r

"

Save a Pilot

.

•.

••.

.•••...

.

..

•.

• .•

2

Save a Plane

•.

•••.

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • ••

3

Flight

Statistics

.........

IIIo

••

jtI

••

Dl d You Eno 'II'? •

••

10

Fleet

Airoraft

••

'. .

. • • • •.

• • • •.

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••

17

Training

•••••

.•.

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19

Shore

St at ions

••

. • • • • . . • • • • • • • • • • • . 28

Overheard

.

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39

Technicall}'

Spea.king

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47

Air Warfare Diary ••..•••.•.••..•••••

~ 54

BUREAU

OF AERONAUTICS

NAVY

DEPARTMENT

·.

n I n k Ln g 01' bail:lng Probably not, at but In c a se that time along, it m:lght be well

swamp?

T

SAVE A PILOT
out o'v e r a

th e moment-should come to remember

what happened here.
o'ver the Flol"lda N~vy student by standing on bis spread 'chute in a clearing. This practlce facilitates search as the light colored 'chutes are eas11y seen f'rom the sky. The sprea(i chute also temporarily prevents the pilot from bogging down in the swamp. Team work goes into action when the pilot (if a Navy plane spots the stranded "flyer and guides an amphibian t.rac to r' (or maybe you call it a "swamp buggy") ; to th~ scene. Forced to bllil out

Everglades, this U.S. pilot follows instructions

And

in

the

absence

of

a "swamp

buggy- the Navy can still s ave a pilot. One ingenious fllgbt surgeon has devis ed a swamp rna t connee ted by long

3
amp sno es, swamp skJs, and a swamp sled. The stio es are pa.tterned if'ter snow shoes IUld ad.m1.rably serve the purpose. 'The
511'

.strips of doubled canvas. ful reseue 117emS" inola-de

Other

help-

1 i 1'e r a r t , The aircraft Was practically new and much ne~de4 for training. The extent of the darnag~ could not be seen due

a rubber

swamp

sled

takes

wagon, Assary

with

equipment.

place of'a swamp facilJties for tbe necthe

Both engines de ad , an SNR-l from the Ia-ke City, Florida, Naval >Air Station recen t 1 Y made a :for oed J and in g in a tree-fringed~ alligator-infested lake that 1s 1OClL ted in the TIl idst of a large tut1le.n tine t.Imbe r t r-ae t . A good J andf ng was made under diffleu I tcircumstances, but the airplane po r-po tsed (me81 then cl i'ved in to the murky ~hter and as jt sank,- waterLo op ed a Imo s t 1800• So rap Ldl y d,j d tile p Larre go unde r that th e crew e se ape d with difficulty, making shore in

- .-

to the darkness

of the wate~

and
plane

the

p0E;sibi1i ty of salvaging the s omewhat in d oub t.j also, t.he 1 anding and the a. t ti tude of seemed to dim the pros-pect

manner

the of intact

was of Pl ane

salvage '.
Neve~theless, it was decided to raise the pl ane and t'Toa t- r t intact to a sloping beach 8 mile from where it Jay.

The answer was a rig based on homemade -pontoons using th~rty-two 54gaJloH steel 011 drums for flotation and chain hoists to ~aise the plane from the Jake'~ bottom, so it could be towed. These drums have apprOXimately ll'i,OOa pounds of' buoyanqy. 1'/1th some water in the wingsa the airplane w~s

SAV£ A PLAN£

4
as timated
'the

to weigh 9,000

pounds,

while

Lumber ,

ge 6.1""
g~ve

d r ums and oth~r flotation added an o the r 3,000 pounds.. Th i s a net buoyancy of 3,000 pounds

which
raise

p r o'v d more e

than

adequa.te

to

the aircraft.

Four floats were censtructed on the spot, each consist~ng of eight drums, whi ch were bor rowed from a gas 0line dealer. They were held together in a wooden framework of' 2-inch rough
lumber.

On top

of

each

float

an 8XB column

comfortably a Wing of the SNB-l. Twn sets, one on either Ride of the aircraft, ""ere beld together by a pa Ir of 8x8 cross-pieces joined to the horizontal beams which were also used to support two chain hoists. The falls were in turn attached to the airplane by the regular hoist~ng eyes in the
Wings.

WB.S countersunk and furtil.er held in place by angle-lranw. Two of t he rIC! a t s were made in to a set by mounting an 8x8 beau on toy of the columns of' t.wo :floats. The set was constructed to straddle

transporting showed, surprisingly enough, slight structural damage to the. aircraft and tha tit was compLe teo y 1 sal vag able. After initial assembly of the flotation gear--which is now b e Lng k ep t in case of another lake forced landing-salvage operations took only three days. Unti] r-etnova I of' the wings, the crew at various times was only five to eight men, working a. total of abOut IOO-man hours for less than $100.00 to bring back an aircraft t.ha.tsoon again will be giving students ope ra t Iona l training before they legve for the far corners of the world.

Army Bas Version Of SB2C-l
Described as having "greater speed, range and str~king power.than any .dive bomber now In action, It the first gf a~ undisclosed nu~ber of a new type of dive-bomber. deSignated Curtiss A-25'S, already has been delivered from its Missouri plant to the AAF. The warplane Is an Army version of the Navy Curtiss (SB2C-l) Hel1diver. In fact, it 1s said that with minor changes 1 t can be used by e t fh e r the Army or Navy. It is a two-plac~, mid-Wing monoplane powered with a 1700 hpJ ~right Cyclone engine ~nd equipped with electric propeller an~ retractable landing gear. The first A-25 was test-flown some time ago and presented formally to the AAF on Christmas Eve. The factory flight tests, obse~vers said, were ~~ery s a t i s r a c t or y e , A major e x p ans Lo n program at the Missouri plant has been carried out. with a shift in emphasis from the ~roduction of other Army and Navy airplanes to that of the A-25. Quantity production now
is underway.

Each set was towed to the alrplane~ p.u t l.n p Lac e , and then the cr0SSpieces mounted. This made a Simple, bu f strong, support for t.ne plane to be hoisted upon. With the chain falls, the a~rcraft was hoisted until the wings were awash. The whole rig and airplane were then tdwed a mile to the, b e ac h by a dt,nghy mounting a 10-borse power outboard motor, On reaching
were

and 4-wheel drive truck, after the Toad to tbe beaoh Was readied by cutting a wide enough path through tbe trees that ~rew up to ,the water's edge.

the beach the wheels cranked down, the w~ngs removed the aircraft pulled ashore by 8.

The aircraft was hoisted on to a flat-body open-bed truck and taken sixty miles to the Naval Air Station at Jackso~vl1Ie, FloridR, where all IDRjOr overhaul work is done for the lakeCi ty Station. Preliminary e~am~n8tion before

FormatiOn. Take-Off Ac-cident;it diVision of F4F-4'S, in overload condi t.f on , was ma.king a formatl0·n take·-ot'_f with a. wind approximately 6 knots broad on the- port bow. One a.t rpla.ne swerved approx~&ately 60 degrees to the left during tbe take-off run. The ~ilot maintained full power and attempted to continue his take-ofL He became a:Hborne near the edge of the field, but crashed Into obs truct~onswhich res u'l ted in falal injuries. BUREAU COJJNE-NT: Current ins tT'UCtions rully explain·the Marginal rudder control this airplane for take-offs with wind on the port bow. Formation take-offs with full overload under these adverse conditions appear unwarranted. Rudder mOdirications to eliminate this condition are now under

or

test. The pilot in tbis case made a serious error in judgment in attempting to
continue take-off after encountering

a successful t·ake-off doublful. Thi.s type of p i Lo t errol' was r ec e n.tLy reporte.d on under the heading ~The Lesser of Two Evilsft,
At iea:During period 4ij forced landings at sea, (Bpi tish, "d l t.ehLng ") have bae~ reported for oarrier based aircraft. Landings reported in this category include only pllot-conlrollBd landings ~ade at sea, due to engine failure, gas shortage. etc. There are several p01nts of interest which appear in connection with these Forced

difficultie~

which

made

With Comments by GRAMPAW PETTIBONE ,
tj~or~ed were mInor head and face inJurias. These should be largely eliminated by the use of the lap and shoulder type safety belt. The use of this safety belt might even have prevented the two ~atal accidents refe,rred to above. (c) The t-tme aircraft remained afloat varied oonsiderablr, but with the except fon of th_e t.wo fatal accidents

Landi~t5

a recant

18-month

previously
each case

Forced

land i ngs ,:.

(a) Fa tal;i.ties Dec ur red in only (;WO of these: 45 landlngs; one an F4F-4 and the other an SBD-2. Tile F4F hit a swell;, head-on and the SBn was reported
as haVing landing. made an exceptionally hard. Personnel were believed to have been knocked unconscious upon impact, in each case. (b) Very few seriOUS injuries we~e l' e p 0 r ted. Man .}I rep,o r t s _1 n.d, I c. ate u "no injuries". lIIost of the injuries

noted, 1 twas for pilots to into their life rafts.

__._...

sulTlcient in get elea-rand

Understand

Your Fuel

Consumpttbn

Ct.!rves:A student pilot undergoing apera.tlonal training recently m'a.dea c l"o.:shlanding in an SB2A-4when his engine suddenl, failed approximately one hour arter take-off. The pilot escaped wi~hout injury but the &11"plana r e_cej_ sd maj o·r damaKe. v It was- the o'nLnLon of the Trouble

6
Board that the engine failure resulted from depletion of fuel frolll the I eft m aLn tan" whicb was found d ry , and that the pilot had railed to shift to either of the other tanks, both of which were full. It was furthar believed that the underlying cause of the pilotls failure to take proper action Was due to his lack of understanding of engineering £undamentals. as illustrated by the following: Shortly after the recelpt of the 882A-4 airplanes at this station an instructor flew Ii student pilot on Ii. flight for area check-out. After the fl~gbt he instructed the student to ascertain the fUel eonstlmption for the flight. The student r-eport.ed later that it was 56 gallons per hour, then told the remaining students of his findings. When subject pilot returned from this crash, the fitst question .sked him was relative to shifting fuel suction, to ~hich he replied, "No, sir I didnit shift because I had 81 gallons in the left main tank te start with and the plane onLy U5tS 56 (alLons per hour. Since I kne~ I had plenty of fuel le:rt~ I didn't shift." It was determined that this pilot was averaging cons iderably more power than the instructor previously ~entloned. Tbere w~re no fuel consumption curves on the SB2A-4 airplanes ava t lab Le at this station at the time this studen t commenced his familiarization; however, it was assumed that all stUdents had enougb of' an engineering background to realize that fuel consumption varies with the power used. Fuel consumption curves have now been rece Lve d at, this station and are bp,ing fully explained to stude~ts berore flight.

,

,

Grampaw Pettibone says:This accident g~ves me a chance to sound ofr on a point I've been wanting to m.ention for a long time; the question of hangar and bunk flying. There is probably ~ore misinformation passed out during an average bull session of partially trained pilots than in any other ~roup discussion in the world. Mark you, I'm not against these sessions, in

1nk t.hey are one of the finest things in aviation; they indicate an interest and nthusiasm for flying and much valuable information is picked up in this manner -- BUT . • . Much of this good is offset by the incorrect and inc.omplete dope which is so freely given. It's a case of a little knowledge (about airplanes) being a dangerous thing. The g00d th~ng8 you learn w111 help you, but acting on one wrong bit of advice may be fatal.- Look at the above example: one guy says, "These SB2!'s burn 56 gallons an hour; my instructor and 1 checked It this, morning. ~ This happens to be true, but is very incomplete. Some student takes tbis as the whole truth, flies accordingly and, as a result. almost k~ll$ himself. Do you get the point? Sure, continue these bu.Ll,fests, but be careful; careful in wha t y011 say -- Y,ouJ'roommate may tryout your theory and bump himself off and careful in wha t you believe -- don't put your roommate's hal f-baked ideas into practice without first checking them with your instructor. Your roommate will be sad and lonely when you are gone.

rae lIth

BUREAU COKNENT:News Letter, sc1.ou5·.

See article
"Let's Get

in last
Con-

Fuel

Collision
Pra.ctice

Danger

Dur1ne

Night

LandIng
pilot

:Case I. T.he student of an N28-3. during night landing

pr-e.c-.

7
tice, saw that he was overtaking the airplane ahead of him in the landing circle. He thereupon changed course to increase ttle interval, but failed to keep his eye on the ajrplane ahead of him. ~hjle on his landing approach, at approXimately 30 feet altitude, he suddenly saw the same ajrplane ahead of hiw again and on a converging course. In his attempt to avoid this airpla.ne, he inadvertently snap-rolled his own airplane and struck the mat flights, with~n sight of the pasture an~ salv~ge ~actlities, Chapter 60
of' the Civil Atr Regulations, PX'"sJ Howgppeared

etc.,
ever,

must

have

been unknown.
must have

such things

on th~ visionary screen of those far-seeing pioneers. wRecently the p110t of a flying machine took of'f after a respectable lunch, for a destinatton In excess of' three hund.redmile.s. Expert navigation enabled him to arrive
twenty-six minutes ahead
No

wjth -power on, in
Rem~rkably
k f Ll e d ,

an Lnv

enough,

this

er te d position. pilot was not

of

the

predicted
away· and not was

ETA.
filed

Th~ pilot
a PX.

During primary night flying there were eight solo students in the landing cjrele around a well-lighted field. The traffio pattern gradually beca~e elongated at the down-wind side of the runway, until the students were makin~ longJ flat, transport-like approaches. One student temporarily lost sight of t~e plane aheud o£ him and after commencing what he oonsidered & normal approaph, collided with the plane preceding him, which in following the other traffic~ had been forced to ~ake a long approach. As a result of tbiS collision, one pilot was killed when his airplane crashed, out of control. JJJJUEAU COMMENT; Pre-fl igh t I e c t.u r e s to students should emphasize, streES and acc.en t.u e.t.e the absolute necessity for ma Ln t.utnt n g sight contact, at least on the ajrplane next ahead in the landing circle. A poor traffic pattern rs also considered to have been contributory to the collision 1n case #2. Planes bnould no~ get bunched at the landing end of the circle' this results in the traffic pattern here noted. Planes shQuld'be fairly evenly spaced and if more distance is needed, it should be taken on th~ up~ind side of the circle. The following letter was recently received from Fleet lir Wing Five: ~Dear Grampaw Pettibone; WIn the days of onp hour endurance

Case 2.

"walked arrival

report
could

came in

board

and ~he operator go to d1.nner u n t I.I his cleared. Things then

starterl happening. ATG r~leased a ZZZ message, all communication persdonel were aroused from their normal cOlllplacenc"y. Ensigns from junior card cocktail grade games, rooms, were taken

were recalled
Ld eu t ena n t s frmn t11e1.1"

courtshtpsJ

11eutenants·~rom their lieutenant D9mmanders

-.-

from their after-dinner na~s, and commanders from their stu«y of the wbroader aspects". The state pol1ce I) f three s ta tas .and C oas till a.irc-r.ft spotters were notified, the latter
e.sse re Ing that n e such aircraft was had

llenetrated.
buzzing; by long

The telephone the destlna~ton distartce only

lines were
called

to deOlare that the pla~e b~d not arrived aod to infor~ the caller that a physical
up had been made.

check

8
IIA coordinated search 'l'as planned involving a1rcraft at three difPerent localities. Density of 8~arehJ character of terrain,. endurance and number of se,archerlj to be lost were all con.1dered. conducted Inv~luable between 0200 training a nd the was de.1fn.

3
pu rga tiv.es are not adminls tered in the 1nitial stages, the entire squadron or ship wIll be infected 1n a short time. fhe best prophylaxis against the gremlinitis germ is to wear a bag or asaroetida around your neck, or c.rry a rabbit's foot or other charm in your ~ocket; and then work like hell to do your job thoroughly and corree tly. Other interest points in ~our letter: (8.) You say, "Expert navigation enabled the pilot to arrive 26 minutes ahead of predicted ITA." Strikes me as being a r 19h t poor estimation on time 0 t' a r r-Lv ; al or maybe he allowed himself' 26 minutes 1'01' the g'remlins. ge t tt ng him lost and when this didn't happen, he got there eariy) (b) Maybe the "invaluable trainlng~ derived from tb~s episode made it worthwhile, after all, and (c) Your expert diagnosis of where to locate your officers in an emergency waS very enlightening and should be noted by other squadrons. lsi P. S. Pettibone. The following summary of ,aircraft accidents which have occurred kt NAS Fort Lauderdale were submitted b) t ha t station for publication, in the ho p e that It would cause o t.rie-r ot s p1l to THINK:

"Unfortunately when one of the searchers was briefert for his misby

sion, he let asserting tion.

the cat out of the bag he had seen tbe lost destinacheek discloscase. Then messages putting back

plane and pilot arrlve at bis
Another ph.ysiclll such was were the ed This the that time flyers

telephone calling

lines
they off the

s taTted buzz 1ng aga tn.
carrying and search

and flying machines

to wor k combat ing the subma rine III'Inace. ~Please tell us, Grampaw Pettibone,

does this appear as the work or gremlins and if so, what t,ype are they? 'The Job d.e1'lnitely is of' t he white oollar variety, but inc~ wben
have tl;ley invaded th fl,eld o,f communications? All other resee.rch points to f'lyers as being the only form of life capable 1'used by their tactics. 01' being ~ con~

-.-

,

lsi

(Name wlthheld).~

Grampaw's

Reply

-

'Tain't gremlins! Oct. 24, 1942 - Pilot ran out of gaE Guess I'm just old-fashioned, but on one tank OIl familiarization flight. I don't believe in "them". I'm firmly Made f'orced landing ill rough field convinced that all these reports about before he could shift and pick up gremlIns botching the works are only su.ction on full tank. Airpl'the rethe symptomB of a modern, aviation quired major overhaul. disease - gremllnltls. Trouble BOard Finding: 10'0% Pilot When aviation personnel contra~t Er ror , this disease, they begin doping off Oct. 25, 1942 - Pilot dipped wing in and doing slipshod work - then when water and knocked off wing tip making something goes wrong, they immediately torpedo run. "Altimeter read 1251", s tart yelling, "The gremlins did it!" pilot stated, when this occurred. rill bet a planter's punch against an fce cream soda. (make mine strawberry) 'YOU CAN NOT DEPEND ON THE ALTIMETER that if you backtrack this presen t case' , WHEN CLOSE TO THE SURFACE. carefully you cer'l put )pour f1ngeJ' right on the "gremlin" in the woodpile. SomeI DIDN'T KNOW IT body failed to file or send a report WAS LOADED properly, Or maybe the station of de~tination had' lax system of logging flights. This is a very dan5erous dis .ase because 1 t Is so con to. .> tOilS". If f" .;rong

9
A ver, a€c Lde r:I t . lucky

pilot

survives

this

Oct. 20, 1942 - Pilot attempted to br e a k all r ec ords for s-peed in a d.Lve after altitude flight. He exceeded the restricted speed (315 kts. in light cond I tion) and. the wing disinteg,rated in the d Lv a , resulting in fatal dive -8. Tid spin Lnt o the B,r<ound. P il o t was instantly In LLe d ,
Result ORe

I DIDN'T KNOW IT WAS LOADED

pilot

who

will

never

drDp

a ~risb"

or bomb

an

the
100%

Japs,

a ud. one

plane c.omp Let e Ly Traub] e Hoard F'lnditlg: H, IH42 P;ilot
f ptrt

dem.olished.

Pi tot
Ln t o

Error.
Noy.
C0

head

u e I b e f' 0 r e It i g11t landing a nd flew into trees on edge of f"ield. P'La ne c a ug h t OIL fire and

c k pit

toe

he c k

was completely d e-mol Lsh ed . pilot. ~ilch Lyescaped with _first and s e cond degree burns on head aud arms. .Trouble Board Finding: 100% Pv lot

Error
NOVI 1°1-1942 - Pilot pulled "wheel handle" inste-ad of "flap hand.Ie " a r t.e r landing. Anotber plane out of comruissiQn for ten days. Nov. 21. 1942 - Pilot attempted t o land

too close behind plane a'he a.d, and was flying too close to stalling speed of pl~ne. As a result, he struck tl1e slipstream of plane ahead and "spun in" on the end of t h e runway. The airplane was completely demolished; pilot ~eceived minor cuts on faca. Trouble Board Finding: 100% Fi lot

Nov. a!), 1942- - Pilo.t ran out of" gas on one tank witll two full t.an ks ; woile making touch_aDd_go landings. Fortuna taly for him, this occur r e.d jus t; after a landing. However; pilot nos ed plane up by applying too much brake, resulting in one plane requiring a new engine and propeller. Dec.2B. 1942 - Pilot raised flaps too soon aftsr take off. He Was app.roxlma.teTy fifty _feet in the ·,airand prubably had not over 80 kts. airspeed. Plane squashed and spun into i_!,round and immediately caught all. fire .. Pilot was reruoved from wreckage in an unconscious condition and died twa hours later. THIS PILOT M~GRT HAVE SAVED HIS LIFE HAD HE HAD HIS SHOULDER SAFETY BELT ATTAr HED• PI aile wa.sCorn1llete loss. T'rouble Board Findings l .1 00% Pi l at

Er-ror_
Jan.

1 and

2,

1943

- Two

more

pilots

tried to i'ly on, an empty gas -tank while t~ey had two full ones. Result: one
plane lost at s e a , and

plet·ely
landing. THEY

Washed
WON'T

out
FLY

one plane c om-. due to Corced

Error.
- Pilot was number two of three plane section. On cross under to rIght echelon he got too close beneath number three and ahead. In attempting tq get clear, ~ilot pushed over, thereby striking the underside of number three with his tail. The tail Was cbop~ed orf by number three's propeller and plane crashed into sea. pilot bailed out; rear men went in with plane. Ne ithe'r plane or body recovered. Trouble Board Finding: 100% P~lot

Nov. 23, 1942

WITHOUT

Trouble E'rror.

Board

Finding:

100$

GA~. Pilot

500,000 Airplane Models
half a million airplane been distributed to Navy and Army re-cognitionclasses, where they are of incalc'ulablev-alue in training ·pilots and g unners , lina this number is being increased by thousands, eacb week, according to the Speeial D,e'vice s Sec ticnr ;Tra in tng Dtv! s ion. The dtstribution of these models is world-wide. More than

models

have

E,.-pn.

Pit at Dropped

tram.

OPe-rg. t1 ana l

TrfJ.' ntnr·

British Air Magazine Evaluates U, S,' Combat Planes ..
British ail" weekly, The Aerop l a n e , inserts its own opinions, a.s editor's notes, in reprinting the text of OWl1s report on specific combat planes built In the U.S. Frequent use or the word nmagnificent~ is interspersed with some criticisms not seen in the ppess in this country. ~he comThe

315 mph is good
will be far

for a naval
by

exceeded

the in to

rlgnter but mngnifieent

American
mph

Vougl:1t-SilWfSky

figh tf3 r noW comi ng

Corsair 366 se r-v 1 ce ,

Boeinr

8-17 (FlYlnf Fortress):

Ex-

ments

a;1Jpe,ar -in the

Nov .. 13 issue

of'

the m~gazine, which has just been received. Opirlions are 4_lloti::'.d below: C'1Jrt'tss P-40: Wha.t is also ns ede d in the p-4uis more speed. Evec{1 the \1,erl in mo to r carino t make this des ign the e.!,l_ual in perform!lnc~ to other bet'tel" s t r eam l Lned fighters anrl an a rma-. ment of six b.5 maohine-guns hardly

seems adequate. Be Lt. P-39 (A
P-40,

l

"'€leo bra J :

r.r !{e

the

suf'"ers rrom the low ~uperch~rge of its Alli~on motD~. Thw view rorward is poor because or the steep1i sloping windscreen. The tricycle nose wheel h a.s given t.r oub Le on muddy airdrones. Cockpit size Is l1mited. Good, low down. N (J r t. hAm e rt c cHI p- 5 1 r /.f:u s tan lId, The Must.ang looks like the best AlI E' racan f'igh ter ye.t 'p r-o duce d. Wi tli the. Allison, it has a top speerl of 370 mph and is excellent low down. It was designed to a spBcifioa~ion 10.10. down by the British and so has much active the Airacobra

experience Lockheed
seaters

buil

t

into

1 t.

'-38 fL1ghtnt"fJ:
suitable

SingleRe-

aren't

for long-range

escort
puted

work.

Top sp8ed 360 mph.

to be rather a handful for one man to 1'l y. Republic '-47 (Thu.nderbolt): The great weight of the Thunderbolt -~ a round 14,000 Lb s , -make sit exoeedingly heavy ror a single~seat f'ighter. Grumman F4,r-4 (WddcatJ: The wildcat -- term:ed the Mart.let by the Royal N&vy -- Is an exc~llent machine and has done very well., I t.s top speed 0f

cellent for the work done over oceanS for whi ch it was de-Signed,. the Fo·rtre!,;s haS done we~l in esco~ted raids at short ran~€ over France and sHould pr-ove valuable. European weather sets a serious limit on its constant use in high-l~vel day]i~ht ra-ids. This (in the O.W. L report) American comparison between the Fortress and the Lancaster 1s har~ly accurate. The Lancaster is faster, carries several times the bomb load and has a longe-I" r-ang;e than the FOrtress. !loth wIll be surpassed by the new Hoeing B-29 and Cnnseliftubed A-32 bombers. Con~Qlidated B-21 (Liberator): The remarks on the Fortress apply also t.o the Liberator. NOrth Ame'rlciln 8-25 (NdcheL,t): A tine aIrplane, e~eelled only by the German Do rnLer DQ 217·, Which is f'a.s t er and carries & bigger load. MartH! 8-26 (Marauder); Another ex ceLl ent airplane but app.ar-e nt.Ly deficient in wing area. This makes operat.Lon fpom any but the la;rgest a Lr dr-ome s di rrioul t w.i th full Lo ad, DouglQl A-20 (Bbston Dr Havoc): A first class machine wb~ch has given magnificent service OYer Franue and In the Mi ddl e East. DDUffla.s 5BD (Daufltless); An excellent dive bomber ,hich has done great work with the. U.S. Navy. ~ow e}Ccell ed by the Our t ts s Hell diver mono-

pl.ane.
I

Grumman
or its

rEF {Avenee

clAss--the

rJ ~ At the top b e s t 1.n the world

PatrbL and NJscellaneous; The Cat:ld ill a. is a nlainsta,y o:f Coas tal Command. The neWer Con s o'l Lda t.e d ,CoronaCln

today.

11

¢
A Fairy Fu}mo.r has

"ho.olred"down the first'
Arrester wire, and Is just about, to t.oue h down 01"1the 1'] tght deck.

TtOYAL NAVY)S CARRIER fiGHTERS
Se·8fjr~J Nayy's the RoyaJ ver s-l en of the

famous Spitfire, opera tes from a irc.ral't ca rr ters , The¥ are rumored to have a speed of over 400 Il'lpb; hitting a ce.11iJig of more than 40,000 feet.

Ranging a Sea Hurricane on the flight deck of a HI'it ish a.iroraft carr leI'.
This plane is alsocata-

pUlted from merchant ships to pro,t'}ct convoys.,
."

all-round p a t.r-o l present. brief survey the be deficient in righter development and ahead of the 11'01'1 a in Naval aircraft and transports. The present American heavy bombe.rs hav e several important tactical drawbacks which out weigh their many good fea~ tures when o-perating in European conditions. T~e new American bornb.rs should 1 ead the wo r Ld and be c a p ab Le of meeting and exceeding every possible call upon them. On the basis of this survey, British fighte,'r production, the present production of British heavy bombers and the future product~on of American heavy bombers should give the United States unrivalled -performance in eve ry cate~ory.

is p rob abLy the best boat in the world at Summary: In this U.S.A. 1s shown to

"Some U-boat crews hu~e learnen the, secret of the patrol's rizht against subs," says Major Earle Johnson, national uo mm a n d.er- of thE' G.A.P., "but the)' won't tell, because they are at the bottom of the sea, in their iron tombs." Pilots on these coastal beats are selected from patrol squanrons in 44 states. There are men who never before had flown any water wider than a c~eek. NOW, in the hours they spend flyirf!; o u t, of sight of land, these men could cross the Atlantic a dozen t'mes. Only actual expenses are paid. --there are no salaries in the Civil Air- Patrol squadrons. Ma.ny of the pilots have ~iven up ~ood jobs; all of them p r o v Ld e t.heir own uniforms and equi pman t . Ih pel's o.na l s ae rL fl e e

..

..

Civil Air Patrol
Navy is indebted to a group at civil~an ~lyers who are making a valThe iant contribution in patrol and rescue work. When the full story of the Civil Air Patrol can be revealed, pro b a b 1 Y not u n til a f' t e r t.h e w &1' , there will be a special roll of honor f'or America's "Flying Minute ~en." ~even days a week, volunteers on coastal patrol are ~ighting a littleknown war against Hitl~r's U-boats. Ahd over inland areas. tens of thousands of other civilian pilots are guarding; against sabotage, patrolling p ow e r and pipe lines, ,and doing ~ score of other important jobs that release Army and Navy flyers for combat duty. This is no cozy home~guard detail. Coastal--patrollPilots fly 40 mlies of'fshore, in ,single-engined landplanes. If an engine cuts ovt it meins a crash-landing at sea. Five flyers have been lost on -patrol missions. but against this figure are millions of m~les flown ~n searoh of U--boat5. Whether at' not C'..... LP. planes carry ~ombs and machine guns. Hitler's undersea crews would pay a grea t deal to Irn,ow.

--even to the point of giving their lives--this fighting home front is a strikino- example of democracy iIot war. Coastal patrol squadrons are made up of the more experienced "Minute ~ Men." P;ilots must know navigation. radio, c.r a s h procedure. instrument ~lylngJ basic mil~t'ry o~erations. Hundreds of survivors from torpedoed vessels owe their quick rescue to, Patrol pilots. One of these ships was sunk in, such a heavy sea that the lifeboats were in .danger of being

swamped.
from ming

Low

visibility

bid. them

Shore, but a C.A.P. flyer~ skimthe wav€s at 200 fBet, s~otte~ them just as he was nearing the end of h Ls .run. After radioing fol' help, he circled the boats--in spite Of an almost empty fUel tank--untl1 Coast

.13
Gua~d cutteT~ arrived to rescue the men. He was barely abl e to reach thE nE:arest beach f'or- a forced 1 and Ing , Civil Air Patrol duties mean long th ma.cb f n e=g uns , light bomb s , grenades. have strafed Nazi columns and helped annjhllate enemy p~ratroojlers. Others have rerried 'replacements, t'o o d , and ammunition armed
wj

and han~

hours, hard work, often real sacrifice. Many membe~s take time off from their regular Jobs, besjdes putting in every spare-minute. A ground man in an Eastern urtlt rides a bicycle 20 ~iles every night) rain, snow or clear, to put. Ln four h o u r s r work on engines--Ilfter a fill] daytime Job.
Oile woman, 11 z r andmc thar-, drives an airport bus ~nr Ptltrol members. The coastal patrol is only a part of C.A.P. war s e r v Lc e , In a hundred ways the Patrol 1s releasjng Army, Navy, and Marjne airmen and planes for ur~ent military duty. Just before the African camrai~n several Army technjcJans were delay~d in the mjd-

to guerilla
1 I n e s, hi

figbters

behind

the

German

more,

e a P. h .0 f the sew a V S' , and man y the C.A.P. is ready to spring into action. But 1n the light of its present and continuous accomplishments, should such a test never come, the Patrol will have performed a tre-

ruepdolls war

service.

Champagne Bath

west by lack of transportation, while an Army bom~er waited for them at Miami, PatFol pilots flew them to Florjda jn relays--a Pony Express on Wings. Now, several courier routes have boen established, with C.A:P. planes operating on regular schedules. Pilots cover thousands of mf Las daily, ferrying officers and key meN. C,A.P. pilots have made aerjal surveys t (I see that no roo f!Jl a r Ii i n g s exist to gujde anemy-bombers. Others ~ave spotterl dozens of forest fires jn time to ch@e~ disastrous losses. The Patrol flies anti-sabotage guard,

"The

cooties

were

biting,

champagne

Waf; 17 cents

around

reservoirs,

power plants,

mu-

nitions factories, and other im-portant po1nts. Flying power and pipe lines, to spot breaks or leaks, and observing ice jn the Great Lakes so that oreboats can move at the earliest possible date--these ar€ typical tasks the Cjvil Air Patrol has already tawen
ov er ,

Along our coasts, and well inland, Patroi squadrons haVH become skilled in blocki~g airports against ~os$ible enemy use. Sn me C.A.P. units are training with parachutes, others with carrier pigeons, aerial pick-up of me ss ag es, r.amouf'lagjng o:f planes and bases. In RussiE, civilian flyeTsj

bubbly Ii pretty smart thing to do." And that was exactly what Lieut. O.V August· did in Ca.-sablanca. the Associated Press said. T~e Navy lieutenant said he was taken prisoner after his plane was downed during landing operations. He was lodged for one night in an old horse stable where he caught a "beautifu] case" of cooties. Upon his rf'lease lie went to a Casablanca hotel, a n dun ab Jet 0 s 1 e e p, be c au s e 0 f th e coo t t es chewlng on h i m ordered, several bottles of cha~pagne. He figured the alcolo1 would be a good disinfectant. "I stood in the bathtub,~ be said, nAnd wi th one hand I pour-ed it over me. arid wi tll the other, in to me. It
I

so stuff seemBd like
a quart,

a b a t h in

the

".

DIYE

(BRAKE

OREN).

1,500f". _

__ '-----AT

tHIS POI~TSOON AS 80M8V.opS AS
T AI

AUTOMATICALLY MOVES J'lEVATO R TO RECQV£~Y POSITIQt4

COHTROLS

.1

D

)!r

I

j

15

¢

Robot stuka

Borrowing from tactics originated Md developed in this country, tbe Nazis have Ln eo r-por at ed a number of' cle~er devices into their Stukas. Their ideology seems to have po Ln t ed the way, 1'01' the human element is being eliminated as much as possible fiom their dive~bombing technique by the use of automatic bomb dropping and pull-out mechanism, according

to Ai r Pr og r e s s ,

Approaching his target at about feet, the pilot decides on the angle of dive and recovery altitude. Be swi_tcbe.s on the bomb-timing distributor which arms and r 8leases the bomb at the proper pullout altitude. The contacting altimeter is set to a determined recovery height; it works on the general principle of an electric alarm clock. When the altimeter is set to a pre~termined ~ltitude, an electric cont.aot;closes at the pUll-out he.ight, ~using the current to actuate the bomb-release and tab mechanisms. The ~ev~tor tabs are then trimmed for diving altitude, usually fifty degFees for automatio recovery, and the" dive brakes are opened to limit the diving speed. On the Junkers 87 and 88 iliabrakes are on the underside o~ the wings in the fOfm of slated plates whicb, in level flight, are flat .ainst the wing surface. For diving attacks, they are turned through a n~ety-degree angle to preseht a flat surface to the air stream. The twin~eng1ned new DQrnier 217E, bowever, has the dive brake fitted in the tail acting as a drogue, as shown aoov e . Lowering the dive brakes automatically locks the elevator trimming tabs, ~aklng the aircraft nose heavy. Maneuvering down to between 5,000 and 4,000 feet, the pilot readies for tbe dive. The airplane is pointed into the wind and the angle o£ his sight is adjusted to corupensate for estimated wind force; ~ table relat.ing this angle to w.ind speed is mounted

m~ooo

on the instrument board. The cockpit cowling of the dive bomber is marked with reference lines for dives of twenty, fifty and seventy degrees. Lin ad up again s t the h o r- i z on j th e s e marks help the pilot's adjustment o~ the angle of dive. When the set recovery altitude has been reached, the Qontactlng altimeter's circuit closes, automatically starting the bomb distributor. The tab, working on a strong spring, trims the elevators to tail hea-vy cond.ition to effect the dlve recovery; at the same time, the bomb mechanism sends the missile plunging downward. , The pilot then takes over the controls, closing the d t ve br-akes J returning the t8bs to normal position, le-vels out the bomber and attempts to get away.

Growth of RCAF
Members or the Royal Canadian Air Force are figl'lting in nearly every major battle area of the world, says Canada's War Information Board. The size of the RCAF has jumped from a pre-war 4000 to more than 150,000 today) with Canadian airmen over the high seas, at home, l;Lndabroad. One of the tilg functions of the RCAF includes operation of the British COl1Illlonwealth ir Training A Plan, which turns out air crews for the RAFJ the Royal Australi-an Air Force, and the Royal New Zealand Air Force, as well as the RCA F • E v e.r y s 1 ng 1 e day 1 n Canada men under training fly more than 2,000,000 miles in this oneand-a-half billion dollar progrRm. Most of the aCAF personnel ~verseas is serving with RAF squadrons. There are 25 ReAP squadrons now serving allover the world with the RAF, working under Canadian command. An RC,\F Catalina flying boat squadron is stationed in Ceylon. Canadian airmen are serving in such places aa Ioeland, Iraq, RUSSia, Madagascar, with the Fleet Air Arm, and on convoy protection. The enrollnl~nt of 20,000 in Canada's !ir Cadets will be expanded to ~5.000 ooys in the next few months.

Henderson
The highly

Field Box Score
st r a teg t c

derson
captured Matines,

Field

va l u e of ~!eJlIsland last August by Un r t ed States is sho~n in Ii cnmp11~Ljon of

on Ou a d a Lc an a j

to 450,000 of them (almost 5010) will be of' the weB. ker sex. Experts are saying that the 1943 v a lua t t nn of a Lr-c F t, produced will r-a be around eleven billion do l J a.r , s, ag~inst approximatel) fJve billion In

Japanese
J.

losses

made by Sergeapt
j

ErlMard

1942.
n Iane s ,

This

means

85,000

to 00,000

Bu r man ~ a Mar

nee

0

I'1l s

Comb a t. Cor-

responden t . This is Burmanis box-score on Japanese losses inflicted by D~u~lass Dauntless dive-bombers operating ~rom Henderson Field between AUglist 25, 1942 and January 1, 1943:
Destroyers
sun~J

-- Two sunk,

20

da~aged.

five ,osstbly

Tile AAF recently released indus tn figures, t oo s Present b a c k Lc g , 20 billion dollars; nrortu~L1ve floor space, 75 million square feet toward an ultimate 100 million. Pres~nt Br Lt Ls h output was estimated at 48,000 planes and Japanese production about 10,000 a year.

cruisers -- One sunk, one possibly sunk, three dBnaged Battleships -- One RONGO closs sb1p possibly sunk by four hits. Troop-CBrrytrlg €argo

~eavy

Human Bayonet Target Receives Medal
A native of the Solomon Islands who made a daring rescue of a U.S. naval aviator shot down in Japanese territory during aerial combat, bas been awarded the Silver Star Medal for "conspicuous gallantry and intrepi d it Y ". This one-time member of a savage tribe, called VOUZlt., is B. six-footer who s p e a ks pidgin English and is a sergeant-major in the British constabulary in the S010fons. Shortly after delivering the American airman into friendly hands~ Vouza was sent out on a mission by the Marines to locate a Jap lookout station. He was captured by the Japanese who questioned him about the location of American fo r c e s., Vouza refused to talk. His c apt.cr-s lashed him to a tree and jabbed him ab out the face, throat and ches t wi th bayonets. When he lapsed into unconsciousness they left him for dead. Several hours later he came to, broke his bonds and craWled back to the Mar ines Vl'ith a1 uab Le informa tion about, v the d ap s . 'l'he Army surgeon who treated him was amazed that any man eQuId undergo such tortures and still live.

de s t.r oye rs -- Two SUlik.
s unk , one pas-

ships -Eight s 1bIy SUI1l!. Durl11ng

~r8r~~?rUs

--

and

Six

possibly

sun~J

tbree left
SUlik.

Zero f1ghter~ -- Elg~t sb~t down~ destroyed on tne ~rouDd.

12

From pecember 12 to Deoe~ber 27, 1942, attack missions were carried out involving a total of 108 plane5~ With Grumman ~ildcats and Army P3S's and

P39's

p r o v t-d t n g fighter

protecUon,

the dive-bombers dropped 106 fjvehundred-pound bombs and 212 hundred~ pounders.

199,000 Women Building Planes
Some id.ea of' America's war industr¥ pe rs o nrre L reguirements is r-e vea Ie d by

authoritative estimates that the airfr a me , .engine and propeller manufacturers o.re biring :10,OUO pers oris a month, of' whom fully two thirds, or 20.000 are women. Of a total of 690,000 productive w6rkers in these pl.nts on Feb. 1, some 199,000 were WOll!en, be!'t eve 1 t, 0 r no t.
the end of 1943 •these same man uprobably will have 1,000,000 ~roductive workers on their lists and Wa.shington forecasts are t.ha 400,000 t I1y

facturers

nashington,
"Ah've n~vah a~ are heah d-t e r s , "
",

D.C. Negro taxi-driver: seen so many uniforms now~ and so few 801-

Fleet Fleet Air Wing 11. Scouting Squadro~ 4-D 10
After getting organized and then operating to the maximum on three fronts (adva.nced bases), this sguadron finally h~s some ti~e to rel~y bits of information and chat with all outFits who like to lisLen, The squadron waS commissioned on September 1, 1942~ in a ceremony pel'formed with the Commanding Officer of the Naval Air Station officiating. The nfficers and men aboard were mostly "green" hands with only a few old timers. All hands did doubl& duty performing because less than balf of the squad.ron complement was on board. All necessary material was ordered and as soon as its t ar t ed to arrive mon ths later, "Hedron" tooK over all the maintenance and material problems. The ad'vance bases have given t.n e"green pl10tsff excellent opportunity to learn what to do when "on their QwnH and also lots of practice in cross country rlylng (mostly over water). Every one o~ ths pilots has operated at these bases and each understands the varied problems from pick~ng up a small group of islands off shore to following the coastline of tbe swamp and Jungle country south. Although there is a good deal of submarine a~tivity. the restricted action of the OS type airplane makes the squadron still feel a bit on the "outsideH of all the fun. The bigger planes in this area acnieve the "productive" results. The most successful plane for A/S IS definitely a land-based and twinengined craft as proven by the record of the British. With all this "high morale producing" talk, all pilots have been eager for all sorts of trainingThe password ~ ~Keep '~m Flying"! Hoping

u.s. Atlantic

for the twin-engine training in the near future, tbe efforts at pr~sent a~e directed toward what will be expected. All pilots are being indoctrinated in all-night flights in the IIbig boats" to give them a taste of what they'll nave to do. Hence the reason fol" the call for lots of instrument and night flying. A lecture by a radio expert also is being eagerly awaited. The skipper, being an old time "torpedo mann, is putting the boys through the torpedo attack tactics strea~llnSd to the latest accounts from the fighting fronts.

Carrier Aircraft Service 'Unit 22
U. S. Atlantic Fleet
struggling embryo, CASU to test the effect that wheels up 01' down might h.ave on compasses, This came about as the Naval Air Station (Quonset Porn t ) wa.s about to construct new compassf'oses. 1 twas :felt that they should be o f a type necessary for quick and accurate calibration. No one seemed to know "hether calibrating Wi th wheels down would produce a dev Latn on es a primary r esul t 0 f vel' hi cal sort iron, .0 r whether no noticeable disturbance would be evident, hence planes TBF-l~ SBD-4, and F4F-~ were flown and the wheels were extended and retracted in flight whIle on a constant heading. An initial deviation to the rigbt was apparent on eastern hemisphere H~ad;1ngs, whereas an initial deviation to the lert was a~parent on weeStern hemisphere beadings, A.fter a br~ef period of time the compass returned to the initial heading. On retraction of the wheels the initial deviation was the reve-rse of the above With tbe compa.ssr_eturning to its headi ng wi thin 15 sec on d s , "1t has been assumed that ca.libration with the
22 has had occasion

A healthy

wheels down Is entirely satlafactory. BUREA(J COllllENT: As the only v a rLa-«
tloo found occurs 15 seconds before and

.'.'

IB

~
'~---------.~--~-,----

Stowing

TPF'~.

The

p] an e s

are heing

taken from

f1 ight

deck to hangar

deck.

arter retraction and the reading returns to normal a r t e r that, t her e appears to be no difference when the figures, for calibrati on are secured as long as it is not within that initial deviation time of 15 seconds. The 5 winging of compasses wi th wheel s down has been the usual practice on those instrument squadrons using SNJ'S. When the whe~ls are up the accuracy ap~arently has not been impaired noticeably t.o disrupt student training on Range and RDF work. To standardize, continuance of this practice is suggested.

Training Devices
service has increased the in numerous training devices. Gunners returning from the battle arAa make a dive for the Dual Pr o j e c t.o rTrainer to improve their ma.r ksma.nsh t p , Befare gojng into their first combat, the tendency of most gunners was to reg ar d this device as a toy with which one could pass time pleasantly. But once they get into a Shooting fight, they quickly realize the value of the synthetic aiming devices. Combat

interest


L

Super Training Of Today starts At FUght Preps
Time was and

when
Duly

a naval

aViRtOI"

went with

directly

to Pensacola

and

six months of training was turned out 8 finished product ready f'o r flying dut.y At sea. Today the story is difTerent. It now te.kes 16 months to train a naval
av La t o r , He is the best tTA.1ned combatant the world has ever knownw A.spiring 1'1110 t s get their first taste of Navy t r a i nang io Flight Preparatory Schools, twenty of whlch went into operation in January on colle~e c ampu s e s across the co un try. Now being fed into these prep schools are embryonic airmen who form the backlog of men enlisted as aviation cadets but who have not been called to active duty. The peak; Lo ad for the Flight Preparatory Schools will be built up to 12 000 in .March--600 Ln each of the 20 students are given 8 brie~ but t.ho r-ou ah education 1n a v a r Ie ty of' sUbJ e c t.s , designed to equip t.hem l"ell for ruture av t a t i o n duties. For ins t an ce , they beg.tn studying naviga t.Lo n , The course starts with a study of basic rr.incillles, progresses Lhrough simpl e mat hem a ti e a I II I" o cedu r-es a nd fin all y covers a few c omp l e x problems. The study of navigation is continued through his entire schooling. But this is on l.y one of' the many subjects the student covers. His other o La s se s include physi cs rna thema tics J physi cal ge og r ap hy , ae co Lo g), pia n ere c 0 gn i t ion, c e mmu n i cat ion 5 operation of aircraft engines, llrinca p Les of f'Ly Ln g and physi. cal tralfling. Students are classified 8S n avs I aviation ca d e t s when they en te r these schools and fire un de r naval dr sc.Lp ine. t Their academic instruction is provided mainly by members of the co lLe ge faculty. For some of the more highly sp e c t al t ve d c Ls s s e s !'IIIV' j'lpr"onn 1 is useu ,

training, the C iv i I AerQnailtics Anministl'ation's War Training Sprvjcp Schools (fQT'merl,Y known as CPT) whf'T'P they have their first OTJllortunity to -put some of thE' grounci school traininl!, to lise. TIl""y I'~ceive apr'roxtmately 50 hoqrs of f'lighL instruction durin' an eill.htweeks l'erion, in adrt t ron t6 t
is

Completing

thjs

tnnent:::;

TlrogreS$

LO the

mo r s classroom

tns tr-uc t t.on .

schools. struction

During

the 12 weeks

of in-

Then, s uc ceas t ve Ly , ttlPY rpceive 12 weeks of training ~t pre-Flight Schools--physical tmlghening up, military rtrills, an~ arlvanced acarlemic instruction; TJrimary flight instruction fpr another 12 w~~ks; intermediate f'ligl-.t training for l::! to 14 weeksj and approximately eight WAf'ks of D'Parational flight t.r In i ng In c omb a t craft, a llI'f'pnratory to joining the F'La e t , Pilots trained on this scherlul~ wi] 1 log between 300 and 400 hours of flying: tim€!--and b e e ome some of the toughest pilots the enemy Bver will meet.

Synthetic Night F light Training
A piano-wIre sta1l1e devised as an installatiDII for the green f'ilter on a training plane windshield has f'u.rthe r rl

the syn.thetic nt gh t night training in instrument flying. Corpus Christi N.A.S. perfected the staple. The same station also reports a "200 pprcent iID'Provement in instrument flight training since the Red-GreenNt~ht-Training method superseded the -practice of flying under the hood". 'I'll R.Ii.N.T. system involves the usp by the stud nt of a pair nf red lemH'rl E;ogJ!:le,<;, which pf'rmitq him to see the instrument l)aneJ jl) 1he cockof grAen remainin~ rpd gngg)~s, so th s t ud n is un ab Le to s e e Gut-side the I ..fwkpi r., Trw t ns t.r uo t.or , who wears no r d 1 "rises. i-::; ab 1 1.0 spe t.hr-ou gh til' ,lTr"'n f t t to r , til'; WP)] as 0 retain pit. The windshield is

rlastlcr which filters vision passerl by th

thp

n

ott'lllIl

1

's

II III

II,

'h"

l~r1O"kp:it t ,

\J

ll[

Try This Some Tilne
Not ~very N~val ~viat1Dn Cadet has

the bene~it of a police escort When enlisting in the serv~ce but th~s was the experience of a trouble-dodging
youngster who dashed into the ~aval Aviation Cadet Selection Hoard in Chicago to be s,orn in a few days ago, 1eKving behind h.f.m a trail of fire, a wrecked car and a burning gaso] rne station. The youth's adventures started when he was about to be signed up and it was discovered be needed his father's signature on a document. He had to hurry home -- 175 miles away -- and back to meet the following day'S deadline for enlisting. When he started back to Chicago there were no train connec t i ons available, so he start_d to drive. A~ter a night of drlvin~, when he waa still fifty miles away from enlisting, his ~ar slid on an icy cu r'v , plowed e in to a gasoline station, knocked down three pumps and set the station on
f'Lr-e ,

With the afternoon deadline fast approaching, it was finally decided that the smashup was entirely accidental, and no charges were preferted. The youth hopped Jn t.o t.he THillce car wh Lch !';pedinto town. He was sworn in as a happy -- 'b u t shaky -- cadet, wi tlt two policemen to witness his entry into the ~rvi.ce .

Free Gunnery Instructors'
Training Manual
A new edition o~ the Free Gunnery Instructor~' Training Manual has Just been issued by the Training Division of the Buteau. It Is a revjsion of the manu a L compiled and used :for the first four classes of Free Gunnery Instructors at Naval Air Station, pensacola, Fla. The new manual 1s profusely illustrated with simpli~ied drawings and diagrams which graphically pre~ent problems encountered by air gunners. Also there are numerous actual photographs of tra~ning eqUipment and train~ ing scenes. While ehB manua.l is simplif_ied in form, it is a technical treatise and embraces all the newest knowledge o:f rree gunnery acquired to date from battle conditions. It is divided into twenty-~ight chaptersJ leading off with "Ma tbematics Essential to Free Gunnery J" and closi~g with "SynthetiC Training Devices'}" and includes all the essentials necessary for successful training of free gunners.

Sense Pamphlets
Three neW" p anrph t s of the Training Le Literature Section of the Bureau of Aeronautics are now on th'e presses and will be ready for Mstribution on March 15. Seventy-five thousand co~ies of each pamphlet'" are being printed and a. certain number will be available after regular distribution for training purposes. Direct your requests to BuAer, Training Division. The new titles include: PARACHUTE SENSE: A general picture of when and how to go over the side,

State police arrived and held the boy until they could locate the owners of the station. After getting in touch with the Selection Bo ar d, they became j nte res teo. tn, the bo)' r s p I tgh t and int s r-oe d e d on hi!'; be h a I f -Wi th the gas company officials.

wltat happel!s
h.a p pe n s : it

when
will

you
also

du,

and

).!_jve

Why it you the

Iowa Pre-Flight

School

cc r-r ec t t v e procedures Cor pr o bi e m.s arising durin,!.!; the .iIUlrLJ'ing p r o c e s s . DUNKING SHIiSf: \Ilia\' to do and In)w to do it wll,eN your p Lu n.e is i'urcedi

down
eat -t t on types

over
of
of

w a te r ; YOUR
the

110",

Lo live. --

811-<1

on a raft.

US-lNG·

NAVY

~lfA'GS:

A desc.rip-

maill p o int s oI' v a r I o u s Navy a n d Marinp. Corps flying

t.o whicH ed after
If

Aviatiou Cadets mOly be assigncompleting flight. Lraining.

Cadets haven't t h o ug n t out their personal preferences this will he Lp them round out t n e r r jIlform<;ltioll lind ma ke their selection; it will also help t.hem to understand the mt ss f o ns and actjvities, advantages and purposes of branches of Naval Aviation Lo

Rrpaking gymnast}cs T~corrls at this Prp-Fl jghl school SP~ms to be a matter instf'a(i of" enduranCe in some ('If time Two tjreless cadets are nOw f~I\S.pS • I'Of t.he possesen,gap:eri in Ii S trllgg1e a recorrt that has attracted sif)1I of IlHH;h in tleTPS t.• Dou~las n. Gorrton of Los Angeles has to hI s c r e d it 800 si t-ups. (wi 't!1 faRt unanchnrprt ann hands hehind henrl) a rww high here. A new comer, Samuel P. StuqJ;ls
of

own

Ann Al'bO'f", Mich ..•

put
r-

his

rival
hilifl

tn shamp hy doing exactly in one "sjt.tin,e';". lastin,2. an hrru

1,000 and a

which

they may be assigned.

Roth carlets think they can better their r e c o r-ds , hut the length of Lb,elr gym e I a s s es r108sn' t allow enough time. to prove it. Thpy have obt~inert
s-pec La.l p e r-m r s s Lon to miss t.h a i r next

class~S
the

to allow

ennl~h

timA

to settle

Is s.ue .

'--

AlB. GUNNERS'

TRAI NING

SYLLADUS

thm

Install

atiol)

19

fI HOllrs

The Bureau has received requests from several sources for -a standard and app~oved Naval Air Gunners' Training Syllabus. To, insure standardization, all activities will, in so far as f' R_C iIi tie s per mit, c on f 0 rm tot he minimum requirements given herein. No certificate of' satisfactory course completion should be is~ued un t Lk men have demonstrated their knowledge and proficiency in these ~ubJ ects. The Fr'ee Gunnery Inst ruetors Tr'aining .Manual, now b etng di.stributed by the Bureau, will serve as a guide and reference book on all matters cont ai.ned there in.

Boreslgh tlng O,;ygen Turrets-Types and Operations Aecogn1 tion (AI lied & Enemy Ai rcraft) mInimum number of hou 1"19 necessary to Ideo tlfy lOprtneipal
I:Jl tcld

4 Hours
1 Hour

25 !lours

y

types~ German

Amy. Na.... , Hr1 Ush, y and J fIJI Atr cr aft.

IV
SYNTliEI'I C DEVl CES ITo FollQW Subje~t)
...... (2) Tra.tner A Range Estimation

I

Op

the

Appropriate

Theor,

{On Gun)

10 Hours'"
ri Hour~

I

Device

Spo;!ed Estlm-&t1onDevlce to

5 Hours

PRIMt\RY GUNNERY
Str8i_gll't Trap s
100 Rounds

Skeet (or a Variation of) Machine run Mounted SlJotgun

]00 Rounds. 150 Rounds.

*

All shooting will be conducted with a ring (or electric training) sight, after student has completed 50 rounds of straight traps, or earlier at the

discretiOn of the lnstructo~, if he shows satisfactory familiarity with gun. It 15 not desirable, however, to have differ-ent type Sights used by men
in the same i'il'ing g r oup ,

The fi1m -att.acks supplied with this 3- A (2) tr aine r s h ou l d be us ed to illustrate the problems faced by a gunner in Recognition, Range Estimation, and Speed Es t Lma t Lon, afte'r those subj e et.s have been co ve r e d on their own training dev Lee , Following this "IntroductiOn", the 3-A(2) should be used in 1 ts c on ven t Lona'l manner as a t r ainer to develop instinctive 1ead. V PRACTIC_AL WORK ON MACHINE GUN RANGES
II81J'u net I on- Range - (Troub Leshoo ting; Pi 5 tol Range (Serv ice Or Subcol Ibe r) 49 rds. .30 C!lllber Battl e -JlB:nge (Fhed Moving Targest As Avail IibIe) • M C.al tber Battle-Range
8S

Note,

I

10 Ilou r a 2 llours

II BASI C THEORY
Construction Types of of' Sights 2 flours ,2 f.[ou.rs

and
lIDO ROllllas.

(Fixed

and

SIghts

81gb ting.Theo ry Ronge Est1ma:t1on Speed Est1mahoD
Apparent Speed

1 Hour
2, Hours

Vov ing_ Targets

Available)

:lHl

R,ol;lnds'

2 Hours 2 Hours
1 Hour

~Both hand hold and turret mounts shoal d be requi red for bat t1 e-r ange firing.

Exterior

Ballistics

VI
Familiarity with tbe subjects
c ov er e d above shall be considered as minimum requirements. The order in wlJlch they are presented will v ary with local conditions, but a -sound uuderst anding of the tra.ining ·problem Will dj.ctatea proper sequence. Prel1mi nar-y indoctrination should precede any training, in order that the student's

III
OROUN;D SeHGOL
111 !Whine Ounl'l
•. :J) Cal.) (NOIIIencl awre,

PRACTICAL

WORK
10 H.ourlS

{Stripping"
(_ and Cl e8.lli

»s-

Care) • m Cal.)

)

6 Hours

fillanUnl Uon
& Marking

.Bel t1ng,

Ca11b r at i on

:3 Rours

mind shall be prepared Tor what is to follow. No instructor is doing his job if he does not insure that he is being thoroughly unde r sto od and. tha t his pac e is geared to the pa.ce the class. InstructioQ films should be used

i

or

whenever
ject

they
be,

have

bearing

on

the

sub-

being

should

e I} 1I I' s Ii! t 0 missions.

taught. However, they carefully placed in the c 0 mJlI e tel y f u 1 f 11 I th e i l"

Synthetic Training Devices For Gwmers
According to SOIDe observers, the novelty appeal of synthetic training devices has diverted attention from ac tual shooting wi th machine guns. No device is y"et fLV ail able th,at.will re-

training progra~, some devices have been ~anufact~red and distributed before they could be thoroughly tested in service. All aotivities are invited to make comment or criticism of such equipment. Quick jUdgment should be a.v I de d in condemning o any device, as 1 t has been fauna that certain units and schools attain very satisfactory results from some equipm~nt that 1s a total loss at others. The Gunnery T'rairHng Sec.tion of the Bureau Is s ke pt Lc a.L about the use of BB air machine guns ex cept ass. stimulant for turret manipulation practice. NAS,

Alruneda,carries out this idea by usin.g a model target t-hat revolves at Vai"iab I e spee ds at II' hi e h a b at te ry 0 t: Moeller turrets, equipped with BB ,guns,
fired. A microphonic pick-up on -the target is used to Lnd.Lc.a hi ts but te are

produce
singleJ

the conditions met when a or twin machine gun, is tired from a hand-held or turret mount. Tra.ining is not complete wi t.hout, plenty

no

scoring

is recommended

for

this

PI" I.U~ iC,B. t

of actual firing. _,I Many synthetic t.ra.In.mg devices have Deen developed during the past year and many more will be forthcoming. Due to the crying need for e qut pn eu t of this

War Training Service
Wi th a minimum -0 f f'a.nf'a r-e , the CAA' s War Training Service is training men for naval aviation, both as future pilots and flight instructors. W.T.S·,

nature

in the hurriedly

expanding

Navy

formerly known as tng approximately

S.P.T., 7,000

now is t,T(linnaval aviation

minimum re4uirem nts f'o equipment inr c l urt flaps, e cn n t r o Ll c b l e p t r.c b or
eens
t ont,

cadets in elempntu.ry nr sf'colldary fl i gl! t courses, And ab ou t 750 men as flight instructors. The chief difficulty in u t Ll Lz.i a n the privately-owned airfields an~ planes has been l~ck of standardization. Hdwever, Buaer and CAA ure now coordinating the pro~ram. Texts iSsued by the Bureau, such as Fli~ht ~aneuver Sheets and the Patler bonk, have imFrOlll proved instruction procedure. now on every man who I arns to fly for the Navy will go throu~h W.T.S. Four courses for fli~ht training are provided as follows: 1) The elementary course which is
c ad e t s after U1E',V have completed their work in Fll~ht Preparatory Schools. It consists of a minimum of 240 hours ~round school instruction and ~5 hours of dual and solo f'ly-ing. Upon completion the topranking students, go immediately toO pref1 i g;ht s e hool s, 2) The secondary course, which provides an additional 40 hours of flying fo r the TI rim a 1" y stud en t who ne eds mo t'-e time before going to pre-flight. 3) Cross-country which provides 35 to 40 hours ot' flight time, an ada'ptagiven aviation to all

ot

radio The student in elementary training is tnu~ht turns. climbs, circle shots, lly]ons, glides and E'merl!;ency landing. Seaondary training; c on sI s t s (If acrobatics, small field n r o c e d ur e a n d p re c i s t on flying. The maneuvers are not zr e et.t y differellt from those in earlier W.T.S. training. T'he t rt.a ngular method for precision Ian~ing is not used, having been superseded by the circular pattern with an -sn tUrn for simulated carrier Lan d i ng s , W.T.S. not only is he Lp t n s; make better ~lyers, but savin~ precious time. This trainln~ weE'ds nut most of til e men n (1 t. Y Ua l i 1'ie d r (1 r fly i n g' . Statisti s show that there were three times more "wash Qutsn among untrained stu~ents in military rli~ht schools, than among C.P.T. graduates. While one-third of t.he "p;reen" students were eliminated, only Il.Bi of the men who had C.P.T. training were weeded out. The six-month course for flight instructors will release about 1500 Navy flyers a year for combat duty. W.T.S. will shortly Increase its enrollment in the Fli~ht Instructors'
Se no o I

Slleerl propelJors, two-way and 11 c omp let.e r n s t.r-um t p an e L, en

tion of the airlines' co-pi lot courses. This course is a part of C.P.T.'s old training program and may be discontinued exce~t as part of the W.T.S. flight instructor's training. 4) The flight instructors' course, a concentrated 24-week course incor~orat1ng the secondary and crosscountry training, as well as flight
instruction. The first

ments
an

to 900. The pr e s e n t for this course, which A-V(T) designatlon are

require-

leads to 50 solo

hours, or completion elementary training. SOOIl will be changed 100 solo hou r-s ,:

of the W.T.S, The reqUirements to a minimum of

Chapel Hill Pre-Flight
A

three courses

cover ei~ht,

weeks each. In elementary training light planes are used, such as Taylorcrafts, Cubs, Aeroncas~ and Lrtscombs.
For secondary t ra t m ng , p lan es of' about 200 h.~. are used, including Wacos~ Fairchilds and Ryans. Each shill is

become
flight

group of 12Q officers who w111 instructors in the various preschools, have Just completed

Yor airworthiness, types are used for acrobatic fligbt trainin~. In certain phases of cross-country flying the
and only

carefully

checked certain

indoctrination at Char 1 Hill (s.c.) NavalPTe-Fl tgnt, SchooL 1'wenty of the graduates will be retained at Chap 1 Ilill for assignment there. In addition to physical conditioning, the one-month course included ins true tion in naval customs and traditions, military drill, and general
t ra.tn t nz .

DAY

AT

A

WAR

TRAINING

SERVICE

SCHOOL

6
Making use of newsreel shots and com b 8. t f'i Lm fro Tn the .s p 1\ n ish Wttl",' through the attack on Pol!'lnd, the producer has turned out an effectiVe and inspiring, document through expert editing and convinc".ing p r e s en t.a t t on , "The Nazis Strike" MA 1719-b, is H , .s t.t r r-Lng reminder o f' the Ntlzi methods of four years ago, a.ndaf"fords an excellent way to r~fresh our memories.

Traiining Films

Jam Handy Trainers
Pr o p e.r- use o f the 3A-2 trainers will greatly increase the results attained. It appears that some activities cDnsider this useful device a complete treining vehicle in itself and t urn the students 10"5e o n it ~it~ nD planned Fattern Dr logical s e9uence of
5 teps

160 Cameramen,
I

One Day

It is recDmwended that this trainer be l,I!,!ed t.o augment the several st.ages of basic training before the student is actually put on the gun tD fire at the Lmag.e.sof a.t t aok Ing planes. Classes that are undergDing trajQ1ng in r e C 0i'll t ion, ,rD.lIil!e s t 1 rna t lOt! ,and speed e.sttmat:ton" should be gj_vena brier period at the end .of each class i n w h I c h th e y c an 0bserve v a. r j 011 S a.t t acks on the· screens. For instance, upon completion of 45 ~inutes 01 recognition drIll it weuld be desirable to htl-ve the stu-den t s see 'an ac t.u a I 3A-2 film attack In order to tie in theirex:tremely a r t.Lf'a cLa.I cla.ss room r~cognltlon training ~lth the actuRl recogbl tion pr-ob I em that fa e e s a gunne r. The same for rAnge and speed estimation. The training devices now used fa r the se sUbJ eo t s ar e a :far cry fr om the reRI thing. So are film attackS. but they are more realistic than 8ny~blhg else we have to offer in ground training at the present time. Fo l Lc wing these steps, which consist ofi observation only" the student is better prep ared fa r ac tU1l1 fi ring run s in the' 3.A-:2 room. and a normal procedure should b e followed.

Tl-Jls 1. s the most pbo togY' aph ed war .1 n hlstorY. Film 1s being shot on every front. Newsreels give the public ,l!;l1.mpses of action. Secret and confi4eot18.1 f'oo t ag e is studied by mili tary and naval exner t s , and new me the ds and s tra t,egy developed. One day 160 Russian c ame r-amen set out to re,cord one day of war in Russia. Notall c) f them c ame back,· bu t the film they shot has been put together in two reels of actual war p t c tur e s that show and. teU something of Russia's battles against the NaziS. The camera's eye ge t s bf urr y s omeUtn e s when r1 f1 e s and artillery .a n d planes get in their li.oKS, so a c t.u aI combat photography doesn't a I wa.ys give usa c1 os e enough view of the violent destruction of atlr enemies. However, "Ohe Day of War In Russia" does reveal the liqUidation of a Few Nazis close enough to the camera r;o make you feel pretty good about 1-t
al1..

Why We Fight, . Part II
"The Naz1s Strike" is the second ir the -Why We Fight" seriesl :produced by Ma.jor Frank Capra, for the !.rmy Signal Corps, wi th the coop:eratl.onof the Resea·rch Councll of the A.cademy of Motion PictureArtsan.d Sciences.

Sorge 0 f th e ina sc ,E.,.o; sur in g mayhem 1s pnc togr-aph ed in and around Russ:1a.n tanks, and gi ves an indication of why thinJs are going the way they are on the Eas tel' n Fron t , ReI eased. t11rough the March of Time, Me-22m;, "One Uay of War in Russia" is a gOJ)d film to include on a mor a.l e program and may be ordered through Tra.1nlng 'Films .. _ Addl.t1on-al ae t1 on pi e tu res from the RUSiSlM front ede combined wi th combat scenes aircraft oarrier operations to make up a One reel short that Is a.l so recommended as an op t1 onal su bj ect for Ii morale program. It is M,C-2205 IIA Carri er Fights ro I' Ll fa and Russia Flghts Back."

I

or

Approv-ed Gunner-s Training Activiti.es
The Ilur e.au has re c e n t j y drawn up' a list of approved Schools and units whQ~e certifjcate of successful course .ccmpl e t.I nn wi 11 be acceptable in q1JlllJfyjng for the gunners sleeve hqdges wh:lch are expected to be announced at an early date. ~o crjticism of those actjvitles which are not listed is jntended. The tra1rrjng of Naval Air GtinberS mus~ ~e standardi~ed ~nd courses must con forD tB this standard berbre they are approved. Attention is invited to the recuirement that on f y men wh o have successfully
COl1'-

vesring gunners s Le-ev badges should e jealously guarded to insure that represents a real standard. .As an exa'mple of unbalanced train-

be
it

a rated enlisted man ~ecently ouestioned by a Bureau off~cer announ ced he had campI eted gunners trai:ning at one of our air stations. Questioning reveal~d that practically all of the titme devo ted· to such traihing had been spent on the shotgun range, with the result that little else had
been learned about the gunner' sprotl1e m • The Bur e au 11Il~S a] wa y s r-e C Q g _ nized the value of ~hotgun shooting in the basjc stages but it must be understood that there js a great deal more to gunners training than brea~ing ~lay pigeOns. The man Questioned had only a hazy idea Df how to estimate lead on an air~lane target and ~ery little knOWledge concerning a gunnerls real duties.

ing,

plated the course, or IIhn have passed an examinatiQn and practical test which calls for a degree of kno~ledge eqUivalent to that received in a complete course, shall be consjdered as fill] Y QuaIl fieri. t n the gronnd t.rainj nF recrllirem8nts. The a u t.h r tz a t.f o n for o

Bermuda
station has been watching the its communications department. Recognizing that much of' its personnel is made up from reserves who are in the service only for the duration, that This work o-f

by

orficers allotments.

and men to be paid by ~ef'ore the drive is over, ~aval AiT s t e.t i ou Bermuda may hi t the $100,000 mark, a sUm that would be hard to match anywhere~

dapa r trnen t ha.s C on due ted a school in radio which 1~ aimed at two goals: the greenest striker Is to know as much about radl0 and a rrcr-art, communications as a first-class radioman; each man is to gain practical experience which will pe of aid to him in civilian life. The first goal Is ~elng achieved through lectures and operating; the second goal through the establishment o.f a workshop In the shop, men have learn~d to tear down and rebuild all kinds of sets. They have learned to trouble-shoot In privately owned sets; have built their own. and have learned ho" to install them ana l'ig an tennae. Almos t the ent1re communications personn~l clambered over the roof of the BOQ,lnstalling radins when that bUilding was placed into commission. The exper1ence gained 1n the workshop has been invaluable to them and the slogan ~Join the Navy and learn a trade" 15 taking on new meaning. For many a mOOIl, Naval Air StatioTl Bermuda has beRn waiting the arrival of' a pl'om1sed b an.d but, when it f,aj] , ad to materialize, the stat~on formed one of its own by culling it from talent already aboard. After many nights of PI' a e tic e I the orc bes t ra , known Inc al1J' as U e Naval Aires, felt it was ready to go and its debut was to be at a smoker for the enlisted personnel. Then suddenly and unexpectedly t he long-awaited b!l.-nd, 25 p Le c e s st r o.ng, arrived. ~ow the Station has its choice of'musiC and the cry is going u:p for a battle of music between the
tWG. FOE"

So successfol has b en our own drjve the sale of war bonds that this st a t.t cu lent the 1Jri tish a hand recen t=1y in the drive for the sale bf British War Bonds. Bluejackets, Marines and Soldiers marched through the streets of' Hamilton past the revieWing stand. These spectators who might have heard tha.t American sailors did not excel at marching received a pleasant surp.r1se at the exn i n i t Lon givel) by the enlisted men j'rom thi s s La t i 00. Th e per So.rHIf~1 showed the results of the two or three art~rnoons a week that are spent i~ drilling by officers and men alike, Tv complete the parade, a squadron or DS2U's swept ov er-he , flyin.g in tJg;l t, ao
for

been other instances of the co-operation that exists between the Oritish and American armed i'orces in Bermuda. This isla.nti is unJque in that it is one of the few places In the
world
bum pill wh e r e toe the ach llritish () the

f'o rm at t on , There have

and Amer Lc an s

r .1 nth e i r 11ail y routines and ha ve ove r Lapp tng control. !<jorlllall,Y it WOuld nu t, be surprising to find that feet have been stepped on or feeljngs jrritated, no matter ho" well the t.wo forces get along. But, not so here. We have used the drydock at. vne Br t t.Ls dock-ya.rd. n The British h ave tattoD rar some of our personnel
route to the

made free -u s e of" our moo r Lng s for PASs. British planes have provided t.r an sp or=

en-

st-a t-e s . we have mad trucks available to the Br Lt Ls'h wben t he y h 11 d nee d. 0 f t h ~m . We h a v erepaired their planes and straightened

the. p as t mnn t.h ,

a. drive
b

for

the

s e t e of .."ar bond co n.d t.e here. uc d
t

n" "'rr.

() f

linn s t amp s 1,nS been In that SlI01 t time,
,'wn

out Ghnlr propellers 1n uur A.&K. s n op , They have let us use s ome of' their harbor craft ~Q salvage work. It has been tit-fOr-tat and the lend-lease pl!tIl tins been well c a rrIed
out, (jere in
lll'!rrniida.

'R·I.

II ~

,·.,u 'Ill

etigB.rI

--------------------------------------

t'

Paramsr-ines at New River, N. C.

-!

I

Ready for Action

29 l

Boston
A recent statistical investigat~on
Officer to study the attrition rate of recent classes compared tg ,arlier ones shows that 8.ll'I€lngcauses of failure. the percentage remains almost constant. In the period from which t.has t e t t s t t c s were compiled, half' of the fllR;hts were Chapel Hill graduat_es and the other half' were not. Generally speaking, any rtiffe.ence b~tween the two groups or any mnrked

desires to have used Devices Will be sent For them ;t l:: rece i Ved.

at each base. when a l"eQnest

by tbe Cadet Advisory

The

NP-l

planes

bave

aga~n

b~en

trends

have

not

been

indicated.

It

doe s s eem , however. to 1n d i cat.e that High School graduates with Pre In Ight

Training
men who

are on a par with

the college

made IIp tbe ea.r Lte r- group and entered f'light training direct from civil life. In tbe inter~st of the rationed oil co a s er v a b Lo n llro,Q;ram we h av e c o m pleted the conversion six b0iler~ to c.oa l , fed by stokers. By thts, it Is estimated that there will be an .nnual saving of 350)000 gallons of fu e 1 0 i 1

or

«

A

st .. LOUiS,

Mo.

pressed into servic~ here, ~fter being laid up because of lack of propelle~s. They are used for syllabus formatlon flying. We have divided each flight wing into two groups with flights for Group 2 star t Ln g 45 mLnut es af te r Group 1. This has been found to give a marked f nc r e as e l.n efficiency: - (1) outlying fields have a more u~lform number of planes instead of being crowded for 45 minutes and then idle for 45 minutes; (2) a line crew can opera te wi th about half the number of men which facilitates messing, liberty, etc.; (3) drawing of parachutes and ~light _gear ha_s been sp-eeded up; (4) gassing time has been cut down so that 15 minutes is ample time for transfers between f'lights; (5) py Lon s and stunt a.reas are used more evenly all day, instead of being alternately crdwded and idle; and (6) solo s t ude.nts haVe not been lost so frequ~ntly due to the faot that planes are nearly always in

vt-ew.

Ground School for cadets has acceleroted its entire progrsm under the new syllabus "D", whic]l calls fOIr compressing the COurse: to eight weeks. In order to acquire IlS much f'lexibil1 Lj as ne.s s Ib Le ill the school and to be raNdy to meet any emergencietij eaCR men~er of the GrDund SChODI Staff is qualifying himSe1r for at least one aJditional subject. At tbe Kansas last ~ugust It

Elizabeth City, N.C.
Bpcaus~
rp.,l:!;Llll:l.tion.s of dim-out and black-out

this area, Ul"! Comman-dant of Naval District has ordered that white hats he
throughout the Fifth

p re va t Lf ng

substituter!

foT'

blue

ca.ps

for

all

eaLh trai~lng ceive revised
LQgether

Visual aids and other devices designed to assist in instruction. To date these have n £It b aen I"e'C atv ad and it is hoped that they Will be forthcoming.

wlib

that station soan would retexts and the courses
Was

Clty

Conference uoderstood

hel~

persnnnel ashore. Primary r e a s on is tha t the whit~ hats a r « mu ch more e a s i ly s e e n a n d
of a c c f d e n f is thereuy rr-ducerj. In clls~swh~re per s orrrre I is going nut of Lhe distriot on leave, the bLue cap may be worn.
p o s s Ib Ll I t y

enli~ted

synthetic

BUREAU

CONNENT:

Lieut.

Catmody

has

b~~n assigned Primary Training

to the staff of the Command and ts dei:.er-

minto,!! the dE'vicas which

tile Command

30 Corpus Christi
This station recently received . several se~s of the new equipment for synthetic night flying and instrument training. While it has aided the training program a great deal, so~e improvements seem desirable. Us e a 1 ight.er c 01 or green :fa the I' sheets to cover the windshield_, if possible, as it is now possible on dull days to fly into clouds which cannot be seen by the safety pilot who is not wearing goggles. A lighter green also would allow t h Ls e qu f pmen t [;0 be used' on patrol flights with the safety pilot still havjng enough vision to spot ships and surfaced submarines. Provide an even lighter colored goggle for simulated night flying. The present type while suitable on bright days, permits no vision at all for the pilot under instruction on dark days. BUREAU COMMENT. S·p ei a I Devices is further research on red ana ftlters for night flying in day time. Lighter green filters are being prepared and two shades of red goggles are contemplated. At the risk of repetition, this squadron wishes again to mention the usefulness of a large chart of operating areas painted on hangar decks, as a means of instructing pilots and .s~udents in the course-rules and the use of the various training areas. .Tllese c.harts are permanent and s-eem to arouse more interest among pilDts than the usual course-rule plates hung on thewall.
doing green

cruising. A savings of 25~OUO gallons o f 9 lac t a. n e f u e I " or $ 2 .1 7 5 0 pe r month, is believed possible in operations 01'" 81M's at this station . It is requested that the following suggestions for economica.l cruising of SNJ's be followed: (reference Bureau of Aerona.utics Technical Note 14-40, CrUising Performance of Airplanes) .
(a) A cruising

power e oJliblnatt on of 24.88

hg and 1600 rpm'

be used,

Th 1s

8 hould

cruising spe., true of ~bout 149.5 mph at 51000 feet; 21.2 ga.llons per hour.

~iv~

8.

eb) Where manua l mixture

control the been

governs,

caution should
lean ratio from able
to

be taken
Since have

to avot.d
fuel

too
atr

a mixture. indicators
most

removed

SNJ-3's IUld4's, it Is desi,..lean out- the mj_xture until II.

smootll runntng of the engine without. a n iocrease of c::yItnde·r head temperII.tllre 1t; ob t.a Ln e d , Detonation and rough running should be avoided.

The following is a recommended power schedule:
AI tl'tude 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000
~

crUising
Speed MPH
14~ 146

Man.Pressure 27. 26 5ft

1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600

25.8" .25.3" 24.S-

147
148
149.5 ~51

24.4"
23.811

152.a

The above schedule is figured lh a carburetor air mixture temperature of 0° to laoe., 45% power, ~1.2 gallons consumption crulsing 180°C., Cylinder head temperature.

Ana CO stia
to the sh or t ag e of gasoline and money. Jt Is necessary to exert eVery effort to conserve both. T~le p i-e sen t average c ouaump t Lon for SNJ -planes 1s about 37 gallons per hour. Tbis 1s considered to be arproximately 70 percent in excess of the amount required, especially considering that operations consist largely of pOint to ~oint Due

USMCAS, Eagle. Mt. Lake, Texas Marine Glider Group 7l Fleet Marine Force
Representatives .from this Group rehad the oppo rtun! ty 0 t' wi tnes singand participating in flight f e-s s t of a Bristol seaplane glider, the first animal of' its kind. Subsequent produ et Lo n models will be e.qu Ipp ed with landing gear to make them amphibious.
cently

31
flown from a hefty) sea tug. in tow under Instrumen t 'eoudl tion bas been co n c ede d by many to be a near Imuosslbility. Marina and naval officers who are conducting glider e~periments fortunately did not know this, and have done it Bnjbow, wi th success. Til;!:. s t'ac t greatly increases the potential sCOpe of th~ -o t' the glUier as a weapon. A me'thofl J1' snatching a glider rrom the ground by a tow plane in rllght has been used Wrth success, but refinements of the system are still to be made.
WA5

by uslng a pnY~-A Flying gliders

The &lider

Key W~st, Fla.
Consider-able trouble Was experienced with the or1g1nal hangar door stops b"reaklng loose and a lLow t ng, the heavy

doors to hit the back or the thereby cracking the concrete and denting the doors. A device incorporating six reet of eight inch ~I~ beam per door-bay and one Cbevrolet front wheel c,011 spring has been dfl:~ signed by C. II!. M. EdWard M. Means and A.E. Hackbarth SF 3/e at this station. This door stop has been in use for two months and has proven very satisfacto ry. I t has preven ted fur ther d.a:mage to the hangar and has been ins t rumen ta 1 in causing the personnel to open the doors in the proper manner. A door that is opened faster than a normal walk will spring back ten or twelve nanga~ hangar,

ree~ ~nd have to be reopened.
BUREAU scribed CONNENT: The is b~lieved door stop deto have ,orne the description

merit. Recommend that be forwarded to BuDoeks"

ror

study.

32
was exag~erafed from the beginning is

the t.e t Imony of'captured German pilots s They have told Russian and British intell i~Ptlce of'f'Lc Lal s in r ecerrt wefd(s that Hitler failed to carry through with hjs aerial blitz of London in Septembf!!' 1940 because he did not hav e the ne c e ssa r y reserves of' bomber's ""TId crews.

Pensacola
rlonp with mirrors" is more a c a t.ch nhr-as a when a"ppUerl to the aerial mapping trainer in use at the .Nav a l School of Photop:raphy. Act.ua i l y .• mirrors are used in the labnratory training unit where student photog r apber-s ~fly" their first "flight Itnf'::O; before actually going a l of'L witl1 ae r i a I IDapping camera and view findf'l". The student's initial mapping "!iun!!
tban

"It's

..

~

,,_- -

... ?

:

VER ISS DER LUI=TWAfFE

Where's The Luftwaffe?
broadcast is an t nt.er t ang t t.em r-ec t l y es en by News Commentator Duke Shoop. He sald his information came "from AmeT'icli1-i1 military o'b.se r-ve s r:er c en t Ly return ed from the Russ ian ft ant. One of the big mysteries of the war is the whereabmzts of the once ~owerrul German air force. The Russians and our own military observerS are inclined to the opinion that Hitler i& not sending large numbp.rs uf planes against thp. enemy because he does not have them. But Hitler may possibly be holding a powerful ail' force in re-serve for spring offensives. It is pos s fb Le that Hi t.l r e realizes that he ~as lost the war and is saving every pOSSible plane for the defense of his homeland. Another possible reason is that HitLer is saving his air force for an all-out attempt to take the oil fields o( the Caucasus in the.spring. In line with the opinion now held by some military men that t.he size GT the Luftwaffe
Here

is made in an ingeniouS tra t n er wh i c h includes an airplane 'fuselage, -a maFping_ eame r-a , a view f'inder~ ann t n t.e r va l ometer, and tbe regular pilot-photographer communication syst~m. And beneath thE' "rnapp f.ng plane" is a ]nn.!! run of Florida landscape wb~ch slides by the view finder just as if the plane were followIng a flight line at regular
mapping elevation.

And her~'s where tbe mirrors come into the picture -- mirrors and a movie projector showing film made on an actual mapping flip;ht. As the student in the cockpit pBers into hi_s view
finder, the instructor is able to sh.ow him hoW to make the corrections required by adjusting camera a~d view finder ~y

"crabbing" the plane, and by correcting the nourse. Once the student has learned the technique he canJ throu.h his I!Gosportn system, give flight directions to the "pilot"-instruttoI'; and the instructor, by IDeans of his cant r oLs , can handle the "plane" In re lation to thee mnving terrain in just such a way as to simulate eKa~tly the real flight conditions_ .• The mapping t ra Ine r , as,a preliminary c hee k-ou t , has :proven inv-qluable., UteI' a group leature and a b~lef period of

, 33
the s t mh' 11 t can conrirlen ly RO aloft anrt, in the ai r , master the tec hn iqu€! nf carrying, out his duties on a m app rng'
j

n d i v L d u ali

n s L r1J c t jon

nhotographer

miss ion.

Los Alamitos
On January 19 flying was secure~ nearly all morning for a reason perhaps unknown on Midwest and Eastern Stations. Nea rby c1 t r-u f'r-u I t grpwer s burned smudg e pots during the night to protect their crops from frost, and created a low-lying smoke screen tha~ obscured tile field and landmarks as ~frecllvely as ~he heaviest ground fog. Tw 0 addi t t cna 1 ou tlJ'ing fie Ids ha v e b ee n completed, giving the station a total of f'ive now 1n us e , Sufficient e Le c t.r t ea I transmission facilitj_es have been completed to permit use of the course-indicating beac on on the tower. The use of this equipment has eliminated considerable confusion in the local flight pattern.

,

found that the addition of tne heater plate to the collector ring nearly doubled the temperature rise obtained by use o f' a carburetor preheater. 'l'h e plates are app roxIma t e Ly 14- inches in ctiameter and are made of 18 gauge galvanized metal. B{JR E.AU CON MEtvT The heater plate i~ assumed to be fitted to the nose of the engine to blank off the entrance or cold air between the collector and nose, thus increasing the heat inducted throu~h the preheater air entrance. It appears similar to a nose plate devised by NAS, Minneallolis.

Banana River, Florida
OIl

.l a nu a r y 25th
by

this

station

was

visitpd

Glenview, Ill.
An aUXiliary field to handle increased training wjll be established at Arlington Heights, Ill. Construction work has be~un on the former outlying rield, which is one of several used. This station has b e e.u n e sLgn a t ed as a major parachute repair ~ase, with authority to maKe all necessary repairs and replacements of ~art5 on parachutes. This work includes replacing panels in can~ples, installing shroud lines, replacing harnesses, etc. Full e qu i.pment and material for the operation of such a base is being installed r.n the modern parachute Lo f't, Believed to be of real interest are heater pla.te devices the engineering department developed for more efficient operation of the N3N planes. They were installed Ln an effort to obtain greater heat rise 1n the carburetor with the preheater control turned on to preven formation of carburetor ice. It was

of ~he nited States and Archbishop or the Rom a n Cat h 0 1 i c ! r c 11 to c e s e 0 f d New York. Accompanying bim on his inspection of the station was the Senior Catholic Chaplain of the Seventh Naval District~ Com~~nder Maurice J. She eb y • A Marine detachment arrived here recently and has taken over many of the posts formerly held by the Civiljart Guard. Already many changes have been made for better security of the station.

tile MQst Rev ,rend Francis J. Sppllman D. D., military delegate ot the Apostolic Sea to the armed forces

Whidbey Island, Wash.
One of our operations officers, Ensign Donald M. Anderson, recently was awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross for his outstanding service as the captain of a patrol plane in the Aleutian Ls Larid last June. s 'I'hepresentation was made ou the seaplane ~arking apron at the Oak Harbor base. A parade of all hands followed. The Naval Air Gunners Training Unit now is conducting a class on Sundays for officers attached to the station.

34
out wired to the batteries. 'I'h bate tries take the in1 tial load and then Naval Air Station, San Diego the mot 0 r g e n era tor car r ie sit. It r Installation Of Training Turrets also charges the batteries. The generators have a maximum output of 4~ Two Martin 250 CII-2 h1draulio tUT'MpS. The turret reqUires 2B amps. rets were received for training puron a steady load. Tbe batteries used poses at the Free Machine Gun Ranges ue 24 volts, 6A amps. on a R hour at Border Field. These turrets were tel?t. The batteries on their own will in boxes and jn all respects ready to give about 6 hours of turret operation install in aircraft. 00 the range without are-charge. Experience Sl10WS that spare sets of In vJew of the ammunitlon available these batteries are required if interfor training use it was necessary to ruptions in f'i ring are to be eliminated modify these turrets to take the calfrom rug down batteries. Three leads iber .30 B.A.M.G. instead of the calfrom the common plug were run to tile iber .30 B.A.M.G. outside of tile turret and c nrm e c t e d The general appearances may be noted to three switches. These three switche. from the photographs. First a wood are connected to leads from bus line mountin& fo~ the turret was constr~cted which in turn is controlled by an o t he r and securely 001 ted to a standard Fairswitch. Thus when the fourth SWitch mont trailer. The turret was then is off, the turret cannot operate. secured to this wood ring. Advantage is taken of this swi tch t o The camera bracket was removed and give an important safety factor conin its place a steel plate I!RR x 16" trolled by the turret instructor from attached. Boles in this plate were the au tside. dr a Lke d to taketlIe aTter mounting It is desirable to restrict th~ post assembly for the caliber .30 guns. azimuth train of tae turret on these Machined two sleeve type bushings to ranges. To do ttd. s, azimuth s tops of :fit, one on each side of trunnion, bethe turret were loeated at the pOints tween the t r-unn Lon b Lo ck and the calidesired and two holes drilled in the ber .50 yoke. This yoke is part of track to match the holes in the stop. the assembly for the caliber .50 guns. The stop was then mount~d on the track A 7/16' steel bolt of proper length to and the safety angles checked. The pass through the yoke, sleeve and trunnext step was to limit the turret in nion block of both guns was used, elevation. This Ii'mi ting of the elevation Tlcls ar r-angement se rves as a solid forof the turret wnile not entirely des.irwaru mount f'or both gllJls.. Bo res.fh.t.Lng able from a t~aining g standpoint WRS, is accomplished by using the after however, necessary to allow greater mounting; po s t , The caliber .50 amfreedom o:f movement of air and seamunition boosters were removed an d in borne traffic. The essential part of thei r p Iaces the standard cal Lb er .30 the elel,tatio_n safety stop is the one bu n d r' ed round cap a c i ty 1'r e gun ,e lilllitingswitch mounted on the front of mag a z i ne s fit ted . the turret and capable of up and down Border Field is about twenty miles t ravel 0n a v e r tic a 1 t r'a c k 0 -r 1" angle iron. The track is set at the from the Naval Air Station and wi ttl very limi ted. repair facilities 011 the desired degree of elevation and when spot. Installations_, therefore, were the limi t t ng swi tch reaches 1ts W8ximll.lll in keeping with the locality. The travel the el~ctrical contacts in the electrical wiring connections were main -power line are opened. This feamade to two 24 volt batteries, wired ture in the interest of s af'e ty r equ t r es , in series to furnish power. The power whenever the contacts are opened, tnat plant consists of a 26 volt D. C. motor the gunner use the manuMl pump 1n the generator with the reverse current cut turret to pump the turret down Until

..

A

Martin Row Turret Mark IX reflector

Unr t , sight

The men inside is used.

the

turret

are

over

six

feet

tal].

the contacts lire closed. He may t hen resume the elect,l'ical oTleratlon of' tile tur r et , 'I'he photogrllph gives a view of this Lns t.aLl a t t o'n , The 11m~ ting switch is mounted by me.a.n s of' the hoisting bolt on the face o t' the turret. Its track is secured by the replacem nt of

the roller bolts with longer boits and a weather stripping screw with a longer screw. The wedge shRped patches on plexiglass shown 111 the pbotogra:ph are heavy cardboard glued Ln s Lde to p r-o t e c t the plexil!;lass from scratches when using caliber .30 magazines

36

Air 'Intermediate Trainmg Command
Organization of the Naval Air IntpTm dlate Training Command is rapidly being jie r f'e c ted to h and l e the -prosT1pct Lv e full load of flight a n d grolliHi training. Standardiza t t on of ,f!rollnrl and' flight syllabi togeth'f'r with all

ccn p c s t t e of all the IndjcaUons pr£sen t e d 1,Y the r u II p ar. s l . ron t ran tQ p o p u La r b e l f e r, t h Ls does [Jot mean thfit the pllot In any ~ay reserrbles e Sparrc~ h.wlng lunch en 8 busy thor-

of the actual oTlerations the?ewith has recpiverl maj0r consideration as a most important f'u ct.I n on 01' this training comman d, An Air Intermediate Training Rtandardization Board eoy rjn~ all -phases of the activities of both Training Cer'lt.p.fs was organized shortly aftRr the pstab1 Ls hme.nt of this Command and the t h ird and most beneficial meeting was held at Pensacola on January 1, 1943.

procp.sses connected

oughfArel or tbat his head has taken on sarre of the notions ~opularized by St. 'V r tu s , )\ith t I e proper amo uri t of t n s t r u ct r on and practice, t h e, 'PIlot
can "get the p1cture"
hlS

ovt
sinf!le the

focusJn~ Instrunent

r n s t.e r attentJon
]5

t Ly

~jthto
~ny

r nd Lc a t i on ,

flying

fundarrentally
the dIffer-

SlIITe 85 contact

f Ly I ng ,

Atlanta, Ga.
There is deflnltel~ ~sorrething ne~ t~e SUn"-- or~ literally speakLrig, "in th~ soup". In this instance, it's the IT n tal Ie! a pp r 0 a c 1'J to" f 1 ;y i ng

under

the gaupes"
trent Flight

BS

expounded
Instructor's'

b)

the InstruSchool
in

Ua. Full panel instruITent fly1ng is no lnndvatlon to gV3atlon~ as the pilots on corrrrercial airlines and sorre rrllltar} pllots h«ve been thoroughly farriliar ~ith the systett for sorre tiIJe. They hdve been qUick to recognize and put into practice any ajd to this highly speciaJized science ~hich Kight insure increased safety of personnel, ~assenger8, and equiprrent. 1he "needle, ball, airspeed" systerr of :nitrurrent. flying as for~erlJ taulht toIl:' Ii tar y 'p 11 0 t s , is a s y s t e IT t h a t i ui~ht be said to be "out of step" ~ith tte ~dvancerrents rrade in the constructioo and perforrrBflce of service type
a i r c r af t . The theory no v being taught an& util1zed ~ith narkedly successful

Atlanta.

results is to take adventage of any inforrration contributed by eBch ~vallable ~nstrurrent, tb resultant being an analysis and co-ordination of the CCQpOT'entparts. Sin-ply stated, it rreans that the rren1;al picture of the aircraft in relation to the earth is a

entIating factor beinp ttat instead of uBing natural references a pilot taB o n l y a n s t r urr en t s ~ltJ-1 '!'illell to ac h r ev e thlS en6. A pilot ~u~t CGnce trate, hOllever. on f Ly rn z the airplane and riot the Ln s tr-un t s 111tt!n it. To do fhis. en the f n s t rurr n t pane] e s ro u.ld reflect a ~icture of the attItude of the plane rather than rrere indlcat10ns of '!'ihen to operate certa1n controls to ~ t desired inslrunent readings, This P1(,ture can be obtained rrore easily and accurately in instrurrent coodltlons by constantly crecking the full panel in 8 sJsterratic ~anner. Care Should be e~eTcised not to concentrate on an~ o~e partjcular ihstruuent for sny preat length of tjrreJ as this ~ rely jnv~tes the "prerrllns" to conduct a fe. experiments of their o~n ~ith the rest of t~e panel. In teachlnp pl16ts to fly the full panel, 1t is found that t~ose ~ho hdve been accustd~ed to the "]~2-3- SysterrH often experience difilculty in rraklng therrserves use the lnstru~ents "ltt .hiCh tbey are unfani]~ar. In this eSse the 1nstrurrent ree fving dverconcentration can eIther be turned oJf or the face covered dver ~jth ITBsking tape. For e x an p Le , if a pilot constantly watches the turn Indlcator and allows the other instrurrents to go wi t ho ut c h e c k ing t b err , n a s k..off the face. It then becanas neC~SS8ry to keep t~e plane in the desired atti uda by use of the 1nstrurrents rrlnus the turn IndJcetQT. This can be ea&]l~ actorrplishedJ since by uS1ng the gyro hori-

37
'Zan aloI:lg with the other fnstrulI'ents, 8 aore accurate ttlr~ caD ~e ~8de thaD liith the turn indicator; s Lm r La r Ly , the pla~e can be kept l~~el to maintain a straight course. 'ben the pilot has .astered control of -the plane without this instrument, it can again be added to the panel. Any ot~er instruuent or co~mbinatj_on 01 instrurrents can likevdse be deleted either separately or top:ether,s"nd it will be found that the plane can be safel) flo~n ~ith B nuuter of different co~binations. ihis knoil'led~eis e xt ren eLy itrportantJ since in tbeaters of action where service aircraft are eorring into daily contact iii th the enemy" hi t s which cause relatrvely little d~rr8ge to our "el1arrrQTed craft, uay destroy so«e InstTutrent necessary for the safe return to carrier or base. Ihe pilot who hus been well schoole-d in s t rumen t interpretation 8pd weII taulht to visualize attitude by use of all or anJ cefibins tieD of i~dic8tions, has an ace in the b Q 1 e th ate (l'n v e rye Cl"U e e i v a b 1 Y e n a.bLe h I n to "ste;y in the ga1te". We hdve not uentioned the huttan factor, which, in t~e esti~ation of IFIS~ is the crowning 8chi~vettent of the nqttitude tbeor,~. Pilot fatigue, as statistics will substantiate, has been a lar~e contributing factor ,in a great percentage of the accident cases coaing to the attention of the Eureau of Aeron8ut~cs. Forrrer1), an hour or two of "blind flyinf!" sapped up the re serv e e~ergy of a pilot, ledving him in the .... r s t po s s i bl e p h;Y,s'ic.a 1 and men tal con0 dition upon reachlnp his destination3 just when he needed to be "on the ball" for his let-doy;,n procedure and Lns tr-u~ent approach. the attitude systerr, 85 pioneered the Eajor airlines and adapted to rrl1itary dviation by IF1S, can be said to eTI~ble a pilot to exper.ience conp l.ete reI e x at Lo n whe.n be pl.cks up his "trike" and reports:

b,

"OVER THE STATION AT 2,ODO ~EET -REQUEST CLEARANCE FOR A STANDARD INSTRUMENT APPROACH."

----

38

__Dilbert's military bearing wouldn't frighten even the Italians

Better Sight and Hearing
Changws in airplane design to aid hear lng and vision of combat fl t ers were recommended by the lnsti tute of Aeron au t ic aL Sciences at its recent meeting in New York. The recommendations were made largely as a result of a paper "Vlsion~ !learing and .Aeronaut] cal Design", which was read to the Inst.itute by Commander Leon D. Carson, head of Me~ical Research Section of the Bureau or Aeronautics. Thillgs that impede tlJe vision of the ~unner, it was pointed out, include the di~tance .from the gunner's sighting panel, which cuts his area of visibility from the needed Rn dbgrees down to 2R degrees, and the lattice-work metal s\lpports in the windOWS which constantly interrupt his line of Vision 1n follo~ing a. moving target. Lighting of the l1l1strUJDen~ panel also c eme in for cri ticism: "In~ide the cockpit we usually observe a confusing multlciplicity of f ns t r-umen ts and lack of su t t ab La grouping of essential flying instruments according to Ii ~ell planned pattern for visual function is 19rgely dependent upon maintenance of d ar-k= ap't Lc n of ad a.t the eye, jnstrument panels in general are subject to the following serious faults:
ftL
lHI.

b j e c ted, an d t his n Q is e d e ere as e s efficiency. Desldes being very unpleasant~ it in~erferes with communications and :in some cases, induces deafness. It was recommended that designers keep tbe noise factol' in mind.
5U

Spanish Acrostic
The man who makes up acrostics at Corpus Christi N.A.S. had a problem on his hands when the Latin American Naval Officers came to take the United States Navy primary and intermediate flight training. Trying to translate a perfectly good American acrostic into Spanish or Portugese so it would sound like a word was a problem. A nG" on the inspection sheet in Eng;lish r ef'e r-s to a German plane. But the Spanish speaking cadets do not use the letter "Gn to denote "German". The ward for tbem is ALeman, and the ~crostic maker couldnlt substitute an
"A"
fOT

i't sound right_ .• However, one word that worked fairly
a nG" and make

well was discpvered and the acrostic editor hastened to inform NEWSLETTER. The word Is ~Wefto" which is the ident1fication symbol for ~ings, Engine, Euselage~ Tail, and Qther pecUliarities. Following is his chart:
~ilngs 1!:n_gJne fuselage
:raj}

Alas
Maqulna
!'uselnge

Tl1ere

is

t ed area ,

too I ar-ge an tnumlIns t r-ume n t.s wh:lch a ra

referred
ly

t o :lnfreflup.ntJ

Y fl,re

constant-

fo1a
Qtras

Qther

111ullIiLfllltetl. ~2. The color

Or the transmitter

or

ref~~ated light ments 1s usuall,
band Le as
t,

from these instrunot of the srectral
n~gh t v 15 ion.

He ma In t.a Ins tilal "Amfco" is anacros tic as "Wefto".

as good

~a. Intehslty as wAll as total area of illumination is considerably too high."'

dis turb1n,l!; to

Parent Morale High
The following letter was received at An ac os t.Le , D. C. by the parents of' Avia.tion Cadet Grjffith Rutherford Paul Of Charleston, who was killed in the first ratal accident here in eightean morrt.hs On January , 20, whlle pTacticing pylon turns, Cadet Paul went into a spin apparently due to loss of flying speed and cTashed. Thesincere
i

Airsickness of both crew and passengers i~ partly blamed by Commander Oar-son on mechanically impeded visibility. lncreased engine power increases the noises to which the flier is

41
expression of patriotism shown in his parents' letter ~8mon5trates their high morale, and is a trjbute to all parents
W 1 th sons and daughters a f the! r country.

in

the servi
eston,

ce
S. G,

CharI

orri ce 1'5, Cadet S lind EnJ I s LeU :Wen ~ av III Reser-ve AViation Bas e An sco s III
l'Il1tJ e we know th at 110' rd,s are "owe 1'1e s s r.o exp r es s to you the gratItude lIIhlch 'Mrs. Pllul and I fee] for the e omf'o rt of your f'Lo r u], tr:lbute lit the t.lm'e of the 10$5 of our aon, Fuzzy, lie wlUll you to know that we deeply appreciate both the f]owers and your sending AviatiO'n Cadet Ralph W. Jones as .!I11 e s eo rt., Every exp r es s Ion th II.t 11'.)' son 11 ad ever made about loved t ceyour air base made us realize that he his s enco] and W!lS devo ted to 1ts servBoth he and we looked forward to n i s his

models are made from plans Jdeveloped by the llureau of Aeronautics to guide United States High school students. P'l ans and instruction matter was translated into Sp.anish and portugese, and the printing of this matter was nrrRn~eu uy the SneciRl Devices section. The plans are for fifty types of aircraft, including friendly and enemy ~lanesJ and a~proximately 300,000 sets of such plans already have been deliver~d to American consulates and legations. Finished models, built to the standard scale of one inch to stx fee t Jar e t urn e d 0 v e r tot h e M~istry of Aviation of the country in which they are constructed. These models ar e del i vered to the mil i tary forces for use in aircraft recognition training.

the Navy slrll.lght on t.hrougn to Vi ctory. I\e deeply r eg r e t _th II. the cou l d not have liVed to realize this hop.e and
with

ccrtlnuing

flying

A.V.G. Hero Ha.dNavy Training
Maj. David L. (Tex) Hill, an AVG "Flying Tige:rfta,ce, who brought word to Washington recently of two new Japanese: :tighter plane in use, be g an his colorful flying career with th~ Navy. He said the new types---iden.;. tified only as the 97-2 and the 1-45 -'--aT'e onl y two 'among 5 ev eral whl ch are reported coming into combat service. Major Hill described the 97-2 as a singl e-engine, single- sea t fighte r wi tb a speed of aboot 280 mph. or better under combat condi t10n5 a t an al t1 tude o~ between 13,000 and 18,000 feet. It has much better d1'v1ng characte-rls tics than the Zero , indicating ._§t.urdlel"con-s s t r uc t ton , Some of these planes mount IIUlchine guns of varying calibers and others are armed wlth20 moo. cannon: The 'Plane r-e semb les the Germ.an Me-109 in appearance. The 1-45 plane 1~ similar 1n design to the Me-lID. Its two engines are air co-oled. These p I anes h ave been used since the start of the war on reconnaissance m t s s Lo n s , but last summer they inade their appearance as :fighter craft. '£he p Lane .15, described as being ~~ery fast" and possessing high altitud.e cha eac t e r t.s t1cs---35,OOO feet and better. Major Hill said it is unlikely

'expec tat] on. ~vltltfon Cadet Ralph Jones official duties here with such effi c.i ency as an d person!llly
gracious

per.formed correctness

his and

to refl ect, Il'red1 t on the hIs deep sympathy.

service,

evidenced

endeared

ly during h 1sst you all to QS.

8,.y 1n OU r hom e" have Wh'enhe presented Our

t:1n.g an d , touching moment or au r 1:1:es and v enshr:l!ned the Anacostia Air Base in OUI" hearts. I\e are sure that in the convictions of II. just and righteous cause, IIJld with the higb courage
of the 1"1nest tl"ad" lions of' the Navy, you w111 con tinue to carryon to Vi c to ry. May God bless 8J1d keep you all.

Country's F] ag to M.rs. Paul and saluted her after tap s lIere b.l o wn , 1 t 1111.5 the most effec-

Fa! in fun,Y yolirs J J. Bobertson Paul,

Airplane Models From Latin America
South American high school ~~udents now are building aitplane models to aid Inidentl:fication of' :friendly and enemy aircraft. The work is being sponsored by office of Co-ordinator of Inter-American affairs, and -the

2
the Ja:ps have turbosuperchargers, but suggested the 1-45 might be equipped wi th liIechani c aI super e ha.r-g ers 0 f the two stage blower type. The 27-yeAr oldJ campaign ribbon bedecked flyer was commissioned an ensign a r t.e r graduating from Pensacola on Nov. 20, 1939. He served aboard the Saratoga, Ranger and Yorktownbet'ore he joi.ned the "Flying Tigers" In June, 1941. He was commandin g a ff'l ce r a l' a fighter s qua d r on wh-en he left China. Dis record shows he has participated in more than '100 aer1a1 eomb e t s , has 16 conf'irmed victo~ies and 20 "probab Less " He bas both the United States anod British Distinguished Flying Crosses and three Chinese d ac o ea td on s ,

The New Guinea Special
Ame r t can bombing missions ov er the Japanese-held base of Lae, in New Guinea, are so regular that they are now known as The }f1lk Run (morning), The Blue nate Spe(aal (noon)~ and D(ln c e r' s De Z.~h t (even tng) .

r

laps Worrying About Naval Air Force
A recent radio broadcast 1'rom Tokyo intended for Japanese consumption and picked up in the United States indicates the Japs are wotried about the strength of their naval aviation. The broadcaster said: "In order to drastically fnorease the fighting strength of the (Japanese) naval air forcej the combined naval air force corps and the combined naval training air force corps were created effective Feb. 1. The Navy ministry announced the first commander or the corps will be Vice Adm , Mlchitaro Tokita, formerly commander of the 11th combined naval air force, chief-or-staff) and Capt. As az o Fukuch t , former cbief-of-staff of this same c omb Lned naval ail' force."

Campaign Medals Authorized
Campaign ribbons now are a va f Lab Le to forces se.rv Lng in three WilT theaters" Members of the naval and land forces, Ln c Lud Ln g the Women's Army Amc:iliary Corps, who serve outside the continental limits of' the United States are eligible for medals according to the region in which they serYe. Although manufacture of' the medals themselves bas been postponed indef'initely to conserve lIletals needed in war production, the appropriate service ribbon which accompanies each medal will be issued to individuals after their arriVal 1n a tbeater of' D~erations under competent orders. The service ribbons are 1-3/8 inches lang by 1/2 Inch Wide. Each ribbon is deSigned to symbolize the area it represents. Land and naval

CLOSING DATES for next issues of

Ne\vs Letter
MAR. 5th for MAR. l'Sth issue

MAR. 20th for APR. 1st issue

43

the" American continental United States will be awarded a blue service ribbon with narrow red, whi.t-e, and blue stripes in the center representing the oolors of the UnitedStates, and ,a;c_ombina,tlon of na-rrow black and white stripes representing the a 01 ors of GeT many, and nar r ow red and white stripes represent1ng the colors of' Ja-pan J near each end. The II Eur ope an-Afr lean '-:Midd Eas tern Ie Theater" service ribbon is green~ repr e.se n t i f.lg the gr e e n 1'ields of Eur ope, with nartOw stripes of United States colors in the ce nt.e r flanked by narrow s trips of the Italian c OIOT's of greenj wbite and red near the left end, and by narrow stripes of the German colors ot' black and white near the right end. The bord~rs of the right and left ends 01' the ribbon ar e brown, representing the sands of the desert. The service r fbb on for the "Asi,alicPacific Theater" campaign medal is or e.nge , with narrow stripes of the United States colors in the center, flanked by narrow stripes of' the Japanese colors of' Ted and whi te near

personnel

wh,o serve

in

theater"

outside

the

I

December 31, 1942. This figure exceeds the flying time for the previOUS six months (415.398.8 hours) by 16.8% and the flying time for the correspon~ing per iod of' 1941 (361,519.7 hours) by 34.3%.

Bombing Mission
The following was written Oft the AfrIcan desert by Sgt. Hugh BrQdy, of the R!AF, while waiting to take off on
a bombing assault

Sgt. Brody mission.

did not

on an Axis return

obj ec

t Ive .
hiB

from

Almighty and All-Present Power, Snort :is the prayer I make to Thee. I do not
For

as k 1n the_ bllt tl_e hour
me. way

-any shie.1dtQcQVe'T

T'he vas t una I te'rable From. which the stars.
'May not be

do not

depart t6.y

".uTned a.s1(1e tos

The bullet

fly!n_g to my heart. vl,clory here.

I as k no he.Lp to s t r 1 Ire: my 1'0e. I seek no petty Ttle enemy I hate 1 know to Thee :is also dear. But this I pray Be at my side When death is drawing Almtghty God who also Teach me the, way that

each end.

through dted I should

the

Sky.

Mexico Completing Bases
The New York Times said recwnt1y t.h-at General Francis_c·o L. Urquiza, under minister of national defe.nse, has announced that t'ol'enty new air bases a r e being completed in Mexico. Tbey will be equipped with lighting facilities, radio communinaU,ons, air raid detectors and all-weather runways adequate for heavy bombers. Two s qu adron s of American bombers are expected to be islivered soon to the Mexican Air

die.

Aluminum Output Is Up
Aluminum production in the United St«tes during 1942 is reported to be grea tel' than the en t tr-e output in Eur-ope and eight times more than in Japan., Roy A. Hunt, president of the Aluminum Company of America, said ana she'et mill alone is tUrning out monthly one and one-half' t Lrne.s as much high strength alloy sheet as the entire nation used in a whole year before the war.

Farce,

~ringing

to ten

the

total

of

:Mexico' s ai r regiments.

Pensacola Flying Record
Air Trainin~ Center, Pensacola, ha~ eclipsed all its own pr-ev Lous' ,Boords for fly ing byes tablishing a new a.ll-time high of 485,451.2 flying hours during th~ first si~ m-onths of the 194(3 fiscal year endin~

The Naval

I DIDN'T KNOW IT WAS LOADED
~~

44

------------------------- -----_ -----.___

t

I

(Reprinted

from

Anac:osUa

Naval

Air Station

Dllt.erl ~ews)

Ver y

j..""'H

I, ADOLPH HITLER, being; o r unsound mind and misery and considering t~e possibility of a fatal accident kn own .a s as s ass ill a t j[ 0 n , d.e c I a ret h is t fl b e my last (you Iro pe , you no pe ) will and test.ament. I leave the Russian my brave Aryan sailors
off, jus

TO M-iERICA,
wjn)
v "

J leave Walter WlnclIBII, said, " 'ra Ill!:IL witll !1it.Le r I know he'll be' very o u s y on iii y j' u [) era Ida y S Q iJ e 'd bet t e r II n t a Lwa vs

come--business

before pleasure.
I Leav e my Chaplin

TO

MUSSOLINI,
W

TO RUSS lA,
• bere
the ir knots

t wben

Winter froze
MOSCQw.

m us; t a c II e ,

hie j I II e i 5 tOlD a toupe for his Ivor~ dome . WINSTON
mat
lit.

a ke

i

/I

t

r)

we sxpec ted

to land

Deep

in the Ueart

of

TO
of

CHURCHILL,
I ne v e rBesides,

I

c, II e s • where

leave a OOX y e- t saw his
\'Iho'11 n ee d

TO FRANCE, I Leave all t.h e be.aut Lf'u I MadarnoiseJJes ill occupied Paris. I NEVER was the ONe for girls. WHOOPS I

Cigars

matches

1'111 going?

TO

FRANKLIN

TO

NORWAY,

potential no Social sin."

I leave Quisling. Security

my advice Cor any To wit, "there·s foJ' t.h e wages of

my apolQgy for interrupting il~gl but he got even.

D.

ROOSEVELT,

1

his

leave fish-

TO COIJNT
5011.0i,

CIANO,

r leave-

son-in-law
the
Victoria
iII

TO
the
it.

IlAL

Y,

I leave
SCUM,

Risin.g

J a p a n, the J and of and Vice Versa. It's

for b r- i 11g 1 n g dow II bombers and 72 fig1tters-

0 NE

of MusCross day, 41

a l I ITALIA:-'.

a question,

who'll

.et

the

worst

of TO GOEBELSAND million marks GOERING~ I Le.av e (Two d o L'l r s }, a ARTHUR,
witlJ

ao

TOE

NG l AND,

manuscript fL A • F.

I 1 e a vet lJ e 0 rig i n ,Il l_ of MEIN KAMPF,whioh t h e Lr sp 0 i 1 e d • I ha.d wr itt e n a

TO GENERAL
fO:F
my

MAC

different finish, g.ot me in the end.

but

their

fJiers

tombstone

1 leave mdney this e p t t a pu :
M{I

EENT MEENEY

MINEY

TO

POLAND, I leave a 16xlO &Bldframed ~hotograph of myselr to hang in their public schools to scare the bell out of any kid who might THINK
along Nazi lines.

HERE LI ES- HITLER BY Htf TOE ~ ~DERN EATH HE SEEMS TO SAY

"MY MASTER WAS THE ~.S.A."

A~D

AND TO THE ENTIRE WORLD, THEY WilL THANK DOD!!

J(;ST

lsI

LEAVE, ADOLPH

45 Memorandum. To station Papers
Rear Admi~al Elliot£ Buckmaster, Chief of Naval Air Primary Training,
has issued a directive of instructions covering pub Lfca t t on of station papers.' After ~eviewlng a number such papers he finds that many are excellent but 8. c e r.t Ln number a fail in the ir miss ion an~ purpose. Point of chief concern is the practice, inside and outside the service, of portraying the enlisted man as a rather low c.he r-a cer , either c in cartoons, jbkes o~ stories:

Tail Gunner's
they

Tale

Of all t.h e freak airplane i anc mgs , still are reprinting the story of

or

the rear gunner in a Hritisll Whitley Bomber, early in the War. This yarn, r-epo t ed in the public 'press a t the time, r now has become a part of th~ official peport of the RAF, and who are ynu to

I

I

doubt

an official

report?

·Our large

Navy

has

drawn

heav1ly

upon

the

civilian

population

for

young me.n fr om fl fie Arner.l ell n homes, schools and colleges, and they are only admitted to the service

arter
moral,
They

passing
physical are busy

rigid
and

requirements,
educational.

the world technical order. Wlt_h the

serving In all parts of - on ship and ashore - as experts of a very high
advent of the W""_VES.

WAACS and the SPAR.S! n the na t 1on's m111tarypersonnel~ there is all

According to the story, a group of Whitleys were returning from a pamphletdropping mission over Dusseldorf, in bad weather and a temperature at 8000 feet of rnigus 57 degrees. Icing conditions became sp bad that the formation broke up and began dropping in Fran ce , The rear gunner on one of tbe bombers figured it was Ii mighty rough emergency field that his ~lane dropped into, but he shrugged his shoulders' and wiggled forWard from the tail. When he reached the cabin, he discovered the crew was gone. The plane had I and.ed 1 tself wi thou t a pi 10 t. La tel' he Learriea that because of a fire, the pilot had ordered everybody to jump, and due to

the more reason wby the high standards of moral decency and good taste sbould be the hallmark of our sta,tion,papers.•

faulty

Ln t.e r-e o ommunLc a t t on he had

not

heard the order. Crew members who bailed

o u t landed in

pas t.ure , were chased by bulls, sufrered sprain~d ankles and all sorts of minor injuries, while the tail gunner only suffered the indignity of a
bumpy landing.

a cow

_.... ... _o....a:

.,~_ ..

#Ir.L

I

~_

Astrograph
Th-e As
t

Saves Time
is a na v Iga tiona

r o.gr

il ph

i

instrument designed to eliminate all t.1l 05.e c o m p.u ta ti on s w IJ I e 111 f'l f g n t j which are ordinarily required in r ed u c ing sex t.a nt observations to
charted fixes or position lines.

to Polaris is also re~ 1'1111:1a.nd wilJ afford~-for an observation of Pola.ris--a third line. flX . Films for the AstrograJh now available number 7 in a Ll, a nd cover the fallowing latitude bands
D!WnEFS

"Q" correction corded on the

When it is available, no calculatiQns or tables are required in flight and a Cix can be obtained in about one minute ai·ter the sextant obse~vations have been made. Its operation re~ quires little knowledge of celestial

OF ut

I'rtIDE

F. S. S.L

r\lI~!I:IER

navigation
p LaI n e d

and

its

In

about

can on€' liour.

use

be

ex~
Its

41 1/2 t-I to 23 !II M ti to ~2 1/2 N 60' N to 4:1 N 68 J/2 N to M ]/2 !II 23 1/2 N to 8 N 7 l/2 S to 37 8 28 S to 'Hi

FlS-V-BOO

88-F-ROF!
88-F-BIO
BB-F-B20

RB-F-S7Q.
8B-F-900

..

comes well within that of average observation. In operation the AstTograph is installed at a d.e n f t e height I'd above t.he cha r t; table a nd pr-ojects a film ~ecord of the equal altitude curves of tw 0 pre -5 e Le c ted s tars OJ", to s ta nrlard plotting cha~ts of the region of o per a t t en , The charts are Mercator prajections based on a scale of 1:1,000,000 Ilt a. latitude of 5ao. A sextant observation ot the altitude of either one of" the two stars will} \Ii'hen the As tr ogra ph is se tror the data. the

precision

S

88-r-920

These films may be requisitioned. Tile As t.r og r a p h c ha r t s and grattcule sheets a r e dLs t r fb u.t e d by the Hydrographic 01T1e8 a nd r e q ue s us for t ha m Shollldbe s e n t d tr-e c.t to t ha t nffic'-e .

and time of the ohs e rve t.Lou , permit the s e 1:ec.t1Qn by ins peet i on or a e orresponding ,line of p cs t t ton on the
chart.
G. C,.

r.

by means

which is
mer :tdian

center
curves

or

Prop-€l' adjustment for the of th'f.' observ·ation is made of a time seale on the film lined up with an ap~ropr1a.te on tb e plot t-ing ch a r t . The

each

set

of the

projected
sub-

1scoincident

stellar point of Tbe equal altitude curves are 1° apart with 10' graduations between to assist in estimating the location of the position lines. An observation ot' the altitude of the star,willJ artel'
adjusting fol' the new time and allow-

with t.he the star.

ing for the intervening displacements be twee nabs e r VB. ions. -pe m It a sec:ond t r
line of positlon--and thus

U" located

directly

on the

cha.rt. ~

a fix--to The

Bec.a.us e of fa v ora D I e se r v ice r.es t s ~Hports received from West Coast actiVities, 125 Astrographs, FSSC ~o. 88-A-650, have been procur~d and a re being shipped to the Com~

48
, oculars way fallout. The existence mander Fleet Air West Coast for o-r tbis hazard bas been coufirlIled from distribution at bis discretion among time to time by various reports and VpB airplanes under h Is command. Prothe bureau has become illcreasingly Visions have alreadl been m.de in the skeptical ot the serviceability of majority of VPB airplanes for tHe this tYTle of case. 'Crirnmerrt.s from the installation of' these t ns t r ume n t s .

Link Ejection Chutes
The initial gunnery tests

s ervt ce on tile desirabil
this type conventional of' case

i

ty

of aban-

t.)'f1€ condUcted be aPfireciated. by the Aircraft Armament Unit, with the Model F41-4 airplane revealed Mobile Navigation Trainer tha~ numerous gun stoppages oocurred due to improper functioning of the A g 1 or fried milk-w!1_,g,on, the Hagner linkej ectionclmtes. At that t Lm e , , Mobile Na v Iga t Lon Trainer, has been this bureau lni tia ted pr0curemen t of , turnetl OV'!'l'1'" to Naval Atr Training 8. form fi t t t ng type of link chute for Canter at COPflUS Christi by the inventhe mid and outboard guns which was t'01'" J F. H. lIagne r. As de 11 ve red, the developed and tested by the Air-craft trainer had a navigation table, some ,Armament Unit. One thousand sets of seats, a celestial observer's dome, tttesechutes (Bell A.il"q;raft Part !IIos. and two modifl·ed unusable Mark IV drirt 03-042-814 a.fl. and 03-042-911 L.B.) s f ght s , The drift sights looked on t he a~e now being delivered. Allocation ground~ andj Of cQu~sej there was no Is 600 to Avia-tion Supply Annex, drift. Oaill8,nd_, California, and 400 to ~'Vjatior Tests were made on the highways of Supply AnneX'" No:rfoIR" 'V.:trp_ifll.a. South Texa~~ and a great number qf An F4F-4 s.e vtc e change will not r I) ha ng es we re made. A dr I-ft mechan is rn be issued at this time for the inStalwas manufa~tured In the squadron work lation of the above chutAs due to shops ~hich would give the 5tudents lack of additional specific reports artificial drift c on tr oHed by the In8.S to the malfunctioning of the origstructor. A mock instrument panel was inal link chute-s. Service units may installed, to be controlled by the draw sets of the form-fitting li»k Instructor. A stand for the 8stroclnrt.e s if desi red. compass was' placed under the celestial navigator's dome. A complete radiQ Binocular Cases .direction finder unit was jnstalled~ The bureau has been supplying an and & magnetic compass for the ins true. tot" . The s t.ud.erre 'wears a gunner's "Ever-ready" or "Race trac k" type o-f safety belt, while taking celestial binocular case with th~ 1 x 50 binsights. oculars (F.S.S.C. No. BB-B-320) and Although this trainer was called w~tb the 10 x ~O binoculars (F.B.S.C. "Rube Goldberg's Folly" by all the No. 88-B-345). These cases are disdisbelieVers, it proved to bea very tinguished by a mid-section of 4Ccordion-like pleats which prov.tde sut"successful navigAtion trainer. All ficient flexibility to enable the the problems of naVigation can be observer to adjust the binoculars duplicated in the trainer. Most of while they are still within the case. the ske p t Lc s ,8. re amazed to find t ha t When the coyer of tbe case is removed, the trainer does not have to run sidethe bo t.t.om of the ca.se is also released ways) and that the tutns in the Foad and tbe observer c an then employ the 40 not matter. The problem of oonbinoculars with the case attached. tl"Cilllng the ground-speed to make it The design necessitates two straps to , match~he a.irspeed and wlnd given the keep the binocularss.ecurely within at.u de n t is a dlf't"icult one. The the-open case and, i~ &he straps are students use a chart made to a scale not parefully fastened, the binf'nur tlmeathe actual dis t.e.ncas on the

doning to the

and clLangiug of ease would

-

road map. They may report ground-speedS in the' vicinity or 100 knots. The driver divides the ground-speed by four, and this is the s peed he make s good by latohing the speedometer on the trainer. When the weather is bad the trainer 1s better than an airplane. The trainer can be navigated entirely by radio bear Ings, and dead r e c koning. For the rirst two or three n~vigatlon problems, the students learn more in the trainer than they learn in the air. The 'p r inc I p Le r e a.s on for this Is that the trainer ca.n be s topped to settle the arguments. Corpus Christi reports that the amount and variety of tiain~ng that ca.n be given in this t ra ine r is cons iderab Ie, PI'ov id lng practice Ln most phases of navigation with -relatively small expense. BUREAU CDMMENT: Noted with interest. With respect to Ha gne-r trainer, it Is believed that the Bendix carts now in production will b e as good or better than the Hagner t.r-a tner-, and will av oId the use of critical automotive equipment, rubber and gasoline.
I

Reflector

Sight Adapter

designation

of

the

eqUipment

it re-

A s h o o k-rpr o-o mount f' which wil] enable the use of a Mark 9 illuminated reflector sight on Browning Machine .guna is now in production and is bei_ng distributed by the Special Devi~es Section, Training Division. Tbe adapter permi t s r-e La.o eme n t of p light bulbs without dismantling the sight or removing it from the gun. Each unit is provided with a new housing that will be easily intercbangable with the present bulb housing. One side of the metal housing has been cut to permit the removal of the light bulb. This opening is closed by a rotating door. The Official designation of the new adapter is: Device 3-A-5 (c). The

p Lac es is Device 3-A-5 (a). All. f'uture m0 de Is '0 f the }dar k 9 t r a in in g s i g h t
will be equipped with the shock-proof mounting. In requisitioning these mounts, all activities using the Mark 9 8D-1 illuminated ref'leetor training sights are requested to inform Training Division, Special Devices us to the number of Mark 9 sights in use 1I.nrl the number of adapters required.

New Sight Installation
'1'he M_k.9 sight has been instaJ_led in the turret of the Model TBF-l airplane on a f'ixed bracket Which is contractor installed. Current issues 01' Model TRF-l airplanes are e~uip~ed With this

Pistol Pyrotechnic

Stowage

Air Transport Squauron 'VR-l detachment at NAS, Miami, Fla., sent this picture to the Bureau, illustrating a methoct oj' stowing the pistol pyrotechnic AN-MB and st gn.a Ls in an R4D airplane. The manuf'acturer of' this plane now is lIJaking provisions for the ins talla tiOD of this s Lgna.I device in newer types o_f planes. All of the equipment is fastened to the bu~khead behind the pilot's cabin.

Some concern was felt for the d.u ring ca t a.pu I ting bu t tests run at the Naval Aircraft Factory with two diffel'ent gunners occupying the turret proved that the installation is safe for the personnel providing tbe following precautions are heeded: sight.

tu r r e t gunner

ldJ the re~

Thebod,Y is moved sJ1ght.ly to gunner' 5 right (ports1de of turin order to clear .ar e not the gunner a1 tbough tbe sight. for in by

(e) If' the the seat

legs and,

stiffened moves aft the

the launching

movemen t

(.... The turret .) (b) The hinged

i~

trained plate

aft. .Ls placed

is not v fo t en t , it may be l"educed sUf1'entngthe legs.

armor

Sight Mounting
i The Aircraft Fr~e Gunnery Training -Unitat the Naval At r Statton, Kaneohe ,Bay, T. H. has developed a method or mounting the Mark 9 illuminated sight 'in the Martin Model ;l50 CE-3A gun tur.r.ets to r ep.l ace the Army Type N-3A or N -6 sights noroally del i ve red with these

In the
knees-up

up position
combat position

~nd the

normal

1slI.5sumed.

(c) Both arms are :fo] cled across legs bet..eel] the knees and hips, the ~orehead is rested against arms.

the
and

the

turrets. This tfPe of turret 1s at present installed in some pa4Y-l airplanes and is in use at various Free Gunnery Training Centers. Activities desiring information concerning this method of mounting the Mark 9 sight should re ques t this in formation. directly .from the Naval Air Station, Kaneohe Bay, or the Naval Air Station, Pearl Harbor.

New Radar Bulletin
A PBY-5 recently crashed While proceeding 1n a fog during the interval that its radar was secured f'o r the purp o se of transmi t ting a report. Attention of a11 PBY-5 and PDY-5A operating units is directed to PBY-5 service cbanges Nos. 69 and 71, and PDY-5A service cnange No. fi7. Trlese Changes -permit simultaneous use of both radio and radar equipment. Attention also is directed to the latest issue of the Airborne Radar Maintenance Bulletin concerning filters for the complete suppression of interference between radB-r and. communicatidns equipment in this type- airplane.
TO PREVENT

How To Prevent Air Speed Indicator Difficulties
As a result of reports from operators, it was found that ~ir-speed Lnd t c at or troubles were frequently cauaed by mo i s tur-e caceumu La tt.ons in th,e pitot static lines. More attention should be given to draining the pitot static lines through nse of the drain tees provided for the purpose. In dry weather these lines shou l.d be drained every 20 hours or 1wssib1y at greater intervals if experIence justi~ fies sucb .ext ens ion. However, in high altitude flying, and during operation In damp air, rain, or other icy conditions the lines should be drained more :frequently since moisture !).ccuIDulations WOUld, of course, be more prevalent at sucb times',

DETERIORATION OF TIRES

How To Prevent Damage To Recessed Tread
It has been reported that recessed head screws used to attach various cover plates and stress ~lates are so badly burred that in many cases they must be drilled out to remove the plates. This is highly undesirable, because of the difficulty inVolyed in Obtaining replacement screws and the wasted time spent in drilling. Ma.intenance personnel must use greater care in tigh tening L-hese sc rews to pe ev en t such was

experience has shown that greases, oil, etc, have a very damaging effec t on tires. When personnel apply grease and oil to the various parts of the 1anding gear. care should be taken to prevent spilling or dripping such material on the tires. When airplanes stand on the field. greases and oils generally collect on the tires as a result of drippings from the engine section, landing gear, etc. This coating shoul~ be cleaned off immediately with Stoddard Solvent Federal Specification PS-661a or some other noninJurious solvent.

Service

Airship pelorus Campass Available
Arnlmber of' observer-type pe Lorus compasses, F.S.S.C. No. 88-P-320, are being procured for U5e in Naval airshi ps , These ins t rumerrts w ill be available for all ZP squadrons on the basis of' one per airship plus one spare per squadron of six shipS OIl less and two spares for each squadr-on of more than six ships. A smaH quantity of similar ins t rumen ts ha:.Ibeen prevlouslydis tributed to some airship squadrons. SquadTons not so equi-pped should r-eou t t t on Ls them. Deliveries are expected in March 1!W-3.

t.e ,

. . . . .. . . .
,.

"

Sign on a t ruck : d'This truck stops for all R.B. crOSSings, redheads and brunettes--and will back Up one-half a mile for a blonde. "

54
Am WARFARE DIARY
J all. Bunk and ,8 third U. S.aJl'craf't "Iras left bu.rnlng. "ere attacked by were were s ho lost
t,

,29-

DUTlng the-early a.fternQon III force of MARAUDERS attacked enemy posit t oris on Kolombll.ngara naut.Lca I miles northwest .ea n aI airfield. attacked enemy-held Munda on New Georgia planes plane our '"as trombed shot U. S. Island, 190 or GUll.dal-

tep ZEROS. two of "hl~h, d 01l'n. Two of our planes

Feb.

1-

in the attack. Our surface units t Ions were
attacked

and' s hore planes.

pos 1-

In the Western Aleutians
by Jap South our dive

ag8.1n
No

Lat er ,

-they positions at I~land. positions Jap
0)1

damage resu}"ted.

.In the
force of

Pacific bombers.

area

a

Guadalcanal
Dur In.g
t he

Islatid and had one
tt'leirtro'ub
II,

With

down for

Ie. of

AVENGER (ltd WIIDCA'l'escOT'f.. attacked e neilly-held pas tti ons at Munda. TlY (I
di~e bya bombers ratled Three d t r e e.t 'hi·ts foree to return. were, scored

eve nfng

rore.e

cruisers cove,rlng,

and destroyer~. which t r-a.nep er-t movemetat:.,s

of .FLYINO FORTRESSES wUh

And ope rat.tng 70. mnes to the south of Guadalcanal, was att.eked by
eQemy

torpedo

planes.

The

U.

S. S;

fighter 'escort, When they bombed a large Jap cargo ship ofr Shortland

CHICAGO was hit by torpedoeS and severe ly d a ma.ge.d , The dam,aged
c rulser Jan. 30was taken to in tow and, 11;(el' t for to'll'ln&._ tur!'H;~d over a tug

Islana. A second
whicb

.ave o~ FORTRESSE~~

In thea1'ternoon was attacked by

ttle CHICAGO aga.in 13 enemy torpedo
8.

had tieen dispatched to attack sl:llpJ)wg in the Bu.,ln-Shortlllnd area, was aJtacked by 20 enemy ZEROS. Thr0,e of our planes are' IDtsSing and a fourth .r·etur'l1.ed badly damaged. Dur f.ng Ii.he af'tel'noon a force of' S •. torcpedo pll;(nes. dive bOl!loers~, and fighters a tta'cJi'ed an enemy 1'01'lIIa't ion 20 des t:roye r's about 200 miles nor'thwe.st of Guadalcanal. One des H'ofer was sunk and anot.her was 'badly dal!\lLged. An enemy destroyer
U.

planes
shot
the

and

8S

result

op this

attac~ was sun~
down
a t tack casualties

twelve
on

U. S. aircraft of the thlrte~n time to ward off

llIanes.

but .flot in

nel

t.he CRICAGD-. Pe 1'5 Ollwe!'!! not large and

of

the next of kin of tbose kllle~, wounded and lI)issing. 'have been notified.
HARAIlDERS carried ou t ,two attacks

on enemy pos 1t ions

at
Jan.

and ins talla

tl om; as the

lfupda.

Fires

were started

later was observen burning. In this attack s e v e n ZEROS were shot d o!fnand five others probal:! ly were destroye.i'I. Fo~r of' our tOl'p.edo planes. one bomber and Ol1.e fighter were J es t , In a second attackJ
DAUNTLESS

91- A

resuI ts of' hits. force 0:1' n •. fighters attacked ation a nd one 1 arge

S,. bomb'ers
an

and enern~ forrna-

WILDCATS

bombers. es co rt e d by and WABHAWKS. attacked

of one de.stroyel', GuLf'.. The three

one !!orvette
1 In the enemy vessels

ca.'r"go vasse

Vella were

le,ft dead ill

the ·'II'a.ter. burnl118

'ano I is t Ing. Two Jap float-type our ~osltions but of no in Aleutians fered. A force

ZE~OS bomb,ed
the Western was
5U1'-

damage

Feb.

2-

e'ighteen enemy destroyers i¥hJ.ch we-re. covered b.y 25 ZEROS. Two hib "ere scored. on one destroyer ani one h I t on another. Ten zlROS were shot dowlj and t .. o others .. ere probably destroyed. three of our f'j.gb.ters a.nd (lne d Lv e bomber were lost. During the nIghts 01" Feb.lst, 2:nd, 3rd, and 4.th, Jap planes,in groups of from one to four, bombed U. S. pos i t,1ons on Gua,tta ]ca.nal. A U. S. fighter strafed euemy barges about four mIles south~ast of C.pe Esperance. DQring the

our bombers, of four were

torpedo

planes

and

fighters

attacked
destroyers

an T'wa

enemy forJllation in the northern o~ the destroyers

SolomonS ar~a.

b81~eved

55
even tng-, AVENGERS explosions fires. Feb. 3J.ap positions
a

force and

of DAUNTLESS and

During float-type

the

aFternoon, planes

"five

enemy U. S.

attacke~

Munds causing
st&rting several Feb. 5-

bombed

a t Yund& took a shel-

po.ftlons in the ~estern Aleutians. No damage was suffered. During the night of' Feb. 4th and

lack1ng £ro~ morning and r:alds by U. S. pl&nes.

evening with

5 t h, LmERATORS a. lid MITC HELlS. W'!th
fighter esc-art" bombed Jap posi t ions at Klska. Three of' the five fl·oat.type shot Feb. 6ZER.OS li'hh!h down. All intercepted U.S. planes were re-

A Force
rlgllter

or DADNTLESSES

tions
Feb. 4-

escort, bombed on Kolombangara

enemy posiIs1and.

A FLYING FORTRESS on a search miss.ion ,,&8 attacjred by three ZEROS.

One

ZERO wa. shot do~n
FORTRESS returned

and
to

the

turned. During the mo rn Lng , small groups of' U. S. planes bombed enemy positIons on Kolombangarll Island. eve_ning,
DAONTLESSES

damaged base,.

its

Durin_g t.he

In the North Pacific a U. s; p lane des t rayed II. Ja p plane dur Lng a rec orma is sance miss Lon,

"t t h WI WCAT es cort
1011 U. S., p.Ianes Feb, 8-

bombed returned. U.

Munda. S. air

In the

South

PacifiC

,J.

56
forces bombed at ),Iund.a. In the J all II. nese
J

p os 1 t Ions LIBERA'l'OR,S

",e..e started_. Feb. 1.3U. S. p l e.nes at"tacked Jap sho .. e. positions Shortland Solomons.
f' ire.

"NoJ:' Pac if Ic th

and MITCHELlS dropped enemy e amp a r e a at ins tall a tians at North

bombs on t.he Kiska and on Head..
Seven

and Shipping 1n the Island area of the The !I. t tac k "as oppos ed by antt-alrcrart

45 ZEROS and heavt

flail. t- tyPe Z.EROS were obse r ved 'on the wate·r by t flO at tem.pt to in te rcap t was returned. Fe·b. 9made·. A.I} our planes

AIRACCI8RA f1.ghters strafed a.ro s!ui!o: an ene'my bar15:e off' Hooper .Bay in th~ northern
o:fflQII.tlng

Ei.ghtZEROS "er"e shot d.o"·n and an enemy e;argo ship su:ffered II: direct bomb hit. Four of our planes "ere shot down and t.o we~e Aes·troyed by enemy anti-aircraft rire.
Tn Ule, North Pacff'lc. LIBERATORS and MITCHELLSy with LIGHTNING ~scort.: rnade a night attack on Jap p ea t t Lo ns at Risk_a. JUts w'ere

Russell in the the

Islands. fuel

A number
011 were

dl"UJlS of'

destr'oy.ed During

sa!llevlclnity:.
a force of

evening

scor~d
of the

'In tbe
'flve

target

,a.rea a nd

three

AIRACOBRA, and LIGH'l'bombed Jo.p pos!~lons on 11:0] omb-angara 1.5 land. Res u L rs were not reported.

YARAUDERSlth "

ZEROS l!I"h1ch intercepted

NnW escort,

DAUNTLESSES,

with

LIGHTNING and

Feb.

14-

WILDCAT escortJ attacked Jap posit ions a. t M'tmd·a.. ~ 1& rge f'i.r·e "as started. Feb. 10During the morning,. U. S. heavy and mediulI! bOmbers 'l!"Hh :fighter esnor t , hOjJ)bed JQ.P pos iUons hits on enemy our o.bserved. attack-e.d wa'S tern suffered.
,0,

t Kis ka-.

.Many

were shot do:wn. An enemyre.connatssance plane was sho t down in th.e West.ern AleutIans. D ur Lng the mol' nang , DAUN'T1ESS and, AVENGERS wi th AlRACOBRA l,j.o(I WIlDCAT escort. attacked Munda. A lafge .fi re w·as s t8 r ted. All our p la.nes ret.u'I'"tJed. Later 8. f'o'pce of AIRACOBRAS and WIlDCATS straf'ed enemy p os 1 1:01'lS at Munda. t a number ot LIliERATORS CORSAIFI and tIGHTN ING.-escort, at tae Ired lind S C ol"ed th ..cee 11 omli .0its
11'

installatIons surface units ,in

were the

At noon.

A s i~gle enemy- t ypeplane
AI~ut La.ns , No damag e was

Hh

DUrin,g the night a CATA1.INA attacked e.nemr posi.tions at Munda.

A recQnnalss~.ce
Guadalcanal Jap bomber shot
o'Ver

plane fro.
en.glne lelandl,

down at"ln Chotseul 01' the central
II. t

~b.

15-

on a Iar.ge JaR cargo shlpl;\ear Buln. About 25 or 30 en&1IIY planp':s intercepted the attack and 11 were shot do"·n.r"o Glf our !I,ombers and s lx' f'lghtersfailed to return. DU.r ing t he eve n I ng, t hrse of our planes were Jap positions Is land area. BallaIe return. dispatched in the One or. to attack Shortland th,e planes on. to

35 !!II s north I'e Group in the
Feb. 11~ Enemypos

New Ge,org.ia Solomons.
Munda and
0111'

d-..opped bO.mbs on

i tions,

10 I o.bangara"e a ire raft.

re

a t til. C ked by star ted and one eut

Island·and

enelllYpos Lt f ous one railed

Bomb hits

r ire's
enemy three A gun fires

Du...Ing th.e evenlng,

a. LIBERATOR,

in the target areas plane, was shot down. Feb. 12U. S. planes ca.rrfed

with escort. attack'ed the Jap aIrfield at Kahil! on the southeast coast of the return. of Bougainville Island. One ta es e or-t Lng planes

bombing attacks a t "lunda. paS .ition "as d'e,str,oyed and

railed

J. 5'6
forces {lambed JIIJI$.·m!se

pas

1tiuns

were started.
Feb. 13:U. S. pOSitIons Shortland Solomons.
p Lanes

at

llIunda. In the North Pac:1 fie, LIIIImATQRS

att.acked Shipping

Jap

si1ol'1;t

and

~n

the

a.nd. Id.I'l'CHELlS dJl'opped h o.m"l)s Qn the enemyc·a.mp ~u'ell :!it. Klska and on -1nstallallonsat; !forth fiead.

Island
Thellttl'lc1(

area or tHe wa.s opposed b,y

Seven

fl all t- \ype ZEaaS "e re obse I'V e-d -o:n the 11'11 tel' b·ut 1'l0 ,a.t tell\Pt to .J..n tel"-

ce-pt
Feb. 9-

~II.S

made.

All

ou~

Jl~ne~

returned. AJRACOORAf'1,ght.ers
an ene_l'Q~ hargeorr

-strafed Mid sank HiooperBa}' in the

&h' heavy antl-altoraft :rire.. F,'lght. ZEROS were shot down and an enemy earg 0 s h t fls uf'f'e a 1" ed direct bomb hJ.t. Four of our planes "e~e shot down and two .~re des troyed by eMmy ant f-.lI.il'cra1't fire. II! and
t,"he

.5 ZEROS

North

Pacif'lc,

northern of floating
.des troyed

R1l5se]1
Ln

Islands.

A number 0:11 "ere or ee of
v:1c .1n1 t,y.
1I..t'

~ITCHELLS, with

LIDERATORS LIGHTNING

dTums the

o,r

fuel

sam.e

~sco"'t, made II night Iltta·cllon J9,:p p es Lt.Le ns at- KIs:ka.. 1f1tsll'ere seor_!:!d In the target uelll a.lId three oft-he .five ZEROS", h-1eh lhtercepte(l were shoot down. AI'! enemy re_corma:fsSlU1C'C plane.as s hot, down in the
Weste,rn Aleu.tll1.llS.

DUr"1ng the

eve n t ng

DAU1C!'.IESSRS 1 !If H h L 16 wr NI NGa.nd' WILDCAT -e:IU~QI:'t., attackedJap poSit 1·on5 at Munda. .A 1tiL r,ge r 1 r e "liS started'. Feb. 10Our

KABAtIDRRS 1'I'Hh AIRAOOBRA anti J;..IO.HTN I.NG e se or t~ b olRbed Japp osi.t1ons on I<llomhang,a 1'8. IS 1,auti. Res ul tao "ere n~t reported.
l

Feb.

14-

DurLngthe

~orn1n_gJOAUNtLESS

and

ing

tbe P1orn,ing,

lIIed1_tlfnll

bom.bers 'll'lth

tJ. S.. hea.vy aAd fighter escort,
at Klslca.

AVE.N6F1JlSw 1 t.1l AIRACOBRA and Wll..DCAT e s ~o.. tJ & t bU'l:lced Munda. It III. I' ge r 1.1'6 "If 8.S S ta I' ted. A11 our pi anee retu-rned.Utel' • fOPce of' AIRJ.COBRAS and 'iUl:J)CATS a_ s t f! lI.if"ed enemy

bom'lied.J«pposi.tloM

wany

pos 1 t.loIif.l a. f. }lunda.

b i'ts on ene my ins t a 11a t Ions !f8.1"'e observed. A slngle enemy""type plliLne .aHa e ked QUI' $ ur fa ce un 1ts .~11 tl'le
• 'estern Aleutla.rts. No d(u!\a_g'~ IfQ.S

At neon,
a tt·Q;c!ret!

numbe~r of LI8ERA'.rORB
t.hree escer-t, honib .bUs

.j1.11 CORSA tR and UGlI'NHNG

and, se orad.

suffered.
Dur-J.ng the attacked enemy Guadaleanal

night
po~i.t-lons

a CATALINA at lunda. Feb. 15-

A l'''econllais,S.IlIl'C"e pl'ane fro .. sfJot down a tY111englne
over Cbolse.nllsland, Ne'. Geol"g14 Solomons.

on a large Jap cargo Ship near :Bu1n • About 2"5 or 80 enemy pI,flnes tnt.cree,pted theattaek Sind U were sho·t down. T"\'I'o of our bombell'5 and six, flgh te rsra Had tll return. DurIng t-hee;ventng, three of OUI' pl'a.nes were d1sp'H1t..ched to .,;tta.ck
positions 1n th. Shortland a.-rea. One of the plan_es dpGpped. bombs em enelllY pos-it-fons on; Jap

J(I;P bOl!lber

35 1II1l·es north of -the Group 111 th,'e central Feb. 11Enelll1 -posItIons KolombiLngQI"a "ere
iii

Island

at Mu"nda And: attllicked 'by our started lind one out 1'11"6& ene'my three

Ballale

ls1alld·and theeven1:ng,

one .failed a LIBERATOR.

to

return.
During

bcralf'''t. the
"4$

Bo--mb hits target
&'I'eas

In Feb. 12~

plane

shot do.n.
c.arrfed

11. S.• planes.

b oll1b ing 8 Hac ks a t. Nunda. pes 1 elon "as des troyp.d and

! gun
f'll'es

wHI'! eseor't, a.t.tacked. ·the Jap alrftel~ &t Kahil! on the southeast Ie (UtS, t 0 f Bou.,ga tnv 111 e Is 1« ri~. O,ne
of thell eseo,rti~ p;tanes fa~l1ed to

return.