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Petroleum is not found in underground lakes or rivers, but it
exists within the void space of certain rocks.
Requirements for Commercial Oil Accumulations
Certain requirements must be fulfilled for a commercial
petroleum deposit to be present. These are
1. A source: material from which oil is formed
2. Porous and permeable beds (reservoir rocks) in which
the petroleum may migrate and accumulate after being
formed.
3. A trap: subsurface condition restricting further
movement of oil such that it may accumulate in
commercial quantities.
1
Source of Petroleum
Most geologists conclude that:
1. Petroleum originates from organic material, primarily
vegetable, which has been altered by heat, bacterial
action, pressure and other agents over long periods
of time.
2. Conditions favouring petroleum formation are found
only in sedimentary rocks.
3. The principal sediments generally considered as
probable source rocks are shales and limestones that
were originally muds under saline water.
2
Porous and Permeable Beds (Reservoir Rocks)
After its formation, petroleum may migrate from the
source rock into porous and permeable beds where it
accumulates and continues its migration until finally
trapped. The forces causing this migration are
1. Compaction of sediments as depth of burial increases.
2. Diastrophism: crustal movements causing pressure
differentials and consequent subsurface fluid
movements.
3. Capillary forces causing oil to be expelled from fine
pores by the preferential entry of water.
4. Gravity which promotes fluid segregation according to
density differences.
3
4
Porosity
Porosity is a measure of the void space within a rock
expressed as a fraction (or percentage) of the bulk volume
of rock
where φ = porosity
V
b
= bulk volume of rock
V
s
= net volume occupied by solid
V
p
= pore volume
Rock porosity can be classified as
1. Absolute porosity: total porosity of the rock,
regardless of whether or not the individual voids are
connected, and
2. Effective porosity: only that porosity due to voids
which are interconnected.
It is the effective porosity which is of interest to the oil
industry.
5
b
p
b
s b
V
V
V
V V
·
−
· φ
Geological porosity has been classified in two types:
1. Primary porosity (intergranular): Porosity formed at
the time sediment was deposited. The voids
contributing to this type are the spaces between
individual grains of the sediment.
2. Secondary porosity: Voids formed after the
sediment was deposited. Porosity of this type is
subdivided into three classes based on the
mechanism of formation.
i. Solution porosity: voids formed by the solution
of the more soluble portions of the rock in
percolating surface and subsurface waters
containing carbonic and other organic acids.
Voids of this origin may range from small vugs
to cavernous openings.
ii. Fractures, fissures and joints: voids of this
type are common in many sedimentary rocks and
6
are formed by structural failure of the rock
under loads caused by various diastrophism such
as folding and faulting. This form of porosity is
extremely hard to evaluate quantitatively due
to its irregularity.
iii. Dolomitization: This is a process by which
limestone (CaCO
3
) is transformed into dolomite
Ca Mg(CO
3
)
2
.
2CaCO
3
+ MgCl
2
CaMg(CO
3
)
2
+ CaCl
2
Dolomite is normally more porous than
limestone.
Typical Porosity Magnitude
Type of sedimentary rocks porosity
Clean, consolidated and reasonably uniform
sand
20%
Carboniferous rocks (limestone and dolomite) 6 – 8%
7
Quantitative Use of Porosity Data
Let us assume that porosity has been measured and may be
used to determine the quantity of fluid which may be stored
within the rock.
Consider a bulk volume of rock with a surface area of 1 acre
and a thickness of 1 foot. This constitutes the basic rock
volume measurement used in oil field calculations, an acre
foot.
It is a standard practice to express all liquid volumes in
terms of barrels (bbl). Conversion factors used are:
1 acre = 43,560 ft
2
1 acreft = 43,560 ft
3
1 bbl = 42 gal = 5.61 ft
3
1 acreft =
bbl 7758 =
61 . 5
560 , 43
Then the pore space within a rock,
V
p
(bbl/acreft) = 7758 x φ
where φ is the porosity of the rock
8
Oil in Place = N =
o o
B
) 7758
B
7758
w o
S  (1 S φ
·
φ
where N = tank oil in place, bbl/acreft
S
o
= Fraction of pore space occupied by
oil (the oil saturation)
S
w
= The water saturation
B
o
= The formation volume factor for the
oil at the reservoir pressure,
res. bbl/STB
The water within the pore is commonly called the connate
water.
The pore space is assumed to be occupied by oil and water
only and that no free gas is present. So the equation above
must be applied to the reservoir at or above the bubble
point and is generally used to compute the initial oil in place
(IOIP).
For the gas stored in a particular sand a similar expression
may be derived. The gas volume is commonly expressed in
terms of SCF or in MCF (thousands of standard cubic feet).
From the Gas Law
9
zT
PV
=
T
V P p
s
s s
where subscript, s, denotes standard conditions, z
s
= 1.0,
and is not shown. Then;
s
s
p s
zTP
PT
× V = G = V
where G is the standard gas volume contained in V
p
at
conditions P, T, z.
But: V
p
= 43,560φ (1Sw) ft
3
/acreft
T
s
= 460
0
+ 60
0
= 520
0
F
P
s
= 14.7 psia
Substituting of these values in the equation gives:
G = 43,560φ (1S
w
)x
zT
p
×
7 . 14
520
Or
ft  MCF/acre

zT
P ) S 1 ( 1540
G
w
φ
·
Reserve estimation
10
Any oil finding has to be interpretated in term of money or
in term of economic evaluation.
Initial Oil in Place (IOIP) has already being defined in term
of bbl/acre.ft. It can also be expressed as
Where A = area of reservoir in acre
h = height or thickness of reservoir in feet
φ = porosity in fraction
S
o
= oil saturation in fraction
B
o
= Oil formation volume factor, res bbl/STB
Only a portion of the IOIP that can be recovered. This
portion is known as the oil reserve.
Oil reserve is dependent on the recovery factor (RF).
Reserve = IOIP x RF
11
bbl
factor volume formation oil
saturation oil porosity reservoir of volume 7758
IOIP
× × ×
·
o
o
B
S Ah 7758
IOIP
× φ × ×
·
Permeability
Permeability is defined as a measure of a rock’s ability to
transmit fluids.
An empirical relationship was developed by a French
hydrologist Henry D’arcy who studied the flow of water
through unconsolidated sand.
This law in its differential form is:
where v = apparent flow velocity
µ = viscosity of the flowing fluid
dP/dL = pressure gradient in the direction of
the flow
k = permeability of the porous media
Consider the linear system of the figure below
12
(1)
dL
dP k
v
µ
− ·
q
1
P
1
dP
q
2
dL
L
The following assumptions are necessary to the
development of the basic flow equations:
1. Steady state flow conditions exists
2. The pore space of the rock is 100% saturated with
the flowing fluid. Under this restriction, k is the
absolute permeability.
3. The viscosity of the flowing fluid is constant.
4. Isothermal conditions prevail.
5. Flow is horizontal and linear.
6. Flow is laminar.
With these restrictions, let
where q = volumetric rate of flow of fluid
A = crosssectional area perpendicular to
flow direction
Case 1: Linear Incompressible Fluid Flow
Substitution of (2) into (1) gives
Separation of variables and insertion of the limits depicted
by the figure, gives
13
(2)
A
q
v ·
(3)
dL
dP k
A
q
µ
− ·
or
Unit for the above relationship is
If q = 1 cm
3
/s
A = 1 cm
2
µ = 1 centipoise
∆ P/L = 1 atmosphere/cm
then, k = 1 darcy
A permeability of one darcy is much higher than that
commonly found in reservoir rocks. Consequently, a more
common unit is the millidarcy, where
1 darcy = 1000 millidarcys
Case II: Linear Compressible Fluid Flow
14
∫ ∫
µ
− ·
2
1
P
P
L
0
dP
k
dL
A
q
(4)
L μ
) P P ( kA
= q
2 1
(5)
P Δ A
quL
= k
Consider the same linear system(referring to the box
figure), but the flowing fluid is now compressible.
Assuming that Boyle’s law is valid (z = 1)
P
1
q
1
= P
2
q
2
= constant
P.q =  2 2
q P = P
dL
dP
×
μ
kA
∫ ∫
µ
− ·
2
1
P
P
2
L
0
2
dP P
P
1
x
kA
dL q
From which
2
2
2
2
1
2
P
1
x
2
P P
x
L
kA
q
−
µ
·
Expressing the above equation in term of q
g
, the rate of gas
flow at the average pressure in the system is
P
1
x
2
P P
x
L
kA
q
2
2
2
1
g
−
µ
·
But
2
) P P )( P P (
2
P P
and ,
2
P P
P
2 1 2 1
2
2
2
1 2 1
− +
·
− +
·
Therefore
L
P kA
q
g
µ
∆
·
15
P
e
Which is exactly the same as equation (4).
An expression for the standard flow rate, qgas is obtained
from Charles’ Law:
f
2
2
2
1
f
2 2
s
gs s
T
1
) P P (
L 2
kA
T
q P
T
q P
−
µ
·
−
·
Where T
s
= 60
0
F (520
0
R)
P
s
= 1 atm
T
f
= flowing temperature
Thus,
s f
s
2
2
2
1
gs
P
1
x
T
T
x
L 2
) P P ( kA
q
µ
−
·
Case III: Radial Incompressible Fluid Flow
From the diffrential form of equation (1) with notation and
sign convention as applied to radial flow in the figure.
dr
dp
x
k
A
q
µ
·
16
q
r
e
P
w
q
q
r
w
q
But radial flow A = 2π rh
Where r = radius or distance from centre, cm
h = thickness of the bed, cm
Substitution of 2π rh for A and separation of variables
gives
∫ ∫
µ
π
·
e
w
e
w
P
P
r
r
dP
hk 2
r
dr
q
Which when integrated is
This is the basic expression for the steady state radial flow
of a liquid. The units are the same as previously defined.
Case IV: Radial Compressible Fluid Flow
The same manner as in case II, the radial equations for
gases may be obtained.
By Boyle’s Law
17
h
Where subscripts refer to position at which q is specified:
well, external boundary, etc.
Conversions to Practical Units
The standard units which define the darcy are useful in
laboratory calculations. For computations pertaining to
field problems it is more convenient to convert to practical
units by use of appropriate constant.
For example, convert
( )
( )
w e
w e
r / r ln
P P hk 2
q
µ
− π
·
to
( )
( )
w e
w e
r / r ln
P P Chk
q
µ
−
·
where h = ft, k = darcy, P
e
, P
w
= psia, µ = cp, q = bbl/day
Conversion factors needed: 1 bbl = 159,000 cm
3
1 ft = 30.48 cm
18
1 atm = 14.7 psi
Then:
day / s 600 , 3 x 24
bbl / cm 159,000
x bbl/day q
3
( )
( )
w e
w e
r / r ln
psi
atm
14.7
1
x psi P P k
ft
cm
30.48 x ft h 2
µ
]
]
]
−
,
`
.

π
·
or
) r / ln(r
) P hk(P
x
) 7 . 14 )( 000 , 159 (
) 48 . 30 )( 2 )( 3600 )( 24 (
q
w e
w e
µ
− π
·
) r ln(r
) P P ( hk 07 . 7
q
w e
w e
− µ
−
·
Typical permeability magnitude
In general, rocks having a permeability of 100 md or greater
are considered fairly permeable, while rocks with less than
50 md are considered tight.
Many productive limestone and dolomite matrices have
permeability below 1 md but due to the associated solution
cavities and fractures which contribute the bulk flow of the
flow capacity.
Current stimulation techniques of acidizing and hydraulic
fracturing allow commercial production to be obtained from
reservoir rocks once considered too tight to be of interest.
19
The oil and gas reservoirs in Malaysia are having
permeability between 50 to 2000 millidarcy.
Petroleum Traps
In order for petroleum to accumulate in commercial
quantities , it must, in its migration process, encounter a
subsurface rock condition which halts further migration and
causes the accumulation to take place.
Numerous systems of trap classification exist, such as:
1. Structural traps: those traps formed by
deformation of the earth’s crust by either
faulting or folding.
20
2. Stratigraphic traps: those traps formed by
changes in lithology, generally a disappearance of
the containing bed or porosity zone.
21
3. Combination traps: traps having both structural
and stratigraphic features.
22
A feature of all traps is the impermeable cap rock which
forms the top of the trap.
Subsurface Pressure
23
Oil is found in flank sands, upper beds
or the caprock
The elevated pressures encountered with depth are due to
one or both of the causes:
1. Hydrostatic pressure imposed by the weight of fluid
(predominantly water) which fills the voids of the
rocks above and/ or contiguous with the reservoir in
question.
2. Overburden pressure die to the weight of the rocks
and their fluid content existing above the reservoir.
It is more common to find subsurface pressures varying as
a linear function of depth with a gradient close to the
hydrostatic gradient of fresh to moderately saline water.
Departures from this behaviour, both higher or lower, are
considered abnormal.
The abnormally high pressures are more important as a
source of serious drilling and production hazards.
Magnitude of subsurface Pressure
24
Pressuredepth relationships are commonly spoken of in
terms of gradients. The hydrostatic gradient in fresh
water is 0.433 psi/ft of depth which is the quotient of 62.4
lb/ft
3
divided by 144 in
2
/ft
2
.
Since most subsurface waters are saline, it is common to
find the gradient to be more than 0.433 psi/ft.
Studies from 100 high pressure wells in TexasLouisiana
Gulf Coast showed a pressure gradient of 1.0 psi/ft.
This figure is commonly used and may be obtained by using
an average water saturated rock specific gravity 0f 2.3.
Hence the overburden gradient is
2.3 x 0.433 ≅ 1.0 psi/ft
Subsurface Temperature
25
The earth is assumed to contain a molten core, it is logical
to assume that temperature should increase with depth.
This temperaturedepth relationship is commonly a linear
function of the form:
T
D
= T
a
+ α D
Where T
D
= temperature of the reservoir at any depth, D
T
a
= average surface temperature
α = temperature gradient, degrees/100 ft
D = depth, hundreds of ft
A normal gradient seems to about 1.6
0
F/100 ft, although it
should be noted considerable variations occur in various
areas.
Several devices for measuring subsurface temperature are
available and will be discussed under temperature logging.
26
Source of Petroleum
Most geologists conclude that:
1.
Petroleum originates from organic material, primarily vegetable, which has been altered by heat, bacterial action, pressure and other agents over long periods of time.
2.
Conditions favouring petroleum formation are found only in sedimentary rocks.
3.
The principal sediments generally considered as probable source rocks are shales and limestones that were originally muds under saline water.
2
4. 3 . 2. Capillary forces causing oil to be expelled from fine pores by the preferential entry of water. Gravity which promotes fluid segregation according to density differences.Porous and Permeable Beds (Reservoir Rocks) After its formation. Diastrophism: crustal movements causing pressure differentials movements. Compaction of sediments as depth of burial increases. petroleum may migrate from the source rock into porous and permeable beds where it accumulates and continues its migration until finally trapped. The forces causing this migration are 1. and consequent subsurface fluid 3.
4 .
Porosity Porosity is a measure of the void space within a rock expressed as a fraction (or percentage) of the bulk volume of rock φ= Vb − Vs Vp = Vb Vb where φ = porosity Vb = bulk volume of rock Vs = net volume occupied by solid Vp = pore volume Rock porosity can be classified as 1. Effective porosity: only that porosity due to voids which are interconnected. Absolute porosity: total porosity of the rock. regardless of whether or not the individual voids are connected. 5 . and 2. It is the effective porosity which is of interest to the oil industry.
subdivided into three Voids formed after the Porosity of this type is classes based on the mechanism of formation. 2. i.Geological porosity has been classified in two types: 1. The voids contributing to this type are the spaces between individual grains of the sediment. Voids of this origin may range from small vugs to cavernous openings. Solution porosity: voids formed by the solution of the more soluble portions of the rock in percolating surface and subsurface waters containing carbonic and other organic acids. ii. Fractures. Primary porosity (intergranular): Porosity formed at the time sediment was deposited. fissures and joints: voids of this type are common in many sedimentary rocks and 6 . Secondary porosity: sediment was deposited.
Dolomitization: This is a process by which limestone (CaCO3) is transformed into dolomite Ca Mg(CO3)2.are formed by structural failure of the rock under loads caused by various diastrophism such as folding and faulting. This form of porosity is extremely hard to evaluate quantitatively due to its irregularity. is normally more porous than Typical Porosity Magnitude Type of sedimentary rocks Clean. 2CaCO3 + MgCl2 CaMg(CO3)2 + CaCl2 Dolomite limestone. consolidated and reasonably uniform sand Carboniferous rocks (limestone and dolomite) porosity 20% 6 – 8% 7 . iii.
61 ft3 1 acreft = 43. Vp (bbl/acreft) = 7758 x φ where φ is the porosity of the rock 8 . Conversion factors used are: 1 acre = 43.560 = 7758 bbl 5.61 Then the pore space within a rock. This constitutes the basic rock volume measurement used in oil field calculations.Quantitative Use of Porosity Data Let us assume that porosity has been measured and may be used to determine the quantity of fluid which may be stored within the rock. Consider a bulk volume of rock with a surface area of 1 acre and a thickness of 1 foot. It is a standard practice to express all liquid volumes in terms of barrels (bbl). an acrefoot.560 ft2 1 acreft = 43.560 ft3 1 bbl = 42 gal = 5.
Sw ) = Bo Bo N = tank oil in place. bbl/acreft So = Fraction of pore space occupied by oil (the oil saturation) Sw = The water saturation Bo = The formation volume factor for the oil at the reservoir pressure. bbl/STB The water within the pore is commonly called the connate water. For the gas stored in a particular sand a similar expression may be derived. The pore space is assumed to be occupied by oil and water only and that no free gas is present. The gas volume is commonly expressed in terms of SCF or in MCF (thousands of standard cubic feet).Oil in Place = N = where 7758 φ So 7758 φ (1 . So the equation above must be applied to the reservoir at or above the bubble point and is generally used to compute the initial oil in place (IOIP). res. From the Gas Law 9 .
But: Vp = 43.PVp P Vs s = Ts zT where subscript. denotes standard conditions. Vs = G = Vp × PTs zTPs where G is the standard gas volume contained in Vp at conditions P.560φ (1Sw) ft3/acreft Ts = 4600 + 600 = 5200F Ps = 14. T.0.S w )P MCF/acre.560φ (1Sw)x 14 . zs = 1.7 × zT Or G= 1540φ(1 . z.ft zT 520 p Reserve estimation 10 .7 psia Substituting of these values in the equation gives: G = 43. s. and is not shown. Then.
res bbl/STB Only a portion of the IOIP that can be recovered. Initial Oil in Place (IOIP) has already being defined in term of bbl/acre. Oil reserve is dependent on the recovery factor (RF).ft. Reserve = IOIP x RF 11 .Any oil finding has to be interpretated in term of money or in term of economic evaluation. This portion is known as the oil reserve. It can also be expressed as IOIP = 7758 × volume of reservoir × porosity × oil saturation oil formation volume factor bbl Where A = area of reservoir in acre IOIP = 7758× Ah × φ × So Bo h = height or thickness of reservoir in feet φ = porosity in fraction So = oil saturation in fraction Bo = Oil formation volume factor.
Permeability Permeability is defined as a measure of a rock’s ability to transmit fluids. This law in its differential form is: v=− k dP µ dL (1) where v = apparent flow velocity µ = viscosity of the flowing fluid dP/dL = pressure gradient in the direction of the flow k = permeability of the porous media Consider the linear system of the figure below dP P1 q1 L dL 12 q2 . An empirical relationship was developed by a French hydrologist Henry D’arcy who studied the flow of water through unconsolidated sand.
6. k is the absolute permeability.The following assumptions are necessary development of the basic flow equations: 1. Steady state flow conditions exists The pore space of the rock is 100% saturated with the flowing fluid. With these restrictions. Flow is laminar. 5. Isothermal conditions prevail. gives 13 . let v= q A (2) where q = volumetric rate of flow of fluid A = crosssectional area perpendicular to flow direction Case 1: Linear Incompressible Fluid Flow Substitution of (2) into (1) gives q k dP =− A µ dL (3) Separation of variables and insertion of the limits depicted by the figure. The viscosity of the flowing fluid is constant. to the 3. Under this restriction. 2. Flow is horizontal and linear. 4.
common unit is the millidarcy. k = 1 darcy A permeability of one darcy is much higher than that commonly found in reservoir rocks. where 1 darcy = 1000 millidarcys Consequently.q A ∫dL 0 L =− k µ ∫ P 2 P 1 d P q= kA(P P ) 1 2 μL (4) or k= quL AΔ P (5) Unit for the above relationship is If q = 1 cm3/s A = 1 cm2 µ = 1 centipoise ∆ P/L = 1 atmosphere/cm then. a more Case II: Linear Compressible Fluid Flow 14 .
q = q2 L 0 kA dP × P = P q2 2 μ dL ∫ dL = − µ kA x 1 P 2 ∫ P2 P 1 P dP From which q2 = kA P 2 − P 2 1 2 x 1 x µL 2 P 2 Expressing the above equation in term of qg. but the flowing fluid is now compressible. and 2 P 2 − P 2 (P + P )(P − P ) 1 2 = 1 2 1 2 2 2 Therefore qg = kA ∆P µL 15 . Assuming that Boyle’s law is valid (z = 1) P1q1 = P2q2 = constant P.Consider the same linear system(referring to the box figure). the rate of gas flow at the average pressure in the system is qg = kA P 2 − P 2 1 2 x 1 x µL 2 P But P +P P = 1 2 .
qgas is obtained from Charles’ Law: P qgs s Ts = P − q2 kA 1 2 = (P 2 − P 2 ) 1 2 Tf 2µL Tf Where Ts = 600F (5200R) Ps = 1 atm Tf = flowing temperature Thus. dp q k = x A µ dr q re q Pw rw q Pe q 16 . An expression for the standard flow rate.Which is exactly the same as equation (4). qgs kA(P 2 − P 2 ) Ts 1 1 2 = x x 2µL Tf Ps Case III: Radial Incompressible Fluid Flow From the diffrential form of equation (1) with notation and sign convention as applied to radial flow in the figure.
cm h = thickness of the bed. cm Substitution of 2π rh for A and separation of variables gives q ∫ re rw dr 2π hk = r µ ∫ Pe Pw dP Which when integrated is This is the basic expression for the steady state radial flow of a liquid. the radial equations for gases may be obtained. The units are the same as previously defined. By Boyle’s Law 17 . Case IV: Radial Compressible Fluid Flow The same manner as in case II.h But radial flow Where A = 2π rh r = radius or distance from centre.
48 cm 18 . etc. Pe. external boundary.000 cm3 1 ft = 30. µ = cp. Pw = psia. convert to where q= q= 2πhk( Pe − Pw ) µ ln( re / rw ) Chk( Pe − Pw ) µ ln( re / rw ) h = ft. k = darcy.Where subscripts refer to position at which q is specified: well. For example. For computations pertaining to field problems it is more convenient to convert to practical units by use of appropriate constant. Conversions to Practical Units The standard units which define the darcy are useful in laboratory calculations. q = bbl/day Conversion factors needed: 1 bbl = 159.
000 cm3 / bbl 24 x 3.600 s / day cm 1 atm 2πh ft x 30.7) µ ln(re / rw ) 7. Many productive limestone and dolomite matrices have permeability below 1 md but due to the associated solution cavities and fractures which contribute the bulk flow of the flow capacity.48 k ( Pe − P ) psi x w ft 14. 19 .7 psi = µ ln ( re / rw ) or q= q= (24)(3600 )(2π)(30.1 atm = 14. rocks having a permeability of 100 md or greater are considered fairly permeable. while rocks with less than 50 md are considered tight.000)(14. Current stimulation techniques of acidizing and hydraulic fracturing allow commercial production to be obtained from reservoir rocks once considered too tight to be of interest.48) hk(Pe − Pw ) x (159.07 hk (Pe − P ) w µ ln(re − rw ) Typical permeability magnitude In general.7 psi Then: q bbl/day x 159.
20 . Structural traps: those traps formed by deformation of the earth’s crust by either faulting or folding. Numerous systems of trap classification exist. such as: 1.The oil and gas reservoirs in Malaysia are having permeability between 50 to 2000 millidarcy. Petroleum Traps In order for petroleum to accumulate in commercial quantities . it must. encounter a subsurface rock condition which halts further migration and causes the accumulation to take place. in its migration process.
generally a disappearance of the containing bed or porosity zone.2. 21 . Stratigraphic traps: those traps formed by changes in lithology.
3. Combination traps: traps having both structural and stratigraphic features. 22 .
Oil is found in flank sands. Subsurface Pressure 23 . upper beds or the caprock A feature of all traps is the impermeable cap rock which forms the top of the trap.
The elevated pressures encountered with depth are due to one or both of the causes: 1. Hydrostatic pressure imposed by the weight of fluid (predominantly water) which fills the voids of the rocks above and/ or contiguous with the reservoir in question. 2. The abnormally high pressures are more important as a source of serious drilling and production hazards. both higher or lower. are considered abnormal. Departures from this behaviour. Overburden pressure die to the weight of the rocks and their fluid content existing above the reservoir. It is more common to find subsurface pressures varying as a linear function of depth with a gradient close to the hydrostatic gradient of fresh to moderately saline water. Magnitude of subsurface Pressure 24 .
433 psi/ft of depth which is the quotient of 62. The hydrostatic gradient in fresh water is 0.Pressuredepth relationships are commonly spoken of in terms of gradients. This figure is commonly used and may be obtained by using an average water saturated rock specific gravity 0f 2. Since most subsurface waters are saline. Hence the overburden gradient is 2. Studies from 100 high pressure wells in TexasLouisiana Gulf Coast showed a pressure gradient of 1.3 x 0.433 ≅ 1. it is common to find the gradient to be more than 0.3.4 lb/ft3 divided by 144 in2/ft2.0 psi/ft.433 psi/ft.0 psi/ft Subsurface Temperature 25 .
Several devices for measuring subsurface temperature are available and will be discussed under temperature logging. degrees/100 ft D = depth. hundreds of ft A normal gradient seems to about 1. it is logical to assume that temperature should increase with depth.60F/100 ft. D Ta = average surface temperature α = temperature gradient. although it should be noted considerable variations occur in various areas.The earth is assumed to contain a molten core. This temperaturedepth relationship is commonly a linear function of the form: TD = Ta + α D Where TD = temperature of the reservoir at any depth. 26 .
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