Julius Caesar

-William Shakespeare

Date Written: 1598-1599.
First Performance: Probably 1599 at the Globe Theatre.
First Printing: 1623 as part of the First Folio, the first authorized
collection of Shakespeare's plays.

JULIUS CAESAR,Triumphant general and political leader of Rome.
MARCUS BRUTUS,Roman senator and praetor who helps plan and carry out
Caesar's assassination.
MARCUS ANTONIUS,A member of the ruling triumvirate after the
assassination of Julius Caesar.
GAIUS CASSIUS LONGINUS,Clever and manipulative senator who
persuades Brutus to join the assassination conspiracy.
OCTAVIUS CAESAR,Grandnephew of Julius Caesar and a member of the
ruling triumvirate after the assassination of Julius Caesar.
MARCUS AEMILIUS LEPIDUS,A member of the ruling triumvirate after
the assassination of Julius Caesar.
CICERO, PUPLIUS:Roman senators.
PUBLIUS SERVILIUS CASCA,One of the leading conspirators against
Caesar.
CASCA, TREBONIUS, LIGARIUS, DECIUS BRUTUS, METELLUS CIMBER,
CINNA:Other Conspirators
FLAVIUS AND MARULLUS,Tribunes
ARTEMIDORUS: Teacher of rhetoric who attempts to warn Caesar that
Brutus, Cassius, and others have turned against him.
SOOTHSAYER,Seer who warns Caesar to beware of the ides of March.
LUCILIUS, TITINIUS, MESSALA, YOUNG CATO, VOLUMNIUS:Friends of
Brutus and Cassius.
VARRO, CLITUS, CLAUDIUS, STRATO, LUCIUS, DARDANIUS:Servants of
Brutus.
PINDARUS,Servant of Cassius.
CALPURNIA,Julius Caesar's wife.
Senators, citizens, commoners, soldiers, guards, attendants, messenger. .
Biblical and Mythological Reference
1.In Act 3 Scene 2, When Brutus says, "If any speak, for him have I
offended?" is referred to the reproaches of Good Friday in Catholicism
when it is stated, "What have I done, or in what have I offended you, answer
me."
2.With Brutus's suggestion that Caesar's death be like that of a sacrifice
Shakespeare plants a seed that is not difficult for the people to nurture -
that is the idea of a sacrifice. It symbolically represents the ultimate
sacrifice of Christ.
3.In Matthew 27 Pilate wants no part of the shed blood of Christ on his
hands and washes his hands in front of the crowds to demonstrate his
innocence. This ritual is carried out in this play when Brutus calls everyone
to wash their hands in Caesar's blood.
4.A stab at what we seem to be alluding to is the scriptural sentence which
Jesus utters from the Cross while he is dying saying, "Lord, forgive them for
they know not what they are doing.” Shakespeare has twisted this quote for
his on purpose.
5.

According to Greek mythology, Dionysos was the son of Zeus
(chief of the gods) and the mortal Semele, a daughter of Kadmos
(or Cadmus). To protect Dionysos fro the wrath of Zeus's wife,
Hera, he was taken as a child to Mount Nysa, where mountain
nymphs took care of him.
The cult of Dionysos celebrated his half-mortal, half-divine
identity as well as the annual cycle of death and rebirth. It was
thought that Dionysos not only freed worshipers from the restraints
of reason, but also inspired poets and artists to divine creativity. As
the Dionysian rituals became associated with dramatic productions,
celebrations in the god's honor became more formal and
ceremonial.
* * *
Sphinxes were part of the mythologies of many Mediterranean and
Middle Eastern cultures; each was a mix of a lion with either
another animal or a human. Perhaps the best-known sphinx is the
Great Sphinx, a monument outside Giza, Egypt. Some 240 feet
long and 66 feet high, the Great Sphinx was already an antiquity
by the time of Sophocles, having been built around 2500 BCE.
King Khafre may have had it constructed; the Sphinx's face is said
to bear his likeness.
* * *
The city of Delphi was home to the chief temple of the god Apollo.
Not only individuals but also city governments consulted the
oracle there. The oracle was believed to speak the words of Apollo
while in a frenzy; priests would interpret the oracle's speech for the
many who came to Delphi for counsel.
* * *
Critic Bernard Knox points out that funeral rites in ancient Greece
were "the duty and privilege of the women." As Antigone and
Ismene are the last survivors of Oedipus's family," . . . it seems to
Antigone that Creon's decree is aimed specifically at them. . . . She
takes it for granted Ismene will help her and turns . . .
contemptuously and harshly against her when she refuses."




















The primary text is polytheistic in nature. The gods, rather than the
One God is discussed and there is a strong lean toward astrology
and soothsaying. The subtext, however, is where one might find the
biblical presence. Hidden within the text is the idea of prayer that may
have been taken from the Book of Common Prayer, of which so many
would have been familiar.
There is a strong reference to Ezekiel 11:19 when Shakespeare
refers to the hard hearts made of wood and stone (I. i. 35, 36 & III. ii.
144-146). There is also reference to Job, chapter 4, with the entering
of the ghost (IV. iii. 264-279). With some investigation these
references can be seen as written purposefully into his text, though in
some respects they are vague.

where mountain nymphs took care of him. or in what have I offended you. According to Greek mythology. The cult of Dionysos celebrated his half-mortal. It was thought that Dionysos not only freed worshipers from the restraints of reason. he was taken as a child to Mount Nysa. each was a mix of a lion with either another animal or a human.when it is stated. Egypt. Perhaps the best-known sphinx is the Great Sphinx. 5. "Lord. answer me. celebrations in the god's honor became more formal and ceremonial.A stab at what we seem to be alluding to is the scriptural sentence which Jesus utters from the Cross while he is dying saying. having been built around 2500 BCE. but also inspired poets and artists to divine creativity. half-divine identity as well as the annual cycle of death and rebirth. To protect Dionysos fro the wrath of Zeus's wife.µShakespeare has twisted this quote for his on purpose. This ritual is carried out in this play when Brutus calls everyone to wash their hands in Caesar's blood. the Great Sphinx was already an antiquity by the time of Sophocles. It symbolically represents the ultimate sacrifice of Christ. Hera. Some 240 feet long and 66 feet high." 2. . Dionysos was the son of Zeus (chief of the gods) and the mortal Semele. As the Dionysian rituals became associated with dramatic productions. a daughter of Kadmos (or Cadmus). 3.In Matthew 27 Pilate wants no part of the shed blood of Christ on his hands and washes his hands in front of the crowds to demonstrate his innocence. a monument outside Giza.With Brutus's suggestion that Caesar's death be like that of a sacrifice Shakespeare plants a seed that is not difficult for the people to nurture that is the idea of a sacrifice. 4. forgive them for they know not what they are doing. *** Sphinxes were part of the mythologies of many Mediterranean and Middle Eastern cultures. "What have I done.