This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

Matrices are groupings of numbers. Each number in a matrix is called an element. Matrices have rows (left to right) and columns (top to bottom). The size of a matrix is called by the number of rows then the number of columns. For instance a 2x3 matrix has 2 rows and 3 columns, while a 3x2 matrix has 3 rows and 2 columns. 2 −1 14 A= 3 −6 1 2x3 Matrix

−3 1 A= 5 2 2 8

2 5 A= 3 6

2 5 3 A= 3 6 1 4 8 2 3x3 Matrix

3x2 Matrix

2x2 Matrix

A row matrix is a matrix that has only one row. A column matrix is a matrix that has only 1 column. A square matrix is a matrix that has the same number of rows and columns. Unit Matrix or Identity Matrix Another special matrix is the unit matrix or identity matrix. A unit matrix is square matrix that is all 0's, except on the diagonals where there are 1's. A unit matrix has to be a square matrix, but can be any size: 2 x 2, 3 x 3, 4 x 4, etc. The unit matrix is usually called I. The unit matrix is special because when you multiply any matrix by the unit matrix, the matrix does not change. It is kind of like multiplying by 1.

I = 1

I=

1 0 0 1

1 0 0 I= 0 1 0 0 0 1

1 I= 0 0 0

0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1

1x1 Unit Matrix

2x2 Unit Matrix

3x3 Unit Matrix

4x4 Unit Matrix

Adding and Subtracting Matrices In order to add or subtract matrices, each matrix has to be the same size (it has to have the same number of rows and columns). Add or subtract each element in the first matrix to the corresponding element in the second matrix. The answer will be a matrix that has the same size as the 2 that were added. A=

C= 23 −15 14−4 31 −66 12

2 −1 14 3 −6 1

B= 3 5 −4 1 6 2

Find C = A + B

1 of 10

Matrices Study Guide

(This is why the number of columns in A has to be the same as the number of rows in B. multiply the 1st row of A by the 1st column of B. Multiply the 1st row of A buy the 2nd column of B and put the answer in row 1 column 2 of C. This answer goes in row 1. To calculate the elements of matrix C. A= 30 −40 90 −25 −80 100 10 15 B= 70 90 120 110 C= A is 2x3. This is valid because the columns number columns of A(3) matches the number of rows of B (3). then multiply the 2nd element in the row by the 2nd element in the column. column 2 of C. The answer will be a matrix that has the number of rows from the first matrix and the number of columns from the second matrix. You can multiply a 2x3 matrix with a 3x2 matrix – the first matrix has 3 columns and the second matrix has 3 rows. then multiply the 3rd element in the row by the 3rd element in the column. 3 rows and 2 C = A * B. You can not multiply a 2x3 matrix with a 2x2 matrix – the first matrix has 3 columns and the second matrix has 2 rows – they do not match.C= 5 4 10 4 0 3 Multiplying Matrices In order to multiply 2 matrices. To multiply a row by a column multiply the 1st element in the row by the 1st element in the column. The answer will be a 2x2 matrix because the first matrix has 2 rows and the second matrix has 2 columns. The procedure for finding the determinant is Matrices Study Guide .) C= 450 −36009900 C= 300 −280010800 −250 −560012000 −375 −720011000 C= 8300 6750 6150 3425 30×10−40×7090×120 30×15−40×9090×110 −25×10−80×70100×120 −25×15−80×90100×110 2 of 10 Determinant You can only find the determinant of a square matrix. the number of columns in the first matrix has to be the same as the number of columns in the second matrix. and so on. so that there will be the same number of elements when we are multiplying. Multiply the 2nd row of A by the 2nd column of B and put the answer in row 2. Add these results together. 2 rows and 3 columns B is 3x2. Multiply the 2nd row of A by the 1st column of B and put the answer in row 2 column 1 of C. C is 2x2 because A has 2 rows and B has 2 columns. column 1 of C.

∣A∣=2×6−3×5 ∣A∣=12−15 ∣A∣=−3 Cofactor The cofactor of any element in a matrix is made up of all the elements that are not in the same row or the same column as the element. so you can calculate it to a single number based on the method shown above for 2x2 determinant. Matrices Study Guide 3 of 10 .slightly different for a 2x2 and a 3x3 matrix. To find the cofactor of any element. cover up the row and column that the element is in. For any cofactor that is in a position with a +. you do not change the sign of the cofactor. each cofactor is really a 2x2 determinant. That means negative numbers become positive and positive numbers become negative. Depending on the position of the element. Then write a new matrix of the elements that are not covered. 2x2 Determinant The Determinant of a 2x2 matrix is calculated by multiplying the upper left element by the lower right element and subtracting the product of the lower left element multiplied by the upper right element. A= ∣A∣= ∣ ∣ 2 5 3 6 2 5 3 6 The determinant is written with straight lines to the left and right of the numbers. For a 3x3 matrix. you may need to change the sign of the cofactor according to the following: − − − − − − You need to change the sign of any cofactor that is in a position with a – .

evaluate the cofactor down to a number. and put that number in the same position in the new matrix. take the cofactor of every element in the matrix. The matrix of cofactors for a 3x3 matrix is another 3x3 matrix. To make the matrix of cofactors. 1 3 2 A= −1 4 2 2 3 −2 Ac = − 3 2 3 −2 3 2 4 2 ∣ ∣ ∣ ∣∣ ∣ ∣ ∣ ∣ ∣ ∣ ∣ ∣ ∣ ∣ ∣ ∣ ∣ 4 2 3 −2 − −1 2 2 −2 −1 4 2 3 3 3 3 4 1 2 2 −2 − 1 2 −1 2 −1 2 1 −1 Calculate the 2x2 determinant of each cofactor in the above matrix. This evaluates out to 21. [ 6×4 – 7×3 = 24−21 = 3 ] The cofactor of the upper right element (1) is 1 3 The cofactor of the 3 in the 2nd row. This evaluates out to 17. 3rd column is − 8 7 ∣ ∣ ∣ ∣ These are all the elements not in the 2nd row and not in the 3rd column.1 3 9 A= 2 6 3 8 7 4 6 3 These are all the 7 4 elements that are not in the first row and not in the first column. being very careful with signs and arithmetic. 4×−2−3×2 −−1×−2−2×2 −1×3− 2×4 Ac = −3×−2−3×2 1×−2−2×2 −1×3− 2×3 3×2−4×2 −1×2−−1×2 1×4−−1×3 −8−6 −2−4 Ac = −−6−6 −2−4 6−8 − 2−−2 −14 −−2 −11 Ac = −−12 −6 −−3 −2 −4 7 The result is the matrix of cofactors: −3−8 −3−6 4−−3 4 of 10 Matrices Study Guide . Don't forget to change the signs where necessary. Because of it's position in the matrix the sign needs to be changed. [ −1×7−8×3 = −7−24 = −−17 = 17 ] Matrix of Cofactors The Matrix of Cofactors (abbreviated here as Ac) is a new matrix made up of the cofactors of each element of the original matrix.

you change the first column of the original matrix to be the first row of the transposed matrix. the inverse of A is A-1. 3x3 Determinant The Determinant of 3x3 matrix is found by first multiplying each element in the first row by it's cofactor. The reciprocal of 3 is 3 3 Likewise . -6. 5 of 10 . and 3× =1.−14 2 −11 Ac = 12 −6 3 −2 −4 7 Adjoint The Adjoint of the matrix A (referred to here as Adj A) is the Transpose of the Matrix of Cofactors. 2. and Matrices Study Guide A×A−1=I. find the matrix of cofactors (Ac). In Adj A. Then subtract the 2nd product from the first and add the 3rd. 1 1 . Remember that the cofactors are calculated to a single number by taking the 2x2 determinant of each cofactor. -6. The second column in Adj A is 12. To get the Adjoint of a matrix. and -11. The third column in Adj A is -2. It is kind of like the reciprocal of a scalar number. and 3. 1 3 2 A= −1 4 2 2 3 −2 ∣A∣=1× ∣ 4 2 −1 2 −1 4 − 3× 2× 3 −2 2 −2 2 3 ∣ ∣ ∣ ∣ ∣A∣=1× 4×−2−3×2 − 3×−1×−2− 2×2 2×−1×3−2×4 ∣A∣=1×−8−6 − 3×2−4 2×−3−8 ∣A∣=1×−14 − 3×−2 2×−11 ∣A∣= −14 − −6 −22 ∣A∣=−30 Inverse The inverse of a matrix is a matrix that when multiplied by the original matrix equals the unit matrix. then transpose it. and 3. 1 3 2 A= −1 4 2 2 3 −2 ∣ −14 2 −11 Ac = 12 −6 3 −2 −4 7 Adj A= −14 12 −2 2 −6 −4 −11 3 7 In Ac above. the first column is -14. The second column becomes the second row. and so on. To Transpose a matrix. The second row in Ac is 12. -4. 2. the first row is -14. The third row in Ac is -2. and 7. and -11. -4 and 7.

Find the Matrix of Cofactors. ∣A∣ . Find the Matrix of Cofactors 4 2 3 −2 Ac = − 3 2 3 −2 3 2 4 2 ∣ ∣ ∣ ∣∣ ∣ ∣ ∣ ∣ ∣ ∣ ∣ ∣ ∣ ∣ ∣ ∣ ∣ − −1 2 2 −2 1 2 2 −2 − 1 2 −1 2 −1 2 −1 2 4 3 3 3 1 3 −1 4 6 of 10 4×−2−3×2 −−1×−2−2×2 −1×3− 2×4 Ac = −3×−2−3×2 1×−2−2×2 −1×3− 2×3 3×2−4×2 −1×2−−1×2 1×4−−1×3 Matrices Study Guide . Find the Determinant: 1 3 2 A= −1 4 2 2 3 −2 ∣A∣=1× ∣ ∣ ∣ ∣ ∣ 4 2 −1 2 −1 4 − 3× 2× 3 −2 2 −2 2 3 ∣ ∣A∣=1× 4×−2−3×2 − 3×−1×−2− 2×2 2×−1×3−2×4 ∣A∣=1×−8−6 − 3×2−4 2×−3−8 ∣A∣=1×−14 − 3×−2 2×−11 ∣A∣= −14 − −6 −22 ∣A∣=−30 2. Ac 3. The Inverse (A-1) is the reciprocal of the determinant multiplied by the Adjoint 1 A−1= Adj A ∣A∣ Lets find the inverse of this 3x3 matrix 1 3 2 A= −1 4 2 2 3 −2 1.Finding the inverse of a matrix involves a lot of the things described above. To find the Inverse of a Matrix A: 1. 2. Find the Determinant of the Matrix. Find the Adjoint (Adj A) by taking the Transpose of the Matrix of Cofactors 4.

Find the Adjoint Adj A= −3−8 −3−6 4−−3 −14 12 −2 2 −6 −4 −11 3 7 4. Find the Inverse A−1=− 1 −14 12 −2 2 −6 −4 30 −11 3 7 Matrices Study Guide 7 of 10 .−8−6 −2−4 Ac = −−6−6 −2−4 6−8 − 2−−2 −14 −−2 −11 Ac = −−12 −6 −−3 −2 −4 7 −14 2 −11 Ac = 12 −6 3 −2 −4 7 3.

the unit matrix I x X = X since the unit matrix doesn't change another matrix X =A−1 B So by multiplying the inverse of A by B we find the matrix X. The coefficients of x and y go in the first matrix A. Since we multiplied the left side by A-1 we have to multiply the right by the same thing: A X =B A−1× A X = A−1×B I X =A B −1 Multiply both sides by A-1 A x A-1 = I. And multiplying a matrix by the unit matrix leaves that matrix unchanged. Find A-1. X consists of our 2 unknown variables. so on the left we have only X. Determinant: ∣A∣=3×5−−4×−2 ∣A∣=15−8=7 Matrix of Cofactors Ac = 5 4 2 3 1 5 2 7 4 3 Adjoint: Adj A= Inverse: 5 2 4 3 A = −1 8 of 10 Matrices Study Guide . 3x – 2y=8 −4x5y=−13 The first step is to re-write the equations as matrices. So if we multiply the left side by A-1 we get X times the unit matrix. so we've solved for x and y.Solving Simultaneous Equations with Matrices You can use matrices and matrix math to solve a system of simultaneous equations. A will be a 2 x 2 matrix since we have 2 variables and 2 equations: 3 −2 −4 5 The variables x and y go in the matrix X which is a 2 x 1 matrix: A= X= x y B= The answers go in another 2 x 1 matrix B: 8 −13 The equations can be re-written as 1 equation with these matrices: A X =B A times X = B Remember that any matrix times its inverse is the unit matrix.

Now multiply the inverse by B X =A−1 B : X= X= 1 5 2 8 7 4 3 −13 1 X = 40 −26 7 32 −39 1 X = 14 7 −7 X = 2 −1 x At the beginning we said that X = y x=2 y=−1 1 5×8 2×−13 7 4×8 3×−13 . so: The procedure is the same for 3 x 3 Matrices: 2x – y3z=11 4x2y – 7z=8 −x3y – 2z=1 2 −1 3 A= 4 2 −7 −1 3 −2 A× X =B Find A-1: ∣A∣=2 × x X= y z 11 B= 8 1 ∣ 2 −7 4 −7 4 −2 − −1 × 3× 3 −2 −1 −2 −1 3 ∣ ∣ ∣ ∣ ∣ ∣A∣=2 × 2×−2−3×−7 − −1 × 4×−2−−1×−7 3 × 4×3−−1×2 ∣A∣=2 × −4−−21 − −1 × −8−7 3 × 12−−2 ∣A∣=2 × 17 − −1 × −15 3 × 14 ∣A∣=34−1542 ∣A∣=61 Matrices Study Guide 9 of 10 .

Find Matrix of Cofactors (Ac): Ac = − −1 3 3 −2 −1 3 2 −7 ∣ ∣ ∣ 2 −7 3 −2 ∣ ∣ ∣ ∣ ∣ ∣ − 4 −7 −1 −2 2 3 −1 −2 −2 3 4 −7 ∣ ∣ ∣ ∣ ∣ ∣ 4 2 −1 3 ∣ ∣ ∣ − 2 −1 −1 3 2 −1 4 2 2×−2−3×−7 − 4×−2−−1×−7 4×3−−1×2 Ac = −−1×−2−3×3 2×−2−−1×3 −2×3−−1×−1 −1×−7−2×3 −2×−7− 4×3 2×2−4×−1 Ac = −4−−21 −−8−7 12−−2 −2−9 −4−−3 −6−1 7−6 −−14−12 4−−4 17 −−15 14 Ac = −−7 −1 −5 1 −−26 8 17 15 14 Ac = 7 −1 −5 1 26 8 Transpose to find Adjoint 17 7 1 Adj A= 15 −1 26 14 −5 8 A−1= 1 1 17 7 15 −1 26 61 14 −5 8 = 1 187561 165−826 61 154−408 X =A−1×B Solve for X: X= 1 11 1 17 7 15 −1 26 8 61 14 −5 8 1 1 244 183 61 112 y=3 X= 4 X= 3 2 z =2 10 of 10 x= 4 Matrices Study Guide .

Sign up to vote on this title

UsefulNot useful- Quiz 1 Solution
- Matrices - Ch. 1.8, 1.10
- Matrices and Determinants
- Matrices (Part I)
- Determinant
- Matrices - Ch. 1.8, 1.10
- PROPERTIES_OF_DETERMINANT
- Lecture3,Determinants
- Lecture 1 of 11 (Chap 5, Matrices)
- Pertemuan (1)
- Apuntes Tema 01
- 2005 Linear Algebra CH2
- Matrices and Determinants
- m511lectm5
- Lecture Note 2- Matrix and Determinant
- e1sol
- Mr 2015matrices.docx
- Determinants
- 11-Matrices
- Determinants
- Matrix Algebra
- Determinan-08
- Algebra2
- Zero Determinants
- Rank of Matrix.docx
- Elementary Matrix Algebra - Jayalal Wettasinghe
- Topic03 Matrices
- STPM 954 Math T Coursework 2013 [Sem 1]
- Invertible Matrices Are Very Important in Many Areas of Science
- inter maths 1A
- Matrix