Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

52 views

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- Multinomial Points
- The Theory of Matrices and Determinants
- Excel Functions
- Ge2115 Comp Prac Set-2
- Chapter 3
- Lecture8_linearalg_matlab2
- EE511 HW1 Review of Matrices F13
- Dpp 1 to 5 on Determiant Matrices 12th Maths Eng
- AP3114 Lecture WK2 Matrix Statistics
- TDH04 Finite Step
- CSE123_Lecture11_2013.pdf
- Introduction to Gauss
- 1540 Practice Set 2
- Scientia Magna Vol. 11 No 1, 2016
- Lesson Notes_Matrices Lesson 1
- Handouts - Differential Equation and Advanced Mathematics
- MATRICES teoria y problemas
- Matrix Indexing in MATLAB - MATLAB & Simulink
- Homework 1
- Chapter 03

You are on page 1of 10

Matrices are groupings of numbers. Each number in a matrix is called an element. Matrices have rows

(left to right) and columns (top to bottom). The size of a matrix is called by the number of rows then

the number of columns. For instance a 2x3 matrix has 2 rows and 3 columns, while a 3x2 matrix has 3

rows and 2 columns.

A=

2 −1 14

3 −6 1

−3 1

A= 5 2

2 8

A=

2 5

3 6

2 5 3

A= 3 6 1

4 8 2

A row matrix is a matrix that has only one row. A column matrix is a matrix that has only 1 column.

A square matrix is a matrix that has the same number of rows and columns.

Another special matrix is the unit matrix or identity matrix. A unit matrix is square matrix that is all

0's, except on the diagonals where there are 1's. A unit matrix has to be a square matrix, but can be any

size: 2 x 2, 3 x 3, 4 x 4, etc. The unit matrix is usually called I. The unit matrix is special because

when you multiply any matrix by the unit matrix, the matrix does not change. It is kind of like

multiplying by 1.

1 0 0 0

I = 1 I=

1 0

0 1

1 0 0

I= 0 1 0

0 0 1

I= 0

0

0

1

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

1

1x1 Unit Matrix 2x2 Unit Matrix 3x3 Unit Matrix 4x4 Unit Matrix

In order to add or subtract matrices, each matrix has to be the same size (it has to have the same

number of rows and columns). Add or subtract each element in the first matrix to the corresponding

element in the second matrix. The answer will be a matrix that has the same size as the 2 that were

added.

A= 2 −1 14

3 −6 1

B= 3 5 −4

1 6 2 Find C = A + B

C= 23 −15 14−4

31 −66 12

Matrices Study Guide 1 of 10

C= 5 4 10

4 0 3

Multiplying Matrices

In order to multiply 2 matrices, the number of columns in the first matrix has to be the same as the

number of columns in the second matrix. The answer will be a matrix that has the number of rows

from the first matrix and the number of columns from the second matrix. You can not multiply a 2x3

matrix with a 2x2 matrix – the first matrix has 3 columns and the second matrix has 2 rows – they do

not match. You can multiply a 2x3 matrix with a 3x2 matrix – the first matrix has 3 columns and the

second matrix has 3 rows. The answer will be a 2x2 matrix because the first matrix has 2 rows and the

second matrix has 2 columns.

A= 30 −40 90

−25 −80 100

10 15

B= 70 90

120 110 C=

A is 2x3. 2 rows and 3 B is 3x2. 3 rows and 2 C = A * B. This is valid because the

columns columns number columns of A(3) matches the

number of rows of B (3). C is 2x2

because A has 2 rows and B has 2

columns.

To calculate the elements of matrix C, multiply the 1st row of A by the 1st column of B. This answer

goes in row 1, column 1 of C. Multiply the 1st row of A buy the 2nd column of B and put the answer in

row 1 column 2 of C. Multiply the 2nd row of A by the 1st column of B and put the answer in row 2

column 1 of C. Multiply the 2nd row of A by the 2nd column of B and put the answer in row 2, column 2

of C.

To multiply a row by a column multiply the 1st element in the row by the 1st element in the column,

then multiply the 2nd element in the row by the 2nd element in the column, then multiply the 3rd element

in the row by the 3rd element in the column, and so on. Add these results together. (This is why the

number of columns in A has to be the same as the number of rows in B, so that there will be the same

number of elements when we are multiplying.)

C= 30×10−40×7090×120 30×15−40×9090×110

−25×10−80×70100×120 −25×15−80×90100×110

C= 300 −280010800 450 −36009900

−250 −560012000 −375 −720011000

C= 8300 6750

6150 3425

Determinant

You can only find the determinant of a square matrix. The procedure for finding the determinant is

slightly different for a 2x2 and a 3x3 matrix.

2x2 Determinant

The Determinant of a 2x2 matrix is calculated by multiplying the upper left element by the lower right

element and subtracting the product of the lower left element multiplied by the upper right element.

A=

2 5

3 6

∣A∣= ∣ ∣

2 5

3 6

The determinant is written with straight lines to the left and right of the numbers.

∣A∣=2×6−3×5

∣A∣=12−15

∣A∣=−3

Cofactor

The cofactor of any element in a matrix is made up of all the elements that are not in the same row or

the same column as the element. To find the cofactor of any element, cover up the row and column

that the element is in. Then write a new matrix of the elements that are not covered.

Depending on the position of the element, you may need to change the sign of the cofactor according to

the following:

−

−

−

− −

−

You need to change the sign of any cofactor that is in a position with a – . That means negative

numbers become positive and positive numbers become negative. For any cofactor that is in a position

with a +, you do not change the sign of the cofactor.

For a 3x3 matrix, each cofactor is really a 2x2 determinant, so you can calculate it to a single number

based on the method shown above for 2x2 determinant.

The cofactor of the upper right element (1) is

6 3

7 4 ∣ ∣ These are all the

elements that are not in the first row and not in the first column. This

evaluates out to 21. [ 6×4 – 7×3 = 24−21 = 3 ]

1 3 9

A= 2 6 3

8 7 4 The cofactor of the 3 in the 2nd row, 3rd column is −

1 3

8 7 ∣ ∣ These are

all the elements not in the 2nd row and not in the 3rd column. Because of

it's position in the matrix the sign needs to be changed. This evaluates out

to 17. [ −1×7−8×3 = −7−24 = −−17 = 17 ]

Matrix of Cofactors

The Matrix of Cofactors (abbreviated here as Ac) is a new matrix made up of the cofactors of each

element of the original matrix. The matrix of cofactors for a 3x3 matrix is another 3x3 matrix. To

make the matrix of cofactors, take the cofactor of every element in the matrix, evaluate the cofactor

down to a number, and put that number in the same position in the new matrix. Don't forget to change

the signs where necessary.

∣ 4 2

∣ ∣ ∣∣ ∣

3 −2

−

−1 2

2 −2

−1 4

2 3

1 3 2

A= −1 4 2

2 3 −2 Ac = − 3 2

3 −2 ∣ ∣ ∣ ∣ ∣ ∣1 2

2 −2

−1

2

3

3

3 2

4 2 ∣ ∣ ∣ ∣ ∣ ∣

− 1 2

−1 2

1

−1

3

4

Calculate the 2x2 determinant of each cofactor in the above matrix, being very careful with

signs and arithmetic.

Ac = −3×−2−3×2

3×2−4×2

1×−2−2×2

−1×2−−1×2

−1×3− 2×3

1×4−−1×3

−8−6

Ac = −−6−6

−2−4

−2−4

6−8 − 2−−2

−3−8

−3−6

4−−3

−14 −−2 −11

Ac = −−12 −6 −−3

−2 −4 7

The result is the matrix of cofactors:

−14 2 −11

Ac = 12 −6

−2 −4

3

7

Adjoint

The Adjoint of the matrix A (referred to here as Adj A) is the Transpose of the Matrix of Cofactors. To

Transpose a matrix, you change the first column of the original matrix to be the first row of the

transposed matrix. The second column becomes the second row, and so on.

To get the Adjoint of a matrix, find the matrix of cofactors (Ac), then transpose it.

1 3 2

A= −1 4 2

2 3 −2 −14 2 −11

Ac = 12 −6 3

−2 −4 7 Adj A=

−14 12 −2

2 −6 −4

−11 3 7

In Ac above, the first row is -14, 2, and -11. In Adj A, the first column is -14, 2, and -11.

The second row in Ac is 12, -6, and 3. The second column in Adj A is 12, -6, and 3.

The third row in Ac is -2, -4 and 7. The third column in Adj A is -2, -4, and 7.

3x3 Determinant

The Determinant of 3x3 matrix is found by first multiplying each element in the first row by it's

cofactor. Remember that the cofactors are calculated to a single number by taking the 2x2 determinant

of each cofactor. Then subtract the 2nd product from the first and add the 3rd.

1 3 2

A= −1 4 2

2 3 −2

∣A∣=1× ∣ 4 2

3 −2∣− 3×

−1 2

2 −2 ∣

2× ∣

−1 4

2 3 ∣ ∣

∣A∣=1× 4×−2−3×2 − 3×−1×−2− 2×2 2×−1×3−2×4

∣A∣=1×−8−6 − 3×2−4 2×−3−8

∣A∣=1×−14 − 3×−2 2×−11

∣A∣= −14 − −6 −22

∣A∣=−30

Inverse

The inverse of a matrix is a matrix that when multiplied by the original matrix equals the unit matrix.

1 1

It is kind of like the reciprocal of a scalar number. The reciprocal of 3 is , and 3× =1.

3 3

Likewise , the inverse of A is A-1, and A×A−1=I.

Finding the inverse of a matrix involves a lot of the things described above. To find the Inverse of a

Matrix A:

1. Find the Determinant of the Matrix, ∣A∣ .

2. Find the Matrix of Cofactors, Ac

3. Find the Adjoint (Adj A) by taking the Transpose of the Matrix of Cofactors

4. The Inverse (A-1) is the reciprocal of the determinant multiplied by the Adjoint

1

A−1= Adj A

∣A∣

1 3 2

A= −1 4 2

2 3 −2

1 3 2

A= −1 4 2

2 3 −2

∣A∣=1× ∣ 4 2

3 −2∣− 3×

−1 2

2 −2∣ 2×∣−1 4

2 3 ∣ ∣

∣A∣=1× 4×−2−3×2 − 3×−1×−2− 2×2 2×−1×3−2×4

∣A∣=1×−8−6 − 3×2−4 2×−3−8

∣A∣=1×−14 − 3×−2 2×−11

∣A∣= −14 − −6 −22

∣A∣=−30

∣

4 2

3 −2 ∣ ∣ ∣∣ ∣ − −1 2

2 −2

−1

2

4

3

Ac = − 3 2

3 −2 ∣ ∣ ∣ ∣ ∣ ∣ 1 2

2 −2

−1

2

3

3

∣ ∣ ∣ ∣ ∣ ∣

3 2

4 2

− 1 2

−1 2

1 3

−1 4

Ac = −3×−2−3×2

3×2−4×2

1×−2−2×2

−1×2−−1×2

−1×3− 2×3

1×4−−1×3

Matrices Study Guide 6 of 10

−8−6

Ac = −−6−6

−2−4

−2−4

6−8 − 2−−2

−3−8

−3−6

4−−3

−14 −−2 −11

Ac = −−12 −6 −−3

−2 −4 7

−14 2 −11

Ac = 12 −6

−2 −4

3

7

3. Find the Adjoint

Adj A=

−14 12 −2

2 −6 −4

−11 3 7

4. Find the Inverse

A−1=−

30

1 −14 12 −2

2 −6 −4

−11 3 7

Solving Simultaneous Equations with Matrices

You can use matrices and matrix math to solve a system of simultaneous equations.

3x – 2y=8

−4x5y=−13

The first step is to re-write the equations as matrices. The coefficients of x and y go in the first matrix

A. A will be a 2 x 2 matrix since we have 2 variables and 2 equations:

A= 3 −2

−4 5

The variables x and y go in the matrix X which is a 2 x 1 matrix:

X= x

y

The answers go in another 2 x 1 matrix B:

B=

−138

The equations can be re-written as 1 equation with these matrices:

A X =B A times X = B

Remember that any matrix times its inverse is the unit matrix. So if we multiply the left side by A-1 we

get X times the unit matrix. And multiplying a matrix by the unit matrix leaves that matrix unchanged,

so on the left we have only X. Since we multiplied the left side by A-1 we have to multiply the right by

the same thing:

A X =B

A−1× A X = A−1×B Multiply both sides by A-1

I X =A B

−1

A x A-1 = I, the unit matrix

X =A−1 B I x X = X since the unit matrix doesn't change another matrix

So by multiplying the inverse of A by B we find the matrix X. X consists of our 2 unknown variables,

so we've solved for x and y.

Find A-1,

Determinant: Matrix of Cofactors

∣A∣=3×5−−4×−2

∣A∣=15−8=7

Ac =

5 4

2 3

Adjoint: Inverse:

Adj A= 5 2

4 3

−1

A =

1 5 2

7 4 3

Now multiply the inverse by B X =A−1 B :

X=

1 5 2 8

7 4 3 −13

1 5×8 2×−13

X=

7 4×8 3×−13

1

7 32 −39

X = 40 −26

1

7 −7

X = 14

X = 2

−1

x

y , so:

x=2 y=−1

2x – y3z=11

4x2y – 7z=8

−x3y – 2z=1

A= 4

2 −1 3

2 −7

−1 3 −2

x

X= y

z

11

B= 8

1

A× X =B

Find A-1:

∣A∣=2 × ∣ 2 −7

3 −2∣− −1 ×∣ 4 −7

−1 −2

3× ∣4 −2

−1 3 ∣ ∣

∣A∣=2 × 2×−2−3×−7 − −1 × 4×−2−−1×−7 3 × 4×3−−1×2

∣A∣=2 × −4−−21 − −1 × −8−7 3 × 12−−2

∣A∣=2 × 17 − −1 × −15 3 × 14

∣A∣=34−1542

∣A∣=61

Find Matrix of Cofactors (Ac):

∣ 2 −7

3 −2∣ ∣−

4 −7

−1 −2 ∣ ∣ 4 2

−1 3 ∣

∣

Ac = − −1 3

3 −2 ∣ ∣ 2

−1 −2

3

∣ ∣

− 2 −1

−1 3 ∣

∣

−1 3

2 −7 ∣ ∣ −2 3

4 −7 ∣ ∣ 2 −1

4 2 ∣

2×−2−3×−7 − 4×−2−−1×−7

Ac = −−1×−2−3×3

−1×−7−2×3

4×3−−1×2

2×−2−−1×3 −2×3−−1×−1

−2×−7− 4×3 2×2−4×−1

Ac =

−4−−21 −−8−7 12−−2

−2−9

7−6

−4−−3 −6−1

−−14−12 4−−4

17

Ac = −−7

1

−−15 14

−1 −5

−−26 8

17 15 14

Ac = 7 −1 −5

1 26 8

Transpose to find Adjoint

17 7

1

Adj A= 15 −1 26

14 −5 8

A−1=

61

1 17 7 1

15 −1 26

14 −5 8

X =A−1×B Solve for X:

X=

61

1 17 7 1 11

15 −1 26 8

14 −5 8 1

=

1 187561

61

165−826

154−408

1 244 4

X= 183 X= 3

61

112 2

x= 4 y=3 z =2

- Multinomial PointsUploaded byE Frank Cornelius
- The Theory of Matrices and DeterminantsUploaded byadilmech
- Excel FunctionsUploaded byRajeswar Rayapati
- Ge2115 Comp Prac Set-2Uploaded bycvaravind
- Chapter 3Uploaded bySharif M Mizanur Rahman
- Lecture8_linearalg_matlab2Uploaded byud
- EE511 HW1 Review of Matrices F13Uploaded byNeeru Singh
- Dpp 1 to 5 on Determiant Matrices 12th Maths EngUploaded byPrashantcool1999
- AP3114 Lecture WK2 Matrix StatisticsUploaded byGuoXuanChan
- TDH04 Finite StepUploaded bypadritita
- CSE123_Lecture11_2013.pdfUploaded byHasanMert
- Introduction to GaussUploaded byAndrea Sandoval
- 1540 Practice Set 2Uploaded bygutye264
- Scientia Magna Vol. 11 No 1, 2016Uploaded byMia Amalia
- Lesson Notes_Matrices Lesson 1Uploaded byMas Gund
- Handouts - Differential Equation and Advanced MathematicsUploaded byLexter Quitara
- MATRICES teoria y problemasUploaded byMartanz
- Matrix Indexing in MATLAB - MATLAB & SimulinkUploaded byGautam Monipatro
- Homework 1Uploaded byCody Messick
- Chapter 03Uploaded byndsram
- pp.163-175Uploaded byHANBALCONTRAMUNDUM
- IJMET_10_01_046Uploaded byIAEME PUBLICATION
- 33A Syllabus and ScheduleUploaded bythatscribdacnt
- 2015 Unit 1 Exam RevisionUploaded bypoonam_goyal26
- Engineering journal ; Study on Some Properties of Anti-centrosymmetric MatricesUploaded byEngineering Journal
- System of EquationsUploaded byanksingh08
- Tomographic ResolutionUploaded bysatyam mehta
- Hypersurface 2Uploaded byCharlie Pinedo
- lecture5Uploaded bymaxpime
- Problems_Matrix-Organizations.pdfUploaded byzeitgeist-explorateur

- Errors UncertaintiesUploaded byWaqar Mehboob
- MCQs 2012Uploaded byLissa Hannah
- 7373v1.0(G52-73731X1)Uploaded bytatasrba
- Rimini Street White Paper Evaluating S4HANA Considerations for SAP CustomersUploaded byStephane Kalfon
- TMS320C64XXUploaded byaldo_suvi
- Bosch CRUploaded bykammy4love9888
- How to Convert a Numeric to Text ExcelUploaded byArtha Loly Panjaitan
- Sample HR Audit ChecklistUploaded byDeborah Goodrich VanLeeuwen
- Waifu Manifesto 20171215Uploaded byDany Tomoe
- Racor_DieselFuelFilterUploaded byigize2
- ZPAS SZB SE 19in Server CabinetUploaded bylejlas77
- busbar size per breaker.pdfUploaded byibrahim
- Simulation - Neon Lights and Other Discharge Lamps With Answer 2Uploaded byYudhisthira
- CQ 10 October 1945Uploaded byСергей Безразличный
- FINALbioinformatics SEMINARUploaded byAnonymous 2JXVv5VS
- dll.r&w1Uploaded byNors Cruz
- Humanities Liberal ArtsUploaded byZazoo_two41
- Recovering the Rife MicroscopeUploaded byjkorolas372
- Fate RPG D6 alternativesUploaded byAnonymo1
- 4713-sample.pdfUploaded byMahdi Dabar
- Perineal Trauma in Primiparous Women With Spontaneous Vaginal Delivery Episiotomy or Second Degree Perineal TearUploaded byJunarto Butar Butar
- 6RDM 39 Assignment on MIS in Rural DevelopmentUploaded byShashidhar Sharma
- Crime Scene InvestigationUploaded bySaravanakumar Maniam
- EqualizersUploaded byoureducation.in
- Method for Determination of Resistance to Vertical Impact by DroppingUploaded byesteban4567
- DistrictHeatingSubstationDesign.pdfUploaded byJovan Mitrevski
- Construno Brick CatalogUploaded byMeteHan Atlıhan
- final project spaceUploaded byapi-384774722
- Key to Word Quiz for Solution SellingUploaded byaniket
- Allance Economic Copper GranulatorUploaded byJessica