His students were numerous, and a few school works, such as the Sentences of Hermann (Epitome theologiae Christianae) or the considerable exposition of Pauline writings (Commentaria Cantabrigiensis), rely heavily on Abelard’s teaching. Several well-known masters also turned to Abelard as a significant thinker. Perhaps the most important of these is Peter Lombard, whose Book of Sentences, modeled on Abelard’s Sic et non, contains many of Abelard’s opinions and became the primary text for training theologians during the next four hundred years. However, the most lasting influence Peter held was with the community of the Paraclete. Until its dissolution during the French Revolution (1792), the monastery held its own as the special foundation of Héloïse and Master Peter, preserving Abelardian manuscripts and conserving the finer points of his teachings. The literary legacy of Abelard records the genius of a probing, mature, and experienced teacher. He expounded texts vigorously and forged seminal ideas for the development of Christian thought. He opposed Augustinian views on several counts, denying for example that the guilt of Adam was transmitted to humanity. Abelard created a more precise language to describe the interior character of sin and moral culpability and considered consent as the single factor that could render human behavior sinful. He also believed that the redemption theories that expressed the notion of a price or ransom imposed on God were unacceptable. Instead, Abelard held that Christ’s redemptive work as the incarnate Word, in life as in death, was the supreme expression and fulfillment of God’s creative love. Finally, Abelard’s approach to theology was part of a new mode of thought that brought questions, debate, and systematization to the fore as the science of sacred doctrine. Abelard did this with bravado, drawing upon the best in these procedures, creating a few himself, and integrating both method and doctrine through the filter of his penetrating intelligence.

updated bibliography, a list of English translations of Abelard’s works, a summary of the best scholarly articles, and a critique of the most significant studies on Abelard. Peppermüller, Rolf. Abaelards Auslegung des Römerbriefes. Beiträge zur Geschichte der Philosophie und der Theologie des Mittelalters, n.s. no. 10. Münster, 1972. Weingart, Richard E. The Logic of Divine Love: A Critical Analysis of the Soteriology of Peter Abailard. Oxford, 1970.

Essay Collections Peter Abelard. Edited by Eligius M. Buytaert. Proceedings of the International Conference, Louvain, 10–12 May 1971. Mediaevalia Lovanensia, series I, studia II. Louvain, 1974.
Pierre Abélard, Pierre le Vénérable: Les courants philosophiques, littéraires et artistiques en occident au milieu du douzième siècle. Abbaye de Cluny, 2–9 July 1972. Colloques internationaux du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, no. 546. Paris, 1975. Petrus Abaelardus (1079–1142): Person, Werk und Wirkung. Proceedings of the International Colloquium, Trier, 17–19 April 1979. Edited by Rudolph Thomas, David E. Luscombe, et al. Trier theologische Studien, no. 18. Trier, Germany, 1981. EILEEN F. KEARNEY (1987)


In the nineteenth century, scholarly research on the twelfth century as a locus for monastic reform and the rise of the schools fostered a renaissance in Abelardian studies. The nineteenthcentury editions of Abelard’s theological writings remain invaluable: volume 178 of the Patrologia Latina, edited by J.-P. Migne (Paris, 1885), and Petri Abaelardi opera, 2 vols., edited by Victor Cousin (Paris, 1849–1859). More recent critical editions and major studies of Abelard’s works are listed below, in chronological order.

´ Saiva theologian. Descended from Atrigupta, a brahman scholar brought to Kashmir from the Doab by King Lalitaditya (c. 724–760 CE), Abhinavagupta was the son, ¯ conceived in Kaula ritual, of Vimala and Narasimhagupta. ¯ : He lost his mother in early childhood—a circumstance that he saw as the start of his spiritual progress—and was trained ´ by his learned Saiva father in grammar, logic and hermeneutics. Later, when immersed in the study of the poetic arts, ´ he became intoxicated with devotion to Siva, and, giving up all thoughts of marriage and family, pursued the life of a student in the homes of numerous exponents of the various ´ Saiva traditions and their opponents. Abhinavagupta’s major works fall into four groups, treating the Trika, the Krama, the Pratyabhijña, and aesthet¯ ics. In the field of the Trika his main effort went into the exegesis of the Malin¯vijayottara Tantra, which he saw not ¯ ı only as the fundamental scripture of the Trika but also as the ´ essence of the entire Saiva revelation in all its branches. In the Malin¯vijayavarttika he elaborated this claim, arguing for ¯ ı ¯ a “supreme nondualism” (paramadvayavada) that attributed ¯ ¯ to the Absolute as autonomous consciousness the power to contain both plurality and unity as the modes of its selfrepresentation, and thereby demonstrated that the Trika, as the embodiment in revelation of this Absolute, transcends and contains the dichotomy between the orthodox (dualist) and heterodox (nondualist) directions in Saivism then confronting each other. The monumental Tantraloka, composed later, ex¯ pounded all aspects of the Trika, theoretical, yogic, and rituENCYCLOPEDIA OF RELIGION, SECOND EDITION

ABHINAVAGUPTA (fl. c. 975–1025 CE), Kashmirian

Texts and Studies Buytaert, Eligius M., ed. Petri Abelardi opera theologica. 2 vols. In Corpus Christianorum, Continuatio Mediaevalis, vols. 11 and 12. Turnhout, 1969. Includes a comprehensive bibliography up to 1967. Jolivet, Jean. Arts du langage et théologie chez Abélard. Études de philosophie mediévale, no. 57. Paris, 1969. Luscombe, David E. The School of Peter Abelard. Cambridge Studies in Medieval Life and Thought, n.s. no. 14. Cambridge, 1969. Luscombe, David E. Peter Abelard. The Historical Association, General Series, no. 95. London, 1979. Includes an excellent

1989. In the field of aesthetics Abhinavagupta achieved panIndian recognition for his commentaries on the Dhvanyaloka ¯ ¯ of Anandavardhana. the Abhina¯ s¯ vabharat¯. fortifying the latter’s doctrine of the primacy of suggestion (dhvani) in poetry. BIBLIOGRAPHY Gnoli. Pandey. Out´ side the Tantric Saiva milieu the works of Abhinavagupta and Ksemaraja provided the metaphysical infrastructure of : ¯ the Ahirbudhnya Samhita and Laks: m¯ Tantra of the : ¯ ı ´ Pañcaratra Vaisnnavas and inspired the Saiva Vedanta of ¯ :: ¯ ´ ı : ´ Sr¯kant: ha. and on the Bharatanat:ya´astra. This either has not survived or has not yet ¯ ¯ come to light. Ablutions mark transitions from one phase to another or from one area of society to another. ´ ı Krama. ´ ´ SEE ALSO Saivism. Abhinavagupta profoundly influenced the subsequent ´ history of Saivism in Kashmir. New Sources Isaeva. Raniero. which was the basic Saivism of the valley of Kashmir. Trika Saivism. Pratyabhijña. exhibits vast learning in the arts of drama. This influı ence was not confined to Kashmir: Abhinavagupta’s lineage established this tradition in Tamil Nadu. Bhartrhari. particularly the Krama-based cult of Kal¯. The Aesthetic Experience according to Abhinavagupta. the ¯ illusionism of the Vedanta. From Early Vedanta to Kashmir Shaivism: Gaudapada. through immersion. ed. Between ¯ı these two works he composed the Paratrim´ikavivarana. The nondualistic : ¯ doctrine which they expounded permanently colonized the ´ cult of Svacchandabhairava. 1995. Of Abhinavagupta’s work on the Krama we have only his short Kramastotra and a quotation from an unnamed work in which he follows the Krama worship of the Dev¯pañca´ataka. Ablutions are performed as well in relation to the different social roles of the sexes and to the various roles that a person can play in society. 2d rev. Therefore. Paul Eduardo. and Sr¯nis : ¯ ı : ı ¯ vasa’s Tripurarahasyajñanakhandavyakhya) maintained this ¯ ¯ ¯ : : ¯ ¯ tradition from the eleventh to the nineteenth century. Tejanandanatha’s ¯ ¯ ı ¯ ¯ ¯ ´ ¯ Anandakalpalatika. 2d ed. cow dung. ı s In the philosophical tradition of the Pratyabhijña we ¯ have two masterly commentaries. at least in part. Albany. which saw enlightenment not in withdrawal from extroverted cognition but in its contemplation as the spontaneous radiance of the self. N. more heterodox develop¯ ı ments. articles on Krama Saivism. Varanasi. and sometimes of such special religious items as statues of deities or saints. & enl. Through the profound philosophical scholarship of these works the nondualistic tradition was fully equipped to ´ justify its rejection of the dualism of the Saiva Siddhanta. ablutions are ritual and symbolic actions designed to avert the dangers inherent in those particular stages. The Krama. sand. Albany. was ¯ the object of independent study in his commentary on the Kramastotra (Krama Hymn) of the lineage of Jñananetranatha. ALEXIS SANDERSON (1987) Revised Bibliography ABLUTIONS are ceremonial washings of the human body or particular parts of it. The Triadic Heart of Siva: Kaula Tantricism of Abhinavagupta in the Non-dual Shaivism of Kashmir. both directly and indirectly. appetitive awareness and the blissful interiority of enlightened consciousness. The study of aesthetics ´ was traditional among the Saivas of Kashmir. Ablutions can be performed through washing with water. strongly present in the Trika of Tantraloka. rev. And. Mahe´Is ¯ s ı ¯ ¯ s varananda’s Maharthamañjar¯parimala. .ABLUTIONS 9 al. ¯ ı and music. they should be interpreted not as forms of magical belief. V. Carried out at transitional stages. Kanti Chandra. and the ¯´varapratyabhijñavivrtiIs ¯ : vimar´in¯ on that author’s lost auto-commentary on the s ı same. the S ¯ ¯ ¯ :s ¯ : s ı ENCYCLOPEDIA OF RELIGION. Many Sanskrit works by Tamils on the Trika. ranging from birth through puberty and marriage to death. Amrtananda’s Yogin¯hr-dayad¯pika. and the lack of the concept of ¯ transcendental synthesis in the nondualistic idealism of the Yogacara Buddhists. and is justly famous for its subtle theory on the nature of aesthetic experience as a distinct mode of cognition between worldly. in ¯ :s ¯ : which he focused on the elite Kaula practices of the Trika. Krsnadasa’s ¯ ¯ :: : ¯ ´ ivasutravarttika and Paratrim´ikalaghuvrttivimar´in¯. or through sprinkling. Ablutions are symbolic actions meant not to create physical cleanness but to remove ritual uncleanness or pollution. This second commentary. Varanasi. and later it formed the basis of the Kashmirian cult of the goddess Tripurasundar¯. such as cooking utensils or food.. ed. while seeking to integrate within the catholic authority of the Malin¯vijayottara Tantra later. 1968. or urine can be used. SECOND EDITION anonymous ¯´varapratyabhijñavimar´in¯vyakhya. Sivananda’s Nityas: oda´ikarnavarju¯ ¯ : s ¯ : : ´ ı vimar´ini. to the category of rites of passage. 1963. particularly at the ´ great Saiva center of Cidambaram. Ablutions and related symbolic behaviors are carried out in societies that are characterized by well-defined and clearly marked distinctions between the phases of human life. the ¯´varapratyabIs hijñavimar´ini on the Pratyabhijñakarika of his teacher’s ¯ s ¯ ¯ ¯ teacher Utpaladeva. propagating the belief ´ that Abhinavagupta was no mortal but an incarnation of Siva himself. They therefore belong. dance.g. while seeing these positions as approxi¯ ¯ mations to its own. Abhinavagupta: An Historical and Philosophical Study. or expressions of savage psychology but above all as ritual acts performed to create order and abolish disorder in social reality. Muller-Ortega. manifestations of primitive hygiene. reflecting the importance of dance and music in their liturgies and the aestheticism of the Kaula mystical cults. through the simpler and more formulaic works of popularization produced by his pupil Ksemaraja. and Sr¯vidya (e. of objects that come into close contact with the human body. ¯ ´ ´ Saivism in Kashmir. Pratyabhijña. devotee of Siva at Cidambaram. where social forms are fluid. and Abhinavagupta. water mixed with salt. instead of pure water.

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