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TOEFL iBT

Robert Capa

1. Robert Capa is a name that has for many years been synonymous with war
photography.
2. Born in Hungary in 1913 as Friedmann Endre Erno, Capa was forced to leave his
native country after his involvement in anti government protests. Capa had
originally wanted to become a writer, but after his arrival in Berlin had first found
work as a photographer. He later left Germany and moved to France due to the
rise in Nazism. He tried to find work as a freelance journalist and it was here that
he changed his name to Robert Capa, mainly because he thought it would sound
more American.
3. In 1936 after the breakout of the Spanish Civil war Capa went to Spain and it was
here over the next three years that he built his reputation as a war photographer. It
was here too in 1936 that he took one of his most famous pictures, The Death of a
Loyalist Soldier. One of Capa’s most famous quotes was ‘If your pictures aren’t
good enough, you’re not close enough’. And he took his attitude of getting close
to the action to an extreme. His photograph, The Death of a Loyalist Soldier is a
prime example of this as Capa captures the very moment the soldier falls. Though
many have questioned the authenticity of this photograph, claiming that it was
staged.
4. When World war II broke out, Capa was in New York, but he was soon back in
Europe covering the war for Life magazine. Some of his most famous work was
created on 6th June 1944 when he swam ashore with the first assault on Omaha
Beach in the D-Day invasion of Normandy. Capa, armed only with two cameras,
took more than one hundred photographs in the first hour of the landing, but a
mistake in the darkroom during the drying of the film destroyed all but eight
frames. It was the images from these frames however that inspired the visual style
of Steven Spielberg’s Oscar winning movie ‘Saving Private Ryan’. When Life
magazine published the photographs, they claimed that they were slightly out of
focus, and Capa later used this as the title of his autobiographical account of the
war.
5. Capa’s private life was no less dramatic. He was friend to many of Hollywood’s
directors, actors and actresses. In 1943 he feel in love with the wife of actor John
Austin. His affair with her lasted until the end of the war and became the subject
of his war memoirs. He was at one time lover to actress Ingrid Bergman. Their
relationship finally ended in 1946 when he refused to settle in Hollywood and
went off to Turkey.
6. In 1947 Capa was among a group of photojournalists who founded Magnum
Photos. This was a co-operative organization set up to support photographers and
help them to retain ownership of the copyright to their work.
7. Capa went on to document many other wars. He never attempted to glamorize war
though, but to record the horror. He once said,” The desire of any war
photographer is to be put out of business.”
8. Capa died as he had lived. After promising not to photograph any more wars, he
accepted an assignment to go to Indochina to cover the first Indochina war. On
May 25th 1954 Capa was accompanying a French regiment, when he left his jeep
to take some photographs of the advance and stepped on a land mine. He was
taken to a nearby hospital, still clutching his camera, but was pronounced dead on
arrival. He left behind him a testament to the horrors of war and a standard for
photojournalism that few others have been able to reach.
9. Capa’s legacy has lived on though and in 1966 his brother Cornell founded
International Fund for Concerned Photography in his honor. There is also a
Robert Capa Gold Medal, which is given to the photographer who publishes the
best photographic reporting from abroad which demands exceptional courage. But
perhaps his greatest legacy of all are the haunting images of the human struggles
that he captured.

Questions 1-11

1. Why did Capa change his name?


A. To hide his identity
B. Because he had been involved in protests
C. To sound more American.
D. Because he had to leave Hungary.

2. Capa originally wanted to be


A. A photojournalist
B. A writer
C. American
D. A protestor

3. Capa went Spain to


A. fight in the civil war
B. build his reputation
C. have a holiday
D. take photographs

4. Capa’s famous picture Death of a Loyalist Soldier


A. was taken by someone else
B. was definitely genuine
C. wasn’t even taken in Spain
D. cannot be proven genuine or staged.

5. When world War II broke out Capa


A. went to New York
B. swam ashore on Omaha Beach
C. went to Europe
D. went to Normandy
6. A mistake meant that
A. only one hundred of Capa’s photographs were published
B. Capa lost both his two cameras.
C. Capa’s images inspired an Oscar winning movie.
D. Most of Capa’s images of the D-Day landing were destroyed.

7. Capa’s private life was


A. less dramatic than his professional life.
B. Spent mostly in Hollywood.
C. Very glamorous
D. Spent in Turkey

8. Capa wanted his work to


A. be very famous
B. show how glamorous war can be
C. show the true horror of war.
D. Make lots of money

9. Which sentence best paraphrases paragraph 5?


A. Capa had a tragic private life and was never able to settle down and find
happiness.
B. Despite having many good friends and lovers, Capa always put his work first.
C. Capa wanted to make friends with important people in Hollywood so that he
could move into the movie industry
D. Capa’s private life was very complicated. He could not choose between the two
women he loved, so he went off to work in Turkey.

10. Which sentence best paraphrases paragraph 4?


A. Capa never tried to avoid danger. He risked his life to take photographs of the D-
Day invasion, but then destroyed most of them.
B. Capa took some of his most famous photographs during the D-Day invasion, but
most were tragically destroyed in an accident.
C. Capa only kept the best eight D-Day photographs as the others were out of focus.
These inspired the visual style of a Hollywood film.
D. Capa left Europe when the war broke out and went to take his most famous
photographs of the D-Day invasion.

11. Which THREE sentences in the box to your right best summarize the passage?
 sentence 1
 sentence 2
 sentence 3
 sentence 4
 sentence 5
 sentence 6
Answers:

1.C 2.B 3.B 4.D 5.C 6.D 7.C 8.C 9.B 10.B 11. 2,3,5

Tornadoes

[1] Tornadoes are one of the most severe types of weather phenomena. While many people fear
tornadoes and their destructive power, few people understand their real causes and effects, nor
are they aware of how to protect themselves from their devastating force.

[2] Tornadoes, violently rotating columns of air, occur when a change in wind direction, coupled
with an increase in wind speed, results in a spinning effect in the lower atmosphere.
These whirling movements, which may not be visible to the naked eye, are exacerbated when
the rotating air column shifts from a horizontal to a vertical position. As the revolving cloud draws
in the warm air that surrounds it at ground level, its spinning motion begins to accelerate, thereby
creating a funnel that extends from the cloud above it to the ground below. In this way, tornadoes
become pendent from low pressure storm clouds.

[3] When a tornado comes into contact with the ground, it produces a strong upward draft known
as a vortex, a spiraling column of wind that can reach speeds in excess of 200 miles per hour.
Traveling across the landscape, the tornado wreaks a path of concentrated destruction. It is not
uncommon for these twisters to lift heavy objects, like cars or large animals, and throw them
several miles. Houses that succumb to the force of the tornado seem to explode as the low air
pressure inside the vortex collides with the normal air pressure inside the buildings.

[4] Tornadoes can occur at any time of the year, but are typically most frequent during the
summer months. Equally, tornadoes can happen at any time during the day, but usually occur
between 3:00 in the afternoon and 9:00 in the evening. While these fierce funnels occur in many
parts of the world, they are most common in the United States. { A * } On average, there are
1,200 tornadoes per year in this vast nation, causing 70 fatalities and 1,500 injuries.

[5] Although taking myriad shapes and sizes, tornadoes are generally categorized as weak,
strong, or violent. The majority of all tornadoes are classified as weak, meaning that their duration
is less than 10 minutes and they have a speed under 110 miles per hour. Comprising
approximately 10 percent of all twisters, strong tornadoes may last for more than 20 minutes and
reach speeds up to 205 miles per hour. Violent tornadoes are the rarest, occurring less than one
percent of the time. While uncommon, tornadoes in this classification are the most devastating,
lasting more than one hour and resulting in the greatest loss of life. { B * } Even though only
violent tornadoes can completely destroy a well-built, solidly-constructed home, weaker ones can
also cause great damage.

[6] Owing to the powerful and destructive nature of these winds, there are, perhaps not
surprisingly, a number of myths and misconceptions surrounding them. For instance, many
people mistakenly believe that tornadoes never occur over rivers, lakes, and oceans;
yet,waterspouts, tornadoes that form over bodies of water, often move onshore and cause
extensive damage to coastal areas. In addition, tornadoes can accompany hurricanes and
tropical storms as they move to land. Another common myth about tornadoes is that damage to
built structures, like houses and office buildings, can be avoided if windows are opened prior to
the impact of the storm. Based on the misunderstanding that open windows might equalize the
pressure inside the structure and minimize the damage to it, this action can instead result in fatal
injury. { C * }
[7] Because of the profound effects that tornadoes have on communities and their inhabitants,
safety measures are of paramount importance during adverse weather conditions. Drivers often
attempt to outrun tornadoes in their cars, but it is extremely unsafe to do so. Automobiles offer
very little protection when twisters strike, so drivers should abandon their vehicles and seek safe
shelter. Mobile homes afford little shelter, so residents of these homes should go to an
underground floor of the sturdiest nearby building.{ D * } In the case of a building having no
underground area, a person should go to the lowest floor of the building and place him or herself
under a piece of heavy furniture. If no building is available, a person caught in a tornado should
lie prostate in a nearby ditch or other depressed area of land and cover his or her head

Question 1: The word whirling in the passage is closest in meaning to

A. * invisible

B. * rotating

C. * extended

D. * worsening

Question 2: The word pendent in the passage is closest in meaning to

A. * revolving

B. * quickening

C. * hanging

D. * parallel

Question 3: Which of the sentences below is the best paraphrase of the following sentence from
paragraph 3?

Traveling across the landscape, the tornado wreaks a path of concentrated destruction.

A. * The tornado causes great damage to landscaped areas, such as parks and gardens.

B. * The tornado focuses its damage primarily upon localities that have been heavily
landscaped.

C. * The tornado only causes damage to open areas, but the damage is usually very
severe.

D. * As the tornado moves through the countryside, it causes extensive, geographically


centralized damage.

Question 4: The phrase these twisters in paragraph 3 refers to

A. * tornadoes

B. * concentrated destruction
C. * landscapes

D. * explosions

Question 5: All of the following key facts about tornadoes are mentioned in paragraph 4
EXCEPT

A. * the yearly number of deaths from tornadoes

B. * the time of day when tornadoes usually take place

C. * the time of year when tornadoes are most common

D. * the average wind speed of most tornadoes

Question 6: The word myriad in the passage is closest in meaning to

A. * limited

B. * extreme

C. * many

D. * average

Question 7: In paragraph 5, what is the author’s main purpose?

A. * to explain how tornadoes are classified

B. * to identify the most frequent type of tornadoes

C. * to emphasize the loss of life and damage to property caused by tornadoes

D. * to compare weak tornadoes to strong tornadoes

Question 8: Based on the information contained in paragraph 6, which of the following best
explains the term waterspouts?

A. * Tornadoes that move away from coastal areas

B. * Tornadoes that occur over oceans, rivers, and lakes

C. * Tornadoes that occur onshore

D. * Tornadoes that accompany tropical storms and hurricanes

Question 9: Look at the four stars { * } that indicate where the following sentence could be added
to the passage.
Indeed, the highest number of deaths and injuries are not caused by the winds themselves, but
by flying debris, such as broken glass from open windows.

A. * { A * }

B. * { B * }

C. * { C * }

D. * { D * }

Question 10: According to paragraph 6, what can be inferred about the public’s knowledge about
tornadoes?

A. * A large number of people know how to avoid tornado damage.

B. * Most people appreciate the risk of death associated with tornadoes.

C. * Some members of the public know how to regulate the pressure inside buildings.

D. * A number of people are not fully aware of certain key information about tornadoes,
especially about tornado safety.

Question 11: What is the safest place to be when a tornado strikes?

A. * an abandoned vehicle

B. * mobile homes

C. * the basement of a building

D. * under a piece of sturdy furniture

Question 12: According to the passage, tornadoes are considered to be a severe weather
phenomenon because

A. * many people fear them.

B. * they produce strong vortexes.

C. * they can be placed into three discrete categories.

D. * they can result in death and devastation.

Question 13: Select the answer below that represents the two most important ideas contained in
the passage.

A. * (i) Tornadoes can cause catastrophic loss in terms of life and property.
(ii) Everyone should be educated about what to do in the event of a tornado.
B. * (i) Most tornadoes occur in the afternoon.
(ii) Few tornadoes are violent.

C. * (i) Some members of the public are ill-informed about when and where tornadoes can
occur.
(ii) Sheltering in a ditch is a last resort if a tornado should strike.

D. * (i) Most tornadoes occur in the afternoon.

Answers

1.B 2.C 3.D 4.A 5.D 6.C 7.A 8.B 9.C 10.D 11.C 12.D
13.A