = 1. For any a ∈ K. Scottish mathematician. We have thus the tower of extensions of division rings Zp ⊆ C ⊆ K. Let C be the center of the ring K. y ∈ G: C(a)x = C(a)y ⇔ xy ∈ C(a) ⇔ axy = xy a −1 −1 ⇔ x ax = y ay. ϕ is correctly defined −1 (x ax is independent on the representative x of the class C(a)x). ∀x ∈ G.16 Theorem. consider {x ∈ K | xa = ax} =: Z(a). so G = ∪{Ca | a ∈ S ∪C(G)} = {∪{Ca | a ∈ S }}∪ C(G). Let m = [C : Zp] and let n = [K : C]. 1909) Any finite division ring is commutative. The centralizer of a in the group K* is 52 Joseph Henry Maclagen Wedderburn (1882-1948). . Then S ∪ C(G) is a system of representatives for the conjugacy classes. which is easily seen to be a subfield of K that includes C. (Wedderburn 52 . Define −1 ϕ : G/C(a) → Ca by ϕ(C(a)x) = x ax. we obtain the formula. It is sufficient to prove that n = 1. The center of the group (K*. Proof. The unions are disjoint. ·) is C*. since −1 −1 x ax = y ay implies C(a)x = C(a)y.

* so Zp ⊆ C ⊆ Z(a) ⊆ K implies da | n. So |Φn(q)| > q − 1. contradicting the choice of S). By 1. ! in a plane). Indeed. [K : Z(a)*] = q −1=q−1+∑ n * n * * S being a system of representatives of the conjugacy classes of elements not contained in C*. ∀n ≥ 2.27. represent the complex nth roots of unity . so: qd (a ) − 1 (1) n d(a) qn − 1 . Φn(q) n n d(a) divides q − 1 and also divides (q − 1)/(q − 1). contradiction with Φn(q) | q − 1. On the other hand. ∀a ∈ S. In the group (K .220 IV. |C | = q − 1.b) implies X − 1 = Φn· ∏ Φ d . |Φn(q)| = d(a) ∏ζ ∈P n q − ζ . d (a ) −1 a∈S q The cyclotomic polynomial (over C) Φn divides (X − 1)/(X − 1) n in Z[X]. ·) apply the conjugacy classes formula: |K | = |C | + * * ∑a∈S [K * : Z (a ) ]. from (1) −1= we obtain that Φn(q) | (q − 1). |K | = q − 1. In the formula above. * Z(a) = K. ∀ζ ∈ Pn (to see this.12. since d n . Let d(a) = [Z(a) : C]. So. ∀a ∈ S. 3. da ≠ n and X ∏d d (a ) Φ d . Field extensions d(a) Z(a)* := Z(a)\{0}. Note that a ∈ S implies da ≠ n (otherwise qn − 1 . the multiplicativity of degrees holds also for extensions of division rings. so |Z(a)| = q . d ≠n da | n. the claim follows. We have |q − ζ | > q − 1. so a ∈ C*.

b ∈ G. More generally. there exists an element g of G such that ord(g) = exp(G). Then: ∑d|n d·N(d.…. b ∈ G. 3. Show that any function ϕ : K → K is polynomial (there exists a polynomial g ∈ K[X] such that ϕ(x) = g(x). What happens if K is infinite? 5. Let K be a finite field of characteristic p and let α ∈ K*. q) be the number of irreducible monic polynomials in K[X] having degree n. 2. Let K be a finite field. If α generates the group K*.3 Finite fields 221 Exercises 1. q) = q n c) Compute N(p. show that any function ϕ : K → K is polynomial (there is a polynomial g ∈ K[X1. ∀n ∈ N*. Show that the lattice of all intermediate fields of the extension is isomorphic to the lattice of the divisors of n (ordered by divisibility). Let K ⊆ L be an extension of degree n of finite fields. xn) = g(x1. Is the converse true? 4. then K = Fp(α). ∀(x1. q) for p a prime. ab = ba and (ord a. xn). c) If G is Abelian. (Hint. the product of all irreducible monic n polynomials in K[X] with degree dividing n is X q − X . ord b) = 1. Prove that: a) If a. Let G be a finite group and let exp(G) := LCM{ord a | a ∈ G} (the exponent of G). Let K be a finite field with q elements.….) b) Let N(n. then ord ab = (ord a)(ord b).IV. Show they have the same roots. Xn] such that n ϕ(x1. . b) For any a. ab = ba implies that there exists c ∈ G with ordc = [ord a. ord b].…. xn) ∈ K ).…. a) Show that. n ∀x ∈ K).

) 7. Then Ω has uncountable many subfields. (Hint. Use that two matrices are similar ⇔ they have the same elementary divisors. for any n ≤ 3. then any polynomial of degree 2 in F5[X] has a root in F5[α]. Give an example of a finite field K and of an irreducible polynomial g ∈ K[X]. Then Φpk = Φp( X p k −1 ). ∀c ∈ Fp. d) Let f ∈ F[X1. consider the subfield CS of Ω. [L : K] = n. (Hint. Then: . Then Sr. For any subset S of the set of all prime numbers P. q = 0 if (q − 1) . In the particular case Zp. q = −1 if (q − 1) | m . exercise 2. where d = (q − 1.) 9. For some developments. q) for r ≤ n.222 IV. If 2 α is o root of X + 2 ∈ F5[X]. Xn]. 12.…. deg g ≥ 2. (Hint. 11. SHAFAREVICH [1985]. 10. with d elements. Let K be a finite field with q elements.m. β are roots of g in Ω. Field extensions 6. then g(X + c) = g(X). of (total) degree < n(q − 1).9). g = X − X − a. Tm. with a ∈ Fp. such that. If K = Fp. CS is the composite of the fields {Fpn | n is a product of primes from S}. Let p be a prime and let k ∈ N. then αSr = Sr). then p α − β ∈ K (cf. these yield results on “congruences mod p”. b) Let Sr = Sr. q = ∑{x | x ∈ F}. if α. Let F be a finite field with q elements and let r ∈ N*. Then Tm. Determine the number of equivalence classes in Mn(K) with respect to similarity. q = 1 if |Ur(F)| = 1. If α is a generator of Ur(F). q = ∑{x | x ∈ Ur(F)}. Sr. Find the number of irreducible polynomials of degree 2 in F5[X]. (Hint. Let K ⊆ L be an extension of finite fields. Make a connection to the N(r. Let Ω be an algebraic closure of the field Fp. 8. q = 0 if |Ur(F)| > 1. m c) Let m ∈ N* and Tm = Tm. Then any irreducible polynomial of degree n in K[X] splits in L[X]. see BOREVICH. r).) The following exercises are about the solutions in finite fields of polynomial equations in several unknowns. Show that: r a) Ur(F) = {x ∈ F* | x = 1} is a cyclic subgroup of F*.

xn) ≠ 0 ⇔ f := 1 − g f (x1.….…. I) is a transcendental extension. char F = p and g ∈ Zp[X1. …. Then the n number of solutions in F of the equation g(x1. The field K(X) of rational fractions with coefficients in K is a transcendental extension of K. In particular. For example. xn} be a finite subset of L. ….…. ….…. xn} an algebraically independent set over K (or say that x1. ….) 14. the equation has solutions other than (0. Then the number N of solutions in F of the equation g(x1. …. xn) | (x1. xn) = 1. …. ∑{ f (x1. ….) 13. then K ⊆ K(X. Xn] is a homogeneous polynomial. deg g < n. Xn]. xn are algebraically independent over . R is a transcendental extension of Q. (Warning) Let F be a field with q elements. I) is the field of rational fractions in the indeterminates (Xi)i∈I with coefficients in K. 4. It is sufficient to suppose f is a monomial.1 Definition. …. …. xn) = 0 ⇔ f (x1. xn) = 0. deg g < n. …. and at least one m is < q − 1. 0). Then the sum above is a product of n sums of type Tm. ….IV. a) Let K ⊆ L be a field extension and let {x1.4 Transcendental extensions Recall that the extension K ⊆ L is called transcendental if it is not algebraic: L contains a transcendental element over K. IV. (Hint. Calculate ∑{f (x1. xn) ∈ F n} = 0. also g(x1. if (Xi)i∈I is a family of indeterminates and K(X. xn) | (x1. xn) ∈ F n} and use the previous exercise. (Chevalley) Suppose F is a field with q elements. More generally. char F = p and n g ∈ F[X1. Then deg f < n(q − 1) and g(x1. Let q−1 . xn) = 0 is a multiple of p. xn) = 0 is a nonzero multiple of p.4 Transcendental extensions 223 (Hint. …. We call {x1.

is injective. ∀s ∈ S. ∀s ∈ S. I). …. the subring generated by K and S in L (the K-subalgebra of L generated by S). This means that there exist x1. …. S) and K(S). …. In other words. an algebraically independent set over K behaves the same as a set of indeterminates in the field of fractions of a polynomial ring with coefficients in K. a subset of L. Xn]. S is algebraically independent over K if and only if v : K[X. xn) = 0. we call the equality f(x1. S] → L such that v(Xs) = s. The set S is called algebraically dependent over K if S is not algebraically independent over K. with f ≠ 0 and f(x1. for any polynomial f ∈ K[X1. distinct and f ∈ K[X1. such that L = K(S). Likewise. e } is not algebraically independ- . S] → K[S] v(Xs) = s. {e} is algebrai3 cally independent over Q. a) The singleton {x} is algebraically independent over K if and only if x is transcendental over K. The subset S is algebraically independent over K if and only if the unique homomorphism of K-algebras v : K[X. is an isomorphism. xn) = 0 implies f = 0. {π} and {e } are algebraically 5 independent sets over Q.3 Examples.2 Remark. b) The extension K ⊆ L is called a purely transcendental extension if L is generated over K by a set of algebraically independent elements over K: there exists a subset S of L. Let (Xs)s∈S be a family of indeterminates indexed by S. 4. f(x1. An arbitrary subset S of L is called algebraically independent over K if any finite subset of S is algebraically independent over K. Xn]. …. Thus. S] and K[S] induces an isomorphism between the fields of fractions K(X. another way to say this is: the purely transcendental extensions of K are (up to K-isomorphism) the extensions K ⊆ K(X. Field extensions K) if. where (Xi)i∈I is a family of indeterminates. The image of this homomorphism is K[S]. This isomorphism between the domains K[X. Thus. xn ∈ S. 4. …. ….224 IV. algebraically independent over K. xn) = 0 an algebraic dependence relation over K for S. The set {e.

…. Let K ⊆ L be an extension and let S. π} is algebraically independent over Q. where f = Y − X ∈ Q[X. The symmetric elementary polynomials s1. tn) = 0. Suppose S ∪ T is algebraically independent over K. sn. Xn). taking into account the form of the elements in K[S]. …. Then there exist s1. …. T be disjoint subsets of L. Then S ∪ T is algebraically independent over K if and only if T is algebraically independent over K(S). with S algebraically independent over K. …. Conversely. 5 5 K[X. Can you generalize? So.…. …. Xn] is written uniquely as a polynomial with coefficients in K of s1. Y] ≅ K[X . Prove this. …. tn ∈ T and a polynomial f in n indeterminates with coefficients in K[S] such that f (t1. Group the terms by the monomials in t1. with g nonzero polynomial in n indetermi! nates with coefficients in K(S). tn to obtain a relation of the form g(t1. It is not known if {e. …. Proof. sm ∈ S. . tn) = 0. sn are algebraically independent over K in K(X1.4 Proposition. t1. Y] ( K[X. If T is algebraically dependent over K(S). This statement is equivalent to the uniqueness part in the fundamental theorem of symmetric polynomials: “Any symmetric polynomial in K[X1. the elements X and Y are algebraically independent over K. then there exist t1. c) Let K be a field and let n ∈ N*. e ) = 0. Y]. although K[X . distinct. Write down this equality. tn) = 0. b) The empty set is algebraically independent over any field. …. …. 4.IV.Y]. tn ∈ T. Y] (K-isomorphism). let T be algebraically independent over K(S) and suppose S ∪ T is algebraically dependent over K. and a nonzero polynomial f in m + n indeterminates with coefficients in K such that f (s1.…. Y). ….” 5 d) In K ⊆ K(X.4 Transcendental extensions 5 5 225 ent over Q because f (e. to obtain an algebraic dependence relation over K for S ∪ T. sm. t1.

6 Examples. Since S algebraically generates L over K. Let K ⊆ L be an extension and let S be a subset of L. 4. b) If (Xi)i∈I is a set of indeterminates. xm ∈ S and fk ∈ K[X1.5 Definition. n}. for some x1. ….226 IV. c) S is a minimal set of algebraic generators of L over K. Let K ⊆ L be an extension and let S be a subset of L. there exist x1. c) {e} is a transcendence basis of Q ⊆ Q(e. ….… .… . I) over K. xm) ≠ 0. Xm] such that α satisfies an equation of the form: 0≤ k ≤ n ∑ f k ( x1.7 Proposition. b) S is called a transcendence basis for the extension K ⊆ L (or a transcendence basis of L over K) if S is algebraically independent over K and S algebraically generates L over K. …. xm )α k = 0 . xm )α k = 0 . . then (Xi)i∈I is a transcendence basis of the field of rational fractions K(X. Field extensions 4. This is equivalent to the fact that any element α ∈ L satisfies an equation of the form: 0≤ k ≤ n ∑ f k ( x1. with fn(x1. 4. …. so S ∪{α} is not algebraically independent over K. …. The following statements are equivalent: a) S is a transcendence basis of L over K. Proof. a)⇒b) Let α ∈ L \ S. a) The extension K ⊆ L is algebraic if and only if the empty set ∅ is a transcendence basis of L over K. …. Xm]. xm ∈ S and fk ∈ K[X1. a) S is called a set of algebraic generators of L over K (or say that S algebraically generates L over K) if K(S) ⊆ L is an algebraic extension. 2 ). ∀k ∈ {0. b) S is a maximal algebraically independent set over K.

for any α ∈ S. T be subsets of L such that S ⊆ T. B is nonempty. Let K ⊆ L be a field extension and let S. transcendence basis) in field extensions. Xn]. S is algebraically independent over K and T is a set of algebraic generators of L over K. b) The extension K ⊆ L has a transcendence basis. with S ⊆ B ⊆ T.8 Theorem. Then: a) There exists a transcendence basis B of L over K such that S ⊆ B ⊆ T. contradicting the maximality of S. contradicting the minimality of S. Relabeling if necessary.…. define B := {C | S ⊆ C ⊆ T. Proof. c)⇒a) It is sufficient to see that S is algebraically independent over K. so S \{s1} algebraically ! generates L over K.e. Suppose α ∈ L is not algebraic over K(S). The same method used at vector spaces (Zorn's Lemma) is used to prove the existence of a transcendence basis of an extension. sn) = 0. Indeed. 4. a)⇒c) We must prove that. basis) in vector spaces and algebraic independence (respectively set of algebraic generators. i. with f ≠ 0 and f (s1. a) We look for a transcendence basis as a maximal algebraically independent set B over K. This means that s1 is algebraic over K(s2. There is a similarity between the concepts of linear independence (respectively generating set. since S ∈ B. L is a transcendental extension of K(S \{α}). S \{α} is not a set of algebraic generators of L over K. sn). …. …. …. Order B by inclusion. then there exist s1. Then the previous result shows that S ∪{α} is algebraically independent over K. sn ∈ S and f ∈ K[X1. To this end. we may suppose that there exists a monomial in f that contains a power of s1. If it is not so. C is algebraically independent over K}. The set B is inductively ordered (straightforward proof) and has thus a maximal .4 Transcendental extensions 227 b)⇒a) We must prove that K(S) ⊆ L is algebraic. α is transcendental over K(S \{α}) (otherwise S would be algebraically dependent over K).IV.

contradicting the maximality of B. for two transcendence bases. Then.228 IV. any element in the first base can be replaced with some element in the second base. 4. If α ∈ S is transcendental over K(B). let Sst := (S \{s}) ∪{t}.7). But this contradicts the fact that S is a maximal algebraically independent set over K. Then L is algebraic over K(S \{s}). K ⊆ K(S) is purely transcendental and K(S) ⊆ L is algebraic. so Sst ∪{s} = S ∪{t} is algebraically independent over K. (use 4. because L is algebraic over K(T) and the transitivity of algebraic extension applies. T be transcendence bases of K ⊆ L. Field extensions element B. with S a transcendence basis of L over K. By 4. For any s ∈ S and t ∈ T. So. Thus. We remark that s is algebraic over K(Sst). Proof. ! b) Apply a) with S = ∅ and T = L. Indeed. For the proof. But this contradicts the fact that S is a minimal set of algebraic generators of L over K (see 4. Let K ⊆ L be a field extension and let S. any .4). s is transcendental over K(Sst). transcendental over K(S \{s}). then B ∪{α} is algebraically independent over K (by 4.4. which says that. there exists t ∈ T. B is algebraically independent over K since B ∈ B. there exists t ∈ T such that (S \{s}) ∪{t} is a transcendence basis. we use the following lemma.4). for any s ∈ S. any field extension K ⊆ L can be “decomposed” in a tower of extensions K ⊆ K(S) ⊆ L. any two transcendence bases of an extension have the same cardinal. it is sufficient to prove that any α in S is algebraic over K(B). There is left to show that L is algebraic over K(B). Let us show that Sst is also a set of algebraic generators of L over K. Sst is algebraically independent over K. Thus. Suppose any t ∈ T is algebraic over K(S \{s}).9 Lemma. Since L is algebraic over K(S). Let s ∈ S. We claim that B is a transcendence basis. As the bases in a vector space. to obtain a transcendence basis. if not.

the transitivity property implies L is algebraic over K(Sst). L is algebraic over K(S'). let S and T be two such bases. 4. so |S| = |T|. For s1 ∈ S. …. ! 4. Let 1 ≤ i < n and suppose we have found t1. sn} is a transcendence basis. …. Proof. The cardinal of a transcendence basis of L over K is called the transcendence degree of the extension L/K and is denoted trdeg (L/K). sn} is a transcendence basis. sn}. sn} is a transcendence basis. Since T is algebraic over K(S') and L is algebraic over K(T). T and si+1 to obtain ti+1 ∈ T such that Si+1 := {t1. Thus. Let S' = ∪t∈T St. Since L is algebraic over K(S). Apply again the previous lemma for Si. si+2. ….11 Definition. t2. Any two transcendence bases of a field extension K ⊆ L have the same cardinal. Let K ⊆ L be a field extension. We used the fact that T is infinite. ! By symmetry. we deduce Sn = T. |T| ≤ |S|. s2. t2.…. . …. ti+1. This theorem shows that the following definition is correct. Suppose first that K ⊆ L has a finite transcendence basis S = {s1. …. |S| ≤ |T|. so |T × N| = |T|. so |T| = |Sn| = n = |S|. there exists a finite subset St of S such that t is algebraic over K(St). since t is algebraic over K(S). the previous lemma yields t1 ∈ T such that S1 := {t1. So S' = S. Let T be another transcendence basis of L over K. ti. si+1. tn} is a transcendence basis.IV. …. We have: |S| = |S'| = |∪t∈T St| ≤ |T × N| = |T|. …. ….4 Transcendental extensions 229 element in S is algebraic over K(Sst). ti ∈ T such that Si := {t1. For any t ∈ T. In the case when any transcendence basis of L over K is infinite.10 Theorem. Since Sn ⊆ T and T is also a transcendence basis. Thus. there exist t1. tn ∈ T such that Sn := {t1. since S is a minimal set of algebraic generators of L over K.

The transitivity of algebraic extensions implies that M is algebraic over K(S)(T) = K(S ∪ T). sn}. Any transcendental extension has an infinity of intermediate fields. …. Example 4. 4. …. In order to prove that S ∪ T algebraically generates M over K. respectively L ⊆ M. Let K be a field and let L := K(X1. By 4. …. Since T is algebraically independent over L and K(S) ⊆ L. T is algebraically independent over K(S). …. Then: trdeg (M/K) = trdeg (M/L) + trdeg (L/K). 2. It is clear that S ∩ T = ∅. The transcendence degree is “additive” (compare with the property 1. Field extensions 4. the .4.13 Proposition. S ∪ T is algebraically independent over K.12 Example. Xn) over K. so trdeg (L/K) = n. Let S. remark that M is algebraic over L(T). ! Exercises 1. Proof. Xn). …. …. sn are algebraically independent over K. {X1. so it is enough to prove that S ∪ T is a transcendence basis for K ⊆ M. if B is a transcendence basis. so there exists a transcendence basis of K ⊆ L that includes {s1. sn} is a transcendence basis of K(X1. But L is algebraic over K(S). Let K ⊆ L ⊆ M be a tower of field extensions.3 says that the symmetric fundamental polynomials s1.230 IV. Prove that an extension K ⊆ L is finitely generated if and only if its transcendence degree is finite and. Xn} is clearly a transcendence basis of K ⊆ L. This means that {s1. On the other hand. T be transcendence bases for K ⊆ L. so L(T) is algebraic over K(S)(T).26 of the degree of an extension).

(Hint. K(x1. Then there exists a K-isomorphism K(α) ≅ K(β) that takes α in β if and only if α and β are either both transcendental. Show that there exists a K-endomorphism of Ω that is not an automorphism. xn ∈ C. xn) ∩ Ω =: L is a finite extension of K. (Hint. Let B = {x1. (Hint: If L = K(S). Let Ω be an algebraic closure of C(X). If t ∈ L is transcendental over K.over K(B). either both algebraic and have the same minimal polynomial over K. Then L is not an algebraically closed field. K(t)). 4. …. Show that there exists a field isomorphism C ≅ Ω. …. K(X) is not algebraically closed. xn).) 3. 7. Let Ω be an algebraically closed field and let K be a subfield in Ω such that trdeg (Ω/K) is infinite. Let Ω be an algebraically closed field and let K be a subfield in Ω such that trdeg (Ω/K) is finite. 10. xr} be a transcendence basis of K ⊆ K(x1. ….) 5. β ∈ L. xn) = K(x1. K) = Irr(α. for any x1. 9. Let K ⊆ L be an extension and let α ∈ L be algebraic over K. 8. ….) . Let Ω = K'C. Prove that. with r ≤ n. (Hint. with S finite. Prove that for any field K. then Irr(α. Let K ⊆ L be a purely transcendental extension.) 6.4 Transcendental extensions 231 degree [L : K(B)] is finite. then E ∩ F ⊆ L 2 2 is algebraic”. there exists a transcendence basis B included in S. Then B is a transcendence basis of L ⊆ L(x1. K(X + X) ∩ K(X ) = K. Prove that the following statement is false: “If E and F are subfields of the field L such that E ⊆ L and F ⊆ L are algebraic. …. Then L is algebraic and finitely generated -by S.IV. Let K ⊆ L be a field extension and let α. Let K ⊆ C be a field extension such that C is algebraically closed. xn). Show that any K-endomorphism of Ω is an automorphism. ….

The idea of studying a certain structure (in our case. the English mathematician Andrew Wiles proved the “Shimura-Taniyama conjecture”. Galois Theory The idea behind modern Galois Theory is the following: for a given field extension. Wiles and R. 1 232 . Various properties of the extension can then be deduced by investigating its Galois group. Class Field Theory (recently generalized in the form of the “Langlands Correspondence”). Pierre de Fermat (1601-1665). then the equation x + y = z has no positive integer solutions. French mathematician. a statement which implies FLT (a fact proven by Gerhard Frey and Ken Ribet in 1986). It appeared soon that some parts of the proof were wrong. a field extension) by associating to it another structure (in our case.V. In 1995. A major part of modern number theory and Algebra owes its existence to the efforts of proving FLT. It can be found in many areas: Algebraic Topology. a group) has been very fertile in 20th century mathematics. Algebraic Geometry. Representation Theory. one associates to it a group (the Galois group of the extension). and the list is far from complete. All attempts at proving this assertion failed until 1995. “Fermat’s Last n n n Theorem” claims that if n ≥ 3 is an integer. although a lot of partial results were proven. The recent proof of Fermat's Last Theorem 1 uses Galois Theory as a basic tool. but A. Taylor finally gave a proof which is now accepted as correct.

We denote by IF(L/K) the set of intermediate fields of the extension K ⊆ L and by Subg(G(L/K)) the set of subgroups of the group G(L/K). S ∀σ ∈ S}. we define: More generally. Checking that G(L/E) is a subgroup in G(L/K) is trivial. defined as H {x ∈ L | σ(x) = x. Thus. The transfer of properties from intermediate fields of the extension K ⊆ L to subgroups of the Galois group and vice versa is accomplished by means of two natural maps. where < S > is the subgroup generated by S.V. denoted Gf /K.1 Definition. If f is a polynomial in K[X] and F is the splitting field of f over K. 2 S . in this −1 case. Let K ⊆ L be a field extension. G(F/K) is called the Galois group of the polynomial f over K. ∀σ ∈ H} and denoted by L .1 Automorphisms Recall that. The Galois group of the extension K ⊆ L is the set of K-automorphisms of L (where the group operation is the composition of maps). denoted by Gal(L/K) or G(L/K). defining L = {x ∈ L | σ(x) = x. The other way around.e. σ is also a K-automorphism of L. a K-automorphism of L is a bijective field homomorphism σ : L → L with σ |K = id. the set of those σ ∈ G(L/K) for which σ|E = <id. to any subgroup H of G(L/K) associate the fixed field of H. which we now define. The proof of the fact H that L is an intermediate field of K ⊆ L is immediate2. if K is understood. called the Galois Connections.1 Automorphisms 233 V. 1. To any intermediate field E ∈ IF(L/K) we associate the subgroup G(L/E). one can easily verify that L is a subfield of L containing K and that S <S> L = L . given a field extension K ⊆ L. for any subset S of G(L/K). or Gf. i.

for algebraic extensions.234 V. b) For any f ∈ K[X] and any root α of f in L. …. Ψ : Subg(G(L/K)) → IF(L/K). ∀E ∈ IF(L/K). Thus. and σ : L → E is a K-homomorphism such that σ|S = ϕ|S. ∀H ∈ Subg(G(L/K)). H y ∈ K[S]. Φ(E) = G(L/E). let us review some simple but farreaching properties of K-homomorphisms. we have dim Imϕ = dim L. Applying ϕ. For such an element. then σ = ϕ. Ψ(H) := L . K ⊆ E be field extensions and ϕ : L → E a K-homomorphism. Galois Theory Φ : IF(L/K) → Subg(G(L/K)). since ϕ is a K-homomorphism and the ai's are in K. Since ϕ is injective (being a field homomorphism). ϕ(α) is a root of f. ϕ is a K-vector space endomorphism of L. So Imϕ = L. Proof. and x. in ) ∈' n ∑ ' i ai1… in x1i1 … xnn .2 Proposition. then ϕ is an automorphism. so they are of the form ( i1 . where y ≠ 0. −1 c) Any element of L is of the type xy . a) Viewing L as a K-vector space. c) If S is system of generators of the extension K ⊆ L (that is. n n b) Let f = a0 + a1X + … + anX . where ai1… in ∈ K and ∑' indicates the fact that the sum has a finite number of terms. L = K(S)). Then a0 + a1α + … + anα = 0. by the Fundamental Theorem of Galois Theory. 1. First. A natural question arises: Under what conditions the maps Φ and Ψ are bijective and inverse to each other? The answer is given. Let K ⊆ L. a) If L = E and K ⊆ L is finite. we have: . ϕ(α) is a root of f in E. it follows that n a0 + a1ϕ(α) + … + anϕ(α) = ϕ(0) = 0.

used to designate the complex numbers α = a + ib and β = a − ib (where a. This definition agrees with the terminology “conjugate numbers”.3 Proof. K) = Irr(β. then σ is determined by its action on S. These simple facts are fundamental in determining the Galois group of an extension. Let K ⊆ L be a field extension.4 Definition. is ! a homomorphism (injective. b) If L = K(S) (S generates L over K). α and β are roots of the same irreducible polynomial f with coefficients in K.…. The map ϕ : G(L/K) → Sn. xn}. α and β have the same minimal polynomial This is in fact the original view that Evariste Galois had on the notion of group associated to a polynomial. K). …. by b)). xn) is the splitting field of f over K. xn are the distinct roots of f in an algebraic closure of K and L = K(x1. let σ ∈ G(L/K) and let f ∈ K[X]. One also says “β is a conjugate of α”.3 Corollary.1 Automorphisms i i ϕ (∑ ' ai1…in x11 … xnn ) = ∑ ' ai1…inϕ ( x1 )i1 …ϕ ( xn )in = 235 ∑ ' ai …i σ ( x1 ) 1 n i1 i i …σ ( xn ) n = σ (∑ ' ai1…in x11 … xnn ) . c) View Sn as the group of permutations of the set R := {x1. then G(L/K) = Gf is isomorphic to a subgroup of the symmetric group Sn. i which shows that ϕ = σ. Indeed. We shall exploit this point of view later in order to obtain data on the Galois group of a polynomial. Let K ⊆ L be a field extension and let α. ∀σ ∈ G(L/K). algebraic over K. In other words. c) If x1. β elements of L. ….V. σ & σ|R. ! 1. 3 . It is useful to introduce the following concept: 1. Then: a) σ permutes the roots of f in L. We say that α and β are conjugate over K if they have the same minimal polynomial over K: Irr(α. b ∈ R).

Because the mini2 mal polynomial of i is X + 1. where n is the degree of α over K (n = deg Irr(α. where a. If σ (i) = i. So. A K-automorphism σ ∈ G is determined by its value in α. 1. The corollary 3. where n = [K(α) : K] is the degree of α. but Q ( Q{ 3 2 }. the subfield generated by F2 and X . The same remark can be made for the “conjugates” γ = a + b d and δ = a − b d . σ(i) ∈ {i. G = {id}. γ and δ are conjugate over Q. Then its Galois group G has at most n elements. So. c) Let K = F2(X) (the rational function field with coefficients in F2) and let F := F2 ( X 2 ) . An algebraic element α over K can have at most n conjugates. ∀σ ∈ G(L/K). For any σ ∈ G. σ (3 2 ) is a root of 3 3 X − 2. where i = − 1 .6 Examples. Who is 2 . Let K ⊆ K(α) be a simple field extension. then σ is the “complex conjugation”: σ (a + bi) = a + bσ (i) = a − bi. G(C/R) consists of two elements: the identity map and the conjugation map. b ∈ R. −i}. one must remember that they transport any element in one of its conjugates. Because C = R[i]. b) Let us find G = G (Q(3 2 ) Q ) . a) Consider the extension R ⊆ C and let G = Gal(C/R). b ∈ Q. Moreover.5 Corollary.236 V.15. it is sufficient to look for the action of the automorphisms in G on i. ∀a. ∀σ ∈ G. then σ = id. Since σ(α) is a conjugate of α. Galois Theory over R (find it!).a) says that σ(α) is a conjugate of α. The following examples illustrate this technique. if σ (i) = −i. K)). Thus. in the sense of the above definition. so σ (3 2 ) = 3 2 . but 3 2 is the only root of X − 2 in Q{ 3 2 }. 1. σ = id. the elements of the Galois group can be found by inspecting their action on a generating set. Since { 3 2 } generates the extension. there are at most n possibilities to ! choose σ(α) from. Proof.

α has no conjugates distinct from itself because its minimal polynomial has only one root (which is a double root). The 2 2 . then Xg = f. So G(K/F) = {id}. the minimal polynomial would be of degree 1. but F ( K. moreover. so X is a double root of h. Irr(α. The fact that X generates K over F implies σ = id. Take now σ ∈ G(K/F). contradiction. Irr(α. K = F(X). Let us look closer at the reasons behind this phenomenon. with f. In the cases b) and c) above a bijective correspondence between the subgroups of the Galois group and the intermediate fields cannot exist: the Galois group is trivial (thus it has only one subgroup). σ (α) must be a conjugate of α. but the extensions are not trivial (they have at least two intermediate fields). It turns out that for finite extensions. “Separability”: For any α ∈ L. where X is algebraic over F as a root of h = Y − X ∈ F[Y]. these are necessary and sufficient conditions for the bijectivity of the Galois connections. 2 Note that h can be written (in K[Y]) h = (Y − X) . But in both cases α has no conjugates in the extension: in b). but they are in a larger extension (for instance. in the splitting field of 3 X − 2 over Q). g ∈ F2 [X ]. in c). Thus.V. which 2 means that X ∈ F.1 Automorphisms 237 G(K/F)? Obviously. then σ (X) can only be X (the unique root of h in K). This is even the minimal polynomial of X over F: otherwise. so any automorphism σ in the Galois group is perfectly known by its action on α . In this equality of polynomials in X. But X ∉ F: indeed. the conjugates exist. if X = f /g. Note that the given extensions are simple (each is generated by a single element α). it appears natural to consider the following two properties that an algebraic extension K ⊆ L may have: “Normality”: For any α ∈ L. K) has no multiple roots. K) has all its roots in L. the left hand side has odd degree and the right hand side has even degree.

An easy example of normal extension is the extension K ⊆ Ω. d) There exists a family of polynomials F ⊆ K[X] such that L is the splitting field of F over K. has all its roots in L.238 V. Let K ⊆ L be an algebraic extension and let Ω be an algebraic closure of L. K) has all its roots in L. a)⇒b) Let ϕ : Ω → Ω be a K-homomorphism and take α ∈ L. one must find Irr(α. The following statements are equivalent: a) K ⊆ L is normal. one says “L is normal over K”. checking the above definition is rarely practical (for any α.2 Normal extensions 2.1 Definition. If f is Irr(α. let us give some necessary and sufficient conditions for an algebraic extension to be normal.2 Proposition. In concrete situations. b) For any K-homomorphism ϕ : Ω → Ω. Proof. we have ϕ(L) = L. Irr(α. Galois Theory following two sections are devoted to the study of the conditions above. Before giving other examples. A field extension K ⊆ L is called a normal extension if it is algebraic and for any α ∈ L. In this case. Remark that the algebraic extension K ⊆ L is normal iff any irreducible polynomial in K[X]. which has a root in L. . K) and its roots). where Ω is an algebraic closure of K. K). so α ∈ L. V. c) For any K-homomorphism ϕ : Ω → Ω. we have ϕ(L) ⊆ L. 2. then ϕ(α) is a root of f.

so ϕ(L) ⊆ L. the roots of any polynomial in F are in L. Since f has degree 2 (because K(α) = L) and f is divisible by X − α in L[X]. we must adjoin the other roots of X − 2. Take α ∈ L. so ϕ|S : S → S is a bijection. Because τ(L) ⊆ L and τ(α) = σ(α) = β. we already know that ϕ(L) ⊆ L. 3 2ω 2 ) is the splitting field of X − 2 over Q.2. let β ∈ Ω be another root of f.2. f decomposes in linear factors in L[X]. We obtain the extension 2 Q(3 2 . In- 3 Q(3 2 . a) The extension Q(3 2 ) Q is not normal. Thus there is a β ∈ S with ϕ(β) = α. Extend σ (see theorem IV. 3 deed. It remains to show that ϕ is surjective. Indeed. K) | x ∈ L}. L = K(S).19) to a K-homomorphism τ : Ω → Ω. Q) = X − 2 has also complex non real roots. d)⇒b) Let S be the set of the roots in Ω of the polynomials in F. where ω ∈ C is a root of the polynomial X + X + 1. So.V. K) and let S be the set of all roots of f in Ω. because 3 Irr( 3 2 . all roots of f are in L.ω ) = . If ϕ : Ω → Ω is a K-homomorphism. By hypothesis. 3 2ω 2 and so Q(3 2 .3 Examples. The fact that L is included in the splitting field of F over K is obvious. S = {α ∈ Ω | ∃f ∈ F such that f(α) = 0}.2 Normal extensions 239 b)⇒a) Fix an α ∈ L and denote by f its minimal polynomial over K. We saw that S ⊆ L and that ϕ(S) ⊆ S. a)⇒c) By b). pick α ∈ L \ K and let f = Irr(α. the roots of X − 2 are 3 3 2 . a)⇒d) Let F = {Irr(x. c) Any extension K ⊆ L of degree 2 is normal. b) If we want a normal extension of Q that contains 3 2 . we obtain β ∈ L. 3 2ω . ! 2. All roots of f lie in Ω. then ϕ(S) ⊆ S (by 1. 3 2ω . Because K ⊆ L is normal.b)). There exists a K-isomorphism σ : K(α) → K(β) which takes α to β.ω ) Q . let f = Irr(α. so the splitting field of F over K is included in L. But ϕ is injective (it is a field homomorphism) and S is finite. K).

in the characterizations above. N is the composite of the conjugates of L over K in Ω: N = K(∪{σ(L) | σ ∈ AutK(Ω)}) . Also. Let K ⊆ L be a finite extension. for any normal extension K ⊆ F with L ⊆ F ⊆ Ω. the most frequent approach is to prove that L is a splitting field for some polynomial in K[X].4 Remark.6 Definition. every K-homomorphism ϕ : Ω → Ω is an automorphism. then ϕ|L is a K-automorphism of L (an element of G(L/K)). b) above can be generalized: if K ⊆ L is not normal. 2.7 Proposition. xn} ⊆ L be such that L = K(S). let S = {x1. Galois Theory In order to prove that a given finite extension K ⊆ L is normal. Suppose K ⊆ L is normal. L ⊆ Ω. 2. Then there exists a unique normal extension N of K such that L ⊆ N ⊆ Ω.240 V. 2. then σ(L) is called a conjugate extension of L over K in Ω. K)⋅ …⋅ Irr(xn. If we take f = Irr(x1. we have N ⊆ F. If K ⊆ L is normal. Ω is an algebraic closure of L and σ is a K-automorphism of Ω. If K ⊆ L is algebraic. one gets a normal extension. Ω is an algebraic closure of L and ϕ : Ω → Ω is a K-homomorphism. The situation in Examples a). by adjoining to L the roots of the minimal polynomials of a set of generators of L over K. Ω an algebraic closure of K and L an extension of K. which is the smallest with this property. …. Then the extension K ⊆ L is normal iff there exists f ∈ K[X] such that L is the splitting field of f over K. “K-homomorphism” can be replaced by “K-automorphism”. 2. Proof. Let K be a field.5 Corollary. K). Since Ω is a normal extension of K. So. The converse is already proven. More precisely. then L is the split! ting field of f over K.

( 2 ) and Q( 2 ) ⊆ Q(4 2 ) are normal. which means that M ⊆ E. N is a finite extension of K. any normal extension E of K. K) over K is included in F. then S ⊆ F. Since N is the splitting field over K of a family of polynomials. On the other hand. If F is a normal extension of K with L ⊆ F ⊆ Ω. From the uniqueness of N it follows that M = N. for any x ∈ S. N) is included in F. This shows that M is a normal extension of K. so M = N. of L over K). we can take S finite. has the property that σ(E) = E. then {σ(L) | σ ∈ AutK(Ω)} = {τσ(L) | σ ∈ AutK(Ω)} So. Obviously.V. Normal extensions are not transitive: . ! The extension N constructed above is “the smallest” (in the sense of inclusion) normal extension of K that includes L and is called the normal closure (in Ω) of the extension L/K (or. τ(M) = K({τσ(L) | σ ∈ AutK(Ω)}) = K({σ(L) | σ ∈ AutK(Ω)}) = M. ⊆ . Proof. so the splitting field of Irr(x. that includes L. then K ⊆ N is finite. so I is also finite. K) | x ∈ S}.2 Normal extensions 241 Moreover. Thus. Let S ⊆ L such that L = K(S). being of degree 2. If L is finite over K. Let M be the composite of the conjugates of L over K in Ω. The uniqueness of N results from the minimal condition proved above: if M is another extension with the same properties. L ⊆ M. take N to be the splitting field of the family I over K. We have however the following: . so σ(L) ⊆ σ(E) = E. the splitting field of I over K (that is. M satisfies the same conditions as N. M ⊆ N and N ⊆ M. it follows that the normal closure does not depend (up to a K-isomorphism) on the algebraic closure Ω that we choose. ∀σ ∈ AutK(Ω). It is clear that N includes L and N is normal over K. if K ⊆ L is finite. So. If τ is a K-automorphism of Ω. So. but Q ⊆ Q(4 2 ) is not normal (why?). We consider I = {Irr(x.

Exercises In the exercises.242 V. then K ⊆ EF and K ⊆ E ∩ F are normal. b) Let Ω be an algebraic closure of L and ϕ : Ω → Ω be K-automorphism. Then: a) If K ⊆ E is normal.2 (using the automorphisms of the algebraic closure or using splitting fields). so FE is a splitting field over F for I (viewed as a subset of F[X]). so E = K(S). Then FE = F(K(S)) = F(S). a) E is a splitting field over K for some family I ⊆ K[X]. then F ⊆ FE is normal. Then L is the splitting field of F (viewed as included in E[X]) over E. Proof. Galois Theory 2. K ⊆ EF and K ⊆ E ∩ F are ! normal. b) If K ⊆ E and K ⊆ F are normal. Then E ⊆ L is normal. So. Then ϕ(E) ⊆ E. Let K ⊆ L be an extension and E. ! 2. ϕ(F) ⊆ F (as normal extensions). Let F be a family of polynomials over K such that L is the splitting field of F over K. Let K ⊆ L be a normal extension and E an intermediate field. .9 Proposition. We propose to the reader to give alternate proofs for the results on normal extensions. K is a field and Ω is an algebraic closure of K. where S is the set of all roots in Ω of the polynomials in I. F algebraic extensions of K.8 Proposition. so ϕ(EF) ⊆ EF and ϕ(E ∩ F) ⊆ E ∩ F. included in L. One can see that the results on normal extensions can be proven using either one of the characterizations given at 2. Proof.

8. a) If q(x) ≠ 0 then q(x') ≠ 0. Show that F := {x ∈ Ω | L contains all roots of Irr(x. denote by Cα the splitting field over K of the polynomial Irr(α. for any conjugate x' of x over K.2 Normal extensions 243 1. 2. for any conjugate x' of x over K. 9. Let L be the splitting field over Q of the polynomial X − 9. Let x. Let L be an extension of K. Then. then E ⊆ F. For any α ∈ Ω.V. Let g ∈ K[X] such that g(p(x)/q(x)) = 0. Prove that ∀α. Find the normal closures for: Q ⊆ Q( 3 ). 3 5 ). 4 . Q ⊆ Q( 3. Q ⊆ Q( 4 2 ). 5. 3. Then any K-homomorphism ϕ : E → F can be extended to a K-homomorphism ψ : L → F. K(α) ⊆ K(β) ⇒ Cα ⊆ Cβ and that K(α) = K(β) ⇒ Cα = Cβ. Give an example showing that the assumption that K ⊆ L is normal cannot be omitted in the previous statement. Let K ⊆ L be a normal extension. 7. q ∈ K[X]. 4. y ∈ Ω. b) Suppose q(x) ≠ 0. Prove that: x and y are conjugate over K ⇔ there exists a K-homomorphism ϕ : Ω → Ω such that ϕ(x) = y ⇔ for any normal extension K ⊆ L such that L ⊆ Ω and x. Let x ∈ Ω and p. Q ⊆ Q( 3 5 ). Give an example to show that Cα = Cβ does not necessarily imply K(α) = K(β). β ∈ Ω. g(p(x')/q(x')) = 0. K)} is a subfield of L. y ∈ L. Find the degree and a basis of the extension Q ⊆ L. K). 6. then there exists ϕ ∈ AutK(L) such that h = ϕ ( g ) (where ϕ : L[X] → L[X] is the unique K-algebra homomorphism that extends ϕ and takes X to X). there exists a K-homomorphism ϕ : L → L such that ϕ(x) = y. h ∈ L[X] are irreducible divisors of f (in L[X]). If K ⊆ E ⊆ L is such that K ⊆ E is normal. K ⊆ E ⊆ L an intermediate field and F an algebraically closed field. Let K ⊆ L be a normal extension and f ∈ K[X] a irreducible monic polynomial. If g. included in Ω. and F is a normal extension of K.

It is convenient to suppose (without any loss of generality) that all algebraic extensions of the field K that we consider are included in Ω. Let L. 11.3 Separability In this section. 9}. Galois Theory 10.1 Definition. and 8. Then [LE : K] ∈ {6. 13. Note that f ∈ K[X] is separable if and only if every root of f (in Ω) is separable over K. give an example of a normal extension of degree n. For any n ∈ N*. K) has no multiple roots (in Ω). a fixed algebraic closure of K. b) An irreducible polynomial f ∈ K[X] is called a separable polynomial if f has no multiple roots (in Ω). Let K ⊆ L be a field extension. Show that any extension of finite fields is normal. a) An element α of L is called separable 4 over K if it is algebraic over L and Irr(α. We have [LE : K] = 6 ⇔ L and E are conjugate over K. d) An element of L is called inseparable over K if it is algebraic and not separable over K. 6. L. van der Waerden. included in Ω. Give examples of normal extensions of Q of degrees: 4. This terminology. introduced by B. E be two distinct extensions of degree 3 of K. 4 . 3. we fix a field K. expresses the idea that the roots of f are "separated" (distinct).244 V. 12. V. c) An arbitrary polynomial in K[X] is called separable if all its irreducible factors are separable.

then K ⊆ L and L ⊆ M are separable.14). Clearly.2. then f is separable (f has no repeated roots). ! The next result characterizes the irreducible separable polynomials. Proof. The characterization of the polynomials having repeated roots using the formal derivative (IV. Note that the irreducible polynomial f ∈ K[X] is separable iff the number of distinct roots of f in Ω equals its degree. Let f = a0 + a1 X + … + an X . If K ⊆ M is separable. g) If K ⊆ L is algebraic and not separable (there exists at least one element of L. so Irr(α. Let K ⊆ L ⊆ M be algebraic extensions.4 Proposition. We know that Irr(α. n .2 Example. 3. be an irreducible polynomial with coefficients in K. K ⊆ L is separable. 3. with an ≠ 0.3 Separability 245 e) An irreducible polynomial f ∈ K[X] is called an inseparable polynomial if it has repeated roots f) The extension K ⊆ L is called a separable extension if it is algebraic and every element of L is separable over K (one also says “L is separable over K”). inseparable over K). L) divides Irr(α. K) in L[X]. Irr(α. L) cannot have multiple roots. a) f has repeated roots (is inseparable) iff f ' = 0 ( f' is the formal derivative of f ). Let us show that any α in M is separable over L. K) has no multiple roots. a) The polynomial X + 1 ∈ Q[X] is separable over Q. On the other hand.V. K ⊆ L is called an inseparable extension (or we say that “L is inseparable over K”). 2 The following simple result will be often used. 3. b) If char K = 0. We remark that the converse is also true (to be proven in 3.6) is essential in the proof.3 Proposition. its roots i and − i are thus separable over Q.

then g is irreducible (otherwise f would be reducible!) maximality of e). so f has no repeated roots. and g ∉ K[X ] (if g ∈ K[X ]. Suppose K ⊆ L is algebraic and K is perfect. Every algebraic extension of a perfect field is a perfect field. such that f = g X p . d is a divisor of f ' and deg d ≤ deg f ' < deg f. Galois Theory p c) If char K = p > 0. i ∈ {1. n} with p . If f ' ≠ 0. n−1 b) If char K ≠ 0. Let g ∈ K[X] with f = g X p .i. If α is an algebraic element over L. f ' = a1 + … + nan X ≠ 0 because nan ≠ 0. a) Suppose f is inseparable. g is separable. 3. then f is inseparable iff f ∈ K[X ]. Thus ai = 0. there exists e ∈ N* and an irreducible separable polynomial g ∈ K[X].5 Definition. A field K is called a perfect field if any algebraic extension of K is separable.246 V. …. ( ) e Let e be the greatest integer such that f ∈ K[ X p ]. then α is algebraic over K (by transitivity) and . Proposition 3. then i·1 ≠ 0. f '}. The coefficients of f ' are iai = (i·1)·ai. the study of separability is meaningful only in characteristic p > 0. then f ∈ K[ X p p p e +1 e ( ) e ]. So. n}. Let d = GCD{ f. Furthermore. we must have d = 1. Proof.b) says that any field of characteristic 0 is perfect. So. ∀i ∈ {1. so ai = 0. if f ' = 0.4. c) Let char K = p > 0 and f ' = 0. Proof. contradicting the ! The fields that pose no problems of separability are called perfect: 3. Since iai = 0. …. Since f is irreducible. so deg d ≥ 1 and f has multiple roots. If p . Rephrasing.6 Proposition. Conversely. we have i·1 = 0 or ai = 0. a field K is perfect iff any irreducible polynomial in K[X] is separable. In p other words. f ∈ K[X ]. then d = f.i.

with multiplicity p. Let f= i =0 ∑ ai X pi . We have α ∉ K (because otherp wise a ∈ K ). Irr(α. Let a ∈ K \ K .8 Corollary. The finite fields. K) has only simple roots. L) has the same property. ai ∈ K. bi ∈ K. Suppose that the Frobenius endomorphp ism (ϕ : K → K. Proof.V. ∀i ∈ {0.3 Separability 247 Irr(α. The minimal polynomial of α over K divides f and has the root α. let K be a perfect field. where K = {x | x ∈ K}). there exist bi ∈ K such that ai = bip . The injectivity of the Frobenius endomorphism of Ω implies that β = α. f has only one root. If β is another root of f. the fields of characteristic 0 and ! the algebraically closed fields are perfect. If. then there exists an inseparable algebraic elep ment over K. so Irr(α. Consider the polynomial f = p X − a ∈ K[X] and a root α of f in Ω. then p p β = α = a. So. on the contrary. ! 3. K) > 1. The field K is perfect iff the Frobenius endomorphism is an automorphism (if char K = p > 0. …. n p . K) in L[X]. so α is inseparable over K. with ! multiplicity equal to its degree. so deg Irr(α. n}. this means p p p K = K. Let char K = p > 0. But this shows that f is reducible! Conversely. If char K = 0. Therefore. α is separable over L. n Since ϕ is surjective. ∀x ∈ K) is an automorphism. if ϕ is not surjective. ⎠ ⎝ i =0 i =0 p (we used the fact that g & g is an endomorphism of the ring K[X]. ϕ(x) = x . so ⎞ ⎛ n f= ∑ = ⎜ ∑ bi X i ⎟ .7 Proposition. L) divides Irr(α. bip X pi 3. an irreducible inseparable polynomial f ∈ K[X] would exist. It will be enough to show that. the Frobenius is the identity map and all is evident. of characteristic p). p then f ∈ K[X ].

σ|K = ι}.11 Proposition. Consequently. we must look among infinite fields of characteristic p > 0. Ω') := {η : L → Ω' | η|K = ϕ. 5 Recall that Ω is a fixed algebraic closure of K that contains L.10 Definition. b) The separable degree is multiplicative: if K ⊆ L ⊆ M are algebraic extensions. where ι : K → Ω is the canonic inclusion. The corollary above shows that. Ω')| = |HomK(L. . the extension K ⊆ K(α) is inseparable. Denoting by α a root of h. |P(L/K. A K-homomorphism of extensions of K carries a root of a polynomial f ∈ K[X] in another root of f. a) Let K ⊆ L be an algebraic extension. Let K ⊆ L be an algebraic extension. A “natural” example of such a field is Fp(X) =: K.9 Example. h is not separable. ϕ. ϕ. Ω)| = [L : K]s does not depend on ϕ and Ω'. We have that: h is irreducible (by Eisenstein's criterion applied for the prime p element X ∈ Fp[X]). Galois Theory 3. 3.248 V. then [M : K]s = [M : L]s [L : K]s. 3. η homomorphism}. Then HomK(L. Ω) is in a bijective correspondence with the set of homomorphisms from L to Ω' that extend ϕ. another way to characterize the separable degree is given at c) below. p The choice is correct. because h ∈ K[Y ]. consider h = Y − X ∈ K[Y]. [L : K]s is the cardinal of the set {σ : L → Ω | σ homomorphism. P(L/K. Ω' another algebraic closure of L and ϕ : K → Ω' a field homomorphism5. Ω) (the K-homomorphisms defined on L with values in Ω) is denoted by [L : K]s and is called the separable degree of the extension K ⊆ L. For simple extensions. The cardinal of the set HomK(L. Indeed. This leads to the idea of using K-homomorphisms as a tool in the study of separability. in order to find a field that is not perfect. In other words.

any K-homomorphism defined on K(α) is uniquely determined by its action on α. then ϕ(α) is a root of f. to every η ∈ P(L/K. In other words. This map is also surjective: for any β ∈ R. Ω): −1 −1 if x ∈ K. v(ϕ) = ϕ(α) is injective. ι). . but deg Irr(α. ϕ). There exists an isomorphism ψ : Ω → Ω' which extends ϕ (by IV. The previous part yields the desired ! inequality. ι). To every −1 σ ∈ P(L/K. Ω'). K) roots. denote P(L/K. [M : K]s = |P(M/K. ι). η|L ∈ P(L/K. ι. K) = [K(α) : K]. as shown before.12 Proposition. 3. then [K(α) : K]s is equal to the number of conjugates of α in Ω. K) and let R be the set of all conjugates of α (the roots of f in Ω). ι) is the union of the sets P(M/L. ι). then the following conditions are equivalent: a) [K(α) : K]s = [K(α) : K]. Proof. σ) when σ runs over P(L/K. b) α is separable over K. ϕ. σ)| = [M : L]s. Ω) we associate ψ ◦η ∈ P(L/K. which belongs to P(L/K. For any η ∈ P(M/K. ι.19). Thus. Ω) → R. It is easy to see that these maps are inverse one to each other. then [K(α) : K]s ≤ [K(α) : K].2. K) has at most deg Irr(α. we can write: [M : K]s = |P(M/K.3 Separability 249 c) If L = K(α) is a simple algebraic extension of K. where ι : K → Ω is the canonic inclusion. on the other hand. there exists a K-isomorphism between K(α) and K(β). ϕ. this shows that P(M/K. Ω) by P(L/K. b) For the sake of simplifying the notation. ι. Ω). Ω') and P(L/K. Therefore. These sets are mutually disjoint and |P(M/L. ϕ. c) Let f = Irr(α.V. ι)|⋅[M : L]s = [L : K]s⋅[M : L]s. If L = K(α) is a simple algebraic extension of K. then ψ (σ(x)) = ψ (ϕ(x)) = x = ι(x). d) If α is algebraic over K. ι)| = |P(L/K. ϕ. ∀σ ∈ P(L/K. If ϕ : K(α) → Ω is a K-homomorphism. The other way round. the map v : HomK(K(α). a) We must find a bijection between P(L/K. d) Irr(α. ι)|. Ω') we associate ψ ◦σ.

So: [K(x1)(x2. comparing the last two ! relations. . which amounts to [K(β) : K]s = [K(β) : K]. a)⇒c) Let β ∈ K(α). Since the (separable) degree is multiplicative. …. We must show that β is separable over K. a) ⇔ b) is clear. …. it follows that [K(β) : K]s = [K(β) : K]. But [K(α) : K] = [K(α) : K(β)][K(β) : K]. and c) ⇒ b) is obvious. b) K ⊆ L is separable iff [L : K]s = [L : K].250 V. xn) : K(x1)]s[K(x1) : K]s ≤ [K(x1)(x2. Rewriting (*). …. Galois Theory c) K(α) is a separable extension of K. xn) : K(x1)]s ≤ [K(x1)(x2.13 Proposition. xn) : K(x1)][K(x1) : K]. holds in the general case of finite extensions: 3. we get the conclusion. Then: a) [L : K]s ≤ [L : K]. …. …. We have: [K(x1) : K]s ≤ [K(x1) : K] and [K(x1)(x2. xn). Suppose that the inequality holds for any finite extension that has a set of generators with at most n − 1 elements and let us prove it for the extension K ⊆ K(x1. a) If K ⊆ L is simple. which means that [K(α) : K(β)] = [K(α) : K(β)]s and [K(α) : K]s = [K(α) : K]. if we look at d) above. xn) : K(x1)]. Let K ⊆ L be a finite extension. the inequality it is already proven. Proof. The characterization of separable simple extensions using the separable degree. so it is also over K(β). (*) α is separable over K. we get [K(α) : K] = [K(α) : K(β)][K(β) : K]s. Proof. given above. The multiplicativity of the separable degree shows that [K(α) : K]s = [K(α) : K(β)]s[K(β) : K]s.

If K ⊆ L and L ⊆ M are separable. then K ⊆ M is separable. Proof. Evidently. By induction. The multiplication of the last two equalities yields [L'(α) : K]s = [L'(α) : K].3 Separability 251 b) Suppose K ⊆ L is separable. 3. inseparaK. We prove by induction on n the next Proposition: “For any n ∈ N*. contradiction. α is separable over K. Then [K(α) : K]s < [K(α) : K]. Let a0. so [L' : K]s = [L' : K]. let α ∈ L \ K. separable over K. and any separable extension K ⊆ L of degree n. Let K ⊆ L be any extension and let A be a set of elements in L. We shall use the characterization of separability with the separable degree in the finite case. …. The case n = 1 is trivial. then the extensions K ⊆ K(α) and K(α) ⊆ L are separable. L'). with degrees strictly smaller than [L : K] = n. Multiplying these equalities gets us to the conclusion.14 Theorem (transitivity of separable extensions) Let K ⊆ L ⊆ M be algebraic extensions. so α is separable over L'. 3. ! Notice the resemblance with the proof of the transitivity of algebraic extensions. Thus [L'(α) : L']s = [L'(α) : L']. The finite extension K ⊆ L' is separable. . we get [L : K(α)] = [L : K(α)]s and [K(α) : K] = [K(α) : K]s. Take α ∈ M and let us show that α is separable over K. an ∈ L be the coefficients of Irr(α. If Κ(α) ≠ L. because K ⊆ L is separable. …. α is separable and the previous proposition applies. Then K ⊆ K(A) is a separable extension. an). Since ble over [L : K(α)]s ≤ [L : K(α)].V. So. L) and let L' = K(a0. Irr(α. Suppose now [L : K]s = [L : K] and yet there exists α ∈ L. If L = K(α). [L : K]s = [L : K]”. If n > 1. multiplying these relations yields ! [L : K]s < [L : K]. L) = Irr(α. which means that K ⊆ L'(α) is separable.15 Corollary.

n > 2.12). x2.(i) Indeed. by induction. …. β = β1.16 Lemma. K). By transitivity. Every element in K(A) is a polynomial expression with coefficients in K in a finite set of elements of A. We show that γ is a primitive element. βn the roots of g in Ω. x2) is separable. The case A = {x1. g = Irr(β. too) in Ω[X]. it is enough to show that β ∈ K(γ) (this will imply also α = γ − cβ ∈ K(γ)). let γ = α + cβ. Proof. f = Irr(α. where β is separable over K. Since x1 is separable over K. is that any finite separable extension is simple. β) = E. Thus. the fact that d = X − β ∈ K(γ)[X] implies then β ∈ K(γ). since K is infinite. A remarkable fact. m = deg f. αm the roots of f in Ω. vides h (and g. 3. xn}. We claim that there exists c ∈ K* such that: ∀i ∈ {1. As x2 is separable over K. α = α1. there exists c ∈ K satisfying (i). algebraic over K. K(α. …. With c chosen this way. Let K(α. Let h(X) = f (γ − cX). …. βn are distinct. α + cβ = αi + cβj ⇔ i = 1 and j = 1. m}. K). The polynomials h and g have no other We have h(β) = f (γ − cβ) = f (α) = 0. so K(x1) ⊆ K(x1)(x2) is separable. x2}. reduces ! to the already proven case. a polynomial with coefficients in K(γ). it is separable over K(x1). L an extension of K and α. the condition on c amounts to c ∉ {(αi − α)(β − βj) | 1 ≤ i ≤ m. K ⊆ K(x1) is separable (by 3. 2 ≤ j ≤ n}. β ∈ L.252 V. β) = K(γ). Let K be an infinite field. Then K ⊆ K(α. The following lemma is the essential step in proving this. …. Suppose A = {x1. we can suppose that A is finite. i. ∀j ∈ {1. The idea is to show that the GCD of h and g is X − β . n = deg g. …. Galois Theory Proof. n}. Because K(γ) ⊆ K(α. and the set above is finite. Since β is separable. very important in Galois Theory. K ⊆ K(x1. β) is a simple extension (it has a primitive element).e. β) is evident. β1. …. which means that X − β di- −1 .

Thus. αm. …. so βj = β1 = β.16 gives also a practical procedure to find a primitive element (or. the separable closure of K in L is a subfield of L and a separable extens sion of K. GCD(h. that is. a class of good candidates for it.15. K L is “the largest” separable extension of K in- . β). x2). all that follows is relevant only in characteristic p > 0.17 Theorem. Clearly. ! 3.19 Definition. g) = X − β ∈ K(γ)[X]. The general case follows by an easy induction argument on n ∈ N* with the property that exist x1. If K is a finite field.3 Separability 253 common roots in Ω but β: if h(βj) = f (γ − cβj) = 0. then γ − cβj is a root sures that j = 1. But then condition (i) en- β ∈ K(γ). 3. x2 ∈ L such that L = K(x1.…. For the extensions of the type K ⊆ K(α. if the condition (i) is hard to verify). If there exist x1. (Primitive element theorem) Any separable finite extension K ⊆ L is simple (it has a primitive element). Recall that every algebraic extension of a field of characteristic 0 is separable.V. xn ∈ L such that K(x1.18 Remark. the preceding lemma applies. If K ⊆ L is a field extension. By 3. Proof. of f. thus. The remaining results (until the end of the section) are a somewhat deeper study of (in)separability. Suppose now that K is infinite. ! 3. and any generator of L* can be taken as a primitive element. the separable closure s of K in L is the set K L := {x ∈ L | x separable over K}. then L is also finite. g) = X − β. The reader interested primarily in the Fundamental Theorem of Galois theory may skip directly to the next section. g ∈ K(γ)[X]. The multiplicative group L* is cyclic. with K infinite. so GCD(h. in Ω[X]. at least. which means it is among α1. xn) = L. But h. lemma 3. ….

e c) There exists e ∈ N such that α p ∈ K. (K L includes any separable extension K ⊆ E with E ⊆ L). in a certain sense. K)).20 Definition. K) = ( X − α ) p . The separable closure of K in Ω (an algebraic closure of K) is called s s the separable closure of K. n Irr(α. K) is of the form (X − α) . which has order of multiplicity deg Irr(α.254 V. Notice that K is the splitting s field over K of the family of all separable polynomials in K[X] (thus K is unique up to a K-isomorphism). In other words. b) The only conjugate of α in Ω is α. denoted K . the opposite of separability: 3. they are “roots e of order p of some element in K”. The following concept is. . d) The minimal polynomial of α over K is of the form e e e ( X − α )p = X p − α p . e) The separable degree of the extension K ⊆ K(α) is 1. 3. Directly from the definitions. it follows that: an element is simultaneously purely inseparable and separable over K iff it belongs to K. An extension K ⊆ L is called purely inseparable if any element in L is purely inseparable over K. e If α is purely inseparable over K. The following statements are equivalent: a) α is purely inseparable over K. then Irr(α. where e e is minimal with α p ∈ K. Let char K = p > 0 and let α ∈ Ω.21 Proposition. any purely inseparable element is inseparable. The following result gives a clearer picture of purely inseparable elements over a field K with char K = p: roughly put. An algebraic element α of the extension K ⊆ L is called purely inseparable over K if Irr(α. K) has only one root in Ω (α itself. Evidently. Galois Theory s cluded in L.

Since m·1 ≠ 0 in K e d (because p . then So. K). ! 3. Let K ⊆ L be an algebraic extension. d d 3. char K = p > 0. There exist algebraic elements that are inseparable. Since α is inseparable over K. a)⇔b) b) just rephrase the definition of pure inseparability. b)⇔e) It follows from 3. 3. 6 but not purely inseparable. so m = 1.m). Let K ⊆ L be a field extension. g is divisible by f = Irr(α. irreducible (by Eisenstein: X is prime in the UFD F2[X]).24 Proposition. d)⇒ a) Evident.23 Definition.3 Separability 255 m ∈ N with n = p m and GCD(p. But α is not purely inseparable 6 6 over K. p n ( e ( ) e e d ) = (X m pe −α p e e ) m . We have f = ( X − α )p so the coefficient of X p f ∈ K[X ]. because g' = 0. .V. m −1 is (m ⋅ 1)α p .22 Example. Then deg g ≥ deg f. m) = 1. a) K ⊆ L is purely inseparable iff [L : K]s = 1. In this case. K).11. d ≥ e. since g = Y − α and 6 is not a power of 2 = char K. A root α of g is inseparable over K. K ⊆ L is normal and Gal(L/K) = {id}. for some d ∈ N. that is. If α p ∈ K.c): [K(α) : K]s is the number of conjugates of α in Ω. i KL g := X p − α p = ( X − α )p ∈ K[X] and g(α) = 0. Take K = F2(X) and g = Y − X ∈ K[Y]. Let f := Irr(α. The polynomial f is irreducible in K[X]. c)⇒d). we get α p ∈ K. The set := {x ∈ L | x is purely inseparable over K} is called the purely inseparable closure of K in L. e Proof. thus f = ( X − α ) p . a)⇒c) and a)⇒d). Let n ∈ N* be such that f = (X − α) . Then there exist e.

Morei s over. β p ∈ K. Then.…. a) Let K ⊆ L be purely inseparable. then [L : K] is a power of p. the canonic inclusion is the only element in HomK(L. which is a power of p. …. K) has all its roots (namely α itself) in L. Let Ki = K(α1. αn) for some finite set of purely inseparable elements α1. αn in L. If i E is a purely inseparable extension of K. b) Let K ⊆ M be purely inseparable. β be purely inseparable over K. Since β is purely inseparable over K. let e e K ⊆ L and L ⊆ M be purely inseparable and let α ∈ M. c) If K ⊆ L is purely inseparable and finite. α is purely inseparable over L. Irr(α. so K ⊆ L is normal. β are purely inseparable. …. by b)) K = K0 ⊆ K1 ⊆ … ⊆ Kn = L. Then there exists e ∈ N with β = α p ∈ L. We must show −1 that α − β. ∀α ∈ L. αi). then E ⊆ KL. so α is purely inseparable over K. then [L : K] = deg Irr(α. Ω). we have a tower of simple extensions (which are d e+d α p ∈ K. In the general case. d ∈ N with β p ∈ K for some d. so σ(α) = α. K).256 V. If σ : L → Ω is a K-homomorphism. then [K(α) : K]s ≤ [L : K]s = 1. Let e. then σ(α) is a root of Irr(α. So α p ∈ K. Then: e d . E ⊆ L. the degree of Ki ⊆ Ki + 1 is a power of p. Thus. ∀i ≤ n. Galois Theory b) Let K ⊆ L ⊆ M be a tower of extensions. L = K(α1. being the product of these degrees. For any α ∈ L. c) If L = K(α) is a simple extension. KL ∩ K L = K. Conversely. Conversely. clearly. so [L : K]s = 1 and G(L/K) = {id}. so [L : K] is still a power of p. if [L : K]s = 1 and α ∈ L. αβ. i d) The purely inseparable closure KL of K in L is a subfield of L. d) Let α. For every i. K). with β ≠ 0. purely inseparable. that is. Then: K ⊆ M is purely inseparable iff K ⊆ L and L ⊆ M are purely inseparable. Proof. Any α ∈ M has the property that α p belongs to K (and to L) for some e. K ⊆ L is purely inseparable.

Let K ⊆ L be an algebraic extension. purely inseparable L separable ⇔ L = K LKL s i KL separable s KL purely inseparable i K Proof. K)(X) = g{ X p } (see 3. So e e K ⊆ K L is separable). KL includes any purely inseparable extension K ⊆ E with E ⊆ L.25 Proposition. Suppose L is separable over KL. −1 i A similar argument works for αβ and β . i s i c) KL ⊆ L is separable iff L = K L KL. that is. L is also purely inseparable over K L. This shows that L = C. It follows that g(a) = 0.b). so [L : K]s = [K L : K]s = [K L : K] (because s s i i α p = a ∈ K L. Then: s a) K L ⊆ L is purely inseparable. s Then L is separable over C.c)). Finally. Let a = α p . [L : K]s = [L : K L]s·[K L : K]s. then α ∈ K. so g = Irr(a. so it is purely inseparable over C. a is separable over K. (α − β ) pe+d ( ) ( ) pe pd pd pe 3. a) Let α ∈ L and let g ∈ K[X] be the irreducible separable polynomial such that Irr(α. Since K L ⊆ L is purely s s s inseparable.11. s s e s s s c) Let C be the composite K L KL. thus. . This means that L is generi ated over KL by separable elements over K (which are also separable i i ! over KL). so K L ∩ KL = K. K). It follows that L is separable over KL. Since KL contains all i purely inseparable elements over K in L. s b) [L : K]s = [K L : K]. b) By 3.4. α is purely inseparable over K L. if α is separable and s i ! purely inseparable over K. i s i s Suppose now that L = KL K L = KL(K L).V. [L : K L]s = 1.3 Separability 257 =α − β ∈ K.

∀m ≥ 1. Galois Theory The proposition above shows that. The i situation is not symmetric for the purely inseparable closure KL.14 shows that if K ⊆ L is normal. then h = g. so α = β (by the injectivity of the field homomorphism q q x & x ). i c) K ⊆ L is purely inseparable ⇔ L = KL ⇔ [L : K]s = 1. then a ∉ K . Let K have characteristic p > 0 and let a ∈ K. Conversely. then KL ⊆ L is separas i ble (so L = K LKL).27 Remark. If a ∉ K . for every algebraic extension s K ⊆ L. 3. If K ⊆ L is finite and char K = p > 0. 3. The results proven until now show that the following properties hold: a) K ⊆ L is finite ⇒ [L : K] = [L : K]s·[L : K]i. m Proof.28 Proposition. If h ∈ K[X] is irreducible monic and h| f.258 V. as K L ⊆ L is purely inseparable. For an algebraic extension K ⊆ L. the separable closure K L is important in the sense that we can decompose K ⊆ L in a tower of extensions: the separable extension s s K ⊆ K L followed by the purely inseparable extension K L ⊆ L. α is the only root of f in Ω : f = (X − α) . β to be roots of f in Ω. Let q := p and take α. i Exercise 1. since i i K ⊆ K L is purely inseparable. but K L ⊆ L is not always separable (see exercise 13). then [L : K]i is s a power of p. if X p − a is irreducible in K[X] for some p m ≥ 1. define the s inseparable degree of L over K to be [L : K]i := [L : K L]. 3. s b) K ⊆ L is separable ⇔ L = K L ⇔ [L : K]i = 1. But [L : K]i is not necessarily equal to the greatest power of p that divides [L : K] and i neither equal to [KL : K]. Indeed. Let g ∈ K[X] be a monic irreducible factor of f. then the polynomial f = X p − a is irreducible in K[X]. g and h have α as a common root m p m . Then q q α = a = β . Consequently.26 Definition.

use an induction on n to prove that L/K is simple. Denote by S the set of all intermediate fields of L/K. c) Is the statement still true if L/K is infinite? 3 . for any E ∈ S. a ∈ K . b) Suppose S is finite and L = K(a. p p p −a ∈ K . Conversely. with a ∈ L. 1. K denotes a field and Ω an algebraic closure of K. t is a power of p. We have b = f(0) = −a. where t ∈ N*. E). If K is infinite. b). show that L is simple considering the set of intermediate fields K(a + bc). they t are equal. so f = g. Deduce that E & Irr(a. Let b := g(0) ∈ K. ! This proposition gives a method to exhibit purely inseparable elements. Let L/K be a finite extension. Let g = X + 3X + 1 ∈ K[X] and α a root of g in Ω. a) Suppose L = K(a). If L = K(a1. If t > 1.3 Separability 259 and hence are not mutually prime. Irr(a. any purely inseparable element can be constructed by this method (cf. ….21). It follows that t = 1. Under what conditions is K ⊆ K(α) separable? 2. contradiction. contradicting that f is irreducible. where C is the set of coefficients of Irr(a. So f = g . E) is a monic divisor (in Ω[X]) of f and that E = K(C). if a = b p for some b ∈ K.V. Exercises In the exercises. an). being irreducible and monic. Let f = Irr(a. c ∈ K. Show that. 3. E) is injective and that S is finite. then f = X p ( m −1 −b ) p . which is irreducible. K). Since K is a subfield. because m t t·grad g = p . We want to prove that L/K is simple iff it has a finite number of intermediate fields. In addition.

K). then n g | f. Let K ⊆ L be algebraic and let x. s . i p Prove that KL = K is equivalent to: ∀x ∈ L. 8. if α is a multiple root (having multiplicity n) of some f ∈ K[X]. Suppose F is a field of characteristic 2 and put K = F(X. Galois Theory 3. of multiplicity > (deg f )/2. Find a base in L/K and use the form of the elements in L). Then y = g(x') ⇔ x' is conjugate to x over K(y). 10. then x ∈ K. Let K ⊆ L be a normal extension. Then K ⊆ L has at n−1 most 2 intermediate fields. Let K ⊆ L be a simple extension of degree n. Prove that. Suppose K ⊆ L is an algebraic extension and S is an intermediate s field with K ⊆ S separable and S ⊆ L purely inseparable. 2 b) If t ∈ L and t ∈ K. S = K(u) and 2 v = uY (v is a root of T − uY ∈ S[T]). Let u 2 be a root of the polynomial T + T + X ∈ K[T]. Prove that: a) K ⊆ S is separable of degree 2 and S ⊆ L is purely inseparable of s degree 2. (Hint: Using formal derivatives. if p -deg f. Let char K = p > 0 and f ∈ K[X]. Let α be a separable element over K and g = Irr(α. Let y ∈ K(x) and g ∈ K[X] such that y = g(x). 5. Let K ⊆ L be a normal extension. then t ∈ K. 4. 13. [K(x) : K] ≤ n. of multiplicity ≥ n. Then S = K L. if x ∈ K. Then K ⊆ K L is normal. Let n ∈ N and let K ⊆ L be an algebraic separable extension such that ∀x ∈ L. Deduce that K L = S. Suppose f has a repeated root (in Ω). 12. Then [L : K] ≤ n. show that any conjugate of α is a root of f. (Hint. Then every irreducible polynomial in K[X] decomposes in L[X] in a product of irreducible polynomials that have the same degree. 9. Suppose K is perfect and f ∈ K[X] has a repeated root α (in Ω). x' ∈ L be conjugate over K. Y ). Let L = S(v). 11. then f is reducible in K[X]. Show that α ∈ K. 7. Suppose char K = p > 0 and K ⊆ L is an algebraic extension. Prove that.) 6.260 V.

p − 1} is a i { } linearly independent set over K ⇔ ∀i ∈ {1. i i e) {x1. p c) For any α ∈ L. Prove that ∀β. γ ∈ F.… . xn) = L. Y} is a p-basis of F ⊆ L. …. the field of rational p p functions in two indeterminates X and Y over K. Y). with L ⊆ E normal and K ⊆ L purely inseparable. F(X + βY) = F(X + γY) iff β = γ. e) Deduce that F ⊆ L has an infinity of intermediate fields.…. Take p = 2 and K = F2 in the previous problem. d) The extension K ⊆ L has a p-basis. Can an extension of degree p have an infinity of intermediate fields? 17. 14. Then K ⊆ E is normal. xn} \ {xi}). . Suppose K ⊆ L is a finite extension of characteristic p > 0. xn} ⊆ L is such that K ( K(x1) ( K(x1. Let K ⊆ L ⊆ E be a tower of algebraic extensions. n}. xi ∉ K({x1. Show that: a) F ⊆ L is purely inseparable.V. n Show that [L : K] = p (a set {x1.3 Separability 261 c) KL = K. 15. c) Any two p-bases of K ⊆ L have the same cardinal (called the p-dimension of the extension K ⊆ L). …. in ∈ {0. Let char K = p > 0 and consider L = K(X. 16. Y ). 2 b) [L : F] = p . xn} is a p-basis ⇔ x11 … xnn i1 . α ∈ F. a) Prove that K ⊆ L is purely inseparable. …. b) Suppose {x1. …. Let F = K(X . …. f) {X.… . d) F ⊆ L is not simple. such p that L ⊆ K. x2) ( … ( K(x1. xn} with these properties is called a p-basis of K ⊆ L).

Notice the linear algebra methods. w ∈ F2[X . Y ].…. n ∈ N* and σi : G → (K*.4 The Fundamental Theorem of Galois Theory We gathered sufficient data on normal extensions and on separable extensions to deal with the problem of bijectivity of the Galois connections we stated at the beginning of the chapter. v. such that E = F(PE). αn ∈ K. K is a field. b) Let F ( E ( L be an intermediate field. V. An essential step in the proof is the Dedekind lemma6. concerning the order of the Galois group of a finite extension. Show that E & PE establishes a bijection between the set {E | F ( E ( L is an intermediate field} and the set of the polynomials PE of the form above. Y.5. Galois Theory a) Show that {1.262 V. we generalize Corollary 1. X. Y ]. XY} is a basis of the extension F ⊆ L and write the general form of an element of L. v. ∀i ∈ {1. Give an example of a normal extension K ⊆ L such that L is a splitting field for a polynomial f ∈ K[X]. with L the splitting field of g over K. but such that there is no g ∈ K[X]. 6 . Show that there exists a unique polynomial PE ∈ F2[X. 2 2 with u. of the form PE = Xu + Yv + XYw. 18. ·). ·) is a semigroup. (u. a) (Dedekind's Lemma) Suppose (G. 4. irreducible. n} are distinct semigroup homomorphisms.1 Proposition. such that Julius Wihelm Richard Dedekind (1831-1916). one of the creators of algebraic number theory. …. If α1. w) = 1. German mathematician. First.

that m > n. A =⎢ 2 1 ! * ! ⎥ ⎢ ! ⎢σ ( x ) σ ( x ) + σ ( x )⎥ ⎣ m 1 m 2 m n ⎦ α1σ1(x)σ1(y) + … + αmσm(x)σ1(y) = 0. we notice that G(L/K) is finite. Relabelling if necessary.4 The Fundamental Theorem of Galois Theory 263 α1σ1(x) + … + αnσn(x) = 0 for any x ∈ G. σn has at least m terms. so we obtained a linear dependence relation with less than m terms. such that α1σ1(x) + … + αmσm(x) = 0. Replacing x with xy in (1). σm} and suppose. there exists m ≤ n and α1. n(L). So let G(L/K) = {σ1. Consider the matrix: ⎡ σ 1 ( x1 ) σ 1 ( x2 ) + σ 1 ( xn ) ⎤ ⎢σ ( x ) σ ( x ) + σ ( x ) ⎥ 2 2 2 n ⎥ ∈ Mm. and the number of conjugates of x is finite. then |G(L/K)| ≤ [L : K]. xn} a K-basis of L. ∀x ∈ K. Suppose the statement is false. b) First.V. xn. …. all nonzero. contradiction with the minimality of m. Then any σ ∈ G(L/K) is determined by its values in x1. Since σ1 ≠ σ2. …. σn are linearly independent. Indeed. by contradiction. …. But σ(x) is a conjugate of x. there exists y ∈ G such that σ1(y) ≠ σ2(y). Proof. (3) (3) is obtained by multiplying (1) with σ1(y). a) The statement can be rephrased as follows: in the G K-vector space K of functions defined on G with values in K. (1) We may even suppose that m is the smallest having this property. in the sense that any linear dependence relation between σ1. α2(σ2(y) − σ1(y)) is nonzero. …. …. …. σ1. we have: α1σ1(xy) + … + αmσm(xy) = α1σ1(x)σ1(y) + … + αmσm(x)σm(y) = 0 (2) we get α2(σ2(y) − σ1(y))σ2(x) + … + αm(σm(y) − σ1(y))σm(x) = 0. let [L : K] = n and take {x1. αm ∈ K. Subtracting (2) from (3) . ∀x ∈ K. then α1 = … = αn = 0. ∀x ∈ L. b) If K ⊆ L is a finite extension. In this equality.

Artin7) Suppose L is a field.264 V. 4. The extension is normal. xn. K) has n roots in L. …. H H [L : L ] = |H| and G(L/L ) = H. thus K(β) = L. such that α1σ1(xi) + … + αmσm(xi) = 0. 4. so Irr(α. so its rows are linearly dependent. for every conjugate β of α. normal and separable extension. Summarizing.3 Proposition. not all zero. normal. we exhibited a K-isomorphism σβ : L → L. …. (4) Since any x ∈ L is a K-linear combination of x1. …. Dedekind's lemma ! applies. Let α1. But K(α) and K(β) are K-isomorphic by an isomorphism σβ that transports α to β. contradiction. So deg Irr(α. so it has a primitive element α.2 Corollary. Galois Theory The rank of A is at most n. K). K) = n. Austrian mathematician (he lived most in Germany and the USA). and σi are K-homomorphisms. Emil Artin (1898-1962). Then |G(L/K)| = [L : K]. which is evidently an element of G(L/K).! The next proposition is an important step in proving the fundamental theorem and shows that the converse of the preceding result also holds. 7 . The extension is finite and separable. ∀i ∈ {1. Viewing σi as homomorphisms from L* to L*. Proof. For any root β of Irr(α. Then the extension L ⊆ L is finite. (E. H is a finite subH group of the group Aut(L) of the automorphisms of L and L is the H fixed field of H. αm ∈ L. (4) holds for any x ∈ L. separable. n}. Let K ⊆ L be a finite. It is enough to show that |G(L/K)| ≥ [L : K] =: n. [K(β) : K] = n. We get that α1 = … = αm = 0.

This in turn means that the sequence H H [L (x1. Let us show that it is finite.4 Corollary. ∀σ ∈ H. if g ∈ L [X] is such that g(x) = 0. for any x ∈ L. H But fx(x) = 0. hence every element in L is algebraic over L . Let G K0 = L . so [E : L ] ≤ |H|. If σ ∈ H. so the coefficients of fx are in L .4 The Fundamental Theorem of Galois Theory 265 |Cx| ≤ |H|. Proof. H H H ! |G(L/L )| = [L : L ] = |H| and H = G(L/L ). L ⊆ L is algebraic. …. xn+1). H H L (x) ≠ L. Then K ⊆ L is normal and separable and |G(L/K)| = [L : K]. xn) is of degree at most |H|. xn) ( H L (x1. Thus. since the H H finite extension L ⊆ L (x1.V. the isomorphism σ': L[X] → L[X] H that extends σ leaves fx invariant. The proposition above ensures that K0 ⊆ L is normal. we have K = K0. Summarizing. Because K ⊆ K0 ⊆ L. xn) : L ] > |H|. ∀x ∈ L. Note H that fx has all roots in L. so any root of fx is a root of g. L ⊆ L is finite and its degree is at most |H|. ∀n ∈ N*. and these are distinct. Moreover. H In conclusion. normal and separable.…. fx | g. Pick n ∈ N* such that H H [L (x1.…. If L ⊆ E is a finite extension (where E ⊆ L).…. L ) = fx. Indeed. The previous arguments show that.1. separable and [L : K0] = |G| = [L : K]. As H H H H ⊆ G(L/L ) (and |G(L/L )| = [L : L ] from the preceding Corollary). This implies that there exists a H sequence (xn)n≥1 of elements of L such that L (x1. x For any automorphism σ ∈ H. Let G = G(L/K). Consider the polynomial Proof.b). 4. We have |G| = [L : K] from 4. We have reached a contradiction. it is simple by the primitive element theoH H rem. Let K ⊆ L be a finite extension with |G(L/K)| ≥ [L : K]. then g(σ(x)) = 0. the simple extension H H H L ⊆ L (x) is finite and its degree is at most |H|. as we saw. H H Irr(x. xn) : L ] is strictly increasing. Let x ∈ L. The set Cx = {σ(x) | σ ∈ H} is finite and fx := ∏ y∈C ( X − y ) . then σ(Cx) = Cx. take then some y ∈ L \ L (x). Suppose that L ⊆ L is infinite.! . Then. ….

∀σ ∈ G(L/E)} ⊇ E. Then we define: Φ : IF(L/K) → Subg(G). Via these maps. More precisely: G(L E) a) For any intermediate field K ⊆ E ⊆ L. H1 ⊆ H2 ⇒ H1 L ⊇ LH 2 . the intermediate fields E with K ⊆ E normal correspond to normal subgroups of G(L/K). H . ∀H ∈ Subg(G). L / = E and [L : E] = |G(L/E)|. Galois Theory Recall that the Galois connections are defined as follows: for an extension K ⊆ L. Φ(E) = G(L/E). c) Φ is inclusion reversing: ∀E1. Its proof is a mere application of the definitions: 4. ∀σ ∈ H}:= L .5 Proposition. G(L/L ) ⊇ H. d) are proposed as exercises. denote by IF(L/K) the set of its intermediate fields and by Subg(G) the set of subgroups of G. b) For any subgroup H ≤ G(L/K). whose Galois group is G. H Ψ : Subg(G) → IF(L/K).266 V. c). d) Ψ is inclusion reversing: ∀H1. b). H2 ∈ Subg(G(L/K)). G(L/L ) = H. E1 ⊆ E2 ⇒ G(L/E1) ⊇ G(L/E2). Then: G(L E) a) For any E ∈ IF(L/K). H b) For any H ∈ Subg(G(L/K)). Then the Galois connections are inclusion-reversing maps that are bijective and inverse to each other. Let K ⊆ L be an extension. L / ⊇ E.6 Theorem. The result that follows holds for any extension and collects some general properties of Galois connections. E2 ∈ IF(L/K). G(L E) Proof. a) L / = {x ∈ L|σ(x) = x. ! 4. ∀E ∈ IF(L/K). Ψ(H) = {x ∈ L|σ(x) = x. (The fundamental theorem of Galois Theory) Let K ⊆ L be a finite. normal and separable extension of fields.

We must prove that η(L ) ⊆ L . then L is a normal extenH sion of K. This amounts to show that. G(L/E) is a normal subgroup in G(L/K). As L / ⊇ E G(L E) (by 4. we get G(L/K)/G(L/E) ≅ G(E/K). G(E/K) is canonically isomorphic to the factor group G(L/K)/G(L/E). for any σ ∈ G(L/K). On the G(L E) G(L E) other hand. d) Let Ω be an algebraic closure of L and η a K-automorphism of H H Ω. Applying the isomorphism theorem. a) Let E be an intermediate field of K ⊆ L. c) Consider the “restriction” homomorphism res : G(L/K) → G(E/K).19. 4. we have E = L / . We have τη(x) = η(η τη)(x) = ησ(x) = η(x). H ∀x ∈ L . normal and separable. and G(L /K) is canonically isomorphic to the factor group G(L/K)/H. But τ'(L) = L.4 The Fundamental Theorem of Galois Theory 267 c) For any intermediate field K ⊆ E ⊆ L with K ⊆ E normal. keeping in mind that H = G(L/L ). the Galois connections are bijective. so τ' ∈ G(L/K) and res(τ') = τ. where we de−1 H noted η τη by σ ∈ H and used the fact that σ(x) = x. Proof. The homomorphism res is surjective. A natural question . First. observe that η(L) = L (because K ⊆ L is normal). by IV. Ker res = {σ ∈ G(L/K) | σ|E = id} = G(L/E). so [L : E] = |G(L/E)| by Cor. The kernel of res is a normal subgroup in G(L/K). We have σ|E ∈ G(E/K) because K ⊆ E is normal.2. Prop. so we can consider η as belonging to −1 G(L/K). res(σ) = σ|E. ∀τ ∈ H. since every τ ∈ G(E/K) extends to a K-homomorphism τ' : L → Ω (where Ω is an algebraic closure of L).V.3. Besides.2. Then E ⊆ L is finite.5). b) Proved at 4. A normal and separable extension is called a Galois extension. since K ⊆ L is normal. H d) If H is a normal subgroup in G(L/K).3 ensures that [L : L / ] =|G(L/E)|. 4. we have τη(x) = η(x). The H ! isomorphism follows by c). for a finite Galois extension. ∀x ∈ L . The fundamental theorem of Galois Theory says that.

if K ⊆ L is Galois of degree n and x ∈ L. then σ ( 2 ) ∈ { 2 . F) = E∩F (see problem 7). If K ⊆ L is finite Galois. R. separability is automatic (the characteristic is 0). Mat. His result states that: Any field extension for which the Galois connections are bijective and inverse to each other is a finite Galois extension. that is: G(L/EF) = G(L/E)∩G(L/F).268 V. we look on the action of the automorphisms in G on the generators 2 and 3 . the result is a consequence of 4. since the Galois connections are inclusionreversing bijections. the conjugates of x over K (the roots of Irr(x. by the fundamental theorem. In order to find this group. Moreover. so the Galois group G has 4 lows from the fact that L is a splitting field of (X − 2)(X − 3) over Q. Galois Theory arises: “Which are all field extensions for which the Galois connections are bijective?” The answer to this problem was given in 1951 by the Romanian mathematician Dan Barbilian 8 (in the paper Soluţia exhaustivă a problemei lui Steinitz (The exhaustive solution of the Steinitz problem).. So.b). Stud. IF(L/K) and Subg(G(L/K)) are anti-isomorphic as ordered sets. 3 ) =: L is Galois: The degree is 4 (see example IV. If σ ∈ G. 2 (1951). Cerc. they are anti-isomorphic as lattices: sup(E. Acad. F) = EF in IF(L/K) corresponds to inf(Φ(E).P. elements.28. under the pen name Ion Barbu (1895-1964).3.− 2 } (these are the roots of 8 Also known as a poet. . Notice that. Why? We have m = n iff L = K(x)).7 Example. A similar statement holds for inf(E.1.R. We remark that. 195-259). …. if we suppose that the extension is finite. xm} (where necessarily m | n. K)) are exactly {σx | σ ∈ G(L/K)} =: {x1. Irr(x. K) = (X − x1)…(X − xm). and normality fol2 2 4. Φ(F)) = Φ(E)∩Φ(F) ∈ Subg(L/K). The extension Q ⊆ Q( 2 .

8 Proposition. Then M ⊆ ML is finite Galois and G(ML/M) is isomorphic to a subgroup of G(L/K) (namely. Q( 3 ) . We remark that G ≅ Z2×Z2 (the 4 Klein group). But [L< σ > : Q] = [L : Q]/[L : L< σ >] = 4/2 = 2 = [Q( 3 ) : Q] . So. the equality holds since “the degrees match”: [Q( 3 ) : Q] = [L< σ > : Q].4 The Fundamental Theorem of Galois Theory 2 269 Irr( 2 . one sees immediately that Q( 2 ) . σ ( 3 ) ∈ { 3. the automorphisms in G are determined by their action on generators. <τ > = {id. On the other hand. The connections between the remaining subgroups and the remaining intermediate fields are established similarly. according to the following table: σ τ η id 2 2 − 2 2 − 2 − 3 3 3 3 − 3 For instance. Since G has 4 elements. the extension has 3 proper intermediate fields. Here is a sample of the applications of Galois Theory. <η >. Q( 6 ) are proper distinct intermediate fields. any element of G being of order 2. τ}. likewise. The following result is often used in arguments on field extensions: 4. so <σ> these are all intermediate fields. The subgroups of G are {id}. with G(L/M ∩ L)). Based on the table above one can compile the multiplication table of G. corresponding to the proper subgroups <σ >. and the number of all possible choices is also 4. Q) = X − 2). σ}. τ( 2 ) = 2 and τ( 3 ) = − 3 . η} and G.V. <τ >. <η > = {id. so L ⊇ Q( 3 ) . Let K ⊆ L be finite Galois and let K ⊆ M be an extension (suppose L and M are subfields of a larger field F).− 3}. <σ > = {id. We have σ( 3 ) = 3 . .

So. due to Dedekind and Artin. ! The classical Galois theory that we presented here using a “linearized” approach. so ML is the splitting field over M of f (considered in M[X]).270 V. . where I is the image of the res homomorphism. Thus G ≅ I. I ∀σ ∈ G(ML/M)} = M. we have σ = id (since σ and id agree on M and on L. But {x ∈ ML| σ(x) = x. The idea is to make the Galois group of the extension a topological group (by means of the Krull 9 topology) . Galois Theory ML L M L∩M K Proof. German mathematician. has generalizations and counterparts in multiple directions: Infinite Galois Theory treats the case of an extension that is algebraic. the fundamental theorem reads in this case: 9 Wolfgang Adolf Ludwig Helmuth Krull (1899-1971). L is the splitting field over K of a separable polynomial f ∈ K[X]. By the fundamental theorem. ∀σ ∈ L. Let σ be an automorphism in G := G(ML/M). normal and separable. Let us show that I = G(L/M ∩ L). M ⊆ ML is normal. I is a subgroup of G(L/K). but not necessarily finite. Consider the group homomorphism res : G → G(L/K). so L = M ∩ L. Then σ|L ∈ G(L/K). ∀σ ∈ G(ML/M)}. this is tantamount to the fact that the fixed fields of I and G(L/M∩L) are equal. finite and separable. res(σ) = σ|L. they agree on ML). It is injective: ∀σ ∈ G with σ|L = id. We have I L = {x ∈ L|σ(x) = x.

2. Differential Galois theory looks into the problem of “explicit” solutions of differential equations. Let L be the splitting field over Q of X − 2. Marcel Dekker. see for instance GOZARD [1997]. Albu and F. New York. among others. Recently. in a paper published in 1965. Nicolae devised a theory of this type that generalizes. Find G and the fixed field of G. Co-Galois theories. 2003).4 The Fundamental Theorem of Galois Theory 271 The Galois connections establish bijections from the set of all intermediate fields of the extension to the set of all closed subgroups of the Galois group.V. An example of such a theory is the Kummer theory that we present in the next chapter. Cogalois Theory. Exercises 1. where L = Q( 8 2 ). Kummer theory (T. HARRISON. where ω + ω + 1 = 0). (Hint: Look for the action of the automorphisms on 2 the generators 3 2 and ω. 4. For an introduction and references. ALBU. the Romanian mathematicians T. 3. where they are order reversing). A Galois theory for commutative rings was developed by CHASE. Let G = G(L/Q). ROSENBERG. The name reflects the fact that these theories establish inclusion preserving bijections between the lattice of intermediate fields and the lattice of subgroups of a certain group associated to the extension (as opposed to Galois theory. for the polynomial X − 2 ∈ Q[X]. 4 3 . Let K be a field and let K(X) be the rational function field over K. Find G(L/Q) and all the subfields of L. The same problem.

Φ ⎜ ⎟ = ϕ. F be intermediate fields. with a ∈ K projective linear group of degree 2 over K.1. d ∈ K. K). Show that: a) K ⊆ S is normal and res : G(L/K) → G(S/K). res(σ) = σ |S is an isomorphism. aX + b . Determine the subgroup H generated by ψ . with ad − bc ≠ 0 such that ϕ(X) = cX + d H ≠ Gal(K(X)/K). b) The fixed field of G(L/K) is I. b) Prove that ϕ ∈ AutK(K(X)) = Gal(K(X)/K) iff there exist a.272 V. c) L = SI. K) → AutK(K(X)). the purely inseparable closure of K in L (so I ⊆ L is Galois). Suppose L/K is a normal finite extension and S is the separable closure of K in L. The group GL(2. K). (Hint. 7. So AutK(K(X)) ≅ PGL(2. the subgroup generated by G(L/E) and G(L/F). with ⎝c d ⎠ ϕ(X) = aX + b . Let L/K be a Galois extension and let E. Then: G(LE/K) ≅ G(L/K) × G(E/K). denoted PGL(2. c. 6. In particular. b) G(L/E∩F) = < G(L/E) ∪ G(L/F) >. Show that: a) G(L/EF) = G(L/E) ∩ G(L/F). Galois Theory a) Let ψ : K(X) → K(X) be the unique K-homomorphism with ψ(X) = X + 1. . K ⊆ E be Galois extensions such that L ∩ E = K. but these subgroups have the same fixed field.28c)) ⎛a b ⎞ c) Show that Φ : GL(2. Use IV. b. K)/S is called the 5. is a surjective group homomorphism. find the fixed field of H. and I is the identity matrix). Let K ⊆ L. whose kernel is cX + d the subgroup S of scalar matrices (matrices of the type aI.

respectively of < A ∪ B > ? 8. the fixed field of H is normal and has degree 3 over Q. where ω is a primitive root of unity of order 9. The idea is to take an Abelian extension of degree 6 of Q.1 Ruler and compass constructions Geometric ruler and compass constructions have a substantial historical interest. taking a subgroup H of order 2 of the Galois group. which are the fixed fields of A ∩ B. A number of celebrated problems stayed un10 A more general way to construct such extensions uses discriminants. This exercise shows how to obtain a normal extension of degree 3 of Q using Galois theory10. VI. Such problems were one of the focal points of the antique Greek geometry. Applications of Galois Theory VI.VI. Prove that the Galois group of the extension is isomorphic to U(Z9) and the fixed field of the complex conjugation automorphism is Q(cos(2π/9)).1 Ruler and compass constructions 273 c) If A. B ≤ G(L/K). Consider the cyclotomic extension Q ⊆ Q(ω). a normal extension of degree 3 of Q. Determine all subfields of Q(ω). .

which will answer the following famous problems: “Angle trisection”: Construct an angle whose measure is 1/3 of the measure of a given angle. with the ruler one can draw the straight line passing through these points. at the dawn of the theory of field extensions. or already constructed as intersections of lines or circles). .The compass can draw the circle centered in a constructed (or given) point and passing through another constructed (or given) point. Applications of Galois Theory solved for millennia. . “Square the circle”: Construct a square whose area is equal to the area of a given circle.A set of initial points is given (usually two points). despite the efforts of some of the best mathematicians. More generally. . The solution (often in the negative) was given only in th the 19 century. The main difficulties seem to have been the transfer of the problem from Geometry to Algebra and a precise formulation of the concept of “constructible by ruler and compass”. “construction” means exclusively “ruler and compass construction”. for what natural numbers n is it possible to construct a regular polygon with n sides? The rules of construction are simple and well-known: . Construct a regular heptagon.For any two points (given. It is remarkable that the proof of impossibility of famous constructions requires only elementary concepts of field extensions theory. giving yet another demonstration of the power of the algebraic methods. “Cube duplication”: Construct a cube whose volume is the double of the volume of a given cube. We want to obtain general constructibility criteria.274 VI. In this section.

VI. In what follows. one realizes that all are equivalent to a problem of the following type: “For a given set S of points in the plane.1 Definitions and notations. Let DS be the set of the lines determined by two distinct points in S and let CS be the set of circles centered in a point in S and passing through a point in S. the construction of a line reduces to the construction of two distinct points on that line. an angle is determined by three points (the vertex of the angle and a point on each side) etc. The reader is invited to formulate in this form the problems in the list above.11 The point M ∈ P is called constructible12 in one step from S if it satisfies one of the following conditions: P belongs to the intersection of two distinct lines in DS. Note that drawing a line (a circle) does not mean that all points belonging to it are constructed. construct a set T of points (satisfying some property)”. Indeed.1 Ruler and compass constructions 275 These are the only constructions allowed. Prove this! 12 We omit saying “by the ruler and compass” in what follows. P denotes an Euclidian plane. The definition we have adopted for CS corresponds to a “collapsible compass”: one cannot “transport” with the compass the distance between two points. If A and B are distinct points in P. or lines and circles). The two definitions are in fact equivalent. and |AB| is the length of the segment [AB]. [AB] is the (closed) segment determined by A and B. 11 . Analyzing the various problems of construction. AB denotes the line determined by the points A and B. 1. Sometimes CS is defined as the set of circles centered in a point in S with radius equal to the distance between two arbitrary points in S. Let S be a set of points in P (called initially constructible points). in the sense that they lead to the same set of constructible points C(S). A point is constructed only if it is identified as an intersection between lines (or circles.

c) The perpendicular from C on AB is constructible. Let C1(S) denote the set of points that are constructible in one step from S. The segment OI has thus length 1. B ∈ S.…) is said to be constructible from S if the line (the circle. There exists a unique system of Cartesian coordinates in the plane P such that O is the origin. Cn(S) ⊆ Cn + 1(S). Fix two distinct points O and I in S. let A. d) If C ∉ AB.0). 1. a) |S| = 1 ⇔ C1(S) = S.276 VI. . Applications of Galois Theory P belongs to the intersection of two distinct circles in CS. A point in P is called constructible from S if the point is in C(S) := ∪n∈N Cn(S). Let S ⊆ P with |S| ≥ 2 and let A. nothing else can be constructed from it.…) is determined by points in C(S). If one takes only one initially constructible point. We suppose from now on that S is a subset of P with at least two points. b) The midpoint D of the segment [AB] and the perpendicular on [AB] in D are constructible. A line (a circle. Exercise in elementary geometry. Proof. ∀n ∈ N. an angle. b) S ⊆ C1(S). Let κ : P → R × R the mapping that associates to a point in P its coordinates in the system above. a) The symmetric of B with respect to A is constructible from S.3 Lemma. and I has coordinates (1. of coordinates (0. then the parallel through C to AB is constructible. So. C ∈ C(S) be distinct. Let C0(S) := S and define by recurrence Cn(S) := C1(Cn − 1(S)). the angle.0). ! Assumptions and notations. if |S| ≥ 2. If the set S is understood. we say constructible instead of constructible from S. 1. P belongs to the intersection of a circle in CS with a line in DS. The point A is the intersection of the line AB with the circle of center B passing through A.2 Remark. B. * ∀n ∈ N . Indeed.

then the midperpendicular of the segment [MM'] (i.3. 0). x) ∈ T}. The real number x is called constructible from S if the point of coordinates (x.4 Definition. The point (0. y) of its coordinates. 0 and 1 are always constructible. a)⇒b) Let M be the (constructible) point (x.5 Proposition. Proof. y)”.3. If T is a set of points in P. SR contains at least 0 and 1. Let x ∈ R. as we will see shortly): .e. By 1. The other implications are equally easy and are left to the reader. ! The concept of constructible complex number is also natural (and useful.1 Ruler and compass constructions 277 We often identify a point M ∈ P with the couple (x. In our hypotheses. x) belongs to the intersection of the circle centered in O of radius [OM] with Oy. Therefore. x) is constructible. and say “the point (x. The following assertions are equivalent: a) x is constructible from S. d) There exists y ∈ R such that (y. y) is constructible. c) There exists y ∈ R such that (x. S can be seen as a subset of R × R. define TR as the set of real numbers that occur as coordinates for the points in T. 1. 1. 0) is constructible from S. y) ∈ T or (y. In the hypotheses above. the Oy axis). TR := {x ∈ R | ∃ y ∈ R such that (x. we say simply “x is constructible”. b) The point (0. x) is constructible. If the set S is clear from the context. Thus. construct the symmetric M' of M with respect to O. the coordinate axes Ox and Oy are constructible from O and I. As a consequence of the constructions in 1.VI.

Thus. C(S) = K × K. b) is constructible. 1. (a. a)⇒b) If a + ib is constructible.6 Definition. Let SC be the set of complex numbers that correspond to the points in S (i.278 VI. b) be a constructible point. b) are constructible (use prop. The following statements are equivalent: a) The complex number a + ib is constructible. y) is constructible if and only if (x. Let K be the set of constructible reals13. The previous proposition says that the point (x. we mean the real numbers constructible from S. The set of constructible complex numbers is K[i] = {x + iy | x.e. c) The real numbers a and b are constructible. b)⇒c) Let (a.8 Remark. 0) and B = (0. 0) and (0. y ∈ K}.7 Proposition. We have {0. the affixes of the points in S): SC = {x + iy ∈ C | (x. y) ∈ S}. ! 1. It is natural to show that the following result holds: 1. y ∈ R) is called constructible from S if the real numbers x and y are constructible from S.. b) on the axes Ox and Oy are constructible. b) is the intersection of the perpendicular in A on Ox with the perpendicular in B on Oy. 1} ⊆ SC . Omitting S from the notation K simplifies the notation. In other words. then the points A = (a. so (a. Applications of Galois Theory 1. b) The point (a. y) ∈ K × K. The complex number z = x + iy (where x.5). Let a. Then the perpendiculars from (a. 13 . The set C is in one-to-one correspondence with the plane P (composing the bijection κ above with (x. b) are constructible. Proof. b ∈ R. y) & x + iy from R × R to C). Of course.

is an element in K[i]. whence − a ∈ K. − a ). we use the trigonometric form of complex numbers. b ≠ 0. 0) is constructible. K[i] is the smallest subfield of C that includes the set SC of the affixes of points in S and is closed under square roots and conjugation. The constructible points (0. since O(0. a + b ∈ K. a) 0 and 1 belong to K. The perpendicular on Ox in (b.VI. −1 For the constructibility of ab . of coordinates (a. 0). a ) and (a.0) and (0. Proof. b) K[i] is a subfield of C. is constructible. then its conjugate a − bi ∈ K[i]. 1) are in S. Since K is a field. K[i] is a subfield in C. b ∈ K. 0) intersects Oy in −1 (0. with a. r·sinα ∈ K. Suppose now that a > 0. closed under square roots and under complex conjugation: for any z ∈ K. Then z = ± r (cos(α 2 ) + i sin(α 2 )) . 0) is constructible and intersects d in (b. its symmetric with respect to O. closed under square roots: for any x ∈ K with x > 0. b) Since K is a subfield in R.3. 0) determine a line d. L contains SR and L is closed under square roots. If a + bi. z and z ∈ K. b ∈ K. We have . For proving that K[i] is closed under square roots. and is closed under square roots. 0) is constructible. a) and (− a. The parallel to this line through (a. We use the constructions from 1. It is clear that K contains the coordinates of any point in S. a + b). The circle centered in ((a + 1)/2. ((a + 1)/2. 0) intersects the perpendicular on Ox in (a. 0) and I(0.9 Proposition. consider the line determined by (b. Let z = r(cosα + isinα). Moreover. a + b. 0) in two points. So. a. It is enough to prove that − a.1 Ruler and compass constructions 279 1. r·cosα. The next lemma implies that. So. x ∈ K. ab are constructible. with r > 0. Let −1 a. if L is a subfield of R. the coordinates of the points in S. so (− a. The point (a. a ∈ K. 1). Moreover. then K ⊆ L. ab ). 0) passing through (0. K is the smallest subfield of R that includes SR. a) K is a subfield of R.

In particular. a) Let L be a subfield of R and let (x. 4}. sinα ∈ K. e. is in L × L or in L( u ) × L( u ) for some u ∈ L. Since L is a field. f ∈ L. (otherwise the lines would be parallel). the equation of A3A4 is dx + ey = f. y) ∈ R × R. so z ∈ K[i].10 Lemma. We get also cosα. u > 0. Case I. Then K[i] ⊆ E. with a. ∀i ∈ {1. The equation of the line A1A2 is (x − x1)(y2 − y1) = (y − y1)(x2 − x1). If (x. such that A1A2 and A3A4 are not parallel and M is their intersection.280 2 2 VI. c) Let E be a subfield of C such that E is closed under conjugation and square roots and E ⊇ SC. Let Ai(xi. In the same way. y) is the solution of the system ⎧ax + by = c ⎨ ⎩dx + ey = f The determinant of the system is nonzero. M(x. sin(α/2) ∈ K. The next lemma shows that any subfield of C containing the affixes of points in S and is closed under conjugation and square ! roots must include K[i]. for some d. then K ⊆ L. 1. Applications of Galois Theory 2 2 2 2 r cos α + r sin α = r .1. y). Proof. this equation can be written as ax + by = c. Use the notations in Definition 1. y) of the system is in L × L. u > 0. so r ∈ K. closed under square roots. y ∈ L or there exists u ∈ L. y) is the intersection of two lines in DL × L. constructible in one step from L × L. then C(L × L) = L × L: the set of points constructible from L × L coincides with L × L. if SR ⊆ L. 2. b. r and r ∈ K (which is closed under square roots). We have cos(α 2 ) = ± (1 + cosα ) 2 ∈ K. 3. . c ∈ L. a) It is enough to prove that any point M(x. Cramer's formulas show that the solution (x. then x. such that x. y) is constructible in one step from L × L. y ∈ L( u ) . b) If L is a subfield of R. yi) ∈ L × L. Then M(x. Likewise.

y = 2 p −1 ⋅ − q ± q 2 − 2 sp . Thus. If x ∈ L.VI. x. Subtracting the equations. We must show that the solutions (if any) of a system of the form ⎧( x − a )2 + ( y − b )2 = r 2 ⎪ . Then M(x. −1 −1 2 x = − d ey − d f. for some p. so x ∈ L. L is a subfield of R. Case III. y ∈ R and x + iy ∈ E. c) Let L = E ∩ R. closed under square roots. We saw that the equation of a line in DL × L is dx + ey = f. so x.e. q. M belongs to the intersection of two circles in CL × L. y ∈ L. the result follows from a). So. ⎨ ⎪( x − c )2 + ( y − d )2 = t 2 ⎩ Case II. y ∈ L. So. On the other hand. e. r ∈ L. x. S ⊆ L × L). M belongs to the intersection of a line in DL × L with a cir2 2 2 cle in CL × L. then x ∈ E (E is closed under square roots) and x ∈ R. y ∈ L( u ) . for some a. By a). This equations must have real solutions (the circle and the line intersect). x > 0. together with one of the initial equations. u > 0. If SR ⊆ L (i. c. K ⊆ L. for some d. Conversely. b. then x − iy ∈ E (E is closed under conjugation). r. The first equation becomes py + qy + s = 0. we obtain a system of the type studied at case II. y ∈ E. y) is the solution of the system: ⎧( x − a )2 + ( y − b )2 = r 2 ⎨ ⎩dx + ey = f ( ) where a. The equation of a circle in CL × L is (x − a) + (y − b) = r . C(L × L) = L × L. . b) The subfield L being closed under square roots. So. E = L[i] = {x + iy | x. then x + iy ∈ E.1 Ruler and compass constructions 281 Suppose d ≠ 0 (if d = 0. are in L( u ) × L( u ) for some u ∈ L. Since x. b. then e ≠ 0 and swap d with e). Thus. d. if x. y ∈ R. t ∈ L. then C(S) ⊆ C(L × L). y ∈ L}. the quadratic terms cancel out and we obtain linear equation in x and y. because i = − 1 ∈ E. 2 where u = q − 2sp ∈ L. f ∈ L. s ∈ L. if x.

This means that there exists a finite set U ⊆ Cm−1(S) such that any point in T is constructible in one step from U. |U| ≥ 2).L. It seems though that Gauss knew as early as 1796 this criterion of constructibility. Wantzel. we have K ⊆ L. y) is constructible from the set of points S” has a purely algebraic form: “x and y belong to the smallest subfield of R that includes Q(SR) and is closed under square roots”. 1.14 A real number x is constructible from S if and only if there exists a tower K0 ⊆ K1 ⊆ … ⊆ Kn of subfields of R.… . So. then there exists a tower of extensions K0 ⊆ K1 ⊆ … ⊆ Kn such that TR ⊆ Kn and [Ki : Ki − 1] ≤ 2. Let m > 0 and let T = {A1. ∀i ∈ {1. Ar} be a finite subset of Cm(S). for any finite set of points T. T ⊆ S. 14 . so K[i] ⊆ L[i] = E. ….282 VI. for some us ∈ Kn. …. so TR ⊆ SR ⊆ Q(SR) = K0. TR ⊆ K n ( u1 . us > 0. who proved it and published it in 1837 (when he was “elève-ingénieur des Ponts-et-Chaussées”). From the induction hypothesis. K0 = Q(SR) and [Ki : Ki −1] ≤ 2 for any i. meaning that “x belongs to the smallest subfield of R that includes Q(U) and is closed under square roots”. by a). n}. n}. ∀i ∈ {1. there is a tower K0 ⊆ K1 ⊆ … ⊆ Kn such that UR ⊆ Kn and [Ki : Ki − 1] ≤ 2.a) says that As has its coordinates in Kn (then set us = 0) or in a quadratic extension of Kn of the form K n ( us ) . r}). Applications of Galois Theory The hypothesis SC ⊆ E is thus equivalent to SR ⊆ L.10. ur ) and we have a tower of extensions The result belongs to M. ….11Theorem. Proof. such that x ∈ Kn. if T ⊆ Cm(S). Note also that any rational number is constructible (from any U ⊆ R. For any point As ∈ T (s ∈ {1. …. If m = 0. This algebraic translation allows us to say about some real number x: “x is constructible from U” (where U is a set of real numbers). 1 ≤ i ≤ n. “⇒” It is enough to prove by induction on m that. lemma 1. ! We have proven that the geometric statement “the point M(x.

9. 1 ≤ i ≤ n .… . we deduce that K includes the subfield of R generated by SR. since K is ! closed under square roots. such that Kn = Kn−1( u ). Thus. [Kn : Kn−1] ≤ 2 implies either that Kn = Kn−1 (and the induction hypothesis shows that we are done) or that Kn is an extension of degree 2 of Kn−1. 1. with [Ki : Ki−1] ≤ 2. we deduce Kn ⊆ K. u > 0. which is exactly Q(SR). then K0 = Q(SR). a) The trisection of an angle of measure θ is equivalent to the construction of the point (cos(θ/3). x is algebraic over K0 and K0 ⊆ K0(x) ⊆ Kn. The extension Kn in the previous theorem is such that x ∈ Kn and [Kn : K0] is a power of 2. ! We can easily prove now that some classic ruler and compass constructions problems are impossible: 1. ur ) . [K0(x) : K0] divides [Kn : K0]. which means that [K0(x) : K0] is a power of 2.1 Ruler and compass constructions 283 K0 ⊆ … ⊆ Kn ⊆ K n ( u1 ) ⊆ … ⊆ K n ( u1 . . If n = 0.13 Proposition. sin(θ/3)) from {O. so.VI.a). we have Kn ⊆ K (recall K is the field of the real numbers constructible from S). By induction. Then x is algebraic over K0 and its degree over K0 is a power of 2 (there exists e e ∈ N such that [K0(x) : K0] = 2 ). “⇐” We prove by induction on n that. In this case there exists u ∈ Kn−1. (Necessary condition for constructibility) Let x be a real number constructible over S and let K0 = Q(SR).12 Corollary. for any tower Q(SR) = K0 ⊆ … ⊆ Kn ⊆ R. Using 1. Proof. we know that Kn−1 ⊆ K. satisfying the condition that each extension has degree at most 2. If n > 0.

with coefficients in Q(cosθ). The formula cos(3x) = 4cos x − 3cosx implies that u := cos(θ/3) satisfies the equation: 3 4u − 3u = cosθ. trisecting the angle of measure θ is tantamount to the constructibility of cos(θ/3) from 3 {cosθ}. a 90° angle . For θ = 60°. Q) = g (since g has no rational roots). sin α) is given. sin α). if cos α is constructible. Thus. The cube having double the volume has the side 3 2 . Thus. Applications of Galois Theory I. a) Constructing an angle of measure α is equivalent to constructing the point (cos α. This shows that u is not constructible. then sin α = ± 1 − cos2 α is constructible. the intersection of the other side with the unit circle is (cos α. This result does not say that no angle can be trisected (for instance. if the angle has its vertex in O one of the sides is Ox. Conversely. Proof. since [Q( 3 2 ) : Q] = 3 is not a power of 2. if P(cos α. Thus. so [Q(u) : Q] = 3. We have Irr(u. there exists no ruler and compass construction of the trisection of an arbitrary angle. A 60° angle cannot be trisected by ruler and compass (a 20° angle is not constructible). On the other hand. 3 We are led to the study of the polynomial 4X − 3X − cosθ . 15 can be trisected). but that some angles (the 60° angle) cannot be trisected. then the angle between OP and Ox has measure α. sinθ)}. Indeed. The real number 3 2 is not constructible. sin α) or (cos α.284 VI. we obtain that u := cos20° is a 3 root of g := 8X − 6X − 1 ∈ Q[X]. c) Squaring the circle is impossible (it is impossible to construct a square whose area is equal to the area of a given circle). the initially constructible points are O and I. − sin α). b) Choose the unit length to be the length of the side of the cube. (cosθ. since [Q(u) : Q] is not a power of 2.15 b) Cube duplication is impossible (it is impossible to construct a cube whose volume is the double of the volume of a given cube).

n}. ! 1.14 Theorem. “⇐” The same technique as in Theorem 1. Ln ⊆ K(i). z ∈ K(i)) if and only if there exists a chain of subfields of C.9. The area of the circle of radius 1 is π. [Ln : Ln−1] ≤ 2 implies Ln = Ln−1 or Ln is a quadratic extension of Ln−1. with [Lt : Lt−1] ≤ 2. and Ln−1 ⊆ K(i) by hypothesis. there exists a chain K0 ⊆ K1 ⊆ … ⊆ Kn of subfields of R. …. n}. Proof. a) The complex number z is constructible from S (i. n}. By 1. such that z ∈ Ln. Since K(i) is closed under square roots. Let Lt := Kt(i). …. . By induction on n.11 is useful: 1. If n = 0. y ∈ K.e. a) “⇒” Let z = x + yi. so it is not constructible. with K0 = Q(SR). x. ! For the formulation of a necessary and sufficient criterion of constructibility. for any t ∈ {1. x ∈ R is algebraic over Q(U) and N is the normal closure of Q(U) ⊆ Q(U)(x). y ∈ Kn and [Kt : Kt − 1] ≤ 2.1 Ruler and compass constructions 285 c) Choosing the unit length to be the radius of the circle. b) Exercise. we have Ln ⊆ K(i). (Characterization of constructible real numbers) Suppose U ⊆ R. …. For n > 0. for any t ∈ {1. apply 1. L0 = Q(SR)(i) and [Lt : Lt −1] ≤ 2. so the side of the square with area π is π . The chain of subfields L0 ⊆ L1 ⊆ … ⊆ Ln satisfies the required conditions.VI.11 is used. the initially constructible points are O and I. b) If z is a complex number constructible over S. But π is transcendental over Q and π is also transcendental. L0 ⊆ L1 ⊆ … ⊆ Ln.15 Theorem. Then x is constructible from U if and only if [N : Q(U)] is a power of 2. with x. we show that for any chain Q(SR)(i) = L0 ⊆ L1 ⊆ … ⊆ Ln of subfields of C. the following complex version of Theorem 1. then z is algebraic over L0 = Q(SR)(i) and its degree over L0 is a power of 2 (there exists e e ∈ N such that [L0(x) : L0] = 2 ). ∀t ∈ {1.11.

…. Let g := Irr(x. Let α be a primitive element of the separable finite extension K0 ⊆ N. E = K0{∪{σ(Kn)|σ ∈ H}}. …. Therefore x ∈ R ∩ K(i) = K. where H is the set of the K0-homomorphisms from Kn to C (see 2. For any σ ∈ H. we also have: x is constructible from U if and only if there exists a normal extension L of Q(U). implies that N ⊆ K(i). E ⊆ K(i) and thus N ⊆ K(i). so N ⊆ E. ….14. n}.16 Remark. Let E be the normal closure of K0 ⊆ Kn. Theorem 1. ∀t ∈ {1. e} (so |Gt| = 2 ). n}. e “⇐” The Galois extension K0 ⊆ N has the degree 2 for some e. g splits over E. ∀t ∈ {1. n} and x ∈ Kn. Proposition 11) there exists a chain of subgroups of G. …. e−t with [Gt − 1 : Gt] = 2. We must show that x ∈ K (the numbers constructible from U) if and only if [N : K0] is a power of 2. On the other hand.11 shows there exists a tower K0 ⊆ K1 ⊆ … ⊆ Kn of subfields of R. We now solve the classical problem of the constructibility of regular polygons.286 VI. So. Then N is the splitting field of g over Q(U) := K0. …. Because α ∈ K(i). so e its Galois group G has 2 elements.7). We have [Kt : Kt−1] = [Gt−1 : Gt] = 2. Denoting by Kt the fixed field of Gt. Q(U)) ∈ Q(U)[X].b) guarantees that [K0(α) : K] = [N : K0] is a power of 2. From (Appendix 6. . Indeed. Keeping the same notations. the chain of extensions K0 = σ(K0) ⊆ σ(K1) ⊆ … ⊆ σ(Kn) has the property that [σ(Kt) : σ(Kt−1)] ≤ 2. ∀t ∈ {1. Since x ∈ E and E is normal over K0. we have K0 ⊆ K1 ⊆ … ⊆ Ke = N (we applied the Galois correspondence).14 implies that σ(Kn) ⊆ K(i). then the normal closure of Q(U) ⊆ Q(U)(x) is included in L and has its degree over Q(U) a power of 2. with [L : Q(U)] a power of 2 and x ∈ L.14. ∀t ∈ {1. ∀t ∈ {1. if x belongs to such an extension L. G = G0 ⊇ G1 ⊇ … ⊇ Ge = {id}. e}. The proof of theorem 1. theorem 1. ! 1. “⇒” Theorem 1. Applications of Galois Theory Proof. such that [Kt : Kt − 1] ≤ 2.

…. v ∈ Z. let u. then the angle 2π/n is constructible (induction on e: e e−1 the angle 2π/2 is obtained by bisecting the angle 2π/2 ). k}. then. pt are m distinct primes of the form 22 + 1 . …. the construc- tion of the angle 2π/n is equivalent to the construction of every angle 2π piαi . we saw that the angle α is constructible if and only if cosα is constructible. Multiplying by 2π/ab. 17. for any u. which are indeed prime. This allows us to suppose from now on that n is a power of a prime. Conversely. 1801) Let n ≥ 3. (Gauss.VI. with p1. …. 5. 257. α α Thus. e If n = 2 . pk distinct primes. it has been proven that the above are all the 40000 Fermat primes less than 10 .16 Proof. The regular n-gon is constructible by ruler and compass if and only if the prime factor e decomposition of n is n = 2 ·p1·…·pt. Such a prime number is called a Fermat prime. At 1. 17 We say “the angle u” instead of “the angle of measure u”. the angle uα + vβ is constructible. 16 . e > 1. where e.13. we get u·2π/b + v·2π/a = 2π/ab and we apply the fact that if the angles α and β are constructible. 3. Let a. The direct implication is simple: for a given angle (for in- stance 2π/ab).17 Theorem. for any i ∈ {1. 1. any multiple of it can be constructed (so the angles 2π/a. “constructible” means “constructible from two points (O and I )”. b) = 1. 2. t ∈ N and p1. 65537. for some m ∈ N. Here.1 Ruler and compass constructions 287 1. if n = p1 1 … pk k . one obtains 3. b ∈ N*. v ∈ Z such that ua + vb = 1. For m = 0. No other Fermat primes have been found yet. We claim that the angle 2π/ab is constructible if and only if the angles 2π/a and 2π/b are con- structible. 2π/b are constructible). Using computers. with (a. 4. To construct a regular n-gon is equivalent to construct the angle17 2π/n.

which means that p is a Fermat prime. Applications of Galois Theory α Suppose from now on that n = p . let p be a Fermat prime. e b whence p = 2 + 1. then p | 2 . 17}. 5.12.18 Lemma. absurd. We α prove that cos(2π/p ) is constructible ⇔ α = 1 and p is a Fermat prime. ζ ∉ Q(cos(2π/n)). using 1. Let us prove that cos(2π/p) is constructible. 12. d a + 1 is divisible by d + 1. 10. a regular n-gon is constructible ⇔ n ∈ {3. Hence e must be a power of 2. ! 1. . of degree ϕ(p) = p − 1. In fact. for n ≤ 20. A regular heptagon is impossible to construct by ruler and compass. ! 1. But i·sin(2π/n) is a 2 2 root of (cos(2π/n) − X = 1. If α ≥ 2. n ≥ 2 and let ζ be a primitive complex nth root of unity. Suppose cos(2π/n) is constructible. 4. The remark following Theorem 1. so [Q(ζ ) : Q(cos(2π/n))] ≥ 2. On the other hand. α ∈ N*. applies and we obtain the constructibility of cos(2π/p). Let e ∈ N with α−1 e e e p (p − 1) = 2 . Then e = a ·2 . a ≥ 3.288 VI. for b b some a. p ≠ 2. 16. the degree of the cyclotomic extension Q ⊆ Q(ζ ) is ϕ(n) = α α α−1 α α−1 ϕ(p ) = p − p . a odd. contradiction. as is a regular 9-gon. b ∈ N. 15. [Q(cos(2π/n )) : Q] is a power of 2. so p = d a + 1.19 Example. Proof. Since a is odd . Clearly. The next lemma says that [Q(ζ ) : Q] = 2·[Q(cos(2π/n)) : Q]. p a prime. 6. We may suppose that ζ = cos(2π/n) + i·sin(2π/n). Let d := 22 . Then [Q(ζ) : Q(cos(2π/n ))] = 2. cos(2π/p) belongs to Q(ζ ). so [Q(ζ ) : Q(cos(2π/n))] ≤ 2. Suppose e is not a power of 2. So. so p is not a prime. p = 22 a + 1.15. Since ζ = cos(2π/p) + isin(2π/p) −1 and ζ = cos(2π/p) − isin(2π/p) are in Q(ζ ). So α = 1 and p − 1 = 2 . The extension Q ⊆ Q(ζ ) is normal. Conversely. which is a power of 2. Then. Let n ∈ N. Let ζ := cos(2π/n) + isin(2π/n). 8. so p − p is a power of 2.

such that S. the matrix of ϕ in the basis e is the n×n matrix Me(ϕ) = (aij)1 ≤ i. if x = a + b d . (EndR(S). S is a commutative ring with identity and R is a subring of S containing the identity. b ∈ Q. Let e = (e1. j ≤ n. +. S is an R-vector space of finite dimension).…. are elements in K. the conjugates of x over K are the roots of the minimal polynomial of x over K. The sum of all conjugates of 2 2 a + b d is thus 2a. "+" denotes homomorphism addition and "°" the usual map composition. “free module” translates into “vector space”. the definitions and the proofs are the same as in the more general case of an extension of commutative rings R ⊆ S such that S is a free R-module of finite rank.2 Trace and norm If K ⊆ L is a finite extension and x ∈ L. where aij ∈ R are defined by the relations In other words.VI. For instance. °) is a ring with identity. each occurring with its multiplicity. as the Viète relations show. Although we use the notions of trace and norm mainly in the case of a finite extension of fields.2 Trace and norm 289 VI. The sum (and the product) of these conjugates. We recall some facts on free modules from II.en) be a basis of the free R-module S. These are particular cases of concepts that we study now. is free and has rank n. The reader less familiar with these concepts may assume in what follows that R ⊆ S is a finite extension of fields (so. and the product of all its conjugates is a − db .4. In this case. 18 . Let R ⊆ S be an extension of commutative rings with identity 18 . with d a square free integer and a. We denote EndR(S) := {ϕ : S → S | ϕ is an R-module homomorphism}. “module homomorphism” means “linear mapping” etc. with its canonical R-module structure. This is what we called “the norm of a + b d ” and appeared in the study or arithmetic properties of the ring Z[ d ]. then a − b d is the only conjugate of x over Q. If ϕ ∈ EndR(S).

n}. ∀i ∈ {1. If f = (f1. −1 Mf(ϕ) = U·Me(ϕ)·U . The characteristic polynomial of ϕ is correctly defined (it is independent on the choice of a basis): if f is another basis. fn) is an n-uple of elements in S. called the characteristic polynomial of ϕ. The matrix: ⎡ X − a11 − a12 … − a1n ⎤ ⎢ −a X − a22 … − a2 n ⎥ 21 ⎥ ∈ Mn(R[X]) XI − A := ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ … ⎢ −a − an 2 … X − ann ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ n1 is called the characteristic matrix of A. which is a ring anti-isomorphism. j =1 n f = (f1. j =1 We obtain a function Me : EndR(S) → Mn(R).): 2. Thus. Applications of Galois Theory n ϕ(ei) = ∑ aij e j . −1 det(XI − Mf(ϕ)) = detU·det(XI − Me(ϕ))·det(U ) = det(XI − Me(ϕ)).…. fn) is a basis in R S ⇔ U is invertible in Mn(R) ⇔ det U ∈ U(R) (the group of units of R). Define P(ϕ) := det(XI − Me(ϕ)) ∈ R[X].4. there exists −1 U ∈ U(Mn(R)) such that Mf(ϕ) = U·Me(ϕ)·U .1 Definition. Let I ∈ Mn(R) the identity matrix and let A = (aij) ∈ Mn(R). Let ϕ ∈ EndR(S) and let e be an arbitrary basis in R S. …. in this case.18. then there exists a unique matrix U = (uij)1 ≤ i. The characteristic polynomial of a vector space endomorphism inspires the following definition (cf. …. j ≤ n ∈ Mn(R) such that: fi = ∑ uij e j . so XI − Mf(ϕ) = −1 U·(XI − Me(ϕ))·U .290 VI. . ϕ & Me(ϕ). III.

NS/R(ax) = a NS/R(x). then Tr(ϕ) = Tr(A) = a11 + a22 + … + ann. θ is an R-algebra homomorphism). For any x ∈ S. +. ∀x. is an R-module homomorphism and also a ring homomorphism (in other words. It is clear that these notions depend not only on x. ∀a ∈ R: TrS/R(x + y) = TrS/R(x) + TrS/R(y).VI. 2. S/R) ∈ R[X] is called the characteristic polynomial of x. +. NS/R(xy) = NS/R(x)·NS/R(y). the next properties are easy to prove: 2. the coefficients ai ∈ R Let P(ϕ) := X + an − 1X depend only on ϕ (not on the choice of the basis). TrS/R : S → R is an R-module homomorphism. θ : (S. NS/R(a) = a . . TrS/R(ax) = aTrS/R(x). ∀y ∈ S. Tr(θx) =: TrS/R(x) ∈ R is called the trace of x. so some caution is recommended. In the conditions above.2 Remark. x & θx. but not the terminology. Prove this! Using this remark. the function θx : S → S. n n ! So. is an R-module homomorphism.3 Proposition. det(θx) =: NS/R(x) ∈ R is called the norm of x. If A = (aij) ∈ Mn(R) is the matrix of ϕ in some basis. but on the extension S of R. TrS/R(a) = na. we have. y ∈ S. We apply the definitions above to θx ∈ EndR(S). ·) → (EndR(S). We defined therefore the mappings trace TrS/R : S → R. The following notations and terms are used: P(θx) =: P(x. so the following definitions are correct: Tr(ϕ) := − an − 1 (called the trace of ϕ) n det(ϕ) := (−1) a0 (called the determinant of ϕ). det(ϕ) = det(A). ◦). and norm NS/R : S → R. θx(y) = xy.2 Trace and norm n n−1 291 + … + a1 X + a0. The notations we use take this into account.

so t = [L : K(x)]. P = f .292 VI. which means P(x) = θP(x)(1) = 0. The Cayley-Hamilton theorem for θx ∈ EndK(L) says that P(θx) = 0.4 Theorem. This shows that f is the minimal polynomial of the endomorphism θx.2 for the proof). g(θx) = θg(x) (use 2. d (4) f (θx) = θf(x) = θ0 = 0. . Taking the degrees. Let K ⊆ L be a finite extension of fields. K(x)/K). This proves (1). if g ∈ K[X] is such that g(θx) = 0. Since f is irreducible. The Frobenius theorem implies that P and f have the same irreducible factors. Note that. In particular: TrL/K(x) = [L : K(x)]·TrK(x)/K(x) = d·{∑σ ∈H σx} (3) Proof. Identifying the coefficients of X n−1 Let Q := P(x. Thus. L/K) = {∏σ ∈H (X − σx)} . L/K) be its characteristic polynomial. Fix a finite extension of fields K ⊆ L. NL/K(x) = (NK(x)/K(x)) [L : K(x)] = {∏σ ∈H σx} . for any g ∈ K[X]. L/K) = P(x. θP(x) = 0. L/K) ∈ K[X]. so g(x) = 0. (2) where d = [L : K]i is the inseparability degree of L over K. K) (1) d Irr(x. L/K) = Irr(x. then θg(x) = 0. K). since deg Q = [K(x) : K] = deg f. written as P(x. So. As for P(x. f is the t only irreducible factor of P. We have f | P. since P(x) = 0. Ω) be the set of K-homomorphisms from L to Ω. L/K). Let P := P(x. Then: [L : K(x)] P(x. We suppose that all algebraic extensions of K are subfields of Ω. Let H := HomK(L. Also. Applications of Galois Theory The case we are interested in is when R and S are fields. we have Q(x) = 0. 2. K(x)/K) and P(x. which means f |g. K) = P(x. so f |Q. let x ∈ L and let P(x. K(x)/K) [L : K(x)] . for some t ∈ N*. Let f := Irr(x. a fixed algebraic closure of K. in (1). we obtain n := deg P = [L : K] = t·deg f = t·[K(x) : K]. we obtain f = Q.

Ω) has r := [L : K(x)]s extensions to L (see V. L/K) to the case L = K(x). namely {σx |σ ∈ H}. In the general case. Ω) (X −σx)} = {∏τ ∈Hom(K(x). Ω) (X −τx) } m[L : K(x)]/r m [L : K(x)] .3. Indeed. Setting X = 0 in (1). (X − x) | f ⇔ q (X − σx) | f.11.). ! 2. which is the first equality in (3).VI. we have: P(x. By (1). If m is the multiplicity of the root x of f and σ ∈ H. . L/K) = f [L : K(x)] where m[L : K(x)]/r = [K(x) : K]i·[L : K(x)]/[L : K(x)]s = [K(x) : K]i·[L : K(x)]i = [L : K]i.5 Corollary. This proves (2). m = [L : K]i = [K(x) : K]i. Comparing the degrees. Assume for the moment that L = K(x). Ω) (X − τx)r. and σ0 extends to a unique K-algebra isomorphism σ' : Ω[X] → Ω[X] with σ'(X) = X) and obtain q q f = (X − σx) σ'(g). each σ ∈ HomK(K(x). Let K ⊆ L be a Galois extension and let G be its Galois group. Let n := |H| = [L : K]s (the separable degree of L over K). ∏σ ∈Hom(L. Then. then the root σx ∈ Ω q has also multiplicity m. Ω) (X − σx) = ∏τ ∈ Hom(K(x). m f ={∏σ ∈ H (X − σx)} . So.2 Trace and norm 293 we get TrL/K(x) = [L : K(x)]·TrK(x)/K(x). In conclusion. K(x)/K) and reduces the computation of P(x. (X − x) | f in Ω[X] ⇔ q ∃g ∈ Ω[X] with f = (X − x) g. The second part of (3) and (4) follows from (2). So. we obtain [L : K] = mn = m[L : K]s. NL/K(x) = ∏σ ∈G σx.) Formula (1) says that Irr(x. The polynomial f has n distinct roots in Ω. the inseparability degree of L over K. This implies that: for any q ∈ N. for any q ∈ N. which proves the claim. for any x ∈ L. we obtain the first equality in (4. Apply σ' (σ : L → Ω extends to a K-isomorphism σ0 : Ω → Ω. K) = P(x. TrL/K(x) = ∑σ ∈G σx = {∏σ ∈Hom(L.

TrL/K(a + be) = 2a. Ω) = HomK(L. In fact the inseparable extensions are exactly the extensions for which Tr = 0: 2. L) = G(L/K). Then TrL/K : L → K is the 0 mapping if and only if K ⊆ L is inseparable. Ω) has n = [L : K] elements σ1. …. σn and TrL/K(x) = σ1x +…+ σnx. for any σ ∈ G. σn are linearly dependent. then g is inseparable and G(L/K) = {id}. so σ1. where σ(e) = −e. …. 2 An important property of the trace and the norm is the transitivity property: If R ⊆ S ⊆ T are extensions of commutative rings such that S . If K ⊆ L is inseparable. From (3) and (4) we have. TrL/K(σx) = TrL/K(x). So. e}.7 Example. TrL/K(a + be) = 2(a + be) = 0. (3). g is separable and G(L/K) = {id. Conversely.27). (4). If TrL/K = 0.if char K = 2: 2 2 2 NL/K(a + be) = (a + be) = a + b d. Applications of Galois Theory In particular. Let K ⊆ L be a finite extension.294 VI. 2. then σ1 +…+ σn = 0. A basis is {1. then char K = p > 0 and the inseparability degree d = [L : K]i is a power of p (3. the extension K ⊆ K(e) =: L has degree 2 and it is normal. if char K ≠ 2. Let K be a field and let d ∈ K. for any a. NL/K(σx) = NL/K(x) and ! In the case of separable extensions.6 Proposition. Proof. suppose K ⊆ L is separable. d = 1 in (2). Then HomK(L. HomK(L. If g = X − d is irreducible in K[X] (⇔ d is not a square in K) and e = d is a root of g in Ω. b ∈ K: . σ}. ! contradicting Dedekind's lemma. If char K = 2. Formula (3) implies TrL/K = 0.if char K ≠ 2: 2 2 NL/K(a + be) = (a + be)(a − be) = a − b d. .

define Ψ(σ. Ω). 19 = [E : L]i[L : K]i·{∑(σ. defined as follows: for any σ ∈ HomK(L. τ). We have. Ω) → HomK(E. since. Ψ is also injective. For any (σ. τ) ∈ HomK(L. . We use 2. J := HomK(E. We shall prove this for field extensions. Ω). TrT/R(x) = TrS/R(TrT/S(x)). Ω).4.4. 2.11).VI. τ(x) = σ −1 (η ( x )) = σ −1 (σ ( x )) = x. Moreover. Ω). Let τ := σ −1 ◦η : E → Ω. (The transitivity of the trace and norm) Let K ⊆ L ⊆ E be finite extensions of fields. Ω)×HomL(E. Ω). for any x ∈ T: NT/R(x) = NS/R(NT/S(x)). ∀y ∈ E.(4). the proof for the norm being similar. Let H := HomK(L.2 Trace and norm 295 is a free R-module and T is a free S-module (of finite ranks). Ω)×HomL(E.3. ∀x ∈ E: TrL/K(TrE/L(x)) = [L : K]i·{∑σ ∈H σ {[E : L]i·∑τ ∈Gτx}} = [E : K]i·∑η∈Jηx = TrE/K(x).τ)∈H×G σ τx } ! This fact is proven exactly as the theorem of transitivity of finite extensions. 2. Ω) and HomK(E. let σ := η|L ∈ HomK(L. We prove for the trace Tr. There exists a bijection Ψ : HomK(L. Since HomK(L. τ) := σ ◦τ (which is a K-homomorphism from E to Ω since σ and τ are K-homomorphisms). η = Ψ(σ. σ τ ( y ) = σ σ −1η ( y ) = η(y). Ω)×HomL(E. Ω) are finite and have the same cardinal (see V. fix a K-automorphism σ : Ω → Ω with σ |L = σ. Ω).8 Theorem. Proof. a proof for the general case uses linear algebra methods.(3). If η : E → Ω is a K-homomorphism. Ω). then T is a free R-module of finite rank19 and. We show that Ψ is surjective. G := HomL(E. Then: TrE/K = TrL/K◦TrE/L and NE/K = NL/K◦NE/L. τ is an L-homomorphism : ∀x ∈ L.

Let L/K be finite Galois. Let n > 1 and let ω be a primitive complex nth root of unity. Show that NL/Q(ω) = 1. Let p > 2 be a prime and let ω be a primitive complex pth root of unity. (Hint. 2. Can the hypothesis “L is a finite field” be weakened? c) Prove that the norm NL/K is a homomorphism of multiplicative groups N : L* → K*. If K ⊆ F ⊆ L is an intermediate field. | L | = q . K) = X + an − 1 X + … + a0. Find Irr(1 − ω. | K | = q. Let ϕ : K(X) → K(X) be the unique K-homomorphism with ϕ(X) = 1/(1 − X). Write down formulas for the trace and the norm of an arbitrary element of a quadratic extension Q ⊆ Q ( d ) . 5. Let K ⊆ L be a finite extension and let x ∈ L such that L = K(x) and n n−1 Irr(x. Prove that ϕ ∈ AutK(K(X)).) . The same problem for Q ⊆ Q (3 2 ) . 4. Q)). Applications of Galois Theory Exercises 1. n Then NL/K(x) = (−1) a0 and TrL/K(x) = − an − 1. ∀x ∈ L. then F = K({TrL/F(x) | x ∈ L}). Use the trace to find an element in the fixed field.296 VI. (Ind. Is it true in general that F = K ({NL/F(x) | x ∈ L})? 7. b) Prove that Tr : L → K is surjective. where L = Q(ω). Deduce that the norm N : L → K is surjective. with d ∈ Z squarefree. Determine the fixed field 3 of ϕ. d) If α is a generator of the cyclic group L*. a) Write explicit formulas for NL/K(x) and TrL/K(x). 6. where L = Q(ω). e) Calculate the cardinal of the set {x ∈ L | NL/K(x) = 1}. Let K ⊆ L be an extension of finite fields. Compute n NL/Q(a − ω). 3. where a ∈ Q. ϕ = id. Show that NL/Q(1 − ω) = p. then N(α) is a generator of K*. Let K be a field and let K(X) be the field of fractions of K[X].

K ⊆ L is a separable extension.3 Cyclic extensions and Kummer extensions 297 8. if |Un(L)| = n. n) = 1}. Let L be an extension of K. Then L = K(ω). (i. being i a splitting field. then any generator of Un(L) is called a primitive nth root of unity. for ϕ(X) = 1/X. so |Pn(L)| = ϕ(n). 3. K ⊆ L is a Galois extension and its Galois group G is isomorphic to a subgroup of (U(Z/nZ).3: Un(L) := {x ∈ L | x = 1} is a finite subgroup (necessarily cyclic) of (L*. The extension K ⊆ L is also normal. respectively ψ(X) = 1 − X. G is Abelian and [L : K] is a divisor of ϕ(n). ω = 1 ⇔ σ(ω ) = 1 ⇔ (σω ) = 1. Suppose n ∈ N*. then i Pn(L) = {ω | 1 ≤ i < n. the group of invertible elements of Z/nZ. Let ω be a primitive nth root of unity in L.n and L n is a splitting field of X − 1 over K. The splitting field n of X − 1 over K is also called the n-th cyclotomic field over K. A primitive nth root of unity exists in Ω ⇔ |Un(L)| = n ⇔ char K . We study first the n splitting field of the polynomial X − 1 over K. In particular. n n−1 Proof. then Un(L) = {ω | 0 ≤ i < n} and clearly L = K(ω). VI. Pn(L) := {ω ∈ Un(L) | ordω = n} is the set of primitive nth roots of unity in L. If ω generates Un(L). For any σ ∈ G. Recall some notations and facts from n IV. ·). ·).VI.n. Thus. since (X − 1)' = nX ≠ 0 is n relatively prime to X − 1. Determine the subfield of K(X) fixed by ϕ and ψ. an algebraic closure Ω of K and we suppose that all the algebraic extensions of K are subfields of Ω. For any k ∈ N. If L contains a primitive nth root of unity ω. σω ∈ Un(L) (σ permutes the roots of n k k k X − 1).3 Cyclic extensions and Kummer extensions We fix a field K. K is a field with char K .1 Proposition. the . The same problem.

if n = 8 and K = Q(i) (i = −1). n) = 1. ∃! i < n. 2 2 4 2 For instance. ψ is injective. Applications of Galois Theory order of σω in Un(L) is equal to ordω = n. where a has the property that a = b ∈ K for some n ∈ N. b) If K = Q. So. whence σω ∈ Pn(L). (i. 2 Thus Irr(ω. n) = 1}. (i. with m | n . the other claims are evident. The extensions of the form K ⊆ K(a). A suggestive writing 1n for this situation is a = n b or a = b / and an extension as above is written K ⊆ K( n b ).2 Remark. |G(Q(ω)/Q)| = [Q(ω) : Q] = ϕ(n) and ψ in the proof must be an isomorphism. [K(ω) : K] = 2 < ϕ(8) = 4. such i that σω = ω . . ·).3 Proposition. So. But i Pn(L) = {ω | 0 ≤ i < n. then we can have [K(ω) : K] < ϕ(n). K) = Φn (the nth cyclotomic polynomial) whose degree is ϕ(n). Let K be a field containing a primitive nth root of n unity ω. K) = X − c. So. 3. are very important in the problem of solvability by radicals of polynomial equations.298 VI. for some c ∈ K. n n (K* := {x | x ∈ K*} is a subgroup in (K*. and ω is a primitive nth root of unity. Let b ∈ K* and let L = K(a). (i. a) If K already contains some nth roots of unity. Irr(ω. so ω = ±i. K) = X − i. An easy check shows that ψ is a homomorphism. Define then ψ(σ ) = i + nZ. We obtain a function ψ : G → U(Z/nZ). where a is a root of X − b (in Ω). ·)) m c) Irr(a. Then: a) K ⊆ L is a Galois extension and G(L/K) is cyclic of order m. then (ω ) = 1. ∀σ ∈ G. n n b) [L : K] = m is the order of bK* in the group (K*/K* . Indeed. These extensions have a simple description if K contains a primitive nth root of unity. then G(Q(ω)/Q) ≅ U(Z/nZ). n) = 1} is Abelian and has ϕ(n) ele! ments. Since U(Z/nZ) = {i + nZ | 0 ≤ i < n. n 3. since ψ(σ ) = 1 + nZ implies σω = ω ⇒ σ = id.

VI. Since b ∈ K* . We have si m t NL/K(a) = ∏σ ∈G σa = ∏0 ≤ i < m aω = a ω ∈ K. Thus. and a is a root of X − a ∈ K[X]. ϕ(σ ) = i + nZ. so it is cyclic. thus K ⊆ L is normal. any finite cyclic extension of K is of the form K ⊆ K( n b ) (if K contains a primitive nth root of unity). The previous proposition says: if K contains a primitive nth root of unity and b ∈ K*. m m c) deg Irr(a. A Galois extension (normal and separable) whose Galois group is cyclic (respectively Abelian) is called a cyclic extension (respectively Abelian extension). b = (a ) = (a ) ∈ K* . Therefore. This shows that ordη = m divides q.3 Cyclic extensions and Kummer extensions n i 299 Proof. Let us q n q n show that m | q. conversely. K) = [L : K] = m. there exists a unique i < n such that σ(a) = aω . m m n m m n n with t ∈ N. From m | q and q | m we deduce that m = q. We have q | m. For any i σ ∈ G. So. by the theorem of Lagrange. ·). b) Let η be a generator of G. G is isomorphic to Imϕ. There exists s s < n such that η(a) = aω . then K ⊆ K( n b ) is cyclic. so a is q q q sq q sq q fixed by η: η(a ) = η(a) = a ω = a . q n q n q i q q (a ) = b = c . so a ∈ K. for some c ∈ K. |G| divides n. Then m = |G| = ordη. ! 3. a) The roots of X − b are {aω | 0 ≤ i < n}. a subgroup of Z/nZ. define ϕ : G → Z/nZ.4 Definition. whence a = cω . Thus. with i < n. since ϕ(σ ) = 0 + nZ implies σa = a ⇒ σ = id. It is also separable (because char K does not divide n). If σ ∈ G := G(L/K). We use the following result (very important by itself): . a ∈ K. The function ϕ is a injective homomorphism. Let q den n note the order of bK* in grupul (K*/K* . We obtain ω = 1 ⇒ η = id. so it is i Galois. We want to prove that. b = c . This step is crucial in the proof of the characterization of solvability by radicals of an equation. then σ(a) ∈ {aω | 0 ≤ i < n}.

By Hilbert's Satz 90. so x = x0 = t/η(t). …. η. let σ be a generator of G(L/K) and let x ∈ L*.6 Proposition. Thus. so there exists z ∈ L such that n−1 u(z) =: t ≠ 0. Since ω ∈ K. t = u(z) = x0z + x1η(z) + … + xn−1η (z). ! 3. …. n NL/K(ω) = ω = 1. n−1 ( “the Lagrange-Hilbert resolLet u := x0·id + x1·η + … + xn−1η vent” ). such that L = K(a). Applications of Galois Theory 3. Consider u : L → L as an endomorphism of the K-vector space L. Setting y := σ (t) finishes the proof. so σ (a) = ω a. there exists a ∈ L with i i i σ(a) = ω a. using NL/K(y) = NL/K(σy) we obtain that NL/K(x) = NL/K(σy)/NL/K(y) = 1. Proof. 20 . so Irr(a. DedeThe homomorphisms id. so 2 n η(t) = η(x0)η(z ) + η(x1)η (z) + … + η(xn−1)η (z) 2 = x1η(z ) + x2η (z) + … + z (we used that xn−1 = NL/K(x) = 1 and n η = id) We remark that η(t) = t/x0. {ω a | 0 ≤ i ≤ n − 1} are n distinct conjugates of a over K. 0 ≤ i ≤ n − 1. Then there exn ists a ∈ L*. n−1 −1 Suppose now that NL/K(x) = xσ(x)…σ (x) = 1. n−1 xn−1 := xη(xn−2) = xη(x)…η (x). Let K be a field containing a primitive nth root of unity ω and let K ⊆ L be a cyclic extension of degree n. we have u ≠ 0. Thus. Proof. with a ∈ K. Let G := G(L/K) and let σ be a generator of G. Then: NL/K(x) = 1 ⇔ there exists y ∈ L* such that x = σ(y)/y. since x0 ≠ 0. defined as follows: x0 := x. One implication is easy: if x = σ(y)/y. η kind's lemma says they are linearly independent in the L-vector space L* L . K) has degree ≥ n. n−1 from L* to L* are distinct. (Hilbert Satz 90)20 Let K ⊆ L be a cyclic extension of degree n. published in 1897). Because This result is included as "Satz 90" in the Hilbert's monumental Bericht über die Theorie der algebraischen Zahlkörper (Zahlbericht for short. xn−1 ∈ L. x1 := xη(x0) = xη(x).5 Lemma. Let η := σ and let x0. ….300 VI.

such that p . ! σ(a ) = ω a = a . Let z ∈ L* such Lemma.3 and 3. Thus. where y = −u(t).VI. If x = σ(y) − y. σ.6 determine all cyclic extensions of degree n of a field K of characteristic exponent p. so a ∈ K. …. x1 := x + σ(x0) = x + σ(x). a is fixed by the subgroup <σ > = G. σ that TrL/K(z) ≠ 0. additive version) Let K ⊆ L be a cyclic extension of degree n. then TrL/K(x) = TrL/K(σy) − TrL/K(y) = 0. The argument is essentially the same as in the multiplicative version (3. since TrL/K(y) = TrL/K(σy). This part is not used in the theory of solvability by radicals and may be skipped in a first reading. K). n−1 Suppose TrL/K(x) = x +σ(x) + … + σ (x) = 0. ….5).3 Cyclic extensions and Kummer extensions n n n n n n 301 The polynomial X − a ∈ K[X] has the root a and its degree is n.n and a K contains a primitive nth root of unity. [K(a) : K] = n and K(a) = L. The propositions 3.7 Lemma. xn−1 ∈ L. then TrL/K(t) = 1 and thus σ(u(t)) = u(t) − x. (Hilbert Satz 90. x = σ(y) − y. 3. Then: TrL/K(x) = 0 ⇔ there exists y ∈ L* such that x = σ(y) − y. n−1 We have TrL/K = id + σ +…+ σ ≠ 0 since. The cyclic extensions of degree p of a field of characteristic p > 0 are described in what follows. n−1 xn−1 := x + σ(xn−2) = x + σ(x) +…+ σ (x) ( = TrL/K(x) = 0) 2 n−1 Let u = x0σ + x1σ +…+ xn−2σ ∈ EndK(L). n n . We have: 2 3 n σ◦u = σ(x0)·σ + σ(x1)·σ + … + σ(xn−2)·σ 2 3 n = (x1 − x)·σ + (x2 − x)·σ + … + (xn−1 − x)·σ 2 3 n 2 n−1 n = x1·σ + x2·σ + … + xn−1·σ + x·σ − x·(σ +σ + … +σ +σ ) = u − x·TrL/K. If t := z/TrL/K(z). so it ! is equal to Irr(a. by Dedekind's n−1 are L-linearly independent. let σ be a generator of G(L/K) and let x ∈ L*. Proof. Thus. Let x0. …. defined as follows: x0 := x. id.

(Artin-Schreier21) Let K be a field of characteristic p > 0 and let K ⊆ L be a cyclic extension of degree p.8 Theorem. German mathematician. for any root a ∈ Ω of f. we deduce that f = Irr(a. Because p p p p σ(a − a) = (σa) − σa = (a + 1) − a − 1 = a − a. Applications of Galois Theory 3. The proof also shows that. Thus.4. a has p distinct conjugates in L. σa = a + 1. Applying the additive Hilbert Satz 90. G(K(a)/K) has order p. 3. 21 Otto Schreier (1901-1929). p Conversely. for any b ∈ K. so σa = a + 1. Then there exists p a ∈ L. so Irr(a.4). there exists a ∈ L such that 1 = σa − a. with a − a =: b ∈ K. Because |G(K(a)/K)| = p ≥ [K(a) : K]. Then 2 n σ a = a + 2 and.302 VI. Proof. for any n ∈ N. having prime order. f = X − X − b and let a ∈ Ω \ K be a root of p p f. for any n ∈ N. K). Therefore σ ∈ G(K(a)/K) and ord σ = p. namely a. Since deg Irr(a. the extension K ⊆ K(a) is cyclic of degree p. where p char p > 0. we have K(a) = L. Let σ be a generator of G := G(L/K). since n σ a = a + n·1. Then a + 1 is also a root : (a + 1) − (a + 1) − b = a − a − b = 0. let b ∈ K. Since K(a) ⊆ L and [L : K] = p. X − X − b is either irreducible in K[X] or splits over K. whence a − a ∈ L = K. K ⊆ K(a) is Galois and p = [K(a) : K] (use V. such that L = K(a). so f is irreduci! ble. We have TrL/K(1) = [L : K]·1 = p·1 = 0. so it is cyclic. K) = p = deg f. with σ(a) = a + 1. by induction. . p−1 σ a = a + (p − 1). p p <σ> a − a is fixed by σ. …. σ a = a + n·1. let b ∈ K such that f = X − X − b does not split over K. Then f is irreducible in K[X] and. Then there exists a K-isomorphism σ : K(a) → K(a + 1). Note that it is enough to suppose that K ⊆ L is Galois.9 Remark. K) has degree > p. its Galois group must then be cyclic. p Conversely.

If G is a group such that {ordx | x ∈ G} is a finite set.g.for Abelian extensions of exponent n.8): . Let n ∈ N* and let K be a field containing a primitive nth root of unity. An n-Kummer extension is a finite Galois extension K ⊆ L.3 Cyclic extensions and Kummer extensions 303 The theorems that characterize cyclic extensions.for Abelian extensions of exponent p. .22 If K does not contain a primitive nth root of unity. then its exponent is defined and exp G divides |G|.German mathematician. In some cases (when K is a “local field” or when K is a finite extension of Q). if K contains a primitive nth root of unity. the exponent of the extension is the exponent of its Galois group. then the LCM of {ordx | x ∈ G} is called the exponent of G. respectively 3. If G is finite. denoted exp G. This type of theorems are known as Kummer Theory. . If K ⊆ L is a finite Galois extension.10 Definition. (see e. 3. combined with the fact that any Abelian finite group is a product of cyclic groups. lead to structure theorems of finite Abelian extensions of the field K. 22 Ernst Eduard Kummer (1810-1893). a theory that describes all Abelian extensions of K using only the internal structure of K is the Class Field Theory. 3. by Lagrange's theorem. one of the major accomplishments of 20th century Algebra. The theory we developed so far allows us to obtain such theorems in two situations (described by the hypotheses in prop. the theory is considerably more complicated. such that G(L/K) is an Abelian group whose exponent divides n.6. An extension is called a Kummer extension if it is n-Kummer for some n ∈ N*. if char K = p. NEUKIRCH [1986]). We describe now Kummer theory.VI.

L = K( n S ). since exp G = n = |C1|·…·|Cm|. am ∈ K* \ K* such that L = K( n a1 . let n S := {x ∈ L| x ∈ S}.304 VI. so Li/K is cyclic and [Li :K] divides n. Let G := G(L/K). So. The extension Li/K is Galois and G(Li/K) ≅ G/Hi ≅ Ci. bm). Then a finite extension K ⊆ L is n n-Kummer if and only if there exist a1. Take the subgroup Hi := ∏ j≠i Cj and let Li be the fixed subfield of Hi.12 Proposition. 1 ≤ i ≤ m. Let τ ∈ G(L/K). …. n n −1 Since ω ∈ K. a) Let L = K(b1.6 says that K( n b )/K is a cyclic extension and its degree divides n. n am ). Applications of Galois Theory If K contains a primitive nth root of unity and b ∈ K*. . Then L is the composite of a finite set of cyclic intermediate fields K ⊆ Li. with k τ(bi) = biω . But j σ(bi) = biω . ·). where S := n L* ∩ K*is a subgroup in (K*. which implies that K ⊆ L is Galois. We have G(L/E) = H1∩…∩Hm = {id}. …. 3. The finite Abelian group G is a direct product of cyclic subgroups: G = C1×…×Cm. Proof. Proof. bm}. so it is an n-Kummer extension. biω . If σ ∈ G(L/K). with bi ∈ L and bin = ai .11 Lemma. 3. Let L/K be an Abelian finite extension of exponent n. …. X − ai has n distinct roots in L: bi. Then: k k j k j+k (σ ◦τ)(bi) = σ(biω ) = σ(bi)σ(ω ) = biω ω = biω = (τ ◦σ)(bi). with j ∈ N depending on σ and i. Let E be the composite L1…Lm. For such an extension. Let n ∈ N* and let K be a field containing a primitive nth root of unity ω. biω. 1 ≤ i ≤ m. it follows that |Ci| divides n. ∀i. 3. …. so L = E. σ is determined by its values on the generators {b1.…. ! n For any extension K ⊆ L and any subset S of K. 1 ≤ i ≤ m. L is a splitting field over K of the separable polynomial ∏1≤ i ≤ m(X n − ai). and each degree [Li :K] divides n.

We use this notion for an extension K ⊆ L. bi = cω ∈ K and Li = K(bi) = K. n Let tn(H) := {x ∈ H | x = 1}. 3. An easy check shows that tn(H) is a subgroup in H (it is the kernel n of the homomorphism x & x ) and exp tn(H) divides n. Also. 3.3 and 3. for the factor group L*/K* (L* is a group with respect to multiplication. σ (bi) = biω = bi. Li = K(bi). is injective. We have n n di > 1 (otherwise K = Li). In order to investigate the structure of the Galois group of an n-Kummer extension. ·) and K( n S ) ⊆ L. But L = K(b1.ϕ(xK*) = x K* . So. For the extension K ⊆ Li we can apply prop. ….VI.6. so ai ∉ K* (if ai = c . bm) and clearly bin =: ai ∈ K*. K* is a subgroup). The last statement is justified as follows: S is a subgroup in (K*. 3.3 Cyclic extensions and Kummer extensions n jn 305 so σ ◦τ = τ ◦σ. so ai ∈ S. Let K ⊆ L be an n-Kummer extension. included in L. . we need some background. G(Li/K) has order di. let 1 be its identity element and let n ∈ N*. then. with bi ∈ L* and bin = ai ∈ K*.11. for some c ∈ K. Let (H. So. Suppose now that K ⊆ L is n-Kummer. By 3.14 Proposition. L ⊆ K( n S ). Then L = K(b1. j for some j. absurd).13 Definition.6. This result generalizes 3. so n σ = id and the exponent of G(L/K) divides n. x ∈ K*}. where each Li is a cyclic extension of K. The homomorphism ϕ induces an isomorphism n n n tn(L*/K*) ≅ Imϕ = (L* ∩ K*)/K* . Then: n tn(L*/K*) = {xK* | x ∈ L*. with bi ∈ L* and bidi ∈ K*. Then the canonical group homomorphism n n n n ϕ : tn(L*/K*) → K*/K* . which is a subgroup in K*/K* . ∀x ∈ L* with x ∈ K*. ! 1 ≤ i ≤ m. G(L/K) is Abelian. since ω n di is a primitive di-th root of unity in K. ·) be an Abelian group with the operation denoted multiplicatively.…. Thus. L = L1…Lm. bm). with di|n.

then n n G(L/K) ≅ tn(L/K) ≅ (L* ∩ K*)/K* . ! The main theorem says that the n-Kummer extensions of K are in n one-to-one correspondence with the finite subgroups of K*/K* . x ∈ K* and x K* = 1K*. since any other root is of the form xα. so there exists a ∈ K* such that x = a . Let x K* = 1K* for x ∈ L* with n n n n n x ∈ K. Denote by 1 the neutral elements.e. i. Let (G. C*) is called the dual of the group G. It is immediate that ϕ preserves multiplication.306 VI. If K ⊆ L is n-Kummer. then Hom(G. ·). then x ∈ K*. n n n Let us show Kerϕ = {1K*}. where ζ is an nth root of unity (ζ ∈ K by hypothesis). x ∈ K*} = {x K* | x ∈ L* ∩ K*} n n = (L* ∩ K*)/K* . C) ≅ G. C*) ≅ G. The class xK* is independent on the choice of the root x of n X − y. x K* = y K* . a) Hom(G. Hence x ∈ K* . . ·) be finite Abelian groups and let (C. so −1 n n n n n n (xy ) ∈ K* .23 23 Hom(G. If exp G divides |C|. stated in the following lemma. with α ∈ Un(K). so xαK* = xK*. if x. ψ(yK* ) = n y K*. The definition of ψ is correct: ∀y ∈ L* ∩ K*. n n n n n n n Imϕ = {x K* | x ∈ L*. The inverse of ϕ is n n n ψ : (L* ∩ K*)/K* → tn(L*/K*).15 Lemma. 3. ∃x := n n n y ∈ L* such that x = y. C*) ≅ Hom(G. −1 y ∈ L* such that xK* = yK* ∈ tn(L*/K*). ϕ is well defined: if xK*∈ tn(L*/K*). Then x = aζ. then xy ∈ K*. ·) be a cyclic group. Applications of Galois Theory n Proof. (C* is the multiplicative group of nonzero complex numbers). We need some group theoretical facts. So. (H.

Let us prove that G' ≅ G. A). Then α(x) = α(x ) = 1.3 Cyclic extensions and Kummer extensions 307 b) Let p : G × H → C be a bilinear function: for any a. (**) . we have Hom(G. So. ∀α. ∀x ∈ G. n n a) Let G' := Hom(G. then C includes a unique subgroup with n elements Cn (Cn is cyclic) and. Then exp G divides |C| and η : H → Hom(G. so: H ≅ Hom(G. ∀s ∈ Z. Hom(G. for any x ∈ G. A) = {ϕ : G → A |ϕ is a homomorphism} is an Abelian group with respect to the law (αβ)(x) = α(x)β(x). Un). Z/nZ ≅ G'. the invariant factors theorem says that G = G1×…×Gm. px : G → C. C)×…×Hom(Gm. px(a) = p(a. y ∈ H. we have: p(ab. x) = p(a. Cn) ≅ Hom(G. Thus. Let α ∈ G' and let ω generate Un. Hom(G. ϕ(s) = αs. C) p(a. which means that G' is cyclic of order n. The function η : H → Hom(G.·). C*). for any Abelian group (A. A quick check shows that ϕ is a surjective group homomorphism and Kerϕ = nZ. Un) = G'. Cn). ∀x ∈ G. β ∈ Hom(G. isomorphic to G. C) ≅ G. C) is an isomorphism. If G is an arbitrary Abelian finite group. But Hom(G1×…×Gm. Define s ϕ : Z → G'. If n divides |C|. ∀x. x)p(a. cyclic of order n. with Gi cyclic groups. Then s α is determined by α(g). xy) = p(a. x). η(x) = px. ∀a ∈ G} = {1} and {a ∈ G | p(a. Suppose first that G is cyclic of order n and let g ∈ G be a generator. where αs(g) = ω . x) = 1. c) Suppose that the bilinear function p is nondegenerate: {x ∈ H | p(a. G' = Hom(G. b ∈ G. x)p(b. y). Note first that. ∀x ∈ H} = {1}. C). as above. Imα ⊆ Un. is a group homomorphism. x). Proof.VI. and α(g) = ω . (*) Then. ∀α ∈ G'. x) = 1. Since Cn ≅ Un. for some s ∈ N. C) ≅ Hom(G1. Let exp G = n. ∀a ∈ G. So. C) = Hom(G. the group of complex nth roots of unity. ∀x ∈ H is a group homomorphism.

x) = 1. ∀a ∈ G} = {1} (p is nondegenerate). n n n ∀ bK* ∈ (L* ∩ K*)/K* . Therefore. in particular |H| ≤ |G|. ∀x ∈ G. as shown. C) ≅ Gi. so η(xy) = η(x)η(y). xy) = p(a. m m m p(x . c) Ker η = {x ∈ H | η(x) = 1} = {x ∈ H | p(a. But exp G | m. C) by a). y ∈ H and let a ∈ G. Let m = |C|. x)p(a. n bK* & χb. So. there is a canonical isomorphism n n (L* ∩ K*)/K* ≅ Hom(G(L/K). b) Condition (*) means that px is a homomorphism. C) ≅ G. where χa(σ) = σ(a)/a. so |G| = |H| and G ≅ H. ! 3. H ≅ Imη ≤ Hom(G. ∀σ ∈ G(L/K). So η is injective. y) = p(x. ∀y ∈ H. x = 1. Un) aK* & χa. Applications of Galois Theory (see II. For any x ∈ G. (multiplicative Kummer Theory) Let K be a field containing a primitive nth root of unity ω. G ≅ Hom(G. y) = η(x)(a)·η(y)(a).16 Theorem. C) ≅ G1×…×Gm = G. Un). so H is isomorphic to a subgroup of G. a) If K ⊆ L is an n-Kummer extension. then there is a canonical isomorphism: tn(L*/K*) ≅ Hom(G(L/K). We have η(xy)(a) = pxy(a) = p(a. Thus Hom(G.3. Also. so G is isomorphic to a subgroup of H and |G| ≤ |H|. But G and H are finite. for any aK* ∈ tn(L*/K*).20) and each Hom(Gi. ∀σ ∈ G(L/K). y) = 1. G(L/K) is isomorphic to the finite subgroup n n *n (L ∩ K*)/K* of K*/K* . The situation is symmetric in G and H. b) There exists an order preserving bijection between the set of all n-Kummer extensions of K included in Ω and the finite subgroups of n K*/K* : .308 VI. Because p is nondegenerate. Let x. where χb(σ) = σ (n b ) n b . Therefore.

xK*) = 1. so (σ(x)/x) = 1.12). τ ∈ G(L/K) and ∀xK*. p(σ. ψ(yK* ) = n y K*. The degree of the extension is equal to the order of its corresponding subgroup. the subgroup S/K* . xK*)p(σ. xK*) = = ⋅ =τ⎜ = ⋅ = ⎟⋅ x τ (x) x x x ⎝ x ⎠ x We used first that στ = τσ (G(L/K) is Abelian). xK* = 1K*. then that σ(x)/x ∈ K. so x ∈ K. so σ = id. we obtain the other isomorphism. then x is fixed by any σ ∈ G(L/K). Using ψ : (L* ∩ K*)/K* → tn(L*/K*). then σ(x) = x. Define: p : G(L/K)×tn(L*/K*) → Un. so it is fixed by τ.a) implies n n p(σ. xK*) is independent on the choice of the representative of the class xK*. But n L = K({x ∈ L*| x ∈ K}) (see 3. xK*) = 1. corresponds to the extension K ⊆ K( n S ). Also.3 Cyclic extensions and Kummer extensions n 309 n the extension K ⊆ L corresponds to the subgroup (L* ∩ K*)/K* .15. we have n n n x = a ∈ K. ∀σ.15. with K* ≤ S ≤ K*. a) Let Un = Un(K) be the group of the nth roots of unity in K (we know that Un = Un(Ω) is a cyclic group of order n). for any σ ∈ G(L/K) and any x ∈ L* with xK*∈ tn(L*/K*). Un). If xK* ∈ tn(L*/K*) with p(σ. p is nondegenerate: if σ ∈ G(L/K) and p(σ. p(σ. ∀x ∈ L with x ∈ K. thus. xK*) . we have: στ ( x ) στ ( x ) τ ( x ) ⎛ σ ( x ) ⎞ τ ( x ) σ ( x ) τ ( x ) p(στ. Proof. ∀σ ∈ G(L/K). Indeed.xyK*) = σ(xy)/xy = (σ(x)/x)·(σ(y)/y) = p(σ. so σ(x) is a root of X − a. n ∀xK* ∈ tn(L*/K*). It is easily seen that p(σ. yK*). the isomorn phism in 3. 3. The definition is correct: ∀x ∈ L* with xK*∈ tn(L*/K*). yK*∈ tn(L*/K*). p is bilinear. Finally.c).xK*·yK*) = p(σ.VI.14. xK*) := σ(x)/x. We have tn(L*/K*) ≅ Hom(G(L/K). xK*)p(τ. Thus. σ(x)/x ∈ Un. via the isomorphism in n n Lemma 3.

∀bK* ∈ S/K* . n Evidently. Un). xK*) = 1. ∆ ≅ Hom(G(L/K). …. define n p : G(L/K) × ∆ → Un. p(σ. Applications of Galois Theory n n tn(L*/K*) ≅ (L* ∩ K*)/K* ≅ G(L/K). Its associated n-Kummer extension is K ⊆ K( n S ) =: L. if K* ≤ S ≤ K*. S ⊆ L* ∩ K*. as we now prove.12). they are equal. n n Conversely. n Let K ⊆ L be n-Kummer. Since ∆ ⊆ ∆' and the groups are finite. am ∈ K* are the n representatives of the classes in S/K* . n ∀xK* ∈ ∆. For the other inclusion. and a1.15. xK* ) := σ( n x )/ n x . a finite group. They are also inverse to each other. let K* ≤ S ≤ K*. Thus. From 3. For any extension K ⊆ L. where ∆ := S/K* is a finite group. ∀σ ∈ G(L/K). Consequently. It is n n nondegenerate: if σ ∈ G(L/K) and p(σ. (L* ∩ K*)/K* ≅ G(L/K).310 VI. by a). If xK* ∈ S/K* is fixed by any with p(σ. an analogous result can be obtained for Abelian extensions of exponent p of a field K having characteristic p > 0. one shows that p is correctly defined and bilinear. ∀x ∈ S. But L = K( n S ). n To S/K* corresponds K( n S ). then K ⊆ K{ n S } = K{ n a1 . n am } is an n-Kummer extension (see 3. then n n σ( n x ) = n x . Let n n n (L* ∩ K*)/K* =: ∆'. ! Using the same methods. xK* = 1K* . n n with K* ≤ S ≤ K* and [S : K* ] finite. Its associated subgroup is S = L* ∩ K*. As in a). xK* ) = 1. equal to L (by 3.…. so σ = id. n n Conversely. so ∆ ⊆ ∆'. ∀xK* ∈ ∆. n n If K ⊆ L is n-Kummer. so x ∈ K and x ∈ K . We have to prove that ∆ = ∆' (⇔ S = L* ∩ K*). Un) via the isomorphism n n *n bK & χb.c). these correspondences are inclusion preserving. ∀σ ∈ G(L/K). we use the following notations: .12). Clearly. the subgroup corresponding to the extension K ⊆ L is finite. χb(σ) = σ (n b ) n b . n n b) Any finite subgroup of K*/K* can be written uniquely as S/K* . then n x n n *n n σ ∈ G(L/K). But ∆' ≅ Hom(G(L/K). S/K* is finite. ∀σ ∈ G(L/K).

Then K ⊆ L is Abelian of exponent p if −1 and only if there exist a1. The following results are the “additive” versions of 3. a subgroup in K +. is injective. For any a ∈ K . . b + 1. 3. Fp+ is a cyclic group of order p. …. Let K be a field of characteristic p > 0 and let K ⊆ L be a finite Abelian extension of exponent p.VI.17 Proposition. ∀x ∈ Ω. For such an extension. 3. L = K(P (S)). 3.14. ∀x ∈ L+ cu P(x) ∈ K +. a) If K ⊆ L is Abelian of exponent p. −1 p P (a) denotes any root in Ω of X − X − a (3.12.18 Proposition. The homomorphism ψ induces an isomorphism tP(L+/K +) ≅ Imψ = (P(L +) ∩ K +))/P(K +). where S := P(L+) ∩ K +.19 Theorem. + tP(L+/K +) := {x + K + ∈ L+/K + | P(x) ∈ K }. p P : Ω+ → Ω+ is the group homomorphism given by P(x) = x − x. …. The additive homomorphism P plays the role of the multiplicative n + homomorphism x & x in the multiplicative theory. +).16. The proofs are proposed as an exercise. am ∈ K + \ P(K +) such that L = K(P (a1). Fp ). Let K be a field of characteristic p > 0 and let K ⊆ L be a finite extension. Then the canonical group homomorphism ψ : tP(L+/K +) → K +/P(K +). the roots of X − X − a are b. (Additive Kummer Theory) Let K be a field of characteristic p > 0 and let Fp be its prime subfield. then there exists a canonical isomorphism + tP(L+/K +) ≅ Hom(G(L/K). ! a subgroup in K +/P(K +). P (am)). −1 −1 ….8 ensures that. ! 3. if b is a p root. 3.3 Cyclic extensions and Kummer extensions 311 L+ is the additive group (L. ψ(x + K +) = P(x) + P(K +). b + (p − 1)).

pn be distinct primes. n) = 1. Then Q ⊆ Q{ p1 . 12 2 ) and all its intermediate fields. ∀σ ∈ G(L/K). Fp ). (m. ∀σ ∈ G(L/K). b) The set of Abelian extensions of exponent p of K included in Ω is in a bijective inclusion preserving correspondence with the finite subgroups of K +/P(K +): the extension K ⊆ L corresponds to the subgroup (P(L+) ∩ K +)/P(K +). the subgroup S/K +. Let ω be a primitive 12th root of unity. 3.…. Let p1. ∀ b + P(K +) ∈ (P(L+) ∩ K +)/P(K +). 4. 2. pn } has den gree 2 . where χa(σ) = σ(a) − a. let ζn be a primitive nth root of unity. . with P(K +) ≤ S ≤ K +. We also have a canonical isomorphism + (P(L+) ∩ K +)/P(K +) ≅ Hom(G(L/K). Find its Galois group. …. Applications of Galois Theory a + K + & χa. Determine the Galois group of Q ⊆ Q(ω. Prove that. corresponds to the extension K ⊆ K(P (S)). where χb(σ) = σ(P (b)) − P (b). For any n ∈ N*.312 VI. if m. n ∈ N. −1 −1 b + P(K +) & χb. Exercises 1. Therefore G(L/K) is isomorphic to the finite subgroup (P(L+) ∩ K +)/P(K +) of K +/P(K +). Generalization. ∀ a + K + ∈ tP(L+/K +). then Q(ζm) ∩ Q(ζn) = Q. Determine the degree of Q ⊆ Q{{ d | 1 ≤ d ≤ 20}. −1 The degree of the extension is equal to the order of the correspond! ing subgroup.

∀t ∈ K. For instance. These successes led many mathematicians of that time to think that such formulas exist for algebraic equations of any degree. Euler24. Let K = C(X. VI. Construct a 6-Kummer extension of degree 18 of C(X. Y). where. Prove that K ⊆ L is a 4-Kummer extension and determine its degree and all its intermediate fields. A typical example is the formula for the roots of the equation of second degree (known to the Babylonians. the formulas for the roots of any polynomial equation of degree 3 or 4 were discovered. except for the four vulgar operations. famous Swiss mathematician. n Let L = K{ 4 XY . using only the four arithmetic operations and radicals (of any order). Independently from Ruffini (whose intricate proof failed to convince many fellow mathematicians). Y) (the fraction field of the polynomial ring C[X.4 Solvability by radicals The classical problem of “solving by radicals an algebraic equation” requires expressing the roots of a given polynomial as a function of the coefficients of the polynomial. In the 16th century. These ideas were proven to be false at the beginning of the 19th century by Paolo Ruffini. around 1749. and one cannot sustain that transcendental operations might be involved”.VI. believed that “the expressions for the roots contain no other operations than radicals.4 Solvability by radicals 313 5. 6. Y ]). . about 1900-1600 B. who proved the impossibility of solving the “general” equation of degree 5 by radicals. the Norwegian mathematician Niels 24 Leonhard Euler (1707-1783).). 4 Y 3 }. n t denotes a root of T − t (in some extension of K).C.

314 VI. using what we call today the Galois group of the polynomial. αβ. αβ . 0 ≤ i < m. if a. cu Ki+1 = Ki(ai) and aini ∈ Ki. Any element of L is expressed in a basis of L 2 2 over Q (for instance 1. such that. The Galois group G(E/K) is called the Galois group of the polynomial f over K. b ∈ Q. α. two months before his death. These definitions articulate rigorously the notion of “formula using radicals and the four operations”.1 Definition. β. If n1 = … = nm = n. Applications of Galois Theory Henrik Abel gave in 1824 (at the age of 22) a clear and rigorous proof of this impossibility. β = 3 b − 3 a ) as an “expression using radicals and the four operations”. The ideas and results of Galois had a decisive contribution to the development of Algebra. . in his honor. creates the notion of group (of permutations) and formulates a general criterion of solvability by radicals of a polynomial equation. β . K ⊆ L is called an n-radical extension. where α = a . 4. Let f ∈ K[X] and let E be the splitting field of f over K. We say that the polynomial f is solvable by radicals over K (or that the equation f = 0 is solvable by radicals over K) if there exists a radical extension L that includes the splitting field of f over K. Abel published a memoir in which he describes a class of polynomials solvable by radicals (namely the polynomials whose Galois group is commutative). for any i. For instance. there exists ai ∈ Ki+1 and ni ∈ N*. A field extension K ⊆ L is called a radical extension if there exists a finite tower of intermediate fields K = K0 ⊆ K1⊆ …⊆ Km = L. The commutative groups are called today Abelian. In 1829. ) is a 6-radical extension. unaware of Abel's results. In 1830. Q ⊆Q ( a ) ⊆ Q( a )( 3 b − 3 a = L. Evariste Galois.

for each i. 0 ≤ i < m. 4. then K ⊆ M is (n-)radical. …. then L ⊆ M is n-radical. There exists a tower K = K0 ⊆ K1⊆ …⊆ Km = L and ai ∈ Ki+1. then the equation may not be solvable over Q. as in the definition above. is solvable by radicals over Q(a. b) The (n-)radical extensions are transitive: If K ⊆ L and L ⊆ M are (n-)radical.2 Examples. a polynomial is solvable by radicals over K if and only if its Galois group over K is solvable. where a. b) Any polynomial f ∈ R[X] is solvable by radicals over R.c) ⊆ Q ( a . a) The equation aX + bX + c = 0.2 = −b ± b 2 − 4ac shows that the roots xi are in the 2a 2-radical extension Q(a. a ≠ 0. ) b. Indeed. We want to prove the following result (Galois' criterion of solvability by radicals): If char K = 0.4 Solvability by radicals 2 315 4. Indeed the extension R ⊆ C is radical (why?) and C is algebraically closed. c ∈ C.b. c ∉ Q.3 Remarks. Let K ⊆ L be n-radical and let N be its normal closure. where. The normal closure of an n-radical extension is an n-radical extension. 4. with ain ∈ Ki and Ki+1 = Ki(ai).b. solvability by radicals means “solvability by radicals over Q of polynomials in Q[X]”. nm). but K ⊆ L is not necessarily radical (see example 5. Proof. Note that. . then K ⊆ L is n-radical. if a.c). c ) ( b 2 − 4ac . where n = LCM(n1.4 Proposition. a) If K ⊆ L is a radical extension.VI. m c) If K ⊆ L is such that L = K(x1. xi ∈ K * for some m ∈ N . then K ⊆ L is m-radical. the formula for the roots. …. x1. b. The converse is false: if K ⊆ M is n-radical and K ⊆ L ⊆ M. Historically. so it includes the splitting field of f over R.6). xn). b.

ct are the roots of h := Irr(am. K).19). N = M(c1. where x1. we may assume (taking the normal closure) that K ⊆ E is radical and normal. …. If m = 1. …. 4.316 VI. For a fixed i. K(am) and K(ci) are K-isomorphic via an isomorphism that takes am in ci. Since K ⊆ M is normal. so K ⊆ N is n-radical. Thus. Thus. The polynomial f is solvable by radicals over K if and only if the Galois group of f over K is solvable. (Galois) Let K be a field of characteristic 0 and let f ∈ K[X]. let M be the normal closure of K ⊆ Km −1. σi(b) ∈ M. and N is the splitting field over K of the family of polynomials {Irr(ai. 1 ≤ i ≤ t . then n L = K(a). K). n …. …. with a = b ∈ K. we have xin = b. ct). The following proof of Galois' characterization of solvability by radicals uses basic facts on solvable groups (any subgroup and any factor group of a solvable group are solvable.2. cin ∈ M.18 and n IV. and N = K(x1. and therefore M ⊆ M(c1. which can be found in the Appendices. …. Proof. If m > 1. Applications of Galois Theory We prove by induction on m that K ⊆ N is radical. any finite solvable group has a normal series with the factors cyclic groups). K)| 1 ≤ i ≤ m − 1}. 1 ≤ i ≤ r. Note that M is the splitting field over K of the family of polynomials {Irr(ai. ct) = N is ! n-radical. K ⊆ M is n-radical. where c1. K)| 1 ≤ i ≤ m}. The theorem follows by setting L = the splitting field of f over K in the statement below: . if an extension K ⊆ L is contained in a radical extension K ⊆ E. xr are n the roots of g := Irr(a. cin = σ i ( am ) = σi(b). By induction. Extend this homomorphism to a K-automorphism σi : Ω → Ω such that σi(am) = ci (see IV.5 Theorem.2. Since g | X − b. So. Let b ∈ Km −1 such that am = b. 1 ≤ i ≤ t. It is enough to prove that M ⊆ N is n-radical (and then apply the transitivity of n-radical extensions). xr). So. ∀i.

the group G := G(M(ω)/K) has the following series 1 = Hm ⊆ Hm−1 ⊆ … ⊆ H1 ⊆ H0 ⊆ G. Let Hi = G(M(ω)/Ki). Consider the extension K ⊆ M(ω). since char K = 0). In order to apply this proposition. Thus.3 implies that Ki ⊆ Ki+1 is cyclic. with ain ∈ Ki and Ki+1 = Ki(ai). Ki −1 ⊆ Ki is normal. extensions that come up in the definition of a radical extension. G(L/K) will be solvable. it is separable (thus Galois) and n-radical. Let us show that G(M/K) has a solvable series (a normal series with the factors Abelian groups). Let us show that G(L/K) is solvable.4 Solvability by radicals 317 If char K = 0 and K ⊆ L is a normal extension. Since K ⊆ M and M ⊆ M(ω) are n-radical. Because ω ∈ Ki. there exists a sequence K(ω) = K0 ⊆ K1⊆ …⊆ Km = M(ω) and ai ∈ Ki+1. We use the characterization of the extensions of the form K ⊆ K( n a ) (prop. K ⊆ M(ω) is n-radical.4 we may suppose that M/K is normal. as a factor of a solvable group. 3.1) and K(ω) ⊆ M(ω) is n-radical. K ⊆ K(ω) is an Abelian extension (by 3. we need that ω ∈ K (ω is a primitive nth root of unity in Ω. 0 ≤ i < m.VI. . there exists a radical extension K ⊆ M with L ⊆ M if and only if G(L/K) is a solvable group. Therefore G is solvable. K ⊆ K(ω) = K0 is normal. 3. We claim that this is a solvable series. If we show that G(M/K) is solvable. Let us prove this claim. ω exists.3). also. Let K ⊆ L ⊆ M with L/K normal and M/K n-radical (for some n ∈ N). G(M/L) . since char K = 0. By Galois Theory. In the tower of extensions K ⊆ K(ω) ⊆ M(ω). so H0 . so Hi . G(M/K) and G(L/K) ≅ G(M/K)/G(M/L). Hi −1 and Hi −1/Hi ≅ G(Ki/Ki −1) is cyclic. Thus. 1 ≤ i ≤ m. By 4. ∀i. ∀i. G and G/H0 ≅ G(K(ω)/K) is Abelian.

….…. the symmetric group on n elements. Xn) = F. let n ∈ N* and let F be the field K(X1. Let K be a field. suppose G(L/K) is a solvable group. 4. there exists ai ∈ Ki+1(ω).6 Example (The general equation of degree n). 1 ≤ i ≤ m. so it is cyclic. with Hi . To prove this. Applications of Galois Theory Conversely. By 3. with ain ∈ Ki(ω) and Ki+1(ω) = Ki(ω)(ai). ∀i.8). Xn) of rational fractions in n indeterminates.4. Xn). ∀i. K(ω) ⊆ L(ω) is radical. Xn] such that σ *(Xi) = Xσ(i).3). K ⊆ L(ω) is radical (and clearly L ⊆ K(ω)). so the extension S ⊆ F is separable and normal. sn are algebraically independent over K (see IV.…. The roots of P are distinct. Xn] → K[X1. we remark that any σ ∈ Sn induces a K-algebra homomorphism σ * : K[X1.318 VI. Thus. −1 ∀σ. 0 ≤ i < m. The extension K ⊆ L is Galois. The extension Ki −1(ω) ⊆ Ki(ω) is Galois and G(Ki(ω)/Ki −1(ω)) is isomorphic to a subgroup of G(Ki/Ki −1) (we used V. sn). Let Ki be the fixed field of Hi. Consider S := K(s1. F is the splitting field of P over S. σ * is an isomorphism and its inverse is (σ )*. the subfield of symmetric rational fractions in F (where s1. Hi −1 and Hi −1/Hi cyclic.…. the equation P(x) = 0 is called the general equation of degree n.…. Since F = S(X1. and Hi −1/Hi ≅ G(Ki/Ki −1) is cyclic.…. There exists a series of subgroups 1 = Hm ⊆ Hm−1 ⊆ … ⊆ H1 ⊆ H0 ⊆ G.…. so they behave like indeterminates. The polynomial P is called the generic polynomial of degree n. since ! K ⊆ K(ω) is radical. The following polynomial in the indeterminate X n n−1 n−2 n + s2 X − … + (−1) sn P := (X − X1)…(X − Xn) = X − s1 X has coefficients in S and its roots are X1. So. we obtain an isomorphism . Let ω be a primitive nth root of unity in Ω. sn are the fundamental symmetric polynomials in X1. Xn). It is immediate that (στ)* = σ *τ * and id* = id. ∀i.…. 1 ≤ i ≤ m. Passing to the fraction field K(X1.3. …. Xn ∈ F. The name comes from the fact that s1.4.…. τ ∈ Sn. The Galois group G := G(F/S) is isomorphic to Sn. so Ki −1 ⊆ Ki is Galois.

there exists formulas that express by radicals the roots of P if n ≤ 4. given a field K and a finite group G.R. For example. does there exist a Galois extension K ⊆ L whose Galois group is G? This problem is extremely difficult in the general case.…. recalling that Sn is solvable for any n ≤ 4 implies the solvability of the extension S ⊆ F (if char K = 0).2. σ * ∈ G(F/S). Since σ *(si) = si. as the Galois group of the splitting field of f a polynomial of degree n (see Example IV. Sn is not solvable. there exists a unique K-algebra homomorphism ϕ : K[s1. In conclusion. whose Galois group is G. given a field K.4 Solvability by radicals 319 (denoted also by σ *) σ * : F → F. replacing the “indeterminates” s1. Thus. . a theorem of I.VI. sn] is isomorphic to the K-algebra of polynomials in n indeterminates and use the universality property of this K-algebra). Back to our example. sn] → K such that ϕ(si) = ai. solvable by radicals 5 (like X = 0 …). for any solvable finite group G. In other words. More generally. σ & σ * defines a homomorphism (clearly injective) from Sn to G. Xn). sn). sn with a1.….…. an ∈ K. Also note that P is irreducible over S (the root X1 of P has n = deg P conjugates X1.…. an. So. there exists a Galois extension of Q.16). we obtain formulas that solve by radicals any polynomial equation of degree n ≤ 4 with coefficients in K. G has at most n! elements. On the other hand. 1 ≤ i ≤ n (K[s1. 1 ≤ i ≤ n. If a1. For n ≥ 5. so Sn ≅ G. σ * fixes the subfield S = K(s1. But there exist particular equations of degree ≥ 5.…. Shafarevitch (proven around 1954 in several papers totaling more than 100 pages) has as a consequence that. …. In other words. …. we constructed a (transcendental…) extension S of K such that there exists a Galois extension S ⊆ F whose Galois group is Sn. The results of this type are known as Constructive Galois Theory. Sn has n! elements. so the general equation of degree n is not solvable by radicals over K (this is the Abel-Ruffini Theorem).

j ∈ {1. …. g has a double root if and only if D(g) = 0. ∆ is defined up to a sign. ….2 Definition.5 Discriminants. xn of g. Let L be the splitting field of g over K and let x1. D(g) := a where a is the leading coefficient of g. Moreover. ∀i. ….1 Definition. This implies that D(g) ∈ K and that D(g) is independent on the labeling of the roots of g. Note that D(g) is a symmetric polynomial in the roots x1. …. K)). We use the discriminant to obtain data on the Galois group G of the polynomial g. If x1. For any σ ∈ G = G(L/K). x2 are the roots of 2 2 g. let ϕ(σ) ∈ Sn be the permutation given by ϕ(σ)(i) = j ⇔ σ(xi) = xj. a) Let K be a field. 5. Thus. g has a double root if and 2 only if the discriminant D = b − 4ac is zero. assuming g has only simple roots (it is separable). ∆ ∉ K and relabeling the roots x1. …. To this end. xn be its (distinct) roots in L. The discriminant of g is 2n − 2 ∏i < j (xj − xi)2. Applications of Galois Theory VI. let g ∈ K[X] be a polynomial of degree n and let x1. xn may change ∆ in −∆. In general. b) If K ⊆ L is a field extension and x ∈ L is algebraic over K. n}. It is useful to define also ∆ := ∏i< j (xj − xi) ∈ Ω. xn be the roots of g (in some algebraic closure Ω of K). then the discriminant of the element x over K is DK(x) := D(Irr(x. then D = a (x1 − x2) (easy exercise). we see the elements of the Galois group as permutations of the roots. This suggests the following general definition: 5. resultants The notion of discriminant of a polynomial of degree 2 is 2 well-known. If g = aX + bX + c ∈ R[X]. The mapping ϕ : G → Sn is an injective group homo- .320 VI.

Then: a) σ(∆ ) = ε(σ)∆. we define: Let σ ∈ G(L/K). In other words: σ ∈ G(L/K) is even ⇔ σ(∆ ) = ∆.15. We say that σ is odd if ε(σ) = − 1. resultants 321 morphism (see IV. Let g ∈ K[X] be a polynomial without multiple roots and let σ ∈ G(L/K).3. also. where ε(ϕ(σ)) denotes the signature of the permutation ϕ(σ) ∈ Sn. These definitions are independent on the labeling of the roots of g. if a permutation (a subgroup of permutations) has a property that is invariant under any conjugation25. ε(τ ◦ϕ(σ)◦τ) = ε(ϕ(σ)) (see above).VI. This shows that a reordering of the roots leads to replacing ϕ(σ) −1 with a conjugate permutation τ ϕ(σ)τ. If 1 ≤ k ≤ n. 25 . Thus. Thus. thus ϕ'(σ) = τ ◦ϕ(σ)◦τ. ∀η ∈ Sn. where x'i = xτ(i) for some τ ∈ Sn) then ϕ is replaced by ϕ' : G → Sn. We have ϕ'(σ)(i) = j ⇔ σ(x'i) = x'j −1 ⇔ ϕ(σ)(τ(i)) = τ( j). x'n. We say that σ is even if ε(σ) = 1 ⇔ ϕ(σ) is an even permutation in Sn. −1 Indeed. …. the conjugation by τ is the automorphism κτ : Sn → Sn defined by −1 κτ(η) = τ ητ. Also. then this property can be transferred to the corresponding element in G(L/K) (respectively to a subgroup in G(L/K)). Define the signature of σ. 2 b) All σ ∈ G(L/K) are even ⇔ ∆ ∈ K ⇔ D(g) ∈ K . Keep the previous notations and suppose char K ≠ 2. σ ∈ G(L/K) is odd ⇔ σ(∆ ) = −∆. 5. If τ ∈ Sn. ε(σ) := ε(ϕ(σ)).c)) and identifies G with a subgroup of Sn. we say that σ is a cycle of length k if ϕ(σ) is a cycle of length k. If we reorder the roots (say x'1.3 Proposition. the conjugate of a cycle of length k is also a cycle of length k.5 Discriminants.

…. ∆ ∈ K. xn).…. ….4 Proposition. 5. b) If G(L/K) ⊆ An (i. let n −1 n tm := x1m + … + xnm ∈ K. thus. Since K ⊆ L is Galois. xn) = ε(σ)∆. Then . a) In our hypotheses. then D(g) = a . any σ ∈ G(L/K) is even). so τ *(d) = ∏i< j (Xτj − Xτi) = ∏i< j ε(i. If τ ∈ Sn. Xn] denote the unique K-algebra homomorphism such that τ *(Xi) = Xτi. ∀σ ∈ G(L/K). Proof.322 VI. 2 2 2 If D(g) ∈ K . then σ(∆) = ∆. Let g = a0 + a1 X +…+ an −1 X + X ∈ K[X] and let x1. Applications of Galois Theory c) Gal(L/K(∆)) = {σ ∈ G(L/K) | σ is even}. so 2 2 ∆ = a ⇒ ∆ = a or ∆ = −a.…. We have ∆ = d(x1. We show now that τ *(d) = ε(τ )d. for any σ ∈ G(L/K). For any 1 ≤ i < j ≤ n. define: ε(i. For any m ∈ N. j) := ⎨ 1 if τi < τj ⎪ ⎩ −1 if τi > τj ⎧ ⎪ Note that {(Xj − Xi) | 1 ≤ i < j ≤ n} = {(Xτi − Xτj)·ε(i. Then: σ(∆) = {ϕ(σ)*(d)}(x1. …. We need a method to compute the discriminant of a polynomial without knowing its roots. …. Anyway. ∆ ≠ −∆ and K ⊆ L is a Galois extension. Xn] → K[X1. Let σ ∈ G(L/K). this implies ∆ ∈ K. Xn]. σ(∆) = ∆. Let d := ∏i< j (Xj − Xi) ∈ K[X1. let τ * : K[X1. xn be the roots of g in Ω.e. ∆ ≠ 0. which means that σ is even. j)(Xj − Xi) = ε(τ )d. so 2 2 D(g) = ∆ ∈ K .…. the Galois correspondences take the intermediate field K(∆) to the subgroup −1 G(L/K) ∩ ϕ (An) of even elements in G(L/K). j) | 1 ≤ i < j ≤ n}. In other words. is c) G(L/K(∆)) = {σ ∈ G(L/K) | σ(∆) = ∆} = {σ ∈ G(L/K) | σ −1 ! even} = G(L/K) ∩ ϕ (An). for some a ∈ K. xn) = ε(ϕ(σ))d(x1. But D(g) = ∆ .

−tm = an − 1 tm − 1 + an − 2 tm − 2 + … + a0 tm − n.5 Discriminants. t1 = 0. X + pX + q. and t 2 2 det( A·A) = det(A) = ∆ = D(g). if m > n. a0 = q. a2 = 0. t4 = 2p . defined below. resultants 323 t1 … tn − 1 t2 … tn D(g) = det ! * ! tn − 1 tn … t2n−2 The sums tm can be computed by recurrence using the following relations (Newton's identities): t0 = n. 5. if 2 ≤ m ≤ n. − 2 p − 3q 2 p 2 t . Proof.5 Example. ∆ = ∏i< j (xj − xi) = det A. We have n = 3. t3 = − 3q.VI. We have 2 t0 = 3. Newton's identities yield: t2 = −2p. Let us compute the discriminant of a polynomial of 3 degree 3. a1 = p. −tm = an − 1 tm − 1 + an − 2 tm − 2 + … + an − m + 1 t1 + an − m m. Viète's relations coupled with Newton's identities (see Appendix) ! yield the formulas for the tm. where A is the Vandermonde matrix: 1 A= 1 x1 … x1n-1 x2 … x2n-1 t0 t1 ! ! 1 ! * ! xn … xnn-1 The matrix A·A is the matrix in the statement. t1 = − an − 1. The discriminant can also be computed using the resultant. Thus 3 0 − 2p 3 3 2 D(X + pX + q) = 0 − 2 p − 3q = −4p − 27q .

8). so Q ⊆ Q(ω) ⊆ L.7 Definition.6 Example. the splitting field of g over Q. in Ω[X]. The resultant of g and h is the product Res(g. Applications of Galois Theory 5. is not a radical extension of Q. Assuming Q ⊆ L is radical. yn ∈ Ω.4. all roots of h are in L. h) := a b · n m (xi − 1≤ i≤ m. such that the splitting field of g over Q has degree 3. then (by Proposition 5. Indeed.…. b ∈ K* and m. h = b(X − y1)…(X − yn).3) the Galois group of g is A3 (the alternating group on 3 elements. of degree 3. where a.1≤ j≤ n ∏ yj).…. We want to give an example of polynomial g ∈ Q[X] solvable by radicals over Q. . but such L. ω ∈ L. where ω is a primitive third root of unity. where b ∈ L is a root of h = X − a. Assume that the roots of g are x1. Since the extension is normal. so bω and 2 bω ∈ L. On the other hand. The resultant of two polynomials g and h ∈ K[X] appears in the problem of finding conditions under which g and h have a common nonconstant factor (equivalently. For 3 2 instance. xm ∈ Ω and the roots of h are y1. g = X − 3X + 1 has D(g) = 81 ∈ Q and is irreducible (g has no roots in Q and has degree 3). g = a(X − x1)…(X − xm). We claim that any irreducible polynomial g ∈ Q[X]. has this property. n ∈ N. h ∈ K[X] be nonzero. An example of such polynomial is the minimal polynomial of (see exercise V. if cos(2π/9) 3 g = X + pX + q ∈ Q[X] is irreducible and has the discriminant 3 2 D(g) = −4p − 27q a square of a rational number.324 VI. which is solvable. the definition 3 implies L = Q(b). for some a ∈ Q. which is cyclic of degree 3) and g is solvable by radicals. Let K be a field and let g. 5. absurd. Then. g is solvable by radicals over Q because its Galois group G(L/Q) is a subgroup of S3. More generally. a normal extension Q ⊆ L of degree 3 cannot be radical. Thus. they have a common root in the algebraic closure Ω of K). It follows that 2 = [Q(ω) : Q] divides 3 = [L : Q].

h) is a nonconstant polynomial in K[X]. . since g(xi) = 0. n n n Res(g.5 Discriminants. g) = (−1) Res(g. h = b(X − y1)…(X − yn). h) ∈ K. Bur Res(g. r) (r is the remainder of the division of h by g: h = gq + r. h ∈ K[X] be nonzero. The following formulas hold: deg(h) (R1) Res(g. Let g. h) = 0 ⇔ g and h have a common root in Ω ⇔ GCD(g. 1 ≤ i ≤ m. c) Res(g. r) = a ∏i r(xi) and R3 follows. n ∈ N. r ∈ K[X]. deg(r) A polynomial g has multiple roots if and only if g and its formal derivative g' have common roots. R1 implies R4. From R1. Res(0. ∀b ∈ K a constant polynomial. h) Res(g. Thus D(g) = 0 ⇔ Res(g. R1 follows by multiplying these relations. The next proposition shows that Res(g. h) = a ∏i h(xi) = a ∏i (g(xi)q(xi) + r(xi)) = a ∏i r(xi). h) = a n − deg(r) 1≤i ≤ m mn (R2) (R3) Res(g. 0) = 0. ! c) By induction on min(deg g. g') differ only by ± the dominant coefficient of g. Let h = gq + r. D(g) and Res(g. where r = 0 or deg r < m = deg h. In fact.8 Proposition. deg r < deg g or r = 0) m (R4) Res(g. 1 ≤ i ≤ m. b) We have h(xi) = b(xi − y1)…(xi − yn). Proof. b) = b . b) Let g = a(X − x1)…(X − xm). h) = a ∏ h( xi ) Res(h. g) = Res(g. keeping in mind that the GCD of g and h in Ω[X] is the same as their GCD in K[X]. a) Clear. resultants 325 By convention. deg h). g') = 0. ∀g ∈ K[X]. using R3 and R4. where q. Then: a) Res(g. for any i. with a.VI. 5. h) ∈ K and provides an algorithm that computes the resultant using divisions with remainder. Finally. R2 is clear from the definition. b ∈ K* and m.

such that the characteristic exponent of K does not divide n. by setting Y = X + a/n. j). g') = a The resultant of two polynomials can be also computed by means of a determinant formed with their coefficients (see the exercises). There are m(m − 1)/2 such couples. if K contains a primitive n!-th root of unity. so 2m−1 m(m−1)/2 (−1) ∏i<j (xi − xj) 2 = a(−1)m(m−1)/2D(g). Exercises 1. with the help of resultants one can find a polynomial that has the root x + y (see Exercise 9). be its dominant coefficient. If the extension is p radical. m−1 m−1 Res(g. g') = a ∏i g'(xi) = a ∏i {a∏j≠i (xi − xj)}. deg f = n. then the splitting field of f over K is a radical extension of K. For each couple (i. Let g = a(X − x1)…(X − xm). and y is a root of g. Deduce that a normal extension of degree p of Q cannot be radical. Then D(g) = a (−1) Proof. Applications of Galois Theory 5. Let K be a field of characteristic 0 and let f ∈ K[X] be a polynomial solvable by radicals over K. ! Res(g. Prove that. Let g ∈ K[X] have degree m ∈ N and let a ∈ K* −1 m(m−1)/2 Res(g. the product above contains (xi − xj) and (xj − xi). Let K be a field and let p = X + an − 1 X + … + a1 X + a0 ∈ K[X]. then there exists b ∈ L such that L = K(b) and b ∈ K. Let K ⊆ L be an extension of prime degree p. of the form Y + bn − 2 X n n−1 . 1 ≤ i < j ≤ m. where xi ∈ Ω. 3.326 VI. g'). 2. Then g' = a∑i∏j≠i (X − xj). Prove that solving the equation p(X) = 0 is equivalent to solving an equation in Y n n−2 + … + b1 Y + b0. By R1. If x is a root of f.9 Proposition.

5. where p. Prove the following assertions: a) Setting x = u + v. Niccolò Fontana “Tartaglia” (1500-1557) rediscovered the formula in 1535 and communicated it to Girolamo Cardano (1501-1576). a student of Cardano. q ∈ K. The condition uv = − p/3 implies that the roots of f are: 3 3 3 A + 3 B. whose solutions are u 3 = 2 3 2 D = − 4p − 27q be the discriminant of the equation f = 0. resultants 327 4. Then any solution x of the equation satisfies 2 The formula was obtained around 1515. 26 . where γ = − D/108.VI. 27 The formula was found by Lodovico Ferrari (1522-1565). Then 3 u = − q/2 ± γ . c) Let A = − q/2 + γ . B = − q/2 − γ and let ω be a primitive 3rd root of unity.5 Discriminants. by Scipione del Ferro (? .1526). leading to a solution of this equation: a) Solve the equation if q = 0. one obtains the equation 3 3 u + v + q + (3uv + p)(u + v) = 0. Let 2 in u is obtained. q. ω23 A + ω3 B . b) Requiring u + v + q = 0 and 3uv + p = 0. Verify the details in the following steps. an equation of degree − q ± q 2 + 4 p 3 27 3 . Then f(x) = 0 is rewritten: 2 ⎛ x 2 + p ⎞ = − qx − r + p ⎜ 2⎟ 4 ⎝ ⎠ c) Let u ∈ K. b) Let q ≠ 0. (Solving the quartic equation)27 Let K be a field whose characteristic is not 2 or 3 and let the equation 4 2 f(x) = x + px + qx + r = 0. who published it in his book “Ars Magna. ω3 A + ω23 B. but was not published. sive de regulis algebraicis”. where p. r ∈ K. (Solving the cubic equation)26 Let K be a field whose characteristic is not 2 or 3 and let the equation 3 f(x) = x + px + q = 0.

Show that g is irreducible. then Q(α. (The resultant as a determinant) Let R be a domain. d ) = Q(α). 8. Consider the polynomials in X. Y1. Let g = X + X + 3 ∈ Q[X]. 1}. x =ε 2 2 2 2 2u 2 ( ) 6. Let g = X + pX + q ∈ Q[X] be irreducible. Let D the square matrix in Mm + n(R[X1.…. Xm. 3 3 . e) Let u be a solution of the cubic resolvent. for any d ∈ Z a positive squarefree integer. Yn]). Let α be the real root of g and let K be the splitting field of g over Q. where ε ∈ {− 1. Deduce that Q ⊆ Q(α) is normal if and only if ∆ is the square of a rational number.…. b ∈ R and let m. (called the cubic resolvent of Ferrari).328 VI. Show that K ∩ Q(α. n ∈ N*. with coefficients in R[X1. Then the 4 solutions of f = 0 are: εq −u p u ± − − .…. ∆ ) is the splitting field of g over Q. if ∆ = − 4p − 27q is the discriminant of g. Prove that. 7.…. Xm. let a. Applications of Galois Theory 2 2 ⎛ x 2 + p + u ⎞ = − qx − r + p + u 2 + 2ux 2 + pu ⎜ ⎟ 2 4 ⎝ ⎠ The right hand side is a perfect square of some polynomial in x if and only if p2 q ⎞ − qx − r + + u 2 + 2ux 2 + pu = ⎛ x 2u − ⎜ ⎟ 4 2 2u ⎠ ⎝ d) The last equality is equivalent to 8u 3 + 8 pu 2 + 2 p 2 − 8r u − q 2 = 0 . Y1. and let α ∈ R be a root 3 2 of g. Yn]: j f := a ∏1 ≤ i ≤ m (X − Xi) = ∑0 ≤ j ≤ m ajX j g := b ∏1 ≤ i ≤ n (X − Yi) = ∑0 ≤ j ≤ n bjX .

resultants 329 bn ⎤ ⎡ am ⎥ ⎢a a bn −1 bn ⎥ ⎢ m −1 m ! bn −1 ⎥ ⎢ ! am −1 ! ⎥ ⎢ ! ! ! am b0 ! ! ⎥ ⎢ D= ⎢ a0 b0 bn ⎥ ! ! am −1 ! ⎥ ⎢ a0 ! ! ! bn −1 ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ ! ! ! ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ a0 b0 ⎦ ⎣ There are n columns of a's and m columns of b's (the empty places contain 0's). …. t ∈ R. xn} are the roots of f and {y1.VI. This means that C = {(x. …. am. 9. Let K be a field and let x. and let h := Res{ f. g} b) Prove that Res{ f. gZ} ∈ K[Z]. View f and gZ as polynomials in X (with coefficients in K[Z]).5 Discriminants. K). Let C be the curve in R given by the parametric representation 2 ⎧ x = x (t ) = t 2 + t 2 . More precisely. y) ∈ R | ∃t ∈ R ⎨ 2 ⎩ y = y (t ) = t − t + 1 . the roots of h are xi + yj. show that det D = Res{ f. y be algebraic elements over K. g} ∈ R[a0. ym} are the roots of g. where {x1. let f = Irr(x. 1 ≤ i ≤ n. ⎡ Y1m+ n −1 … … Y1 1⎤ ⎢ ⎥ … … ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ Ynm+ n −1 … … Yn 1⎥ M = ⎢ m +n −1 ⎥ … … X 1 1⎥ ⎢ X1 ⎢ ⎥ … … ⎢ m +n −1 ⎥ … … X m 1⎥ ⎢Xm ⎣ ⎦ Computing det(MD) in two ways. 1 ≤ j ≤ m. g} = det D. 10. The point is to prove that Res{ f. Prove that x + y is a root of h. Let Z be an indeterminate and let gZ := g(Z + X) ∈ K[Z][X]. K) and let g = Irr(y. …. …. a) Let M be the Vandermonde matrix of dimension m + n. b0. bn].

Using resultants.. y) ∈ C ⇔ the polynomials t + t − x and t − t + 1 − y have a common root. Applications of Galois Theory such that x = x(t). g(x. a polynomial g ∈ R[X. Y] such that: ∃t ∈ R such that x = x(t). y) = 0 implies that 2 representation of the curve (i. ∀(x.e. conversely.) 2 2 . (x. y) ∈ R . and. y = y(t)}. g(x(t)). y = y(t)). (Hint. find an implicit ∀t ∈ R.330 VI. y(t)) = 0.

y ∈ I and ∀r ∈ R. The reader should feel free to consult the appendices as needed. we write this also I ≤ J. we denote this by I ≤ R. Prime ideals and maximal ideals All rings considered are assumed commutative rings with identity. j ∈ J} (the ideal generated by I ∪ J). I + J := {i + j | i ∈ I.e.Appendices The following appendices contain a part of the background required for reading the book. J) = I ∩ J. J) = I + J. we have x + y ∈ I and rx ∈ R). If I is an ideal of the ring R (i. R denotes a commutative ring with identity. when reading the main text. The set of all ideals of a ring is a lattice with respect to inclusion: for any two ideals I and J of R. Throughout this section. where I + J denotes the sum of the ideals I and J. An ideal I is called a proper ideal if I ≠ R. but auxiliary to the main ideas in the book. ∀x. 331 . 1. If I and J are ideals in R with I ⊆ J. sup(I. They include themes less likely to be included in a first course on Algebra and themes that are necessary. inf(I.

y ∈ P. Let α = a + I. d) If K is a field. b ∈ R with ab ∈ I. denoted pZ.1 Definition. Since nZ ≠ Z. any ideal is of the form nZ. by means of the factor ring. is a prime ideal in Z. An ideal P of the ring R is called a prime ideal if P ≠ R and. then (a + I)(b + I) = 0 + I.332 Appendices 1. The converse is left to the reader. In the ring Z. this means that n is irreducible. for any J ≤ R. In other words. Conversely. If αβ = 0 ∈ R/I. b) I is a maximal ideal if and only if the factor ring R/I is a field. Since I is prime. M ≤ J implies M = J or J = R. ∀m ∈ Z. Proof. R/I has no zero divisors.2 Examples. β = b + I (where a. An ideal M of R is called a maximal ideal if M ≠ R and there exist no proper ideals of R that strictly include M. This implies . (0) is also a maximal ideal and a prime ideal. Let I be a proper ideal of R. 1. for any x. then the ideal generated by p in Z. then p is a prime number. in other words. if pZ is a prime ideal. a) If p ∈ Z is a prime number. c) The ring R is a domain (has no zero divisors) if and only if (0) is a prime ideal. assume that R/I is a domain and let a. a) I is a prime ideal if and only if the factor ring R/I is a domain. 1. hence a + I = α = 0 + I or b + I = β = 0 + I. Indeed.3 Theorem. a ∈ I or b ∈ I. Conversely. let nZ be a maximal ideal. hence it is a prime. for some n ∈ Z. (0) is its only proper ideal. b ∈ R) be elements in R/I. This implies that nZ is maximal if and only if n is a prime number. Therefore. so ab ∈ I. nZ ⊆ mZ implies nZ = mZ or mZ = Z. b) An ideal I is maximal in the ring R iff I is a maximal element of the set (ordered by inclusion) of all proper ideals of R. Here is a useful characterization of maximal (respectively prime) ideals. xy ∈ P implies x ∈ P or y ∈ P. a) Let I be a prime ideal. m|n implies m ∼ n or m = 1. Then.

4 Corollary. 2. Any maximal ideal is a prime ideal. Thus. a commutative ring with identity. Algebras. Polynomial and monoid algebras We fix (R. Let α = a + I ≠ 0 + I. there exists x ∈ J. whence there exists i ∈ I such that 1 = rx + i. a ∈ I or b ∈ I. x + I ≠ 0 + I. Algebras. . Polynomial and monoid algebras 333 that (a + I)(b + I) = 0 + I. hence a ∉ I. for some i ∈ I and r ∈ R. It follows that 1 ∈ J ⇔ J = R. 1 + I = (ra + i) + I = ra + I = (r + I)(a + I).2. b) Suppose I is a maximal ideal in R. but not a field. 1 ∈ R is written i + ra. I + Ra = R. Thus. If R is a principal ideal domain and not a field. ! The converse is false: the ideal (X) of the ring Z[X] is prime and not maximal. so a + I is invertible.1. I + Ra. Then the ideal generated by I and a. includes strictly I. ·). ! 1. because the factor ring Z [ X ] ( X ) ≅ Z is a domain. x ∉ I. In particular. since I is maximal. 1 + I = (r + I)(x + I). so a + I = 0 + I or b + I = 0 + I.20) says that any proper ideal is included in some maximal ideal. For some r ∈ R. so x + I is invertible in R/I. Hence. the prime nonzero ideals are exactly the maximal ideals and they are the ideals generated by irreducible elements. We want to show that any nonzero element of R/I is invertible. Krull's Lemma (II. If R/I is a field and J is an ideal strictly including I. +.

and α : R → A is an identity preserving ring homomorphism such that α(R) ⊆ Cen(A). Recall that the center of the ring A. An R-algebra is a ring (A. ∀r ∈ R. b) Conversely. a) Let A be an associative R-algebra with identity element e. commutative) if the ring A has the corresponding property. such that. ∀r ∈ R. a ∈ A. ∀r ∈ R is an identity preserving ring homomorphism and α(r)a = aα(r). ! . if A is an associative ring with identity. ∀r ∈ R. α(R) ⊆ Cen(A)). +. For this type of algebras there is the following characterization (often taken as the definition): 2.2 Proposition. b) Exercise.1 Definition. If α(r)a = (re)a = r(ea) = ra = r(ae) = a(re) = aα(r). 2. ∀a ∈ A (in other words. We are interested in R-algebras that are associative and have an identity. which is simultaneously an R-module. Also. ∀b ∈ A} Cen(A) is a subring of A (easy exercise). Then the function α : R → A defined by α(r) := re. then A is an R-algebra if we define the R-module multiplication by ra := α(r)a. b ∈ A: r(ab) = (ra)b = a(rb).334 Appendices The R-algebra A is called associative (respectively with identity. α is an identity r ∈ R. then. α(1) = 1e = e (since A is an R-module). is the set of all elements in A that commute with any element: Cen(A) := {a ∈ A | ab = ba. ∀a. a) If r. Thus. ∀a ∈ A. by definition: α(r + s) = (r + s)e = re + se = α(r) + α(s) preserving ring homomorphism. s ∈ R. Cen(A). Proof. α(r)α(s) = (re)(se) = r(e(se)) = r(se) = (rs)e = α(rs). ·) (not necessarily associative or having an identity).

Naturally. The homomorphism α : R → A in the proposition above us called the structural homomorphism of the associative R-algebra with identity A. see the corresponding property for rings or for modules). a ring A can have several different R-algebra structures (corresponding to different structural homomorphisms). Which are the structural homomorphisms (equivalently.5 Definition. This allows to define. Algebras. respectively β. are the structural homomorphisms. ∀a ∈ C ⇒ ra ∈ C. the subalgebra generated by S as the intersection of all subalgebras of A that include S.2. we consider only associative algebras with identity. Polynomial and monoid algebras 335 2. It is immediate that the intersection of a family of subalgebras of A is still a subalgebra of A (for the proof. 2. a) The ring Mn(R) of all square matrices of type n×n with entries in R is an associative R-algebra with identity (noncommutative if n ≥ 2). A ring homomorphism ϕ : A → B that is simultaneously an R-module homomorphism is called an R-algebra homomorphism. In what follows. For commutative R-algebras. L is a K-algebra. then a ring homomorphism ϕ : A → B is an R-algebra homomorphism if and only if ϕ ◦α = β. given a subset S of A.4 Examples. If A and B are associative and have identities. If K ⊆ L is a field extension. the subalgebra generated by S is denoted by R[S] and it is the set of all .3 Remark. The structural homomorphism takes r ∈ R to the matrix having r on the diagonal and 0 elsewhere. and α. b) The polynomial ring R[X] is a commutative R-algebra. A subset C of the R-algebra A is called an R-subalgebra of A if C is a subring in A and also a submodule in R A: ∀r ∈ R. Let A and B be two R-algebras. which is the module structure) for these examples? 2.

336 Appendices polynomial expressions in the elements of S. IV. . This algebra is called the factor algebra of A relative to the ideal I. An ideal I of the ring A is also called an ideal of the R-algebra A. prop. where π : A → A/I is the canonical surjection. we obtain the construction of polynomial algebras (in a finite or infinite number of indeterminates). with coefficients in R (cf. 80 Called group algebra if G is a group. In particular. The product between g and h ∈ G (seen as elements in the basis of (G) (G) R ) is gh (element in the basis of R ). If ϕ : A → B is an R-algebra homomorphism. any ele(G) ment in R is written uniquely as a finite sum ∑ ag g . Recall that (G.14). ·) is a monoid (or a semigroup with identity) if the operation “·” is associative and has an identity element e.1. and that coincides with the multiplication in G for the elements of G. then ϕ(A) is a subalgebra of B. g∈ G where ag ∈ R. We fix a commutative ring with identity R and a monoid (G. this product extends by (G) linearity to any two elements of R : ⎛ ⎞ ⎛ ⎞ ⎜ ∑ a g g ⎟ ⋅ ⎜ ∑ bh h ⎟ = ∑ a g bh gh ⎠ ( g . We shall now describe the construction of the monoid algebra80 R[G]. More precisely. its structural homomorphism being π ◦α.h )∈ G×G ⎝ g∈ G ⎠ ⎝ h∈ G The rigorous construction is described in the sequel. then the factor ring A/I is canonically an R-algebra. ·). for any g ∈ G and supp(ag)G is finite. If I is an ideal of the R-algebra A. The idea is the follow(G) ing: we define on R (the free R-module on the set G) a multiplication law that is associative and distributive.

R[G] is an R-module. then (ϕ ·ψ)(g) = 0.2. a finite set. R[X]. (ϕ +ψ)(g) := ϕ(g) +ψ (g) (ϕ ·ψ)(g) := ( u . We have: supp(ϕ +ψ) ⊆ supp(ϕ) ∪ supp(ψ). ∀r ∈ R. We must also show that ϕ +ψ and ϕ ·ψ have finite support. (r ·ϕ)(g) := rϕ(g). Define R[G] := {ϕ : G → R | supp(ϕ) is finite}. Indeed. 2. ∀ϕ ∈ R[G]. We define on R[G] the following operations: ∀ϕ. supp(ϕψ) is included in {uv | u ∈ supp(ϕ) and v ∈ supp(ψ)}. namely the free R-module of basis G (if we disregard the multiplication in R[G]). which is finite. Therefore. Algebras. Polynomial and monoid algebras 337 The support of a function ϕ : G → R is the set supp(ϕ) := {g ∈ G | ϕ(g) ≠ 0}. "+" and " · " are correctly defined and are composition laws on R[G].v )∈G×G uv = g ∑ϕ (u )ψ (v ) . So.v) ∈ G×G such that ϕ(u)ψ(v) ≠ 0 is included in supp(ϕ)×supp(ψ). A function in R[G] is called a function of finite support. the set of all (u. For ϕ ·ψ: if g ∈ G \ {uv |u ∈ supp(ϕ) and v ∈ supp(ψ)}. since all terms in the sum in the definition are zero.1 Remark. which is finite. It is not as obvious that ϕ ·ψ is correctly defined: we must show that the sum defining ϕ ·ψ has a finite number of nonzero terms. ψ ∈ R[G]. ∀g ∈ G. The reader is encouraged to verify that if - . We define an external operation "·" : R × R[G] → R[G]. Endowed with these operations. The first equality clearly defines a function ϕ +ψ : G → R. ∀g ∈ G. The construction we described generalizes (and is inspired from) the usual construction of the polynomial ring in one indeterminate over R.

.v )∈G ⎟ uv = g ⎝ st =u stv = g ⎠ Computing (ϕ(ψη))(g). ·) is an associative ring with identity. ! It is necessary to show that this construction satisfies the demands stated at the beginning of this section and. ψr ∈ R[G]. ⎩ r. R[G] is an R-algebra of structural homomorphism i). then R[G] is exactly the ring R[X].v )∈G 2 uv = g ⎛ ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ∑ 2 ⎜ ∑ϕ2 (s )ψ (t ) ⎟η (v ) = ∑ϕ3(s )ψ (t )η (v ) . ψ.t )∈G ( s .t . is an injective ring homomorphism. ∀r ∈ R. we obtain the same thing. if h = g ⎧0. if h = e It is clear that ηg. ((ϕψ )η )(g ) = ∑ (ϕψ )(u )η (v ) = (u .v )∈G ⎜ ( s . we define the following elements in R[G]: ⎧0. if h ≠ e ∀r ∈ R. a) The function i : R → R[G]. if h ≠ g ∀g ∈ G. The existence of neutral elements for addition and multiplication is proven below. +). To this end. Furthermore. ∀h ∈ G. + . That entitles us to write r instead of ψr (identifying r ∈ R with its image ψr ∈ R[G]). given by i(r) = ψr. 2. ·) is (N. ∀r ∈ R. the additive monoid of the natural numbers. The other ring axioms are left to the reader. ∀ g ∈ G. η ∈ R[G] and let g ∈ G. Let ϕ. ∀h ∈ G.2 Proposition. Proof. ⎩1. (R[G]. We check the associativity of multiplication.338 Appendices (G. define ψr : G → R by ψ r ( h ) = ⎨ . ( u . so (ϕψ)η = ϕ(ψη). Im i is included in the center of R[G] (so. define ηg : G → R by η g ( h ) = ⎨ .3 Proposition. We also have: 2.

We write g instead of ηg (identifying g ∈ G with its image ηg ∈ R[G]). is an injective monoid homomorphism. if h = g d) Any element ϕ ∈ R[G] is written as a finite sum: ϕ = ∑ψ ϕ ( g )η g = ∑ a g g . x ≠ gh. for any couuv =g ψ r (u )ψ s (v ) = 0. then ag = bg. v) ∈ G×G such that uv = g. we obtain ψr·ψs(g) = ∑ψ r (u )ψ s (v ) . ·). if g ≠ e. ∀g. b) The injectivity is easy. Therefore. Computing ψr·ψs. ηg is identified with g and g∈ G ∑ ag g = ∑ bg g . Proof. e) The zero of the ring R[G] (the neutral element for addition) is ψ0 (written as a sum of the type ∑ a g g as the sum with one term 0e). Also. ⎧0. ϕ(g) is denoted ag. In conclusion. ple (u. Algebras. g ∈ supp (ϕ ) g∈ supp (ϕ ) support). ⎩ r. g∈G The identity of the ring R[G] (the neutral element for multiplication) is ηe = 1e. h ∈ G and any r ∈ R. a) It is evident that ψr + s = ψr + ψs. The injectivity is clear. Also. If g ≠ e. ∀g ∈ G. For any x ∈ G. ψr·ψs = ψrs. ∀r. so (ψr·ψs)(e) = ψr(e)·ψs(e) = rs. then. where (ag)g ∈ G and g∈ G (bg)g ∈ G have finite support. since uv = x ≠ gh imuv =x plies u ≠ g or v ≠ h. j(g) = ηg. if h ≠ g c) For any g. then (ψr·ψs)(g) = 0. h ∈ G. ψϕ(g) is identified with ag = ϕ(g). . (ψr·ηg)(h) = ⎨ . We prove that ηgηh =ηgh. Polynomial and monoid algebras 339 b) The function j : G → (R[G]. s ∈ R.2. for any g ∈ G (thus (ag)g ∈ G has finite The writing of ϕ is unique: if In the second sum. ∀g ∈ G. (ηgηh)(x) = ∑η g (u )ηh (v ) = 0. (ηgηh)(gh) = 1. we have u ≠ e or v ≠ e.

∑g∈G agg = 0 ⇔ ag = 0. ⎧0. we have ⎛ ⎞ ⎜ ∑ ag g ⎟ ( h ) = ∑ ψ ϕ ( g )η g g∈ supp(ϕ ) ⎝ g∈ suppϕ ⎠ ( ) ( h ) = ⎨ϕ ( h ) . ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ ⎠ ⎠ g∈ G ⎝ uv = g ⎠ ⎝ g∈ G ⎝ g∈ G of R having finite support. Therefore: ⎞ ⎞ ⎛ ⎞ ⎛ ⎛ ⎜ ∑ a g g ⎟ ⋅ ⎜ ∑ bg g ⎟ = ∑ ⎜ ∑ (au bv ) ⎟ g . by c). R[G] meets the conditions stated in the introduction. also. ηgηe = ηge = ηg = ηeηg. R[G] is isomorphic to the free R-module of basis G. ∀g ∈ G. The general case is proven using d) and the distributivity. . Any element of R[G] is written uniquely ∑g∈G agg. if h ≠ g . ⎞ ⎛ The uniqueness ensues from ⎜ ∑ a g g ⎟(h ) = ah .340 Appendices c) Exercise. a) By construction. ∀h ∈ G. if h ∉ supp (ϕ ) . The addition obeys the rule ∑g∈G agg + ∑g∈G bgg = ∑g∈G (ag + bg)g. d) For any h ∈ G. as We used in the last equality that (ψ ϕ ( g )η g ) ( h ) = ⎨ ⎩ϕ ( g ) . In particular.4 Remarks. The elements of R[G] can be seen as “formal” finite sums of the form ∑g∈G agg. For any g ∈ G. ! 2. where (ag)g∈G is a family of elements (left and right) distributive relative to addition and obeys the rule (1·g)·(1·h) = 1·(gh). ⎟ ⎜ ⎠ ⎝ g∈ G e) We show that ηe is the identity of the ring R[G]. We can identify a ∈ R with the sum with one term a·e. if h ∈ supp (ϕ ) = ϕ ( h ) ⎩ ⎧0. we can identify g ∈ G with 1·g. if h = g seen at c). the sums being always finite. the multiplication is Thus.

81 n (j1. For each i ∈ {1. …. I. The classical polynomial algebras. Setting Denoting η1 by X. where the addition is defined component-wise: (i1. Algebras. +). let n ei := (0. Since ηiηj = ηi + j.2. II. one obtains the usual form: f = ∑i∈N ai X = a0 + a1 X + … + an X i n where n = max {i ∈ N | ai ≠ 0} is the degree of f. ∀i ∈ N. …. ∀(i1. Indeed. n . If G is not commutative. We make the connection with the usual form of a polynomial. in) + (j1.…. Consider the commutative monoid (N . …. jn) ∈ N . an arbitrary element in R[N] is a function ϕ : N → R with finite ϕ(i) =: ai. i∈ N support (a sequence of elements of R with finite support). the general form of an element f in R[N] is i f = ∑ aiηi .0) ∈ N (1 on the i-th place. then R[G] is not commutative. n}. Polynomial and monoid algebras 341 b) If G is a commutative monoid. for any i. Often encountered terminologies are “unknown” or “variable” instead of “indeterminate”. …. …. …. n The R-algebra R[N ] is called the polynomial algebra in n n indeterminates81 with coefficients in R. For (G. ∀i ∈ N. then R[G] is also a commutative ring. An element of R[N ] is called a polynomial (in n indeterminates). in + jn). j ∈ N. ηi = (η1) . in). ·) = (N. as part b) of the proposition shows.…. +) (for a fixed n ∈ N*).1. one obtains the usual construction of the polynomial algebra in one indeterminate with coefficients in R. jn) := (i1 + j1. 0 elsewhere).

⎩1. where S is an arbitrary nonempty set. we replace the monoid (N . we see the elements of N ( S) ( S) n ( S) as “multi-indices” and ( S) use notations like i. if s ≠ t ( S) . ….up to a order of the terms n term. Xn]. A product of indeterminates (of the form X 11 … X nn ) is called a Any element in N is written uniquely . {e1.…. en} generate the monoid N ). define es ∈ N . j. Continuing the analogy with N .…. For any s ∈ S. The polynomial g is thus a sum of products between a nonzero elei ment of R and a term. ⎧0. if s = t ( S) es (t ) = ⎨ . +). The addition in the monoid N is defined naturally as follows: for any i. n The element ηei ∈ R[N ] is denoted by Xi and is called an indetermii i nate. ∀t ∈ S and let Xs be the element ηe s ∈ R[N ]. The previous construction can be generalized to the polynomial algebra in S indeterminates. The axioms of a commutative monoid are readily checked. If g is like above i and ai1…in ≠ 0. III. R[N ] is denoted usually by R[X1. Thus. (i + j)(s) = i(s) + j(s). is a family of elements in R.… . of the form ai1…in X 1i1 … X nn . +) with (N . with coefficients in R.342 Appendices n as a sum of ei's (in other words. having finite sup- n port. To n ( S) this end. The ( S) R-algebra R[N ] is called the polynomial algebra in S indeterminates with coefficients in R.in )∈' n ∑ i ai1…in X 1i1 … X nn .…. j ∈ N . i (1 ) ∈ 'n ( i1 . Any polynomial g ∈ R[N ] is then written uniquely as a finite sum: n g= where ( ai1…in ) i . n where N := { f : S → N | the support of f is finite}. ∀s ∈ S. g is a linear combination of terms. then ai1…in X 1i1 … X nn is called a monomial of g.

∀s ∈ S. …. An arbitrary polynomial f ∈ R[N ] has a s∈supp ( i ) unique writing as f = ∑ aiηi . then f= where 1 ( m1 . ·). (The universality property of the monoid algebra) Let (G. In other words. 2. there exists a unique homomorphism of R-algebras ϕ : R[G] → T such that ϕ ◦i = α and ϕ ◦j = β: j G⎯ ⎯→ R[G ] β ϕ T 82 For any m ∈ N and i ∈ R[N ].…. n 1 (the (am …m )(m . i. j : G → R[G] be the canonical mappings defined at 2. ηi = ∏ X sms . where F is a finite subset of N .3. The R-algebra R[N ] is usually denoted as R[(Xs)s∈S] or R[Xs]s∈S or R[X. any polynomial in S indeterminates is a polynomial ( S) in a finite set of indeterminates in S.2. ·) be a monoid and let i : R → R[G].5 Theorem.…. having finite support. j) has the following universality property: for any R-algebra T having the structural homomorphism α : R → T and any homomorphism of monoids β : G → (T. sn} (a finite subset of S). The triple (R[G]. mi is defined as (mi)(s) := m·i(s). Algebras. where (ms)s∈S s∈S 82 is a family of natural numbers indexed by S.mn )∈N ∑ n am1…mn X sm1 … X smn .m )∈N n the 1 sum n is finite family of elements of R n has finite support). S]. Polynomial and monoid algebras 343 Any element i ∈ N ( S) is written uniquely as i = ∑ ms e s . if i∈F ( S) ∪i∈F supp(i) =: {s1. (S) . ( S) Therefore.

δ) (where A is an R-algebra.…. γ : R → A is its structural homomorphism and δ : G → (A. Thus. ∀s ∈ S. ∀g ∈ G. S] → A such that evγ(Xs) = γ(s).…. i. Xn] → A such that eva(Xi) = ai. j). a) (The universality property of the polynomial algebra R[X]) For any a ∈ A there exists a unique R-algebra homomorphism eva : R[X] → A such that eva(X) = a. +) is generated by n elements). then there exists a unique R-algebra isomorphism ϕ : R[G] → A such that ϕi = γ and ϕj = δ (cf. . For any n-uple a = (a1.…. ∀r ∈ R and ϕ(g) = β(g). S]) Let S be a nonempty set. ∀i ∈ {1.…. ⎟ ⎠ g∈ G g∈G ⎞ which shows that ϕ is uniquely determined by α and β. using the remarkable fact that the monoid (N. n}. For the classical polynomial algebras. this theorem reads: 2. A direct check shows that ϕ given by the above is a ring homomorphism and satisfies the stated requirements. ! The universality property of the monoid algebra determines this algebra up to an unique isomorphism: if (A.6 Theorem. n Xn]) Let n ∈ N*. γ. c) (The universality property of the polynomial algebra R[X. Suppose ϕ is as stated. b) (The universality property of the polynomial algebra R[X1.344 Appendices Proof. Let A be an R-algebra. If ∑g∈G agg ∈ R[G]. ·) is a homomorphism of monoids) satisfies the same universality property as (R[G]. then ϕ⎜ ⎜ ⎛ ⎝ g∈ G ∑ a g g ⎟ = ∑ϕ (a g )ϕ ( g ) = ∑α (ag )β ( g ) . For any mapping γ : S → A there exists a unique R-algebra homomorphism evγ : R[X. 5. ϕ(r) = α(r).7). +) is generated by one element (respectively n (N .an) ∈ A there exists a unique R-algebra homomorphism eva : R[X1.

Nevertheless.S] → A such that vγ ◦j = β. in our case. and any (i1 . let eva( f ) = n i =0 ∑ bi a i n (usually called the value of f at a and denoted f (a)). The fact that eva is a homomorphism amounts to that. Algebras.…. ∀i ∈ N s∈supp ( i ) Applying the universality property of the monoid algebra ( S) R[N ] = R[X. …. (f·g)(a) = f(a)·g(a). S].in )∈N n a = (a1. ! .2. If v : R[N ] → A is an homomorphism defined above. a) For any f = i =0 ∑ bi X i ∈ R[X]. S] is the ( S) canonical mapping. j(es) = Xs. ∀f. ∀s ∈ S. c) The mapping γ induces a homomorphism of monoids i(s ) ( S) ( S) β : N → (A. we sketch a proof for every case. an) ∈ A . g ∈ R[X].…. where β is the Let us prove the uniqueness of evα. an). ∀s ∈ S. where j : N → R[X.… . vγ (Xs) = β(es) = γ(s). (f + g)(a) = f(a) + g(a). i b) For any f = ∑ bi1…in X 1i1 … X nn ∈ R[X1. then v◦j = β. β(i) = ∏ γ ( s ) . an ) = the value of f at a = (a1. Polynomial and monoid algebras 345 Proof. Xn]. The uniqueness part of the universality property implies v = evα. (i1 .in )∈Nn ∑ i i bi1…in a11 … ann .…. let n eva( f ) = f (a1. Of course. A standard check proves these familiar properties and the rest of the claims. there exists a unique R-algebra homomorphism evγ : R[X. ( S) Thus R-algebra homomorphism with v(Xs) = γ(s). ·). which is a particular case of c). a) follows from b). ….

yields a unique R-algebra homomorphism α : R[X1. Indeed. Xn−1] → R[X1.….6.7 Theorem.….…. 1 ≤ i ≤ n. Of course. Then there exists a canonical isomorphism of R-algebras: R[X1.….b): there exists a unique R-algebra homomorphism ϕ : R[X1.b) implies that βϕ = id. Xn]. and id : R[X1. Xn−1][Xn]. 2. β is also an R-algebra homomorphism. 1 ≤ i ≤ n. Xn] is an A-algebra with α its structural homomorphism.….…. is the following: 2. The previous theorem formalizes and gives a precise meaning to the procedure of assigning the values a1.….…. Similarly. Xn]. Let n ≥ 1. The universality property of the A-algebra A[Xn] shows that there exists a unique A-algebra homomorphism β : A[Xn] → R[X1. Xn].346 Appendices The homomorphism eva (respectively eva) above is called the evaluation homomorphism.…. For an arbitrary polynomial g ∈ R[X]. Xn−1]. with ϕ(Xi) = Xi. We have βϕ = id. Xn] ≅ R[X1. sometimes used to define them by recurrence on n. …. Xn−1]. Thus. n If aX is a monomial in R[X] (with a ≠ 0). Xn] → R[X1. 1 ≤ i ≤ n − 1. In what follows we discuss the important notion of degree of a polynomial. Let A := R[X1. The uniqueness part in 2. Xn] → R[X1.…. with α(Xi) = Xi. . Xn−1][Xn]. R[X1.….6.6. ϕβ = id.…. n is called the degree of n aX . Conversely. an to the indeterminates X1. such that β(Xn) = Xn. A useful property of the R-algebras R[X1.….b) applied to R[X1.…. Xn] → R[X1. Use 2.…. Xn. Proof. Xn] has the same properties. …. so ϕ is an ! isomorphism. βϕ : R[X1. Xn] is an R-algebra homomorphism such that βϕ(Xi) = Xi.

Xn] (where a ≠ 0). where an ≠ 0.…. the degree of g is the greatest degree of the monomials of g. h ∈ R[X1. denoted deg g. deg h). Usually. Algebras. The elements a0. a0 is called the constant term. then the polynomial g is called monic. and i nent of Xk in the monomial). Xk). the natural number n is called the degree of g. Thus. an is called the leading coefficient of g. Xn]. Xk). Sometimes deg 0 is not defined. If the leading coefficient an is 1. i 1 ≤ k ≤ n. unless otherwise specified. then its degree in Xk is deg ( aX 1i1 … X nn . deg (g. h ∈ R[X1. A polynomial whose monomials have all the same degree is called a homogeneous polynomial. Xn] is the largest total degree of its monomials. the “degree” of a polynomial in several indeterminates is its total degree. if R is a domain. Xk)). If R is a domain.…. Also: deg (g + h) ≤ max(deg g. Xn]. Xk) = deg (g. also denoted deg X k ( aX 1i1 … X nn ) . among these.…. Xk) ≤ max(deg (g. Polynomial and monoid algebras n 347 g = a0 + a1X + … + anX . …. then the degree in Xk satisfies the same relations as above: ∀g. deg (g + h. If R is a domain. For any g ∈ R[X1. then the degree is additive: ∀g.…. We define by convention deg 0 = −∞. Xn]. i i The total degree of the monomial aX 11 … X nn is i1 + … + in. deg (gh. X k ) := ik (the expo- i i If aX 11 … X nn is a monomial in R[X1. deg (gh) = deg g + deg h.….2. deg (h. the total degree of an arbitrary polynomial g ∈ R[X1. . an ∈ R are called the coefficients of the polynomial g. The total degree satisfies relations similar to the above. Xk) + deg (h. Xk) is the greatest degree in Xk of the monomials of g.

348

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3. Symmetric polynomials

Let R be a fixed commutative ring with identity. Let n ∈ N* and let σ ∈ Sn, the symmetric group of all permutations of n objects. Then R-algebras there exists a unique homomorphism of ϕσ : R[X1,…, Xn] → R[X1,…, Xn] such that ϕσ(Xi) = Xσ(i), ∀i = 1,…, n (see 2.6, the universality property of the polynomial R-algebra R[X1,…, Xn]). If g ∈ R[X1,…, Xn], then ϕσ(g) = g(Xσ(1),…, Xσ(n)). If R is a domain and K is its field of fractions, consider K(X1,…, Xn) (the field of fractions of the domain R[X1,…, Xn], called the field of rational fractions in the indeterminates X1,…, Xn with coefficients in K). Then ϕσ extends to a unique field homomorphism (denoted also ϕσ) ϕσ : K(X1,…, Xn) → K(X1,…, Xn). For any g, h ∈ R[X1,…, Xn], h ≠ 0, ϕσ(g/h) = ϕσ(g)/ϕσ(h).

3.1 Definition. Let g ∈ R[X1,…, Xn]. We call g a symmetric polynomial in R[X1,…, Xn] if, for any σ ∈ Sn, we have ϕσ(g) = g. If R is a domain and K is its field of fractions, a rational fraction g/h ∈ K(X1,…, Xn) is called symmetric if, for any σ ∈ Sn, ϕσ(g/h) = g/h. 3.2 Example. In R[X1, X2, X3], the following polynomials are symmetric: X1 + X2 + X3, X1 X2 X3, 2 2 2 2 2 2 X1 X 2 + X1 X 3 + X 2 X1 + X 2 X 3 + X 3 X1 + X 3 X 2 . The polynomial X1 + X2 is not symmetric in R[X1, X2, X3] (but it is symmetric in R[X1, X2]). 3.3 Remarks. a) Let S = {g ∈ R[X1,…, Xn] | ϕσ(g) = g, ∀σ ∈ Sn} be the set of symmetric polynomials. Then S is an R-subalgebra of R[X1,…, Xn]. For instance, if g, h ∈ S, then

3. Symmetric polynomials

349

The other conditions are checked similarly. It is easy to see that the symmetric rational fractions form a subfield in K(X1,…, Xn). i i b) If aX 11 … X nn is a monomial of the symmetric polynomial g,

i i then aX σ1 (1) … X σn( n ) is also a monomial of g, for any σ ∈ Sn.

ϕσ(g + h) = ϕσ(g) + ϕσ(h) = g + h, ∀σ ∈ Sn.

sk := ∑{∏i∈I Xi | I ⊆ {1, …, n}, |I| = k}. is called the fundamental (or elementary) symmetric polynomial of degree k in R[X1,…, Xn] .

3.4 Definition. Let n ∈ N* and let 0 ≤ k ≤ n. The polynomial

In other words, sk is the sum of all products of k distinct indeterminates chosen among {X1,…, Xn}; thus sk has n monomials. By k

()

convention, s0 = 1 and sk = 0 if k > n. The polynomial sk is homogeneous of degree k (indeed, all its monomials have degree k). Since sk obviously depends on the number of indeterminates, the notation sk(X1,…, Xn) is sometimes used to avoid confusions. For example, the fundamental symmetric polynomials in 4 indeterminates are: s0 = 1 s1 = X1 + X2 + X3 + X4 s2 = X1 X2 + X1 X3 + X1 X4 + X2 X3 + X2 X4 + X3 X4 s3 = X1 X2 X3 + X1 X2 X4 + X1 X3 X4 + X2 X3 X4 s4 = X1 X2 X3 X4 The fundamental symmetric polynomials appear in the relations between the coefficients of a polynomial and its roots (Viète's relations).

3.5 Theorem. a) Let n ∈ N* and let sk = sk(X1,…,Xn). R[X1,…, Xn][X] the following relation holds: n n−1 n−2 n (X − X1)…(X − Xn) = X − s1 X + s2 X − … + (−1) sn.

In

350

Appendices

b) If R is a subring of the domain S and n g = a0 + a1X + … + anX ∈ R[X] has the roots x1, …, xn ∈ S, then k ansk(x1, …, xn) = (–1) an − k. Proof. a) Induction on n (exercise). b) There exists a unique R-algebra homomorphism ϕ : R[X1,…, Xn][X] → S[X] such that ϕ(Xi) = xi and ϕ(X) = X. We have, by a): ϕ(an(X − X1)…(X − Xn)) = an(X − x1)…(X − xn) = n n−1 n−2 n an(X − s1 X + s2 X − … + (−1) sn). But an(X − x1)…(X − xn) = g (in the field of fractions K of S, these polynomials have the same roots and the same leading coefficient). ! The relations follow by identifying the coefficients.

3.6 Theorem. (The fundamental theorem of symmetric polynomials) Let g be a symmetric polynomial in R[X1,…, Xn]. Then g is a polynomial of the fundamental symmetric polynomials: there exists a unique polynomial h ∈ R[X1,…, Xn] such that g = h(s1, …, sn). In other words, denoting by S the R-subalgebra of symmetric polynomials in R[X1,…, Xn], the unique R-algebra homomorphism ψ : R[X1,…, Xn] → S with ψ(Xi) = si (for 1 ≤ i ≤ n) is an isomorphism. i i Proof. Let T := {X 11 … X nn (i1,…, in ) ∈ N n } be the set of all terms in R[X1,…, Xn]. Define a total order relation on T (the lexicographic ori k i der) by: X 11 … X nn ≤ X 1k1 … X n n ⇔ ∃r, 1 ≤ r ≤ n, such that it = kt, ∀t < r and ir ≤ kr. For instance, we have X1 > X2 >… > Xn and 2 1 < X 37 < X 2 X 32 < X 1 < X 1 X 2 . This order relation is total and it is compatible with term multiplication: ∀λ, µ, ν ∈ T, µ ≤ ν implies λµ ≤ λν (one can prove that it is the unique total order on T, compatible with multiplication, such that X1 > X2 >… > Xn). Moreover, T is well ordered by the lexicographic order (any nonempty subset of T has a smallest element), as the following lemma shows. Therefore, one can make induction proofs on this ordered set (as is this proof).

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351

The lexicographic order induces a preorder relation83, denoted also " ≤ ", on the set {aλ | λ ∈ T, a ∈ R, a ≠ 0} of all monomials in R[X1,…, Xn], by aλ ≤ bµ ⇔ λ ≤ µ. The proof of this is straightforward. If p ∈ R[X1,…, Xn], there exists a unique greatest monomial of p (with respect to the lexicographic preorder), called the leading monomial of p and denoted by lm(p). The following property holds: If p, q ∈ R[X1,…, Xn], such that lm(p) = aλ, lm(q) = bµ, where λ, µ ∈ T, a, b ∈ R and ab ≠ 0, then lm(pq) = lm(p)lm(q) = abλµ. Indeed, any monomial of pq is a sum of monomials of the form forma rα·sβ, where rα is a monomial of p and sβ is a monomial of q. But α ≤ λ and β ≤ µ, so αβ ≤ λβ ≤ λµ. Thus, abλµ = lm(pq). We proceed to the proof of the theorem. Let g be a symmetric i i polynomial and let lm(g) = aX 11 … X nn . Then i1 ≥ i2 ≥ …≥ in (if not, i i i i then there exists a k such that ik < ik+1, and aX 11 … X kk +1 X kk+1 … X nn is also a monomial in g, strictly greater than lm(g), contradiction). We want to find a polynomial p of the form as1j1 … snjn , such that lm(p) = lm(g). Using the above property, j j lm ( as1j1 … snjn ) = aX 1j1 ( X 1 X 2 ) 2 … ( X 1 … X n ) n This monomial equals lm(g) if and only if j1 + … + jn = i1, j2 + … + jn = i2, …, jn = in. Thus jn = in, jk = ik − ik + 1, for 1 ≤ k < n. The polynomial g1 := g − as1j1 … snjn is symmetric and lm(g1) < lm(g). If lm(g1) = 0, then g1 = 0 and we are finished. If lm(g1) ≠ 0, replace g by g1 and apply the procedure above. The algorithm terminates in a finite number of steps because any strictly decreasing sequence of terms must be finite, as the next lemma shows. This concludes the existence part of the proof. Let us prove the uniqueness (or, equivalently, Kerψ = 0). Suppose there exists a nonzero polynomial p ∈ R[X1,…, Xn] such that

83

A relation that is reflexive and transitive, but not necessarily antisymmetric.

352

Appendices

ψ(p) = p(s1, …, sn) = 0. We claim that there exists a unique nonzero monomial λ of p such that lm(ψ(p)) = lm(λ(s1, …, sn)). Indeed, if i i α = X 11 … X nn and β = X 1j1 … X njn are distinct terms, then:

i i lm(α(s1, …, sn)) = X 11 +…+in … X nn ≠ X 1j1 +…+ jn … X njn = lm(β(s1, …, sn)).

Thus, there exists a unique nonzero monomial λ of p such that lm(λ(s1, …, sn)) = max {lm(α(s1, …, sn)) | α is a monomial of p}. Since p(s1, …, sn) = ∑{α(s1, …, sn) | α is a monomial of p}, we lm(p(s1, …, sn)) = lm(λ(s1, …, sn)) ≠ 0, contradicting that have p(s1, …, sn) = 0. !

3.7 Lemma. a) Let (A, ≤) and (B, ≤) be well ordered sets. Then A×B is well ordered by the (lexicographic) order defined as (a, b) ≤ (a', b') if and only if a < a' or (a = a' and b ≤ b'). b) In a well ordered set (A, ≤) there exist no infinite strictly decreasing sequences. c) For n ∈ N, the set Tn of the terms in R[X1,…, Xn] is well ordered by the lexicographic order (thus any strictly decreasing sequence of terms must be finite). Proof. a) Recall that the ordered set (A, ≤) is called well ordered if for any nonempty subset S of A, ∃α ∈ S such that α ≤ a, ∀a ∈ S (α is unique with this property and is called the smallest element of S. Thus, A is well ordered if any nonempty subset has a smallest element). Let ∅ ≠ S ⊆ A×B. Since S1 := {a ∈ A | ∃b ∈ B cu (a, b) ∈ S} ≠ ∅, and A is well ordered, there exists its smallest element α ∈ S1 (so, ∀(a, b) ∈ S, α ≤ a). Let S2 := {b ∈ B| (α, b) ∈ S}. There exists the smallest element β of S2. Then (α, β) is the smallest element of S: ∀(a, b) ∈ S, we have α < a (thus (α, β) < (a, b)) or α = a, in which case b ∈ S2, so β ≤ b. b) Let (an)n ≥ 1 be a decreasing sequence of elements in A. Then the set {an | n ≥ 1} has a smallest element ak. For any n ≥ k, we must have then ak ≤ an; since an ≤ ak (the sequence is decreasing), an = ak and the sequence is not strictly decreasing.

3. Symmetric polynomials

n

353

c) Induction on n. If n = 1, T1 = {X | n ∈ N} is isomorphic as an ordered set to (N, ≤), which is well ordered. If n > 1, then Tn, ordered lexicographically, is isomorphic to Tn−1 × T1 with the order defined as in a). By induction, Tn−1 is well ordered and, by a), Tn−1 × T1 is well ordered.

**The theorem 3.6 extends easily to symmetric rational fractions.
**

3.8 Corollary. (The fundamental theorem of the symmetric rational

**fractions) Let R be a domain and let K be its field of fractions. If p,
**

q ∈ R[X1,…, Xn], q ≠ 0, are such that p/q is a symmetric rational fractions, then there exist the polynomials f, g ∈ R[X1,…, Xn] such that p f ( s1 ,… , sn ) . In other words, the subfield of the rational symmet= q g ( s1 ,…, sn ) ric fractions of the field K(X1,…, Xn) is K(s1,…, sn).

Proof. If q is a symmetric polynomial, then p is symmetric, being the product q·(p/q) in the subfield of the symmetric rational fractions. From 3.6, it follows that p, q ∈ R[s1,…, sn]. If q is not symmetric, let s = ∏σ ∈Snϕσ(q). Then s is symmetric and p p ∏σ ≠id ϕσ (q ) = , q s

and we are in the conditions of the first case.

!

The symmetric polynomial tm := X 1m +…+ X nm ∈ R[X1,…, Xn] (m ∈ N) is expressible using the fundamental symmetric polynomials s1, …, sn. The following identities allow a recursive computation of tm as a polynomial of s1, …, sn.

3.9 Proposition. (Newton's identities) Let m ∈ N. In R[X1,…, Xn] the following relation holds: m−2 m−1 sm − 1 t1 + (−1) msm. tm = s1 tm − 1 − s2 tm − 2 + … + (−1)

354

Appendices

Proof. If m > n, the convention sk = 0 for k > n truncates the formula above (there are only n terms). Let r ≤ n and let (a1, …, ar) be an r-uple of natural numbers with a1 ≥ a2 ≥ … ≥ ar. Let s(a1, …, ar) be the unique symmetric polynomial a in R[X1,…, Xn] having the leading monomial X 1a1 X 2 2 … X rar . s(m, 0, …, 0) = X 1m +…+ X nm = tm, For instance, s(1, 1, 0, …, 0) = X1 X2 + X1 X3 + … = s2. To simplify notations, let 1i := (1, …, 1) (1 appears i times) and (a, 1i) := (a, 1, …, 1) (1 appears i times); also, we omit writing a sequence of 0's: s(m, 0, …, 0) = s(m), s(1, 1, 0, …, 0) = s(1, 1) = s2, s(1i, 0, …, 0) = s(1i) = si. The following relations can be verified easily: s1 tm − 1 = tm + s(m − 1, 1) s2 tm − 2 = s(m − 1, 1) + s(m − 2, 1, 1) s3 tm − 3 = s(m − 2, 1, 1) + s(m − 3, 1, 1, 1) … More generally, for any i ≤ min{m − 1, n}, si tm − i = s(m − i + 1,1i) + s(m − i,1i). If m ≤ n and i = m − 1, then sm − 1t1 = s(2,1m − 2) + msm. If m > n = i, then sn tm − n = s(m − n + 1,1n − 1). Newton's identities follow by using the relations above in the sum ∑1≤ i< m (−1)i−1si tm−i. !

**4. Rings and modules of fractions
**

The method of construction of the field Q from the domain Z generalizes naturally to any commutative ring R (although in general

and the product of two denominators is also a denominator. 0 cannot be one.3 Remark.2 (prove this!).2 Definition. n For example. t ∈ S ⇒ st ∈ S. It is thus natural to define a concept corresponding to the notion of “set of denominators”. On the set R × S = {(a. s) ∼ (b.t) ⇔ ta − sb = 0. Z \ 2Z. b) ∀s. Rings and modules of fractions 355 the result will not be a field). In what follows. s). there is no need that all nonzero elements in a ring R become invertible in some “extension” of R. For a given ring R and a multiplicatively closed set S ⊆ R. 4. s). (b. In the classic case of the construction of Q we have: R = Z. (b. A subset S of R is called a multiplicatively closed set (or a multiplicative set) if: a) 1 ∈ S. In this case the relation obtained coincides with the one in definition 4. {2 | n ∈ N} are multiplicatively closed sets in Z. t) ⇔ ∃u ∈ S such that u(ta − sb) = 0. (a. The reason for adopting the . Z \ {0}. s) ∼ (b. s) | a ∈ R. such that the images by ϕ of all elements in S are invertible in T (T is thus an R-algebra and ϕ is its structural homomorphism). we construct a ring T and a ring homomorphism ϕ : R → T.1 Definition. S = Z* and the following relation is used: ∀(a. all rings are commutative with identity and R denotes such a ring. b) 0 ∉ S. In Q. These conditions are natural for a “set of denominators”: 1 must be a denominator.4. define: (a. all nonzero elements in Z become invertible. t) ∈ R × S. t) ∈ R × S. 4. 4. s ∈ S} we define the relation: ∀(a. In many cases.

so (a.2 is to handle the more general case when the multiplicatively closed set S possibly contains zero divisors.u). s) a with respect to "∼" is denoted by or a/s and is called a fraction or a s quotient (of denominator s and numerator a). s) ∈ R × S. t) ∈ R × S | (b. (b. We obtain uwvta − uwvsb + svwub − svwtc = 0 ⇔ vwt(ua − sc) = 0. (b. having in mind the usual rules of addition and multiplication of fractions.u). t) ∼ (c. define: a b ta + sb + := s t st a b ab ⋅ := s t st . Let (a. 4.t) and (b. s) ∼ (c. t) ∼ (a. The relation " ∼ " is an equivalence relation on R × S.5 Definition.356 Appendices definition 4. t).t ∈ S. s ∈ S}. s). Proof. For any (a. s ts −1 We define on S R two operations. 4. s The factor set R × S/∼ (the set of all equivalence classes) is denoted by S R: It easy to see that −1 −1 S R := { a/s | a ∈ R. ∀a ∈ R. s). t) ∈ R × S. The equivalence class of (a. We prove only the transitivity. vwt ∈ S. w ∈ S such that v(ta − sb) = 0 and w(ub − tc) = 0. u) ∈ R × S such that (a. a ta = .4 Proposition. Thus: a = a/s = {(b. Let (a. s)}. s) ∼ (b. ! Since S is multiplicatively closed. Then ∃v. ∀s. Multiply the first equality by uw and the second by sv and add. (c.

∀s ∈ S). called the field of fractions (or field of quotients) of R. (b. ϕ(a) = a/1. ∀a ∈ R.4. ∀a ∈ R. We obtain vu((ta + sb)s't' − (t'a' + s'b')st) = 0. s). t') ∈ R × S. called the canonical homomorphism (thus S R is an R-algebra). In the important case when R is a domain and S = R \ {0}. Multiply the first of these equalities by tt'v and the second by ss'u and add them. s't'). 1 s 1 s 1 = = . −1 The ring S R is called the ring of fractions (or the ring of quotients) of R with respect to the multiplicatively closed set S. for this reason the condition 0 ∉ S is imposed in the definition of a multiplicatively closed set. s'). Indeed. Let u. −1 The elements 0 and 1 in S R are: 0 0 0 = = . ∀s ∈ S. the homomorphism ϕ is injective ⇔ S contains no zero divisors. t) ∼ (b'. Let (a. v ∈ S such that u(s'a − sa') = 0 and v(t'b − tb') = 0. t'). ! Note that any s ∈ S is taken by ϕ into an invertible element in −1 S R: ϕ(s) = s/1 has the inverse 1/s ∈ S R. s') and (b. Moreover. The rest of the proof (the multiplication is correctly defined. s) ∼ (a'. a/1 = 0/1 ⇔ ∃u ∈ S such that ua = 0. then S R is the zero ring (with only one element. −1 If 0 ∈ S. We check that the addition is correctly defined. 1 s −1 The mapping ϕ : R → S R. −1 −1 . We must show that (ta + sb. st) ∼ (t'a' + s'b'. such that (a. ∀s ∈ S. (b'. The operations defined above on S R are cor−1 rectly defined and S R becomes a commutative ring with identity. is a ring −1 homomorphism. Proof. t).6 Proposition. S R is a field. 0/1 = a/s. check−1 ing the axioms for the ring S R) is left to the reader. (a'. Rings and modules of fractions −1 357 4. and denoted Q(K).

Moreover. −1 ∀s ∈ S. The reader can easily verify that g is correctly defined. ! . that it is a ring homomorphism and it is the only one with γ = gϕ. a) The field of quotients of Z is Q. Xn] is denoted by K(X1. This fact is stated rigorously as follows: 4. with g ≠ 0. b) For any field K. …. namely: For any pair (γ. −1 More generally. the field of quotients of the polynomial ring K[X1. Its elements are “fractions” of the form . the field of quotients of the polynomial ring K[X] is denoted by K(X) and is called the field of rational fractions f with coefficients in K. such that γ(s) is invertible in T. c) The field of quotients of Z[X] is (isomorphic to) Q(X) (prove this!). Q(R) is the “smallest” field that “includes” R. …. −1 Proof.7 Example. Similarly. −1 the pair (ϕ. Then S R is a −1 commutative ring with identity and ϕ : R → S R is a ring −1 homomorphism such that ϕ(s) is invertible in S R. ∀s ∈ S. Define g(a/s) = γ(a)(γ(s)) .8 Theorem. g ∈ K[X]. S R) is universal relative to this property. (The universality property of the ring of fractions) −1 Let S be a multiplicatively closed subset of R. T) where T is a commutative ring with identity and γ : R → T is a ring homomorphism. ∀s ∈ S.358 Appendices 4. For any domain R. S R is the “smallest” ring that includes R (if S contains no zero divisors) such that all elements in S are invertible in −1 S R. there exists a unique ring homomorphism g : S R → T such that γ = gϕ. ∀a ∈ R. g where f. Xn) and is called the field of rational fractions in n indeterminates with coefficients in K.

we define on M × S the equivalence relation: ∀(a. the universality property of the ring of fractions determines the ring of fractions up to a (unique) isomorphism: 4. there exists a unique ring homomorphism g : B → T such that γ = gβ. 4. y ∈ M. Then the relation " ∼ " defined above is an x equivalence relation on M × S. the above property reads: For any commutative R-algebra (γ. In this setting.9 Theorem. t ∈ S. where γ : R → T is the structural homomorphism. there exists a unique R-algebra homomorphism g : S R → T. The above construction can be applied to an R-module M.2). Let S be a multiplicatively closed subset of R. s) ∼ (b. t) ⇔ ∃u ∈ S such that u(ta − sb) = 0 (cf. s) ∈ M × S and S M := ⎧ x ∈ M . . t) ∈ M × S. Assume B is a commutative ring with identity and β : R → B is a homomorphism satisfying the property: For any commutative ring with identity T and any ring homomorphism γ : R → T such that γ(s) is invertible in T. S M becomes an ⎨s ⎬ ⎩ ⎭ Abelian group with the addition: ∀x. ∀s. s ∈ S ⎫ .4. (b. As expected.10 Proposition. with minor modifications. −1 The following result is proven exactly like in the case of S R: 4. the canonical homomorphism ϕ being the structural homomorphism. Let M be an R-module and let S be a multiplicatively closed subset of R. Denoting by the equivalence class s −1 −1 x of (x. (a. such that γ(s) is invertible in T for any −1 s ∈ S. Rings and modules of fractions −1 359 The “complete” structure of S R is that of R-algebra. ∀s ∈ S. Given a multiplicatively closed subset S ⊆ R and an R-module M. Τ). s). −1 Then there exists a unique ring isomorphism h : S R → B such ! that hϕ = β.

is called the canonical homomorphism.11 Proposition. for some ideal I in R. S M is an S R-module with the multiplication defined by: ∀a ∈ R. ∀x ∈ M. t ∈ S. Then −1 S I := {a/s | a ∈ I. Evidently. s ∈ S} = J. The homo−1 morphism ϕM : M → S M. It is immediate that S I ≤ S R if I ≤ R. ! ⋅ := s t st The S R-module S M is called the module of fractions (or quotients) of M relative to the multiplicatively closed subset S. Moreover. ∃s ∈ S such that dr = s}. A multiplicatively closed subset S ⊆ R is called saturated if all the divisors of the elements in S are also in S: ∀s ∈ S. ϕM(x) = x/1.∀x ∈ M.360 Appendices x y tx + sy . If S is an arbitrary multiplicatively closed set. S is saturated ⇔ S = S'.12 Definition. r ∈ R. let −1 I := ϕ (J) (an ideal in R). If now J ≤ S R. −1 −1 −1 Proof. Then −1 S I = {a/s | a ∈ I. any ideal in −1 −1 S R is of the form S I. s ∈ S} is an ideal in S R. ∀s. ! −1 −1 −1 A similar connection exists between the submodules of M and the −1 submodules of S M (can you state and prove it?). The connection between the ideals of R and the ideals of the ring of fractions is very close. Thus ϕ (J) = {a ∈ R | ∃s ∈ S such that a/s ∈ J}. An immediate property is: 4. We have a/1 ∈ J ⇔ ∃s ∈ S such that −1 a/s ∈ J. . a x ax . S' is called the saturate of the multiplicative set S. dr = s implies d ∈ S and r ∈ S. ∀d. Let I be an ideal in the ring R. let S' := {d ∈ R | ∃r ∈ R. 4. + := s t st −1 −1 Moreover.

Then −1 S := R \ P is a multiplicative subset in R and the ring of fractions S R has a unique maximal ideal (it is a local ring). It is clear then that r ∈ S'. with p ∈ P. −1 Therefore. ϕ is a ring homomorphism. −1 −1 then s/1 ∈ S I and it is invertible.14 Proposition. Rings and modules of fractions 361 The following property says that the any ring of fractions can be constructed using a saturated multiplicative set. Indeed. so −1 −1 J ⊆ S P. the proper ideals −1 −1 of S R are of the form J = S I. with I ∩ S ≠ ∅. Then: a) S' is a saturated multiplicative set of R. s) ∼ (b. Clearly. But S P is a proper ideal: if 1/1 = p/s. d ∈ S'. Also. which means that S is multiplicatively −1 −1 closed. 4. The definition of a prime ideal can be stated as follows: for any a. s) in R × S' is denoted by −1 a//s ∈ S' R (in order to distinguish from the fraction a/s which may −1 −1 −1 be in S R). with a ∈ R. . s ∈ S. ∀a/s ∈ S R. Proof.4. b) We denote the equivalence relation on S' × R (defined as in 4. The definition is independent on the choice of the representatives a and s: if (a. Thus. But a//s = 0//1 ⇔ ∃u ∈ S' such that ua = 0. if s ∈ I ∩ S. Proof. Define the canonical mapping ϕ : S R → S' R. Let S be multiplicative set in the ring R. the equivalence class of (a. −1 −1 b) There exists a canonical isomorphism S R ≅ S' R. t). where I ∩ S = ∅ (⇔ I ⊆ P). t). i. ! An important example of a multiplicative set and its corresponding ring of fractions is the following: 4. then (a. so S I = R. a/s = 0/1. s) ≈ (b. ∃r ∈ R such that ur ∈ S and ura = 0. then there exists r ∈ R such that dr ∈ S.e. b ∉ P. Thus.13 Proposition. then ab ∉ P. Ker ϕ = {0/1}. We have −1 Ker ϕ = {a/s ∈ S R | a//s = 0//1}. −1 ϕ(a/s) = a//s. Let P be a prime ideal in the ring R. If I ≤ R. a) Check the definition. ϕ is surjective: if a//d ∈ S' R. then S I = S R.2) with ≈ . so a//d = ar//dr = ϕ(ar/dr).

4.Mod is exact: if the sequence A ⎯u B ⎯v C ⎯→ ⎯→ is exact in R-Mod. then we define the mapping −1 −1 −1 −1 S u : S M → S N. u2 : M → N. the con- . for a fixed multiplicatively closed subset S. ∀x ∈ M. contra−1 −1 dicting S = R \ P. ! If u : M → N is an R-module homomorphism. 5. S P is the unique maximal ideal in S R. we defined a functor: −1 −1 S − : R-Mod → S R-Mod. ∀s ∈ S. −1 −1 The unproven statements above are proposed as exercises. then the sequence −1 −1 ⎯u ⎯v S −1 A ⎯S ⎯→ B ⎯S⎯→ S −1C −1 ! is exact in S R. −1 Moreover. functors The category language is nowadays all-pervading throughout mathematics. where ϕM : M → S M and ϕN : N → S N are the canonical homomorphisms. −1 −1 S u is easily seen to be an S R-module homomorphism and it is −1 the unique S R-module homomorphism with the property that −1 −1 −1 (S u)◦ϕM = ϕN◦u. (S u)(x/s) := u(x)/s. Categories. Introduced in 1942 by MacLane and Eilenberg. S − is an additive functor: for any R-module homomorphisms u1.362 Appendices then ∃u ∈ S such that u(s − p) = 0 ⇒ us ∈ P ⇒ u ∈ P or s ∈ P. Thus.15 Proposition. Thus. −1 −1 −1 S (u1 + u2) = S u1 + S u2.Mod. The functor S − : R-Mod → S R.

The philosophy in the category theory is to study the class of all structures of a certain type (for instance the class of all rings) using the homomorphisms between these structures. .5. unifies (to a certain extent) and standardizes the language of mathematics. the familiar notion of group homomorphism. and ignoring the elements of these structures. One advantage of this approach is given by generality: a result that holds in any category is valid in the category of groups. Besides many results and clarifications brought in almost all areas of mathematics. or ring homomorphism). topological space etc). also. For instance. the category theory simplifies. In this theory. usually a natural notion of homomorphism arises (for example. Generalizing key properties of Z yields the concept of ring. and also in the category of topological spaces etc. A detailed presentation of category theory is to be found for instance in HERRLICH. This leads to the study of structures given by axioms (such as the structures of group. ring. The notion of class is introduced in the axiomatic set theory (in order to avoid the paradoxes generated by considering “very large sets”). the notion of set and the relation "∈" (“belongs to”) are primary notions (are undefined). from the abstract notion of integer one passes to the notion of set of integers Z (as a new object of study. For a certain type of structure. functors 363 cept of category marks a new step of abstraction in mathematics. endowed with a certain structure). STRECKER [1979]. Categories. field. all objects are sets. We present here some basic concepts on categories that are useful for a better understanding of several topics. Any element of a set is thus also a set. Before proceeding to the definition of a category. we briefly describe the concept of class.

the notion of class is a primary notion. if P(x) is a predicate. Of course. Roughly speaking. a (possibly empty) set HomC(A. If a is assumed to be a constant. namely y). The elements of HomC(A. ∧ and the quantifiers ∀ and ∃. B) are called morphisms (or arrows) from A to B. Instead of writing "P(x) is true" one writes "x ∈ P". then this expression is a predicate (it has one free variable. . A is the domain (or source) and B is ⎯→ In the Gödel-Bernays-von Neumann theory. The sets are exactly the classes that are elements of some class. defined by the predicates P(x) and Q(x). the class P defined by P(x) is intuitively the “collection” of all objects (i. by analogy with the set language. B) is given. defined by the predicate "x = x"). The fact that u ∈ HomC(A. Any set A is a class (corresponding to the predicate "x ∈ A"). B). We say that P ⊆ Q if the proposition ∀x(P(x) → Q(x)) is true. ¬. their union P ∪ Q is the class P(x) ∨ Q(x). see 5. where A. A category C consists of the following data: . their intersection P ∩ Q is the class P(x) ∧ Q(x).1 Definition. a predicate with one variable). it consists of expressions (strings of symbols) formed from the atomic expressions (of the type x = y or x ∈ y) by using the logical operators ∨. B) is also written u : A → B or A ⎯u B . An expression with no free variables is a proposition. in which x and z are bound variables and y is a free variable. If P and Q are classes. For details.364 Appendices Formally. 85 We do not define here this formal language. Similarly. (in the Zermelo-Fraenkel theory84) a class is an expression of the formal language of the set theory85 that contains exactly one free variable (in other words. The elements of Ob C are called the objects of the category C. the class of all sets. 84 .a class Ob C. one can define the analogue for classes of the usual set operations. sets) x for which P(x) is true. but there exist classes that are not sets (for instance. B ∈ Ob C. For instance "(∀x(x ∈ y))∧ (∃z(y = z)∨¬(z = a))" is an expression.for every couple (A.e.

B) is the set of all functions ϕ : A → B.u) is denoted by v◦u (or simply vu) and is called the composition of the morphisms v and u. B)| A. B. ∀B ∈ Ob C and ∀u : A → B. we have u◦1A = u and 1A◦v = v. w : C → D. D ∈ Ob C. C). C. If A and B are sets. 86 Formally. 2) The composition of morphisms is associative: ∀A. The composition of morphisms in Set is the usual function composition. HomSet(A. D ∈ Ob C and ∀u : A → B. there exists a morphism 1A : A → A (called the identity morphism of A) such that. B.86 . C. B) with values in HomC(A. D) = ∅. then j = j◦1A = 1A. it is the class defined by the predicate H(u) = "∃A∃B(A ∈ Ob C ∧ B ∈ Ob C ∧ u ∈ Hom(A. In any category C the following axioms must be satisfied: 1) Any morphism has a unique domain and a unique codomain: for any A. The class ∪{HomC(A. functors 365 the codomain (or sink) of u. we have w(uv) = (wu)v (denoted usually by wuv). 5. a) The category Set of all sets. Categories. (A. b) In the definition of a category. B)∩HomC(C. The identity morphism of A is the identity function of A. v : B → A. B) ≠ (C. B ∈ Ob C} is denoted Hom C and is called the class of the morphisms of the category C. Its objects are sets. C) of objects of C there exists a function defined on HomC(B. B))". 3) ∀A ∈ Ob C. 5.3 Examples. the morphisms are essential.5.for any triple (A. The notion of category can be defined using only the concept of morphism. .2 Remark. D) implies HomC(A. v : B → C. C)×HomC(A. a) The identity morphism of an object A is unique: if j: A → A is an identity morphism of A. One can identify an object A ∈ Ob C with its identity morphism 1A. B. The image of the couple (v.

the category of finite sets. ·) be a monoid (the operation is associative and has a neutral element). H) is the set of group homomorphisms from G to H. Define a category A. As in Set. H ∈ Ob Gr. The reader can easily produce other examples of categories. G) = G (the morphisms are the elements of G). b)}.Ringu: the rings with identity. b ∈ Ob A.Poset: the (partially) ordered sets. with Ob A := A. . if a ≤ b HomA(a. . b ∈ G is a·b (where · is the operation on G). . the category of fields. and the morphisms are R-module homomorphisms.366 Appendices e) Let (G.Ab: the Abelian groups. c) Let R be a ring with identity. the category of topologi- b) The category Gr of groups. Ob Gr is the class of groups and HomGr(G. the morphisms are ring homomorphism preserving the identity. else The reader is invited to define the composition of morphisms and check the axioms 1) − 3). The identity morphism is the identity element. d) Let (A. The category R-Mod has as objects left R-modules. with the usual composition. In the same way one defines the category Mod-R of right R-modules. based on hers/his mathematical background (the category of semigroups. the composition is the usual function composition. ≤) be a set equipped with a preorder relation (a transitive and reflexive relation). ∀G. d) One can define similarly the following categories: . Define a category G as follows: Ob G is a set with one element (for instance Ob G = {G}). set ⎧ {(a. the composition of the morphisms a. and HomG(G. the morphisms being the order preserving mappings.Ring: the rings with the ring homomorphisms. with the group homomorphisms . For any a. b) = ⎨ ⎩ ∅.

B). HomC(A. HomC(A. functors 367 cal spaces. 5. A category C is called a subcategory of a category D if Ob C ⊆ Ob D and. |HomC(I. An object F is called a final object if ∀A ∈ C. b) A morphism u : A → B is called: . Gr is a subcategory of Set. Categories.a bimorphism if it is both a monomorphism and an epimorphism. the composition of two morphisms in C is their composition in D. A). if no confusion arises. uv = uw implies v = w. B) ⊆ HomD(A.a monomorphism if ∀C ∈ C. I)| = 1. ∀v.an isomorphism if there exists v : B → A such that uv = 1B and ~ vu = 1A (v is called then the inverse of u).5. a) An object I ∈ C is called an initial object if ∀A ∈ C. vu = wv implies v = w.an epimorphism if ∀C ∈ C.5 Definition. . but not a full subcategory. A)| = 1 (there exists a unique morphism I → A). |HomC(A. B ∈ Ob C. moreover. B). . . An object that is simultaneously initial and final is called a zero object. Often the writing A ∈ C replaces A ∈ Ob C. C). We call C a full subcategory of D if ∀A. In each situation it is necessary to state exactly the class of the objects of the category. For instance. Ab is a full subcategory of Gr.4 Definition. the set of morphisms between two arbitrary objects. . ∀A. w ∈ HomC(B. B) = HomD(A. ∀v. B ∈ Ob C. the continuous mapping being the morphisms etc. the composition of morphisms and check axioms 1)-3). 5. The notation A → B is used to denote an isomorphism.). We define now some remarkable objects and morphisms in a category C that generalize familiar concepts. w ∈ HomC(B.

d) In the category Ann of rings with identity. any set with one element is a final object. the inclusion Z → Q is a monomorphism and an epimorphism. B ∈ C are called isomorphic (written A ≅ B) if there exists an isomorphism A → B. namely the groups having one element (necessarily the neutral element of that group). Since A is an initial object. ϕ and ψ are isomorphisms. a) In Gr there exist initial objects.7 Proposition. Set has no zero objects. b) In Set the empty set ∅ is the only initial object87. there exists a unique morphism ϕ : A → B. there exists a unique function ∅ → A. . thus there exists a unique morphism ψ : B → A. Let C be a category and let a A. Which are the epimorphisms? In these categories the isomorphisms coincide with the bimorphisms. c) The monomorphisms in Set (as in Gr. and is not a surjective function or an isomorphism. Proof. ! It is important to point out that various “universality properties” that some objects satisfy are simply a restatement of the fact that those objects are initial (or final) objects in certain categories. But B is an initial object. 5. These are also final objects (thus they are zero objects) in Gr.368 Appendices Two objects A. B be initial ob~ jects in C. Likewise. namely the function ∅. Then there exists a unique isomorphism A → B. The same remark holds for Ab and R-Mod.6 Examples. The relation of isomorphism on the class Ob C is an equivalence relation. So. Ab. inverse to each other. the propositions of the type “the universality property of … determines … up to a unique isomorphism” merely translate for a spe87 For any set A. R-Mod) are the morphisms that are injective functions. The morphism ψϕ : A → A is equal to 1A (because there exists a unique morphism A → A). In this situation. 5. ϕψ = 1B.

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cific category the assertion “between any two initial (final) objects in a category there exists a unique isomorphism”.

5.8 Examples. a) The direct sum. Let (Mi)i∈I be a family of objects in R-Mod. Let S be the category whose objects are couples of the form (S, (σi)i∈I), where S ∈ R-Mod and σi : Mi → S are morphisms in R-Mod, ∀i ∈ I. If (S, (σi)i∈I), (T, (τi)i∈I) ∈ S, define the morphisms in S between these objects as the R-module homomorphisms ϕ : S → T such that ϕσi = τi, ∀i ∈ I. Check the axioms for a category and the following assertion: (S, (σi)i∈I) is a direct sum of the family (Mi)i∈I, of canonical injections (σi)i∈I, is tantamount to saying that (S, (σi)i∈I) is an initial object in S. b) The direct product. Let (Mi)i∈I be a family of objects in R-Mod. Then: (P, (πi)i∈I) is a direct product of the family (Mi)i∈I ⇔ (P, (πi)i∈I) is a final object in a certain category (describe it!).

**An important principle, often invoked, is the principle of duality.
**

5.9 Definition. If C is a category, the dual category C° is defined as follows: Ob C° := Ob C; if A ∈ Ob C, let A° be the object A seen in C°. For any A, B ∈ Ob C, let HomC°(B°, A°) := HomC(A, B). A morphism u : A → B in C is denoted u° : B° → A° in C°. The Composition in C° of the morphisms u° : B° → A° and v° : C° → B° is defined by u°v° := (vu)°, where vu is the composition of u : A → B and v : B → C in C. Evidently, there exists 1A° = (1A)°. Intuitively, the dual of the category C is obtained by “reversing the arrows” in C (and reversing the order of composing the arrows).

Let P be a statement formulated in terms of objects and morphisms. For each category C, one obtains a proposition, denoted P(C). Let P°

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be the dual statement (obtained from P by reversing the arrows and the order in composing the arrows)88. The principle of duality is the following: If P is valid in any category, then P° is valid in any category. Similarly, any notion (definition) in a category has a dual notion, obtained by reversing the arrows and the order in composing the arrows. A notion that coincides with its dual is called autodual.

5.10 Example. a) The dual of the notion of initial object is the notion of final object. b) The dual of the notion of monomorphism is the notion of epimorphism. c) The notion of isomorphism is autodual. d) We saw that: for any category C, any two initial objects in C (if any) are isomorphic. By dualization, one obtains (no new proof needed): for any category C, any two final objects in C (if any) are isomorphic.

**The intuitive concept of “morphism of categories” is the notion of functor.
**

5.11 Definition. Let C and D be categories. A covariant functor F from C to D, denoted F : C → D, is a couple F = (F', F"), where F' : Ob C → ObD, F": Hom C → Hom D, such that: (F1) ∀A, B ∈ Ob C, F"(HomC(A, B)) ⊆ HomD(F'(A), F'(B)); in other words, if u : A → B, then F"(u) : F'(A) → F'(B). (F2) F preserves the composition of morphisms: ∀A, B, C ∈ Ob C and ∀u : A → B, v : B → C, then F"(v◦u) = F"(v)◦F"(u). (F3) F preserves the identity morphisms: ∀A ∈ C, F"(1A) = 1F"(A).

88

in other words, P°(C) is the same thing as P(C°) interpreted in C.

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A contravariant functor F : C → D satisfies F3 and the duals of F1 and F2: (F1*) F"(HomC(A, B)) ⊆ HomD(F'(B), F'(A)), ∀A, B ∈ Ob C. (F2*) ∀A, B, C ∈ Ob C and ∀u : A → B, v : B → C, then F"(v◦u) = F"(u)◦F"(v). A contravariant functor “reverses the arrows”. A contravariant functor from C to D is the same as a covariant functor from C to D° (or from C° to D). This is the reason why the results on covariant functors transfer to contravariant functors. In what follows, “functor” means “covariant functor”. The distinction between the components F' and F" of the functor F is usually dropped, denoting F(A) instead of F'(A) and F(u) instead of F"(u). Besides, F is perfectly determined by F", its action on morphisms, cf. 5.2). A functor F : C → D is called: - faithful if ∀A, B ∈ C, FA,B : HomC(A, B) → HomD(FA, FB) is an injective function. - full if ∀A, B ∈ C, FA,B : HomC(A, B) → HomD(FA, FB) is a surjective function. - fully faithful if it is full and faithful. We are interested in categories in which the morphisms are functions between sets:

5.12 Definition. The category C is called concrete if there exists a covariant faithful functor F : C → Set.

The category Gr is concrete: define the functor U : Gr → Set, by associating to any group its underlying set89 and sending any group

89

group and · : G×G → G is the group operation. Thus, a function from a group (G, ·)

A group G is, formally, a couple (G, ·), where G is the underlying set of the

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Appendices

homomorphism u to u, seen as a function between the underlying sets. Then U is a faithful functor (which is not full). U is called a “forgetful functor”: it “forgets” the group structure. Similarly, Ab, Ring, R-mod are concrete categories (why?). In concrete categories there is a notion of free object on a set X (compare the following definition with the universality property of the free R-module on a set X ).

5.13 Definition. Let C be a concrete category and let F : C → Set be a covariant faithful functor. The object L in C is called free (relative to F) over the set X ⊆ F(L) if, for any A ∈ C and any function γ : X → F(A), there exists a unique morphism in C, g : L → A, such that F(g)|X = γ. If C is one of the categories Gr, Ab, R-mod, Ring, and F is the forgetful functor, the definition reads: L ∈ C is free over the set X ⊆ L if, for any object A ∈ C and any function γ : X → A, there exists a unique morphism in C, g : L → A, such that g|X = γ.

The following notion allows comparing two functors and is the analogue of the concept of homomorphism of algebraic structures.

5.14 Definition. Let F, G : C → D be covariant functors. A natural transformation (or a functor morphism) α : F → G is given if for any object A ∈ C, there exists a morphism in D, αA : F(A) → G(A), such that, for any u : A → B morphism in C, αB◦F(u) = G(u)◦αA, i.e. the following diagram (of morphisms in D) is commutative:

to a group (H, *) is not the same thing as a function between their underlying sets G and H. For this reason, Gr is not a subcategory of Set.

6. Solvable groups

373

F (u ) F ( A) ⎯⎯ ⎯ ⎯⎯→ F (B )

αA

αB

G (u ) G ( A) ⎯⎯ ⎯ ⎯⎯→ G (B ) If , for any A ∈ C, αA : F(A) → G(A) is an isomorphism in D, then α : F → G is called a natural isomorphism, in which case the functors F and G are called naturally isomorphic.

Many “canonical isomorphisms” in module theory (for instance) express the fact that there exists a natural isomorphism between some functors.

6. Solvable groups

The notion of solvable group is closely connected with the solvability by radicals of a polynomial. In what follows, (G, ·) is a group and its neutral element is denoted by 1. The trivial subgroup {1} is also denoted 1. The notation H ≤ G signifies “H is a subgroup of G”, and H . G means “H is a normal subgroup of G”.

6.1 Definition. The group G is called a solvable group if there exists a finite chain of subgroups of G: (S) 1 = G0 ≤ G1 ≤ … ≤ Gn = G, such that: i) Gi−1 . Gi, ∀i, 1 ≤ i ≤ n; ii) The factor groups Gi/Gi−1 are Abelian, ∀i, 1 ≤ i ≤ n.

374

Appendices

A chain of subgroups (S) that satisfies (i) is called a normal series of G.90 A chain (S) satisfying i) and ii) is called a solvable series of G. The number n is called the length of the series (S). The groups Gi/Gi−1 are called the factors of the normal series (S).

6.2 Examples. a) Any Abelian group is solvable. b) Let n ∈ N* and let Sn be the group of all permutations on n objects (also called the symmetric group on n objects). Let An be the alternating group on n objects, namely the subgroup of Sn formed by the even permutations. An is a subgroup of index 2 in Sn (it is the kernel of the sign homomorphism ε : Sn → {− 1, 1}), thus it is normal in Sn. The group S3 is solvable (and not Abelian!), a solvable series being 1 ≤ A3 ≤ S3. Indeed, A3 has 3 elements, so it is Abelian; A3 is normal in S3, and the factor S3/A3 is Abelian, since it has 2 elements. c) S4 is solvable. A solvable series is 1 ≤ V ≤ A4 ≤ S4, where V = {1, (12)(34), (13)(24), (14)(23)}91. Check the details! d) Any nonabelian simple group (i.e. having no proper normal subgroups) is not solvable.

**Before studying solvable groups, let us recall some elementary results in group theory.
**

6.3 Theorem. (The fundamental isomorphism theorem) Let ϕ : G → G' be a group homomorphism. Then there exists a canonical isomorphism G/Kerϕ ≅ Imϕ

xKerϕ & ϕ(x)

90

!

Some authors use in this case the term “subnormal” and call a “normal series” a chain (S) of normal subgroups of G. 91 V is also called the Klein group (the “Viergruppe”).

6. Solvable groups

375

6.4 Theorem. (Second isomorphism theorem) Let G be a group, let H and N be subgroups of G, such that N is a normal subgroup in the group (H, N) generated by H ∪ N in G. Then (H, N) = HN = {hn | h ∈ H, n ∈ N} = NH, N ∩ H . H and there is a canonical isomorphism HN/N ≅ H/(N ∩ H). !

**If H, N are subgroups of G satisfying the conditions in the previous theorem, HN or NH denotes the subgroup generated by H ∪ N.
**

6.5 Theorem. (Third isomorphism theorem) Let G be a group, let A and B be normal subgroups of G such that A ≤ B. Then B/A . G/A and there is a canonical isomorphism G A G ≅ . ! B A B 6.6 Proposition. (The modularity property) Let G be a group and let A, B, N be subgroups of G, such that N is normal and B ≤ A. Then ! A ∩(BN) = B ∩(AN). 6.7 Proposition. Let G be a group. a) If G is solvable, then each subgroup of G is solvable. b) If G is solvable, then each factor group of G is solvable. c) If H . G and H and G/H are solvable, then G is solvable. In other words, if 1 → H → G → F → 1, 92 is an exact sequence of groups and group homomorphisms, then G is solvable if and only if H and F are solvable.

The notion of exact sequence of groups and group homomorphisms is defined exactly as in the case of modules.

92

Fi. Hi and Hi/Hi−1 ≅ Imϕ ≤ Gi/Gi−1. The canonical homomorphism ϕ : Hi → Gi/Gi−1 (ϕ(x) = xGi−1. If 1 = H0 ≤ H1 ≤ … ≤ Hm = H is a solvable series for H. Gi −1 ( H ∩ Gi ) Gi −1 ( H ∩ Gi ) Gi −1 The last group is Abelian (it is a factor group of Gi/Gi−1). so Fi ≅ Gi/Ker (ϕ G ) = Gi/(H ∩ Gi) ≅ (GiH)/H. Gi and ϕ is surjective. a solvable series for G/H is of the form 1 = G0/H ≤ G1/H ≤ … ≤ Gn/H = G/H. Thus Hi−1 . Let ) = H ∩ Gi. Since Gi−1 . then 1 = H0 ≤ H1 ≤ … ≤ Hm = G0 ≤ G1 ≤ … ≤ Gn = G is a solvable series for G. We claim that 1 = H0 ≤ H1 ≤ … ≤ Hn = H is solvable series of H. which is Abelian. the second isomorphism theorems and the modularity property for H . with H ≤ G. If 1 = G0 ≤ G1 ≤ … ≤ Gn = G is a solvable series of G. G and Gi−1 ≤ Gi. Therefore: Fi GH H GH G (G H ) Gi Gi ≅ i ≅ i = i i −1 ≅ = (Gi −1H ) ∩ Gi Gi −1 ( H ∩ Gi ) Fi −1 Gi −1H H Gi −1H Gi −1H We used successively: the third. But: Gi Gi Gi −1 ≅ . Fix i. where G' ≤ G. c) Any subgroup of G/H is of the form G'/H. Fi−1 . Therefore. We claim that 1 = F0 ≤ F1 ≤ … ≤ Fn = F is a solvable H = Kerϕ. let Fi := ϕ(Gi). b) Let F be a factor group of G. where H = G0 ≤ G1 ≤ … ≤ Gn = G. There exists a surjective homomorphism ϕ : G → F. Then Ker (ϕ series of F. 1 ≤ i ≤ n. a) Let 1 = G0 ≤ G1 ≤ … ≤ Gn = G be a solvable series of G. let H≤G and let Hi := Gi ∩ H. Gi i We used the fundamental and the second isomorphism theorems.376 Appendices Proof. ! . ∀x ∈ Hi) has kernel Hi−1.

a group with the property above is solvable.6. As in the proof of prop. If |G| ≤ 3. Conversely. ·) is cyclic of order n. 6. A finite group is solvable if and only if it has a normal sequence whose factors are cyclic groups of prime orders.10 Lemma. Proof. If the series has length 2. Proof. The factor group G/H and H have orders less than |G|. Solvable groups 377 6. A finite Abelian group has a normal sequence whose factors are cyclic groups of prime orders. Assume first that (G. if not. there exists a n/d subgroup of order d (generated by x ). with cyclic factors of prime orders. . there exists a subgroup H of order p. Apply now an induction. as above. Proof. 6. Let G be a group.7.8 Proposition. If n is prime.9 Proposition. the induction hypothesis says that H and G/H have each a normal series with cyclic factors of prime orders. let G be finite solvable. We give a proof that does not use this result. gluing these series yields a solvable series of G. ! 6. which is essential in the theory of solvability by radicals. The definition of solvability implies the existence of a proper normal subgroup H of G such that H is solvable and G/H is Abelian. there exists H . ! The finite solvable groups have the following property. G such that H and G/H are solvable and the previous result applies. Of course. This is an easy consequence of the structure theorem of the Abelian finite groups. generated by x ∈ G. If G has a normal series whose factors are solvable groups. If G is Abelian. for any d dividing n. taking a prime divisor p of n. all is clear. Since H and G/H have orders less than |G|. Thus. Continue by induction on the length of the series. then G is solvable.c). we are finished. Assume now that G is not Abelian. We suppose the statement is true for any solvable group whose order is less than |G| and we prove for G. then use the following lemma.

a) If n ≤ 4. since 1∈ C(G)). x ≠ 1. In particular. n Proof. in the conjugacy classes formula (IV. (where S is a system of representatives of the conjugacy classes of G with at least 2 elements). 1 ≠ C(G) . whose order is less than |G|. Since C(G) is Abelian.3. whose order is a power of a prime p (such a group is called a p-group). |G| and [G : C(a)] are powers of p. the alternating subgroup An is simple (has no proper normal subgroups) and ! noncommutative. ! 6. If n = 1. and solvable. of orders less than |G|. Let G be a finite group. being often encountered in introductory Algebra texts (see for instance HUNGERFORD [1974]) 6. The proof is not included.12 Proposition. then the center of G. If n > 1.2.15. so |C(G)| is a multiple of p (and is nonzero. then Sn is not solvable. let x ∈ G. thus solvable. Using an induction argument. then G is cyclic.378 Appendices If G is not cyclic. we obtain that G/C(G) is solvable.11 Proposition. the solvable groups are exactly those in Example 6. More precisely. . so it is not solvable. Let |G| = p . Consequently. Indeed.e)). there exists a normal series of G whose factors are cyclic groups of order p. Apply an induction for C and G/C. Thus. Then G is solvable. we obtain that G is solvable. |G| = |C(G)| + ∑a∈S [G : C (a )] . then Sn is solvable. G and the factor group G/C(G) is still a p-group. ! The next proposition says that among the symmetric groups Sn. C(G) ≠ 1. b) If n ≥ 5. the cyclic subgroup C generated by x is not equal to G.

334 characteristic exponent. 226 algebraic integer ..........163 center of a ring ........... 223 alternating group.....................172 characteristic polynomial ..307 nondegenerate.....173 characteristic matrix .......................................................223 Chinese remainder theorem........ 370 B basis change matrix........................................................................................ 34 associated in divisibility ...................141 379 ...Index A adjoining elements to a field....................................... 104............371 dual............................................369 Cayley-Hamilton theorem .......... 189 algebraic generators ......... 133 arithmetically equivalent matrices121 arrow...........................................161 Chevalley theorem ...... 364 Artin-Schreier theorem ....... 177 algebraic closure (absolute) ....................................................................... 198 algebraic closure (relative) ........81 canonical surjection....... 334 algebra homomorphism ......................................................... 175 algebra .290 characteristic of a ring..... 178 algebrically independent (set)......................................................367 C canonical homomorphism ............. 302 ascending chain condition.......290 of a matrix .......161 of an endomorphism................................. 335 algebraic (element) ..........................307 bimorphism .........................75 canonical injections.................75 category..... 374 annihilator..................... 27 algebraic number ...........................................106 bilinear function ..............364 concrete ....................... 113 basis of a module.................... 12 autodual .....86 canonical projections..

...92 of modules...............123 endomorphism ....... 11............................................ 278 constructibile point ....................... 347 cokernel ............. 363 codomain .. 276 constructibile real number .... 26 conjugate elements ......165 eigenvector......... 86 cyclotomic extension.......................................................................47 element integral ... 90 complex of modules ..................................................... 356 determinant....... 181 of an extension................................................................................... 14 coproduct.................................................................. 172 degree of a polynomial ..........................306 duality .369 E eigenvalue .... 262 degree of an algebraic element.........85 of submodules .......................................90 direct summand.... 141 complement ...................................................165 Eisenstein criterion ...................320 divisibility ...............320 of an element..........11 domain .. 346................................ 347 constructibile complex number .............................................................................121 direct product of homomorphisms ...................81 of modules.......................... 96 comaximal ideals............................ 240 constant term .............................................147 elementary divisors (of a matrix) 154 elementary divisors (of an endomorphism) ..................................... 364 coefficient of a polynomial.................................. 291 determinant of an endomorphism162 diagonal matrix ................... 347 denominator.......83 direct sum of modules.....................52 elementary divisors .............90 discriminant of a polynomial .10 division with remainder theorem ... 277 content of a polynomial ..............................................................................................68 .......................................... 41 coordinates of an element in a basis .........380 class ... 175 composition of morphisms .................................. 235 conjugate extension ..............154 elementary transformations..... 364 dual of a group ............. 106 coprime............... 365 congruent modulo n..................................................................22 divisor ..... 213 cyclotomic polynomial ........................................... 214 D Dedekind's Lemma ........... 96 composite of fields ...

................. 267 Kummer ................... 346 exponent (of a group)............ 299 finite........... 23 Euclidian domain................................371 forgetful... 170 field generated by a set............ 314 simple..... 22 Euler phi function .......381 cyclic..... 97 external direct sum of modules........................................314 ......................................................233 Galois group of a polynomial.................. 348 field extension... 213 evaluation homomorphism .................. 367 Euclidian Algorithm ..................350 G Galois connections ........ 172 finitely generated ........................................371 plin.........371 covariant ......... 169 algebraically closed.... 221 extension....................................... 76......372 fundamental isomorphism theorem77 Fundamental Theorem of Algebra205 fundamental theorem of Galois Theory ........................................................... 170 Abelian..................................................................................................................109 free subset of a module ...............................................163 functor contravariant.................371 functor morphism ..........................233 of a polynomial...... 48 field............................. 198 of rational fractions ...................................... 314 purely transcendental .......................................233 Galois Field ........................................................................................................................................ 303 exponent of a group .................................. 303 n-radical ..... 187 cyclic..................266 fundamental theorem of symmetric polynomials ......................... 224 radical ....... 87 F factor algebra .............................210 Frobenius theorem.........................................................105 Frobenius endomorphism...........................................................372 fully faithful....356 free resolution .......................211 Galois group of a field extension ............................. 153 endomorphism ring..........172 formal derivative .................. 61 epimorphism ......................174 fixed field ..... 336 factorization algorithm.... 299 algebraic.....195 Fp 171 fraction ............................................. 175 transcendental ...............................................233 fixed subfield......................................370 fidel . 188 extension of a module................... 175 Galois.............

.......... 13 H Hilbert Satz 90............................................154 Invariant factors theorem ....................................................154 invariant factors (of an endomorphism) ......................................258 integer division theorem .............367 J Jordan canonical form of a matrix164 Jordan canonical matrix .18 isomorphism......... 14 GCD-domain .... 97 I ideal ....................................................................... K) .................... 12 GCD .................. 71 independent family of submodules90 indeterminate ..................................................90 invariant factors ................................26 integral domain ...171 proper .....................179 irreducible ...........156 K kernel ...... 300 additive version.303 additive...................................... 373 group of units .............308 L Lagrange interpolation polynomial54 ........152 inverse (of a morphism) ........................................ 15 general equation of degree n........157 Jordan cell................................................................................................................... 245 inseparable degree................................................. 301 homomorphism of module extensions ..............311 multiplicative ...............171 internal direct sum ...............367 Irr(x..... 14 group solvable................. 318 generic polynomial of degree n ......71 K-homomorphism ....... 365 image ............ 244 extension..................................................... 332 proper. R) ..................................................... 114 Gr 366 greatest common divisor.......44 integers modulo n.................................................................................. 332 prime.................171 Kummer Theory...... 275 inseparable element ..................................................................................131 invariant subspace.... 91 identity morphism........11 intermediate field ................. 342 initially constructibile point.................................................. 318 GL(n.....382 Gauss integers ..........................137 invariant factors (of a matrix) ................... 331 idempotent.................. 331 maximal . 20...............................

.............. 59 of fractions ................................. 63 linearly dependent....................373 natural transformation .45..... 105 linearly independent..... 121 elementary..........76...... 122 in Smith normal form.383 lattice .......................................................59 simple ................................. 367 morphism .................................................................................14 N natural isomorphism........... 105 Lüroth’s theorem ..............27........ 121 matrix companion of a polynomial ......................................... 14 leading coefficient ................................................................................................................................................................ 176 LCM .................................................................... 104................355 multiplicity of a root................................................71 monic polynomial..................................372 Newton's identities ................... 14 lexicographic order .............68 module isomorphism........................11 multiple root..................................................71 module homomorphism ........................347 monoid ......238 normal series ...................... 347 leading monomial ......336 monomial ............356 O object final .. 112 minimal polynomial...... 59 decomposable. 187 M matrix canonically diagonal ............. 351 least common multiple..................................... 179 minimal polynomial (of a matrix)154 minimal polynomial (of an endomorphism) .....................................................................367 ...................................... 360 right ...............................35 norm ............... 154 Mod-R ...342 monomorphism ........................ 106 indecomposable .......................................353 Noetherian ring ................................ 350 linear combination ........... 75 finitely generated .....................................................................................241 normal extension ......... 291 normal closure...374 numerator .......... 140 left .. 140 factor ......360 multiplicatively closed set......... 104................... 156 matrix of a homomorphism ..........45 multiplicative set .............................80 module automorphism............................................................... 65 free ...................355 saturated ................ 366 module .................................364 multiple . 194 mutually prime ....

................. 261 perfect field ............................................... 356 R rank of a free module ......244 extension ..244 separable closure............366 root multiple ........ 60 order ..........................................................384 free.............. 172 primitive element......................................... 349 homogeneous .....27 quaternion group ..... 349 fundamental symmetric .............. 54 prime ............28 R-Mod .......................................111 rational integers.... 378 PID ..............................................52 of quadratic integers............................................ 367 zero .................................................. 341 polynomial function ............ 347 monic ..........212 primitive ....... 18 prime field .......................... 31 polynomial elementary symmetric...............96 ...........177 root of unity ........................... 246 p-group ...................................194 root of a polynomial...... 22....................... 261 p-dimension............................. 13 p-submodule ........................... 255 Q quadratic integer .................................................................................. 41 principal ideal..........208 quaternions..............................22 resultant............... 254 purely inseparable closure ........................ 272 proper divisor .................. 130 P p-basis......................213 S separable element................................................................................................................................... skew field of ............... 367 object (in a category)..................................................... 364 opposite of a ring....253 separable degree.. 27 symmetric ................. 31 projective linear group.................................................245 polynomial ...........................................97 sequence of modules . 372 initial...... 133 purely inseparable..................................27 remainder ................................. 348 polynomial algebras .. 175 primitive polynomial ..........................................248 sequence...............194 simple........................................................................................96 exact ............................... 20 principal ideal domain .............................324 ring integrally closed ..207 quotient .............................................................................................

............. 67 minimal ...................................177 transcendental number ............................................................. 364 smallest element ........... 331 support..374 system of generators.............................................................................133 torsion-free module ...175 sum of ideals ..................... 335 subcategory... 183 splitting field..... 367 subextension ......................................229 transcendental (element) .......... 65 generated by a set....20....... 170 proper....162 transcendence basis ............................................... 170 submodule.. 64 maximal .......................................... 152 similar matrices...... 337 symmetric group ...152 u-invariant subspace....................13 universality property of the direct product ..........................................................152 unique factorization domain............ 374 source.............. 364 split epimorphism .........................................................385 semiexact .. 11 structural homomorphism (of an algebra) ............167 U UFD....... 45 sink .............................................................342 torsion module. 365 similar endomorphisms...... 63 subring generated by a set .........133 total degree............36 unit .............................................161 trace of an endomorphism ............ 100 split monomorphism .......... 96 Set ...........................................................................................................................................226 transcendence degree ....... 152 simple root .........................................64 T term ......................................................................................36 u-indecomposable space.......... 367 full....................................................... 335 subalgebra...............107 of the monoid algebra........82.............................. 100 splits.................................................................... 83 of the direct sum .......27.................. 100 split short exact sequence ................................... 62 cyclic..................... 291 trace of a matrix ................................ 314 solvable series...................................................................................85 of the free module................. 352 solvable by radicals......133 torsion submodule ....343 ........ 201 squarefree .347 trace......................... 67 proper...... 335 generated by a set.....................................................86............178 trigonable matrix .................................................................................... 171 subfield .........

...................................................... 358 U(R) .......... 344 of the ring of fractions .........219 well ordered ............................ 13 W Warning Theorem .....352 ..223 Wedderburn's Theorem.........386 of the polynomial algebra .................

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- RMO Solved Paper 2013 Mumbai Regionby geddam06108825
- Homological criterion for (non)containmentby Alexandra Seceleanu

- V.rings [Compatibility Mode]
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- Near Rings
- (Synthesis Lectures on Control and Mechatronics) Mathukumalli Vidyasagar-Control System Synthesis - A Factorization Approach, Part I (Synthesis Lectures on Control and Mechatronics)-Morgan & Claypool
- CSIR / NET Complete Information Brochure for Session 2014 15
- Some Remarks on Prime Submodules in Weak Co-Multiplication Modules
- RMO Solved Paper 2013 Mumbai Region
- Homological criterion for (non)containment
- Haruzo Hida-Hilbert Modular Forms and Iwasawa Theory (Oxford Mathematical Monographs)-Oxford University Press, USA (2006)
- 272
- ERT-SNSB
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- tmp31DF
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- 01-Introduction to Algorithms
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- Chapter 10
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