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Preface

This textbook represents the Finite Element Analysis lecture course given to students in the third year at the Department of Engineering Sciences (now F.I.L.S.), English Stream, University Politehnica of Bucharest, since 1992. It grew in time along with a course taught in Romanian to students in the Faculty of Transports, helped by the emergence of microcomputer networks and integration of the object into mechanical engineering curricula. The syllabus of the 28-hour course, supplemented by 28-hour tutorial and lab. classes, was structured along the NAFEMS recommendations published in the October 1988 issue of BENCHmark. The course represents only an introduction to the finite element analysis, for which we wrote simple stand-alone single-element programs to assist students in solving problems as homework. It is followed by an advanced course in the fourth year at F.I.L.S., called Computational Structural Mechanics, where students are supposed to use commercial programs. In designing the course, our aim was to produce students capable of: (a) understanding the theoretical background, (b) appreciating the structure of finite element programs for potential amendment and development, (c) running packages and assessing their limitations, (d) taking a detached view in checking output, and (e) understanding failure messages and finding ways of rectifying the errors. The course syllabus was restricted to 2D linear elastic structural problems. It has been found advantageous to divide the finite element analysis into two parts. Firstly, the assembly process without any approximations (illustrated by frameworks) followed by the true finite element process which involves approximations. This is achieved starting with trusses, then with beams and plane frames, and progressively dealing with membrane and plate-bending elements. Solid elements and shells are not treated. Our objective was to ensure that students have achieved: (a) a familiarity in working with matrix methods and developing stiffness matrices, (b) an understanding of global versus local coordinate systems, (c) the abilty to use the minimum potential energy theorem and virtual work equations, (d) the mapping from isoparametric space to real geometrics and the need for numerical integration, (e) an insight in numerical techniques for linear equation solving (Gauss elimination, frontal solvers etc), and (f) the use of equilibrium, compatibility, stress/strain relations and boundary conditions. As a course taught for non-native speakers, it has been considered useful to reproduce as language patterns some sentences from English texts. November 2006 Mircea Radeş

Prefaţă

Lucrarea reprezintă cursul Analiza cu elemente finite predat studenţilor anului III al Facultăţii de Inginerie în Limbi Străine, Filiera Engleză, la Universitatea Politehnica Bucureşti, începând cu anul 1992. Conţinutul cursului s-a lărgit în timp, fiind predat din 1992 şi studenţilor de la facultatea de Transporturi, favorizat de apariţia reţelelor de calculatoare şi de includerea sa în planul de învăţământ al facultăţilor cu profil mecanic. Programa cursului, care prevede 28 ore de curs şi 28 ore de seminar/laborator, a fost structurată în conformiatate cu recomandările NAFEMS publicate în numărul din Octombrie 1988 al revistei BENCHmark. Cursul reprezintă doar o introducere în analiza cu elemente finite, pentru care am scris programe simple, cu un singur tip de element finit, care să fie utilizate de studenţi la rezolvarea unor teme de casă. Nu se tratează învelişuri şi elemente tridimensionale. În anul IV, planul de învăţământ de la F.I.L.S. conţine cursul Computational Structural Mechanics, la care studenţii aprofundează modelarea cu elemente finite şi utilizează un program de firmă. La structurarea cursului am avut în vedere necesitatea formării unor studenţi capabili: (a) să înţeleagă baza teoretică, (b) să desluşească structura programelor cu elemente finite pentru eventuale corecţii şi dezvoltări, (c) să ruleze programe şi să recunoască limitele acestora, (d) să poată verifica rezultatele şi (e) să înţeleagă mesajele de eroare şi să găsească modalităţi de corectare a erorilor. Programa cursului a fost limitată la structuri elastice liniare bidimensionale. S-a considerat potrivit să se prezinte analiza cu elemente finite în două etape: întâi procesul de asamblare fără nici o aproximare (aplicat la grinzi cu zăbrele), apoi modelarea cu elemente finite, care presupune aproximarea câmpului de deplasări, de la triunghiul cu deformaţii specifice constante la elemente patrulatere izoparametrice, incluzând integrarea numerică. S-a urmărit ca studenţii să dobândească: (a) familiaritate cu metodele matriciale şi calculul matricelor de rigiditate; (b) înţelegerea utilităţii coordonatelor locale şi globale; (c) abilitatea folosirii principiului energiei potenţiale minime şi a principiului lucrului mecanic virtual; (d) trecerea de la coordonate naturale la coordonate fizice şi necesitatea integrării numerice; (e) o vedere de ansamblu asupra rezolvării sistemelor algebrice liniare (eliminarea Gauss, metoda frontală etc.) şi (f) utilizarea celor patru tipuri de ecuaţii – echilibru, compatibilitate, constitutive şi condiţii la limită. Fiind un curs predat unor studenţi a căror limbă maternă nu este limba engleză, au fost reproduse expresii şi fraze din cărţi scrise de vorbitori nativi ai acestei limbi. Noiembrie 2006 Mircea Radeş

Contents

Preface Contents 1. Introduction

1.1 Object of FEA 1.2 Finite element displacement method 1.3 Historical view 1.4 Stages of FEA

i iii 1

1 3 4 5

2. Displacement Method

2.1 Equilibrium equations 2.2 Conditions for geometric compatibility 2.3 Force/elongation relations 2.4 Boundary conditions 2.5 Solving for displacements 2.6 Comparison of the force method and displacement method

9

9 10 11 12 12 13

**3. Direct Stiffness Method
**

3.1 Stiffness matrix for a bar element 3.2 Transformation from local to global coordinates

3.2.1 Coordinate transformation 3.2.2 Force transformation 3.2.3 Element stiffness matrix in global coordinates 3.2.4 Properties of the element stiffness matrix

17

17 19

19 20 21 22

3.3 Link’s truss 3.4 Direct method 3.5 Compatibility of nodal displacements 3.6 Expanded element stiffness matrix 3.7 Unreduced global stiffness matrix

25 26 28 29 30

iv

3.8 Joint force equilibrium equations 3.9 Reduced global stiffness matrix 3.10 Reactions and internal forces 3.11 Thermal loads and stresses 3.12 Node numbering Exercises

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 31 33 35 36 37 41

**4. Bars and shafts
**

4.1 Plane bar elements

4.1.1 Differential equation of equilibrium 4.1.2 Coordinates and shape functions 4.1.3 Bar not loaded between ends 4.1.4 Element stiffness matrix in local coordinates 4.1.5 Bar loaded between ends 4.1.6 Vector of element nodal forces 4.1.7 Assembly of the global stiffness matrix and load vector 4.1.8 Initial strain effects

47

47

47 48 49 51 52 55 56 59

4.2 Plane shaft elements Exercises

60 63

**5. Beams, frames and grids
**

5.1 Finite element discretization 5.2 Static analysis of a uniform beam 5.3 Uniform beam not loaded between ends

5.3.1 Shape functions 5.3.2 Stiffness matrix 5.3.3 Physical significance of the stiffness matrix

79

79 81 83

84 86 88

**5.4 Uniform beam loaded between ends
**

5.4.1 Consistent vector of nodal forces 5.4.2 Higher degree interpolation functions 5.4.3 Bending moment and shear force

89

89 92 95

**5.5 Basic convergence requirements 5.6 Frame element
**

5.6.1 Axial effects 5.6.2 Stiffness matrix and load vector in local coordinates

96 97

97 98

6.6.8 Grids 5.2.5 Proof that PDV is equivalent to equilibrium equations 131 131 131 133 133 134 137 7.3 Stiffness matrix 100 111 116 117 118 121 6.9 Deep beam bending element 5.4 Principle of virtual displacements 7.3 Total potential energy 139 139 140 140 7.1 Static analysis of a uniform beam 5.7 Assembly of the global stiffness matrix 5.1 Strain energy 7.2.9.5 Stress-strain relations 6.4.1.2 Principle of minimum total potential energy 7.CONTENTS 5.1.1 Principle of virtual work 7.6 Temperature effects 6.2 Shape functions 5.4. Linear elasticity 6.4 Strain-displacement relations 6.1 FEM in Structural Mechanics 7.3 The Rayleigh-Ritz method 7.4.4 FEM – a localized version of the Rayleigh-Ritz method 7. stresses and strain 6.3 Principle of virtual displacements 143 148 148 149 149 .2 Discretization 7.9.2.1 Matrix notation for loads.1.2 Equations of equilibrium inside V 6.1.7 Strain energy 123 123 125 126 127 128 130 130 7.4 Stiffness matrix and load vector in global coordinates 98 100 v 5. Energy methods 7.3 Virtual work of internal forces 7.1 Virtual displacements 7.1.2 External potential energy 7.3 Equations of equilibrium on the surface Sσ 6.9.3 Coordinate transformation 5.2 Virtual work of external forces 7.

4.1 Equilibrium vs.1.4 Equilibrium.2 The eight-node rectangle (quadratic) 176 176 178 8.1.3 Quadratic strain triangle 180 180 182 185 8.4.2.4.1 Linear quadrilateral element 9.3.1.1.2.3.vi 7.1.8 Solution and back-substitution 8 Two-dimensional elements 8.4. compatibility 8.3 Triangular elements 8.6 Element stiffness matrix and load vector 7.1 The four-node rectangle (linear) 8.4 The matrix [ B ] 8.2 Convergence and compatibility 187 187 188 9 Isoparametric elements 9.2 Linear strain triangle (LST) 8.6 Element load vectors 191 191 192 193 194 195 198 199 9.4.5 Element stiffness matrix 9.7 Assembly of the global stiffness matrix and load vector 7.1.1.1 The plane constant-strain triangle (CST) 8.2 Polynomial approximation of the displacement field 8.1 Natural coordinates 9.3.1.3 The displacement field 9.1.6 Remarks 153 153 153 154 155 158 159 160 8. Discretization of structure 8.1 One dimensional Gauss quadrature 200 200 .4.2 Rectangular elements 8.1.4 Approximating functions for the element FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 149 150 151 151 152 7.2.1.1 Area coordinates 8.2 Shape functions 9.3 Nodal approximation of the displacement field 8.5 Compatibility between strains and nodal displacements 7.4 Mapping from natural to Cartesian coordinates 9.2 Numerical integration 9.1.1.5 Element stiffness matrix and load vector 8.4. convergence and compatibility 8.

4 Element stiffness matrix 9.6 Jacobian positiveness 219 221 223 10 Plate bending 10.3.3.6 Consistent nodal forces 208 209 210 211 211 213 214 9.3 HTK thick rectangular element 225 225 229 232 232 238 239 10.2.3.2 BFS element (conforming) 10.2 Thick triangular element (conforming) 10.2 Shape function derivatives 9.3 Stiffness integration 9.3.2.3 Discrete Kirchhoff triangles (DKT) 244 245 248 250 References Index 257 265 .1 ACM element (non-conforming) 10.5 Stress calculation 9.3.4 Stress calculations 203 204 207 vii 9.4.1 Thin triangular element (non-conforming) 10.3 Eight-node quadrilateral 9.4 Nine-node quadrilateral 9.5 Six-node triangle 9.3.3 Determinant of the Jacobian matrix 9.4.2.1 Shape functions 9.4.2 Two dimensional Gauss quadrature 9.3.3.3.3 Rectangular plate-bending elements 10.1 Thin plate theory (Kirchhoff) 10.2 Thick plate theory (Reissner-Mindlin) 10.CONTENTS 9.4 Triangular plate-bending elements 10.

weighted-residual. etc. INTRODUCTION Finite Element Analysis (FEA) as applied to structures is a multidisciplinary technique. The primary difference between the FEA and other approximate methods for the solution of boundary-value problems (finite-difference.and initialvalue problem by dividing the domain of the system into a set of interconnected finite-sized subdomains of different size and shape. encompassing elasticity. solving linear sets of equations. The procedure is a discretized approach: the geometric shape or the internal stressstrain-displacement field are described by a series of discrete quantities (like coordinates) distributed through the structure. The subdomains are called finite elements. involving approximation methods. dealing with the development and maintenance of large computer codes.1 Object of FEA The object of FEA is to replace the infinite degree of freedom system in continuum applications by a finite system exhibiting the same basis as discrete analysis. strength of materials. The aim is finding an approximate solution to a boundary. (2) Numerical Analysis. . Its task is to model and describe the mechanical behaviour of geometrically complex structures. able to store long lists of numbers and manipulate them. FEA is used to solve large-scale analytical problems. the unknown function is approximated over the entire domain.1. etc. With the individually defined functions matching each other at certain points called nodes. within each element. and (3) Applied Computer Science. based on knowledge from three fields: (1) Structural Mechanics. plasticity. the set of finite elements is known as the mesh and the trial functions are referred to as interpolation functions. and defining the unknown state variable approximately. by means of a linear combination of trial functions. 1. eigenproblems. The tools are the computers. This requires a matrix notation. dynamics.

the evaluation of such a function will require the solution of simultaneous equations.2 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Rayleigh-Ritz. even approximately. The computer is not only able to solve the discretized equations of equilibrium. some of them made available as open source free software. which led to automation. In turn. has made the FEA the method of choice for the analysis of structures. the FEA can change not only the size of the finite elements but also their shape. In order to match a given irregular boundary. Mathematically. This was possible only at the time the computers became available. . The outstanding success of the finite element method can be attributed to a large extent to timing. This is the heart of the FEA when 2 applied to structures. which tend to have complicated expressions. difficult to handle on a routine basis. should be easier. Galerkin) is that in the FEA the approximation is confined to relatively small subdomains. which is often difficult. but also to carry out such diverse tasks as the formulation of equations. Perhaps more important is the fact that the finite element method can accommodate systems with complicated geometries and parameter distributions. systems with complex boundary conditions or complex geometry cannot be described easily by global admissible functions. FEA is a localized version of the Rayleigh-Ritz method. Indeed. in the FEA an approximate solution is constructed using local admissible functions. in the FEA the admissible functions (called shape functions) are defined over element domains with simple geometry and pay no attention to complications at the boundaries. coupled with the development of powerful computer codes based on the method. While solving differential equations with complicated boundary conditions may be difficult. solving [ A ] { x } = { b } is equivalent to 1 minimizing P (x ) = { x }T [ A ]{ x } − { x }T { b }. or to handle parameter non-uniformities. Since the entire domain is divided into numerous elements and the function is approximated in terms of its values at the element nodes. In FEA. This extreme versatility. by making decisions concerning the finite element mesh and the assembly of stiffness matrices. integrating known polynomial functions. Instead of finding an admissible function satisfying the boundary conditions for the entire domain. The wide use of the classical Rayleigh-Ritz method has been limited by the inability to generate suitable admissible functions for a large number of practical problems. the equations of equilibrium are obtained from variational principles implying the stationarity of the functional defined by the total potential energy. While the finite element method was being developed. so were increasingly powerful digital computers. defined over small subdomains of the structure.

making curved lines straight. Modeling the joints and the contact between structural parts as well as the damping in dynamic problems are the most difficult tasks. (3) find the element properties. and the prescribed boundary conditions are satisfied. Finite elements are so small that the shape of the displacement field can be approximated without too much error. the governing discrete equations are generated by a variational approach. Mesh refinements (and automatic mesh generation) do not bring necessarily increased accuracy. This involves recognizing error messages when this process breaks down or when it simply becomes inefficient because the structure has been modeled inconveniently.2 Finite element displacement method In the finite element modeling. (2) the easiness of producing stiffness matrices (and load vectors). (5) solve the system of equations. The three main sources of approximation are: (1) the definition of the domain (physically or geometrically). INTRODUCTION 3 1. (4) assemble the element properties. and (3) the solution algorithms. FEA has evolved into a technique that can be applied . a structure is discretized (hypothetically) into finite elements and points named nodes are selected on the inter-element boundaries or in the interior of the elements. and (6) make additional computations if desired. understanding the pedigree of elements and spotting wrong answers due to the use of inadequate elements. All individual elements are assembled together in such a way that the displacements are continuous in some fashion across element interfaces. (2) select interpolation functions. Displacements within the elements are expressed in terms of these nodal displacements using interpolation functions referred to as shape functions. a larger number of equations to be solved. leaving only the magnitude to be found. Displacements at the nodes are taken as the primary discrete variables. and curved elements flat).1. by just assembling predetermined element matrices. Developed originally as a method for analyzing stresses in complex aircraft structures. The six basic steps of FEA are the following: (1) discretize the continuum. The second part of the process is the assembly of the elements and the solution of the complete structural equations. (2) the discretization of the domain (cutting the corners. Finer mesh yields also larger stiffness matrices. hence larger computer storage space and running time. The “shapes” are polynomials. Among the reasons why the FEA has gained such universal acceptance are: (1) the routine choice of shape functions. The first part of the finite element modeling process involves choosing the correct and appropriate types of elements. the internal stresses are in equilibrium with the applied loads. but may be trigonometric functions as well. and (3) the versatility. Finally.

Clough. stability and dynamic engineering problems. Ostenfeld (1926) is credited with the first book on the deformation method. Modeling delta wings required two-dimensional panel elements of arbitrary geometry. so that the method was not practical then. who during 1952-1953 succeeded to directly derive the stiffness of a triangular panel at Boeing. collected later in a book by Argyris and Kelsey (1960). After the Second World War. computers capable of solving large sets of equations of equilibrium did not exist. The use of piecewise continuous functions defined over a subdomain to approximate the unknown function dates back to Courant (1943). ribs.3 Historical view The idea of representing a given domain as a collection of discrete elements is not novel with the finite element method. who used an assemblage of small triangular elements and the principle of minimum potential energy to study Saint Venant’s torsion problem. The development of delta wing structures revived the interest in stiffness methods. In the early 1940s. 1955).4 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS to a large variety of linear and nonlinear. The theoretical background of FEA laids on the energy approach of Structural Mechanics and on the approximation techniques. The reason why Courant’s paper did not attract more attention can be attributed to poor timing. The term “finite element” was first used by Clough (1960). the idea found application in aircraft structural analysis. panels. the Force Method (Flexibility Method) was sustained by Levy (1947) and Garvey (1951) and the matrix Displacement Method (Stiffness Method) was used by Levy (1953) in the sweptback wing analysis. where wings and fuselages are treated as assemblages of stringers. contains the derivation of the stiffness matrix of a flat rectangular panel using bilinear displacement interpolation. Ancient mathematicians estimated the value of π approximating the circumference of a circle by the perimeter of a polygon inscribed in the circle. Martin. Turner formulated and perfected the Direct Stiffness Method at Boeing (1959). After a first attempt by Levy (1953) with triangular elements. static. stiffeners and spars. The approximation methods have been developed by Ritz (1908) and Galerkin (1915). In modern times. But that geometry was inadequate to model delta wings. The first energy theorems have been established by Maxwell (1864) and Castigliano (1875). The development of the Force Method ended in 1969. The formal presentation of the finite element method is attributed to Turner. . 1. and Topp (1956). the article series by Argyris in four issues of Aircraft Engineering (1954.

directed by Clough. ALGOR etc.I. Martin Baltimore and Bell Aero Systems under contract to NASA. and E. who introduced the consistent mass matrix concept (1963). developed the static condensation algorithm (1974) and three SAP computer programs (the first open source FEA software).1. frontal solvers and the patch test (1964-1980). Archer. developed by Swanson Analysis Systems (1970). under Martin. material properties and .by SAMTECH (1965). Bathe to develop the finite element codes SAP4 (1973). Melosh. J. such as nodal coordinates. Research developed in the Civil Engineering Department at Berkeley. General purpose programs have capabilities of linear dynamic response. who studied the sparse matrix assembly and solution techniques (1963). PATRAN. J. shape functions. R. Preprocessing involves the input and preparation of data. 1966. S. Fraeijs de Veubeke (1964) and Irons and coworkers (1964. After 1967 the FEA has been applied to non-structural field problems (thermal. at Washington University. who systematized the variational derivation of stiffness matrices and recognized that FEA is a Rayleigh-Ritz method applied on small size elements (1963). electromagnetics etc). ADINA – developed by K. Starting with 1965 the NASTRAN finite element system was developed by COSMIC. SAMCEF . element connectivity. Influential papers have been written by Argyris (1965). M. Wilson. Karlsson @ Sorensen. Inc.by the Civil Engineering Department at Massachusetts Institute of Technology and McDonnell Douglas Automation Company (1967). (1978). 1.T. followed by books by Przemieniecki (1968) and Gallagher (1964). fluids. Since 1963. IDEAS-MS. (2) processing. completed in 1968 and first revised in 1972. crashworthiness. Irons. including computation of natural frequencies. COSMOS-M – by Structural Research & Analysis Corp. STARDYNE by Mechanics Research Inc. Major contributions are due to B. 1970). nonlinear static and dynamic response. boundary conditions. MacNeal Schwendler. L.by Hibbitt. MARC – by Marc Analysis Research Corporation. finite element computer programs were freely disseminated into the nonaerospace community. (1985). and (3) postprocessing. SAP5 and NONSAP. the inventor of isoparametric models. and at Swansea University. He was joined later by K.-J. Bathe at M. and thermal loading. Other known finite element codes are ANSYS. ABAQUS . lead by Zienkiewicz. STRUDL .4 Stages of FEA FEA involves three stages of activity: (1) preprocessing. INTRODUCTION 5 The first book devoted to FEA was written by Zienkiewicz and Cheung (1967). SESAM – by Det Norske Veritas. NISA – by Engineering Mechanics Research Corporation. static and dynamic stability. (1975).-J.

Data input can be carried out either in an interactive way. Mesh plotting is a convenient and useful way of checking the input data. Fig.2 . Automatic mesh generation can be used to produce nodal coordinate data and optimal node numbering.T. 1.A.D. Fig.2). 1.E. or C.I. represented with hidden line removal. as well as element connectivity data.1) and a car engine piston (Fig. 1. are presented for a connecting rod (Fig. as obtained using the program SIMPAT developed by I.1 Three-dimensional finite element meshes.A. through a userfriendly interface. Italia. programs. Badly placed nodes or improper blocking of boundary nodes can be easily traced. some input data can be imported from other F. Alternatively. 1.6 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS loading. or reading from a data file.

Often this contains much more detail than the dynamic analysis requires.3. It would be obviously convenient to use in dynamic analyses the same finite element model that was built for the static analysis. Fig.4 In dynamic analyses. In static analyses. so that condensation and dynamic substructuring are used to reduce the size of the dynamic problem before the processing stage. . the cost of the solution of the linear set of equations increases linearly with the problem size. 1.3 In the processing stage. 1. Fig. INTRODUCTION 7 The finite element model of a vehicle cabin frame obtained with MSC/NASTRAN is shown in Fig.1. 1. The cost in terms of computer resource increases with the cube of the problem size. the finite element program processes the input data and calculates the nodal variable quantities such as displacements and temperatures (equation solving). and element quantities such as stresses and gradients (backcalculation). processing involves solving an eigenproblem or determining the transient response by incremental techniques.

1.5 for a crankshaft. More recent finite element programs show animated displays of the deformed configuration.8 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Postprocessing deals with the presentation of results.5 Scalar nodal variables such as temperatures or pressures are presented in the form of contour plots of isotherms or isobars. as in Fig. Early programs used tabular presentations. Fig. Fig. Fig. 1. a shows the two-dimensional initial mesh for the analysis of a gear tooth. with 1174 triangular 6-node elements. 1. .4 shows the initial mesh and the deformed shape of a cooling tower under the wind action. vibration mode shapes and stress distributions. 1. a Fig. 1.6 b Fig. as obtained using ALGOR SUPERSAP. Most programs produce displays of the deformed configuration. 1. containing only 814 elements and a four times reduced global discretization error.6.6. b shows the optimized mesh obtained with the postprocessor ESTEREF.

Once the displacements are determined. constitutive relationships and boundary conditions. geometric compatibility conditions. displacements of the bar ends and bar extensions (elongations). 2. F4 . a relatively simple pin-jointed framework will be used. they are back-substituted into the compatibility equations to obtain bar extensions.1 . DISPLACEMENT METHOD In solving any structural problem. then stresses from the constitutive relationship. assume that all members are in tension and write the equilibrium of each node in turn. F2 . 2.1 Equilibrium equations Consider the truss shown in Fig. F5 are the reaction forces at the supports. In order to illustrate the usual longhand analytical procedure. and hence strains.2. T3 are the tensions in members and F1 . It works whether the structure is statically determinate or not. If forces and elongations are eliminated and the displacements are the variables which are solved first. 2. the procedure is referred to as the displacement method. there are four types of equations that should be used: equilibrium equations.1 [74]. Variables include reaction forces at the supports and internal forces. T1 . T2 . Fig.

2. equilibrium gives 6 F − T1 − T3 2 /2 = 0. The change in length of the member is (2. resolving forces horizontally and vertically leads to T1 + T2 2 2 + F1 = 0. c) T3 2 /2 + F5 − T2 2 /2 = 0.4) .1) to (2.2 c 2.3) The six equations (2. The system is statically indeterminate.2 Conditions for geometric compatibility The compatibility equations relate a bar extension Δl to the displacements of the ends of the bar. T2 2 / 2 + F2 = 0. (2. 2.1) (2.3) have seven unknowns.10 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS At Node 1 (Fig. a b Fig. and consideration must be given to the geometry of deformation. inclined an angle θ with respect to the X axis of the global coordinate system.2. u 2 = U 2 cos θ + V 2 sin θ . Consider a typical pin-jointed element 1-2 of a frame. b). At Node 3 (Fig.3. Fig. T3 2 / 2 + F4 = 0.2) (2. 2.2. 9 F − T2 2 / 2 − T3 2 /2 = 0. At Node 2 (Fig. 2. 2. The displacements in the local coordinate frame xOy can be expressed in terms of the displacements in the global coordinate frame as u 1 = U 1 cos θ + V 1 sin θ . a). 2. The solution is not possible by using only equilibrium.

2 2 2 ⎠ 2 . DISPLACEMENT METHOD 11 Δl = u 2 − u1 = U 2 − U1 cosθ + V 2 − V1 sin θ .6) to (2. ( ) ( ) (2. 2. Δl13 = 2 .7) (2. Starting from the Hooke’s law for uniaxial stress-strain conditions. the force/elongation relations can be written Δl12 or T l = 1 .9) EA 2E A 2E A Three more equations have been added and so there are now 12 equations for 16 unknowns.5) Fig.8) have nine unknowns.3 Applying equation (2. (2.U1 . Δl 23 = 3 .2.6) (2.8) ⎛ 2⎞ ⎟ + (V3 − V2 ) Δl 23 = (U 3 − U 2 ) ⎜ − ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ The three equations (2. Δl13 = (U 3 − U1 ) 2 2 + (V3 − V1 ) . 2 (2. EA Δl 13 = T2 2 l 2 .5) to each member in turn leads to Δl12 = U 2 . six displacements and three elongations. Δl12 = . 2.3 Force/elongation relations Truss members are in either simple tension or compression. 2E A Δl 23 = T3 2 l 2 2E A T l T1 l T l .

this set of six equations can be written in matrix form as . EA Taking into account the boundary conditions (2.4 Boundary conditions The discrepancy of 4 equations is made up by adding the boundary conditions U1 = V1 = V2 = U 3 = 0 which complete the set of 22 linear algebraic equations.8) to force/displacement equations as follows T1 = EA EA ( U 2 − U1 ) .(2. EA 6F l .10) 2. Δl 12 = l l 2E A EA T2 = Δl 13 = 2 ( U 3 − U1 + V3 − V1 ) .10). (2. EA F1 l . EA − U1 + 2 U 2 − V2 − U 3 + V3 = − U 2 + V2 + U 3 − V3 = F4 l . EA − U1 − V1 − U 2 + V2 + 2 U 3 = − U1 − V1 + U 2 − V2 + 2 V3 = F5 l .12 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 2.9) can be used to convert the compatibility equations (2.5 Solving for displacements Equations (2. l l 2E A EA T3 = Δl 23 = 2 ( − U 3 + U 2 + V3 − V2 ) . EA 9 Fl .6)(2.1) . l l Substitution of the expressions for T1 to T3 into the equilibrium equations (2.3) yields 6 equations 2 U1 + V1 − U 2 − U 3 − V3 = U1 + V1 − U 3 − V3 = F2 l .

F5 = − F ... The joint 8 is subjected to a force of components Fx and Fy .11) 1 − 1⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ F4 ⎥ 2 0 ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ F5 ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 0 2 ⎥ ⎢ V3 ⎥ ⎢ 9 F ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ The third and the sixth equation can be decoupled EA l and solved to give U2 = Fl .13) Substituting these forces into the equilibrium equations (2.7 ) the forces applied by each bar to the end nodes. Force Method Denoting Ti ( i = 1.14) .4. EA (2.3) yields the tensions in the members. DISPLACEMENT METHOD 13 ⎡2 ⎢1 ⎢ EA ⎢ − 1 ⎢ l ⎢0 ⎢− 1 ⎢ ⎢− 1 ⎣ 1 1 0 0 −1 −1 −1 0 2 −1 −1 1 0 0 −1 1 1 −1 − 1 − 1⎤ ⎡ 0 ⎤ ⎡ F1 ⎤ − 1 − 1⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ F2 ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ − 1 1 ⎥ ⎢U 2 ⎥ ⎢ 6 F ⎥ ⎥ ⋅ ⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ ⎥ . 2.2. F4 = −5 F . ∑ Ti sinθi = 0. (2. EA V3 = 4 Fl . Consider the 7-bar pin-jointed framework shown in Figure 2. i =1 i =1 7 7 (2.1)-(2. the equilibrium equations of joint 8 can be written Fx − Fy − ∑ Ti cosθi = 0. F2 = −4 F .. which are equal and opposite to the forces acting on the joints. Determine the internal bar forces and the displacement of joint 8. Divided by the corresponding area they give the stresses.. (2.12) ⎡2 1 ⎤ ⎡U 2 ⎤ ⎧6 F ⎫ ⎢1 2⎥ ⋅ ⎢ V ⎥ = ⎨9 F ⎬ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ 3⎦ ⎩ ⎭ Substituting U 2 and V3 into the remaining equations yields the reaction forces F1 = −5F .6 Comparison of the force method and displacement method Navier’s Problem.

We choose X1 = T3 .. Using Menabrea’s theorem. X 3 = T5 .. The components of the displacement of joint 8 are given by Castigliano’s second theorem u8 = ∂U .. ∂Fx v8 = ∂U .14). the five deformation conditions can be written ∂U = 0. X 4 = T6 .16) since we are assuming no support movement.15) where T1 and T2 are functions of X 1 to X 5 ...18) ..5 ) (2. ∂Fy (2. 2. ∂X i ∂X i ( i = 1. so the framework is statically indeterminate. according to (2. Fig. ∂X i ( i = 1.5 ) (2. and X 5 = T7 as redundant forces..17) This is a set of five linear equations wherefrom the five redundant forces X 1 to X 5 are determined..4 The strain energy is U= 5 ⎞ 1 ⎛ 2 ⎜ T1 l 1 + T22l 2 + X i2l i ⎟ ⎟ 2 EA ⎜ i =1 ⎝ ⎠ ∑ (2. X 2 = T4 .14 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS This is a set of two equations with seven unknowns. They are of the form l1 T1 ∂T1 ∂T + l 2 T2 2 + l i X i = 0 .

7 ) (2.23) sin θ i = 0 .....7 ) (2... the larger the number of statically indeterminate forces.22) Inserting (2..20) Substituting (2.24) where the stiffness coefficients are . The bar length is li = a . Regardless the number of concurrent bars.19) ( i = 1.2.5) are Δl i = u 8 cosθi + v 8 sin θi . only two equations are obtained for the two joint displacements. Displacement Method The elongation-displacement (compatibility) equations (2. 3 a Fy − u8 EA ∑ i =1 cosθ i sin θ i − v 8 ∑ i =1 which is solved for u8 and v 8 .14) of joint 8 yields a Fx − u8 EA ∑ i =1 7 7 cos 2θ i sinθ i − v 8 2 ∑ i =1 7 7 sin 2θ i cosθ i = 0 ..22) into the equilibrium equations (2.. the larger the number of bars.. (2. a ( ) ( i = 1...21) gives the force-displacement relations Ti = EA u 8 cos θ i + v 8 sin θ i sin θ i . ( i = 1..16).. DISPLACEMENT METHOD 15 In the force method.. sinθ i ( i = 1. hence the number of equations (2.19) into the force-elongation equations Ti = EA Δl i li ..7 ) (2.7 ) (2. In matrix form they can be written ⎧ Fx ⎫ ⎡ K11 ⎨ ⎬=⎢ ⎩ Fy ⎭ ⎣ K 21 K12 ⎤ ⎧ u8 ⎫ ⎨ ⎬ K 22 ⎥ ⎩ v 8 ⎭ ⎦ (2.

16 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS K11 = EA a ∑ cos2θi sinθi = 1. . (2.567 EA . a Solving (2. i =1 7 ∑ i =1 sin 3θ i = 4.26) The approach used in the displacement method is the same whether the structure is statically determinate or not.25) K12 = K 21 = K 22 = EA a 7 EA a ∑ cosθi sin 2θi = 0.219 Fy a EA .24) gives u 8 = 0.409 i =1 7 EA . a (2. EA v 8 = 0.7097 Fx a .

DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD The Finite Element Method (FEM) started as an extension of the stiffness method or displacement method. The relationship between the end forces and end displacements of each member is represented by an element stiffness matrix. It is acted upon by the nodal forces f1 . Consider a two-noded pin-jointed element in the own local coordinate system (Fig. They are natural finite elements. 3. cross section area Ae and Young’s modulus Ee .3. If the members are pin-ended bars they are real distinct elements requiring no approximation. As elements are added to the structure. pinconnected at the ends. q 2 . Nodes are conveniently numbered 1 and 2. Assembly and solution for displacements are of main concern.1). The nodal displacements are q 1 . axially loaded (no bending) and with no forces between ends. hence to the structure stiffness matrix. the basic steps of the Direct Stiffness Method (DSM) are shown using a pin-jointed plane truss. .1 Stiffness matrix for a bar element In the FEM. linearly elastic. Starting with simple planar frameworks it is possible to explain the assembly process and to make an introduction into the matrix stiffness method. We may imagine that the structure is built by adding elements one by one. Generally. In the following. the names “joint” and “member” are replaced by node and element.) . the elements of the actual structure are connected together at discrete joints. It has length l e . bar elements are assumed to be uniform (EAe = const. In the stiffness method for skeletal structures. with each element being placed in a preassigned location. which relates all joint displacements to all joint forces. contributions are made to the structure load carrying capacity. f 2 . respectively. 3.

then for q 1 = 0 . q 2 and the nodal forces f1 . which incorporate compatibility and stress/strain relations. f 2 are positive in the positive x direction. f l q 2 = 0 .1) Next.2) and (3.3) Combining equations (3. 3.2) le Similarly.4) or { f }= [ k ] { q } e e e (3. (3. if end 2 is now fixed but end 1 allowed to move.3). q 2 = 2 e and Ee Ae E A f1 = − f 2 = − e e q 2 .18 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Fig. q 1 = 1 e and Ee Ae f1 = − f 2 = Ee Ae q1 . the force/elongation relations are used. ⎣ ⎦ (3.6) . the complete stiffness relationship is obtained as ⎧ f1 ⎫ Ee Ae ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ = 1⎥ le ⎢ ⎪ f 2 ⎪e ⎣ ⎦ ⎩ 23 144− 1443 ⎭ 2 1 nodal forces element stiffness matrix nodal displacements ⎧q1 ⎫ ⎨q ⎬ 2 ⎩ 2⎭e 1 3 (3. le (3. If end 1 is fixed and end 2 is allowed to f l move.5) where the element stiffness matrix in local coordinates is [ k ] = El A e e e e ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎢− 1 1 ⎥ . (3.1 Both the nodal displacements q 1 . The equilibrium equation for the bar element is f1 + f 2 = 0.

2 Let the bar be inclined an angle θ e with respect to the X-axis of the global coordinate system. Fig. so that nodal forces and nodal displacements can be arranged into 4-element column vectors related by a 4 × 4 stiffness matrix.2. q 2 = Q x 2 cos θ e + Q y 2 sin θ e . 3. where both the local coordinate system xOy and the global coordinate system XOY are drawn. End forces and displacements have two components at each node. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 19 3. In matrix form (3. 3. the angle θ e is the angle between the positive X-axis and the positive direction of the beam (defined as 1 to 2).1 Coordinate transformation A typical bar element 1-2 is shown in Figure 3. In fact.4) q 1 = Q x1 cos θ e + Q y1 sin θ e . Displacements in the local coordinate frame xOy can be expressed in terms of the displacements in the global coordinate frame as (2.2 Transformation from local to global coordinates Bar elements in a truss have different orientations in space and it is necessary to define their stiffness properties with respect to a single global coordinate system attached to the whole structure.7) .2. Nodal displacements are denoted by lower case letters in the local coordinate system and by upper case letters in the global coordinate system.3.

2 Force transformation Consider the pin-jointed member (Fig.Y 2 ) the coordinates of nodes 1 and 2. From nodal coordinate data.10) is a coordinate transformation matrix.Y1 ) and ( X 2 . Fig.20 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎧ Qx1 ⎫ ⎪Q ⎪ ⎪ y1 ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ ⎪ Qx 2 ⎪ ⎪ Qy2 ⎪ ⎩4 4e ⎭ 123 local displacements ⎧ q1 ⎫ 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ cosθ e sinθ e ⎪ ⎪ = ⎢ ⎨q ⎬ 0 0 cosθ e sinθ e ⎥ ⎪ 2⎪ ⎣ ⎦ ⎩ ⎭ e 123 4 4 1444444 2444444 3 4 4 transformation matrix (3. 3.9) 0 ⎤ sinθ e ⎥ ⎦ where [T ] = ⎡⎢ cosθ 0 e e ⎣ sinθ e 0 0 cosθ e (3.2. sin θ e = Y 2 − Y1 le . The entries in the matrix (3. denoting X 2 − X1 le ( X 1 .3) subjected to forces f1 and f2 applied at the ends 1 and 2.3 The force components in the global coordinate system are . we obtain cos θ e = .10) are calculated based on the above equations. 3.8) global displacements or { q }= [T ] { Q }. le = (X 2 − X 1 ) 2 + (Y 2 − Y1 ) 2 . e e e (3. respectively. 3.

then equation (3.3. In matrix form Fx 2 = f 2 cosθ e . having the same value regardless the coordinate system { f } { q }= {F } { Q } .13). (3. Fy 2 = f 2 sinθ e .5) into (3.13). and comparing with (3.16) [ K ] = [T ] [ k ] [T ]. 3.3 Element stiffness matrix in global coordinates Inserting equation (3.13) {F }= [T ] { f }= [T ] [ k ] { q }= [14]4[2444] { Q } T k ][ T 4 3 e e T e e T e e e T e e e we find where {F } = [ K ] { Q } e e e (3. e e T e (3. Fy1 = f1 sinθ e . =⎢ ⎨F ⎬ ⎢ 0 cosθ e ⎥ ⎩ f 2 ⎭ e ⎪ x2 ⎪ ⎢ ⎥ ⎪Fy ⎪ sinθ e ⎦ 2 ⎭e ⎩ 23 ⎣ 0 1 4 4 144 244 3 1 3 4 4 2 transformation matrix local forces (3.2. e T e e T e e T e e T e (3.13) Equation (3.9) into the resulting matrix product.13) can be directly obtained from consideration of mechanical work. e e T e e .11) global force components ⎧ Fx1 ⎫ 0 ⎤ ⎡cosθ e ⎪F ⎪ ⎢ sinθ 0 ⎥ ⎧ f1 ⎫ ⎪ y1 ⎪ e ⎥ ⎨ ⎬ .12) or { F } = [ T ] { f }.14) becomes { f } { q } = { f } [T ] { Q } = {F } { Q } . equation (3.9) for the local displacements. Work is a scalar quantity. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 21 Fx1 = f1 cosθ e . . e e T e hence { f } [T ] = { F } e T e e T which by transposition becomes (3.15) (3.14) Substituting (3.

l e ⎢− c − cs c2 cs ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 2 cs s2 ⎥ ⎢− c s − s ⎣ ⎦ (3.18) According to Maxwell’s reciprocity theorem.1 Symmetric matrix Stiffness matrices are symmetrical [ K ]= [K ] e e T . the flexibility matrix δ e must be symmetrical about the leading diagonal. singular (order 4.10) we find the element stiffness matrix in global coordinates [K ] e ⎡ c2 cs − c2 − cs⎤ ⎢ ⎥ E A cs s2 − cs − s2 ⎥ = e e⎢ 2 .17.22 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Carrying out the matrix multiplications and using (3.4 Properties of the element stiffness matrix The element stiffness matrix is symmetric.2. with positive diagonal elements. ⎢ c2 c s ⎥ ⎪Q x 2 ⎪ ⎢ ⎥ s 2 ⎥ ⎪Q y 2 ⎪e ⎢SYM ⎭ ⎣ ⎦ ⎩ (3. Expressing displacements in terms of forces gives { Q }= [ K ] { F }= [ δ ] { F } e e −1 e e e so that the inverse of the stiffness matrix is the flexibility matrix [K ] e −1 = δe .2. [ ] (3. [ ] .17) where c = cosθ e and s = sin θ e . Remember that the element stiffness matrix is a proportionality factor between the components of forces applied by the nodes to the element and the components of nodal displacements in global coordinates ⎧ Fx1 ⎫ ⎪F ⎪ Ee Ae ⎪ y1 ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ = Fx 2 ⎪ le ⎪ ⎪ Fy 2 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭e ⎡ c2 c s − c 2 − c s ⎤ ⎧ Qx1 ⎫ ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ s 2 − c s − s 2 ⎥ ⎪ Qy1 ⎪ ⎢ ⋅⎨ ⎬ . rank 1) and each column (row) sums to zero. a) 3. And so must be its inverse. the stiffness matrix.4. 3.

2. One can verify that the determinants of the 3× 3 and 2 × 2 reduced sets are still zero.20.20) 2 We = { }{ } { } [ ]{ } e T e T It is equal to its transpose Ue = 1 2 { Q } [K ] { Q } e (3. This can only be true if the determinant of [ K ] vanishes. The rank of a matrix is the size of the largest sub-matrix with a non-zero determinant.3. As forces are increased from zero to their final values. (3.19) 2 In the absence of dynamic effects.15) into (3. The rank deficiency is 3 and this corresponds to the three possible and independent forms of rigid body motion in plane for the unsupported bar: two translations and one rotation. a) so that which defines the symmetry.3 Positive diagonal elements Each diagonal entry of the matrix K e is positive. The zero determinant implies that there are linear relationships between its columns (rows). [ K ]= [K ] e e T .4.19) we obtain the strain energy which is a scalar T 1 Ue = Qe K e Qe . displacements are proportional to the applied loads. For linear structures. This means that there exist a set of rigid body displacements e e e { } [ K ] { Q }= 0 wherefrom [ K ] { Q } = { 0 } . so that the stiffness matrix has rank 1 (or its rank deficiency is 3). this work is absorbed by the structure as strain energy. 3. Substituting (3.4. If this were not so. A single ungrounded bar can be moved in space as a rigid body without straining it and hence with zero strain energy. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 23 The same result can be obtained following strain energy arguments. a force and its corresponding displacement would be oppositely directed. (3. The rigid body modes are defined {Q } e for which 2U e = Q e T e e e by the eigenvectors corresponding to its zero eigenvalues. 3. the total work done by these forces is T 1 Qe Fe . which is [ ] . The matrix [ K ] is said to be singular.2 Singular matrix The element stiffness matrix is of order 4 and rank 1.2.

a) can be written ⎧ Fx1 ⎫ ⎡ k11 ⎪F ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ y1 ⎪ ⎢k 21 ⎨ ⎬= ⎪ Fx 2 ⎪ ⎢ k31 ⎪ Fy 2 ⎪ ⎢k 41 ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ which yields . .4.4. Q y1 = 0 as in Fig. . That is. .24 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS physically unsound. .22) This shows that the first column of the stiffness matrix represents the forces that must be applied to the element to preserve static equilibrium when Qx1 = 1 and all other displacements are zero.⎥ ⎪Qx 2 = 0 ⎪ ⎥ . Moreover. 3. k31 and k 41 .17. Equilibrium of horizontal and vertical forces yields k11 + k31 = 0 . Fx 2 = k31 .20) is either positive or zero.2.21) Fx1 = k11 . . .⎥ ⎪ Q y1 = 0 ⎪ ⎥⋅⎨ ⎬ . E A which corresponds to a compressive force e e cosθ e . (3. ( ( ) ) Fig. . The displacement Qx1 = 1 produces an axial shortening Qx1 cosθ e = cosθ e .4 Each column (row) sums to zero [ ] Consider a bar element with end 2 fixed Qx 2 = Q y 2 = 0 and end 1 having a unit displacement along the global X-axis Qx1 = 1. k21 + k41 = 0 . whose components must le be equilibrated by the external forces k11 .⎤ ⎧ Qx1 = 1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ .⎦ ⎪Q y 2 = 0⎪ ⎩ ⎭ (3. 3. Fy 2 = k 41 . the matrix K e is positive semidefinite. the quadratic form that represents strain energy (3. .4 Equation (3. 3. . Fy1 = k21 . k 21 .

6. Fig. consider Link’s truss [74] shown in Fig.5. The global displacements and nodal forces are shown in Fig. A node whose global index is i has associated with it the global displacements and forces (2 i − 1) and 2 i .3. It is simply supported in 2 and 3. already analyzed in Chapter 2. 3. firmly located in 1. each column represents an equilibrium set of nodal forces produced by a unit displacement of one nodal degree of freedom. 3. In the element stiffness matrix.1. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 25 so that the first column sums to zero. 3. The same applies for the other columns. Fig. a b .3 Link’s truss In order to illustrate the assembly of the global stiffness matrix from the elemental stiffness matrices.5 The truss comprises 3 elements and 3 nodes. 3. 2. and acted upon by forces 6F and 9F.

Table 3.1 Member Nodes θe 0 cosθ e 1 2 2 2 2 sinθ e 0 2 2 2 2 c2 1 s2 0 1 2 1 2 cs 0 i 1 1 j 2 le EAe EAe le l 2 l 2 EA EA l EA l EA l 2 1 3 45 1 2 1 2 1 2 − 1 2 2 EA 2 3 2 3 135 − 2 l 2 2 EA 2 3. the element stiffness matrices (3.17) are calculates as 1 2 3 4 ⎡• • • • K ⎢• • • • K ⎢ ⎢• • • • K ⎢ ⎢• • • • K ⎢K K K K K ⎢ ⎢K K K K K ⎣ K⎤ K⎥ ⎥ K⎥ ⎥. 3.1 together with information useful for the computation. Element numbering can be arbitrary. i. K⎥ K⎥ ⎥ K⎥ ⎦ [K ] 1 ⎡ 1 ⎢ EA ⎢ 0 = l ⎢− 1 ⎢ ⎣ 0 0 − 1 0⎤ 1 0 0 0⎥ 2 ⎥ 0 1 0⎥ 3 ⎥ 0 0 0⎦ 4 T 1 2 5 6 [ ] ⎡ 1 1 − 1 − 1⎤ 1 ⎢ ⎥ E A ⎢ 1 1 − 1 − 1⎥ 2 T K2 = 1⎥ 5 l ⎢− 1 − 1 1 ⎢ ⎥ 1⎦ 6 ⎣− 1 − 1 1 ⎡• • K K • •⎤ ⎢• • K K • •⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢K K K K K K⎥ ⎢ ⎥. The first three columns define the element connectivities.1. their localization within the structure.6 Element data are given in Table 3.4 Direct method Using the data from Table 3. ⎢K K K K K K⎥ ⎢• • K K • •⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢• • K K • •⎥ ⎣ ⎦ .e.26 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Fig.

according to Table 3. locating each coefficient of the element stiffness matrices into the appropriate place in the global 6 × 6 matrix (for this example). This is referred to as the direct matrix method.2 Node Element 1 2 3 2 Direction X Y X Y Local nodal coordinate 1 2 3 4 Global nodal coordinate 1 2 3 4 1 2 5 6 3 4 5 6 1 The assembly of the unreduced global stiffness matrix (3.2. as indicated by dots above. .28) is done systematically. Table 3. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 27 and 3 4 5 6 ⎡ 1 − 1 − 1 1⎤ 3 ⎢ 1 − 1⎥ 4 T E A ⎢− 1 1 ⎥ K3 = 1 − 1⎥ 5 l ⎢− 1 1 ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 1 − 1 − 1 1⎦ 6 ⎡K ⎢K ⎢ ⎢K ⎢ ⎢K ⎢K ⎢ ⎢K ⎣ K K K K K⎤ K K K K K⎥ ⎥ K • • • •⎥ ⎥. eventually adding it to the coefficients already accumulated at that location. In the global matrix. and those for the node j = 3 are numbered 2 j − 1 = 5 and 2 j = 6 . The simple addition of different stiffness coefficients in a location is based on the fact that finite element equations are in fact nodal equilibrium equations. An alternative algebraic explanation of the assembly of system stiffness matrices is presented in the following. so that if a node is common to several elements. the numbering of coordinates in the global stiffness matrix is shown. K • • • •⎥ K • • • •⎥ ⎥ K • • • •⎥ ⎦ [ ] At the top and on the right of the element stiffness matrices. the two displacement and force components (along X and Y) for node i = 1 are numbered 2 i − 1 = 1 and 2 i = 2 . For instance.3. each member will contribute with a force component to maintain equilibrium under an arbitrary set of nodal displacements. element 2 is located in the truss between the left end node i = 1 and the right end node j = 3 (nodal labels i and j may be assigned arbitrarily).

28 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 3. containing ones at the nodal displacements of element nodes and zeros elsewhere. { } [ ] where e full connectivity or localization matrix. { Q } is the element displacement vector in global coordinates.23) applied to the three elements yields ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎡1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪Q ⎪ 0 = ⎨ 2⎬ = ⎢ ⎪Q3 ⎪ ⎢0 ⎪Q4 ⎪ ⎢0 ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ 0⎤ ⎪Q2 ⎪ 0⎥ ⎪Q3 ⎪ ~ ⎥⋅⎪ ⎪ = T1 ⎨ ⎬ 0⎥ ⎪Q4 ⎪ ⎥ 0⎦ ⎪Q5 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪Q6 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ {Q } 1 [ ] [Q ] . { } ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎡1 ⎪Q ⎪ ⎢0 ⎪ ⎪ 2 Q = ⎨ 2⎬ = ⎢ ⎪Q5 ⎪ ⎢0 ⎪Q6 ⎪ ⎢0 ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ 0⎤ ⎪Q2 ⎪ ⎥ ⎪Q ⎪ 0⎥ ⎪ 3 ⎪ ~ ⋅⎨ ⎬ = T 2 0⎥ ⎪Q4 ⎪ ⎥ 1⎦ ⎪Q5 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪Q6 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ 0⎤ ⎪Q2 ⎪ 0⎥ ⎪Q3 ⎪ ~ ⎥⋅⎪ ⎪ = T 3 ⎨ ⎬ 0⎥ ⎪Q4 ⎪ ⎥ 1⎦ ⎪Q5 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩Q6 ⎭ [ ] [ Q ].5. .5 Compatibility of nodal displacements The compatibility of nodal displacements at element level. equation (3.23) Q e = T e { Q }. {Q } is the ~ displacement vector of the truss structure and [T ] is referred to as a e For the truss from Fig. 3. with the nodal displacements at the whole truss structure level. { } ⎧Q3 ⎫ ⎡0 ⎪Q ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ 0 Q3 = ⎨ 4 ⎬ = ⎢ ⎪Q5 ⎪ ⎢0 ⎪Q6 ⎪ ⎢0 ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 [ ] [ Q ]. can be expressed by equations of the form ~ (3.

substituting (3. where the expanded element stiffness matrix ~ ~ ~ [ K ] = [T ] [ K ] [T ] e e T e e (3. 0 1 0 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0 1 0 0⎦ or ⎡ 1 ⎢ 0 ⎢ ~ 1 EA ⎢− 1 K = ⎢ l ⎢ 0 ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎣ ⎡1 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 =⎢ ⎢0 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎣ 0 − 1 0 0 0⎤ 0 0 0 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 1 0 0 0⎥ ⎥.6 Expanded element stiffness matrix The element strain energy in global coordinates can be written in terms of the global displacement vector.24) yields ⎡1 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 =⎢ ⎢0 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎣ 0 0 0⎤ 1 0 0⎥ ⎡ 1 ⎥ ⎥ EA ⎢ 0 0 1 0 ⎢ ⎥ 0 0 1⎥ l ⎢− 1 ⎢ 0 0 0⎥ ⎣ 0 ⎥ 0 0 0⎥ ⎦ ~ [K ] = [T~ ] [ K ][T~ ] 1 1 T 1 1 0 − 1 0 ⎤ ⎡1 0 0 0⎥ ⎢0 ⎥⋅⎢ 0 1 0⎥ ⎢0 ⎥ ⎢ 0 0 0⎦ ⎣0 0 0 0 0 0⎤ ⎥ 1 0 0 0 0⎥ . 0 0 0 0 0⎥ 0 0 0 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0 0 0 0⎥ ⎦ 0 0 0⎤ 1 0 0⎥ 1 − 1 − 1⎤ ⎡1 0 0 ⎡ 1 ⎥ ⎢ 1 0 0 0⎥ EA ⎢ 1 − 1 − 1⎥ ⎢0 1 0 ⎥⋅⎢ ⎥ 0 0 0⎥ l ⎢ − 1 − 1 1 1 ⎥ ⎢0 0 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ 0 1 0⎥ 1 ⎦ ⎣0 0 0 ⎣− 1 − 1 1 ⎥ 0 0 1⎥ ⎦ [ ] ~ [K ] = [T~ ] [K ][T~ ] 2 2 T 2 2 0 0 0⎤ 0 0 0⎥ ⎥.3. 3. a) Ue = 1 2 ~ ~ { Q }T [T e ] T [ K e ][T e ]{ Q } Ue = 1 2 or ~ { Q }T [ K e ]{ Q }.5. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 29 3. equation (3.23) into (3.24) has the size of the system matrix.20. For the truss from Fig. 0 1 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0 1⎦ .

27) The global stiffness matrix is equal to the sum of the expanded element stiffness matrices.26) Comparing (3.25) and (3. T e T e e e e e (3.30 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS or ~ [K ] 2 1 ⎡ 1 ⎢ 1 1 ⎢ 0 EA ⎢ 0 = ⎢ 0 l ⎢ 0 ⎢− 1 − 1 ⎢ ⎢− 1 − 1 ⎣ ⎡0 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢1 =⎢ ⎢0 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎣ 0 0 − 1 − 1⎤ 0 0 − 1 − 1⎥ ⎥ 0 0 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0 0 0⎥ 0 0 1 1⎥ ⎥ 0 0 1 1⎥ ⎦ and ~ [K ] = [T~ ] [ K ][T~ ] 3 3 T 3 3 0 0 0⎤ 0 0 0⎥ ⎡ 1 − 1 − 1 1 ⎤ ⎡0 ⎥ 0 0 0⎥ EA ⎢− 1 1 1 − 1⎥ ⎢0 ⎥⋅⎢ ⎢ ⎥ 1 0 0⎥ l ⎢− 1 1 1 − 1⎥ ⎢0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ 0 1 0⎥ ⎣ 1 − 1 − 1 1 ⎦ ⎣0 ⎥ 0 0 1⎥ ⎦ 0 0 0⎤ 0⎥ ⎥ 0 1 −1 − 1 1⎥ ⎥. 0 0 0 1 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0 0 0 1⎦ or ~ [K ] 3 ⎡0 ⎢0 ⎢ EA ⎢0 = ⎢ l ⎢0 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎣ 3.25) U= 1 1 ~ ~ ∑U = ∑ 2 { Q } [ K ]{ Q } = 2 { Q } ∑ [ K ] { Q }. 0 −1 1 1 − 1⎥ 0 −1 1 1 − 1⎥ ⎥ 0 1 −1 − 1 1⎥ ⎦ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0⎤ ⎥ 0 0 1 0 0⎥ . .7 Unreduced global stiffness matrix The strain energy for the complete truss structure 1 { Q }T [ K ]{ Q }.26) we get ~ [ K ]= ∑[K e ] e . (3. 2 can be calculated by simply adding the element strain energies U= (3.

Apart from external forces and support reactions. nodes are acted upon by forces equal and in opposite direction to those applied to elements. involving forces applied by elements to nodes. It corresponds to the free-free system. 3. An exploded layout of the truss is shown in Fig.7. The joint equilibrium equations. 3. The global stiffness assembly is a simple book-keeping exercise and is done by directly placing the nonzero coefficients of element stiffness matrices in the right locations of the global stiffness matrix based on element connectivity. this matrix is condensed using the boundary conditions. are used in the following.28) The expanded element stiffness matrices have been used above only to show algebraically how to assemble a global stiffness matrix.5. The effect of elastic supports modelled as lumped springs can be accounted for by adding their stiffnesses along the main diagonal at the appropriate locations in the stiffness matrix. ⎢ 0 − 1 1 1 − 1⎥ l ⎢ 0 ⎢− 1 − 1 − 1 1 2 0⎥ ⎥ ⎢ 2⎥ ⎢− 1 − 1 1 − 1 0 ⎦ ⎣ [ ] ~ ~ ~ [ K ] = [ K 1 ]+ [ K 2 ]+ [ K 3 ] (3. Note that element equilibrium equations (3.24) is never formed. Equal forces are labelled only once for clarity. 3. based on joint equilibrium equations. For the truss from Fig. singular (for a plane truss. using for convenience the truss from Fig. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 31 The unreduced stiffness matrix K is symmetric. For a grounded system.1) used so far involved only forces applied by nodes to the elements. The expensive product (3. equation (3. we obtain 6 equilibrium equations . the deficiency is 3). An alternative presentation is given below.3. has positive elements along the main diagonal and each column (row) sums to zero. Resolving nodal forces horizontally and vertically. 3.5.8 Joint force equilibrium equations The assembly of the global stiffness matrix has been based on strain energy considerations.27) yields ⎡ 2 1 − 1 0 − 1 − 1⎤ ⎢ 1 1 0 0 − 1 − 1⎥ ⎥ ⎢ 2 − 1 − 1 1⎥ EA ⎢− 1 0 = ⎥. they are never used in practice.

3 F6 = Fy22 + Fy 2 . 1 1 F2 = Fy1 + Fy2 . Fig.29) .7 In matrix form 1 ⎧ Fx1 ⎫ ⎪ 1 ⎪ ⎪ Fy1 ⎪ ⎪ 1 ⎪ ⎪ Fx 2 ⎪ 1 ⎪ Fy 2 ⎪ ⎪−−− ⎪ 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0⎤ ⎪ ⎪ 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 ⎥ ⎪ Fx2 ⎪ 1 ⎥ 2 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 ⎥ ⎪ Fy1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎥⋅⎨ 2 ⎬ 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 ⎥ ⎪ Fx 2 ⎪ 2 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 ⎥ ⎪ Fy 2 ⎪ ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 ⎥ ⎪−−− ⎪ ⎦ 14 244 14 244 4 3 4 3 F3 ⎪ x1 ⎪ ~2 T ~3 T T T ⎪F3 ⎪ ⎪ y1 ⎪ 3 ⎪ Fx 2 ⎪ ⎪ 3 ⎪ ⎪ Fy 2 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎧ F1 ⎫ ⎡ 1 0 0 0 ⎪F ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ 2⎪ ⎢ 0 1 0 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ F3 ⎪ ⎢ 0 0 1 0 ⎨ ⎬=⎢ ⎪ F4 ⎪ ⎢ 0 0 0 1 ⎪ F5 ⎪ ⎢ 0 0 0 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ F6 ⎪ ⎢ 0 0 0 0 ⎣ 4 ⎩ ⎭ 14 244 3 [ T~ ] 1 T [ ] [ ] whose partitioned form can be written in scalar product form as ~ ~ ~ { F } = [ T 1 ] T {F 1 }+ [ T 2 ] T {F 2 }+ [ T 3 ] T {F 3 } or generally ~ { F } = ∑ [ T e ] T {F e }. 3. 1 1 F3 = Fx 2 + Fx3 . 1 1 3 F4 = Fy 2 + Fy1 . FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS F5 = Fx22 + Fx32 . e (3.32 1 F1 = Fx1 + Fx2 .

[ ] 3. ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬ ⎢L L L L ⎥ ⎪ L ⎪ ⎪L⎪ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ K N 1 K N 2 L K NN ⎦ ⎪QN ⎪ ⎪ FN ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ Consider a single boundary condition.27). As Q1 is known.31) The unreduced global stiffness matrix K relates the unreduced vector of nodal forces { F } to the unreduced vector of nodal displacements { Q }.23). it can be written ~ { F } = ∑ [ K e ] {Q } = [ K ] {Q } .29) becomes ~ { F } = ∑ [ T e ] T [ K e ]{Q e }= ∑ e e ~ [1~4]44K 444] {Q }. Most often the support nodal displacements are zero. the finite element equations (3. equation (3. of the type bi Qi + b j Q j = b0 . where bi .30) then. L L ⎥ ⎪L⎪ ⎪ L ⎪ ⎥ L K NN ⎦ ⎪QN ⎪ ⎪ FN − K N 1 a1 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ (3. of the type Qi = ai ( i = 1 to ns ).31) are of the form ⎡ K11 K12 L K1N ⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎧ F1 ⎫ ⎢K ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 21 K 22 L K 2 N ⎥ ⋅ ⎪ Q2 ⎪ = ⎪ F2 ⎪ .24) and (3.3.9 Reduced global stiffness matrix The global truss should be supported adequately and there should be no internal mechanism. e (3. where ns is the number of supports. Q1 = a1 . DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 33 Substituting (3.32) . Boundary conditions eliminate the possibility of the structure to move as a rigid body. For an N-degree-of-freedom structure. using equations (3. encountered in inclined roller supports and rigid connections. b j and b0 are known constants. A general type of boundary conditions include specified displacements of the support nodes. Another type are the multipoint constraints.15) and (3. the finite element equations in the remaining N − 1 unknowns are ⎡ K 22 ⎢K ⎢ 32 ⎢ L ⎢ ⎣K N 2 K 23 K 33 L KN3 L K 2 N ⎤ ⎧ Q2 ⎫ ⎧ F2 − K 21 a1 ⎫ L K 3 N ⎥ ⎪ Q3 ⎪ ⎪ F3 − K 31 a1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎥⋅⎪ ⎪ = ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬. [ 2 ][ T 3 T e T e e (3. Qi = 0 .

3. For a truss supported on many supports.5. and where the forces are specified. Equation (3. (3. ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 1 1 0 − 1⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ F2 ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 0 0 1 1⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ F4 ⎥ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ −1 −1 1 2⎦ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ F5 ⎥ −1 (3.34 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The ( N − 1 ) × (N − 1) stiffness matrix above is obtained simply by deleting or eliminating the first row and column from the original ( N × N ) stiffness matrix. Equations (3.33) where [K ] is a reduced stiffness matrix. after substitution of the boundary conditions Q1 = Q2 = Q4 = Q5 = 0 and the values of the applied forces F3 = 6 F and F6 = 9 F . 0 −1 1 1 − 1⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ F4 ⎥ l ⎢ 0 ⎢− 1 − 1 − 1 1 2 0⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ F5 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 0 2⎥ ⎢Q6 ⎥ ⎢9 F ⎥ ⎢− 1 − 1 1 − 1 ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ (3. the reduced global stiffness matrix is obtained deleting as many rows and columns as the number of specified displacements. the following set of linear equations is obtained 1 −1 0 − 1 − 1⎤ ⎡ 0 ⎤ ⎡ F1 ⎤ ⎡ 2 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 1 1 0 0 − 1 − 1⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ F2 ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ 0 2 −1 −1 1 ⎥ ⎢Q3 ⎥ ⎢6 F ⎥ EA ⎢ − 1 ⎢ ⎥ ⋅⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ ⎥ . the nodal displacements are unknown. obtained by eliminating the row and column corresponding to the specified or “support” degrees of freedom.32) may be written in condensed form [ K ] { Q } = { F }.34) It can be seen that where the displacements are specified. The final equations (3. respectively. the nodal forces are unknown.35) The first two equations can be written EA ⎡2 1 ⎤ ⎡Q3 ⎤ ⎧6 F ⎫ ⋅⎢ ⎥ = ⎨ ⎬ l ⎢1 2⎥ ⎣Q6 ⎦ ⎩9 F ⎭ ⎣ ⎦ . It is instructive now to consider the truss from Fig.33) can be solved for the displacement vector { Q } using Gauss elimination. { Q } and { F } are the reduced vectors of global displacements and forces. Having assembled the unreduced global stiffness matrix.34) can be rearranged as follows ⎡ 2 1 ⎢ 2 ⎢ 1 ⎢ EA ⎢− 1 − 1 l ⎢ 0 −1 ⎢ ⎢− 1 − 1 ⎢ ⎣− 1 0 0 − 1 − 1 ⎤ ⎡Q3 ⎤ ⎡6 F ⎤ ⎥ − 1 − 1 − 1 0 ⎥ ⎢Q6 ⎥ ⎢9 F ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ 2 1 0 − 1⎥ ⋅ ⎢ 0 ⎥ = ⎢ F1 ⎥ . The matrix [ K ] is not singular.

38) (3. The axial force in a truss element is . are given by { Fb } = [ K ab ] T { Qa }+ [ K bb ] { Qb } . .33) can be written in partitioned form Q3 = ⎡ [ K aa ] ⎢[K ] ⎣ ba [ K ab ]⎤ ⎧ { Qa }⎫ ⎧ { Fa }⎫ ⋅ = . { Qb } The first set of equations can be written { Fa } = [ K aa ] { Qa }+ [ K ab ] { Qb } .40) which can be computed when all displacements have been determined. { Qa } = [ K aa ] −1 ( { Fa } − [ K ab ] { Qb } ) .37) then multiplied to the left by [ K aa ] −1 to yield the unknown displacements The unknown forces.39) For the truss from Fig.36) is the vector of known where displacements and [ K ba ] = [ K ab ] . DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 35 and solved to give Fl Fl Q6 = 4 .10 Reactions and internal forces (3. the support displacements are zero.3. EA EA In general.5. equations (3. [ K bb ]⎥ ⎨ { Qb }⎬ ⎨ { Fb }⎬ ⎦ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ (3. so that ⎧ F1 ⎫ ⎧− 5F ⎫ ⎡ − 1 − 1⎤ ⎪F ⎪ ⎢ 0 − 1⎥ Q ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 2 ⎪ EA ⎢ ⎥ ⋅ ⎧ 3 ⎫ = ⎪− 4 F ⎪ . (3. T { Fa } is the vector of known forces. 3. = ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬ l ⎢ − 1 − 1⎥ ⎩Q6 ⎭ ⎪ − 5 F ⎪ ⎪ F4 ⎪ ⎥ ⎢ ⎪ F5 ⎪ ⎪−F ⎪ ⎣− 1 0 ⎦ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ The elongation of an element (2.5) is Δl e = q2 − q1 = ( Qx 2 − Qx1 ) cosθ e + ( Q y 2 − Q y1 ) sinθ e (3. for non-zero boundary conditions. which in this case are the external reactions. 3.

This produces thermal strains ε T = −α T . Accordingly.5. Suppose the node displacements are completely restrained (blocked). 3.41) 2 EA Q6 = 4 2 F . the element acts upon its nodes with equal and opposite forces { FT } = α EAT b − c − s c s cT . where E is Young’s modulus. (3. Restraining produces a compressive axial force α EAT in the element. where α is the coefficient of thermal expansion and T is the amount of uniform heating (temperature difference). the member forces are ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎪Q ⎪ EA ⎪ ⎪ EA T1 = b−1 0 1 0c ⎨ 2 ⎬ = Q3 = F . l 2 EA ( Q3 + Q6 ) = 5 2 F .36 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎧ Qx1 ⎫ ⎪Q ⎪ E A E A ⎪ y1 ⎪ Te = e e Δl e = e e b − c − s c s c ⎨ ⎬ .42) . le le ⎪Q x 2 ⎪ ⎪Q y 2 ⎪ ⎭e ⎩ For the truss from Fig. 3. Duhamel (1838). M. C. Q3 ⎪ l l ⎪ ⎪ Q4 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎪Q ⎪ 2 EA 2 ⎪ 2⎪ T2 = b − 1 − 1 1 1c ⎨ ⎬= l 2 ⎪ Q5 ⎪ ⎪ Q6 ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ ⎧ Q3 ⎫ ⎪Q ⎪ 2 EA 2 ⎪ 4⎪ T3 = b1 1 − 1 1 c ⎨ ⎬= l 2 ⎪ Q5 ⎪ ⎪ Q6 ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ (3. The restrained state is equivalent to a pre-stressing with compressive stresses σ T = −α ET . where A is the cross-section area.11 Thermal loads and stresses Thermal stresses are calculated using the “restraining method” suggested by J. l Stresses can be determined dividing these forces by the element crosssection areas.

the element elongations are determined from (3. adding to the stresses produced by the thermal (and external) loads. the initial stresses produced by restraining.42.3. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 37 or. (3. Even so.43) σ e = Ee ⎜ e − α T ⎟ . due to the sparseness. After determining the displacements produced by these forces.e. ×⎥ ⎥ ×⎥ ⎥ ×⎥ ×⎥ ⎥ ×⎥ ×⎥ ⎦ [ ] ⎡× × × × ⎢ × × × ⎢ ⎢ × × ⎢ × ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ K =⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢s y m m ⎣ × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × e t r i c (3. with the nonzero elements clustered in a band along the main diagonal. This is obvious for one-directional structures and can be achieved by rational node numbering in other structures. ⎜ l ⎟ ⎝ e ⎠ i. They are also banded. The half-bandwidth is denoted B.e.12 Node numbering Stiffness matrices are symmetric and sparse.37) and the stresses are calculated as ⎛ Δl ⎞ (3. with nonzero elements in the upper triangle identified by the symbol X ← B → × × × × × × × × × × × × 0 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥. . { fT } = α EAT b − 1 1cT . It is as if unrestraining forces are applied at the ends of the element to free it from the initial restraining. only the diagonal elements and those from one side of the main diagonal are retained. in local coordinates. 3.8. if the case). a. a) These forces should be included in the vector of nodal forces (added to the external forces. i. 3.44) Because of symmetry. Consider the 12 × 12 unreduced global stiffness matrix of the truss from Fig. there are many zero elements in the upper triangle.

the half-bandwidth of the original matrix.38 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Since only nonzero elements need to be stored. The second column contains the elements from the second diagonal. then progressing along the longer dimension. . 3. As a general rule. 3. equal to the size of the original matrix. However.e. for the numbering from Fig. In general. The efficiency of band-storage increases with the order of the matrix.8. B = 6 . the information in the above matrix can be compactly stored in the 12× 6 matrix below 1 2 ↓ ↓ ⎡× ⎢ ⎢× ⎢× ⎢ ⎢× ⎢× ⎢ ⎢× =⎢ × ⎢ ⎢× ⎢ ⎢× ⎢× ⎢ ⎢× ⎢× ⎣ × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × B ↓ ×⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ×⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ×⎥ ⎥. For the numbering scheme of Fig.44). a . i.8. b. ⎥ ×⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ [ Kb ] The first column contains the diagonal elements of the full matrix (3.8 b For plane trusses. a Fig. B is equal to 2 plus twice the maximum node number difference in an element. the mth diagonal of the original matrix is stored as the mth column. a small bandwidth can be obtained by numbering nodes along the shorter dimension of a structure. 3. The number of columns in the banded-form storage is equal to B . B = 12 .

Gaussian elimination algorithms are used for symmetric banded matrices which enable also the reduction of computer time. If there are zeros at the top of a column. the columns of the matrix upper triangle are stored serially and concatenated in a column vector { K s } . The line separating the top zeroes from the first nonzero element is called the skyline. efficient reduction of both storage and computing time can be achieved using the skyline storage and a skyline equation solver. Apart from storage savings. In this case. only the elements between the diagonal term and the first nonzero term need be stored. ⎨ ⎬ ⎪12 ⎪ ⎪13 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪17 ⎪ ⎪22⎪ ⎩ ⎭ . For large sparse stiffness matrices.3. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 39 The half-bandwidth is automatically determined within the finite element program from the node numbering. Consider the following matrix Column height → 1 2 2 0 k 23 k33 4 k14 k 24 k34 k 44 3 0 0 k35 0 k55 1 0 0 0 0 0 k 66 4 0 0 0 k 47 0 k67 k77 5 0 ⎤ ⎥ 0 ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ k 48 ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ k 78 ⎥ ⎥ k88 ⎥ ⎦ ⎡k11 k12 ⎢ k 22 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ Skyline The active columns are stored in the column vector { K s } and a diagonal pointer vector { ID } is built up with the indices of diagonal elements in { K s } ⎧ k11 ⎫ ⎪ k ⎪←1 ⎪ 12 ⎪ ⎪ k22 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪←3 ⎪ k23 ⎪ ⎪ k33 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪←5 ⎪ k14 ⎪ {Ks } = ⎨ ⎬ ⎪ k24 ⎪ ⎪ k34 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ k44 ⎪ ⎪ L ⎪←9 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪L⎪ ⎪k ⎪ ⎩ 88 ⎭ ⎧1⎫ ⎪3⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪5⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 9 { ID } = ⎪ ⎪ .

Matrix Displacement Method Input Data Geometric data of truss (Nodal coordinates) Material properties + Cross-section area of members Connectivity table of elements Boundary conditions ↓ 1 Element stiffness matrix in local coordinates Transformation to global coordinates ↓ 2 Assembly of the global stiffness matrix ↓ 3 Introduction of boundary conditions ↓ 4 Solving the linear set of equations ↓ 5 Back-calculation External reactions Member forces (and stresses) 6 . Gaussian elimination can be applied using a skyline solver program. A generic flow chart of the Matrix Displacement Method is given in the following.40 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The height of the jth column is given by ID ( j ) − ID ( j − 1) . For the solution of the finite element equations.

7 -339.83 8 Element nr 8 9 10 11 12 13 Nodes 4.8 -343.1. E = 1 and F = 1 . determine: a) the maximum nodal displacement and its location b) the maximum stress and its location.1. 2 1. 5 Axial stress 16 -10 0 16 -9. Plot the deformed shape.1 -361. 3 2. For the truss in Fig. 7 6. 8 7. E3.7 0 Element data Element nr 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Nodes 1. Taking l = 1 . 6 4. we obtain the following: Nodal data Node nr 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Restr X 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Restr Y 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Coord X 0 4 4 8 8 12 12 16 Coord Y 0 0 3 0 6 0 3 0 Displ X 0 64 208.6 176 62. A = 1 . 7 5.3. 4 3. 8 Axial stress 12 -4.1 -391. E3. 3 2.16 -10. 7 6.1.16 -10. 6 4. a) The finite element model consists of 8 nodes and 13 elements.83 0 12 -15 . Fig. and c) the support reactions. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 41 Exercises E3.7 -339. 4 3.9 224 Displ Y 0 -361. a Answer.3 128 127. a.

and R2 = 6 F .4 F . E3.787 EA element 7 is N 7 = −6 F A . E3.1. a. b. b) the maximum stress. b E3.42 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The support reactions are R1 = −8 . and c) the support reactions. . Consider the pin-jointed framework shown in Fig.2. The deformed shape is shown in Fig.2. and R3 = 9 . Determine: a) the maximum nodal displacement. R2 = 6 . Fig. Plot the deformed shape. b) The axial stress in The vertical displacement of point 7 is v7 = −219. Fig. E3. E3. c) The support reactions are R1 = − R3 = 5. b.2. E3. The finite element model consists of 7 nodes and 11 elements.1.2. a) Fl . a Answer. The deformed shape is presented in Fig.

E3.3. c) The support reactions are R1 = 0 . R2 = 3.83 EA element 1 is N1 = −7. Determine the location and the value of: a) the maximum nodal displacement.3. b) The axial stress in The vertical displacement of point 3 is v3 = −137. Fig. . E3. b) the maximum stress.2.3. The finite element model consists of 6 nodes and 9 elements.25 F A .4 F and R3 = 2. E3. a. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 43 Fig.6 F . Plot the deformed shape. E3. The deformed shape is presented in Fig.3. b. Calculate c) the support reactions.3. Consider the truss shown in Fig. a Answer. b E3. a) Fl .

Taking l = 1 .4. b E3. Fig. E3.0896 .4. a Answer.4.44 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Fig. The finite element model consists of 4 nodes and 5 elements.3294 2. E3.3.6705 Displ Y 0 0 -3. A = 1 . E = 1 and F = 1 . Plot the deformed shape. we obtain the following: Nodal data Node nr 1 2 3 4 Restr X 1 1 0 0 Restr Y 1 1 0 0 Coord X 0 0 1 2 Coord Y 0 1 0 1 Displ X 0 0 -1. and c) the support reactions. Determine: a) the maximum nodal displacement. a. Consider the truss shown in Fig.2095 -9. b) the maximum stress. E3.

1.335 . 4 1.4. b) the maximum stress.09 F l E A . DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 45 Element data Element nr 1 2 3 4 5 Nodes 3.3.335F and R4 = 0.940 1.5. E3. 3 2.665F . E3.329 0. b) The axial stress in element 4 is N 4 = 1. c) The support reactions are R1 = − R3 = 2 F . 4 1. The deformed shape is presented in Fig. E3. R2 = 0.749 a) The vertical displacement of point 4 is v4 = −9. Fig. a where point 6 is displaced v6 = −5 . Plot the deformed shape. b.940 . Fig. a .4.335 F A . Determine the location and the value of: a) the maximum nodal displacement.5.0. 4 Axial stress . E3. 3 2.0.5. b E3. Consider the pin-jointed framework shown in Fig.

A = 1 and E = 1 .46 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Answer. The deformed shape is presented in Fig.5.366 . b. the vertical displacements of points 7 and 8 are v7 = v8 = −4. E3. b .5. Fig. E3. The finite element model consists of 14 nodes and 25 elements.538 . and the axial stress in element 15 is N15 = 0. Taking l = 1 .

there are axial displacements u = u (x ) due to axial loads p(x ) . having one degree of freedom per node.1 Plane bar elements Bars are structural elements used to model truss elements. The displacement within the element is expressed in terms of the nodal displacements using shape functions. However. 4.4. Bars are loaded only by axial forces. This approximation becomes increasingly accurate as more elements are considered in the model. For a bar without loads between ends the linear interpolation is exact. It is shown that their use is tantamount to adding internal nodes.1. 4. it is common practice to use linear shape functions and two-node elements without loads between ends. cables. the corresponding element stiffness matrix and load vectors will be derived. This implies replacement of the distributed loads by equivalent forces applied to nodes. They are modeled by elements having one-degree-of-freedom per node. These kinematically equivalent forces are determined using the appropriate shape functions from the condition to perform the same mechanical work as the actual loading. In this section. chains and ropes. The dimensions of p are force/length. true displacements are described by higher order polynomials.1 Differential equation of equilibrium In a thin uniform rod of cross-section area A and Young’s modulus E. The displacement at x + d x will be u + du . . Displacements must be continuous across the element boundary. BARS AND SHAFTS This chapter deals with simple one-dimensional structural elements. The unknown displacement field within an element is usually interpolated by a linear distribution. For bars with distributed loads. The compatibility of adjacent elements requires only C 0 continuity. Their longitudinal dimension is much larger than the transverse dimensions.

4.1 The internal axial force N is du . Nodes are conveniently numbered 1 and 2. (4.2. 4. 4.1) σ x = E du d x .2) Fig. N = Aσ x = E A dN + p (x ) = 0 . using (4. their coordinates in the physical (Cartesian) reference system being x 1 and x 2 respectively (Fig.1) is d N + p d x = 0 .1. We define a natural or intrinsic reference system which permits the specification of a point within the element by a dimensionless number r= x + x2 ⎞ 2 ⎛ ⎜x− 1 ⎟ x 2 − x1 ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (4. b).3).48 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The axial strain is given by the strain-displacement relation ε x = du d x .3) dx The equation of equilibrium of an infinitesimal element of length dx of the rod (Fig.2. The normal stresses result from Hooke’s law (4.5) so that r = −1 at node 1 and r = +1 at node 2 (Fig. 4.2 Coordinates and shape functions Consider a two-node pin-jointed element in the own or local coordinate system. .4) 4. a). (4. EA d2 u = − p (x ) . d x2 (4. dx or.

. a.1. The graphs of these functions are shown in Figs. d 2u d x 2 = 0 .2 Expressing the physical coordinate in terms of the natural coordinate yields x = N1 (r ) x 1 + N 2 (r ) x 2 .4. Fig.7) 2 2 can be considered as geometric interpolation functions. 4.3 4. d u d x = const . where N1 (r ) = (4. so that the displacement field within the element may be expressed as a linear polynomial .b. 4. BARS AND SHAFTS 49 Fig. They have a unit value at the node of the same index and zero at the other node.3 Bar not loaded between ends For a prismatic bar not loaded between ends.3.6) 1 ( 1 − r ) and N 2 (r ) = 1 ( 1 + r ) (4. 4. p = 0 .

6) is simpler.9) Equation (4. (4. equation (4. (4.8) The two integration constants above may be determined from the nodal displacements and the geometry of the element.50 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS u (x ) = a + b x . the displacement at any point within an element can be found by multiplying the matrix of shape functions by the vector of nodal displacements. In matrix form u= where ∑ N q = ⎣N ⎦ { q }. ⎣N ⎦ In (4.10) is more complicated. u= The displacement of an arbitrary point within the element can be expressed in terms of the nodal displacements q 1 and q 2 as u = N1 (r ) q1 + N 2 (r ) q2 .5). (4. x2 − x1 x2 − x1 x − x1 − x + x2 q1 + q2 . 2 2 (4.9) can also be written u= or. a and b. q 1 and q 2 . but the integration constants. using (4. but the integration constants. e i i i =1 2 (4.8) becomes u= q2 − q1 q x − q2 x1 x+ 1 2 . The nodal expansion (4.12) Thus. are the nodal displacements.11). q e is the column vector of element nodal displacements and is the row vector of displacement interpolation functions also named shape { } .11) ⎣N ⎦ = ⎣N1 N 2 ⎦ and {q }= { q e 1 q2 }T . have no simple physical meaning. With q1 = a + b x1 at node 1 and q2 = a + b x2 at node 2. where N1 (r ) = element. x2 − x1 x2 − x1 1− r 1+ r q1 + q2 .10) 1 ( 1 − r ) and N 2 (r ) = 1 ( 1 + r ) are the shape functions of the 2 2 The polynomial form (4.

16) we obtain Ue = 1 2 { q } ∫ ⎣B ⎦ e T Ve T Ee ⎣B ⎦ dV { q }. Equations (4. It gives the strain at any point due to unit nodal displacement. e T e e (4.10) show that both the element geometry and the displacement field are interpolated using the same shape functions.4 Element stiffness matrix in local coordinates Strains can be expressed in terms of the shape functions as εx = where du d e e = ⎣N ⎦ q = ⎣B ⎦ q dx dx { } { } (4. 2 (4.5) yields dx = x 2 − x1 2 dr = le dr . (4.13) in (4.3. It is easy to check that u = q 1 at node 1 and u = q 2 at node 2.1.15) where − 1 ≤ r ≤ +1 and the length of the element is l e = x 2 − x 1 . generally called the element strain-displacement matrix.13) ⎣B ⎦ = d x ⎣N ⎦ d (4.18) where the element stiffness matrix k e is given by [ ] . The transformation from x to r in equation (4.14) is the row vector of the derivatives of shape functions. BARS AND SHAFTS 51 functions.16) Substituting (4.4.6) and (4. 4. and that u varies linearly (Fig. 4. which is referred to as the isoparametric formulation.17) 144 2444 4 3 The above equation is of the form Ue = 1 2 { q } [ k ] { q }. c). The element strain energy U e is Ue = 1 2 ∫σ e x εx dV = 1 2 ∫E ε e e 2 x dV . e (4.

4.5 Bar loaded between ends For a prismatic bar acted upon by a uniformly distributed axial load. ⎣ dx ⎦ ⎣ dx ⎦ T (4.52 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS [ k ] = ∫ ⎣B⎦ e T Ee ⎣B ⎦ dV . (4. An internal node is added at the midpoint to comply with the requirement of a quadratic fit (Fig.20) Because dN dN d r 2 dN = = . a.23) The three integration constants.4. p = const. a). d 2u d x 2 = const . This can be done if we use a three-node onedimensional element.1. 4. .21) yields dr 2 dr 2 [k ] e 2E A = e e le +1 −1 ∫ ⎨ 1 2 ⎬ ⎢⎣− 2 ⎩ ⎭ − 1⎤ . 1⎥ ⎦ ⎧− 1 2 ⎫ ⎢ 1 1⎥ dr 2⎥ ⎦ or [ k ] = El A ⎡⎢−11 e e e e ⎣ (4. In terms of the shape functions [ ] e Ve [k ]= E A ∫ e e le ⎢dN ⎥ ⎢dN ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ dx . (4. equation (4. we can write dx dr d x l e dr [ ke ] = 2 Ee Ae le Substituting +1 −1 ∫ ⎢dN ⎥ ⎢dN ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ dr .6).21) d N2 1 d N1 1 = − and = + . so that the displacement field within the element may be expressed as a quadratic polynomial u (x ) = a + b x + c x 2 . .22) which is the same as equation (3. have to be determined from three boundary conditions. b and c. ⎣ dr ⎦ ⎣ dr ⎦ T (4. .19) This form guarantees that k e will be a symmetric matrix.

4. BARS AND SHAFTS

53

For a linearly distributed axial load (as in a bar rotating at constant angular speed around an end, acted upon by a distributed centrifugal load proportional to the distance to the rotation centre), the true displacement field is given by a cubic polynomial, involving four integration constants (see Example 4.8). For an exact solution, this implies using a four-node element (adding two internal nodes). The usual practice is to assume an approximate lower order linear displacement field, i.e. a two-node element and to replace the actual linearly distributed load by equivalent nodal forces, having thus an element not loaded between ends describable by linear shape functions.

Fig. 4.4 Consider the three-node quadratic element from Fig. 4.4, a, with node 3 at the midpoint. Nodal coordinates are x1 , x2 , x3 , and the vector of element nodal displacements is q e = { q1 q2 q3 }T . The x-coordinate system is mapped onto an intrinsic r-coordinate system, given by the transformation

T

{ }

2 ( x − x3 ) . x2 − x1 It comes out that r = −1 , 0, and + 1 at nodes 1, 3, and 2 (Fig. 4.4, b). r=

(4.24)

The displacements within the element can be written in terms of the three nodal displacements q 1 , q2 , and q 3 as

u = N1 (r ) q 1 + N 2 (r ) q 2 + N 3 (r ) q 3 ,

where the quadratic shape functions N i N1 (r ) = −

(4.25)

( i = 1, 2, 3 ) are

(4.26)

1 1 r ( 1 − r ) , N 2 (r ) = r ( 1 + r ) , 2 2 N 3 (r ) = ( 1 + r )( 1 − r ) .

The graphs of the shape functions (4.26) are shown in Fig. 4.5. They have a unit value at the node with the same index and zero at the other nodes. This is a general property of the shape functions.

54

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

The expressions for these shape functions can be written down by inspection. For example, since N1 = 0 at r = 0 and r = 1 , we know that N1 has to contain the product r ( 1 − r ) , i. e. the left hand part of the equations of the vertical lines passing through nodes 3 and 2. That is, N1 is of the form N1 = C r ( 1 − r ) . The constant C is obtained from the condition N1 = 1 at r = −1 , which yields C = −1 2 , resulting in the expression given in (4.26).

Fig. 4.5 The displacement field within the element is written in matrix form as u= where

∑ N q = ⎣N ⎦ { q } ,

e i i i =1

3

(4.27)

⎣N ⎦ = ⎣N1 N 2 N3 ⎦ and

{ q }= { q

e

1

q2

q3

}T .

(4.28)

At any point within an element the axial displacement can be found by multiplying the matrix of shape functions by the vector of nodal displacements, as in (4.27). It is easy to check that u = q 1 at node 1, because N1 = 1 and

**N 2 = N3 = 0 . Similarly, u = q 2 at node 2, and u = q 3 at node 3. Thus, u is a
**

quadratic polynomial passing through q1 , q2 , and q3 (Fig. 4.6). It is obtained by interpolation, using quadratic shape functions.

4. BARS AND SHAFTS

55

**The element strain-displacement row vector ⎣B ⎦ in (4.14) is given by
**

⎢ ⎣B ⎦ = d x ⎣N ⎦ = d r ⎣N ⎦ d x = l ⎢− 2 e ⎣ d d dr 2 1− 2r 1+ 2r 2 ⎥ − 2 r⎥ . ⎦

(4.29)

Fig. 4.6 The element stiffness matrix (4.19) is

[k ]

e

+1

Al = e e 2

∫⎣⎦

B

−1

T

Ee ⎣B ⎦ d r

or, substituting (4.29),

[k ]

e

1 − 8⎤ ⎡7 Ee Ae ⎢ = 7 − 8⎥ . ⎥ ⎢1 3l e ⎢− 8 − 8 16 ⎥ ⎦ ⎣

(4.30)

**4.1.6 Vector of element nodal forces
**

Consider an axial load p (x ) , having the units of force per unit length, distributed along the bar element. The mechanical work of such a force is

W=

le

∫ u p dx = ∫ u

le

T

p dx .

(4.31)

**Substituting (4.11), equation (4.31) becomes
**

W = qe It has the form

{ } ∫ ⎣N ⎦

T le

T

p dx .

(4.32)

56

W = qe

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

{ } {f }

T e

(4.33)

+1

where the element equivalent load vector is

{ f }= ∫ ⎣N ⎦

e

T

p dx =

le

le 2

∫1 ⎣N ⎦ −

T

p dr .

(4.34)

For the linear two-node element, if the axial force is uniformly distributed, p = const . , then

{f }

e

+1

l = e p 2

∫

T ⎣N ⎦ d r

(4.35)

−1

or, substituting (4.7),

{ f }= p2l

e

e

⎧ 1⎫ ⎨ ⎬. ⎩ 1⎭

(4.36)

A force

p le , equal to half the total force on the element, is applied at each node. 2

For the quadratic three-node element, if p = const. , substituting the shape functions (4.26) into (4.35), gives

{ f }= p l

e

e

T ⎣1 6 1 6 2 3 ⎦ .

(4.37)

**4.1.7 Assembly of the global stiffness matrix and load vector
**

Assembly of the system stiffness matrix for one-dimensional structures modelled as bars is carried out as shown in sections 3.4 to 3.7 for trusses. Consider the five-node finite element model in Fig. 4.7, a. Each node has only one degree of freedom in the x-direction. The nodal displacements are Q1 , Q2 ,…, Q5 (Fig. 4.7, b). The global vector of nodal displacements is denoted by

{Q } = ⎣ Q1

{ F } = ⎣ F1

Q2

Q3

Q4

Q5 ⎦ T .

**The nodal forces are F1 , F2 ,…, F5 . The global load vector is denoted by
**

F2 F3 F4 F5 ⎦ T .

The unreduced global stiffness matrix [ K ] proportionality factor between the two global vectors

plays the role of a

4. BARS AND SHAFTS

57

{ F } = [ K ] {Q }.

Fig. 4.7 The assembly of [ K ] from the element stiffness matrices can be explained by an energy approach. Consider the strain energy in, say, element 3. We have

U3 = 1 2

{ q } [k ] { q }

3 T 3 3

or U3 = EA ⎡ 1 − 1 ⎤ ⎧ Q3 ⎫ 1 ⎣ Q3 Q4 ⎦ l 3 ⎢ − 1 1⎥ ⎨ Q ⎬ . 2 ⎦ ⎩ 4⎭ 3 ⎣

We can write U 3 as

U3 =

1 ⎣ Q1 Q2 2

Q3 Q4

⎡0 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 Q5 ⎦ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎣

0 0

0 0 EA3 0 l3 EA 0 − 3 l3 0 0

0 0 EA − 3 l3 EA3 l3 0

0⎤ 0⎥ ⎥ ⎥ 0⎥ ⎥ 0⎥ ⎥ 0⎥ ⎦

⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩

Q1 ⎫ Q2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ Q3 ⎬ Q4 ⎪ ⎪ Q5 ⎪ ⎭

or

U3 = 1 2 ~ { Q }T [ K 3 ] { Q },

The element matrices can be written This is a convenient algebraic explanation of the assembly process. as in (3. the global stiffness matrix is equal to the sum of the expanded element stiffness matrices ~ [ K ]= K e . based on element connectivity.27).1. global stiffness matrix. ⎣ ⎦ 4 5 ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ 4 . ∑[ e ] the appropriate locations of the global [ K ] matrix by the so-called direct method. ⎢− 1 1⎥ 5 ⎣ ⎦ 3 [ k ] = ElA 3 3 3 ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ 3 . Table 4.1 Element 1 2 3 4 Node i 1 2 3 4 j 2 3 4 5 .4 for truss elements. but the elements of the matrix k 3 occupy the third and [ ] The strain energy of the entire structure is equal to the sum of the element strain energies U= 1 1 ~ T ~ T ∑ U e = ∑ 2 { Q } [ K e ]{ Q } = 2 { Q } ∑ [ K e ] { Q } e e e so that.58 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ~ where K 3 is the expanded stiffness matrix of element 3. which is never done in practice. The entries of the element matrices k e are placed in [ ] 1 1 [ k ] = ElA ⎡⎢− 1 1 1 1 2 − 1⎤ 1 . This is based on the simple addition of element strain energies. It has the size of the [ ] fourth rows and columns of the [ K ] matrix. ⎢− 1 1⎥ 4 ⎣ ⎦ [ k ] = ElA 4 4 4 At the top and on the right of the element stiffness matrices. 1⎥ 2 ⎦ 4 2 3 ⎣ [ k ] = ElA 2 2 2 ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ 2 ⎢ − 1 1⎥ 3 . according to the connectivity Table 4. Overlapping elements are simply added as already shown in section 3. the numbering of coordinates in the global stiffness matrix is shown.

41).4. using the boundary condition. ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥.by deleting the first element. the expression (4.8 Initial strain effects Let an initial strain ε 0 be induced in a bar element. (4. as shown in section 3.5. BARS AND SHAFTS 59 The result is the following unreduced global stiffness matrix ⎡ A1 ⎢ l ⎢ 1 ⎢− A1 ⎢ l1 ⎢ [ K ]= E ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎣ A1 l1 A1 A2 + l1 l 2 A − 2 l2 − 0 0 0 A2 l2 A2 A3 + l2 l3 A − 3 l3 − 0 0 0 A3 l3 A3 A4 + l3 l4 A − 4 l4 − 0 0 F5 ⎦ T .39) becomes .1. (4.38) The mechanical work of external nodal forces applied to suppress the initial prestressing due to ε 0 is W= Ve ∫σε 0 dV = Ve ∫σ T ε 0 dV = ε 0 Ee Ae le ∫ε T dx . 4.39) Substituting (4. this information is stored for the subsequent calculation of the reaction R 1 . Q 1 = 0 . The reduced (non-singular) stiffness matrix is obtained deleting the first row and column of the unreduced matrix. and the reduced load vector . The stress-strain law in the presence of ε 0 is of the form σ = E ( ε − ε0 ) . ⎥ A4 ⎥ − ⎥ l4 ⎥ A4 ⎥ l4 ⎥ ⎦ The global load vector is assembled as {F }= ⎣ − R1 F2 The final finite element equations are obtained.13). Stresses are then calculated from the axial forces obtained using equation (3. It may arise from thermal action or by forcing members into place that are either too short or too long. due to fabrication errors. In fact.

2 Plane shaft elements From Mechanics of Materials it is known that a uniform shaft of diameter d and length l . stresses are computed as σ e = Ee q2 − q1 + ( − Ee ε 0 ) . from a material with shear modulus of elasticity G.33). ⎩1⎭ hence { f }= ε e 0 Ee (4. ε0 = αT . 4. The nodal torques M 1 and M 2 can be related to the nodal rotation angles θ 1 and θ 2 using the equilibrium and the torque/rotation equations .41) or { f }= ε e +1 0 Ee Ae −1 ∫ ⎢dN ⎥ le ⎢ ⎥ d r = ε 0 Ee Ae 2 ⎣ dr ⎦ ⎧ − 1⎫ Ae ⎨ ⎬ . of length l and torsional rigidity G I p .8. is shown in Fig.40) It has the form (4.43) In the case of thermal loading. (4. where I p = is the polar second GIp 32 moment of area of the shaft cross section. (4. The shaft torsional stiffness is then GIp M K= t = . θ l A two-node shaft finite element. acted upon by a torque M t will twist an angle θ = πd4 Mt l .42) After solving for nodal displacements. le (4.44) where α is the coefficient of thermal expansion and T is the average change in temperature within the element.60 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS W = qe { }ε T 0 Ee Ae le ∫ ⎣B⎦ T dx . where the element load vector due to initial straining is { f }= ε e 0 Ee Ae le ∫ ⎣B ⎦ T l dx = ε 0 Ee Ae e 2 T +1 −1 ∫ ⎣B⎦ +1 T dr (4. ⎩ 1 ⎭ −1 ∫ ⎧− 1⎫ ⎨ ⎬ dr . 4.

(4. The differential equation for torsional displacement is Mt dθ .46) { M }= [ k ] { θ }.49) dx E A The rotation angle of an arbitrary section within the shaft element can be expressed in terms of the nodal rotations θ 1 and θ 2 as θ = N1 (r ) θ1 + N 2 (r ) θ 2 .47) is the stiffness matrix of the shaft element.45) may be written in matrix form as ⎧ M1 ⎫ ⎡ K ⎨ ⎬=⎢ ⎩ M 2 ⎭ ⎣− K or in shorthand form − K⎤ ⎧ θ1 ⎫ ⎨ ⎬ K ⎥ ⎩θ 2 ⎭ ⎦ (4.50) . e e e where [ k ] = GlI e p ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎢− 1 1⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (4.45) Equations (4. 4.3) du N = . Similarity between these two derivations occurs because the differential equations for both problems have the same mathematical form. Fig.4. BARS AND SHAFTS 61 M1 = − M 2 = K θ 1 when θ 2 = 0. M 1 = − M 2 = − K θ 2 when (4.48) = dx GI p while for the axial displacement is (4. (4. θ 1 = 0. (4.8 The derivation of the shaft stiffness matrix is essentially identical to the derivation of the stiffness matrix for an axially loaded bar element.

the polar second moment of area I p is replaced by the torsional constant I t . Fig.1 with d = 5 mm .62 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS where N1 (r ) = 1 ( 1 − r ) and N 2 (r ) = 1 ( 1 + r ) 2 2 (4. the stiffness matrix for the shaft element can be calculated from [ k ] = G I ∫ ⎢⎢ ddN ⎥⎥ ⎣ x⎦ e e pe le T ⎢dN ⎥ ⎢ dx ⎥ dx ⎣ ⎦ T (4.22) is used to account for axial effects in inclined beam finite elements. loaded by an axial load F = 2 kN . E4. E4.1 Solution. a) The bar is divided into three bar finite elements. b) the stresses in bar.53) [ k ] = G lI e ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎢− 1 1⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (4. Analogous to equation (4. and c) the support reactions. .51) are the shape functions of the shaft element.54) Equation (4.1 Consider the bar in Fig. as equation (4.54) is also used to account for torsional effects in grid finite elements.52) or [ ke ] = which yields e 2 Ge I p e le e pe +1 −1 ∫ ⎢dN ⎥ ⎢dN ⎥ ⎢ dr ⎥ ⎢ dr ⎥ dr ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ (4. Determine: a) the displacement of point 2.20). the same as for the axially loaded bar element. E = 200 GPa .2 m . l = 0. For non-axially-symmetric cross sections. Example 4.

81 ⋅ 103 ⋅ 34.81 0 0 ⎤⎧ 0 ⎡ 9.47 + 38.2 N . ⎢− 1 1⎥ mm ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ N .47 38.81 48.21 mm .81 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ 9. c) Stresses are .42 mm .47 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 0 − 38.81 + 38.47 38.81 9.47 − 38.47 ⎡⎢− 1 1 2 3 5 ⎣ − 1⎤ = 38. ⎢− 1 1⎥ mm ⎣ ⎦ ⋅ 38 [ k ] = [ k ] = 2 ⋅10200 . [ K ] = 10 ⎢ 0 − 38.4 d 4 )2 = 38.81 ⋅ 103 1⎥ ⎦ ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ N .47 ⎦ ⎪ 0 0 ⎩ ⎣ 0 ⎫ ⎧ − R1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬=⎨ ⎬. The element stiffness matrices are ⋅ 19 [ k ] = 2 ⋅10400 . A2 = A3 = π ( 1.47 Q3 = 38.62 ⎡⎢− 1 1 1 5 ⎣ − 1⎤ = 9.21 = 1662 .47 ⎥ ⎪ Q3 ⎥ ⎢ − 38.47 mm 2 .47 − 38.47 ⋅103 ⋅ 43.47 0 ⎥ ⎪ Q2 ⎥⎪ 103 ⎢ ⎨ ⎢ 0 − 38.47 76.81 ⎢− 9.28 − 38.81 ⎢− 9.81 Q2 = 9.62 mm 2 .47 ⎦ ⎣ 0 Including the boundary conditions (degrees of freedom 1 and 4 are fixed).4.47 ⎤ ⎧ Q2 ⎫ ⎧ 0 ⎫ 103 ⎢ ⎬=⎨ ⎥⎨ 3 ⎬ ⎣− 38.42 = 337.28 − 38.47 76.47 ⋅ 103 1⎥ ⎦ The global unreduced stiffness matrix is − 9.47 0 ⎥ 3 ⎢ ⎥. BARS AND SHAFTS 63 The areas of the cross sections are A1 = π d2 4 = 19.47 38.94 ⎦ ⎩ Q3 ⎭ ⎩ 2 ⋅ 10 ⎭ with solutions Q2 = 34. Q3 = 43. R4 = 38.8 N . the finite element equations can be written − 9.94 − 38. b) The reactions are obtained from the first and fourth equation R1 = 9. 2 ⋅ 103 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ − R4 ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ Retaining only the second and third equation yields ⎡ 48.

64

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

σ 12 = E ε12 = E σ 23 = E ε 23 = E

σ 34 = E ε 34 = E

**Q2 − Q1 Q 34.42 N = E 2 = 2 ⋅ 105 = 17.2 , l1 2l 400 mm 2 Q3 − Q2 Q − Q2 8.79 N =E 3 = 2 ⋅105 = 8.79 , 200 l2 l mm 2
**

Q4 − Q3 Q 43.21 N = − E 3 = −2 ⋅ 105 = − 43.2 . l3 l 200 mm 2

Example 4.2

A support, consisting of a steel bar 1 fitted inside a cast iron tube 2, is loaded by a 60 kN axial force, as in Fig. E4.2. Consider A1 = 200 mm 2 ,

A2 = 800 mm 2 , E1 = 210 GPa , E2 = 120 GPa , l = 0.2 m . Determine: a) the elongation of the assembly, b) the stress in each material, and c) the internal forces in bar and tube.

Fig. E4.2 Solution. a) Using a two-node two-element finite element model, the element stiffness matrices are

**[ k ] = 2.1⋅10 ⋅ 200 ⎡⎢− 1 1 200
**

1 5

⎣

− 1⎤ = 2.1 ⋅ 105 1⎥ ⎦

⎡ 1 − 1⎤ N , ⎢− 1 1⎥ mm ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ N . ⎢− 1 1⎥ mm ⎣ ⎦

**1 [ k ] = 1.2 ⋅10 ⋅ 800 ⎡⎢− 1 200
**

2 5

⎣

− 1⎤ = 4.8 ⋅ 105 1⎥ ⎦

The global unreduced stiffness matrix is 48 [ K ] = 105 ⎡− 2.1 + 4..8 ⎢ 2.1 − ⎣ − 2.1 − 4.8⎤ 5 ⎥ = 6.9 ⋅ 10 2.1 + 4.8⎦ ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ N . ⎢− 1 1⎥ mm ⎣ ⎦

4. BARS AND SHAFTS

65

**If point 1 is fixed, the finite element equations are
**

⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎧ R1 ⎫ 6.9 ⋅105 ⎢ ⎬=⎨ ⎥⎨ 4 ⎬, ⎣− 1 1 ⎦ ⎩ Q2 ⎭ ⎩ − 6 ⋅10 ⎭

Q2 = − 0.087 mm ,

which is equal to the beam shortening. b) Stresses are

Q2 − Q1 Q − 0.087 N = E1 2 = 2.1 ⋅105 = −91.3 , 200 l l mm 2 Q2 − Q1 Q − 0.087 N = E2 2 = 1.2 ⋅ 105 = −52.14 . l l 200 mm 2

σ 1 = E1 ε 1 = E1

σ 2 = E2 ε 2 = E2

**c) Internal forces are
**

N1 = σ 1 A1 = − 91.3 ⋅ 200 = − 18.26 kN ,

N 2 = σ 2 A2 = − 52.14 ⋅ 800 = − 41.74 kN .

Example 4.3

The temperature of the bar in Fig. E4.3 is raised 800 C . If E = 130 GPa and α = 17 ⋅10−6 , determine the thermal stresses.

Fig. E4.3 Solution. We should first determine whether contact occurs between the bar and the wall. If the wall does not exist, the displacement of point 2 is

**Δl = lα T = 1800 ⋅ 17 ⋅ 10 −6 ⋅ 80 = 2.448 mm > 2 mm
**

so that the contact does occur. Denoting by A the cross section area, the temperature forces (4.42) are

66

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

{ fT } = α T E A ⎧ ⎨

− 1⎫ ⎧ − 1⎫ ⎧ − 1⎫ −6 5 ⎬ = 17 ⋅ 10 ⋅ 80 ⋅ 1.3 ⋅ 10 ⋅ A ⎨ ⎬ = 176.8 ⋅ A⎨ ⎬ N . ⎩ 1⎭ ⎩ 1 ⎭ ⎩ 1⎭

The stiffness matrix is

[ k ] = 1.3 ⋅10

⋅ A ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ N . 1⎥ mm 1800 ⎢ − 1 ⎣ ⎦

5

**As point 1 is fixed, the finite element equations are
**

1.3 ⋅ 105 ⋅ A ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎧ R 1 − 176.8 A ⎫ ⎢− 1 1 ⎥ ⎨ 2 ⎬ = ⎨ R + 176.8 A ⎬ 1800 ⎣ ⎦⎩ ⎭ ⎩ 2 ⎭

wherefrom we get the reactions

R 1 = 176.8 A − 144.4 A = 32.4 A ,

so that the normal stress is

R 2 = − 32.4 A ,

σ=

R2 N . = − 32.4 A mm 2

Example 4.4

A prismatic bar is made of two different materials, as shown in Fig. E4.4. The temperature of the central part is raised T 0C . Determine the axial stress in the bar.

Fig. E4.4 Solution. The bar is divided into three linear finite elements. The element stiffness matrices are 1 [ k ] = [ k ] = El A ⎡⎢− 1

1 3 2

⎣

− 1⎤ , 1⎥ ⎦

1 [ k ] = E2lA ⎡⎢− 1

2 1

⎣

− 1⎤ . 1⎥ ⎦

For element 2, the vector of nodal thermal forces is

{ f }= α T E A ⎣ − 1

2 1

1⎦T .

4. BARS AND SHAFTS

67

Using the boundary conditions Q1 = Q4 = 0 , the finite element equations can be written

⎡ E2 ⎢ A ⎢ − E2 ⎢ l ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎣

− E2 E E2 + 1 2 E1 − 2 0

0 E − 1 2 E1 + E2 2 − E2

0 ⎤ ⎥⎧ 0 0 ⎥ ⎪Q ⎪ 2 ⎥⎨ − E2 ⎥ ⎪ Q3 ⎥⎪ 0 E2 ⎥ ⎩ ⎦

R1 ⎫ ⎫ ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ −α T E A ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 1 ⎪ ⎬. ⎬=⎨ ⎪ ⎪ α T E1 A ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ R4 ⎭ ⎩ ⎭

**The second and third equation yield
**

E1 ⎡ ⎢ E2 + 2 ⎢ E ⎢ − 1 2 ⎣ E1 ⎤ 2 ⎥ ⎧ Q2 ⎫ = α T E A ⎧ − 1 ⎫ ⎬ ⎬ 1 ⎨ E ⎥⎨ ⎩ 1 ⎭ E2 + 1 ⎥ ⎩ Q3 ⎭ 2⎦ −

A l

with solutions Q2 = − α T l E1 , E1 + E2 Q3 = α T l E1 . E1 + E2

Q3 − Q2 E1 . =αT 2l E1 + E2

The strains in elements are

ε1 = ε 3 =

Q2 Q E1 , = − 4 = −α T l l E1 + E2

ε2 =

Stresses are

σ 1 = σ 3 = E2 ε 1 = −α T

1 , 1 1 + E1 E2

σ 2 = E1 ε 2 − E1α T = −α T

1 = σ1. 1 1 + E1 E2

Example 4.5

A steel bolt of active length l = 100 mm and diameter δ = 10 mm is single threaded with a 1.6 mm pitch. It is mounted inside a copper tube with diameters d = 12 mm and D = 18 mm (Fig. E4.5, a). After the nut has been fitted smugly, it is tightened one-quarter of a full turn. Determine stresses in bolt and tube, if for steel E1 = 208 GPa and for copper E2 = 100 GPa . Solution. The assembly is modeled by two bar finite elements as in Fig. E4.5, b. Both elements have fixed ends at points 1 and 4 so that Q1 = Q4 = 0 . The problem has a multipoint constraint

68

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

Q3 − Q2 = 0.4 mm .

Such conditions are programmed using a so-called penalty approach. Herein a simpler straightforward solution is given.

**Fig. E4.5 The cross section areas are
**

A1 =

π δ2

4

= 78.54 mm 2 , A2 =

π D2 − d 2

4

(

) = 141.37 mm

2

.

The element stiffness matrices are

**[ k ] = 2.08 ⋅10 ⋅ 78.54 ⎡⎢− 1 1 100
**

1 5

⎣

− 1⎤ 5 ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ N , ⎥ = 1.63 ⋅ 10 ⎢ − 1 1⎥ mm 1⎦ ⎦ ⎣

[ k ] = 10

2

5

⋅ 141.37 ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ 5 ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ N . ⎢ − 1 1⎥ = 1.41 ⋅ 10 ⎢ − 1 1⎥ mm 100 ⎦ ⎦ ⎣ ⎣ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬. ⎪ ⎪ ⎭

The finite element equations are 0 0 ⎤ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎧ R1 ⎡ 1.63 − 1.63 ⎢− 1.63 1.63 0 0 ⎥ ⎪ Q2 ⎪ ⎪ − F ⎪ ⎪ ⎥⎪ 105 ⎢ ⎨ ⎬=⎨ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎪ − Q3 ⎪ ⎪ − F 0 1.41 − 1.41 ⎢ ⎥ − 1.41 1.41 ⎦ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ R4 0 ⎣ 0 ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ Retaining only the second and third equation yields

⎡1.63 0 ⎤ ⎧ Q2 ⎫ ⎧ − F ⎫ 105 ⎢ ⎬=⎨ ⎬ ⎥⎨ ⎣ 0 1.41⎦ ⎩ − Q3 ⎭ ⎩ − F ⎭

with solutions

with linearly variable cross-section x ⎞ ⎛ A ( x ) = A0 ⎜1 + ⎟ .37 mm 2 σ2 = − Example 4. The stiffness matrix for a bar element with variable cross section is [ k ] = lE e 2 e ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎢− 1 1⎥ ⎣ ⎦ le ∫ A dx . E4.6 For the bar of Fig.6 Solution.6. find the displacement at the free end under the action of force ⎝ 2l ⎠ F.41 ⋅ 105 .6. For the bar of Fig. A1 78.63 ⋅ 10 1. σ1 = F 30316 N = = 386 . Substituting in the multipoint constraint condition gives 1 1 ⎛ ⎞ F⎜ + = 0.63 ⋅ 10 5 Q2 = − . Fig. the element stiffness matrices are . E4. 5 5⎟ ⎝ 1.54 mm 2 F 30316 N .4 . Q3 = F 1. =− = −214. BARS AND SHAFTS 69 F 1.4.5 A2 141. using two tapered bar finite elements.41 ⋅ 10 ⎠ or Stresses are given by F = 30314 N . E4. divided into two equal length tapered elements.

E4. Fig.7. a) Consider the bar divided into two linear elements. E4.70 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS [k ] 1 2 E ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ = 2⎢ ⎥ A0 l ⎣− 1 1⎦ E ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ A0 = 2⎢ 1⎥ l ⎣− 1 ⎦ ∫ 0 2l l 5 E A0 ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ x ⎞ ⎛ . condensing Q3 from condition F3 = 0 . ⎜ 1 + ⎟ dx = 4l ⎢− 1 1⎥ ⎝ 2l ⎠ ⎣ ⎦ 7 E A0 x ⎞ ⎛ ⎜ 1 + ⎟ dx = 4l ⎝ 2l ⎠ ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ . 35 E A0 ⎡ 12 − 7 ⎤ ⎧ Q2 ⎫ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎢− 7 7 ⎥ ⎨ Q ⎬ = ⎨ F ⎬ . 4l ⎢ 0 − 7 7 ⎥ ⎪ Q3 ⎪ ⎪ F ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ ⎦⎩ From the second and third equation EA0 4l wherefrom Q2 = 4 Fl . Model the bar by: a) two two-node linear elements. 5 E A0 Q3 = 48 F l . the finite element equations can be written ⎡ 5 − 5 0 ⎤ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎧ R1 ⎫ EA0 ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎥⎪ ⎢ − 5 12 − 7 ⎥ ⎨ Q2 ⎬ = ⎨ 0 ⎬ . The element stiffness matrices are . Example 4. Comment the results. ⎣ ⎦⎩ 3⎭ ⎩ ⎭ The approximate assumed linear variation of the displacement field yields constant strain elements.7 Solution.7 Write the stiffness matrix of the bar shown in Fig. b) a three-node quadratic element. hence a stepwise variation of stresses along the bar. ⎢− 1 1⎥ ⎣ ⎦ [k ] ∫ l With Q1 = 0 .

4. The first two equations give 2 EA l ⎧ F1 ⎫ ⎡ 1 0 ⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ 2 EA ⎧ − 1 ⎫ ⎢ 0 1 ⎥ ⎨ Q ⎬ + l ⎨ − 1 ⎬ Q3 = ⎨ F ⎬ ⎣ ⎦⎩ 2⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ 2⎭ and upon substitution of Q3 2 EA l which can be written EA l ⎡ 1 − 1 ⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎧ F1 ⎫ ⎢ − 1 1 ⎥ ⎨ Q ⎬ = ⎨F ⎬ ⎣ ⎦ ⎩ 2 ⎭ ⎩ 2⎭ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎧ F1 ⎫ ⎡ 1 0 ⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ 2 EA ⎧ − 1 ⎫ ⎢ 0 1 ⎥ ⎨ Q ⎬ + l ⎨ − 1 ⎬ ⎣ 1 2 1 2 ⎦ ⎨ Q ⎬ = ⎨F ⎬ ⎣ ⎦⎩ 2⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ 2 ⎭ ⎩ 2⎭ where the left hand side contains the (2 × 2) stiffness matrix of the two-node linear element. ⎥ ⎢ 0 −1 1 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ The finite element equations can be written ⎡ 1 0 − 1 ⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎧ F1 2 EA ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ ⎥⎪ ⎢ 0 1 − 1 ⎥ ⎨ Q2 ⎬ = ⎨ F2 l ⎢ − 1 − 1 2 ⎥ ⎪ Q3 ⎪ ⎪ F3 ⎭ ⎩ ⎣ ⎦⎩ For F3 = 0 . BARS AND SHAFTS 71 1 [ k ] = [ k ] = 2EA ⎡⎢− 1 l 1 2 ⎣ − 1⎤ . 1⎥ ⎦ The unreduced global stiffness matrix is ⎡ 1 −1 0 ⎤ 2 EA ⎢ [ K ] = l ⎢ −1 2 −1 ⎥ . ⎪ ⎭ which assumes a linear displacement field within the bar. b) Consider the bar modeled by a 3-node quadratic bar element. the last equation yields Q3 = ⎧Q ⎫ Q1 + Q2 =⎣ 1 2 1 2 ⎦⎨ 1 ⎬ 2 ⎩ Q2 ⎭ ⎫ ⎪ ⎬. The finite element equations can be written .

⎭ 1 U e = ⎣ Q1 Q2 2 ⎦ ⎡1 0 1 ⎢0 1 1 ⎣ . 2 ⎩ Q2 ⎭ The first two equations give ⎧ F1 ⎫ EA ⎡ 7 1 ⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ EA ⎧ − 8 ⎫ ⎢ 1 7 ⎥ ⎨ Q ⎬ + 3l ⎨ − 8 ⎬ Q3 = ⎨ F ⎬ 3l ⎣ ⎦⎩ 2⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ 2⎭ and upon substitution of Q3 ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎧ F1 ⎫ EA ⎡ 7 1 ⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ EA ⎧ − 8 ⎫ ⎢ 1 7 ⎥ ⎨ Q ⎬ + 3l ⎨ − 8 ⎬ ⎣ 1 2 1 2 ⎦ ⎨ Q ⎬ = ⎨ F ⎬ 3l ⎣ ⎦⎩ 2⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ 2 ⎭ ⎩ 2⎭ which can be written again EA ⎡ 1 − 1 ⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎧ F1 ⎫ ⎨ ⎬ = ⎨ ⎬. c) Comments. Substituting ⎧ Q1 ⎪ ⎨ Q2 ⎪Q ⎩ 3 0 ⎤ ⎫ ⎡ 1 ⎧Q ⎫ ⎪ ⎢ 1 ⎥⎨ 1⎬ ⎬=⎢ 0 ⎥ Q ⎪ ⎢1 2 1 2 ⎥ ⎩ 2 ⎭ ⎭ ⎣ ⎦ into the expression of the strain energy (4. Q3 ⎦ ⎥ 3l ⎢ ⎢ − 8 − 8 16 ⎥ ⎪ Q3 ⎪ ⎭ ⎣ ⎦⎩ 0 ⎤ 1 −8 ⎤ ⎡ 1 ⎡ 7 2⎤ EA ⎢ ⎧Q ⎥ ⎢ 0 1 ⎥⎨ 1 7 −8 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 3l ⎢ 1 ⎥ Q 2⎦ ⎢ − 8 − 8 16 ⎥ ⎢ 1 2 1 2 ⎥ ⎩ 2 ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎫ ⎬.72 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 1 − 8 ⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎧ F1 ⎡ 7 EA ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 7 − 8 ⎥ ⎨ Q2 ⎬ = ⎨ F2 ⎢ 1 ⎥ 3l ⎢ − 8 − 8 16 ⎥ ⎪ Q3 ⎪ ⎪ F3 ⎭ ⎩ ⎣ ⎦⎩ Condensing Q3 from condition F3 = 0 yields Q3 = ⎫ ⎪ ⎬. l ⎢ − 1 1 ⎥ ⎩ Q2 ⎭ ⎩ F2 ⎭ ⎣ ⎦ where the matrix in the left hand can be recognized as the conventional bar matrix developed from linear polynomials. ⎪ ⎭ ⎧Q ⎫ Q1 + Q2 =⎣ 1 2 1 2 ⎦⎨ 1 ⎬.18) gives 1 U e = ⎣Q1 Q2 2 1 − 8 ⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎡ 7 EA ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ 1 7 − 8 ⎥ ⎨ Q2 ⎬ .

via a constraint equation between Q3 and the remaining nodal variables. Solution.25). ⎣ ⎦ ⎩ 2⎭ ⎫ ⎪ ⎬ = ⎣Q1 Q2 ⎪ ⎭ ⎧1 6 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ 1 6 ⎬ pl e . E4. The conventional formulation based on a linear polynomial will yield exact displacements within the elements only when p = 0 .8 ω = 30 rad sec (Fig. However. the work of nodal forces is W = ⎣Q1 Q2 e Q3 ⎦ ⎧ F1 ⎪ ⎨ F2 ⎪F ⎩ 3 Q3 ⎦ W = ⎣Q1 Q2 e ⎦ ⎧1 6 ⎫ ⎡1 0 1 2 ⎤ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢0 1 1 2⎥ ⎨ 1 6 ⎬ pl e = ⎣Q1 Q2 ⎣ ⎦ ⎪2 3⎪ ⎭ ⎩ ⎦ ⎨1⎬ 2 e . form the complete homogeneous solution of the differential equation of equilibrium (4.23) does not bring about a change in the conventional stiffness matrix and load vector. Whenever the assumed functions. Example 4. the developed stiffness matrix and the equivalent load vector will be exact. Determine the axial stress distribution due to the centrifugal force in the rod using: a) two quadratic elements. as it is shown in a next chapter. used to describe the displacement field. before using equation (4. displacements within elements depend upon the general (homogeneous plus the particular) solution. exact displacements within the elements may be obtained from equation (4. This is because. rotating at constant angular velocity . the variable Q3 must be computed from the exact nodal displacements (computed for the conventional linear element). However. . and b) three linear elements. a).25). . The exactness of the stiffness matrix and load vector also implies that the computed nodal displacements will also be exact. BARS AND SHAFTS 73 1 ⎣ Q1 Q2 2 Ue = ⎦ l ⎢− 1 1 ⎥ ⎨ Q ⎬ . only the homogeneous part of the solution contains the free parameters with respect to which the total potential energy is minimized. obtained by a minimization of the total potential energy with respect to Q3 at element level. The parameters in the particular part of the solution are prescribed and do not take part in the process of minimization. The beam is acted upon by a centrifugal linearly distributed load Consider a prismatic robot arm. ⎩⎭ ⎧1⎫ pl We may conclude that the introduction of the quadratic term in equation (4.8. ⎪2 3⎪ ⎭ ⎩ EA ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ For p = const .4).4. For the case p = const.

Fig. l FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS where p0 = ρ Al ω 2 . E4.74 p ( x ) = p0 x .8 .

37). The nodal forces.8. b. E4. ⎢ ⎥ − 8 16 − 8 ⎥ 0 ⎢ 0 ⎢ 0 −8 7 ⎥ 0 1 ⎣ ⎦ The axial load acting on the two elements can be decomposed as in Fig. the finite element equations can be written R1 0 0 ⎤⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎧ ⎫ ⎡ 7 −8 1 ⎪ ⎢ − 8 16 − 8 0 ⎥⎪Q ⎪ ⎪ p0l 12 0 ⎥⎪ 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 2 EA ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 1 − 8 14 − 8 1 ⎥ ⎨ Q3 ⎬ = ⎨ p0l 24 + p0l 24 ⎬ . 3l ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ 3 p0l 12 0 − 8 16 − 8 ⎥ ⎪ Q4 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 0 ⎪ p0l 12 0 1 − 8 7 ⎥ ⎪ Q5 ⎪ ⎪ ⎣ ⎦⎩ ⎭ ⎭ ⎩ . 1] . c. The element stiffness matrices are ⎡ 7 −8 1 ⎤ 2 EA ⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ − 8 16 − 8 ⎥ . c are replaced by the kinematically equivalent nodal forces shown in Fig.34) { f }= ∫ ⎣N ⎦ e le T p dx = p0 l e ∫ 0 1 ⎧(1 − 2ξ )(1 − ξ )⎫ ⎧0⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ − ξ (1 − 2ξ ) ⎬ ξ dξ = p0 l e ⎨1 6⎬ . are given by equation (4.8. The model has five degrees of freedom. E4. ⎪ 4 ξ (1 −ξ ) ⎪ ⎪1 3⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ interval [0. equivalent to a linearly distributed load.26) are defined for convenience over an The distributed loads from Fig. E4. { f }= p l ⎣ 1 2 12 2 0 3 1⎦T . E4. The element nodal load vectors are { f }= p l ⎣ 0 12 1 0 1 1 2 ⎦T . For a uniformly distributed load they are given by equation (4. where ξ = x l e and the shape functions (4. d. BARS AND SHAFTS 75 a) A finite element model with two quadratic elements is shown in Fig.8. Using the boundary condition Q1 = 0 .4. 3l ⎢ 1 −8 7 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ [k ]= [k ] 1 2 The unreduced global stiffness matrix is 1 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ 7 −8 ⎢ − 8 16 − 8 0 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ EA [ K ] = 23l ⎢ 1 − 8 7 + 7 − 8 1 ⎥ .8.

Q5 = . 384 E A 384 E A 384 E A 384 E A The nodal displacements can be compared with the exact solution. Q3 = . we obtain the reduced global stiffness matrix and reduced global load vector which yield Q2 = 47 p0 l 2 88 p0 l 2 117 p0 l 2 128 p0 l 2 . 48 EA 48 EA 48 EA 48 EA 48 EA The corresponding axial stresses are σ1 = 25 p0l 22 p0 l 19 p0 l 10 p0 l 1 p0 l . l 48 EA d 1 ε1 = ε2 = which yields the following nodal values ε1 = 25 p0l 22 p0 l 19 p0 l 10 p0 l 1 p0 l . the displacements within the elements are approximate because the exact cubic distribution (a) has been replaced by a quadratic law. u⎜ ⎟ = . 48 EA l 2 ′ ′ (N1′ Q3 + N 2 Q5 + N 3 Q4 ) = p0l ( 19 − 18ξ ) . ε4 = . ε3 = . given by u( x ) = We obtain p0 l 2 2E A ⎛ x x3 ⎞ ⎜ − ⎟. 48 A 48 A 48 A 48 A 48 A The stresses can be compared with the exact solution . ε5 = .29) is given by ⎣B ⎦ = d x ⎣N ⎦ = l ⎣− 3 + 4ξ − 1 + 4ξ 4 − 8 ξ ⎦ . ⎜ l 3l 3 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (a) 2 2 2 1 p0 l 2 ⎛ l ⎞ 47 p0 l ⎛ l ⎞ 11 p0 l ⎛ 3l ⎞ 117 p0 l u⎜ ⎟ = . σ3 = . σ2 = . Q4 = . The element strain-displacement row vector ⎣B ⎦ in (4. 3 2E A ⎝ 4 ⎠ 384 2 E A ⎝ 2 ⎠ 48 2 E A ⎝ 4 ⎠ 384 2 E A The finite element values of the nodal displacements are exact. u (l ) = . The strains are calculated as 2 ′ ′ (N 2 Q3 + N 3 Q2 ) = p0l ( 25 − 6ξ ) . u⎜ ⎟ = . ε2 = . This is due to the nodal equivalence of forces.76 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Deleting the first row and column. σ5 = . While the nodal displacements are exact. σ4 = .

If p1 and p2 are the intensities of a linearly distributed load at nodes 1 and 2. The element nodal load vectors are { f }= p l ⎣1 54 1 0 2⎦ T . 1 ] . σ (l ) = 0 . g.8.8. E4. E4. f. { f }= p l ⎣7 54 3 0 8⎦ T . σ⎜ ⎟= . ⎜ l2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (b) which yields the following nodal values σ (0) = σ⎜ ⎟= ⎛l⎞ ⎝2⎠ 24 p0 l ⎛ l ⎞ 22.8. E4. are given by equation (4. p ( ξ ) = p1 + ( p2 − p1 )ξ .5 p0 l . the nodal forces are given by equation (4. ⎭ where ξ = x l e and the shape functions (4. { f }= p l ⎣4 54 2 0 5⎦ T . E4. For p1 = p2 = p . b) A finite element model comprised of three linear elements is shown in Fig. E4. 1⎥ ⎦ The axial load acting on the three elements can be decomposed as in Fig. h.4. The element stiffness matrices are 1 [ k ] = [ k ] = [ k ] = 3EA ⎡⎢− 1 l 1 2 3 ⎣ − 1⎤ . σ⎜ ⎟= .26) are defined for convenience over an interval [ 0.8.8. the finite element equations can be written .36). BARS AND SHAFTS 77 σ ( x )= p0 l 2A 2⎞ ⎛ ⎜ 1− x ⎟ .5 p0 l . The model has four degrees of freedom. equivalent to a load per unit length. The nodal forces. respectively. Using the boundary condition Q 1 = 0 . g are replaced by the kinematically equivalent nodal forces shown in Fig. 48 A ⎝ 4 ⎠ 48 A A graph of the stress distribution is shown in Fig. 48 A ⎝ 4 ⎠ 48 A 18 p0 l ⎛ 3l ⎞ 10. { f }= ∫ ⎣ N ⎦ e le T p dx = l e ∫ 0 1 ⎧1 − ξ ⎫ l e ⎧ 2 p1 + p2 ⎨ ⎬ [ p1 + ( p2 − p1 ) ξ ] dξ = ⎨ 6 ⎩ p1 + 2 p2 ⎩ ξ ⎭ ⎫ ⎬.34). The distributed loads from Fig. e.

Q4 = . Example 4. ε 3 = ( Q4 − Q3 ) = . 81 E A 81 E A 81 E A 3 E A The element strain-displacement row vector ⎣B ⎦ in (4. are the following 9 (1 − r ) ⎛ 1 + r ⎞ ⎛ 1 − r ⎞ . 27 A 10 p0 l . ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ 13 p0 l 2 23 p0 l 2 27 p0 l 2 1 p0 l 2 = .8.29) is given by ⎣B ⎦ = d x ⎣N ⎦ = l ⎣− 1 1⎦ . N 2 (r ) = ⎜ ⎟ 16 ⎝3 ⎠ N1 (r ) = − 27 (1 + r ) (1 − r ) ⎛ 1 + r ⎞ .9 Show that the shape functions of the four-node cubic bar element. ⎜ ⎟ 16 ⎝3 ⎠ 9 ⎛1 ⎞⎛1 ⎞ N 4 (r ) = − ⎜ + r ⎟ ⎜ − r ⎟ (1 + r ) . in local natural coordinates. 27 A σ1 = σ2 = σ3 = In Fig. The corresponding axial stresses are 13 p0l . i they are compared to those given by equation (b). E4. 27 A 4 p0 l .78 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎡ 1 −1 0 0 ⎤ ⎧ 0 ⎢ ⎥⎪ 3EA ⎢ − 1 2 − 1 0 ⎥ ⎪ Q2 ⎨ l ⎢ 0 − 1 2 − 1 ⎥ ⎪ Q3 ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 0 0 − 1 1 ⎦ ⎪ Q4 ⎩ The last three equations yield Q2 = 54 R1 ⎧ ⎫ ⎪1+ p l ⎪ 0 ⎪ p0 l ⎪ ⎪ 6 = ⎬ ⎨ ⎪ 54 ⎪ 12 ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎪ 8 ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬. ε 2 = ( Q3 − Q2 ) = . l 27 EA 27 EA l 27 EA and are constant within each element. e d 1 The strains are calculated as ε 1 = Q2 = 3 l 13 p0 l 3 4 p0 l 3 10 p0 l . Q3 = . 16 ⎝ 3 ⎠⎝3 ⎠ N 3 (r ) = . ⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟ 16 ⎝3 ⎠⎝3 ⎠ 27 (1 + r ) (1 − r ) ⎛ 1 − r ⎞ .

transmit bending moments from member to member. and the Timoshenko beam theory. Beam behaviour is described by fourth order differential equations and require C1 continuity.1. as shown in Fig.5. 5. then extend it to plane frames. that incorporates a first order correction for transverse shear effects. This requires that both transverse displacements and slopes must be continuous over the entire member and. the displacement along the Y axis and the rotation about the Z axis. An inclined beam element will be referred to as a frame element. the degrees of freedom of node i are Q3 i − 2 . They are connected by rigid joints that have determinate rotations and. two linear displacements and a rotation.1 Finite element discretization A plane frame is divided into elements. Beams are slender members used to support transverse loading. that neglects transverse shear deformations. 5. we first present the finite element formulation for plane Bernoulli-Euler beams. The Timoshenko beam model pertains to the class of C 0 elements. . defined as the displacement along the X axis. In this section. BEAMS. in particular. This leads to the introduction of a mean shear distortion. between adjacent beam elements. and for grids. FRAMES AND GRIDS Frames are structures with rigidly connected members called beams. Grids are planar frames subjected to loads applied normally to their plane. respectively. Each node has three degrees of freedom. Q3 i −1 and Q3 i . It is based on the assumption that plane sections remain plane but not necessarily normal to the deformed neutral surface. which is constant over the element. apart from forces. Typically. One-dimensional mathematical models of structural beams are constructed on two beam theories: the Bernoulli-Euler beam theory.

5. then the element stiffness matrix is calculated first in the local coordinate system. then simply added to get the global uncondensed stiffness matrix. The latter are expanded to the structure size. Imposing the boundary conditions.2 .80 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Nodes are located by their coordinates in the global reference frame XOY and element connectivity is defined by the indices of the end nodes. then in the global coordinate system. Their properties are the bending rigidity E I and the length l . Fig. the shape functions are established for the plane Bernoulli-Euler beam element.1 In the following. Fig. 5. the reduced stiffness matrix and load vector are calculated and used in the static analysis. Elements are modelled as uniform beams without shear deformations and not loaded between ends.

1) and the corresponding vector of element nodal forces can be written { f }= ⎣ f 1 f2 f3 f4 f5 f6 ⎦ T . as illustrated in Fig. (5. f 4 . oriented along the beam. q 3 .2 Static analysis of a uniform beam Beams with cross sections that are symmetric with respect to the plane of loading are considered herein (Fig. Only transverse loads act upon the beam. at a distance y from the neutral axis. the x axis. f 3.5.3) dx . is approximated by dv u = −ϕ y = − y.3 The axial displacement of any point on the section. FRAMES AND GRIDS 81 Consider an inclined beam element. q 4 . as in the Bernoulli-Euler classical beam theory.2. 5.3).2. c). Fig. q 5 . q 6 describe the element bending (Fig. f 5. 5. Transverse shear deformations are neglected. 5. 5. Alternatively.2) Forces f 2. In a local physical coordinate system. Their action is decoupled so that the respective stiffness matrices can be calculated separately. f 6 and the corresponding displacements q 2 . BEAMS. 5. is inclined an angle θ with respect to the global X axis.2. b) while axial forces f 1 . The vector of nodal displacements in the local coordinate system is { q }= ⎣ q e e 1 q2 q3 q4 q5 q6 ⎦ T (5. 5. an intrinsic (natural) coordinate system can be used. (5. and axial displacements q 1 . axial forces are ignored. where the nodal displacements are also shown. describe the element stretching (Fig. a.

dx dx4 (5.82 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS where v is the deflection of the centroidal axis at x and ϕ = v′ is the cross section rotation (or slope) at x . and physical boundary conditions. dx dx 3 (5.9) This is a fourth order differential equation and consequently four boundary conditions are required.6) A where I z is the second moment of area of the section with respect to the neutral axis z. They can be geometric or kinematic boundary conditions. dx4 (5.4) where χ ≈ v′′ denotes the deformed beam axis curvature. The shear force is given by T (x ) = − dM d3 v = −E I z = − E I z v III .5) The bending moment is the resultant of the stress distribution on the cross section M (x ) = − σ x y dA = E I z ∫ d2 v dx2 = EIz χ (5. involving the shear and bending moment. . Axial strains are εx = du d2 v = − 2 y = −χ y . involving the transverse displacement and slope. dx2 where E is Young’s modulus of the material.7) The transverse load per unit length is p (x ) = − dT d4 v = EIz = E I z v IV . Normal stresses on the cross section are given by Hooke’s law d2 v y. The negative sign above is introduced because M is considered positive if it compresses the upper portion of the beam cross section. σ x = E ε x = −E (5. The product E I z is called the bending rigidity of the beam. dx dx (5. two at each end.8) The differential equation of equilibrium is EIz d4 v = p (x ) .

9) yields d 4 v d x 4 = 0 . 5. a 4 in (5.4 This gives ⎧ v1 ⎪ϕ ⎪ 1 ⎨ ⎪ v2 ⎪ ϕ2 ⎩ 3 ⎫ ⎡ x1 ⎪ ⎢ 2 ⎪ ⎢ 3 x1 ⎬=⎢ 3 ⎪ ⎢ x2 ⎪ ⎢ 3x2 ⎭ ⎣ 2 2 x1 2 x1 2 x2 2 x2 x1 1 x2 1 1 ⎤ ⎧ a1 ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎥ ⎪ a2 ⋅⎨ 1 ⎥ ⎪ a3 ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎪ a4 ⎦ ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬. 5. a 4 can be expressed in terms of the nodal displacements v1 . the integration constants a 1 . a 3 . BEAMS.5. the four integration constants a 1 . FRAMES AND GRIDS 83 5. ϕ1 .4): (5.3. Integrating four times. a) at x = x1 .10) For a free-free beam element.3 Uniform beam not loaded between ends For a uniform beam not loaded between ends. v = v1 = q2 .11. a 2 . (5. (5.10) can be determined from the geometric boundary conditions at each end (Fig. and d v d x = ϕ 2 = q6 . b) Fig. a 2 .11. 5. p = 0 and equation (5. a 3 . ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ On inversion. so that the beam deflection can be expressed in terms of the nodal displacements. v = v2 = q5 . at x = x 2 .1 Shape functions The transverse displacement v can be expressed in terms of the nodal displacements as . v2 . and d v d x = ϕ1 = q3 . ϕ 2 . we obtain the deflection v described by a third order polynomial v (x ) = a 1 x 3 + a 2 x 2 + a 3 x + a 4 .

dr 2 dx equation (5.12) the row vector of shape functions is ⎣N ⎦ = ⎢ N1 ⎣ ⎢ le N2 2 N3 le ⎥ N4 ⎥ 2 ⎦ .14) x= x1 + x 2 2 + x 2 − x1 2 r and since l e = x 2 − x 1 is the length of the element.20) .18) or v (r ) = N1 ⋅ q2 + le l N 2 ⋅ q3 + N 3 ⋅ q5 + e N 4 ⋅ q6 .12) where ⎣N ⎦ is a row vector containing the shape functions.15) Because the coordinates transform by the relationship (5. { } (5.16) Using the differentiation chain rule d v le d v = .13) Using natural coordinates.14) the beam transverse displacement can be written ⎛dv⎞ ⎛dv⎞ v (r ) = N1 (r ) v 1 + N 2 (r ) ⎜ ⎜ d r ⎟ + N 3 (r ) v 2 + N 4 (r ) ⎜ d r ⎟ .15) becomes v (r ) = N1 (r ) v 1 + N 2 (r ) le 2 ⎛dv⎞ le ⎜ ⎜ d x ⎟ + N 3 (r ) v 2 + N 4 (r ) 2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠1 ⎛dv⎞ ⎜ ⎜dx⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠2 (5. and { q }= ⎣ v e 1 ϕ1 v2 ϕ 2 ⎦ T . 2 (5.19) In (5. r= x + x2 ⎞ 2 ⎛ ⎟ ⎜x− 1 ⎜ 2 ⎟ x 2 − x1 ⎝ ⎠ (5. 2 2 (5.84 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS v (x ) = ⎣N ⎦ q e . ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠1 ⎝ ⎠2 (5.17) (5. with r = −1 at node 1 and r = +1 at node 2. (5. dx = le dr . (5. called Hermitian cubic polynomials.

where primes indicate differentiation with respect to r. 4 4 ( ) N 4 (r ) = − ( ) Fig. 4 4 1 ( 1 + r ) 2 ( 1 − r ) = − 1 1 + r −r 2 − r 3 . 4 4 ( ) ( ) (5. 4 4 1 ( 1 − r ) 2 ( 1 + r ) = 1 1 −r − r 2 + r 3 . BEAMS.21) N 3(r ) = 1 ( 1 + r ) 2 ( 2 − r ) = 1 2 + 3r − r 3 .5 .5. we obtain the expressions of the beam element shape functions in terms of r.5 N 1(r ) = N 2 (r ) = 1 ( 1 − r ) 2 ( 2 + r ) = 1 2 − 3r + r 3 . graphically shown in Fig. 5. Table 5.1.1 N1 r = −1 r = +1 1 0 N′ 1 0 0 N2 0 0 N ′2 1 0 N3 0 1 N ′3 0 0 N4 0 0 N ′4 0 1 Imposing the above conditions to cubic polynomials with four arbitrary constants. 5. FRAMES AND GRIDS 85 The Hermitian shape functions are cubic polynomials which should satisfy the boundary conditions given in Table 5.

16) and (5. ⎢ dr ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ { } ⎛ d 2v ⎞ ⎟ = qe ⎜ ⎜ d x2 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ 2 { } T 16 N ′′ T N ′′ q e . dr 2 d v le = q 3 .2 Stiffness matrix The strain energy U e of a beam element is E Ie Ue = 2 Equation (5.22) dv 2 d v = d x le d r Substituting (5.86 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS It is easy to check that at node 1.23) The square of the above quantity is calculated as ⎛ 2 ⎞ ⎛ d 2v ⎞ ⎟ =⎜d v⎟ ⎜ ⎜ d x2 ⎟ ⎜ d x2 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ which can also be written 2 T ⎛ d 2v ⎞ ⎟ = qe ⎜ ⎜ d x2 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ { } T 16 l4 e ⎢d 2 N ⎥ ⎢ 2⎥ ⎢ dr ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ T ⎢d 2 N ⎥ e ⎢ 2 ⎥ q . ⎜ d x2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ d 2v 4 d 2 v = .3.25) . 4 ⎣ r⎦ ⎣ r⎦ le { } (5.12) we obtain and d 2v dx 2 = 4 ⎢d 2 N ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ l2 ⎢ d r 2 ⎥ e ⎣ ⎦ { q }.22) we get the element strain energy 1 Ue = 2 which has the form {q } e T 8E I e l3 e +1 −1 ∫ e ′ T ′ ⎣N r′ ⎦ ⎣N r′ ⎦ d r { q } (5.17) yields ∫ e ⎛ d 2v ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ dx . v = q 2 and v = q 5 and d v le = q6 . dr 2 5.24) into (5. while at node 2. e (5. d x2 l2 d r 2 e 2 (5.24) On substituting (5.

27) −1 or EI [ k ] = 8l ∫ e B e 3 e +1 −1 ⎡ (N1′)2 N1′N 2 ′ ′ ′′ ⎢ ′′ ′ ′′ 2 ⎢ N 2 N1′ (N 2 ) ⎢ N ′′N ′′ N ′′N ′′ 3 2 ⎢ 3 1 ′′ ′ ′′ ′′ N 4 N1′ N 4 N 2 ⎢ ⎣ ′ ′ N1′N 3′ ′′ ′ N 2 N 3′ ′ (N 3′ )2 ′′ ′ N 4 N 3′ ′ ′′ N1′N 4 ⎤ ⎥ ′′ ′′ N2 N4 ⎥ dr .30) The curvature χ (5.28) Substituting the shape functions (5. e ⎣ e e ⎦ 1 ⎢ r r ⎥ (5.29).26) Comparing (5. e e (5. = 3e ⎢ l e ⎢− 12 − 6l 12 − 6l ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ 2 − 6l 4l 2 ⎦ e ⎣ 6l 2l (5.25) with (5.21) and performing the integration yields the stiffness matrix due to bending in local coordinates [k ] e B 6l − 12 6l ⎤ ⎡ 12 ⎢ 6l 4l 2 − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ EI ⎥ . FRAMES AND GRIDS 87 Ue = 1 2 { q } [ k ] { q }.32) and d V = Ae d x into (5. e T e B e (5. (5. .26) we obtain the element stiffness matrix due to bending EI [ k ] = 8l ∫ e B e 3 e +1 ′ T ′ ⎣N r′ ⎦ ⎣N r′ ⎦ d r (5.5. BEAMS.29) An alternative way of deriving the matrix (5.19) [ k ] = ∫ ⎣B⎦ e Ve T Ee ⎣B ⎦ dV .32) Substituting (5.31) where the curvature-displacement row vector ⎣B ⎦ is ⎣B ⎦ = l ⎢6 l 3r − 1 − 6 l 3r + 1⎥ .30) gives the matrix (5.23) can be expressed in terms of the nodal displacements as χ= d 2v dx 2 = 4 ⎢d 2 N ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ l2 ⎢ d r 2 ⎥ e ⎣ ⎦ { q }= ⎣B⎦ { q }.29) is based on the general formula (4. ′ ′′ N 3′N 4 ⎥ ⎥ ′ ⎦ (N 4′ )2 ⎥ (5.

. . k 21 + k 41 + k31 l = 0 .⎤ ⎧ q2 = 1⎫ .88 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 5. For equilibrium k11 + k31 = 0 . . . . (5. as in Fig. . (5.33) Consider a beam element with end 2 fixed ( q5 = q6 = 0 ) and end 1 having a unit displacement along the global X-axis ( q2 = 1. f 3 = k 21 .3. .34) f 5 = k31 . ⎪ ⎪ ⎭e (5.33) can be written ⎧ f 2 ⎫ ⎡ k11 ⎪ f ⎪ ⎢k ⎪ 3 ⎪ ⎢ 21 ⎨ ⎬= ⎪ f 5 ⎪ ⎢ k31 ⎪ f 6 ⎪ ⎢k 41 ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ which gives f 2 = k11 .⎥ ⎪q3 = 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎥⋅⎪ ⎨ ⎬ ⎥ ⎪q5 = 0 ⎪ . Fig.6 Equation (5. . (5. ⎥ .3 Physical significance of the stiffness matrix The element stiffness matrix (5. q3 = 0) and zero rotation.35) This shows that the first column of the stiffness matrix represents the forces and moments that must be applied to the beam element to preserve static equilibrium when q2 = 1 and all other displacements are zero. 5.6.29) relates the vector of nodal forces to the vector of nodal displacements ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ f2 ⎫ f3 ⎪ EI e ⎪ ⎬ = 3 f5 ⎪ le f 6 ⎪e ⎭ 6l − 12 6l ⎤ ⎧ q2 ⎡ 12 ⎢ 6l 4l 2 − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ ⎪ q ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ 3 ⎨ ⎢− 12 − 6l 12 − 6l ⎥ ⎪ q5 ⎢ ⎥ 2 − 6l 4l 2 ⎦ e ⎪ q6 ⎣ 6l 2 l ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ . 5. .36) .⎦ ⎪q6 = 0⎪ ⎩ ⎭ f 6 = k 41 .

moments and shear forces are in error. BEAMS. introducing its nodal displacement as the fifth nodal coordinate. equation (5. as shown in the following. rising the power of the function describing the displacement within a beam element is tantamount to introducing additional internal nodes. However. the current practice is to use lower order approximate assumed shape functions that ensure the minimal convergence requirements. For beams with transverse forces. having the units of force per unit length. v (x ) will be a quintic with six arbitrary constants. When the transverse load is uniformly distributed.9) is a quartic polynomial. p = const . (5. They can be determined. Within the elements. d 4 v d x 4 ≠ 0 in equation (5. However.1 Consistent vector of nodal forces Consider a transverse load p (x ) .9) and the beam deflected shape is no more a cubic polynomial. The mechanical work of such a force is W= le ∫ v p dx = ∫ v le T T T p dx .5.37) Substituting (5. (5. . the computed nodal displacements are exact.4. p ≠ 0 . it is the homogeneous solution of the differential equation. adding the transverse displacement and slope at the element midpoint to the element nodal coordinates. the solution is to replace the actual distributed load by equivalent nodal forces.39) . distributed along the beam element. But they can be used only if the element has uniform rigidity E I z and is not loaded between nodes. the displacements. An internal node added at the centre of element will solve the problem. the general solution of equation (5. The cubic shape functions do the job. 5.37) becomes W = qe It has the form { } ∫ ⎣N ⎦ le p dx . As already shown in Chapter 4. The corresponding five constants have to be determined from five boundary conditions.38) W = qe where the element load vector is { } {f } T e (5.12). FRAMES AND GRIDS 89 5. Using cubic polynomials as admissible functions.4 Uniform beam loaded between ends For a uniform beam loaded between ends. For a linearly distributed transverse load.

would keep all nodal displacements zero in the presence of the true loading.40) For the Hermitian two-node element. a it is seen that f 2e is a shear force and f 3e is a moment. if the transverse force is uniformly distributed. substituting (5.90 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS { f } = ∫ ⎣N ⎦ e le T l p ( x ) dx = e 2 +1 −1 ∫ ⎣N ⎦ dr T p (r ) d r .41) or. 5.42) In Fig. They are called “kinematically equivalent” nodal forces since they replace a distributed load p (r ) weighted with the shape functions N i (r ) so that the correct work is simulated.6. p = const . (5. .18).7. the vector of element consistent nodal forces is {f } e l = e p 2 ⎢ pl =⎢ e ⎢ 2 ⎣ +1 −1 ∫ ⎣N ⎦ T (5. by statically equivalent forces (Fig.7 d The kinematically equivalent loads are those which. b) would be incorrect since the beam element has the ends rigidly jointed. {f } e p l2 e 12 p le 2 p l2 ⎥ e − ⎥ . a b c Fig. To replace p = const . . if applied in the opposite direction as constraints. 5. 5. 12 ⎥ ⎦ T (5.

forcing the beam to maintain the approximate deflection. Equivalent nodal forces for linearly distributed loads are given in Figs.e. The smaller the element. The deflections of this over-stiff finite element model are smaller “in the mean” than the true deflections of the actual structure. 5.1 . The finite element solution is therefore referred to as a lower bound.1. Assuming cubic displacement functions implies linearly varying bending moments (and hence stresses) in uniform beams. it is rigidly built in the adjacent beam elements. The source of error comes from the arbitrary selection of the shape functions.6. for instance. Assuming approximate deflected shapes instead of the true ones may be imagined as the result of application of a fake loading. the equilibrium within the elements is broken. i. not only shear forces. they have a quadratic distribution. Example 5. nodal forces must include moments. for uniform loading.1.e. even if it is known that. FRAMES AND GRIDS 91 i. as shown in Example 5. due to the difference between the applied load p (x ) and the resistance E I z v IV which gives rise to a sort of unbalanced residual force. c and d. Local stresses may be higher than the true ones.5. E5. A correct solution will approach the true value with monotonically increasing values of displacements. This applies only to the strain energy and not to the displacement or stress at a point. the smaller the error. Kinematically equivalent loads yield displacements which do not coincide with those produced by actual loading.1 Calculate the transverse displacement at the centre of the simply supported beam shown in Fig. This is equivalent to applying additional constraints to the beam. Fig. stiffening it. or refining the mesh. so we would expect to increase the accuracy by increasing the number of elements modeling the same structure. E5. BEAMS. In order to ensure the C1 continuity across elements. Even if these functions are built up to satisfy the geometric boundary conditions at the ends.

⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬ 3 ⎢ − 12 − 6l 12 − 6l ⎥ ⎪ q5 = 0 ⎪ ⎪ pl ⎪ l ⎥ ⎢ 2 − 6l 4l 2 ⎦ ⎪ q6 ⎪ ⎪ 2 2 ⎪ ⎣ 6l 2l ⎩ ⎭ ⎪ pl ⎪ ⎪− ⎪ ⎩ 12 ⎭ The set of equations in the unknown displacements is 2 EI ( 4q3 + 2q6 ) = pl . the equations of equilibrium can be written ⎧ pl ⎫ ⎪ 2 ⎪ ⎪ 6l − 12 6l ⎤ ⎧ q2 = 0 ⎫ ⎪ ⎡ 12 pl 2 ⎪ ⎢ 6l 4l 2 − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ ⎪ q ⎪ ⎪ EIz ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ 3 ⎪ = ⎪ 12 ⎪ . 24 E I pl 4 ⎛l⎞ ⎛l⎞ ⎛l⎞ v ⎜ ⎟ = N 2 ⎜ ⎟ q3 + N 4 ⎜ ⎟ q6 = .4. smaller ⎛l⎞ 4 v ⎜ ⎟ = vtrue .2 Higher-degree interpolation functions Let explore the possibility of approximating the displacements of a fourth order system by a quadratic function of the form . 12 l with solutions q6 = − q3 = − The displacement at the middle is pl3 . the distributed load is replaced by two concentrated moments at the ends. Using a single beam element.92 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Solution. 96 E I ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ The true solution is v true = 5 pl 4 384 E I so that the approximate finite element solution is. Using the boundary conditions and the equivalent nodal loads. as expected. 12 l 2 EI ( 2q3 + 4q6 ) = − pl . ⎝ 2⎠ 5 5.

12) ⎧ v1 ⎪ϕ ⎪ 1 ⎪ N 5 ⎦ ⎨ v2 ⎪ϕ ⎪ 2 ⎪ v3 ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬. (5. ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ v (x ) = ⎣N ⎦ q e = ⎣N1 { } N2 N3 N4 (5. at x = x 2 . FRAMES AND GRIDS 93 v (x ) = a 1 x 4 + a 2 x 3 + a 3 x 2 + a 4 x + a5 . BEAMS. a 4 . a5 in (5. This gives the nodal coordinates in terms of the polynomial coefficients ⎧ v1 ⎪ϕ ⎪ 1 ⎪ ⎨ v2 ⎪ϕ ⎪ 2 ⎪ v3 ⎩ On inversion ⎡ 1 ⎢ ⎧ a5 ⎫ ⎢ 0 ⎪ a ⎪ ⎢ 11 ⎪ 4⎪ ⎢ − ⎪ ⎪ 2 ⎨ a3 ⎬ = ⎢ l ⎪ a ⎪ ⎢ 18 ⎪ 2 ⎪ ⎢ l3 ⎪ a1 ⎪ ⎢ 8 ⎩ ⎭ ⎢− ⎢ l4 ⎣ 0 1 − 4 l 5 l2 2 0 0 5 − 2 l 14 − 4 l l3 8 0 0 1 l 3 0 ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎧ v1 ⎫ ⎥ 16 ⎥ ⎪ ϕ1 ⎪ ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ l 2 ⎥ ⋅ ⎪ v2 ⎪ . v = v1 .5. (5. ⎨ ⎬ 32 ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ − 3 ϕ2 l ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ ⎥ ⎪ v3 ⎪ 16 ⎩ ⎭ ⎥ l4 ⎥ ⎦ and and d v d x = ϕ1 .44) ⎡1 ⎫ ⎢ ⎪ ⎢0 ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ 1 ⎬=⎢ ⎪ ⎢0 ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ ⎢1 ⎭ ⎣ 0 1 l 1 l 2 0 0 l2 2l l2 4 0 0 l3 3l 2 l3 8 0 ⎤ ⎧ a5 ⎫ 0 ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ ⎥ a4 ⎪ ⎪ l4 ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ ⎥ ⋅ ⎨ a3 ⎬ . a 2 . and the displacement of the internal node at the centre of the element (Fig.8): at x = x1 .43) The five integration constants a 1 . d v d x = ϕ2 . 5. 4l 3 ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ a2 l4 ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ ⎥ ⎪ a1 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ 16 ⎦ − 3 l − 2 l 2 l3 The beam deflection is given by an expression of the form (5. v = v3 . a 3 .43) can be determined from the end displacements and slopes. at x = x3 . v = v2 .45) where the quartic shape functions are .

46) into equation (5.47) For p = const . 8 1 N 3 ( r ) = ( 3 − 2r ) r ( 1 + r ) 2 . .46) N 5 (r ) = (1 − r ) 2 (1 + r ) 2 .41) is .27) and performing the integration. 4 1 N 4 (r ) = − (1 − r ) r (1 + r ) 2 l . Fig. N 5 is called a “bubble function”. 4 1 N 2 ( r ) = − ( 1 −r ) 2 r ( 1 + r )l . we obtain the element stiffness matrix ⎡ 316 94l e 196 − 34l e ⎢ 36l 2 34l e − 6l 2 e e EI e ⎢ = 3⎢ 316 − 94l e 5l e ⎢ 36l 2 e ⎢SYM ⎣ − 512 ⎤ − 128l e ⎥ ⎥ − 512 ⎥ . In equations (5.8 Substituting the shape functions (5. 8 N 1( r ) = − FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS (5. 5.94 1 ( 1 − r ) 2 r ( 3 + 2r ) . having zero displacements and slopes at the ends.46). 128l e ⎥ 1024 ⎥ ⎦ [k ] e B (5. the element consistent load vector (5.

The second term consists of The shear forces at the two ends of the beam element are T1 = − R2 and T2 = R5 . BEAMS. 15 ⎥ ⎦ T (5.51) ⎨ ⎬ = 3 ⎢ ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬ R5 ⎪ ⎢− 12 − 6l 12 − 6l ⎥ ⎪ q5 ⎪ ⎪ p l e ⎪ le ⎪ − ⎢ ⎥ 2 ⎪ R6 ⎪ − 6l 4l 2 ⎦ e ⎪ q6 ⎪e ⎪ 2 ⎪ ⎣ 6l 2l ⎩ ⎭ ⎪ ⎩ ⎭e pl 2 ⎪ e ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ 12 ⎭ e The first term on the right is k B elements that are called fixed-end reactions.7) T = −E I z T= d3 v 8 d3 v 8 = −E I z 3 = − E I z 3 ⎣N ′′′⎦ q e . the end equilibrium loads are given by ⎧ pl e ⎫ ⎪− 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎧ R2 ⎫ 6l − 12 6l ⎤ ⎧ q2 ⎫ ⎪ ⎡ 12 pl2 ⎪R ⎪ ⎢ 6l 4l 2 − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ ⎪ q ⎪ ⎪− e ⎪ EI e ⎪ 3⎪ ⎥ ⎪ 3 ⎪ + ⎪ 12 ⎪ . .6) and equation (5.50) For elements with uniformly distributed load.5. 3 3 dx l e dr le 2 − l e ⎦ qe . 2 2 dx l e dr le { } EIz ⎣6 r l2 e (3r − 1) l e − 6r (3r + 1) l e ⎦ { q e }. + 12 2 2 2 4 .49) The shear force is given by equation (5.49) and (5. (5.4.50). The end bending moments are M 1 = − R3 and M 2 = R 6 . e [ ]{ q }. { } 6E I z ⎣− 2 − l e l3 e { } (5. (5. For p = 0 .48) 5. When p = const .3 Bending moment and shear force Using the bending moment expression (5. they are obtained substituting r = −1 and r = +1 in (5. the exact moment and shear force within the element are Mp =M − 2 pl 2 pl e l e e ( r + 1) + p l e ( r + 1) 2 .12) we get M = EIz M= d2 v 4 d2 v 4 = EIz 2 = E I z 2 ⎣N ′′⎦ q e . FRAMES AND GRIDS 95 {f } e ⎢7 ple =⎢ ⎢ 30 ⎣ p l2 e 60 7 p le 30 p l2 e − 60 8 p le ⎥ ⎥ .

because the structure as a whole should be in equilibrium.12) gives ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ v (x ) = ⎣N ⎦ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ 0⎫ 1 ⎪ le l l ⎪ N 2 + l e N 3 + e N 4 = e ( 1 + r ) = linear .9. valid for p = 0 . An element should describe rigid body modes exactly. 5. 5. Vertical translation.12) gives ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ v (x ) = ⎣N ⎦ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ 1⎫ 0⎪ 1 1 ⎪ 3 3 ⎬ = N1 + N 3 = 2 − 3 r + r + 2 + 3 r − r = 1 = const .5 Basic convergence requirements As element sizes are reduced.9. equation (5. with node 1 fixed and node 2 having a vertical displacement l e (Fig. and the interior points should correspond to the assumed rigid body displacement. Although equilibrium is not satisfied exactly at every interior point or across interfaces.49) and (5.96 Tp = T − pl e r. b. When nodal displacements are given values corresponding to a state of rigid body motion. . equation (5. If the nodes are given unit vertical displacements (Fig. an element as a whole should be in equilibrium. Rotation.50). a). If the nodes are given unit rotations. the element must exhibit zero strain and therefore zero nodal forces. b). respectively. ⎬= l⎪ 2 2 2 1⎪ ⎭ which shows that the element has indeed an anticlockwise rotation as a rigid body. 5. a. 1⎪ 4 4 ⎪ 0⎭ ( ) ( ) which shows that the element has indeed a vertical displacement as a rigid body. 2 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS where M and T are the expressions (5. the sequence of solutions to a problem is expected to converge to the correct result if the assumed element displacement fields satisfy the following criteria: 1.

⎬= 2 4 ⎪ 0 ⎪ 2 ⎪ −1 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ so that the second derivative (curvature) is constant ( ) v′′ = .53) . 5. apart from moments and shear forces. An element should simulate constant strain states. c) ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎪ 1 ⎪ l l ⎪ ⎪ le v (x ) = ⎣N ⎦ ⎨ N2 − e N4 = e 1 − r 2 .5. Assuming zero nodal vertical displacements and unit rotations in opposite directions (Fig.1 Axial effects The axial nodal forces are related to the nodal displacements by equation ⎧ f1 ⎫ e ⎧ q1 ⎫ ⎨ ⎬ = kS ⎨ ⎬ ⎩ f4 ⎭ ⎩ q4 ⎭ where the stiffness matrix for stretching (4. it is acted upon by axial forces.6 Frame element As shown in Fig. Because there is no coupling between the bending and stretching displacements. 5. 5. an inclined beam element should include longitudinal displacements since.2.22) is [ ] e (5. when element sizes shrink to zero. 5. the two stiffness matrices can be added taking into account the proper location of their elements.52) [ k ]= ElA ⎡⎢−11 e S e ⎣ − 1⎤ . 1⎥ ⎦ (5. BEAMS. 5. they must have at least constant curvature. FRAMES AND GRIDS 97 a b Fig.6.l 2 = const . In the case of beams.9.9 c 2.

so the stiffness matrix may possibly be numerically ill-conditioned. For node 1. (5.3 Coordinate transformation A frame element is shown in Fig.54) ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ 6E I ⎥ − 2 ⎥ l 4E I ⎥ ⎥ l ⎥e ⎦ 0 [k ] e .56) Equations (5. ⎧ q1 ⎫ ⎡ c ⎨q ⎬=⎢ ⎩ 2 ⎭ ⎣− s s ⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎨ ⎬ c⎥ ⎩ Q 2 ⎭ ⎦ . combining equations (5. the local linear displacements q 1 and q 2 are related to the global linear displacements Q 1 and Q 2 by the equations q 1 = Q 1 cos θ + Q 2 sin θ . where ‘i’ is the relevant radius of gyration. the vector of consistent nodal forces is (i l ) The ratio of the bending terms to the stretching terms in (5. and arranging the elements in proper locations we get the element stiffness matrix given by ⎡ EA ⎢ l ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ 0 =⎢ ⎢− E A ⎢ l ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎣ 0 12 E I l3 6E I l2 0 − 12 E I l3 6E I l2 − 0 6E I l2 4E I l 0 6E I l2 2E I l − EA l 0 0 EA l 0 0 0 − 12 E I l3 6E I − 2 l 0 12 E I l3 6E I − 2 l ⎤ ⎥ 6E I ⎥ ⎥ l2 ⎥ 2E I ⎥ l ⎥ .54) is of order 2 { f } = ⎢0 ⎢ e ⎢ ⎣ p le 2 p l2 e 12 0 p le 2 − p l2 ⎥ e ⎥ .6.55) 5. 12 ⎥ ⎦ T (5. If there is a uniformly distributed load on a member. For slender beams. 5.29).10 both in the initial and deformed state.56) can be written in matrix form as (5.98 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 5.6.57) .53) and (5. this ratio may be as small as 1 20 or 1 50 . (5. q 2 = −Q 1 sin θ + Q 2 cos θ .2 Stiffness matrix and load vector in local coordinates For the frame element.

.60) In (5.10 Adding the similar relationships for node 2 ⎧ q4 ⎫ ⎡ c ⎨q ⎬=⎢ ⎩ 5 ⎭ ⎣− s we obtain e s ⎤ ⎧ Q4 ⎫ ⎨ ⎬. { Q } is the beam element displacement vector in the global e e coordinate system and [T ] e ⎡c ⎢− s ⎢ ⎢0 =⎢ ⎢0 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎣ s 0 c 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0⎤ 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0 0⎥ ⎥ c s 0⎥ − s c 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0 1⎥ ⎦ 0 0 (5. (5. (5. c⎥ ⎩ Q 5 ⎭ ⎦ e e q6 = Q6 . 5. BEAMS.60).58) Fig.59) { q } = [ T ] { Q }. FRAMES AND GRIDS 99 where c = cos θ and s = sin θ . { q } is the beam element displacement vector in the local coordinate system. The angular displacements (rotations) are the same in both coordinate systems q 3 = Q3 . (5.61) is the local-to-global coordinate transformation matrix for plane frames.5.

12) and (5. [ ] { } [ ] The global uncondensed stiffness matrix is equal to the sum of the expanded element stiffness matrices ~ [K ] = K e .7. (5. the stiffness matrix of the frame element in global coordinates is obtained as [ K ]= [T ] [ k ][T ] . using equations (5.64) [ ] The global stiffness matrix.66) The equations of equilibrium can be regarded as having been derived as soon as the reduced stiffness matrix and load vector have been calculated using the boundary conditions. (5. by equations of the form ~ Q e = T e { Q }.4). Having solved [ K ] { Q } = { F } it is routine to backtrack and recover the eth element strains.4 Stiffness matrix and load vector in global coordinates Using the same procedure as in section 3. {F }= [T ] { f } e e T e (5. [K ].60) ε e = − y v′′ = − y ⎣N ′′⎦ q e = − y ⎣N ′′⎦ T e { } [ ] { Q }.63) 5.67) .62) The nodal loads due to a uniformly distributed load p are given by The values of F e { } are added to the global load vector.65) ∑[ ] e where ~ ~ ~ [ K ] = [T ] [ K ][T ] . e e T e e (5.100 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 5.6. that relate the nodal displacements at element level with the nodal displacements at the entire structure level.7 Assembly of the global stiffness matrix is assembled from element matrices ~ K e using element connectivity matrices T e . e e T e e (5. (5. e (5.

Example 5. and omitting the first two rows and columns. − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ 12 − 6l ⎥ ⎥ − 6l 4l 2 ⎥ ⎦ 0 0 The unreduced global stiffness matrix is 12l − 24 12l ⎡ 24 ⎢ 12l 8l 2 − 12l 4l 2 ⎢ − 6l E I ⎢− 24 − 12l 36 K ]= 3 ⎢ 2 − 6l 12l 2 l ⎢ 12l 4l ⎢ 0 0 − 12 − 6l ⎢ 0 6l 2l 2 ⎢ 0 ⎣ [ Using the boundary conditions at the fixed end Q1 = Q2 = 0 .5.2 Solution. = 3 ⎢ ⎢− 12 − 6l 12 − 6l ⎥ l ⎢ ⎥ 2 − 6l 4l 2 ⎦ ⎣ 6l 2l 0 ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥ − 12 6l ⎥ ⎥.2 Calculate the transverse displacement at the free end of the cantilever stepped beam shown in Fig. E5. FRAMES AND GRIDS 101 Strains. E5. are not accurate. Fig. = 3 ⎢ ⎢− 12 − 6l 12 − 6l ⎥ l ⎢ ⎥ 2 − 6l 4l 2 ⎦ ⎣ 6l 2l [k ] 2 6l − 12 6l ⎤ ⎡ 12 ⎢ 6l 4l 2 − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ EI ⎥ . BEAMS. Consider the beam divided into two cubic Hermitian elements. and hence stresses. we obtain the finite element equations . Strains are derivatives of an approximate displacement (in beams .2. The element stiffness matrices are [k ] 1 6l − 12 6l ⎤ ⎡ 12 ⎢ 6l 4l 2 − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ 2E I ⎥ .second derivatives) and differentiation inevitably decreases accuracy.

29).3. EI v3 = Q5 = −1. Consider the beam modeled by two Bernoulli-Euler beam elements. l ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0 0 − 12 − 6l 12 − 6l ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ 0 6l 2l 2 − 6l 4l 2 ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎦ ⎣ .5 Example 5.102 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎡ 36 − 6l ⎢ 2 EI ⎢ − 6l 12l l 3 ⎢ − 12 − 6l ⎢ 2l 2 ⎣ 6l ⎡ 36 − 6l ⎢ − 6l 12l 2 ⎢ ⎢ 6l 2l 2 ⎣ or ⎧ Q3 ⎪ ⎨ Q4 ⎪Q ⎩ 6 ⎫ 1 ⎪ ⎬= 2 ⎪ 216l ⎭ − 12 6l ⎤ ⎧ Q3 − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ ⎪ Q4 ⎥⎪ ⎨ 12 − 6l ⎥ ⎪ Q5 ⎥ − 6l 4l 2 ⎦ ⎪ Q6 ⎩ ⎤ ⎧ Q3 ⎥ ⎪Q ⎥⎨ 4 ⎥ ⎪ Q6 ⎦⎩ ⎫ ⎧ 0 ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎬=⎨ ⎪ ⎪−F ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎭ ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬. ⎪ ⎪ 6l ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎡ 11l 2 9l − 21l ⎤ ⎧ 12 ⎫ ⎧ 60l ⎫ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 1 ⎪ ⎪ 27 − 27 ⎥ ⎨ 6l ⎬ Q5 = ⎨ 108 ⎬ Q5 . the unreduced global stiffness matrix is obtained as 6l − 12 6l 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ 12 ⎢ 6l 4l 2 − 6l 2l 2 0 0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ 0 − 12 6l ⎥ E I ⎢− 12 − 6l 24 [ K ] = 3 ⎢ 6l 2l 2 0 8l 2 − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ . ⎢ 9l 216 l ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ − 21l − 27 99 ⎥ ⎪ 6l ⎪ ⎩ 180 ⎭ ⎦⎩ ⎭ ⎣ By substitution into the equation with non-zero right hand side EI (− 12 Q3 − 6l Q4 + 12 Q5 − 6l Q6 ) = − F l3 the transverse displacement in 3 is obtained as F l3 . Assembling the element stiffness matrices (5. Solution. E5.3 Calculate the transverse displacement at 2 and the support reactions for the beam shown in Fig. ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ The three equations with zero right hand side can be written 6l 2l 2 4l 2 ⎫ ⎧ 12 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ = ⎨ 6l ⎬ Q5 .

we obtain the finite element equations 6l ⎤ ⎧ Q3 ⎫ ⎧ − F ⎫ ⎡ 24 0 EI ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 2 0 8l 2l 2 ⎥ ⎨ Q4 ⎬ = ⎨ 0 ⎬ .5. E5. 96 E I v2 = Q3 = − The rotations are ϕ 2 = Q4 = − 3 F l2 . at the simply supported end Q5 = 0 . 7l ⎧0 ⎫ 2l 2 ⎤ ⎧ Q4 ⎫ ⎥⎨ ⎬ = − ⎨ ⎬ Q3 4l 2 ⎥ ⎩ Q6 ⎭ ⎩ 6l ⎭ ⎦ Fig. 96 E I The support reactions are given by . Omitting the corresponding rows and columns. 96 E I ϕ3 = Q6 = 12 F l 2 . 7l Q6 = − 12 Q3 .3 Substitution of Q4 and Q6 into the first equation gives ⎧ 3 7l ⎫ F l3 24 Q3 + ⎣ 0 6l ⎦ ⎨ ⎬ Q3 = − EI ⎩ − 12 7l ⎭ or 7 F l3 . FRAMES AND GRIDS 103 At the fixed end Q1 = Q2 = 0 . BEAMS. 3 ⎢ ⎥ l ⎢ 6l 2l 2 4l 2 ⎥ ⎪ Q6 ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎭ ⎣ ⎦⎩ ⎭ ⎩ The last two equations give ⎡ 8l 2 ⎢ 2 ⎢ 2l ⎣ or Q4 = 3 Q3 .

5l l ⎢ 0 ⎦⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎣ ⎭ From the third and fourth rows we obtain E I ⎡ 13.5l 6l ⎦ ⎩ Q4 ⎭ ⎩ 0 ⎭ with solutions v2 = Q3 = − 8 F l3 .5l ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ V3 ⎪ 0 ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ 2 − 1.5 − 4. 27 E I . Consider the beam modeled by two Bernoulli-Euler beam elements.104 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 0 ⎤ ⎧ Q3 ⎡ − 12 6l EI ⎢ ⎪ 2 0 ⎥ ⎨ Q4 − 6l 2l 3 ⎢ ⎥ l ⎢ − 12 − 6l − 6l ⎥ ⎪ Q6 ⎣ ⎦⎩ which yield V1 = ⎫ ⎧ V1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ = ⎨ M1 ⎬ ⎪ ⎪V ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ 3 ⎭ 11 F.4 Solution. E5.5 − 4.5l ⎥ ⎪Q3 ⎪ ⎪− F ⎪ ⎬=⎨ ⎬. 8 V3 = 5 F.5l 2l l ⎥ ⎪Q4 ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎪ l ⎢ ⎢ 0 − 1. the finite element equations can be written − 12 6l 6l 0 0 ⎤ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎧ V1 ⎫ ⎡ 12 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 6l 4l 2 2 − 6l 2l 0 0 ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ M1 ⎪ ⎢ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ E I ⎢− 12 − 6l 13.5l 6l − 1.4.5 − 1.5l ⎤ ⎧ Q3 ⎫ ⎧ − F ⎫ ⎬=⎨ ⎬ ⎢ 2 ⎥⎨ l 3 ⎣ − 4.5l 2l 2 ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ M 3 ⎪ 0 1.5l 1. 16 Example 5. 2 2 2 ⎥⎨ 3 ⎢ 6l − 4.5l − 1. 16 3 M1 = − F l . 81 E I ϕ 2 = Q4 = − 2 F l2 .5 − 1. E5. Using the boundary conditions Q1 = Q2 = Q5 = Q6 = 0 .4 Find the transverse displacement at 2 and the support reactions for the beam with fixed ends shown in Fig. Fig.5 1.

the finite element equations can be written 6l − 12 6l 0 0 ⎤ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎧ V1 ⎫ ⎡ 12 ⎢ 6l 4l 2 − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ ⎪Q ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 0 0 0 ⎥ ⎪ 2⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ − 12 6l ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪V2 − p l 2⎪ 0 E I ⎢− 12 − 6l 24 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎥⎨ ⎬=⎨ ⎬. 27 9 27 9 Example 5.5 Solution. Using the boundary conditions Q1 = Q3 = Q5 = 0 . FRAMES AND GRIDS 105 Substituting the displacements into the other four equations yields 6l ⎤ ⎧ V1 ⎫ ⎡ − 12 8 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ ⎧− l ⎫ 2 EI ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ 81 ⎪ F l = ⎪ M 1 ⎪ . ⎪ ⎪ p l 2 12 ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ . M3 = − Fl . M 1 = F l .5 where the right span carries a uniformly distributed load. third and fifth rows and columns. E5. E5.5. BEAMS.5 Calculate the rotations at supports and the reaction forces for the two-span beam shown in Fig. Fig.5 − 1.5l ⎥ ⎪ − 2 ⎪ E I ⎪ V3 ⎪ ⎢ ⎥ ⎪M 3 ⎪ l 2 ⎦ ⎩ 27 ⎭ ⎣ 1. ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬ l 3 ⎢− 1.5l ⎩ ⎭ The support reactions are V1 = 20 4 7 2 F . 3 ⎢ 6l 0 8l 2 − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ ⎪Q4 ⎪ ⎪ − p l 2 12 ⎪ 2l 2 l ⎢ ⎢ 0 0 − 12 − 6l 12 − 6l ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪V3 − p l 2 ⎪ ⎢ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 0 6l 2l 2 − 6l 4l 2 ⎥ ⎪Q6 ⎪ ⎪ p l 2 12 ⎪ ⎢ 0 ⎣ ⎦⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ Omitting the first. we obtain ⎡ 4l 2 ⎢ 2 ⎢ 2l ⎢ 0 ⎣ 0 ⎤ ⎧ Q2 ⎥⎪ 2l 2 ⎥ ⎨ Q4 4l 2 ⎥ ⎪ Q6 ⎦⎩ EI l3 2l 2 8l 2 2l 2 0 ⎫ ⎧ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 2 ⎬ = ⎨ − p l 12 ⎬ . The continuous beam is modeled by two Bernoulli-Euler beam elements. V3 = F .

6. 4l 2 ⎥ ⎩ Q6 ⎭ ⎟ 12 ⎩ 1 ⎭ ⎦ ⎠ ϕ 2 = Q4 = − pl3 . 16 V2 = 5 pl . 32 E I (b) Substituting the rotations (b) in (a) we obtain pl3 .6 Find the transverse displacement and the angle of rotation at 2 for the beam shown in Fig.106 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The first equation above yields ⎧Q ⎫ Q2 = ⎣ − 1 2 0 ⎦ ⎨ 4 ⎬ ⎩ Q6 ⎭ (a) which. substituted into the second and third equation EI l3 gives ⎛ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ ⎧ 2l 2 ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ 0 ⎩ ⎫ ⎡ 8l 2 ⎪ ⎬ Q2 + ⎢ 2 ⎪ ⎢ 2l ⎭ ⎣ 2l 2 ⎤ ⎧ Q4 ⎫ ⎞ p l 2 ⎧− 1⎫ ⎥⎨ ⎬⎟= ⎨ ⎬. Fig.6 . 8 V3 = 7 pl . 96 E I The reaction forces are calculated from ϕ1 = Q2 = 6l 0 ⎤ ⎧ Q2 ⎡ 6l EI ⎢ ⎪ − 6l 0 6l ⎥ ⎨ Q4 3 ⎢ ⎥ l ⎢ 0 − 6l − 6l ⎥ ⎪ Q6 ⎣ ⎦⎩ obtaining V1 ⎫ ⎧ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ = ⎨ V2 − p l 2 ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ V − pl 2 ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ 3 ⎭ V1 = − pl . E5. 16 Example 5. E5. 48 E I ϕ3 = Q6 = pl3 .

substituted into the first two equations EI l3 gives ⎛ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ ⎞ ⎧ − 0. ⎟ 0 ⎭ ⎦⎩ 4⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ ⎠ ⎩ v2 = Q3 = −0.5l l ⎪ ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ E I ⎢− 1.1333 p0l ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎭ ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎬.1333 p0 l ⎪ l ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎪ 0 V3 − 12 − 6l 12 − 6l ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 0 6l 2l 2 − 6l 4l 2 ⎥ ⎪Q6 ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎢ 0 ⎣ ⎦⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ Deleting the first.1333 p l 2 ⎬ .7. ⎪ ⎭ Q6 = − 3 1 Q3 − Q4 2l 2 which.5l 0 0 ⎤ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎧ V1 − 0.084 p0 l 4 . Answer.2 p0 l 2 ⎪ − 1.5 − 1.7 Find the shape functions for the 3-node beam element shown in Fig. the finite element equations can be written 1. second and fifth rows and columns we obtain ⎡ 13.5l 2 2 2l 0 0 ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪M 1 − 0.5 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 1.5 4. Using the boundary conditions Q1 = Q2 = Q5 = 0 . 4 ( ) .5l 6l − 6l 2l ⎥ ⎪Q4 ⎪ ⎪ 0.5l l 4.5l − 12 6l ⎥ ⎪Q3 ⎪ ⎪ − 0. E5. Two Bernoulli-Euler beam elements are used to model the system.3 p0 l ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬=⎨ 2 2 2⎥⎨ 2 ⎬.5l 6l ⎤ ⎧ Q3 EI ⎢ ⎪ 4. 4 ( ) N 2 (r ) = 1 2 r 1 −r − r 2 + r 3 . 3 ⎢ 1.3 p 0 l ⎪ ⎪ 2 ⎬ = ⎨ 0.7 p0 l ⎫ − 1.3 p0l ⎫ ⎡ 13.5 1. EI ϕ 2 = Q4 = 0. EI Example 5.5l 13.0518 p0 l 3 . FRAMES AND GRIDS 107 Solution. BEAMS. N 1( r ) = 1 2 r 4 − 5r − 2r 2 + 3r 3 .5l ⎡ 1.5 4.5l ⎤ ⎧ Q3 ⎫ ⎧ 6l ⎫ ⎢ 4.5 4.5l 6l 2 ⎥ ⎨ Q ⎬ + ⎨ 2l 2 ⎬ Q6 ⎟ = ⎨0.5l 6l 2 2l 2 ⎥ ⎨ Q4 3 ⎢ ⎥ l ⎢ 6l 2l 2 4l 2 ⎥ ⎪ Q6 ⎣ ⎦⎩ The last equation yields ⎫ ⎧ − 0 .5.

2 1 2 r 4 + 5r − 2r 2 − 3r 3 . N 4 (r ) = r 1− r 2 ( ). a Fig.108 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS N 3(r ) = 1 − r 2 N 5 (r ) = ( ) 2 . E5. 4 ( ) Fig. 4 ( ) N 6 (r ) = 1 2 r −1− r +r 2 + r3 . b . E5.7.7.

260e-2 The deformed shape is shown in Fig. FRAMES AND GRIDS 109 Example 5. shear T and bending moment M are shown in Figs. E5. shear and bending moment.260e-3 -6.0699e-2 1.5.232e-2 -5.500e-7 0 Rotation Z -1.0698e-2 1.8.5 1. The frame is modeled with 6 elements and 7 nodes. e.8 The planar frame shown in Fig. b.889e-3 -1.4 2 2 Coord Y 0 1 2 2 2 2 1 Displ X 0 0. a b c d e Fig. c. a has pinned ends and is loaded in 2 by a force 5 4 F = 1000 N .321e-3 -8. E5.0697e-2 1.8 . E5.010 1.309e-3 2. It has E = 2 ⋅ 1011 N m 2 . A = 1600 mm 2 and I = 2 ⋅ 10 mm .531e-3 2.700e-6 1.592e-3 -1. d. Determine the nodal displacements.0696e-2 0 Displ Y 0 8.8. E5.500e-7 1. plot the deformed shape and the diagrams of axial force. Answer.353e-3 2. The diagrams of the axial force N . Nodal data Node nr 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Restr X 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 Restr Y 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 Restr Z 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Coord X 0 0 0 0.8. BEAMS.

110 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Example 5. a has fixed ends in 1. I = 2 ⋅104 mm 4 . E5.9. A = 400 mm 2 . E5. Fig.9.2476 mm . b . l1− 2 = 100 mm and l 9 −10 = l 9 −11 = 200 mm .00623 rad . For E = 2 ⋅105 N mm 2 . E5.9673 mm . ϕ 6 = −0. 5. Fig. It is loaded by a couple M 3 = 2 ⋅ 106 N mm and two point loads F6 = −2 ⋅ 10 4 N and F12 = −10 4 N .9.9. b. a The displacements in 6 are h 6 = 0. E5. The frame is modeled with 12 elements and 13 nodes. 13. The deformed shape is presented in Fig. Answer. 10. v 6 = −0. find the displacements in 6 and plot the deformed shape.9 The planar frame shown in Fig.

the torsional rigidity G I t and the length l .8. . They are special cases of tree-dimensional frames in which each joint has only three nodal displacements.8 Grids Grids or grillages are planar structural systems subjected to loads applied normally to their plane. Only cross sections whose shear centre coincides with the centroid are considered. as shown in Fig. Fig.11 5.11. 5. 5. a translation and two rotations.5. without shear deformations and not loaded between ends. Elements are modelled as uniform rods with bending and torsional flexibility. Their properties are the flexural rigidity E I .1 Finite element discretization The grid is divided into finite elements. the rotation about the Y axis and the displacement along the Z axis. Typically. 5. Q3 i −1 and Q3 i . defined as the rotation about the X axis. Nodes are located by their coordinates in the global reference frame XOY and element connectivity is defined by the indices of the end nodes. a. describing bending and torsional effects. as illustrated in Fig. FRAMES AND GRIDS 111 5.8.2 Element stiffness matrix in local coordinates Consider an inclined grid element. Each node has three degrees of freedom. the degrees of freedom of node i are Q3 i − 2 . respectively. where the nodal displacements are also shown.12. BEAMS. 5. two rotations and a linear displacement.

112

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

In a local physical coordinate system, the x axis, oriented along the beam, is inclined an angle α with respect to the global X axis. The z axis for the local coordinate system is collinear with the Z axis for the global system. Alternatively, an intrinsic (natural) coordinate system can be used.

Fig. 5.12 The vector of element nodal displacements is

{ q }= ⎣ q

e e

1

q2

q3

q4

q5

q6

⎦T ⎦T .

(5.68)

and the corresponding vector of element nodal forces can be written

{ f }= ⎣ f

In (5.69)

f 3 and

1

f2

f3

f4

f5

f6

(5.69)

f 5 are

f 6 are transverse forces, while f 2 and

couples producing bending (Fig. 5.12, b). The corresponding displacements q 3 , q 6 are translations, while q 2 , q 5 are rotations. Their column vectors are related by the flexural stiffness matrix. Rearranging the matrix (5.29) we obtain

⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩

f2 f3 f5

⎡ 4l 2 6l 2l 2 − 6l ⎤ ⎧q 2 ⎫ ⎫ ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 12 6l − 12 ⎥ ⎪q 3 ⎪ ⎪ EI e ⎢ 6l ⎨ ⎬. ⎬= 3 ⎢ 2 6l 4l 2 − 6l ⎥ ⎪q 5 ⎪ ⎪ l e ⎢ 2l ⎥ f6 ⎪ ⎢− 6l − 12 − 6l 12 ⎥ e ⎪q 6 ⎪ ⎭ ⎣ ⎦ ⎩ ⎭

(5.70)

The axial nodal forces f 1 , f 4 are torques and the nodal displacements q 1 , q 4 are twist angles. They describe torsional effects so that their action is decoupled from bending. The respective stiffness matrix can be calculated

5. BEAMS, FRAMES AND GRIDS

113

separately. The derivation of this matrix is essentially identical to the derivation of the stiffness matrix for axial effects in a frame element or in a truss element. The twist angle can be expressed in terms of the shape functions (4.51) as

θ (r ) = N1 (r ) q 1 + N 2 (r ) q 4 ,

which substituted into the strain energy

Ue = G It e 2

(5.71)

∫

e

⎛ ∂θ ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ dx ⎜ ∂x ⎟ ⎝ ⎠

+1

2

(5.72)

yields, after the change of coordinates, the element stiffness matrix

[ ]=

kte

2 G It e

le

−1

∫ ⎣N ′ ⎦

r

T

′ ⎣N r ⎦ d r .

(5.73)

As a consequence of this analogy, the nodal forces are related to the nodal displacements by equation ⎧ f1 ⎫ e ⎧ q1 ⎫ (5.74) ⎨ ⎬ = kt ⎨ ⎬ ⎩ f4 ⎭ ⎩ q4 ⎭

[ ]

te

where the stiffness matrix for torsional effects is

[ k ] = GlI

e t

e

⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎢− 1 1 ⎥ . ⎣ ⎦

(5.75)

In (5.75), G is the shear modulus of elasticity and I t e is the torsional constant of the cross section. For axially symmetrical cross sections the latter is the polar second moment of area. For the grid element, combining the stiffness matrices from equations (5.70) and (5.75), we get the stiffness matrix in local coordinates relating the nodal forces (5.69) and the nodal displacements (5.68) −a 0 0 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ a ⎢ 0 4l 2 6l 2 − 6l ⎥ 0 2l ⎥ ⎢ 6l 12 0 6l − 12 ⎥ EI e ⎢ 0 = 3 ⎢ ⎥ a 0 0 0 0 ⎥ l e ⎢− a ⎢ 0 2l 2 6l 0 4l 2 − 6l ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ 0 − 6l − 12 0 − 6l 12 ⎥ e ⎦ ⎣

[k ]

e

(5.76)

where a = G I t e l 2 E I e . e

114

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

5.8.3 Coordinate transformation

It is necessary to transform the matrix (5.76) from the local to the global system of coordinates before its assemblage in the stiffness matrix for the complete grid. As has been indicated, the z direction for local axes coincides with the Z direction for the global axes, so that only the rotational components of displacements should be converted. The transformation of coordinates is defined by equation

where q e system,

{ } is the element displacement vector (5.68) in the local coordinate

{ q } = [ T ] { Q },

e e e

(5.77)

{ Q } = ⎣Q

e

1

Q2

Q3

Q4

Q5

Q6 ⎦ T

is the element displacement vector in the global coordinate system (Fig. 5.12) and ⎡c ⎢− s ⎢ ⎢0 =⎢ ⎢0 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎣ s 0 c 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0⎤ 0 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0 0⎥ ⎥, c s 0⎥ − s c 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0 1⎥ ⎦ 0

[T ]

e

(5.78)

where c = cos α and s = sin α , is the local-to-global coordinate transformation matrix. The same transformation matrix (5.78) serves to transform the nodal forces from local to global coordinates.

**5.8.4 Element stiffness matrix in global coordinates
**

Using the same procedure as for frame elements, we obtain the stiffness matrix of the grid element in global coordinates as

[ K ]= [T ] [ k ][T ] .

e e T e e

(5.79)

It is used to assemble the unreduced global stiffness matrix [ K ] using ~ element connectivity matrices T e that relate the nodal displacements at element level with the nodal displacements at the complete structure level, by equations of the form (5.64).

[ ]

5. BEAMS, FRAMES AND GRIDS

115

For grounded systems the unreduced matrix [ K ] is then condensed using the boundary conditions. The effect of lumped springs can be accounted for by adding their values along the main diagonal at the appropriate locations in the global stiffness matrix.

Example 5.10

The grid shown in Fig. E5.10 is fixed at points 1 and 2, has E = 210 GPa , G = 81 GPa , l = 1 m and diameter d = 20 mm . Find the vertical displacement of point 7 when the grid is loaded by forces F7 = F8 = −500 N and draw the spatial deflected shape.

a Fig. E5.10

b

Answer. The grid is modeled with 14 elements and 8 nodes, having 18 dof’s. The deflected shape is presented in Fig. E5.10, b. The deflection is w7 = − 0.436 m .

Example 5.11

The grid shown in Fig. E5.11, a is fixed at points 1 and 2, and has l = 1 m , I = 0.785 ⋅ 10 −8 m 4 , I t = 1.57 ⋅ 10 −8 m 4 , E = 210 GPa and G = 81 GPa . Find the vertical displacement of point 5 when the grid is loaded by a force F5 = −103 N . Draw the deflected shape and the diagrams of the bending moment and torque.

116

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

a

b

c Fig. E5.11

d

Answer. The grid is modeled with 5 elements and 5 nodes, having 9 dof’s. The largest displacement is w5 = − 0.4 m . The deflected shape is presented in Fig. E5.11, b. The bending moment and torque diagrams are shown in Figs. E5.11, c, d.

**5.9 Deep beam bending element
**

Shear deformation becomes important when analyzing deep beams, for which Bernoulli’s hypothesis is no more valid. The nonlinear distribution of shear stresses produces the warping of the cross section. A simplifying hypothesis (Poncelet, 1825) considers an average shear strain, constant over the cross section. This way, planar cross sections remain undistorted and plane (warping neglected) but no more perpendicular to the centroidal axis. The assumption is adopted in the formulation of the Timoshenko beam element used in vibration studies.

Only transverse loads act upon the beam.81) (5. where ϕ is the cross section rotation at position x .5. Fig.13. σ x = E ε x = −E (5. at a distance y from the neutral axis. dx dx (5. dx ∂ y ∂x where v′ is the slope of the deformed beam axis. y ) = − y ϕ (x ) . FRAMES AND GRIDS 117 5. dx where E is Young’s modulus of the material. Normal stresses on the cross section are given by Hooke’s law dϕ y. as in the Bernoulli-Euler theory.9.13 The axial displacement of any point on the section.83) The bending moment is the resultant of the normal stress distribution on the cross section . Note that the slope v′ is no more equal to the rotation ϕ .1 Static analysis of a uniform beam Beams with cross sections that are symmetric with respect to the plane of loading are considered herein (Fig. is approximated by u (x. 5. The strain components ε x and γ xy are given by (5. 5. a).82) γ xy = dv ∂u ∂ v + = −ϕ + = −ϕ + v′ . axial forces are ignored.80) εx = du dϕ = −y = − yϕ ′ . BEAMS.

91) G As v′ + E I z ϕ ′′ − G Asϕ = 0 . 5. r = 2 x l . 5. (5. 5.86) The average shear strain is γ xy = T T = G As κ AG (5.87) give T = G As ( v′ − ϕ ) . Using natural coordinates. dx (5. The shear force is given by T (x ) = − dM . b) is that positive internal forces and moments act in positive (negative) coordinate directions on beam cross sections with a positive (negative) outward normal.14) of length l (the index e is omitted) not loaded between ends ( p = 0 ) .118 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS M (x ) = − σ x y dA = E I z A ∫ dϕ = E I zϕ′ dx (5. elimination of M and T gives the differential equations of equilibrium G As v′′ − G Asϕ ′ = 0 .90) (5. κ is a shear factor and As is the ‘effective shear area’ calculated as As [ ∫τ dA ] = ∫τ 2 2 dA . dx (5.9.85) The transverse load per unit length is p (x ) = − dT .84) where I z is the second moment of area of the cross section. . (5.13.87) where G is the shear modulus of elasticity.88) Equations (5.89) For a uniform beam not loaded between ends ( p = 0 ) . (5. The sign convention used here (Fig.2 Shape functions Consider a prismatic beam element (Fig.82) and (5.

l dr d r2 (5.97) Substituting (5. 5. G As l 2 (5. FRAMES AND GRIDS 119 Fig.95) into (5.96) where β= 4E I z .94) (5. d x4 and d 3ϕ = 0.14 Eliminating ϕ and v in turn in (5.94) and (5. l b2 = 4 a3 .96) gives b3 = 6 a4 . l l (5. The seven constants of integration are not independent since the above solutions must also satisfy equation (5. BEAMS. d r3 (5.94) and (5. l b1 = 2 12 a2 + β a 4 . in the new variable r.95) at r = ± 1 .5.91) which.90) and (5. The resulting displacement functions are .92) Changing to the r coordinate yields d4v =0.95) ϕ (r ) = b 3 r 2 + b 2 r + b 1 .98) This leaves only four independent constants which can be determined by evaluating (5. becomes 2 dv d 2ϕ +β −ϕ = 0.91) gives d4v =0. d r4 and d 3ϕ = 0. (5. d x3 (5.93) The general solutions of these equations are v (r ) = a 4 r 3 + a 3 r 2 + a 2 r + a 1 .

] ~ N 4 (r ) = 1 4 ( 1 + 3β [ − 1 +2r + 3r 2 + 6β ( 1 + r ) .103) It is useful to introduce a third set of shape functions which are used in the derivation of the element stiffness matrix. 4 ) ... ] N 2 (r ) = N 3(r ) = 1 4 ( 1 + 3β 1 4 ( 1 + 3β [1 −r − r ) ) + r 3 + 3β 1 − r 2 . e e (5. ] N 4 (r ) = ~ N1 ( r ) = 4 ( 1 + 3β ) 1 4 ( 1 + 3β 1 [ − 1 −r + r 2 2 + r 3 + 3β − 1 + r 2 .99) ϕ = ⎢ N1 N 2 where ~ ~ ⎥ N4 ⎥ ⎦ ~ { q } = ⎣N ⎦ { q }.101) 1 4 ( 1 + 3β ) [ 2 − 3r + r 2 3 + 6β ( 1 − r ) .102) become the third degree Hermitic polynomials (5. ] For β = 0 . the first four functions (5. 2 + 6β ( 1 − r ) . ( )] ) ( − 3 + 3r ) .120 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎢ v = ⎢ N1 ⎣ ⎢2 ~ ⎣l l N2 2 N3 2 ~ N3 l e l ⎥ N4 ⎥ 2 ⎦ { q } = ⎣N ⎦ { q }. (5.102) 2 ~ N 2 (r ) = ~ N3 ( r ) = 1 4 ( 1 + 3β 1 4 ( 1 + 3β ) ) ) [ − 1 −2r + 3r ( 3 − 3r )...100) { q }= ⎣v The shape functions are N 1( r ) = 1 ϕ 1 v2 ϕ 2 ⎦ T . e e (5.21) and the last four functions satisfy the relationship 2 ∂ Ni ~ N i (r ) = l ∂r ( i = 1. (5. and defined by . (5. 3 ( )] [ 2 + 3r − r + 6β ( 1 + r ) .

5.108) and the contribution due to shear is G As l S Ue = 2 2 +1 ∫ −1 ⎛ 2 dv ⎞ ⎟ dr .100) and (5.9.107) the contribution due to bending is B Ue E Iz 2 = 2 l −1 ∫ ⎛dϕ ⎞ ⎜ ⎜ d r ⎟ dr .100) into (5. 1 + 3β l (5. ⎣ dr ⎦ ~ ˆ ⎣ N ⎦= ⎣ N ⎦ − l (5. FRAMES AND GRIDS 121 2 ⎢ dN ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ . ⎜ dx⎟ ⎝ ⎠ l dr .111) On substituting (5.108) we get B Ue 1 = 2 {q } +1 e T 2 EIz l −1 ∫ ⎣N ′⎦ ⎣N ′⎦ dr { q } ~ T ~ e (5. 2 2 (5. ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 2 (5.105) 5. ⎜ϕ − ⎜ l dr⎟ ⎠ ⎝ 2 (5.109) On substituting (5.99) into (5.106) dϕ 2 d ϕ = dx l dr +1 and dx = (5.110) wherefrom we obtain the element stiffness matrix due to bending ~ ~ [ k ] = E I 2 ∫ ⎣N ′⎦ ⎣N ′⎦ dr . l e B T z −1 +1 (5.3 Stiffness matrix The strain energy for a beam element with shear effects included is E Iz Ue = 2 As l2 −l 2 ∫ ⎛dϕ ⎞ G As ⎜ ⎜ d x ⎟ dx + 2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 2 l 2 −l 2 ∫ ⎛ dv ⎞ ⎜ϕ − ⎟ dx .104) They are 3β 1 ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ N1 (r ) = N 2 (r ) = − N 3 (r ) = N 4 (r ) = . BEAMS.109) we get .

113) Substituting the shape functions (5.105) and performing the integration yields the stiffness matrix [k ] e ⎡ 12 ⎢ 1 EI z ⎢ 6l = 1 + 3β l 3 ⎢− 12 ⎢ ⎣ 6l (4 + 3β ) l − 6l 6l − 12 2 − 6l 12 − 6l (2 − 3β ) l 2 ⎥.112) wherefrom we obtain the element stiffness matrix due to shear l ˆ ˆ [ k ] = G A 2 ∫ ⎣N ⎦ ⎣N ⎦ dr .122 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS S Ue 1 = 2 {q } +1 e T l G As 2 −1 ˆ ∫ ⎣N ⎦ T ˆ ⎣N ⎦ d r { q e } (5.42) derived for a slender beam.102) and (5. .114) The vector of consistent nodal forces is identical to the corresponding vector (5. ⎥ 2⎥ (4 + 3β ) l ⎦ − 6l (2 − 3β ) l 6l 2⎥ ⎤ (5. e S T s −1 +1 (5.

1.1) . y. and S σ . pv y . (6. pv z . LINEAR ELASTICITY In this chapter the fundamental concepts from the linear theory of elasticity are recalled. and (c) concentrated forces. the portion on which surface forces are prescribed. like centrifugal or gravity forces. The total surface S of the body has two distinct parts: S u . The four main groups of equations are written in the matrix notation used in FEA: (a) equations of equilibrium. (b) equations of compatibility or strain/displacement relations.6. in equilibrium under the action of external loads and the reactions in supports. In general there may be three sets of applied forces: (a) internal body forces. the portion of the boundary on which displacements are prescribed. is shown in Fig. Internal body forces Internal body forces inside the volume V can be inertial forces. and (d) boundary conditions. (c) stress/strain relations or Hooke’s law. z coordinates. ∂n ∂y .1 Matrix notation for loads. stresses and strains An arbitrarily shaped tree-dimensional body of volume V. It is convenient to write these components as a single body force vector { pv } = ⎣ pv x pv y pv z ⎦ T . Their the magnitude per unit volume is denoted by components pv x . 6. Points in the body are located by x. with emphasis on two-dimensional problems. Any point on the surface has a local outward-pointing normal n whose orientation is usually described by its three direction cosines ∂n ∂x . (b) surface forces. 6. ∂n ∂z .

4) where u . Stresses and strains The stresses inside V will have two types of component. (6.1) to (6.3) Any system of loads has to fall into categories (6.124 Surface tractions FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Likewise there could be surface forces (not necessarily normal pressures) on the surface Sσ . (6.τ zx .τ yz .3). It is convenient to represent both stress and strain components as single column matrices. also having three components { ps } = ⎣ ps x Concentrated loads ps y ps z ⎦T . (6.1 Displacements It is natural to form the single displacement vector { u} = ⎣u v w⎦ T . w are the displacement components inside the body or on the surface Sσ with unprescribed displacements.2) Concentrated loads are defined by their three components { Fi } = ⎣ Fi x Fi y Fi z ⎦T . Thus {σ } = ⎣σ x σ y σ z τ xy τ yz τ zx ⎦T .5) . (6. σ y . the direct stress components σ x . defined by the magnitude per unit surface area. Fig. v . 6.σ z and the shear stresses τ xy .

6. (6. ⎦T .7) Fig.6.6) In two-dimensional problems {ε } = ⎣ε x ε y γ xy ⎦T . LINEAR ELASTICITY 125 In two-dimensional problems {σ } = ⎣ σ x {ε } = ⎣ε x σ y τ xy ⎦T . equations (6.6. The small linear increments in stresses are equilibrated by the applied body forces yielding the following equilibrium equations. a) 6.2 Equations of equilibrium inside V Figure 6.2 In matrix form. ∂x ∂y (6. a) Strains are represented in vector form as ε y ε z γ xy γ yz γ zx (6.7) can be written .2 shows stresses acting on an infinitesimal element in the plane xOy. (6. + ∂y ∂x ∂τ xy ∂σ y + + p v y = 0. where τ xy = τ yx ∂σ x ∂τ yx + pv x = 0.5.

τ xy l + σ y m = ps y . ∂y ⎥ ∂ ⎥ ⎥ ∂x ⎦ ⎥ (6. The equilibrium along the two axes directions yields σ x l + τ yx m = ps x .10) 6.1) ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ∂ ⎥ . denoting the matrix of differential operators ⎡ ∂ ⎢ ⎢ ∂x [∂ ]= ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ∂ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ ∂y and using (6.9) [ ∂ ]T {σ } + { pv } = { 0 } .11) the direction cosines for the outward normal n are .126 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎡ ∂ ⎢ ∂x ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎣ 0 ∂ ∂y ∂ ∂y ∂ ∂x ⎤ ⎧σ ⎥⎪ x ⎥ ⎨σy ⎥⎪ ⎥ ⎩ τ xy ⎦ ⎫ ⎧ p vx ⎫ ⎪ ⎬ ⎬ = −⎨ ⎩ pvy ⎭ ⎪ ⎭ (6.8) or.2 Equations of equilibrium on the surface Let now consider an element near the loaded boundary Sσ . Sσ (6. (6.11) Fig. 6.3 In (6.

∂x ∂ y εx = εy = γ xy = (6.13) or in condensed form [ n ] T {σ } = { p s } . The equations of compatibility have the familiar form ∂u .4 gives the deformation of the dx − dy face for small deformations. y ) = = ny . ∂x ∂v .15) where ∂T n implies that the operators in [ ∂ ] T are acting upon n.6.14) [ ∂ n ] {σ } = { p T s }. 6.17) {ε } = [ ∂ ] { u } . sometimes written (6.3 Strain-displacement relations Figure 6. ∂y ∂ v ∂u + . (6. equations (6.18) . ⎪ ⎩ sy ⎭ ⎭ (6. x ) = ∂n = nx .11) can be written ⎧σ ⎡ nx 0 n y ⎤ ⎪ x ⎢ 0 n n ⎥ ⎨σy y x ⎦⎪ ⎣ ⎩ τ xy ⎫ ⎪ ⎧ ps x ⎫ ⎬ =⎨ p ⎬ .12) In matrix form. (6.16) In matrix form ⎡ ∂ ⎢ ⎧ εx ⎫ ⎢ ∂x ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎨ εy ⎬ = ⎢ 0 ⎪γ ⎪ ⎢ ⎩ xy ⎭ ∂ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ ∂y and can be summarized as ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ∂ ⎥⎧u⎫ ⎨ ⎬. ∂y ⎥⎩ v ⎭ ∂ ⎥ ⎥ ∂x ⎥ ⎦ (6. ∂y (6. LINEAR ELASTICITY 127 l = cos (n . ∂x ∂n m = cos (n .

4 Stress-strain relations For linear isotropic elastic materials. 6. The inverse of [ C ] is the material stiffness matrix (6. the stress-strain relations come from the generalized Hooke’s law {ε } = [ C ] {σ } .19) −ν ⎡1 − ν ⎢ 1 −ν ⎢ ⎢ 1 [C ]= 1 ⎢ E ⎢ ⎢ SYM ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ The inverse relation is 0 0 0 2 (1 +ν 0 0 ) 0 0 2 (1 +ν ) ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥. where the material elastic compliance matrix is (6.128 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Fig.4 6.20) {σ } = [ C ] −1{ε } = [ D ] {ε } .21) . 0 ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ 2 ( 1 + ν )⎥ ⎦ 0 0 (6.

22). a small thickness in the loaded area can be treated as subjected to plane strain. from (6. ⎪ ⎭ (6.25) .22) ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ 1 −ν ⎥ 2 ⎦ A thin planar body subjected to in-plane loading on its edge surface is said to be in plane stress.21) and discarding rows and columns 3.23) The inverse relations are given by ⎧σx ⎪ ⎨σy ⎪τ ⎩ xy ⎫ ⎪ E ⎬= 2 ⎪ 1 −ν ⎭ ⎡ 0 ⎢1 ν ⎢ν 1 0 ⎢ 1 −ν ⎢0 0 2 ⎣ ⎫ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎭ (6. If strains ε z . τ xz . If stresses σ z . LINEAR ELASTICITY 129 ⎡1 − ν ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ E ⎢ [D] = (1 + ν )(1 − 2ν ) ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ Plane stress ν 1 −ν ν ν 1 −ν 0 0 0 1 −ν 2 0 0 0 0 1 −ν 2 SYM 0 ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ .20). γ xz . 5 and 6 in (6. 5 and 6 in (6. and τ yz are set as zero.6. we obtain ⎧σx ⎪ ⎨σy ⎪τ ⎩ xy ⎡ ⎫ ν ⎢ 1 −ν ⎪ E ⎢ ν 1 −ν ⎬= (1 + ν )(1 − 2ν ) ⎢ ⎪ 0 ⎢ 0 ⎭ ⎣ ⎤⎧ ⎥ ⎪ εx ⎥ ⎨ εy ⎥⎪ ⎥ ⎩ γ xy ⎦ 0 0 1 −ν 2 ⎫ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎭ (6. the Hooke’s law can be written ⎧ εx ⎪ ⎨ εy ⎪γ ⎩ xy ⎫ ⎡ 1 ⎪ 1 ⎢ ⎬ = ⎢ −ν ⎪ E⎢ 0 ⎣ ⎭ −ν 1 0 ⎤ ⎧σx ⎪ 0 ⎥ ⎨σy ⎥ 2 (1 + ν ) ⎥ ⎪ τ xy ⎦⎩ 0 ⎤⎧ ⎥ ⎪ εx ⎥ ⎨ εy ⎥⎪ ⎥ ⎩ γ xy ⎦ ⎫ ⎪ ⎬. discarding rows and columns 3. and γ yz are set as zero. Plane strain If a long body of uniform cross section is subjected to transverse loading along its length.(6.24) which is used as {σ } = [ D ] {ε }.

(6.1. (6.28) {ε 0 } = (1 + ν ) ⎣α T αT 0⎦ T . 6. the total strain energy is given by U= 1 2 V ∫ {ε } {σ } dV . (6. The stress-strain relations become {σ } = [ D ] ( {ε } − {ε 0 } ) .130 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS which is also used as {σ } = [ D ] { ε } but here [ D ] has a different expression as in (6. 6. T (6.21) we obtain the strain energy in terms of strains U= 1 2 V ∫ {ε } [ D ] {ε } dV .5 Temperature effects The temperature strains are represented as initial strains {ε 0 } = ⎣ α T αT αT 0 0 0 ⎦ T .27) {ε 0 } = ⎣α T In plane strain αT 0 ⎦ T .26) where T is the temperature rise and α is the coefficient of linear expansion of the material.24).30) For the elastic body shown in Fig.6 Strain energy For linear elastic materials. In plane stress (6.32) . T (6.29) 6.31) Substituting (6. the strain energy per unit volume in the body is U0 = 1 {σ 2 }T {ε } = 1 {ε }T {σ }. 2 (6.

virtual displacements are: a) arbitrary (fictitious. the form known as the principle of virtual displacements (PVD) will be used. ENERGY METHODS The finite element method can be considered a Rayleigh-Ritz method. . In the following. virtual). as applied to elastic bodies. The classical Rayleigh-Ritz technique represents a variational approach whereby a distributed system is approximated by a discrete one by assuming a solution of the differential eigenvalue problem as a finite series of admissible functions. defined over small subdomains of the structure. 7.1.1 Principle of virtual work (PVW) PVW is basically a statement of the static equilibrium of a mechanical system. In the finite element method. b) infinitesimal (follow the rules of differential calculus).7.1 Virtual displacements By definition. Good approximations can be realized with low-degree polynomials. the approximate solution is constructed using local admissible functions. systems with complex geometry or complex boundary conditions cannot be accomodated easily by global admissible functions. Displacements are calculated by methods based on the principle of virtual work and/or the principle of minimum total potential energy. Unfortunately. Instead of solving differential equations with complicated boundary conditions. Variational methods put less strict conditions on the functions approximating the displacement field than the analytical methods based on differential equations. 7. the finite element method evaluates integrals of relatively simple polynomial functions.

A virtual displacement will be denoted by ‘ δ ’ in front of a letter. If the differential equation of the problem is of order m = 2n . as opposed to the symbol d which designates actual differentials of position coordinates. m = 2 and the assumed functions must have continuity C 0 . the vector of virtual displacements is {δu } = ⎣ δu δv δw ⎦ T .g. up to the mth order inclusive. i.2) . e) kinematically admissible. Remember that a function of several variables is said to be of class C m in a domain V if all its partial derivatives. δu . (7. the admissible functions must have continuity C n −1 . Denoting by 1 { u} = ⎣u v w⎦ T . the functional is said to have a “weak form”. For bars. while a continuity C1 is imposed for beams. the geometrical boundary conditions must be satisfied to the (n − 1)th derivative.1). The symbol ‘ δ ’ was introduced by Lagrange to emphasize the virtual character of the variations. consistent with the system kinematic boundary conditions (geometric constraints). 6.1) The vector of the corresponding virtual strains will be { δε } = [ B ] { δu } .e. Because the continuity required is reduced from C 2 in the governing differential equation to C1 in the variational equation. A continuity C 0 is generally required for bars and elasticity problems. the displacement vector (6. Exceptions do exist. d) continuous in the interior and on the surface of the body. plates and shells. exist and are continuous in the domain V.4) inside the body or on the surface Sσ with unprescribed displacements (Fig. e. For beams m = 4 and the approximating functions must have continuity C . i.132 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS c) not related to either the actual displacements or to the forces producing them.e. (7. where [ B ] is the strain-displacement matrix.

ENERGY METHODS 133 7.1. 7. 7. . a).2 Virtual work of external loads For a bar in tension (Fig. a b Fig. i T T T Sσ (7. the virtual work of the external force F is δWE = F ⋅ δu . c).2) and point forces (6.1. 7. because the force is constant along the virtual displacement. (7.3) It has the same value whether the bar material is linear elastic (Fig.3 Virtual work of internal forces For a three-dimensional continuum.1.1 c Note also the absence of the factor 1 2 which occurs in the expression of the work of elastic forces. 7.7.1.4) Note that the scalar product under the first integral is { δu }T { pv } = δu ⋅ pv x + δ v ⋅ pv y + δ w ⋅ pv z .1).3). 7. Note that it is simply (force × displacement). In the general case of loading by conservative body forces (6.5) as shown in Fig. 7. because the external loads remain constant during the action along the virtual displacements.1. T (7. the virtual work of external loads is δ WE = V ∫ { δu } { pv }dV + ∫ { δu } { ps }d A + ∑ { δui } { Fi } . surface tractions (6.2 for the uniaxial case. hence independent of the force. the latter being arbitrary. the virtual work of internal stresses is δ WI = V ∫ { δε } {σ }dV . b) or nonlinear elastic (Fig.

so that the PVD will ensure approximate equilibrium.e.6) δWE is the work of external loads on the virtual displacements { δu } which are independent of loading and kinematically admissible. the virtual work of applied loads equals the virtual work of internal forces δWE = δWI . It applies only .6) Also: A body is in equilibrium if the internal virtual work equals the external virtual work for every kinematically admissible displacement field.6. whether the material is elastic or inelastic. it is independent of material behaviour. Since the principle of virtual displacements is an equilibrium requirement. 7. (7. the principle of virtual displacements states that: If a system is in equilibrium. Note that the virtual work of reaction forces at supports is zero.134 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Fig. The nodal displacements do not permit the fully equilibrating position to be reached. i.1. 7. i T T T T V Sσ (7.4 Principle of virtual displacements For elastic bodies. If stresses are expressed in terms of a set of parameters defining completely the displacement pattern – the nodal displacements. V ∫ { δε } {σ }dV − ∫ { δu } { pv }dV − ∫ { δu } { ps }d A − ∑ { δui } { Fi } = 0 . then equilibrium relations can be obtained and the displacement parameters determined. stresses remain constant during the action on virtual strains.2 Again. a) In (7. then during an arbitrary small displacement from the equilibrium position.

δΔ3 satisfy the compatibility equations (2. e). Fig. T2 .4. δΔ2 . An imaginary state.4. produces a displacement of the joint 4. The initial state. Example 7. of components u1 and u2 (Fig. 3.4. in which the external force F.1 For the three-bar pin-jointed framework shown in Fig. 7. 7.4. 7. f). Consider three states of the analyzed system: 1. 7. 7. The joint 4 is acted upon by the external forces F1 . δΔ 2 . a). ENERGY METHODS 135 for loading by conservative forces. T3 (Fig.19) . c). F2 and by internal forces T1 . in which the joint 4 is given a virtual displacement of components δu1 and δu2 (Fig. producing the elongations Δ1 . loaded by a force F. Δ2 . δΔ3 (Fig. of components F1 = F sinα and F2 = F cosα . find the internal bar forces and the displacement of point 4. which produce virtual elongations in bars δΔ1 . The joint reacts with forces equal in magnitude but of opposite sign.3.3 Solution. 2. 7. d). b).4. The final state of static equilibrium.7. 7. Δ3 (Fig. in which bars are not loaded by external forces and are not prestressed (Fig. 7. the applied forces remaining constant. The external work is independent of the path taken. The virtual displacements δu1 and δu2 and the virtual bar extensions δΔ 1 .4. which do not change direction during the action on the virtual displacements.

EA Δ 2= T2 l cosθ .6) using the products of real forces and virtual displacements we obtain T1 δ Δ 1+ T2 δ Δ 2 + T3 δ Δ 3 = F1 δu1 + F2 δu2 .136 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS δΔ1 = δu1 sinθ + δu 2 cosθ . gives (7.7) into (7.7) Δ 1= T1 l . For the three bars. EA (7.8) Fig. δΔ2 = δu 2 . δΔ3 = −δu1 sinθ + δu 2 cosθ .9) and collecting coefficients of δu1 and δu2 . 7.9) Substituting (7.4 Equating internal work to external work (7. EA Δ 3= T3 l . the force-elongation equations (2.21) can be written (7.

T1 cosθ + T2 + T3 cosθ = F2 . This can only be true if their coefficients vanish T1 sinθ − T3 sinθ = F1 .6. b) Convert { δε } to { δu } using the integration by parts V ⎜ ⎟ ∫ σ x δε x dV = ∫ σ x δ ⎜ ∂ x ⎟ d x dy dz = ∫ ⎝ ⎠ V ⎛ ∂u ⎞ σx Sσ ∂ (δu ) d x l d A = ∂x δu ∂σ x dx dy dz . T T T V Sσ (7.10) Since δu1 and δu2 are unrelated to each other. (7.7.11).12) 7.5 Proof that PDV is equivalent to equilibrium equations Consider a form of equation (7. ∂x dV = Sσ ∫ σ x d(δu ) l d A = ∫ σ x δu l d A − ∫ Sσ V V ∫ σ y δε y dV = Sσ ∫ σ y δv m d A − ∫ δv V ∂σ y ∂y dV .1. l EA ⎛ 1 ⎞ 2 ⎜ 2 cos θ + ⎟ u 2 = F2 . Substituting (7.10) must be zero whatever the values of δu1 and δu2 .11) These are indeed the equations of equilibrium. V ∫ τ xy δγ xy dV = ∫ τ xy (δ v ⋅ l + δu ⋅ m)d A − ∫ Sσ V ∂τ xy ⎞ ⎛ ∂τ xy ⎜ ⎜ ∂ x δ v + ∂ y δu ⎟ dV . It is confirmed that the principle of virtual work is an equivalent statement of statical equilibrium.6.8) in the finite form of (7. we could put either to zero. cosθ ⎠ l ⎝ (7. (7. Equation (7. ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ . the components of the displacement of point 4 can be determined from the following equations 2 EA 2 sin θ ⋅ u 1 = F1 . then in (7. ENERGY METHODS 137 δu1 (T1 sin θ − T3 sin θ − F1 ) + δu2 (T1 cos θ + T2 + T3 cos θ − F2 ) = 0 . a) without point forces V ∫ { δε } {σ }dV = ∫ { δu } { pv }dV + ∫ { δu } { ps }d A .7).

but only in the mean. Sσ V Because { δu } are arbitrary. its coefficients must vanish. i. The equations of equilibrium emerge from the brackets [ ∂ ]T {σ } + { pv } = { 0 } in V. So. that is the stress and displacement fields are continuous. is supported in some way and there the tractions { ps } will be unknown reactions and not specified loads. . when using approximate functions for { u }. The componets of stresses at element interfaces may not balance at a point. Most finite elements in use today do not achieve continuous stresses across interfaces. [ n ]T {σ } − { ps } = { 0 } on Sσ . The PVD supplies equilibrium conditions both within and on the surface of the body. On substituting in (7.138 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS where l and m are direction cosines of the outward normal at the surface. Adding together V ∫ ( δε x σ x + δε y σ y + δγ xy τ xy )dV = ∫ [ δu (σ x l + τ xy m)+ δ v (τ xy l + σ y m) ] d A − Sσ − V ∫ ⎡ ⎛ ∂σ x ∂τ xy + ⎢δ u ⎜ ⎜ ∂y ⎢ ⎝ ∂x ⎣ ∂σ y ⎞ ⎛ ∂τ ⎟ + δ v ⎜ xy + ⎟ ⎜ ∂x ∂y ⎠ ⎝ ⎞⎤ ⎟⎥ dV . ⎟ ⎠⎥ ⎦ In matrix form (Gauss’ theorem) T T T T T ∫ { δε } {σ }dV = ∫ { δu } [ n ] {σ }d A − ∫ { δu } [ ∂ ] {σ }dV .6. Sσ V V which is true provided [ ∂ ] T {σ } and {ε } are finite in V. Part of the surface. This applies only within a single element and up to its surface. b) T T T T ∫ { δu } ( [ ∂ ] {σ } + { pv }) dV − ∫ { δu } ( [ n ] {σ } − { ps }) d A = 0 .e. it is not necessary to worry about the equilibrium boundary conditions. Sσ . It is conventional to remove the unknown reactions by choosing the virtual displacements { δu } to be zero over Sσ .

ENERGY METHODS 139 7.1 Strain energy Consider the strain energy (6.4). (7. 2 V T ({ δε } δU = T [ D ] {ε } ) = { ε } T [ D ] { δε } . ∫ { δε } V T [ D ] {ε } dV = ∫ { δε }T {σ } dV = δWI .16) The above expressions can be obtained directly from the strain energies . gives d x2 (7.2 Principle of minimum total potential energy The total potential energy Π of an elastic body is defined as the sum of the strain energy U and the work potential of external loads WP Π = U + WP .13) 7. the virtual increase of strain energy is δU = Because 1 2 V ∫ {ε } T T [ D ] { ε } dV . V δ U = δWI . the virtual variation of the strain energy is equal to the virtual work of the internal stresses on virtual strains. For a bar in tension. dx dx d2v (5. substituting σ = E ε and ε = du . yields dx δU = V ∫ δε σ dV = ∫ δε Eε A d x = ∫ l l d δu du EA dx .14) For an elastic body. V ∫ { δε } [ D ] {ε } dV + 1 ∫ { ε }T [ D ] { δε } dV . d x2 d x2 (7. (7.32) U= 1 2 For a virtual strain { δε } .7.15) For a beam in bending. substituting ε = − y δU = ∫ l ⎛ ⎞ ∂ 2δv ∂ 2 v ⎜ 2 ⎟ E y dA ⎟ dx = ⎜ ⎟ ∂ x2 ∂ x2 ⎜ ⎝A ⎠ ∫ ∫ l d 2δv d2v EI dx .2.

20) For virtual displacements {δu } δWP = − δWE .2.140 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS for a bar U= ∫ l E A ⎛ du ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ dx . ⎜ d x2 ⎟ d ⎝ ⎠ 2 (7.18) 7.2 External potential energy The work potential of external loads WP is equal to the negative product of external forces by the corresponding displacement WP = − WE . For example. i T T (7. being independent of the linear properties of the body on which it acts. For a three-dimensional continuum WP = − V ∫ {u } { pv }dV − ∫ {u } { ps }d A − ∑ {ui } { Fi } .2. a) Its variation is . (7.13.19) The negative sign appears because the external loads lose some of their capacity for doing work when displaced in the direction they act. because this potential arises from the magnitude of force and its ⎝ 2 ⎠ capacity to do work when it moves. i T T T Sσ (7. An external point load F j has potential energy − F j u j ( ) instead of ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎜ − F j u j ⎟ . 2 ⎜ dx ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 2 (7. a gravitational force F = m g acts in the opposite direction to a vertical displacement h and the potential becomes m g h .3 Total potential energy The total potential energy (7.21) 7.13) can be written Π = ∫ { δε }T {σ } dV − ∫ { u }T { pv }dV − V V Sσ ∫ {u } { ps }d A − ∑ { ui } { Fi } . (7.17) for a beam U= ∫ l EI 2 ⎛ d2v ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ x.

i i i Expressing the elongations in terms of displacements. the equilibrium is stable. rather than a result of the equilibrium. An equivalent statement is: For conservative systems. ENERGY METHODS 141 δΠ = δU + δWP = δWI − δWE . then the total potential energy has a minimum value. according to the compatibility relations. the stationary value is a minimum.2 For the truss shown in Fig.22. then it is in a stable equilibrium state. If δ 2 Π > 0 . if under the action of external loads and reaction forces the total potential energy of a deformable body is a minimum. of all possible kinematically admissible displacement fields.7. U i = Ti Δ i = 2 2 li and the external potential energy is WP = − ∑F u . Reciprocally. any kinematically admissible displacement field which minimizes the total potential energy represents a stable equilibrium configuration. a) is a condition that establishes or defines the equilibrium.22) δΠ = 0 . Reciprocally.6) it follows that (7. 7. Example 7. the strain energy for a bar is 1 1 E Ai 2 Δi . Based on equation (7.22.3. it can be considered that (7. the total potential energy has a stationary value. at equilibrium. (7. the one satisfying equilibrium corresponds to a minimum value of the total potential energy. the total potential energy can be written . a) hence. Thus. The principle of minimum total potential energy states that: If a deformable body is in equilibrium under the action of external loads and reaction forces.

7. Π is stationary. Cancelling the derivatives of Π with respect to each independent variable ∂Π = 0.5. l (a) Integrating by parts the first term gives .142 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Π = + EA ( u1 sinθ + u2 cosθ 2l EA (− u1 sinθ + u2 cosθ 2l )2 + EA 2 u2 + 2 l cosθ )2 − F1 u1 − F2 u2 . Show that PMTPE is equivalent to the equilibrium conditions inside and at the ends of the beam.11). Example 7.3 Apply the principle of minimum total potential energy to a beam in bending. ∂ u1 ∂Π =0. ∂ u2 we obtain the equilibrium equations (7. subjected to a distributed load and to the end bending moments and shear forces as shown in Fig. l l l At equilibrium. the total potential energy is Π = 1 2 ∫ E I (v′′) d x − ∫ p v dx + M 2 0 v′ 0 − M l v′ − T0 v0 + Tl vl . 7.5 Solution. For a beam segment loaded as shown. Fig. δΠ = 0 or ∫ E I v′′ δ(v′′)d x − ∫ p δv dx + M l l 0 ′ δ v0 − M l δ v′ − T0 δ v0 + Tl δ vl = 0 .

As δ v is arbitrary. the transverse displacement v (x ) is approximated by a finite series .3 The Rayleigh-Ritz method The Rayleigh-Ritz method involves the construction of an assumed displacement field.M ) δv′ − (( E I v′′ ) − T )δv l l 0 =0. l l d ′ Integrating by parts the last term gives ∫ (E I v′′) δv′ dx = ∫ (E I v′′) d x (δv)dx = ∫ (E I v′′) d (δv)= l l l ′ ′ d ′ = (E I v′′)′ δ v l 0 − ∫ l l 0 d (E I v′′)′ dx δ v = (E I v′′)′ δ v dx l 0 − ∫ (E I v′′) δv dx. or δ v0 = 0 . 7. and l ( E I v′′)l′ = Tl .7. or δ v′ = 0 . or δ vl = 0 . For a beam. ENERGY METHODS 143 ∫ l E I v′′ δ(v′′) d x = l ∫ l E I v′′ d ⎛ dv ⎞ ⎜ δ ⎟ dx = dx ⎜ dx ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ∫ E I v′′ d (δv′) = l l 0 = E I v′′ δ v′ 0 − ∫ d x (E I v′′) dx δv′ = E I v′′ δv′ − ∫ (E I v′′) δv′ dx. or δ v′ = 0 . ( E I v′′) l = M l . 0 ( E I v′′)0′ = T0 . The coefficient of δ v in the integrand gives the equation of equilibrium (E I v′′)″ = p (x ) . which are the boundary conditions. l l 0 ″ Equation (a ) becomes l E I v′′ δ v′ 0 − (E I v′′)′ δ v + ∫ (E I v′′) δv dx − ∫ p δv dx − M δv′ l l l 0 ″ + T δv l 0 =0 or ″ ′ ∫ ((E I v′′) − p ) δv dx + ( E I v′′ . the other terms deliver the equilibrium conditions at the beam ends ( E I v′′) 0 = M 0 .

The total potential energy is . Substituting the displacements (7. l = 3 m . I = 1600 mm4 .4 For the beam shown in Fig.. Example 7. i.144 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS v (x ) ≅ ∑ a ϕ (x ) j j j =1 n (7. c) The sequence of functions must be complete.23) into the expression of the total potential energy Π . and ϕ j ( x ) are prescribed functions of x . the latter becomes a function of the parameters a j . which is more accurate the more terms are selected in the respective series.. Because δa j are arbitrary.23) where a j are undetermined constants called generalized coordinates.e. If the functions are not selected from the domain space of the operator of the equation being solved (completeness property) the resulting solution could be either zero or wrong. (7. whose values are determined from the stationarity conditions δΠ = ∑ ∂a j ∂Π j δa j = 0 . b) The functions must individually satisfy the geometric boundary conditions. Solution. ∂Π =0. to be admissible functions. The solutions are back-substituted into (7.24) which is a linear algebraic set of equations in the constants a j . F = 100 N and q = 200 N m . The necessary requirements for the convergence of the Rayleigh-Ritz method are the following: a) The approximating functions must be continuous to one order less the highest derivative in the integrand. called admissible functions. n ) ...6 find the vertical displacement of point 2. ∂aj ( j = 1. 7. Consider: E = 210 MPa .23) which represents an approximate deflected shape. that satisfy the kinematic (geometric) boundary conditions and are continuous within the definition interval.

27) ϕ1 (x ) = x 2 (3 x − 2 l )( x − l ) l4 . leads to two equations relating the generalized coordinates ∂Π = EI ∂ a1 ∫ ( a1 ϕ1′′ + a2 ϕ2′′ ) ϕ1′′ d x − ∫ q ϕ1 d x − F ϕ1(l 2) = 0 . where the functions (7. ⎝ 3 ⎠ v (l ) = 0 .26).27) into (7. 2 0 l l −F [ a1 ϕ1(l 2) + a2 ϕ2 (l 2) ]. 0 2l 3 l . ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ d x2 ⎟ ⎝2⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 2l 3 2 ∫ l (7.28) satisfy all geometrical boundary conditions (7. for simplicity. the transverse displacements are approximated by a series consisting of only two terms v ( x ) = a1 ϕ1 (x ) + a2 ϕ 2 (x ) . 7. (7. ϕ 2 (x ) = x 3 (3 x − 2 l )( x − l ) l5 .7.25) we obtain the functional 1 Π = EI 2 ′ ∫ ( a1 ϕ1′′ + a2 ϕ2′ ) dx − ∫ q ( a1 ϕ1 + a2 ϕ2 ) dx − . ⎛ 2l ⎞ v ⎜ ⎟=0. l 2l 3 Requiring Π to be stationary with respect to a1 and a 2 . Fig.6 Substituting (7. ENERGY METHODS 145 1 Π = EI 2 ∫ 0 l ⎛ d2v ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ d x − q v (x )d x − F v ⎛ l ⎞ . (7.25) The geometric boundary conditions are v (0) = 0 .26) In the following. v′ (0) = 0 .

7. the variation of the total potential energy is δ Π = k u δu − F δ u = ( k u − F ) δ u .9 ⋅10− 5 16 32 E Iy Example 7. Substituting the functions (7. 3 1 3 2 7 l 46656 l For example. the equations are linear in aj .29) In 2. Comment on the approximations of the Rayleigh-Ritz method. the coefficient of a1 in the first equation is EI ∫ ( ϕ ′′ ) 1 0 l 2 dx = EI 1 ∫ l ( 36 x 8 0 l 2 − 30 l x + 4 l 2 ) 2 dx = 56 E I . 7. we obtain 56 E I 11 EI a 1 + 10 3 a2 = − ql. 3 5 l 4320 l 10 72 E I 269 EI a + a =− ql. Answer. 2 Π = (7.30) For a small virtual displacement δu .5 Consider a linear spring of stiffness k (Fig. The total potential energy (Fig.7.00257 q l4 . EI a2 = −0. . for F = q l 6 . a) subjected to a load F.28).48 mm.7.146 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ∂Π = EI ∂ a2 ∫ ( a ϕ ′′ + a ϕ ′′ ) ϕ ′′ d x − ∫ q ϕ 1 1 2 2 2 0 2l 3 l l 2 d x − F ϕ 2 (l 2 ) = 0 . b) is 1 2 ku − Fu .00207 q l4 . a1 + a2 = 4. Because Π is of second order in ϕ and ϕ ′ . E I (7. the displacement is v (l 2 ) = a1 ϕ1 (l 2) + a2 ϕ 2 (l 2) = = 1 1 q l4 = 2. 5 l3 The solutions are a1 = 0.

The total potential energy of the equilibrium configuration is 1 1 1 F2 . = 2 Π eq 2 Π eq Π eq = The stiffness is (7.7. the potential energy for an approximate displacement which satisfies the kinematic boundary conditions is greater than the true value Π app > Π eq . equations (7. the exact solution corresponds to an absolute minimum value of Π . 7. k ueq = 2 2 k (7.7. 7.34) If F is prescribed and the resulting u has been approximated by a RayleighRitz solution uapp ≠ ueq .32) – (7.34) and Fig.7 For δΠ =0 we obtain k ueq − F = 0 .32) k =− The strain energy is (7. .7. Fig. In magnitude Π app < Π eq . b indicate that a) Because Π eq is a minimum.33) U eq = 1 2 1 F2 = −Π eq . ENERGY METHODS 147 The equilibrium equation is obtained by requiring δΠ to be zero ( Π be stationary) for arbitrary δu . b.31) As seen in Fig. (7. 7. F ueq − F ueq = − F ueq = − 2 2 2 k 1 F2 1 F2 .

a localized version of the Rayleigh-Ritz method Instead of finding an admissible function satisfying the boundary conditions for the entire domain.36) An approximate compatible displacement field corresponds to a structure which is stiffer than the actual structure and therefore will give a lower bound on displcement. k↑ (7. . The geometric shape and the internal displacement field are described by a series of discrete quantities (like nodal coordinates and nodal displacements) distributed through the structure.E. c) Procedure. b) The approximate stiffness is overestimated k ↑= 1 F2 . to present output data in an engineering format. taking advantage of graphical and animation facilities. Then determine stresses. . Given a geometrically complex structure (including the boundary conditions) and the external loads { pv } . the unknown function is approximated piecewise over the entire domain (continuity at global level). 2 Π eq ↓ (7. Computers are used to store long lists of separate numbers and to manipulate them. 7. With these individually defined functions matching each other at certain points (nodes) at the element interfaces. in the FEM the admissible functions are defined over small size subdomains.1 F.148 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS the approximate total potential energy is underestimated. in Structural Mechanics a) Problem. with simple geometry and well identified structural behaviour.M.M. etc. find the displacement field { u } within V and on the surface Sσ (Fig. 7. which is often difficult. b) Solution approach. Use PVD or PMTPE as an approximate method for solving the boundary-value problem.4.35) c) The approximate displacement is underestimated u ↓= F . For this a matrix notation is used. Admissible functions are defined over small size finite elements. d) Tools. internal forces.E. { ps } . reaction forces. { Fi } .4 F.1). 6.

2 Discretization The structure is divided into finite elements (Fig.4.6. the trial function is expressed as a finite expansion . PVD yields δΠ = ∑ δΠ e e = ∑ ∫ e ⎛ ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ T T ⎜ { δε } {σ }dV − { δu } { ps }d A ⎟ = 0 . ⎜ Ve ⎟ Sσ e ⎝ ⎠ ∫ (7.38) In the following. Fig.8 7. The aim is the calculation of the element stiffness matrix and load vector. Elements are defined by their nodal coordinates and some physical parameters. a) can be written (considering only surface tractions) δΠ = V ∫ { δε } {σ }dV − ∫ { δu } { ps }d A = 0 .3 Principle of virtual displacements For the entire structure. equation (7. 7. 7.4. only δ Π e will be considered.37) As a summation of virtual works on all elements.7. T T Sσ (7. 7. ENERGY METHODS 149 7.4 Approximating functions for the element In the Rayleigh-Ritz method.8) that define the mesh.4.

7. defined by Q e remains to be found. A finite element described by admissible shape functions (integrable in the interior and with equal values of generalized coordinates at element interfaces) is referred to as co-deformable or conforming. where [ B ] is the matrix of differentiated shape functions. { } The proper selection of shape functions ensure the continuity of the displacement field at global level. where [ N ] is the matrix of shape functions (interpolation functions).4. The strain virtual variation is (7.150 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎧ a1 ⎫ ⎪a ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ (7. The reason is that elements are small enough so that the shape of the displacement field can be approximated without too much error and only the magnitude.18) {ε } = [ ∂ ] { u } = [ ∂ ][ N ] {Q e }= [ B ] {Q e }.5 Compatibility between strains and nodal displacements From the compatibility relationship (6. . ∑ n The basic idea of FEM is to choose the constants .39) u (x ) ≅ a j ϕ j (x ) = ⎣ϕ1 ϕ 2 L ϕ n ⎦ ⎨ 2 ⎬ = ⎣ϕ ⎦ { a } L⎪ ⎪ j =1 ⎪ an ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ where the undetermined constants a j have no direct evident signification.41) { δε } = [ B ] {δQ e }.the displacement unknowns at the nodes { a } = Q e and to prescribe admissible functions denoted ⎣ϕ ⎦ = ⎣N ⎦ so that { } 0 ⎧ u ⎫ ⎡ ⎣N u ⎦ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎨ v ⎬=⎢ 0 ⎪w⎪ ⎢ 0 ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ ⎣N v ⎦ 0 e ⎤ ⎧ Qu ⎪ e 0 ⎥ ⎨ Qv ⎥ e ⎣N w ⎦ ⎥ ⎪ Qw ⎦⎩ 0 { }⎫ { }⎪ ⎬ { }⎪ ⎭ (7.40) or { u } = [ N ] {Q e }.

The kinematic connectivity is expressed by the relationship between element and global displacements ~ Q e = T e { Q }. e e e (7.7 Assembly of the global stiffness matrix and load vector In the next step. all individual elements are assembled together so that the displacements are continuous across element interfaces and the boundary conditions are satisfied. ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ ⎞ As δQ e are arbitrary and non-zero.44) 7.42) where the element stiffness matrix is [ K ]= ∫ [ B ] e Ve e T [ D ][ B ] dV (7. {Q } is the vector of the ~ global displacements of the structure and T e is a connectivity matrix.7.43) and the vector of consistent nodal forces is {F }= ∫ [ N ] Ae T { ps }d A . (7. the virtual work for an Ve T T e T e e T ∫ {δ Q } [ B ] [ D ][ B ]{Q }dV − ∫ { δQ } [ N ] { ps }d A = 0 Ae ⎜ = { δQ } ⎜ ∫ [ B ] ⎜ e T ⎛ T [ D ][ B ] dV ⎝ Ve {Q }− ∫ [ N ] e Ae T { ps }d A ⎟ = 0 .45) where Q e is the vector of nodal element displacements. (7. cancelation of the bracket yields the element equilibrium equation { } [ K ] {Q }= {F }. { } { } [ ] [ ] The variation of element displacements is .6 Element stiffness matrix and load vector Using the constitutive equation element is δΠ e = or δΠ e {σ } = [ D ] {ε } . ENERGY METHODS 151 7.4.4. containing ones at the nodal displacements of element nodes and zeros elsewhere.

50). The assembly is done by directly placing the nonzero entries of element stiffness matrices in the right locations of the global stiffness matrix based on element connectivity.8 Solution and back-substitution Nodal displacements are determined by solving the linear equations (7.46) {δQ }T ∑ e ~ ~ ~ [ T ] [ K ][ T ] {Q } = {δQ } ∑ [ T ] {Q }.50) The above procedure is never used in practice.25). the condensed equilibrium equations are [ K ] {Q } = { F } . element stresses are evaluated as ~ {σ } = [ D ] {ε } = [ D ][ B ] Q e = [ D ][ B ] T e { Q } { } [ ] where [ D ] is given by (6. e e FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS (7. (7.47) where the global stiffness matrix is [ K ]= ∑ e ~ ~ [ T ] [ K ][ T ] e e (7. e (7. It has been used only to show algebraically how to assemble a global stiffness matrix. In the back-substitution phase.46) The PVD equation for the entire structure is ∑ {δQ } [ K ] {Q }= ∑ {δQ } {F }.24) or (6.45) and (7.48) and the global load vector is ~ { F } = ∑ [ T e ] T {Q e }. e T e e T e T e e As { δ Q } are arbitrary and non-zero.4. e T e e e T e e e or using (7. the unreduced global equilibrium equations are [ K ] {Q } = { F } . 7. . e T (7.49) Applying the boundary conditions.152 ~ { δQ }= [ T ] { δQ }.

joined together at their corners (nodes).1. A large number of small elements can be densely packed into a region of expected high stress gradients. without the need for numerical integration. 8. It is a much more adaptable shape than the rectangle and it allows the user to tailor the element mesh to suit any structural geometry. which is considered constant.1 The plane constant-strain triangle (CST) Before the advent of arbitrarily shaped isoparametric elements. and uniformly stressed regions can be left with a small number of larger triangles. Only transversely homogeneous plates will be analyzed herein.8. 8. the three-noded triangle with constant strain field. This chapter presents the element stiffness matrices and consistent force vectors for triangular and rectangular elements. strain and stress components are uniform through the plate thickness. In-plane displacement. 8.1 Discretization of structure The plate is divided into a number of straight-sided triangles (Fig.1. The very first approximate finite element developed in 1956 to model delta wing skin panels. composite and sandwich plates being studied in other courses. so that the corners of adjacent elements have common displacements. discussed in the next chapter. The elements fill the entire region except of a small region at the boundary. is treated separately. the CST was one of the most widely used elements and is still available in systems today. . a). that allow closed form derivations. TWO-DIMENSIONAL ELEMENTS Many engineering structures can be modeled as two-dimensional flat plates. This unfilled region exists for curved boundaries and it can be reduced by choosing smaller elements. designed to be primarily loaded in their plane and to resist loads by membrane action rather than bending.

(8. The displacement components of a local node j are denoted as u j in the x direction and v j in the y direction. b are numbered locally as 1. 8. Because for two displacements there are six boundary conditions.2 Polynomial approximation of the displacement field The displacements u and v of a point within the triangle are expressed in terms of the nodal displacements. y3 ) .1.1) 8.154 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The three nodes of the isolated element from Fig.1. Thus. (8. y2 ) and ( x3 . each node has two degrees of freedom. 2 and 3. y1 ) . v ( x . The vector of element nodal displacements is defined as { q }= ⎣ u e 1 v1 u2 v2 u3 v3 T ⎦ . y ) = a1 + a2 x + a3 y .2) .1 b Each node is permitted to displace in the two directions x and y. the assumed displacement field is linear u (x . y ) = a4 + a5 x + a6 y with six arbitrary parameters. The numbering is in anticlockwise direction to avoid calculating a negative area. a Fig. The corresponding nodal coordinates are designated as ( x1 . ( x2 . 8.

. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 155 The strains (6. only one need be considered in detail.8.6) where . . in which the constants are the nodal displacements and the displacement field is obtained by interpolation based on values of corner displacements. ⎥ y3 ⎥ ⎦ (8. ∂ y ∂x hence the name “constant strain triangle”.2) the constants ai have no physical meaning. ⎪ ⎭ (8.4. . We can write u = ⎣1 x ⎧ a1 ⎪ y ⎦ ⎨ a2 ⎪a ⎩ 3 ⎫ ⎪ ⎬ = ⎣1 x ⎪ ⎭ y⎦ { a } .5) { a } = [ A ] −1 { u e }. ∂y γ xy = ∂u ∂ v + = a3 + a5 = const . (8.3) Evaluating the expression for u at the three nodes gives the nodal displacements in terms of the polynomial coefficients ⎧ u1 ⎪ ⎨ u2 ⎪u ⎩ 3 or e ⎫ ⎡ 1 x1 ⎪ ⎢ ⎬ = ⎢ 1 x2 ⎪ ⎢1 x 3 ⎭ ⎣ y1 y2 y3 ⎤ ⎧ a1 ⎥ ⎪a ⎥⎨ 2 ⎥ ⎪ a3 ⎦⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎬ . ⎡ 1 x1 [A ] = ⎢ 1 x2 ⎢ ⎢ 1 x3 ⎣ By inversion y1 ⎤ y2 ⎥ . A nodal approximation is preferred. (8. 8.3 Nodal approximation of the displacement field In the polynomial approximation (8.16) are εx = ∂u = a2 = const .4) { u }= [ A ] { a } . ∂x εy = ∂v = a6 = const .1. Since the functions for u and v are of the same form. a) where (8.

2.156 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS [A ] in which −1 ⎡α1 α 2 α 3 ⎤ 1 ⎢ β1 β 2 β 3 ⎥ . 2.12) 1 ( α i + βi x + γ i y ) .3) gives u = ⎣N ⎦ {u } e (8. ⎧ N1 ⎪ ⎨ N2 ⎪N ⎩ 3 or Ni = ⎫ ⎡ α1 ⎪ 1 ⎢ ⎬= ⎢α 2 ⎪ 2 A ⎢α ⎭ ⎣ 3 β1 γ 1 ⎤ ⎧ 1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ β2 γ 2 ⎥ ⎨ x ⎬ ⎥ β3 γ 3 ⎥ ⎪ y ⎪ ⎦⎩ ⎭ (8. { } (8. Substituting (8.7) α i = x j yk − xk y j . 3 are labeled anticlockwise around the element.9) The determinant is positive if nodes 1.10) where the row vector of shape functions −1 ⎣N ⎦ = ⎣N1 N 2 N 3 ⎦ = ⎣ 1 x y ⎦ [ A ] .13) . a) Similarly v = ⎣N ⎦ v e . γ i = xk − x j (8. y3 y1 (8. j . = ⎥ 2A ⎢ ⎢γ 1 γ 2 γ 3 ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ (8. k permute in a natural order. 3 ) (8.11) By transposition T −T T ⎣N ⎦ = [A ] ⎣1 x y ⎦ . β i = y j − yk .12.6) into (8. 2A ( i = 1. The area of the triangle A is equal to one half the magnitude of the determinant of [ A ] 1 x1 2 A = 1 x2 1 x3 y2 = (x2 y3 − x3 y2 ) + ( x3 y1 − x1 y3 ) + (x1 y2 − x2 y1 ) . (8.8) and the subscripts i .

8. have a unit value at node i and zero values at the other two nodes. and i =1 ( i .14) yields . 3 (8. as illustrated in Fig.10) and (8. j = 1. y ) = 1 [ x2 y3 − x3 y2 + ( y2 − y3 ) x + (x3 − x2 ) y ] .2: N i ( xi .12. 8. a) can also be written N1 (x . b) Fig. y ) = N 3 (x . yi ) = δ i j . 2A (8. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 157 The shape functions (8.2 The shape functions N i vary linearly. 3 ) (8. y ) = N 2 (x . 8.15) Combining (8.12. 2. 2A 1 [ x3 y1 − x1 y3 + ( y3 − y1 ) x + (x1 − x3 ) y ] .14) ∑ Ni = 1 . 2A 1 [ x1 y2 − x2 y1 + ( y1 − y2 ) x + (x2 − x1 ) y ] .

1. u2 and u3 .y ) =u1 N1 (x. 8.y ) determines a plane surface passing through u1 . (8.y ) + u2 N 2 (x.16) or ⎧u⎫ ⎨ ⎬=[N ⎩v⎭ ] { q e }.y ) + u3 N 3 (x. a) Fig.3.4 The matrix [B ] Strains are expressed in terms of displacements as ⎡ ∂ ⎢ ⎢ ∂x = [ ∂ ] { u }= ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ∂ ⎢ ⎢ ∂y ⎣ ⎤ ⎡ ∂ 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ∂x ⎧u⎫ ⎢ ∂ ⎥ ⎨ ⎬= 0 ∂y ⎥ ⎩ v ⎭ ⎢ ⎢ ∂ ∂ ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ∂x ⎦ ⎥ ⎢ ∂y ⎣ ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ∂ ⎥ [N ∂y ⎥ ∂ ⎥ ⎥ ∂x ⎦ ⎥ {ε } e ] { q e }= [ B ] { q e }. as shown in Fig. 8. .16.158 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎧ u ⎫ ⎡ N1 ⎨ ⎬=⎢ ⎩v⎭ ⎣ 0 0 N1 N2 0 0 N2 N3 0 ⎧ u1 ⎪v ⎪ 1 0 ⎤ ⎪ u2 ⎪ ⎨ N 3 ⎥ ⎪ v2 ⎦ ⎪ u3 ⎪ ⎪ v3 ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ (8.3 The displacement u (x. 8.

When the surface load distribution (per unit .43) is [k ]= ∫ [ B ] e Ve T [ D ][ B ] dV = [ B ]T [ D ][ B ] t e A.25) for plane strain conditions.18) where t e is the element thickness.8. ⎥ y1 − y2 ⎥ ⎦ 0 x3 − x2 y 2 − y3 y1 − y2 x2 − x1 0 0 x1 − x3 (8.24) for plane stress and by (6.17. Sometimes it is 0 x32 y23 y31 ⎡ y23 1 ⎢ [ B ]= ⎢ 0 2A ⎢ x32 ⎣ 0 x13 y31 y12 0 x13 0 x21 0 ⎤ x21 ⎥ ⎥ y12 ⎥ ⎦ (8.1.17) The matrix written simply [B] is constant for a given CST element. a) where the notation is obvious. ∂y ⎥ ∂ N3 ⎥ ⎥ ∂x ⎦ ⎥ ⎡ β1 1 ⎢ [ B ]= ⎢ 0 2A ⎢ γ1 ⎣ ⎡ y2 − y3 1 ⎢ [ B ]= ⎢ 0 2A ⎢ x3 − x2 ⎣ 0 β2 0 β3 γ1 0 β1 γ 2 y3 − y1 γ2 0 β2 γ 3 0 x1 − x3 y3 − y1 0 ⎤ γ3 ⎥ . The consistent nodal forces due to traction loads acting on a portion of the boundary are calculated as for a linear two-node element. Along an edge 1-2. satisfying N1 + N 2 = 1 .5 Element stiffness matrix and load vector The element stiffness matrix (7. 8. A is the element area and [ D ] is the material stiffness matrix given by (6. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 159 The matrix of the derivatives of shape functions is ⎡ ∂ N1 ⎢ ⎢ ∂x [ B ]= ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ∂N 1 ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ ∂y 0 ∂ N1 ∂y ∂ N1 ∂x ∂ N2 ∂x 0 ∂ N2 ∂y 0 ∂ N2 ∂y ∂ N2 ∂x ∂ N3 ∂x 0 ∂ N3 ∂y ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ∂ N3 ⎥ . (8. the shape function N 3 is zero while N1 and N 2 are similar to the shape functions in one dimension. ⎥ β3 ⎥ ⎦ 0 ⎤ x2 − x1 ⎥ .

8. 6 f 2e = lte ( p1 + 2 p2 6 ) (8. the nodal forces are f1e = lte ( 2 p1 + p2 ) .160 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS area) is linear. even in a fine mesh. 8. b which however produces a larger bandwidth. Fig.1.5.4 The nodal forces associated with the weight of an element are equally distributed at the nodes.19) where t e is the thickness of the element. 8. 8. Because of linearity they coincide with the static resultants.4). are much inferior to higher order elements in a coarse mesh.5. 8.5 . Fig.6 Remarks A mesh like in Fig. 8. Benchmark tests using triangular elements have shown that CST elements. a is clearly a directionally sensitive assembly. and this could be corrected by using the “union jack” pattern of Fig. varying from p1 at node 1 to p2 at node 2 (Fig.

A simple example of stress averaging is shown in Fig. The simplest form of averaging consists of simply connecting the centroids of two adjacent triangles and to assign the mean stress value to the crossing point of this line with the common edge. Most programs contain facilities for averaging the stresses. Fig. The diagram compares the theoretical stress distribution along the marked line with the averaged values calculated using CSTs.6 . 8. only one quarter of the plate is considered. Taking advantage of symmetry. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 161 A drawback of the displacement form of the finite element method is that equilibrium is only satisfied in the mean or over the element. This means that along an edge which is common to two elements the stresses are different across the edge. 8. where they should be continuous.6 for a square plate with a circular hole.8.

a). Divide the plate into four CST elements and find: a) the nodal displacements. E8. x3 = 0 . the nodal coordinates of element 1 are x1 = y1 = 0 . b) stresses in elements. and c) the support reactions. y3 = l . ⎢ ⎥ ⎢0 0 1 2⎥ ⎣ ⎦ b (a) With the origin of coordinate axes at the plate centre. Let ν = 0 . x2 = l .1 Solution. y2 = 0 .24) is ⎡1 0 0 ⎤ [ D ]= E ⎢ 0 1 0 ⎥ . E8. The material stiffness matrix (6.1. ⎥ l ⎢ −1 −1 0 1 1 0 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (b) The element stiffness matrix (8.17) is [B ] 1 ⎡ −1 0 1 0 0 0 ⎤ 1⎢ = ⎢ 0 −1 0 0 0 1 ⎥ . a Fig.1 A square plate of thickness t and Young’s modulus E is pin-jointed at three corners and subjected to a force F at the free corner (Fig.18) is .162 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The procedure will be used in Example E8.3 Example 8. The area is A = l 2 2 and the matrix (8.

The stiffness matrix of the rotated element is [ K ] = [T ] [ k ] [T ]. In general. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 163 1 T [ K ]= [k ]= [ B ] 1 1 [ D ] [ B1 ] t A . . the transformation matrix for a rotation with an angle θ is ⎡ c ⎢−s ⎢ ⎢ 0 =⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎣ s c 0 0 0 0 0 c 0 0 0 0 s 0 0 0⎤ 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0⎥ c s⎥ ⎥ −s c⎥ ⎦ 0 [T ] e 0 −s c (e) where c = cos θ and s = sin θ .8. 2 2 T 1 2 . 12 12 0 ⎥ 2 ⎢ ⎢ SYM 12 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 1 ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ ⎦ (d) Element 2 can be obtained by rotating 900 anticlockwise element 1. . (c) [K ] 1 ⎡ 3 2 1 2 −1 −1 2 −1 2 0 ⎤ ⎢ 32 0 −1 2 −1 2 −1 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 1 0 0 0 ⎥ Et ⎢ = ⎢ ⎥. e e T e e (f) For θ = 900 we obtain ⎡ 0 ⎢ −1 ⎢ ⎢ 0 =⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎣ 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0⎤ 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0⎥ 0 1⎥ ⎥ −1 0 ⎥ ⎦ 0 [T ] 2 0 −1 0 (g) The stiffness matrix of element 2 is [ K ] = [T ] [ k ] [T ].

y2 = 1 .18). 0 0 12 1 0 0 −1 2 ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ H3 ⎪ 2 ⎢ −1 ⎢ ⎥ 0 0 0 2 0 0 ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ V3 ⎪ −2 ⎢ 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ∗ ⎪ ⎢ −1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ H4 ⎪ ⎢ ⎥ 0 0 1 2 ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ V4 ⎪ −1 2 0 ⎢ 1 2 −1 2 0 ⎣ ⎦⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ Solving E t ⎡ 3 − 1⎤ ⎧ u1 ⎫ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎨ ⎬=⎨ ⎬ 2 ⎢ − 1 1 ⎥ ⎩ u2 ⎭ ⎩ F 2 ⎭ ⎣ ⎦ we obtain the nodal displacements u1 = F . 2E t u2 = 3F . Due to symmetry. so that for the entire plate H4 = − F 2 .17) and performing the product (8. the finite element equations can be written 0 0 − 1 1 2 ⎤ ⎧ u1 ⎫ ⎧ 0 ⎫ −1 −1 2 −1 ⎡ 3 ⎢ 0 3 0 −1 2 0 − 2 0 − 1 2 ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ V1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ −1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 ⎥ ⎪ u2 ⎪ ⎪ F 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 12 0 0 0 ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ V2 ⎪ Et ⎢ − 1 2 −1 2 0 1 2 ⎨ ⎬=⎨ ⎬. . E8. 1 0 0 ⎥ 2 ⎢ ⎢ SYM 1 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 12 ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ ⎦ (h) The same matrix is obtained by substituting the nodal coordinates x1 = y1 = 0 . only the upper half of the plate can be considered (Fig. y3 = 0 in (8. Using the appropriate boundary conditions. H5 = − F 4 . x2 = 0 . 2E t The reaction forces for half the plate are obtained as H3 = − F 4 .1. ∗ H4 = − F 4 . b). x3 = −1 .164 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS [K ] 2 ⎡ 3 2 −1 2 −1 2 0 −1 1 2 ⎤ ⎢ 32 1 2 −1 0 −1 2 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 12 0 0 −1 2 ⎥ Et ⎢ = ⎢ ⎥.

⎬ ⎢ ⎥ 2l E t ⎨ ⎬ 2 l t ⎨ ⎪− 1 2 ⎪ ⎪− 1⎪ ⎢0 0 1 2⎥ ⎭ ⎩ ⎣ ⎦ ⎩ ⎭ ⎧ σx ⎪ ⎨ σy ⎪τ ⎩ xy { } { ε }= [ B ] { q } 2 2 2 ⎧u1 ⎫ ⎪0⎪ 0 0 0 −1 0 ⎤ ⎪ ⎪ ⎡ 1 ⎧1⎫ ⎪ ⎪ 1⎢ ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ = F ⎪ 0 ⎪. The units are coherent. with Young’s modulus E = 1 and Poisson’s ratio ν = 0. E8. b) stresses in elements. 2 ⎬ ⎨ σy ⎬ =[D ] ε = E ⎢ ⎥ 2l E t ⎨ ⎬ 2 l t ⎨ ⎪− 1 2 ⎪ ⎪ τ ⎪ ⎪− 1⎪ ⎢0 0 1 2⎥ ⎭ ⎩ ⎣ ⎦ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ xy ⎭2 { } Example 8. and c) the support reactions. Divide the plate into three CST elements and find: a) the nodal displacements. = ⎢ 0 0⎥ ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬ u l 2l E t ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ − 1 0⎥ ⎩ 2 ⎭ ⎩− 1⎭ ⎣ ⎦ ⎫ ⎪ 1 ⎬ =[D ] ε = E ⎪ ⎭1 ⎡1 0 0 ⎤ ⎧ 2 ⎫ ⎧2⎫ ⎢0 1 0 ⎥ F ⎪ 0 ⎪= F ⎪ 0 ⎪.2 A thin triangular plate is fixed along the edge 5-4 and loaded by forces F1 = −1 and F2 = −2 along the upper edge in its plane (Fig. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 165 Strains and stresses in elements are ⎧ u1 ⎪ 0 ⎡ −1 0 1 0 0 0 ⎤ ⎪ ⎪u 1 ⎪ = ⎢ 0 −1 0 0 0 1 ⎥ ⎨ 2 ⎥ 0 l⎢ ⎢ −1 −1 0 1 1 0 ⎥ ⎪ ⎣ ⎦⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬.2). Assume the cantilever to have unit thickness t = 1 and be in plane stress.8.3 . ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ { ε }= [ B ]{ q } 1 1 1 {ε } 1 ⎧2⎫ ⎡− 1 1⎤ 1⎢ ⎥ ⎧ u1 ⎫ = F ⎪ 0 ⎪ . = ⎢ 0 −1 0 1 0 0 ⎥ ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬ l ⎪ 0 ⎪ 2l E t ⎪− 1⎪ ⎢ −1 1 0 0 1 −1 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎪0⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪0⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎧ σx ⎫ ⎡1 0 0 ⎤ ⎧ 1 ⎫ ⎧1⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢0 1 0 ⎥ F ⎪ 0 ⎪= F ⎪ 0 ⎪. .

where the matrix [ B ] is obtained from (8. based on the nodal coordinates. and the matrix [ D ] is given by (6.17). The input data are given below For each element.166 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Fig.18). the stiffness matrix is calculated longhand from equation (8. .24).2 Solution. E8.

712 .111 0.192 1.111 ⎢ 0 − 0. v3 = −13. v1 = −40.835 .582 .125 0 − 1. v2 = −15.301 0 ⎥ ⎪ u3 ⎢ ⎥⎪ 0 0 − 1.192 0 ⎥ ⎪ v1 ⎢ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎢ − 0.8. u2 = 6. ⎪ ⎪−2⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎭ ⎭ ⎩ u1 = 7.165 ⎣ ⎦⎩ The solution to these equations gives ⎫ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ −1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎬=⎨ ⎬.192 − 0.125 ⎥ ⎪ v3 ⎢ − 0.542 .317 0.165 − 0.686 .903 0 2.317 ⎢ 0 0.165 − 0.903 ⎥ ⎪ v2 ⎢ 0.111 − 0.301 0 0 ⎥ ⎪ u2 − 0. .666 ⎢ ⎥⎨ 0 2.666 0 1.192 − 0. u3 = −2.317 0. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 167 The element stiffness matrices are the following: The condensed global stiffness matrix is The condensed finite element equations can be written 0 0 − 0.823 .165 ⎤ ⎧ u1 ⎡ 0.

which is wrong. element 3. Note that the adopted discretization is very crude. Determine: a) the deformed shape of the hole. a distribution of bending stresses from compressive at 4 to tensile at 5 is expected.168 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The output data are presented below: The reaction forces at nodes 4 and 5 are obtained from the ‘unused’ unreduced equations. being a constant strain element.6. c) the distribution of σ x stresses in the midsection. to allow longhand calculation. Solution. the plate should be modeled by many more elements.1. The plate has length l = 60 mm . b) the location and magnitude of the maximum von Mises stress in the plate. is subjected to loads that produce uniform tensile stresses σ 0 = 5 MPa at its ends (Fig. E = 210 GPa and ν = 0. However. Ascribing stress values to the element centroids and averaging them as shown in section 8.3 A thin rectangular plate.3. thickness t = 5 mm . and this leads to misleading results. . Taking advantage of the symmetry of geometry and symmetry of loading. we can analyze only one-quarter of the plate (upper right). a). a more realistic stress distribution along the edge 4-5 is obtained. Compare the stress values at the periphery of the hole obtained by FEM and from the theory of elasticity. gives only one value of σ x . E8. width b = 40 mm .3 . Example 8. Normally. Along the edge 4-5. containing a circular hole of radius a = 10 mm .

E8. b. E8.3.8.3. c.3. The deformed shape is shown in Fig. E8. Let x and y represent the axes of symmetry.3. E8. . a A 55-node. The hole is elongated in the direction of the loading axis. and points along the y axis are constrained along the x direction. The points along the x axis are constrained in the y direction. but the element numbering is omitted for clarity. The centroids of the elements near the midsection are marked. Fig. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 169 Fig. 81-element mesh is created as shown in Fig. b The applied nodal forces are shown. and the crossing points of the lines connecting the centroids with the common sides (where stresses are averaged). are denoted a to f.

6 MPa and occurs in element 1. d The maximum von Mises stress is 19. E8. E8. Stress values in elements near the midsection are given in Table E8. Fig. c The calculation of stresses is summarized in Fig.3. . E8.3. using five intervals with limits shown in the legend.170 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Fig.3. d. Elements are hatched according to the value of von Mises stresses.3.

85 e 6.4577 11.6821 10. The averaged value of elements 1 and 2.763 τ xy -0. have the following values: Point a 15. thickness 5 mm .5768 0. ⎜ 2r 2r ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ where r is the distance from the x axis (Fig. MPa The theoretical distribution of stresses σ x in the midsection of a plate containing a small circular hole and subjected to uniaxial tension is approximated by ⎛ a2 3 a4 ⎞ σ x = σ0 ⎜ 1+ 2 + 4 ⎟ .25 .7162 4. width of the extended portion 80 mm . E8.5693 5.69 d 7. averaged at points a to f.5706 -0.3275 8.0595 0.6155 10.927 0.3595 σ eq 19.2632 0.174 0. E8. a) has length 150 mm . TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 171 Table E8. The maximum stress occurs at the periphery of the hole (r = a ) and is σ xmax = 3σ 0 = 15 MPa .8037 Stresses σ x .6221 0.89 σ x .8.6445 5.068 7.0752 σy 0.6667 0. is σ xa = 15.8845 1.7073 3.78 MPa . in point a.9228 0. which is surprisingly accurate for the rough mesh used in the exercise.39 c 9. width of the reduced portion 40 mm . E = 2 ⋅ 105 MPa and ν = 0.9433 7. fillet radius 20 mm .3 Element 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 σx 20.4. Example 8.5786 7.78 b 11.4 An axially loaded thin plate with a circular fillet (Fig.815 1. a).1651 0.0178 11. The normal stress at a point far to the right of the fillet has a uniformly distributed value .68 f 4.3.

7 MPa . for the quarter plate.19).4.4. Taking advantage of the symmetry. The distribution of von Mises stresses is shown in Fig. Fig. The largest equivalent stress is 604. E8. A model comprising 95 nodes and 144 CST elements is constructed as shown in Fig. Find the location and magnitude of the maximum von Mises stress in the plate. subjected to a normal stress of 440 N mm 2 . The right edge has four elements. The points along the symmetry axis are constrained in the vertical direction. have magnitudes of 5500 N at the upper and lower node.172 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS of 440 MPa . Fig. E8. Points along the left edge are constrained in the horizontal direction. E8. The resulting five nodal forces. and 11000 N at the three middle nodes. Determine the stress concentration factor for the circular fillet. a Answer.4. c for five stress intervals given in the legend. The nodal loads for each element are 440 × 25 / 2 = 5500 N .4. E8. b. . only half of the plate is considered. b The nodal loads are calculated from equation (8. each with a surface of 25 mm 2 .

52 .35 .17) 0 − 0. v60 = −3.3160 0. This value is reasonably close to the theoretical true value of 1. Solution. The triangle area is A96 = 4. u65 u60 = 0.12247 .5 The nodal coordinates and the nodal displacements of element 96 in Fig.0596 − 0.25 .1216 0 0.42 given by Singer (1962).1216 0.5 . E8. x64 = 95 . E = 2 ⋅ 105 MPa and ν = 0.3757 − 0. The largest principal stress σ 1 is 622. b are given below: x60 = 92. The stress concentration factor relative to the value 440 MPa is 1.4198 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ . TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 173 Fig.8.3757 0 0. y60 = 21. x65 = 95.63e − 3 . y64 = 18 .1925 mm 2 . Example 8.5 .415.2982 ⎢ [ B ]= ⎢ 0 0. = 0.3160 ⎥ .4198 0 ⎤ ⎡ − 0.12367 .92e − 3 . ⎥ ⎢ 0.97e − 3 . c Values of the principal stress σ 1 around the fillet are presented in the upper part.4. v65 = −4.11224 .0596 0 − 0. E8. Calculate the element stresses. The matrix [ B ] is (8. y65 = 20. v64 = −3.4. u64 = 0.2982 − 0.7 MPa .

92e − 3 ⎦ T . ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0 0 0 .8 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 5 The vector of nodal displacements (8.12247 − 4.6. to concentrate only on the influence of fillet geometry.1333 0 ⎥ . The load is not applied at the tooth tip.11224 − 3. E8.12367 − 3. but is distributed over a larger area than for the mating contact of two teeth. a .6.58 − 120. σ y τ xy ⎦ T = ⎣596.97e − 3 0.24) ⎡ 2. {σ } = ⎣σ x Example 8.08⎦ T .63e − 3 0. Fig. a. E8.6 Find the deformed shape and the stress distribution in the loaded gear tooth shown in Fig. Element stresses are given by {σ } = [ D ][ B ] { q }.5333 2.72 63.5333 0 ⎤ [ D ] = 10 ⎢ 0.1333 0.174 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The matrix [ D ] is (6.1) is { q } = ⎣ 0.

Fig. The deformed shape is presented in Fig. E8. Note the restraints which model the tooth built-in end. Fig.6. b. b The stress distribution is shown in Fig. The adopted finite element mesh has 126 nodes and 212 CST elements.6.6. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 175 Answer. Note the stress concentration at both fillet areas. E8. where the equivalent von Mises stresses are indicated.6. c .8. c. E8. E8.

8. hence ab 1 ( a − x ) ( b − y ) = ⎛ 1− x ⎞ ⎛ 1− y ⎞ . 8. b ⎠ ⎝ N3 ( x. From condition N1 ( x1 . hence it must be of the form N1 ( x . y ) = x y . y ) = y b x⎞ ⎛ ⎜ 1− ⎟ . a b N4 ( x.7 We have to find two-dimensional shape functions which have unit values at one selected node.7.2. but zero at all other nodes on the element N i x j . y1 ) = 1 . and has a unit value at the node with the same index N1 ( x1 . y j = δ ij .20) They can be generated using the equations of the sides.176 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 8.2 Rectangular elements Rectangular elements are the easiest to discuss and are used to model stiffened thinwalled panel structures.0 ) = 1 we get c1 = 1 . y1 ) = N1 ( 0. the remaining three shape functions are N2 ( x. N1 is identically zero on lines x = a and y = b . N1 ( x . Fig.1 The four-node rectangle (linear) Consider the 4-node element in Fig. y ) = ⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟ ab a ⎠⎝ b ⎠ ⎝ Likewise. built up beams and boxes. ( ) (8. a⎠ ⎝ It is convenient to transform to dimensionless central coordinates . 8. y ) = c1 ( a − x ) ( b − y ) . y ) = x a y ⎞ ⎛ ⎜ 1− ⎟ . For example.

the assumed displacement field is u (x .23) The displacements inside the element can be expressed in terms of the nodal displacements as ⎧ u ⎫ ⎡ N1 ⎨ ⎬=⎢ ⎩v⎭ ⎣ 0 0 N1 N2 0 0 N2 N3 0 0 N3 N4 0 0 ⎤ e q . 4 4 1 1 N3 = ( 1 + r ) ( 1 + s ) . Some improvement can be gained by diminishing the shear variation through the use of reduced integration on the shear contribution in the element stiffness matrix. { } (8. Many users prefer to use higher order elements rather than use a larger number of small 4-noded rectangles. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 177 s= 2y −1. where the stiffness has to be reevaluated as the load increments are applied and plasticity spreads.21) The equations of element sides become 1 ± r = 0 .24) where {q } e T = ⎣u1 v1 u2 v2 u3 v3 (8. there are eight boundary conditions. y ) = a 1 + a2 x + a3 y + a4 x y . for two displacements. . Because. all like powers in x and y are not present. v ( x . N 4 = ( 1 − r ) ( 1 + s ) .23) has one drawback – they are not complete. b r= 2x −1. In this case x y is present but x 2 and y 2 are not. N4 ⎥ ⎦ u4 v4 ⎦ .22) (8. 4 4 N1 = (8. That is.26) The direct strain ε x = a2 + a4 y is constant in the x direction whereas the shear strain γ xy = a3 + a4 x + b2 + b4 y varies linearly with x and y . a (8. The displacements u and v of a point within the rectangle can be expressed in terms of the nodal displacements by a polynomial approximation. Thus the variation of strain does not have the same order in all directions. (8.25) The use of the shape functions (8. 1 ± s = 0 . y ) = b1 + b 2 x + b 3 y + b4 x y . The 4-noded rectangular element is exploited in non-linear problems like elasto-plastic behaviour.8. N2 = 1 (1 + r ) (1 − s ) .…. The required shape functions are 1 (1 − r ) (1 − s ) .

8. where [ B ] = [ ∂ ][ N ] . a shows the deformed shape of a single element in pure bending.2. because the strain energy is underestimated.178 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The element stiffness matrix (7. The ratio spurious shears a = = aspect ratio . Fig. b shows the expected circular deformed shape free of shear deformations. (≥ 3) 8.39) is [k ]= ∫ [ B ] e Ve T [ D ][ B ] dV . The poor performance of the 4-noded element is shown below. At the element ends the shear strain is γ xy = d b and only the centre has no shear deformation.8. Generally. 8. In comparison. bending strains b This explains the poor results obtained with high aspect ratio elements which have also badly conditioned stiffness matrices. in an example where it is expected to behave like a slender beam in which bending stresses are dominant. . The 4-node element has flat sides. The stress discontinuities at element interfaces can be comparable with the mean values and the free edge stresses are not zero.2 The eight-node rectangle (quadratic) The higher order 8-node rectangular element is shown in Fig. 8.9. stresses are lower than the true values.8 Figure 8. Adding four nodes means adding four supplementary boundary conditions (or nodal displacements) so that in the polynomial approximation we can add four more (higher order) terms. Fig. 8. The direct strains are ε x = d a on the upper and lower surface.

v ( x . 4 4 1 1 N 3 = − ( 1 + r ) ( 1 + s ) ( 1 − r − s ).. + N8 v8 . 8. + N8 u8 .. Note that choosing the last terms in x 3 and y 3 would make the element more anisotropic.. v = N1 v1 + N 2 v2 + N 3 v3 + . (8. Fig. (8. Using the nodal approximation.8. the shape functions have the following expressions 1 ( 1 − r ) ( 1 − s ) (1 + r + s ) . N 2 = − 1 ( 1 + r ) ( 1 − s ) (1 − r + s ) . y ) = a 1 + a2 x + a3 y + a4 x 2 + a5 x y + a6 y 2 + a7 x 2 y + a8 x y 2 . 2 4 N1 = − .7. y ) = b1 + b2 x + b3 y + b4 x 2 + b5 x y + b6 y 2 + b7 x 2 y + b8 x y 2 ..27) so that the strains are quadratic.9 only the lines through the new nodes are shown for clarity. the old ones are presented in Fig.28) where the shape functions N i can be easily built up based on the equations of the lines passing through the nodes (serendipity approach). 8. the displacement field is expressed as u = N1 u1 + N 2 u2 + N 3 u3 + . In the natural system of coordinates r and s. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 179 The assumed displacement field is cubic u (x .9 In Fig. 4 4 (8. 8. N 8 = ( 1 − r ) ( 1 − s ) ( 1 + s ). 2 2 1 1 N 7 = ( 1 − r ) ( 1 + r ) (1 + s ) . The 16 constants can be expressed (interpolated) in terms of the 16 nodal displacements and the nodal coordinates.29) 1 1 N5 = ( 1 − r ) ( 1 + r ) ( 1 − s ) . N 4 = − ( 1 − r ) ( 1 + s ) (1 + r − s ) . N6 = ( 1 + r ) ( 1 − s ) ( 1 + s ) .

The position of any point M in the triangle is identified by the perpendicular distances h1 . { } (8. Therefore N1 is of the form N1 = c1 ( 1 − r ) ( 1 − s ) (1 + r + s ) . ζ2 = .e.−1) = 1 . as h1 h2 h3 .. the functions [ B ] = [ ∂ ][ N [ ] ] 8.31) follow and the element stiffness matrix k e can be evaluated using [ D ] . 8. ζ1 = H1 H2 H3 . h3 from the three sides (Fig.3 Triangular elements In order to obtain accurate results for stresses with a constant strain discretization.. N1 should vanish on the sides defined by the equations of lines passing through nodes 2 to 8: 1 − s = 0 . Considerable effort has been devoted to develop ‘refined’ elements. one has to use a large number of elements. elements having linear. where c1 is a constant which is determined so as to yield N1 (− 1. N8 ⎥ ⎦ v8 ⎦ T . c1 = −1 4 . 1 − r = 0 .. 3.3.180 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The interpolation function N1 should be zero at nodes 2. which gives the expression of N1 in (8. The displacements inside the element can be expressed in terms of the nodal displacements as ⎧ u ⎫ ⎡ N1 ⎨ ⎬=⎢ ⎩v⎭ ⎣ 0 where 0 N1 N2 0 0 L L N8 N2 L L 0 0 ⎤ e q .30) { q }= ⎣u e 1 v1 u2 v 2 L L u8 (8. a).. ζ3 = .29). 8 and have a value of unity at node 1.e. 8. i. Having generated the shape functions [ N ] . 1 + r + s = 0 . and nondimensionalized. Equivalently.10.1 Area coordinates For a triangle it is possible to define a completely symmetrical coordinate system known as area coordinates. h2 . quadratic or higher-order strain expansions. i. by division to the triangle heights.

ζ2 = A2 A . Fig. (8. one obtains ζ1 + ζ 2 + ζ 3 = 1 . ζ3 = A3 A .34) By inversion.32) As A1 + A2 + A3 = A (Fig. 8. or in matrix form ⎧1 ⎫ ⎡1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎨ x ⎬ = ⎢ x1 ⎪ y ⎪ ⎢y ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ 1 ⎧ ζ1 ⎪ ⎨ ζ2 ⎪ζ ⎩ 3 or 1 x2 y2 1 ⎤ ⎧ ζ1 ⎪ x3 ⎥ ⎨ ζ 2 ⎥ y3 ⎥ ⎪ ζ 3 ⎦⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎬. (8. b). ⎪ ⎭ (8. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 181 or ζ1 = A1 A .33) so the three coordinates are not independent and they behave like the shape functions.12) ⎫ ⎡α1 ⎪ 1 ⎢ ⎬= ⎢α 2 ⎪ 2 A ⎢α ⎭ ⎣ 3 β1 γ 1 ⎤ ⎧ 1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ β2 γ 2 ⎥ ⎨ x ⎬ ⎥ β3 γ 3 ⎥ ⎪ y ⎪ ⎦⎩ ⎭ . we obtain equation (8. y = ζ 1 y1 + ζ 2 y2 + ζ 3 y3 .8.10 The physical coordinates of point M can be expressed in terms of the nodal coordinates as x = ζ 1 x1 + ζ 2 x 2 + ζ 3 x3 .10. 8.

8. 8.8) are α i = x j yk − xk y j .38) . the equations of the three sides and the lines through the mid-side nodes are shown using area coordinates. { } (8.3. 3 ) (8. β i = y j − yk . 2⎠ 2⎠ ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ N 5 = 4 ζ 2 ζ 3 .35) where A is given by (8.182 ζi = 1 ( α i + βi x + γ i y ) . N 2 = 2 ⎜ ζ 2 − ⎟ ζ 2 . obtained adding three mid-side nodes to the CST. γ i = xk − x j .37) where { q }= ⎣u e v1 u2 v 2 L L u6 (8. 2A FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ( i = 1. N6 ⎥ ⎦ v6 ⎦ T .2 Linear strain triangle (LST) The linear strain triangle is a six-noded element. In Fig. N 6 = 4 ζ 3 ζ1 .11 The shape functions are readily seen to be 1 ⎛ N1 = 2 ⎜ ζ1 − 2 ⎝ N 4 = 4 ζ1 ζ 2 .11. 8. N 3 = 2 ⎜ ζ 3 − ⎟ ζ 3 .36) The displacements in terms of the nodal displacements are ⎧ u ⎫ ⎡ N1 ⎨ ⎬=⎢ ⎩v⎭ ⎣ 0 0 N1 1 N2 0 0 L L N6 N2 L L 0 0 ⎤ e q .9) and the expressions (8. 1⎞ 1⎞ ⎞ ⎛ ⎛ ⎟ ζ1 . (8. Fig. 2.

44) .8.and second-degree terms are ∫ζ A i dA = A . 6 (8.43) The results for first. Using (8. ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ (8.33) we can eliminate ζ1 in (8. y = ( y2 − y1 ) ζ 2 + ( y3 − y1 ) ζ 3 + y1 . y to ζ1 . γ i are defined by (8. The inverse relationship is ⎧ ∂ ⎪ ∂x ⎪ ⎨ ∂ ⎪ ⎪∂y ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬=[J ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎧ ∂ ⎪ ζ ] −1 ⎪ ∂∂ 2 ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ∂ ζ3 ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ 1 ⎡ β2 ⎪ ⎬= ⎢ ⎪ 2A ⎣ γ 2 ⎪ ⎭ ⎧ ∂ β3 ⎤ ⎪ ∂ ζ 2 ⎪ ⎥⎨ ∂ γ3 ⎦ ⎪ ⎪ ∂ ζ3 ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬.34) obtaining x = (x 2 − x1 ) ζ 2 + (x3 − x1 ) ζ 3 + x1 . so we must transform from x . 12 ∫ζ A 2 i dA = A . However. 3 ∫ζ ζ i A j dA = A . The integration is frequently performed numerically. ζ 2 . ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ (8. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 183 To form [ B ] = [ ∂ ][ N ] we need to find the derivatives of shape functions with respect to the physical coordinates. (8. (2 + a + b ) ! (8.39) Using the chain rule for partial derivatives ⎧ ∂ ⎪ ∂ζ ⎪ 2 ⎨ ∂ ⎪ ⎪ ∂ ζ3 ⎩ ⎫ ⎡ ∂x ⎪ ⎢ ∂ζ ⎪ 2 ⎬ = ⎢ ∂x ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ∂ ζ3 ⎭ ⎣ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬=[J ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬.8).41) where A is the triangle area (8.40) where [ J ] is the Jacobian of the transformation. ζ 3 . The element stiffness matrix is [k ]= ∫ [ B ] e A T [ D ][ B ] t e d A . b and [ D ] using the integration formula for monomials ∫ζ A a b i ζj dA = 2 A a! b! . it can be solved explicitly in terms of a.9) and β i . ∂y ∂ ζ2 ∂y ∂ ζ3 ⎤⎧ ∂ ⎥⎪ ∂x ⎪ ⎥⎨ ⎥⎪ ∂ ⎥⎪∂y ⎦⎩ ⎧ ∂ ⎪ ] ⎪ ∂∂x ⎨ ⎪ ⎪∂y ⎩ (8.42) where d A = l 3 dζ 2 l 2 dζ 3 sinθ = 2 A dζ 2 dζ 3 .

N2 = r . so the element is truly isotropic. Denoting ζ 2 = r.12 The coefficients of the nodal coordinates are genuine geometric interpolation functions N1 = 1 − r − s . containing all possible products.47) Fig.12). the displacement expansion on a boundary must involve only the nodal quantities for that boundary. In order to satisfy inter-element displacement compatibility. ζ1 = 1 − ζ 2 − ζ 3 = 1 − r − s (8. Solving for the constants in terms of the nodal displacements.46) we can introduce oblique triangular coordinates (Fig.45) The displacement field is complete. the nodal approximation (8. There are three constants for this case (the function is quadratic) and an additional interior node is required for each boundary.48) . 2 2 v = b1 + b2 ζ 2 + b3 ζ 3 + b4 ζ 2 + b5 ζ 2 ζ 3 + b6 ζ 3 .37) is obtained. The physical coordinates of a point within the triangle are x = ( 1 − r − s ) x1 + r x 2 + s x3 . 2 (8. There are twelve nodal displacements. (8. y = ( 1 − r − s ) y1 + r y2 + s y3 . N3 = s . without recourse to computationally inefficient internal nodes. six for each component.184 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The LST element is based on expanding the displacements in a complete second-degree polynomial in ζ 2 and ζ 3 2 u = a1 + a2 ζ 2 + a3 ζ 3 + a4 ζ 2 + a5 ζ 2 ζ 3 + a6 ζ 3 . 8. ζ 3 = s. It is convenient to locate these interior nodes at the mid-points of the sides. (8. 8.

TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 185 The nodal displacements for the 3-node triangle can also be written u = ( 1 − r − s ) u1 + r u2 + s u3 . a. i =1 9 (8. In order to satisfy inter-element displacement compatibility. i =1 9 v = ∑ N i vi + N c v c . v = ( 1 − r − s ) v1 + r v2 + s v3 .49) so that the same functions can be used as interpolation functions. the stiffness will have preferred direction which is not desirable. One possibility is to work with corner point nodes and two interior nodes per side. 8.3 Quadratic strain triangle A triangular element with a quadratic displacement field can be built up in two ways. 8. This element is shown in Fig. taking as nodal quantities the displacement components.13. This is the basic idea behind the isoparametric formulation. if the polynomial is not complete.50) where .13 The displacements are expressed as complete cubic polynomials. It is convenient to take the interior node at the centroid. 8. four nodal quantities are required to define the distribution on a side. treated in the next chapter.8. (8.3. The side nodes are located at the third points. An additional interior node is needed to maintain completeness of the polynomial since. The displacement nodal expansion has the form u = ∑ N i ui + N c u c . Fig. Since the function is cubic. the displacement function for a side must depend only on the nodal displacement quantities for the side.

.52) the interpolation polynomials. At each corner. 2 N 6 = ζ 2 ( β 3 ζ1 − β1 ζ 3 ) + ( β1 − β 3 ) ζ1 ζ 2 ζ 3 .51) Another possibility is to work only with corner nodes. . 2 2 1 = ζ3 ( 3 ζ3 − 1 ) ( 3 ζ3 − 2 ) . 2 2 9 9 = ζ 2 ζ 3 ( 3 ζ 2 − 1 ). Two additional displacement quantities not associated with the boundaries are required for completeness. as nodal quantities.. The nodal expansion for u has the form u = N1 u1 + N 2 u′ 1 + N 3 u′y1 + N 4 u2 + N 5 u′ 2 + . It is convenient to take the displacement components of the centroid (uc . N 5 = ζ1 ζ 2 ( 3 ζ 2 − 1 ). 2 2 9 9 = ζ 3 ζ1 ( 3 ζ 3 − 1 ) . N 7 = ζ 2 ζ 3 ( 3 ζ 3 − 1 ). 2 9 9 = ζ1 ζ 2 ( 3 ζ1 − 1 ) . N 4 = ζ 2 ( ζ 2 + 3 ζ 3 + 3 ζ1 ) − 7 ζ1 ζ 2 ζ 3 . x x (8. 2 2 = 27 ζ1 ζ 2 ζ 3 . 2 N 5 = ζ 2 ( γ 1 ζ 3 − γ 3 ζ1 ) + ( γ 3 − γ 1 ) ζ 1 ζ 2 ζ 3 .13. The solution is to include displacement ∂ u ∂ u ∂v ∂v derivatives . 2 N 2 = ζ1 ( γ 3 ζ 2 − γ 2 ζ 3 ) + ( γ 2 − γ 3 ) ζ1 ζ 2 ζ 3 . ∂x ∂ y ∂x ∂ y nodal variables. (8.53) N c = 27 ζ1 ζ 2 ζ 3 .. + + N 9 u′y 3 + N cuc . are 2 N1 = ζ1 ( ζ1 + 3 ζ 2 + 3 ζ 3 ) − 7 ζ1 ζ 2 ζ 3 . a total of 18 parameters (Fig. 2 N 9 = ζ 3 ( β1 ζ 2 − β 2 ζ1 ) + ( β 2 − β1 ) ζ1 ζ 2 ζ 3 . 8. 2 N 3 = ζ1 ( β 2 ζ 3 − β 3 ζ 2 ) + ( β 3 − β 2 ) ζ1 ζ 2 ζ 3 . two displacements and four first derivatives. 2 N8 = ζ 3 ( γ 2 ζ1 − γ 1 ζ 2 ) + ( γ 1 − γ 2 ) ζ1 ζ 2 ζ 3 . vc ) as the remaining parameters. in order to reduce the bandwidth of the stiffness matrix. N 9 = ζ 3 ζ 1 ( 3 ζ 1 − 1 ) .52) In (8. N 2 = ζ 2 ( 3 ζ 2 − 1 ) ( 3 ζ 2 − 2 ) . there are six . (8. expressed in terms of triangular coordinates. 2 2 N 7 = ζ 3 ( ζ 3 + 3 ζ1 + 3 ζ 2 ) − 7 ζ1 ζ 2 ζ 3 .186 N1 = N3 N4 N6 N8 Nc FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 1 1 ζ1 ( 3 ζ1 − 1 ) ( 3 ζ1 − 2 ) . b).

16) in (8.8) and the subscript c refers to the centroid. compatibility is satisfied if the assumed element displacement field is continuous. (8.4 Equilibrium.55) are not satisfied by the assumed displacement field (8. convergence and compatibility It is useful to make some general comments on the fulfilment of the equilibrium and compatibility conditions in a finite element solution based on assumed displacement fields [33].54) Substituting the strain-displacement relations (6. ∂x 2 ∂y 1− ν ∂ ∂ γ xy + ε y + ν ε x = 0. y ) = b1 + b2 x + b3 y + b4 x y . of the rectangular element. y ) = a1 + a2 x + a3 y + a4 x y . β i are defined by (8.54) gives ∂ 2u ∂ 2u 1 + ν ⎛ ∂ 2u ∂ 2v ⎞ ⎜ ⎟.1 Equilibrium vs.55) Equations (8. For example. pv x Let write the equilibrium equations in terms of displacements for the case = pv y = 0 .26) (8. one can say that: a) Within elements. + 2 = − 2 ⎜ ∂ y 2 ∂ x ∂y ⎟ ∂ x2 ∂ y ⎝ ⎠ ∂ 2 v ∂ 2 v 1 + ν ⎛ ∂ 2 v ∂ 2u ⎞ ⎜ ⎟.7) we obtain ( ) ( ) (8. compatibility In a FEM solution based on assumed displacement fields. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 187 where γ i . Substituting the stress-strain relations (6. The same interpolation functions are valid for v . + = − 2 ⎜ ∂ x 2 ∂ x ∂y ⎟ ∂ x2 ∂ y 2 ⎝ ⎠ u ( x .56) .4. v ( x . but equilibrium is usually not satisfied. 8.24) into the equilibrium ∂ 1− ν ∂ ε x +ν ε y + γ xy = 0. 2 ∂x ∂y equations (6.8. 8.

The finite element equations are a set of equilibrium equations and the solution is such that resultant forces and moments acting on each node are zero. the edges remain straight. any violations of equilibrium and compatibility tend to vanish as more and more elements are used in the mesh. the sequence of solutions to a problem is expected to converge to the correct result if the assumed element displacement fields satisfy the following criteria: . for both the 3-node triangle and the 4-node rectangle. For example. However. So. and equilibrium of nodal forces and moments is satisfied. the finite element solution gives an upper bound on the total potential energy. = a3 + a4 x . But as already shown. the solution will converge monotonically to the true solution.2 Convergence and compatibility As the mesh of elements is refined. u and v are linear in x (or y ) along element edges.4. the direct strain ε x is linear in the y direction whereas the shear strain γ xy varies linearly with x and y . When inter-element compatibility is satisfied. equilibrium is satisfied within the CST because of its extreme simplicity. in general.188 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ∂u ∂u ∂ 2v ∂ 2u ∂ 2u = a2 + a4 y . As the discretization is refined. but this is the case only in a field of constant strain. where stresses are constant within the element but differ from one element to another. and ∂x ∂y ∂ x ∂y ∂ x2 ∂ y which is not zero. as in the case of uniform beams loaded only at nodes. c) At nodes. inter-element stress continuity may exist. and adjacent elements do not overlap or separate. the rectangle is inferior to the triangle. compatibility may or may not be satisfied. the elements fit together. provided that the new mesh contains all the nodes of the previous meshes. for any nodal displacement. compatibility is enforced by joining elements at these locations. Happily. b) Between elements. in a ‘proper’ finite element solution. so the first equation (8. and equilibrium is usually not satisfied. In some cases it can give better results. the convergence of displacements with the mesh refinement must be monotonic from below. One cannot conclude from this that. The rectangle would satisfy equilibrium if a4 = b4 = 0 .55) is not satisfied. Moreover. 8. Inter-element equilibrium is obviously violated in the CST. However. = b4 = 2 = 0 .

If this requirement is violated. noncompatible elements do not provide a bound on the potential energy. In the case of beam. the slope must be continuous across interelement boundaries. The computed displacements. Also. This means that by suitably specializing the nodal displacements for the nth discretization. the element type is invalid or at least suspect (it may happen that an element is valid in certain configurations only). we will not be able to reproduce the displacement patterns corresponding to the n − 1 previous discretizations. The boundary nodes are then given either displacements or forces consistent with a constant strain state. the element must exhibit zero strain and therefore zero nodal forces. Internal nodes are to be neither loaded nor restrained. It is achieved even when based on incomplete polynomials. Invariance exists if complete polynomials are used for element displacement fields. Such elements do satisfy inter-element compatibility in the limit of mesh refinement. The check is done using the so called “patch test”. When nodal degrees of freedom are given values corresponding to a state of rigid body motion.8. extraneous nodal forces appear. and stresses within elements should be consistent with the constant strain state. strains. This is normally ensured by the selection of shape functions. . If not. c) Rigid body modes must be represented. Elements should be invariant with respect to the orientation of the load system. it is not possible to construct a minimizing sequence with non-compatible elements. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 189 a) The displacement field within an element must be continuous. and the equations of nodal equilibrium are altered. if there is a ‘balanced’ representation of terms in the polynomial expansion. d) Compatibility must exist between elements.e. This requirement is violated by many successful non-conforming elements. we do not know whether the potential energy corresponding to a particular non-conforming element is higher or lower than the true value. i. The model consists of an assembly of several elements arranged so that at least one node is completely surrounded by elements. e) The element should have no preferred directions. as each element approaches a state of constant strain. b) When the nodal degrees of freedom are given values corresponding to a state of constant strain. However. To satisfy the requirements on both rigid body modes and constant strain rates. Elements must not overlap or separate. the expansion must be at least a complete polynomial of order equal to the highest derivative occurring in the strain-displacement relations. plate and shell elements. the displacement field must produce the constant strain state throughout the element.

Its solution must be u5 ⎫ ⎬ = {F } .190 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Example 8. The resulting nodal displacements are u1 = 0 . v1 = 0 . If these are the boundary conditions imposed to the model. u3 = 4 . a simple patch test is carried out as follows. u2 = 1 .25 and the strains at any point must be {ε } = ⎣1 1 2⎦ T .7 Assume a displacement field u=v= x+ y for which the strains are {ε } = ⎣1 1 2⎦ T . E8. Fig. v3 = 4 .7 For the assembly of four triangular elements shown in Fig. . the internal node must behave accordingly. u4 = 1 . The condensed set of finite element equations has the form [K ] ⎧ ⎨ where [K ] depends on the material properties and {F } depends on both the material properties and the prescribed nodal displacements. v4 = 1 . E8.6. v2 = 1 . ⎩v5 ⎭ u5 = v5 = 1.

In fact. we obtain a subparametric element. When it is mapped into a quadrilateral with parabolically curved sides. The coordinates of node i are ( xi .1) . (9. Elements with curved sides provide a better fit to curved edges of an actual structure. they are subparametric elements. It is possible to construct subparametric elements whose geometry is determined by a lower order model than the displacements.1.9. When the eight node rectangle is transformed into a quadrilateral with straight sides. 9. The vector of element nodal displacements is defined as { q }= ⎣ u e 1 v1 u2 v2 u3 v3 u4 v4 ⎦ T . If we develop higher order triangular elements while keeping straight sides. 2. The local nodes 1. The displacement components of a local node i are denoted as ui in the x direction and vi in the y direction. The construction of shape functions and evaluation of stiffness matrices for quadrilateral and higher-order elements with curved sides faces difficulties which are overcome by the use of isoparametric elements and numerical integration. the result is an isoparametric element. the shapes of the interpolation functions and not the parameters are the same. The constant strain triangle is an isoparametric element though it was not treated like that. 3 and 4 are labelled counterclockwise. a. the same interpolation functions are used to define the element shape as are used to define the displacement field within the element. ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS Simple triangular and rectangular elements allow closed form derivations of stiffness matrices and load vectors. For isoparametric elements. 9.1 Linear quadrilateral element Consider the general quadrilateral element shown in Fig. yi ) . Each node has two degrees of freedom. because only the displacement expansion is refined whereas the geometry definition remains the same.

1 ] . y } is called the isoparametric mapping. quadrilateral elements become a square of side 2 (Fig.1 Natural coordinates A natural coordinate system can be attached to a quadrilateral element as illustrated in Fig.1 b In the development of isoparametric elements it is useful to visualize the quadrilateral coordinates plotted as cartesian coordinates in the { r . taking the value zero over the quadrilateral medians. 1 ] . a). 9. s } plane.2 b .1. 9. b.1. In the reference plane. 9.192 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 9. This is called the reference plane. The transformation between the natural coordinates { r . which extends over r ∈ [ − 1. They are called quadrilateral coordinates. 9.2. a Fig. a Fig. called the reference element (or master element). s ∈ [ − 1. s } in the reference plane and the cartesian coordinates { x . The coordinates r and s vary from − 1 on one side to + 1 at the other.

N 4 = ( 1 − r ) ( 1 + s ) .23) developed for the rectangle are directly applicable 1 1 N1 = ( 1 − r ) ( 1 − s ) . The coordinates of a point within the element are expressed in terms of the nodal coordinates as x = N1 x1 + N 2 x 2 + N 3 x3 + N 4 x 4 = ∑ N i x i . ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 193 Each quadrilateral ‘child’ in the { x . 4 4 (9.4.9.2. 4 (9. ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ (9. y = N1 y1 + N 2 y2 + N 3 y3 + N 4 y4 = ∑ N i y i . s ) = 1 ( 1 + r ri )( 1 + s si ) .1. s } plane (Fig.4. The drawback is that the mapping is a change of coordinates which implies complications in the evaluation of the integral in the element stiffness matrix. a) y = ⎣N ⎦ y e = ⎣N1 { } N2 N3 ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ N4 ⎦ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ y1 y2 y3 y4 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬. N 2 = ( 1 + r ) ( 1 − s ) . si ) are the coordinates of node i . 9. 9. 4 4 The following compact representation is useful for the implementation in a computer program Ni ( r . The advantage is that the interpolation functions defined for the reference element are the same for all actual elements and have simple expressions.2 Shape functions The interpolation functions (8. y } is generated by the ‘parent’ or ‘reference’ element from the { r . x3 ⎪ x4 ⎪ ⎭ (9.2) 1 1 N3 = ( 1 + r ) ( 1 + s ) .4) In matrix form x = ⎣N ⎦ x e = ⎣N1 { } N2 N3 ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ N4 ⎦ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ x1 ⎫ x2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎬. b).3) where ( ri . i =1 i =1 4 4 (9. b) .

the compatibility requirement is satisfied in cartesian coordinates too. there are no openings. along each side the approximation is linear. Then it is easy to show that the displacements along a side of the element depend only upon the displacements of the nodes occurring on that side.7) As the shape functions in natural coordinates (9.1. As mentioned in Chapter 8. then u = N1 u 1 + N 2 u 2 + N 3 u 3 + N 4 u 4 = ∑ N i u i .2. polynomial models are inherently continuous within the element. r = 1 and u u r =1 (9. 9. If the u displacement is approximated as u ( r . 2 2 r =1 The four-node quadrilateral is termed a “linear” (sometimes bi-linear) element because its sides remain straight during deformation. overlaps or discontinuities . = 1− s 1+ s u2 + u3 . along the side 2-3 (Fig.194 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 9. v = N1 v1 + N 2 v2 + N 3 v3 + N 4 v4 = ∑ N i v i .e. i. N4 ⎥ ⎦ (9.3 The displacement field In the isoparametric formulation. If u and v are the displacement components of a point located at ( r . a). s ) = a1 + a2 r + a3 s + a4 r s .8) = a1 + a2 + ( a3 + a4 ) s . i =1 i =1 4 4 (9.2) fulfil continuity of geometry and displacements both within the element and between adjacent elements. For example. the same shape functions are used to express the displacements within the element in terms of the nodal values as are used to define the element shape. because r (or s) is constant. s ) .5) which can be written in matrix form { u } = [ N ] { q e }.6) [ N ]= ⎡ ⎢ N1 0 N1 N2 0 0 N2 N3 0 0 N3 N4 0 ⎣ 0 0 ⎤ . where (9. This ensures interelement compatibility.

The 4-node isoparametric quadrilateral is a conforming element.9) For example. This is done considering the function f = f ( x .10) and (9. because the interpolation displacement model provides rigid body displacements in the natural coordinate system. s ) ] . the conditions of both rigid body displacements and constant strain states are satisfied in cartesian coordinates too. Along 2-3.4 Mapping from natural to cartesian coordinates Subsequently. The approximation (9. 9. ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ (9. Also.9) is non-conforming. Using (9. the 4-node quadrilateral is a non-conforming element.1. a) has the form y = m x + c . so that u ( x) 2 −3 = b1 + cb3 + ( b2 + m b3 + c b4 ) x + m b4 x 2 . On the contrary. s } coordinates. we have ⎧ ∂ ⎪ ∂r ⎪ ⎨ ∂ ⎪ ⎪ ∂s ⎩ ⎫ ⎡ ∂x ⎪ ⎢ ∂r ⎪ ⎬ = ⎢ ∂x ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ ⎢ ∂s ⎭ ⎣ ∂y ∂r ∂y ∂s ⎤⎧ ∂ ⎥⎪ ∂x ⎪ ⎥⎨ ⎥⎪ ∂ ⎥⎪∂y ⎦⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬=[J ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎧ ∂ ⎪ ] ⎪ ∂∂x ⎨ ⎪ ⎪∂y ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬. ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 195 between the elements. it can also be expressed as . we need to express the derivatives of a function in { x . If the u displacement is approximated as u ( x . y ) = b1 + b2 x + b3 y + b4 x y . y (r . s ) . (9. the equation of the side 2-3 (Fig.1. u ( x ) varies quadratically and cannot be uniquely defined as a function of u 2 and u 3 . Transformation of differential operators Using the chain rule of differentiation.4).10) where [ J ]= ⎡ ⎢ J11 ⎣ J 21 J12 ⎤ J 22 ⎥ ⎦ (9. along each side the approximation is quadratic. y } coordinates in terms of its derivatives in { r .9. where m is the slope of 2-3. y ) to be an implicit function of r and s as f = f [ x (r . 9.11) is the Jacobian matrix.

14) where [ j ] = [ J ] −1 is the inverse of the Jacobian matrix [ j ]= ⎡ ⎢ j11 ⎣ j21 j12 ⎤ 1 ⎡ J 22 − J12 ⎤ .16) [ ( y4 − y2 )( x3 − x1 ) − ( y3 − y1 )( x4 − x2 ) ] . .15) For the four-node quadrilateral element det [ J ] = A0 + A1 r + A2 s .13. − y1 − y2 + y3 + y4 + ⎥ + r ( y1 − y2 + y3 − y4 ) ⎥ ⎦ ⎫ ⎧ ∂ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ∂r ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ = [ j ]⎨ ∂ ⎬ . ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ (9.12) ⎫ ⎧ ∂ ⎪ ∂ r ⎣N ⎦ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ =⎨ ⎬ ∂ ⎪ N⎦ ⎪ ⎣ ⎪ ⎪ ∂s ⎭ ⎩ ⎣{ x e } { y e }⎦ . For the four-node quadrilateral element [ J ]= 1 ⎡ ⎢ − (1 − s ) (1 − s ) 4 ⎣ − (1 − r ) − (1 + r ) (1 + s ) (1 + r ) ⎡ x1 − (1 + s ) ⎤ ⎢ x 2 ⎢ (1 − r ) ⎥ ⎢ x3 ⎦ ⎢ ⎣ x4 y1 y2 y3 y4 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥. ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ∂s ⎪ ⎭ ⎭ ⎩ (9. ⎥= j22 ⎦ det [J ] ⎢ − J 21 J11 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (9. the inverse relationship is (9. a) Analogously.13) ⎡ − x1 + x 2 + x3 − x 4 + ⎢ 1 ⎢ + s (x1 − x 2 + x3 − x 4 ) [ J ]= ⎢ 4 − x1 − x 2 + x3 + x 4 + ⎢ ⎢ + r (x1 − x 2 + x3 − x 4 ) ⎣ ⎧ ∂ ⎪ ∂x ⎪ ⎨ ∂ ⎪ ⎪∂y ⎩ ⎫ ⎡ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ ⎬=⎢ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ ⎢ ⎭ ⎣ ∂r ∂x ∂r ∂y ∂s ∂x ∂s ∂y ⎤⎧ ∂ ⎥ ⎪ ∂r ⎪ ⎥⎨ ⎥⎪ ∂ ⎥ ⎪ ∂s ⎦⎩ − y1 + y2 + y3 − y4 + ⎤ ⎥ + s ( y1 − y2 + y3 − y4 ) ⎥ ⎥.196 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎧ ∂ ⎪ [ J ] = ⎪ ∂∂r ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ∂s ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎣x ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎧ ∂ ⎪ ∂r ⎪ y⎦ = ⎨ ∂ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ∂s ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎣ ⎣N ⎦ { x e } ⎣N ⎦ { y e }⎦ = (9. where A0 = 1 8 (9.

∂f ∂f . The above expressions will be used in the derivation of the element stiffness matrix. (9. Transformation of an infinitesimal area An additional result that will be needed is the relation dx dy = det [ J ] dr ds . y ) ∂r ∂s are not explicitly known.9. By equating the moduli of the cross products d x ×d y = d x d y ⋅ k . and s = const . ∂r ∂r d s = ( J 21 i + J 22 j ) d s . It is equal to the area of the elemental parallelogram enclosed by the two vectors d r and d s directed tangentially to the r = const . In cartesian coordinates { x . the elementary area dA is given by the modulus of the cross product d x ×d y . for the evaluation of the element stiffness matrix. s = s ( x . s } .17) It is needed because. and i . j are base vectors. . we need [ j ]. the elementary area dA is given by the modulus of the cross product d r ×d s . determined on the reference element. . in terms of ∂x ∂y Usually [ j] is used because we want to express ∂f ∂f . ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 197 A1 = A2 = 1 8 1 8 [ ( y3 − y4 )( x2 − x1 ) − ( y2 − y1 )( x3 − x4 ) ]. contours respectively. y ) . d y = d y ⋅ j . y }. where d x = d x ⋅ i . the integration on the real element is replaced by the simpler integration over the reference element. In a curvilinear system { r . The components of these vectors in a cartesian coordinate system are dr = ∂x ∂y d r ⋅ i + d r ⋅ j = ( J11 i + J12 j ) d r . Because r = r ( x . [ ( y4 − y1 )( x3 − x2 ) − ( y3 − y2 )( x4 − x1 ) ] .

43) is [k ]= t ∫ [ B ] e e A T [ D ][ B ] d A .41) gives the strain-displacement matrix ⎡ ∂ ⎢ ⎢ ∂x [ B ]= [∂ ] [ N ]= ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ∂ ⎢ ⎢ ∂y ⎣ ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ∂ ⎥ [ N ].19) [ N ] is the matrix of Substituting (6.22) .20) Using the transformation (9.17).198 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS i d r ×d s = J11 J 21 we obtain equation (9. (9. j J12 J 22 k 0 d r d s = det [J ] d r d s ⋅ k 0 9. ∂y ⎥ ∂ ⎥ ⎥ ∂x ⎥ ⎦ (9.18) where [ D ] is the material stiffness matrix and t e is the element thickness.1. ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ (9.21) ⎡ j11 [ B1 ] = ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ j21 ⎣ j12 0 j22 0 j21 j11 0 j22 j12 ⎤ ⎥.14) we obtain [ B ] = [ B1 ][ B2 ] . The matrix of differentiated shape functions [ B ] is (7.7).5 Element stiffness matrix The element stiffness matrix (7.41) [ B ] = [ ∂ ][ N ] . where (9.9) and shape functions (9. where [ ∂ ] is the matrix of differential operators (6. (9.9) into (7.

as shown in the following. If there is a distributed load having components ( px . p y ) per unit length 0 0 ⎦T .24) Because [ B ] and det [ J ] are involved functions of r and s.25) if p x and p y are constants and l 2 −3 is the length of the side 2-3.1.23) or 0 0 (1 − s ) ⎡ − (1 − s ) ⎢ − (1 − r ) 0 − (1 + r ) 0 [ B2 ] = 1 ⎢ (1 − s ) 0 − (1 − s ) 0 4⎢ ⎢ 0 − (1 − r ) 0 − (1 + r ) ⎣ (1 + s ) (1 + r ) 0 0 0 0 (1 + s ) (1 + r ) − (1 + s ) (1 − r ) 0 0 ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥.1. (9.9. the consistent nodal forces applied along that side are calculated as for a linear two-node element.17). the above integration has to be performed numerically. . ∂ ⎥ ⎥ ∂r ⎥ ∂ ⎥ ∂s ⎥ ⎦ (9. − (1 + s )⎥ (1 − r ) ⎥ ⎦ 0 Using equation (9. 9. along side 2-3 in Fig. then the equivalent nodal force vector is { f }= 1 l ⎣ 0 2 e 2−3 0 px py px py (9. 9.6 Element load vectors Because the displacements along a side of the quadrilateral isoparametric element are linear. the element stiffness matrix can be written [k ]= t ∫ ∫ [ B ] e e −1 −1 +1 +1 T [ D ][ B ] det [ J ] dr ds . ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 199 and ⎡ ∂ ⎢ ∂r ⎢ ⎢ ∂ [ B2 ] = ⎢ ∂ s ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎣ ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ [ N ].

26) is exact up to the chosen order. because it involves only a half of the sample values of the integrand required by the latter. the integral of a polynomial function is replaced by a linear combination of its values at the integration points ri : +1 −1 ∫ f ( r )d r = w1 f (r1 ) + w2 f (r 2 ) + .1 One dimensional Gauss quadrature The one-dimensional version of the Gauss method relies on the concept that any function f ( r ) can be represented approximately over the interval r ∈ [ − 1. the differentiated shape functions in the matrix [ B ] grow algebraically more cumbersome. It is more efficient than other methods.2. 9. They turn out to be the roots of Legendre polynomials and so the method is referred to as a Gauss-Legendre integration. The actual area represented by the integral is replaced by a series of rectangles of unequal widths.2 Numerical integration The numerical evaluation of stiffness integrals is usually done by Gaussian quadrature. as for example the NewtonCotes integration. + wn f (r n ) ... The isoparametric mapping introduces det [ J ] in the integrand so that closed form evaluation of stiffness integrals becomes impossible. For higher order elements. + wi f (ri ) + . In other words.27) ..200 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 9.. A polynomial of order (2n − 1) can be ‘fitted’ to f ( r ) by imposing n weights wi and n sampling points in such a way that the summation +1 −1 ∫ f (r ) d r = ∑ wi f ( r i ) i =1 n (9. As the order of the displacement field increases. whose heights are equal to the function values at the sampling points... + a2 n r 2 n −1 . the stiffness integrals become progressively more complicated. The 2n coefficients are determined from the condition that the above equation is satisfied for a polynomial of order 2n − 1 of the form f ( r ) = a1 + a2 r + a3 r 2 + . The particular positions of these sampling points are known as Gauss Points. (9. 1 ] by a polynomial which can be integrated exactly.

i =1 n Generally +1 0 ⎧ ⎪ rα dr = ⎨ 2 ⎪ α +1 ⎩ −1 ∫ if i is odd if i is even (9... + wn ) + ) ( ) (9.... − 1 < r i < +1 ⎬ ⎭ One-point formula For n = 1 we have the midpoint rule (Fig. 9.. ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 201 On substitution above we get +1 a1 + a2 w1 r1 + w2 r 2 + .9. n . + a2 n −1 +1 +1 −1 ∫r 2 n −1 d r = a1 ( w1 + w2 + .. i =1 n +1 −1 ∫ r α d r = ∑ wi riα . The 2 n parameters are determined from conditions wi > 0 ⎫ i = 1.. 3 (9. This is a set of 2 n equations. + wn r n . ( −1 ∫ d r + a2 ∫ r d r + ... + a2 n w1 r12 n −1 + w2 r 2 2 n −1 + . linear in wi and nonlinear in r i . + wn r n 2 n −1 ...29) so that 2 = w1 + w2 + . + wn r n .. + wn r n n −1 . a) +1 −1 ∫ f ( r )d r ≈ w1 f (r1 ) ..30) L L L L L L 2 2 2 0 = w1 r1 n −1 + w2 r 2 n −1 + ... 2 2 2 2 = w1 r1 + w2 r 2 + .. + wn r n + .. 2 ... i =1 n +1 −1 ∫ r d r = ∑ wi r i ..28) Identifying the terms +1 −1 ∫ d r = ∑ wi . 0 = w1 r1 + w2 r 2 + . + wn ..3.

9.3 . Two-point formula For a two-point integration +1 −1 ∫ f ( r )d r = w1 f (r1 ) + w2 f (r 2 ) .57735 ) + 1 ⋅ f ( − 0. avoiding the so-called shear locking by using reduced integration for shearing. equations (9. it is employed in some selective integration schemes. to separate shear from extension effects. b) +1 −1 r1 = − r 2 = 1 = 0.g.3.31) For a polynomial of order 2n − 1 = 2 ⋅ 2 − 1 = 3 .57735 ) . so that (Fig.202 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS which is exact only when f (r ) is a polynomial of order 1. 9. (9. Fig. 2 2 2 = w1 r1 + w2 r 2 . e. The solution to this set of equations is w1 = w2 = 1 . 3 3 3 0 = w1 r1 + w2 r 2 .30) give 2 = w1 + w2 . However. 0 = w1 r1 + w2 r 2 .5773502691 3 ∫ f ( r )d r = 1 ⋅ f ( 0.

57735 ± 0.5555 0.8888 0.652145 0. Table 9.888 ⋅ f ( 0 ) + 0. c) ∑ wi f (ri ) = 0.2. r1 = s 1 = − 0.555 ⋅ f ( − 0.774) + 0. r 2 = s 2 = 0. s2 ) + f ( r2 .0 0. s j . s j ⎥ ds = ∑ wi ∑ w j f ri . s j .555 ⋅ f ( 0. ri 0 wi 2. ∫ ⎥ i =1 j =1 −1 ⎢ j =1 ⎣ ⎦ ( ) ( ) I= For n = 2 ∫ ∫ f ( r .339981 ± 0.1 for the first four orders. 3 i =1 Gauss points and weights are given in Table 9. so that I = f ( r1 .57735 .347854 1 2 3 4 1 3 5 7 ± 0.9. i =1 j =1 n n ( ) (9.57735 .1: I= +1 +1 −1 −1 ∫ ∫ f ( r .774596 ± 0. 9. s1 ) + f ( r2 .32) w1 = w2 = 1 .2 Two dimensional Gauss quadrature The one dimensional version of Gaussian quadrature is readily extended to two dimensions if we use the rectangles or isoparametric quadrilaterals of section 9.3.2.861136 0 9. 9.0 1. .1 Number of Gauss points Order of polynomial integrated exactly Gauss Points. Gauss quadrature formulae for quadrilateral elements are shown in Table. Weights. s1 ) + f ( r1 .774 ) . s )d r d s ≅ +1 +1 −1 −1 +1 n n ⎡ n ⎤ ⎢ ∑ w j f r . ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 203 Three-point formula For a three-point integration (Fig. s ) d r d s = ∑ ∑ wi w j f ri . s2 ) .

2. wi . 4 25 ⎛ 5 5 ⎞ ⎜ = × ⎟ at points 1. 4 81 ⎝ 9 9 ⎠ 3 9 (3 × 3) 40 ⎛ 5 8 ⎞ ⎜ = × ⎟ at points 1.204 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Table 9.2 n Number of Gauss points n×n Gauss Points. 3. 4 81 ⎝ 9 9 ⎠ 64 ⎛ 8 8 ⎞ ⎜ = × ⎟ at points 1. 2. ri .24) is [k ]= t ∫ ∫ [ B ] e e 1 1 −1 −1 T [ D ][ B ] det [ J ] dr ds which means that the integral above actually consists of the integral of each element (below or above the main diagonal) in an ( 8 × 8 ) matrix. 3. w j 1 (1×1) 1 4 (= 2 × 2) at centre 2 4 (2 × 2) 1 (= 1 × 1) at points 1. 2. The elements of [ B ] are obtained by dividing a bilinear function of r and s by a linear function. 2 . Therefore. 2. In general.3 Stiffness integration The element stiffness matrix (9. the elements of . 3. 3. s j Weights. For a rectangle or parallelogram it is a constant. det [ J ] is a linear function of r and s . 4 81 ⎝ 9 9 ⎠ 9.

Taking the thickness. The existence of these modes is indicated by the stiffness matrix having more zero eigenvalues than rigid body modes. the stiffness matrix equation (9. Using the 2 × 2 rule (9. the minimum number of integration points. In this case. 9. is the number required to evaluate exactly the volume of the element.4). with the aim of decreasing the stiffness and so compensating for the overstiff finite element model.24) becomes [ ] [k ]≈ [ B ] e T [ D ][ B ] ∫ +1 +1 −1 −1 ∫ t det [ J ] dr ds . Therefore. we can write . From practical considerations. A lower limit on the number of integration points can be obtained by observing that as the mesh is refined.33) represents the volume of the element. An alternative is to use reduced integration at fewer points than necessary. one integration point is unacceptable since it gives rise to zero-energy deformation modes (Fig. This means that k e cannot be evaluated exactly using numerical integration. the state of constant strain is reached within an element. Experience has shown that the best order of integration for the 4-node quadrilateral element is a ( 2 × 2 ) array of points. in the present case. This is cheaper as well. it is best to use as few integration points as is possible without causing numerical difficulties.33). t e .9.33) The integral in (9. e (9.4 However. to be constant and noting that det [ J ] is linear. These are modes of deformation which give rise to zero strain energy. indicates that the volume can be evaluated exactly using one integration point. 9. Fig. ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 205 [ B ]T [ D ][ B ] det [ J ] are bi-quadratic functions divided by a linear function. This will be the case if one of these modes gives zero strain at the integration point.

d) Calculation of [k ] e using the 2 × 2 rule (9.5 instead of r i .1 with the following nodal coordinates ⎡ x1 ⎢x ⎢ 2 ⎢ x3 ⎢ ⎣ x4 y1 y2 y3 y4 ⎤ ⎡ 10 ⎥ ⎢ 20 ⎥ =⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 25 ⎥ ⎢ ⎦ ⎣ 8 10 ⎤ 15 ⎥ ⎥. ( ) c) Calculation of the [ B ] matrix (9. s2 ) ] .34). 30 ⎥ ⎥ 25 ⎦ det [ J ] and [ B ] calculated at GP1.s j ) ] = 1 ⎡ −( 1 − s j ) ( 1 − s j ) ( 1 + s j ) − ( 1 + s j ) ⎢ 4 ⎢ − ( 1 − ri ) ⎣ − ( 1 + ri ) ( 1 + ri ) ( 1 − ri ) ⎡ x1 ⎤ ⎢ x2 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ x3 ⎦ ⎢ ⎣ x4 y1 ⎤ y2 ⎥ ⎥ y3 ⎥ ⎥ y4 ⎦ and its determinant.57735 . s j = ± 0. Example 9. s2 )] ] [ B ( r1 . s ) ] [ [ D ] det [J ( r . s ) ]+ 1 1 [ B ( r1 . s2 ) ] [ [ D ] det [J ( r1 .11) [ J ( ri . s 1 )] ] [ B ( r2 . s 1 ) ]T [ [ D ] det [ J ( r2 . s )] ] [ B ( r . consider approximately the Gauss Points at r i .1 Consider the quadrilateral element from Fig. s2 )] ] [ B ( r2 . s 1 ) ]+ +t e T (9. s2 ) ]+ + t e [ B ( r2 . s2 ) ] T [ [ D ] det [ J ( r2 . The calculation consists of four basic steps: a) Calculation of [ J ] at the Gauss points (9. 9. For convenience.21) ⎡ j11 [B ]= 1 ⎢ 0 4⎢ ⎢ j 21 ⎣ j12 0 j 22 0 j 21 j11 0 ⎤ ⎥ j 22 ⎥ j12 ⎥ ⎦ 0 ⎡− 1 − s j ⎢ 0 − (1 − ri ) ⎢ ⎢ 0 − 1− s j ⎢ 0 − (1 − ri ) ⎢ ⎣ ( ) ( ) 1− s j 0 1+ s j 0 1 + ri − (1 + ri ) 0 1− s j 0 0 0 − (1 + ri ) 0 0 1+ s j 1 + ri − 1+ s j 1 − ri 0 0 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ − 1+ s j ⎥ ⎥ 1 − ri ⎥ ⎦ ( 0 0 ) . s j = ± 0.206 e e 1 1 T 1 1 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS [ k ] ≅ t [ B ( r . b) Calculation of the inverse [ j ] = [ J ] −1 at the Gauss points.34) + t e [ B ( r2 . For the first term in (9.34) we need .

where they are found to be accurate (Barlow.5 − 1.9.5 1. 1976). 5 ⎣ 0. a refined mesh should be used in these regions. 425 ⎢ − 13 61 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ At GP1.5 ⎢ 0 − 0. Maximum stresses usually occur at edges of plates or at other discontinuities at the element boundaries. stresses are evaluated at the Gauss points. 5 0.5 − 1. 5 1. ⎣ ⎦ det [ J ]= 53.5 − 1.5 1. Gauss point values are ideal for constructing internal stress contours.5 − 1. the matrix [ B ] is given by (9.5 ⎥ ⎢ 25 ⎣ ⎦ ⎢ ⎣ 8 Its determinant and inverse are 10 ⎤ 15 ⎥ 1 ⎥= 30 ⎥ 8 ⎥ 25 ⎦ ⎡ 61 20 ⎤ ⎢ 13 60 ⎥ .5 1. 5 ⎥ ⎥ 0. stresses {σ } = [ D ] [ B ] {q e } vary within the element. ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 207 At GP1.5 0 0 0 ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥.35) In practice. However.21) 0 ⎤ ⎡ 60 − 20 0 [ B ] = 1 ⎢ 0 0 − 13 61 ⎥ ⎥ 1700 ⎢ ⎢− 13 61 60 − 20⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 0 ⎡− 0.2. In order not to miss these peak stresses.5 − 1.4 Stress calculations In the quadrilateral element. ⎥ 850 ⎢− 12 10 − 49 30 36 30 25 − 50⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 9. − 1.5 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 − 0.5 0.11) is ⎡ 10 −0.5 0.5 ⎦ 0 30 0 30 0 − 50 0 ⎤ ⎡− 10 1 ⎢ [ B ] = ⎢ 0 − 12 0 − 49 0 36 0 25 ⎥ .5 0 0 0 0 0. the Jacobian matrix (9. [ j ] = [ J ] −1 = 1 ⎡ 60 − 20 ⎤ .5⎤ ⎢ 20 ⎢ [ J ]= 1 ⎡ 4 ⎢− 0.125 . .5 ⎢− 0. Some programs which use Gauss point stresses extrapolate to the element nodes and then output the mean value if several elements meet at a node. 5 1.5 0 0 0 0 1. (9.

The product [ B ] T [ D ][ B ] is therefore fourth order and det [ J ] is cubic.2. and 2 × 2 integration is normally used for this popular element.36) The element has three nodes along one edge. so that the displacement variation should be parabolic (three constants) to satisfy compatibility.3 Eight-node quadrilateral This element is the isoparametric version of the eight-node rectangle presented in section 8. The optimal sampling points for this element are the Gauss points for the 2 × 2 scheme . even if it is supported conventionally. b).27) are u = a1 + a2 r + a3 s + a4 r 2 + a5 r s + a6 s 2 + a7 r 2 s + a8 r s 2 . 9.208 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 9. The difference is that in cartesian coordinates it has curved sides (Fig.5 The displacement functions in simple polynomial form (8.2. 9. Fig. large groups of elements will not suffer from such mechanisms. The eight-node quadrilateral employs displacement fields quadratic in r and s . (9. It would seem necessary to use a 4 × 4 Gauss quadrature for exact stiffness integration.5. In practice.5. using a 2 × 2 integration scheme would result in a singular stiffness matrix. For a single 8-node rectangular element. v = b1 + b2 r + b3 s + b4 r 2 + b5 r s + b6 s 2 + b7 r 2 s + b8 r s 2 . as are the stresses. a) and the master element is a square (Fig. 9.

3. 9.9. 4 N1 = − 1 1 − r 2 (1 − s ) . For the 8-node quadratic element. For ease in programming. = ∂r ∂s 4 4 Ni = (9. so the advantages of reduced integration are compounded. in order to evaluate the minimum order of the numerical integration.1 Shape functions The shape functions (8. ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 209 and not those for the higher order 3 × 3 scheme. it is sufficient to examine the Jacobian determinant. 4 N5 = ( ( ) ( ) ( ) ) As they are constructed based on the equations of the lines passing through the nodal points. si ) are the natural coordinates of node i: for corner nodes 1 ( 1 + r ri ) ( 1 + s si ) (r ri + s si − 1) .29) have the following expressions 1 ( 1 − r ) ( 1 − s ) (1 + r + s ) . 4 1 N 4 = − ( 1 − r ) ( 1 + s ) (1 + r − s ) .37) 2 1 N8 = ( 1 − r ) 1 − s 2 . . 4 ∂ N i ri ( 1 + s si ) (2r ri + s si ) . For an 8-node quadrilateral element. 4 1 N 2 = − ( 1 + r ) ( 1 − s ) (1 − r + s ) . better displacements are obtained using a 3 × 3 Gauss point mesh. 2 1 N 7 = 1 − r 2 ( 1 + s ) . The eight-node curved ‘quad’ is ideal for nonlinear problems and can be easily adapted to model cracks by moving the midside nodes. ∂ N i = si ( 1 + r ri ) (2s si + r ri ) .38) ___________ *) After the extraordinary discoveries of the princes of Serendip from the horror novels by Horace Walpole (1717-1797). one can also use the following equivalent formulae in which ( ri . det [ J ] is of third order hence the minimum number of integration points is 4 (2 × 2) . Care is needed because the accuracy declines with excessive shape distortion. It was shown that. 2 1 N6 = (1 + r ) 1 − s 2 . due to reduced integration. they belong to the serendipity *) family of elements. (9. 4 1 N3 = − ( 1 + r ) ( 1 + s ) ( 1 − r − s ).

(9. i =1 8 y = ∑ N i (r .44) 9.41) ⎨ ⎬ =[N ] q .3.39) for mid-side nodes. v⎭ ⎩ where N 0 N 2 0 L L N8 0 ⎤ [ N ]= ⎡ 1 . = si 1 − r 2 . s ) y i i =1 8 (9. 2 ∂ Ni 1 ∂ Ni = ri 1 − s 2 . ∂r ∂s 2 Ni = ( ) ( ) (9.210 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS for mid-side nodes.43) Having generated the shape functions [ N ] . when ri = 0 1 1 − r 2 ( 1 + s si ) . (9.45) leads to .2 Shape function derivatives Use of the isoparametric formulation x = ∑ N i (r . the matrix [ B ] = [ ∂ ][ N ⎡ ∂ N1 ⎢ ⎢ ∂x [ B ]= ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢∂N ⎢ 1 ⎢ ∂y ⎣ 0 ∂ N1 ∂y ∂ N1 ∂x ∂ N2 ∂x 0 ∂ N2 ∂y 0 L ∂ N8 ∂x 0 ∂ N8 ∂y ∂ N8 ∂x ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥. ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ ] is ∂ N2 L 0 ∂y ∂ N2 ∂ N8 L ∂x ∂y (9. when si = 0 1 1 − s 2 ( 1 + r ri ) . (9. s ) x i .42) ⎢ 0 N 0 N 2 L L 0 N8 ⎥ 1 ⎣ ⎦ { } { q }= ⎣u e 1 v1 u2 v 2 L L u8 v8 ⎦ T . = − s ( 1 + r ri ∂r ∂s 2 Ni = ( ) ( ) ). 2 ∂ Ni ∂ Ni 1 = − r ( 1 + s si ) .40) The displacements inside the element can be expressed in terms of the nodal displacements as ⎧u⎫ e (9.

47) ∑ i =1 i =1 8 ∂ N i (r . ∂r ∂x = ∂s ∂y = ∂s ∑ ∂ N∂(sr . ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 211 − ∂y ∂r ∂x ∂r ⎤ ⎧ ∂ Ni ⎥ ⎪ ∂r ⎪ ⎥⎨ ⎥ ⎪ ∂ Ni ⎥ ⎪ ∂s ⎦⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬. s ) xi .50) where t is the thickness of the plate and the material stiffness matrix [ D ] has the form ⎡ D1 D 2 0 ⎤ (9. s ) x i 8 i . s ) yi . s ) yi . ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ (9. (9. ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0 0 D5⎥ ⎣ ⎦ e . ∂r ∂ N i (r .51) [ D ] = ⎢D 2 D 4 0 ⎥ . − ∂r ∂s ∂s ∂r (9.3 Determinant of the Jacobian matrix The Jacobian matrix is ⎡ ∂x ⎢ r [ J ]= ⎢ ∂x ⎢∂ ⎢ ∂s ⎣ ∂y ∂r ∂y ∂s ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ . ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎧ ∂ Ni ⎪ ∂x ⎪ ⎨ ∂N i ⎪ ⎪ ∂y ⎩ ⎫ ⎧ ∂ Ni ⎫ ⎡ ∂y ⎪ ⎪ ∂r ⎪ 1 ⎢ ∂s ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎬ = [ j ]⎨ ∂N ⎬ = i ⎪ det [ J ] ⎢ ∂ x ⎪ ⎪ − ⎢ ∂s ⎪ ⎪ ∂s ⎪ ⎣ ⎭ ⎭ ⎩ 8 (9.48) and its determinant is det [ J ] = ∂x ∂ y ∂x ∂ y .46) where ∂x = ∂r ∂y = ∂r ∑ ∑ i =1 i =1 8 ∂ N i (r .49) 9.3.9.4 Element stiffness matrix The element stiffness matrix is +1 +1 [k ]= t ∫ ∫ [ B ] e e −1 −1 T [ D ][ B ] det [ J ] d r d s (9. ∂s 9.3.

55) ij .53) ∂y ⎥ ⎥ ∂N j ⎥ ∂x ⎥ ⎦ or Denoting [ k ] i j = ⎢k 1 ⎣ ⎡k 3 k 2⎤ k 4⎥ ⎦ .52) The (16 × 16) element stiffness matrix contains submatrices [ k ] i j which. = ∑∑ w ⎜ D 2 + D5 ⎜ ∂ y ∂x ∂x ∂ y ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (9.54) the elements of the matrix (9.212 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Substituting (9. ij (9. = ∑∑ w ⎜ D 2 + D5 ⎜ ∂x ∂ y ∂ y ∂x ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ ∂ Ni ∂ N j ∂ Ni ∂ N j ⎞ ⎟.44). (9. a) can be determined as ⎛ ∂ Ni ∂ N j ∂ Ni ∂ N j ⎞ ⎟. (9. evaluated by numerical integration.53. a) w = t e w p wq det [ J ] . (9. have the form ⎡ ∂ Ni ⎢ ∂x w p wq ⎢ ⎢ 0 q =1 ⎢ ⎣ n [k ] i j = t e ∑∑ p =1 n 0 ∂ Ni ∂y ∂ Ni ∂y ∂ Ni ∂x ⎡ ∂N j ⎢ ⎤ ⎢ ∂x ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ [D]⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ∂N j ⎦ ⎢ ∂y ⎣ ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ∂N j ⎥ det [ J ] . k 1 i j = ∑∑ w ⎜ D 1 + D5 ⎜ ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ k2 k3 ij ⎛ ∂ Ni ∂ N j ∂ Ni ∂ N j ⎞ ⎟. the stiffness matrix (9.50) can be written ⎡ ∂ N1 ⎢ ∂x ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ∂ N2 +1 +1 ⎢ ∂x ⎢ ⎡ ke ⎤ = te ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎢ −1 −1 ⎢ ⎢ L ⎢∂N ⎢ 8 ⎢ ∂x ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎣ 0 ∂ N1 ∂y ∫∫ 0 ∂ N2 ∂y L 0 ∂ N8 ∂y ∂ N1 ⎤ ∂y ⎥ ⎥ ∂ N1 ⎥ ∂x ⎥ ⎥ ∂ N2 ⎥ ∂y ⎥ ⎥ ∂ N2 ⎥ ∂x ⎥ ⎥ L ⎥ ∂ N8 ⎥ ⎥ ∂y ⎥ ∂ N8 ⎥ ⎥ ∂x ⎦ ⎥ T ⎡ ∂ N1 ⎢ ⎢ ∂x [D ] ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ∂ N1 ⎢ ∂y ⎣ 0 ∂ N1 ∂y ∂ N1 ∂x ∂ N2 ∂x 0 ∂ N2 ∂y ∂ N2 ∂x L L ∂ N8 ∂x 0 ∂ N8 ∂y ∂ N8 ∂x 0 ∂ N2 ∂y 0 ∂ N8 L ∂y ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ det [ J ] d r d s ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ .53.

Therefore.55) by incorporating the relevant material constants. k 2 = k 3 .55) shows that all the terms are of the form (cons tan t ) × (material property) × ( product of shape function derivatives ) . A. ∂x i =1 ∂ y . k 4 i j = ∑∑ w ⎜ D 4 + D5 ⎜ ∂y ∂y ∂x ∂x ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ When i = j . it is useful to store separately in an array [ S ] i j the sum of the products of the shape function derivatives multiplied by w .3.5 Stress calculation The vector of element stresses is {σ } = [ D ][ B ]{ q e }.57) The explicit form of equation (9. This method (K.57) for the quadratic 8-node element is ⎧σx ⎪ ⎨σy ⎪τ ⎩ xy ⎫ ⎡ D1 ⎪ ⎢ ⎬ = ⎢D 2 ⎪ ⎢ 0 ⎭ ⎣ ⎡ ∂ N1 ⎢ 0 ⎤ ⎢ ∂x ⎥ 0 ⎥⎢ 0 ⎢ D5⎥ ⎢∂N ⎦ ⎢ 1 ⎢ ∂y ⎣ 8 D2 D4 0 L ∂ N2 L 0 ∂y ∂ N2 ∂ N8 L ∂x ∂y ⎤ ⎧u 1 ⎫ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎥ ⎪v1 ⎪ ⎥ ⎪u ⎪ ⎥ ⎨ 2⎬ ⎥ ⎪L ⎪ ⎥ ⎪v ⎪ ⎥ ⎪ 8⎪ ⎦⎩ ⎭ wherefrom σ x = D1 ∑ i =1 8 ∂ Ni ∂ Ni ui + D2 ∑ vi .9.56) and then to work out equations (9. 0 ∂ N1 ∂y ∂ N1 ∂x ∂ N2 ∂x 0 ∂ N2 ∂y 0 ∂ N8 ∂x 0 ∂ N8 ∂y ∂ N8 ∂x (9. 1972) reduces the computing time by a factor of nine over the full matrix multiplication method. A close inspection of equations (9. Gupta & B. providing that the material properties are constant throughout the element. Mohraz. ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 213 ⎛ ∂ Ni ∂ N j ∂ Ni ∂ N j ⎞ ⎟. 9. such that ⎡ ⎢∑∑ w =⎢ ⎢ ⎢∑∑ w ⎣ ∂ Ni ∂x ∂ Ni ∂y ∂N j ∂x ∂N j ∂x ∂ Ni ∂x ∂N ∑∑ w ∂ yi ∂N j ⎤ ⎥ ∂y ⎥ ∂N j ⎥ ∂y ⎥ ⎦ [ S ]i j ∑∑ w (9.

214 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS σ y = D2 ∑ 8 8 i =1 8 ∂ Ni ∂ Ni vi . It is usual to use all the nodes of the element in the computation. It has been found that nodal stresses from an 8-node quadratic element are usually incorrect. in which all loads can be reduced to nodes intuitively or by statics. since the nodal positions are readily located and it is convenient to output the displacements and stresses at the same points. the actual pressure distribution along an element edge is replaced by a parabolic distribution defined by the pressure values at each of the three nodes along that edge. All intermediate values can be calculated using the shape functions. specified in force per unit length. for a quadratic isoparametric element the nodal forces due to distributed loads must be computed in accordance with equation (7. element by element. This is due to the fact that the element stiffness is calculated by sampling at the Gauss points. and it is therefore reasonable to expect the most accurate stresses and strains occurring at the same points. However.3.6 Consistent nodal forces Unlike the triangular element. A better alternative is to calculate stresses at the Gauss points. The components of the force p d r acting upon an elemental length d r are . Consider a distributed load p . in which superior accuracy is obtained and averaging is not necessary. ui + ⎟ ∂x ⎠ i =1 ⎝ ∂ y In some programs the stresses are determined at nodes.58) τ xy = D 5 ∑ ⎜ ⎜ ⎛ ∂ Ni ∂ Ni ⎞ vi ⎟. so that there is no need to sort out the appropriate shape functions for the three nodes with given pressure values. (9. acting along the s = +1 edge of an element. closer results to the true values are obtained.44) { f }= ∫ [ N ] e Ve T { p }d V . if the stresses of all elements meeting at a node are averaged. into the global load vector which represents the right hand side of the linear set of equations to be solved for displacements. ui + D4 ∑ ∂x i =1 ∂ y (9. 9.59) The equivalent nodal forces are added. Edge pressure When coding the load vectors in a computer program.

61) The above vector is usually integrated numerically and is written as ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ (9. ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 215 ⎧ ∂y ⎫ ⎪ ∂r ⎪ ⎧ px ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ = p ⎨ ∂ x ⎬ dr . ⎧ ∂y ⎪ ∂r ⎪ p [ N ]T ⎨ ∂x ⎪− ⎪ ∂r ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ dr ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ (9.63) the element.65) . A more general equation applicable to the two edges s = ±1 is ⎧ ∂y ⎫ ⎞ ⎪ ∂r ⎪ ⎛ 8 ⎪ ⎪ f e = ∑ wi ws [N ]T ⎜ ∑ N k p k ⎟ ⎨ ⎟ ⎜ ∂x ⎬ i =1 ⎠⎪− ⎝ k =1 ⎪ ⎪ ∂ r ⎪i ⎩ ⎭ where w s takes up the value of the s coordinate for the loaded edge. (9.42).59) in which the volume integral has been reduced to a line integral { f }= ∫ e +1 −1 where [ N ] is given by (9.64) A similar expression for pressure loads on the r = ±1 edges is { f }= ∑ e n i =1 ⎧ ∂y − ⎞ ⎪ ∂s ⎛ 8 ⎪ T⎜ wi wr [N ] ⎜ ∑ N k p k ⎟ ⎨ ⎟ ∂x ⎠⎪ ⎝ k =1 ⎪ ∂s ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ .9. py ⎭ ⎩ ⎪− ⎪ ⎪ ∂r ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ (9.62) wi [ N ] T fe = ⎬ ⎪ i =1 ⎪i ⎭ where pi is the pressure at the Gauss point i along the s = +1 edge and is computed by equation { } ∑ n ⎧ ∂y ⎪ ∂r ⎪ pi ⎨ ∂x ⎪− ⎪ ∂r ⎩ p= ∑ N (r . ⎪ ⎪i ⎭ (9. { f } is reversed.60) The consistent load for p is given by a modified form of equation (9.s ) p k k =1 8 k . the sign of the force vector { } n (9. since a positive pressure is assumed to act towards the centre of e If the same pressure acts on the edge s = −1 .

For the rectangular element ∂y ∂x = 0 and = a . Fig.2. E9. E9. Example 9. a with a uniform pressure load along the top edge. it is possible to integrate the equations for the equivalent nodal forces explicitly. ⎪ ⎭ (9.66) Denoting the total pressure load P = 2 p a . Equation (9.2 Solution. we can write f y3 = − f y7 = − P 2 P 2 +1 −1 +1 −1 1 ∫ 4 ( 1 + r ri ) ( 1 + s si ) ( r ri + s si − 1) d r . 1 2 ∫ 4 ( 1 + s si ) ( 1 − r ) d r . For the edge s = +1 we have N1 = N 5 = N 2 = N 6 = N8 = 0 .216 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS For a rectangular isoparametric element with edges parallel to the x . y axes. Find the equivalent nodal forces.2 Consider the element of Fig.61) gives ∂r ∂r {f } e ⎧ f y3 ⎪ = ⎨ f y7 ⎪f ⎩ y4 ⎫ +1 ⎪ ⎬= p ⎪ −1 ⎭ ∫ ⎧ N3 ⎪ ⎨ N7 ⎪N ⎩ 4 ⎫ ⎪ ⎬ (− a ) d r . .

67) where m is the mass per unit area and g the acceleration in the y direction. but in the ratio 1 6 : 2 3 : 1 6 (Fig. yields f y3 = − f y7 = − f y4 = − +1 −1 +1 −1 +1 −1 P 2 P 2 P 2 ∫ 1 (1 + r )( 2)( r + 1 − 1) d r = − P . r i = 0 and s i = 1 for node 7. and r i = −1 and s i = 1 for node 4.9. Because all the equivalent nodal forces act in the y direction. b).3. Solution. The integration is carried out numerically and equation (9.2. a with gravity loading. E9. E9. ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS P 2 +1 −1 217 f y4 = − ∫ 1 (1 + r ri 4 ) (1 + s si ) ( r ri + s si − 1) d r . In the above expressions. 4 6 ∫ ( ) ∫ Hence a uniform load acting along an edge is not distributed in the intuitive ratio of 1 4 : 1 2 : 1 4 . Gravity loading For gravity loading (downwards negative) the vector of equivalent nodal forces (9.67) takes the form { f }= ∑∑ w w e n n i i =1 j =1 j ⎧ 0 ⎫ m [ N ] T ⎨ ⎬ det [ J ] . 4 3 1 (1 − r )(2)(− r + 1 − 1) d r = − P . ⎩− g ⎭ (9. substituting r i = 1 and s i = 1 for node 3.59) is { f }= ∫ m [ N ] e T ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎨ ⎬d x d y = ⎩− g ⎭ +1 +1 −1 −1 ∫ ∫ m [N ] T ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎨ ⎬ det [ J ] d r d s ⎩− g ⎭ (9. The same result could have been obtained noticing that the integrands in the above equations are the shape functions of the three-node isoparametric onedimensional element (4. 4 6 1 ( 2 ) 1 − r 2 dr = − 2P . Find the equivalent nodal forces. .26).68) Example 9.3 Consider the rectangular element of Fig.

(9.73) since si = ±1 for all corner nodes. 1 1 (9.70) can be written f yi = − (9. the equivalent nodal forces for gravity loading at a corner node i are given by f yi = − +1 +1 (9. ⎜ ⎟ 16 16 ⎝ 3 3 ⎠ 12 (9.72) since ri = ±1 for all corner nodes. I2 = −1 −1 ∫ ∫ (1 + r ri ) (1 + s si ) s si d r d s = 3 +1 +1 4 (9. and I3 = − −1 −1 ∫ ∫ (1 + r ri ) (1 + s si ) d r d s = − 4 . L⎪ ⎪ ⎪ N8 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ∫ ∫ (9.76) −1 −1 For a midside node i with si = 0 .69) For a rectangular element det [ J ] = ab . 16 1 (9.75) For a midside node i with ri = 0 .74) Therefore. the integral is f yi = − 1 W 2 ∫ ∫ m g 2 (1 − s ) (1 + r ri ) det [ J ] d r d s = − 3 . +1 +1 For a corner node i the integral becomes f yi = − −1 −1 ∫ ∫ m g 4 (1 + r ri ) (1 + s si ) ( r ri + s si − 1) det [ J ] d r d s .71) 4 where +1 +1 I1 = −1 −1 ∫ ∫ (1 + r ri ) (1 + s si ) r ri d r d s = 3 +1 +1 (9. W ( I1 + I 2 + I 3 ) .77) −1 −1 .70) Denoting the total weight of the element W = m g ⋅ 2a ⋅ 2b . W ( I1 + I 2 + I 3 ) = − W ⎛ 4 + 4 − 4 ⎞ = W . the integral is f yi = − 1 W 2 ∫ ∫ m g 2 (1 − r ) (1 + s si ) det [ J ] d r d s = − 3 . the force (9.218 ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ f y1 ⎫ f y2 ⎪ ⎪ = L ⎬ ⎪ f y8 ⎪ ⎭ +1 +1 −1 −1 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎧ N1 ⎫ ⎪N ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ m g ⎨ 2 ⎬ det [ J ] d r d s .

6 . it contains an internal node. E9. The local node numbers for this element are shown in Fig. Again. ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 219 Fig. 9. E9. a.6. 9. b. Fig.6.3.4 Nine-node quadrilateral This element belongs to the Lagrange family of elements. 9. they are different from the values of − W 12 and − W 6 .9. which would have been assigned intuitively to the corner and midside nodes respectively. b.3 Hence for gravity loading the equivalent nodal forces are as shown in Fig. 9. Apart from the eight nodes located on the boundary. The master element is presented in Fig.

L2 and L3 having unit value at the node with the same index and zero at the other two nodes L1 (r ) = − r (1 − r ) . Higher-order rectangular elements can be systematically developed with the help of the so-called Pascal’s triangle.6. Considering the r axis alone.7. as shown at the bottom of Fig. and rs . which. Fig. The quadratic quadrilateral element has 9 nodes.as can be seen setting s = 0 in u ). for three points. s. the polynomial is quadratic (with three terms . In general. L 3 (r ) = r (1 + r ) . the polynomial should have the first four terms 1. as shown in Fig.) .78) Along the sides of the element. we can define generic shape functions L1 . a pth-order Lagrange rectangular element has ( p + 1) 2 nodes ( p = 0. 9.79) They turn out to be Lagrange polynomials. b.220 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The associated displacement functions in polynomial form are u = a1 + a2 r + a3 s + a4 r 2 + a5 r s + a6 s 2 + a7 r 2 s + a8 r s 2 + a9 r 2 s 2 . v = b1 + b2 r + b3 s + b4 r 2 + b5 r s + b6 s 2 + b7 r 2 s + b8 r s 2 + b9 r 2 s 2 .. 2 (9. and is determined by its values at the three nodes on that side. The polynomial is incomplete. 9.7 Since a linear quadrilateral element has four nodes. It contains the complete polynomial of the second degree (6 terms) plus other three terms which have to be located symmetrically: the third degree terms r 2 s and r s 2 and also an r 2 s 2 term.. The shape functions are defined as follows. .1. which contains the terms of polynomials of various degrees in the two variables r and s . r. have the expressions . 2 L 2 (r ) = ( 1 + r )( 1 − r ) . 9. (9.

L 3 (s ) = s (1 + s ) . Alternatively. a) is an element of order 2 (i.5 Six-node triangle Higher-order triangular elements can be developed using Pascal’s triangle (Fig. a. 9. with the constant term and the first and last terms of a given row being the vertices of the triangle. 9. ⎥ N 3 ⎥ ⎪ L 3 (r ) ⎪ ⎦ ⎩ ⎭ (9.8). 9.6.81) It should be cautioned that the subscripts of N i refer to the node numbering used in Fig. which can be expressed in terms of the nodal values of the variable being interpolated. Similarly.9. N 6 = 4 ζ 3 ζ1 . 9. they can be condensed out at the element level to reduce the size of the element matrices. b.9.6.9. 9. one can use the serendipity elements. L 3 (r ) = ( r − r1 ) ( r − r 2 ) ( r 3 − r1 ) ( r 3 − r 2 ) . but their shape functions cannot be obtained using products of one-dimensional interpolation functions. as shown at the right of Fig. generic shape functions can be defined along the s axis. N 4 = 4 ζ1 ζ 2 . 2 L 2 (s ) = ( 1 + s ) ( 1 − s ) . N 3 = ζ 3 ( 2 ζ 3 − 1 ) . N5 = 4 ζ 2 ζ 3 . One can view the position of the terms as the nodes of the triangle. b L1 (s ) = − s (1 − s ) .36) N1 = ζ1 ( 2 ζ1 − 1 ) . The polynomial involves six constants.82) . N 2 = ζ 2 ( 2 ζ 2 − 1 ) . the shape functions can be expressed in terms of area coordinates as for the linear strain triangle (8. By referring to the master element in Fig. 2 (9. ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS L 1 (r ) = 221 ( r − r 2 ) ( r − r3 ) ( r1 − r 2 ) ( r1 − r3 ) . as can be seen from the top three rows of Pascal’s triangle. The six node triangle (Fig. the degree of the polynomial is 2).e. (9. L 2 (r ) = ( r − r1 ) ( r − r 3 ) ( r 2 − r1 ) ( r 2 − r 3 ) .. Since the internal nodes of the higher-order elements of the Lagrange family do not contribute to the inter-element connectivity.80) The shape functions N i can be constructed as products of the above onedimensional functions ⎡ N1 ⎢N ⎢ 5 ⎢ N2 ⎣ N8 N9 N6 N 4 ⎤ ⎧ L 1 (r ) ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ N 7 ⎥ = ⎨ L 2 (r ) ⎬ ⎣ L 1 (s ) L 2 (s ) L 3 (s ) ⎦ . 9.

and x = ∑ Ni x i . N6 ⎥ ⎦ { } (9. 9. ζ 3 in the shape functions. 9. Fig.8 The isoparametric representation is (8. Because of terms ζ 2 .84) Fig. i =1 (9. this element is also called a quadratic triangle.83) where { q }= ⎣u e 1 v 2 L L u6 6 v6 ⎦ T .222 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 2 2 where ζ 1 = 1 − ζ 2 − ζ 3 . i =1 y = ∑ Ni y i .9 .37) ⎧ u ⎫ ⎡ N1 ⎨ ⎬=⎢ ⎩v⎭ ⎣ 0 0 N1 v1 u2 6 N2 0 0 N2 L L N6 L L 0 0 ⎤ e q .

[∂ ] will The above statements are illustrated for the one-dimensional quadratic isoparametric element shown in Fig. as an internal angle approaches 1800 there is a loss of accuracy in the element stress. The Gauss quadrature formulas for a triangle differ from those considered earlier for the rectangle. It must be placed inside the middle third of a side. A necessary requirement for applying equation (9. particularly at that corner. 39].9. Note that while the Jacobian is always computed at Gauss points. a warning message will be signaled indicating the nonuniqueness of mapping. 4. ∂ s ∂ N 3 ∂ N1 (9. which has to be integrated numerically. any internal angle of each corner node of the element should be less than 1800 . ⎦ ⎣ 1 1 . ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 223 The element stiffness matrix. ∂ r ∂ N 2 ∂ N1 ∂ ∂ ∂ = − .6 Jacobian positiveness In the higher-order isoparametric elements discussed above. The midside node should be as near as possible to the centre of the side. This condition ensures that det [ J ] does not attain a value of zero in the element.4. s ) coordinates are defined by (8. The row vector of shape functions is ⎢ ⎥ ⎣N ⎦ = ⎣N1 N 2 N 3 ⎦ = ⎢ 2 r ( r − 1) ( 1 + r )( 1 − r ) 2 r ( r + 1) ⎥ . and.13) to shape functions is that [ J ] can be inverted. If the Jacobian becomes negative at any location.24) if the (r . This gives ∂ ∂ ∂ = − . This inverse exists if there is no excessive distortion of the element such that lines of constant r or s intersect inside or on the element boundaries or there are re-entrant angles. then [ j ] and the operators in increase without limit and consequently produce infinite strains. A similar situation occurs when two adjacent corner nodes are made coincident to produce a triangular element. The sign of det [ J ] should be checked.46). 9. If the determinant det [ J ] → 0 . can be evaluated using (9.85) Details on numerical integration schemes for triangles are given in [18. it is more likely to be negative at corners. we note the presence of ‘midside’ nodes. When the element is degenerated into a triangle by increasing an internal angle to 1800 then [ J ] is singular at that corner. Therefore to ensure that [ J ] can be inverted. where stresses may be computed.

e. 9.10 This point lies within the element (Fig. This explains 4 4 why it is recommended to place precautiously the ‘midside’ node inside the middle third of a side. 2x2 −l If . 0 . 2x2 −l Fig. ⎪ ⎭ The determinant of the Jacobian matrix is det [ J ] = J11 = ( r + 0. if −1 ≤ where 0 ≤ x 2 ≤ l . i.10) if − 1 ≤ r 0 ≤ 1 . For any x2 this determinant vanishes at the point r0 = 0. 9. l 3l < x 2 < . then det [ J ] does not vanish on the element.5 l .5 ) l − 2 r x2 .5 l ≤1.224 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The Jacobian matrix is [ J ] = J11 = ⎢ ∂N1 ⎢ ⎣ ∂r ∂N 2 ∂r ⎧ x1 ∂N 3 ⎥ ⎪ ⎥ ⎨ x2 ∂r ⎦ ⎪ ⎩ x3 ⎫ ⎪ ⎢ 2r − 1 − 2r ⎬=⎢ ⎪ ⎣ 2 ⎭ ⎧ 0 2r + 1 ⎥ ⎪ ⎨ x2 2 ⎥⎪ ⎦ ⎩ l ⎫ ⎪ ⎬.

These elements may be either triangular. The x-y plane is taken to coincide with the middle surface of the plate (Fig. in which on the faces of plate the shear strains are equal to zero.1) and the positive z-direction is upwards. finite element displacement models for the flat plate bending problem are discussed. For this case.1 . For thin plates. 10. enclosures surrounding machinery and bridge decks are subject to loads normal to their plane. b) normals to the middle plane of the undeformed plate remain straight and normal to the middle surface of the plate during deformation. and c) the direct stress in the transverse direction can be disregarded. which is the plane midway between the faces of the plate. Thin plates with transverse shear neglected are analyzed based on Kirchhoff’s classical theory. The plate has constant thickness h and is subject to distributed surface loads. In this chapter. For thick or composite plates some higher-order shear deformation plate theories are available. Plates with a constant shear deformation through the plate thickness are treated in the Reissner-Mindlin plate theory. that is the thickness-to-span is h l ≤ 0. .1 Thin plate theory (Kirchhoff) A plate is described as a structure in which the thickness is very small compared with the other dimensions. 10.10. it can be assumed that the plate deformation may be expressed by the deformation state at the middle surface. such as the floors of buildings and aircraft. PLATE BENDING Flat plate structures. Such structures can be analyzed by dividing the plate into an assemblage of twodimensional finite elements called plate bending elements. rectangular or quadrilateral in shape. Kirchhoff’s hypotheses are adopted: a) there is no deformation (stretching) in the middle plane of the plate.

γ x y = = −2 z + ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂ y ∂ y ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂v ∂w + =0. z ) = − z ∂w . y. ∂x ∂z (10. 10. ∂z ∂ y γ yz = γ zx = ∂w ∂u + = 0.2) a Fig.2.2 The strain vector can be written in the form b {ε } = ⎣ ε x where the curvature vector ε y γ x y ⎦ T = − z { χ }. z ) = − z ∂w . ∂x v ( x.1) where w ( x. y.3) . ε y = = −z 2 . 10. Fig. y ) denotes the displacement of the middle surface in the z-direction (Fig. ∂y (10. 10. a).226 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The displacements parallel to the undeformed middle surface are given by u ( x.1 The components of the strain are given as follows: εx = ∂2w ∂u ∂v ∂u ∂2w ∂v ∂2w . (10. = −z 2 .

PLATE BENDING 227 ⎢ 2 {χ }= ⎢ ∂ w 2 ⎢ ∂x ⎣ ∂2w ∂ y2 ∂2w ⎥ 2 ⎥ ∂x ∂ y ⎥ ⎦ T .10) . (10. Their definig equations are h2 ⎣M x My Mxy ⎦= −h 2 ∫ z ⎣σ h2 x σ y τ xy ⎦ dz . 10.3. where (10. 12 (10. 10.8) Fig.10.7) The strain energy in the plate can be written as U= 1 2 V ∫ {σ }T {ε }dV = 1 2 ∫ A h3 { χ }T [ D ] { χ }d A . (10.4) Since σ z = 0 .6) {σ } = ⎣σ x and σ y τ x y ⎦T .3 The positive sense of internal bending and twisting moments (per unit length) is shown in Fig. d12 d 22 d 26 d16 d 26 d 66 ⎤ ⎥. ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ ⎡ d11 [ D ] = ⎢ d12 ⎢ ⎢ d16 ⎣ (10. the stress-strain relations take the form {σ } = [ D ] {ε } = − z [ D ] { χ } .9) Denoting Di j = −h 2 ∫d ij z2 d z (10.5) (10.

The equilibrium equations are ∂M x ∂M y x − Qx = 0 .14) E is Young’s modulus and ν is the Poisson’s ratio.228 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS the moment .15) where p z is the lateral distributed load (per unit surface) and Qx . ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ (10.11) or { M } = − [ D ]{ χ } For isotropic materials . From (10. ⎟ ⎠ (10. + ∂y ∂x ∂M x y ∂M y + − Qy = 0 .12) ⎡ 0 ⎢1 ν [ D ] = D ⎢ν 1 0 ⎢ 1 −ν ⎢0 0 2 ⎣ where ⎤ ⎥ ⎥.13) D= 12 1 − ν ( E h3 2 ) . ∂x ∂y ∂ Qx ∂ Q y + + pz = 0 .11) and (10.16) . ∂x ∂y forces (per unit length). (10.15) it can be shown that (10. ⎟ ⎠ Qy = − D ∂ ⎛ ∂2w ∂2w ⎜ + ∂ y ⎜ ∂ x2 ∂ y2 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟.curvature equations can be expressed as follows ⎧ ∂2w ⎪ ∂ x2 D16 ⎤ ⎪ 2 ⎪ ⎥⎪ ∂ w D26 ⎥ ⎨ ∂ y2 D66 ⎥ ⎪ 2 ⎦⎪ ∂ w ⎪ ⎪ ∂x∂ y ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎧ Mx ⎪ ⎨ My ⎪M ⎩ xy ⎫ ⎡ D11 ⎪ ⎢ ⎬ = ⎢ D12 ⎪ ⎢D ⎭ ⎣ 16 D12 D22 D26 (10. (10. Q y are the shear Qx = − D ∂ ⎛ ∂2w ∂2w ⎜ + ∂ x ⎜ ∂ x2 ∂ y2 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟.

the displacements parallel to the middle surface can be expressed as . According to Reissner-Mindlin assumptions. The displacements of the middle surface are independent of the rotations of the normal (Fig.2 Thick plate theory (Reissner-Mindlin) For moderately thick plates. (10. Reissner proposed to introduce the rotations of the normal to the plate midsurface in the xOz and yOz plane as independent variables.20) The potential of the external load is W P = − p z w dx dy . the differential equilibrium equation for isotropic materials can be obtained as ∂4w p ∂4w ∂4w +2 2 2 + 4 = z .8) can be expressed as D U= 2 ∫ A 2 ⎡⎛ 2 2 ⎢ ⎜ ∂ w + ∂ w ⎞ + 2 (1 − ν ⎟ ⎢ ⎜ ∂ x2 ∂ y 2 ⎟ ⎠ ⎢⎝ ⎣ ⎞⎤ ⎛ ⎛ 2 ⎞2 ∂2w ∂ 2w ⎟ ⎥ ⎜⎜ ∂ w ⎟ )⎜ ⎜ dx dy .19) The strain energy (10.2. A ∫ (10. ⎣τ z x τ yz ⎦= 3 2h ⎞ ⎟ ⎣ Qx ⎟ ⎠ Qy ⎦. Mindlin simplified Reissner’s assumption considering that normals to the plate midsurface before deformation remain straight but not necessarily normal to the plate after deformation. Then. the classical hypothesis of zero transverse shear strain is relaxed. D ∂y ∂x ∂ y ∂ x4 The bending and torsion stresses are given by (10. − 2 ∂ x ∂ y2 ⎟ ⎥ ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ ∂x ∂ y ⎟ ⎠ ⎠⎥ ⎝ ⎦ (10. First.17) ⎣σ x σ y τxy ⎦= 12 z ⎣M x h3 My Mxy ⎦ (10.16) into the last equation (10. 10. b).9) (10.21) 10.15).10.18) and the shear stresses by 2 ⎛ ⎜ 1 − 4z ⎜ h2 ⎝ where a parabolic distribution is assumed. To overcome this problem. The transverse normal stress is disregarded as in the Kirchhoff’s theory. PLATE BENDING 229 By substituting (10. the thickness-to-span ratio is not small enough to neglect transverse shear deformations and Kirchhoff’s assumption is no longer valid.

29) V .23) ⎢ ∂θ {χ }= ⎢ − y ⎣ ∂x ∂v ∂w + . z ) = z θ y (x .22) gives ∂w ⎧ −θ + ⎧γ yz ⎫ ⎪ x ∂ y {γ } = ⎨ ⎬ = ⎪ ⎨ ∂w ⎩ γ zx ⎭ ⎪ θy + ⎪ ∂x ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬. where the curvature vector is (10. γ z x = 0 . z ) = − zθ x (x . y .230 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS u (x .25) Substituting for the displacements from (10. y ) .26) gives θ x = θy = − ∂w . (10. v (x .24) The transverse shear strains are γ yz = γ zx = ∂w ∂u .26) ∂w .28) The strain energy in the plate can be written as the sum of the energies due to bending and shear deformation U= 1 2 V ∫ {σ } {ε }dV + 2 ∫ T 1 {τ }T {γ }dV . and equation (10. (10. θ y are the rotations about the Ox and Oy axes of lines originally normal The in-plane strains are now given by { ε } = − z { χ }. y .24) reduces to (10.22) where θ x . (10. (10. to the middle plane before deformation. y ) . + ∂x ∂z (10.4). ∂z ∂ y ∂θ x ∂y ∂θ x ∂θ y ⎥ − ⎥ ∂x ∂y ⎦ T . equation (10. ∂y Note that when γ y z = 0 . ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ (10. ⎣ ⎦ ⎦ (10.27) where κ is a shear correction factor and [ D ] = ⎡⎢ G 0 S ⎣ ⎡1 0⎤ ⎤ E ⎥ = 2 (1 +ν ) ⎢ 0 1 ⎥ . ∂x The average shear stresses are given by {τ } = ⎨ ⎧τ yz ⎫ = κ DS τzx ⎬ ⎩ ⎭ 0 G [ ]{ γ } .

which is not true. As the thickness of the plate becomes extremely thin.32) The strain energy (10. T S A (10. the shear strain energy predicted by the finite element analysis can be magnified unreasonably and a ‘shear locking’ occurs for large span-to-thickness ratios.20). integrating through the thickness U= 1 2 ∫ A h3 { χ }T [ D ] { χ }d A + 1 12 2 ∫ κ h {γ } [ D ]{γ }d A . The transverse shear constitutive equation is ∂w ⎫ ⎧ ⎪ −θx + ∂ y ⎪ ⎧ Qy ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ . where { χ } is given by (10. If θ x = . on the faces of plate the shear strains are not zero.30) For isotropic materials.24). equation (10.10. ⎟ ⎠⎦ + ∫ A ⎡ ⎛ ∂w ⎢Qx ⎜ θ y + ⎜ ∂x ⎣ ⎝ ∂w ∂w and θ y = − . PLATE BENDING 231 or.11) becomes ⎡ ⎫ 0 ⎢1 ν ⎪ ⎢ν 1 0 ⎬=D ⎢ 1 −ν ⎪ ⎢0 0 ⎭ 2 ⎣ ⎧ ∂θ y − ⎤⎪ ∂x ⎥⎪ ∂θ x ⎪ ⎥⎨ ∂y ⎥⎪ ⎥ ⎪ ∂θ ∂θ y x ⎦ ⎪ ∂x − ∂ y ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎧ Mx ⎪ ⎨ My ⎪M ⎩ xy (10.31) or (10. If a constant shear strain is considered through the plate thickness. This assumption is equivalent to the introduction of ‘parasitic’ shear stresses that force the normal to remain a straight line.12). ∂y ∂x The main drawback of this theory is the arbitrary averaging of the shear strains.30) can be expressed as U= 1 2 1 2 ∫ A ⎡ ⎛ ∂θ y ⎢M x ⎜ − ⎜ ∂x ⎢ ⎝ ⎣ ∂θ ⎞ ⎛ ∂θ ⎟ + Mxy ⎜ x − y ⎟ ⎜ ∂x ∂y ⎠ ⎝ ⎛ ⎞ ∂w ⎟ + Qy ⎜ − θ x + ⎜ ⎟ ∂y ⎝ ⎠ ⎞ ∂θ ⎤ ⎟ + M y x ⎥ dx dy + ⎟ ∂y ⎥ ⎠ ⎦ ⎞⎤ ⎟⎥ dx dy . the above expression reduces to (10. ⎬=κG ⎨ ⎨ ∂w ⎬ ⎩ Qx ⎭ ⎪ ⎪ θy + ⎪ ∂x ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ (10.

taken as degrees of freedom at each node. In terms of the ∂y ∂x dimensionless coordinates ξ and η . These three quantities are. Clough.232 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 10.3. therefore. the strain energy is given by (10.4 shows a thin rectangular element of thickness h. Hence.20) and the potential of the external load by (10.21). 10.1961. Also. is w = a1 + a2 x + a3 y + a4 x 2 + a5 x y + a6 y 2 + higher degree terms. one at each corner. Melosh .4 The dimensionless coordinates ξ = x a and η = y b will be used in the following with the origin at the plate centre. it will be necessary to ∂w ∂w and are continuous between ensure that w and its first derivatives ∂x ∂y elements. for convergence. 10. There are three degrees of freedom at each node. according to the convergence criteria of the Rayleigh-Ritz method. the transverse ∂w ∂w displacement w . complete polynomials of at least degree two should be used. The assumed form of the displacement function.1 ACM element (non-conforming) Figure 10. irrespective of the element shape. 1963). Fig. namely.3 Rectangular plate bending elements For a thin plate bending element. these become .33) Figure 10. (10.5 shows the ACM element (Adini. and the two rotations θ x = and θ y = − . having four node points. The highest derivative appearing in these expressions is the second.

PLATE BENDING 233 θx = 1 ∂w .36) (10. the displacement function can be represented by a polynomial having twelve terms. a ∂ξ (10.34) Since the element has 12 degrees of freedom.38) (10.10. (10. which are symetrically located in Pascal’s triangle.η )⎦ {α } . 2η 0 ξ2 2ξη 3η 2 ξ 3 3ξη 2 (10.39) ∂w = 0 0 1 0 ξ ∂η ⎦ {α }.37) Differentiating (10. (10. (10. that is w = α1 + α 2 ξ + α 3η + α 4 ξ 2 + α 5 ξ η + α 6η 2 + + α 7 ξ 3 + α 8 ξ 2η + α 9 ξη 2 + α10η 3 + α11ξ 3η + α12 ξη 3 . a) w = ⎣P ( ξ . where {α }T = ⎣ α1 ∂w = 0 1 0 2ξ ∂ξ α 2 α 3 L α12 ⎦ .5 The expression (10.36) gives ⎣ ⎣ η 0 3ξ 2 2ξη η 2 0 3ξ 2η η 3 ⎦ {α } . 10. b ∂η θy = − 1 ∂w . This ensures that the element is geometrically invariant.35) can be written in the following matrix form w = 1 ξ η ξ 2 ξ η η 2 ξ 3 ξ 2η ξ η 2 η 3 ξ 3η ξη 3 ⎣ ⎦ {α }. .36.35) Note that this function is a complete cubic to which two quartic terms ξ 3η and ξη 3 have been added. Fig.

η = ±1 gives { q }= [ A ]{α }.36). Indeed.39) at ξ = ±1 .η )⎦ T ⎧1 2 2 ⎪ 8 ( 1 + ξ i ξ ) 1 + η jη 2 + ξ i ξ + ηi η − ξ − η ⎪ b ⎪ ( 1 + ξi ξ )( ηi + η ) η 2 − 1 =⎨ 8 ⎪ a ⎪ ( ξi + ξ ) ξ 2 − 1 ( 1 + ηi η ) ⎪ 8 ⎩ ( )( ( ) )⎫ ⎪ ( ) ⎪ ⎪ ⎬. ⎪ ⎭ ⎣N 4 ⎦ T ⎧0⎫ ⎪ ⎪ = ⎨ 0 ⎬.45) where ( ξi .40) where { q } = ⎣w bθ aθ L w bθ aθ ⎦ {α }.41) and the matrix [ A ] is given in [87] but not reproduced here.42) Substituting (10. (10. (10. ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ = ⎨ 0 ⎬ . e T 1 x1 y1 4 x4 y4 e Solving (10. ⎪0⎪ ⎩ ⎭ .36.38) and (10.40) for {α } gives {α } = [ Ae ] w = ⎣N (ξ . ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ The element is non-conforming.44) and the shape functions are defined as ⎣N i (ξ .45) on the side 2-3 (for ξ = +1 ) gives ⎣N 1 ⎦ T ⎣N 2 ⎦ T ⎧ (1 4 )( 1 − η ) 2 − η − η 2 ⎪ = ⎨ (b 4 )( − 1 + η ) η 2 − 1 ⎪ 0 ⎩ ( ( )⎫ ) ⎪. evaluating (10. ⎬ ⎪ ⎭ ⎣N 3 ⎦ T ⎧ (1 4 )( 1 + η ) 2 + η − η 2 ⎪ = ⎨ (b 4 )( 1 + η ) η 2 − 1 ⎪ 0 ⎩ ( ( ) )⎫ ⎪ ⎬.43) where the vector of nodal displacements is { q } = ⎣w e T 1 θ x1 θ y1 L w4 θ x 4 θ y 4 ⎦ .234 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Evaluating (10. ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ (10.ηi ) are the coordinates of node i. a) yields { } (10. e e (10.42) into (10. (10. (10.η )⎦ q e = ⎣ ⎣N1 ⎦ −1 {q } . for conciseness. e e ⎣N 2 ⎦ ⎣N 3 ⎦ ⎣N 4 ⎦ ⎦ {q }.

49) A and the strain-displacement matrix is . and hence the rotation θ x . ∂ξ ⎦ a ∂ξ a ⎣ ∂ξ { } (10. this is not the case with the rotation θ y . If the element is attached to another rectangular element at nodes 2 and 3. ⎪ ⎭ ⎫ ⎪ ⎬.46) Substituting (10.34) θy = − ∂ ⎣N 4 ⎦ ⎥ e 1 ∂w 1⎢∂ N = − ⎢ ⎣ 1⎦ L ⎥ q . then w and θ x will be continuous along the common side. ⎪ ⎭ η (− 1 − η ) ⎧ ∂ ⎣N 3 ⎦ T ⎪ = ⎨ (b 8) ( 1 + η ) η 2 − 1 ∂ξ ⎪ − (a 2 ) ( 1 + η ) ⎩ ( ) ⎫ ⎪ ⎬. The rotation θ y is not continuous across the side 2-3 and the element is non-conforming. ∂ξ ⎪ ⎪ − (a 2 ) ( 1 − η ) ⎭ ⎩ ( ) ⎫ ⎪ ⎬. The rotation θ y is given by (10. 3.45) into (10. Unfortunately.η )⎦ T ∂ξ ⎫ ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ξ i η ( ηi − η ) ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ b ξ i ( ηi + η ) η 2 − 1 ⎬ . ⎪ ⎭ −η ( 1 − η ) ⎧ ∂ ⎣N 4 ⎦ T ⎪ = ⎨ − (b 8) ( 1 + η ) η 2 − 1 ∂ξ ⎪ 0 ⎩ ( ) The above expressions indicate that θ y is determined by the values of w and θ x at nodes 1.43) into (10. PLATE BENDING 235 This indicates that the displacement w . e T e e (10. Substituting (10. =⎨ ⎪ ⎪ 8 ⎪ − a ( 2 + 2ξ ) ( 1 + η η ) ⎪ i i ⎪ ⎪ 8 ⎭ ⎩ ( ) (10. 2.47) along ξ = +1 gives −η ( − 1 − η ) ⎧ ∂ ⎣N1 ⎦ T ⎪ = ⎨− (b 8) ( − 1 + η ) η 2 − 1 ∂ξ ⎪ 0 ⎩ ( ) η (− 1 − η ) ⎫ ⎧ ⎪ ∂ ⎣N 2 ⎦ T ⎪ = ⎨ (b 8) ( − 1 + η ) η 2 − 1 ⎬.46) gives ∂ ⎣N i (ξ . and 4 as well as by θ y at nodes 2 and 3.4) and (10.48) where the element stiffness matrix is h [ k ] = ∫ 12 [ B ] e 3 T [ D ] [ B ]dA (10.10.8) gives Ue = 1 2 { q } [k ] { q }. are uniquely determined by their values at nodes 2 and 3.47) Evaluating (10.

45) and integrating gives the element stiffness matrix [k ] e ⎡ [ k11 ] ⎢ Eh ⎢ = 2 48 1 −ν a b ⎢ ⎢ ⎣SYM 3 ( ) [ k12 ] [ k13 ] [ k14 ]⎤ [ k22 ] [ k23 ] [ k24 ]⎥ ⎥ [ k33 ] [ k34 ]⎥ [ k44 ]⎥ ⎦ (10. ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ (10. 0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎧2 2 1 ⎫ 2 ⎨ β − (1 − ν )⎬ a ⎥ 15 ⎩3 ⎭ ⎥ ⎦ ⎧ 2 1 ⎫ ⎤ ⎨− β + ( 1 − ν )⎬ a ⎥ 5 ⎩ ⎭ ⎥ ⎥.50) Substituting the shape functions from (10. 0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎧1 2 1 ⎫ 2 ⎨ β + ( 1 − ν )⎬ a ⎥ 15 ⎩3 ⎭ ⎥ ⎦ ⎡ ⎧ 2 ⎧ 2 1 ⎫ ⎫ 2 2 ⎨α − (1 + 4ν )⎬ b ⎢− ⎨2 2 β − α + 5 (7 − 2ν )⎬ 5 ⎩ ⎭ ⎭ ⎢ ⎩ ⎧2 2 4 ⎫ 2 ⎧ 2 1 ⎫ ⎢ [ k12 ] = ⎢ ⎨ α − (1 − ν )⎬ b ⎨α − (1 + 4ν )⎬ b 5 15 ⎩3 ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎢ ⎧ 2 1 ⎫ ⎢ 0 ⎨ 2 β + (1 − ν )⎬ a ⎢ 5 ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ ⎡ ⎧ 2 ⎧ 2 1 ⎫ ⎫ 2 2 ⎨α − ( 1 − ν )⎬ b ⎢− ⎨2 β + α + 5 (7 − 2ν )⎬ 5 ⎩ ⎭ ⎭ ⎢ ⎩ ⎧1 2 1 ⎫ 2 ⎧ 2 1 ⎫ ⎢ [ k13 ] = ⎢ ⎨− α + ( 1 − ν )⎬ b ⎨ α + ( 1 − ν )⎬ b 5 15 ⎩3 ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎢ ⎧ 2 1 ⎫ ⎢ 0 ⎨ β − ( 1 − ν )⎬ a ⎢ 5 ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ ( ) ( ) .η )⎦ . −ν a b ⎥ ⎥ 4 2 4 ⎧ ⎫ 2 ⎨ β + ( 1 − ν )⎬ a ⎥ 15 ⎩3 ⎭ ⎥ ⎦ 1 ⎧ ⎫ ⎤ − ⎨2β 2 + (1 − ν )⎬ a ⎥ 5 ⎩ ⎭ ⎥ ⎥.236 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎧ ∂2 ⎪ 2 ⎪ ∂x 2 ⎪ [ B ]= ⎪ ∂ 2 ⎨ ⎪ ∂y ⎪ ∂2 ⎪2 ⎪ ∂x∂ y ⎩ ⎫ ⎧ 1 ∂2 ⎪ ⎪ 2 2 ⎪ ⎪ a ∂ξ ⎪ ⎪ 1 ∂2 ⎪ ⎪ N⎦ = ⎨ 2 ⎬⎣ 2 ⎪ ⎪ b ∂η ⎪ ⎪ 2 ∂2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ab ∂ξ ∂η ⎭ ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎣N (ξ .51) where the submatrices have the following expressions ⎡ 2 ⎧ 2 1 ⎫ 2 2 ⎢4 β + α + 5 (7 − 2ν ) ⎨2α + 5 (1 + 4ν )⎬ b ⎩ ⎭ ⎢ ⎧4 2 4 ⎫ 2 ⎢ [ k11 ] = ⎢ ⎨ α + (1 − ν )⎬ b 15 ⎩3 ⎭ ⎢ ⎢ SYM ⎢ ⎣ ( ) ⎧ ⎫ ⎤ 2 1 ⎨− 2β − (1 + 4ν )⎬ a ⎥ 5 ⎩ ⎭ ⎥ ⎥.

it is simpler to use the expression (10.10.51) are [ k22 ] = [ I 3 ]T [ k11 ][ I 3 ] .5). [ k23 ] = [ I 3 ]T [ k14 ][ I 3 ] . ⎢ ⎥ ⎢0 0 1 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡1 0 0 ⎤ [ I 3 ] = ⎢0 1 0 ⎥ .52) where ⎡ − 1 0 0⎤ [ I1 ] = ⎢ 0 1 0⎥ . the vector of equivalent nodal forces is obtained as ab T ⎣ 3 b − a 3 b a 3 − b a 3 − b − a⎦ . [ k33 ] = [ I1 ]T [ k11 ][ I1 ] .36) for w and substitute for {α } after performing the integration.53) The above relationships are presented in reference [87]. ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0 0 1⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡1 0 0⎤ [ I 2 ] = ⎢0 − 1 0 ⎥ .54) and integrating. ⎢ ⎥ ⎢0 0 − 1⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (10. In deriving this result. 3 Stresses at any point in the plate are given by (10. [ k34 ] = [ I1 ]T [ k12 ][ I1 ] . A typical integration is then of the form +1 +1 −1 −1 ∫∫ ξ mη n dξ dη = ⎨ ⎧ ⎪ 0 4 ⎪ (m + 1)(n + 1) ⎩ m or n odd m and n even For p z = constant . [ k24 ] = [ I 3 ]T [ k23 ][ I 3 ] . b β= b . PLATE BENDING ⎡ 2 ⎧ 2 1 ⎫ 2 2 ⎢2 β − 2α − 5 (7 − 2ν ) ⎨ 2α + 5 (1 − ν )⎬ b ⎩ ⎭ ⎢ ⎧2 2 1 ⎫ 2 ⎢ ⎧− 2α 2 − 1 (1 − ν )⎫ b [ k 41 ] = ⎢ ⎨ ⎨ α − (1 − ν )⎬ b ⎬ 5 15 ⎩3 ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎢ 1 ⎧ ⎫ ⎢ ⎨− β 2 + (1 + 4ν )⎬ a 0 ⎢ ⎩ 5 ⎭ ⎣ 237 ( ) ⎧ ⎫ ⎤ 2 1 ⎨− β + (1 + 4ν )⎬ a ⎥ 5 ⎩ ⎭ ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎧2 2 4 ⎫ 2 ⎨ β − (1 − ν )⎬ a ⎥ 15 ⎩3 ⎭ ⎥ ⎦ and α= a . [ k44 ] = [ I 2 ]T [ k11 ][ I 2 ] . In terms of the nodal displacements they can be expressed as e z { f }= p . (10. a The remaining submatrices of (10. substituting the shape functions into { f } = ∫ ⎣N ⎦ e A T pz d A (10.

Fox and Schmit .3. as an increasing number of elements is used. this violates the fundamental requirement that the element can represent all constant strain states.2). 4 4 f i (ξ ) = ( ( ) ) ( ( ) ) (10. ⎪ − a g (ξ ) f (η ) ⎪ i i ⎩ ⎭ (10. (10.56) 1 1 2 + 3ξ i ξ − ξ i ξ 3 . Unfortunately.43) but with 16 terms . A compromise is to use the cubic Hermitian polynomials for the deflection shape functions but reduce the order to linear for the rotation shape functions. In the limit. The nodal expansion of the displacement function has the form (10.57) in which ( ξi .1966).50). the results are convergent. The most accurate values are at the Gauss points of a (2 × 2) numerical integration scheme. As this controls the shear strain in equation (10.ηi ) are the coordinates of node i. of the form shown in Fig. commonly referred to as the BFS element (Bogner. It is a four-node thin plate bending element. and discontinuities in slope occur at interfaces.55) where [ B ] is defined in (10. This element does have constant strain but is non-conforming. the plate will tend towards a zero twist condition. However.21) as for uniform slender beams. when we examine the derivatives of these products we find that the twist ∂ 2 w ∂ξ ∂η is zero at all four corners and that there is no constant component to this second derivative. g i (η ) = − ηi − η +ηi η 2 + η 3 . can be obtained using products of separate one-dimensional Hermitian shape functions (5.43) with ⎣N i (ξ .η )⎦ where T ⎧ f i (ξ ) f i (η ) ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ = ⎨ b f i (ξ ) g i (η ) ⎬ . 10. the displacement function is of the form (10. 4 4 1 1 f i (η ) = 2 + 3ηi η − ηi η 3 . g i (ξ ) = − ξ i − ξ +ξ i ξ 2 + ξ 3 .4. In this case. 10. The solution used for the BFS element is the introduction of ∂ 2 w ∂ξ ∂η as an additional degree of freedom at each node.238 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS {σ } = − z [ D ][ B ]{q e }. as the mesh is refined and the element size is decreased.2 BFS element (conforming) A conforming rectangular element.

The highest derivative of w . PLATE BENDING 239 1 { q } = ⎣w e T ′ θ x1 θ y1 w′x y1 L w4 θ x 4 θ y 4 ′ w′x y 4 ⎦ .30) and the potential of the external load is (10.η )⎦ T ⎧ f i (ξ ) f i (η ) ⎫ ⎪ b f (ξ ) g (η ) ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ i i =⎨ ⎬.58) ′ where w′x y ≡ ∂ 2 w ∂x ∂y and ⎣N i (ξ . 2a 1 θ x3 − θ x 4 . θ x and θ y appearing in these expressions is the first. with { χ } and {γ } given by (10. The element stiffness matrix and consistent vector of nodal forces are given by (10. for convergence. θ x and θ y are the only degrees of freedom required at the nodal points (Fig.and ydirections.49) and (10.26). For a thick plate-bending element.10.5). 2b 1 θ y 2 − θ y3 . 10. 10. Although the BFS element is more accurate than the ACM element.3. This is ensured by the presence in the functions (10.33). 2b ( ) ′ w′x y 2 = ′ w′x y 4 = 1 θ x 2 − θ x1 . 2a ( ) ( ) ( ) Applying the above constraints to the BFS element makes it a nonconforming one.59) It can be shown that this element can perform rigid body movements without deformation and can describe pure bending behaviour in the x.59). ⎪ − a g i (ξ ) f i (η ) ⎪ ⎪ ab g i (ξ ) g i (η ) ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ (10.24) and (10.59) of the first six terms in (10. (10. This is overcome in the WB element (Wilson. Hence.21). . the strain energy expression is (10. w . The transverse displacement and tangential slope are continuous between elements but the normal slope is not.53) where the matrix ⎣N ⎦ is defined by (10.3 HTK thick rectangular element When the thickness is greater than about a tenth of the plate width. the shear deformations become important and a Reissner-Mindlin plate model is adopted. it is difficult to use in conjunction with other types of elements in built-up structures due to the presence of the degree of freedom ∂ 2 w ∂x ∂y .43) and (10. Brebbia – 1971) by introducing the approximations ′ w′x y1 = ′ w′x y 3 = 1 θ y1 − θ y 4 .

60) can be written ⎧w ⎪ ⎨ θx ⎪θ ⎩ y where ⎫ ⎪ e ⎬=[N] q . θ x = ∑ Ni θ x i . 4 ( )( ) (10. θ x and θ y in terms of their nodal values.44) and ⎡ N1 [ N ]= ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎣ N1 0 0 L N1 L (10.64) where the element stiffness matrix k e can be written as the sum of the matrices due to bending and shear [ ] [ k ] = [ k ] + [ k ]. i =1 i =1 i =1 4 4 4 (10.62) { q } = ⎣w e T 1 θ x1 θ y1 L w4 θ x 4 θ y 4 ⎦ . e B S (10. ⎪ ⎭ { } (10. The displacement functions are of the form w = ∑ Ni w i .240 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The four-node HTK element (Hughes.63) Substituting (10.24). θ y = ∑ Ni θ y i .3). Taylor and Kanoknukulcha .65) . ⎥ N4 ⎥ ⎦ (10. expressions (10.30) gives Ue = 1 2 { q } [ k ] { q }. θ x and θ y are continuous between elements. It represents the shear deformation directly. (10. In matrix form. e T e e (10.1977) expands separately w . without having to infer it as the derivative of the bending moment. 0 0 L N4 0 0 0 N4 0 0 ⎤ 0 ⎥. that is Ni = 1 1 + ξ i ξ 1 + η iη .61) These functions ensure that w .60) where the functions N i are defined by (9.65) In (10.62) into (10.26) and (10.

10.61) into (10. The strain-displacement matrix [ B ] is of the form [ B ]= [ [ B ] [ B ] [ B ] [ B ] ] S S T A B B B 1 B 2 B 3 B 4 (10.72) into (10. PLATE BENDING 241 h [ k ] = ∫ 12 [ B ] B 3 B T [ D ] [BB ] d A S S (10.71) gives [ ] BiB ⎡0 − ξ i 1 + η iη 4a ⎤ 0 ⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ 0 1 + ξ i ξ η i 4b 0 ⎥ ⎢ 0 ξ i 1 + η i η 4 a − 1 + ξ i ξ η i 4b ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ( ( ) ( ) ) ( ) (10.71) Substituting (10.69) (10.(10.68) where [ ] BiB The strain-displacement matrix B S is of the form S S 1 S 2 S 3 S 4 [ ] [ B ]= [ [ B ] [ B ] [ B ] [ B ] ] ∂N [ B ] = ⎡⎢ ∂ N S i i i 0 − ∂ Ni ∂ x ⎤ ⎡0 ⎥.69) and (10.72) and ( ηη a 0 [ B ] = ⎡⎢ ξ1 +1ξ+ ξ )η ) 4b − (1 + ξ ξ )(1 + η η ) 4 (1 + ξ ξ )(01 + η η ) 4 ⎤⎥ .67) (10. ⎢ 0 ∂N ∂ y 0 =⎢ i ⎥ ⎢ 0 ∂ Ni ∂ x − ∂ Ni ∂ y ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ (10.70) where ⎣ ∂x 0 ∂ y − Ni Ni ⎤ .73) 4 ⎣( ⎦ S i i i i i i i i i Substituting (10.68) and the resulting matrices into (10.66) gives the element stiffness matrix due to bending .66) A and [ k ] = ∫ κ h [ B ] [ D ][ B ] d A . 0 ⎥ ⎦ (10.

242 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS [k ]= B 48 1 − ν 2 ( E h3 ) ⎡ kB ⎢ 11 ⎢ ⎢ ab ⎢ ⎢ ⎢SYM ⎣ [ ] [ k ] [ k ] [ k ] ⎤⎥ [ k ] [ k ] [ k ] ⎥⎥ [ k ] [ k ] ⎥⎥ [ k ] ⎥⎦ B B B 12 13 14 B B B 22 23 24 B 33 B 34 B 44 (10.74) where the submatrices are ⎡0 ⎢ ⎢ = ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢0 ⎢ ⎣ 0 4 3 ⎧ 2 1 ⎫ 2 ⎨α + ( 1 −ν )⎬ b 2 ⎩ ⎭ 1 − (1 +ν )a b 2 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ 1 ⎥. ( 1 +ν )a b ⎥ 2 ⎥ 2⎧ 1 ⎫ − β 2 − ( 1 −ν ) ⎬ a 2 ⎥ ⎨ 3⎩ 2 ⎭ ⎥ ⎦ 0 [k ] B 14 ⎡0 0 ⎢ ⎢ 1 = ⎢0 − 4α 2 + ( 1 − ν ) b 2 3 ⎢ 1 ⎢0 ( 3ν − 1 ) a b ⎢ 2 ⎣ { } ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ 1 − ( 3ν − 1) a b ⎥ . 2 ⎥ 1 2 2⎥ − 4 β + ( 1 −ν ) a ⎥ 3 ⎦ 0 { } [k ] B 13 2⎧ ⎫ 2 2 1 ⎨ − α − ( 1 −ν ) ⎬ b 3⎩ 2 ⎭ 1 (1 +ν )a b 2 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ 1 ⎥. − (1 +ν )a b ⎥ 2 ⎥ 4⎧ 2 1 ⎫ β + ( 1 −ν )⎬ a 2 ⎥ ⎨ 3⎩ 2 ⎭ ⎥ ⎦ 0 [k ] B 11 [k ] B 12 ⎡0 ⎢ ⎢ = ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎢ ⎣ ⎡0 ⎢ ⎢ = ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢0 ⎢ ⎣ 0 2 α 2 − ( 1 −ν ) b 2 3 1 − ( 3ν − 1 ) a b 2 0 { } ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ 1 ( 3ν − 1) a b ⎥ . 2 ⎥ 2 2 2⎥ β − ( 1 −ν ) a ⎥ 3 ⎦ 0 { } and α= a . b β= b . a .

52). Substituting (10. [ k ] [ k ] ⎥⎥ [ k ] ⎥⎦ S S S 12 13 14 S S S 22 23 24 S 33 S 34 S 44 (10. PLATE BENDING 243 The remaining submatrices of (10.10.71) and the resulting matrices into (10.97) and [k ] S 11 ⎡1 + α 2 α 2b ⎢ = ⎢ α 2b α 2 b 2 ⎢ −a 0 ⎣ ⎡ − 1 − α 2 α 2b ⎢ = ⎢ − α 2b α 2 b 2 ⎢ a 0 ⎣ − a⎤ ⎥ 0 ⎥. a2 ⎥ ⎦ [k ] S 12 ⎡ − 1 + α 2 α 2b ⎢ = ⎢ α 2b α 2 b2 ⎢ a 0 ⎣ ⎡1 − α 2 α 2b ⎢ = ⎢ − α 2b α 2 b 2 ⎢ −a 0 ⎣ − a⎤ ⎥ 0 ⎥. a2 ⎥ ⎦ [k ] S 13 [k ] S 14 The remaining submatrices of (10. The vector of equivalent nodal forces is ⎧ pz ⎫ ⎪ f = ⎣N ⎦ ⎨ 0 ⎬ d A (10.61) into (10. a2 ⎥ ⎦ − a⎤ ⎥ 0 ⎥.75) are given by relationships corresponding to (10. a2 ⎥ ⎦ − a⎤ ⎥ 0 ⎥.76) ⎪ 0 ⎪ A ⎩ ⎭ For pz = constant. The above expressions are presented in reference [87].67) gives the element stiffness matrix due to shear [k ] S ⎡ kS ⎢ 11 ⎢ E h3 ⎢ = 48 γ S a b ⎢ ⎢ ⎢SYM ⎣ [ ] [ k ] [ k ] [ k ] ⎤⎥ [ k ] [ k ] [ k ] ⎥⎥ .63) and (10. substituting the shape functions from (10.77) which means that one quarter of the total force is concentrated at each node. The bending and twisting moments per unit length are given by .73) into (10.52).76) and integrating gives { } ∫ e T⎪ { f }= p a b ⎣ 1 e z 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0⎦ T (10.75) where γ S = E h 3 12κ G b 2 is a shear parameter similar to (5.74) are given by relationships corresponding to (10.

g.244 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎧ Mx ⎪ ⎨ My ⎪M ⎩ xy ⎫ ⎪ h3 = − [ I3 ] [ D ] B B ⎬ 12 ⎪ ⎭ [ ]{q }.79) The most accurate values are at the centre of the element. The most accurate values are at the Gauss points of a (2 × 2) numerical integration scheme. lowering the integration order for the stiffness matrix due to shear. There is no perfect rectangular plate-bending element. However. θ x and θ y which is not true for thick plates. In very thin plates. e (10. the shear strains become very small and near-zero values in (10. The above analysis can be easily extended to 8-node or higher-order plate elements. 10. There are different formulations using mixtures of corner and mid-side freedoms in order to achieve near complete polynomials. large errors can occur in the case of cantilever plates. the individual functions must be continuous (up to the first derivatives) across the interior boundaries as well as the exterior boundaries. into four triangles) and work with different displacement functions over each region. Alternative methods.26) thus imply a dependent relationship between w . suggest to subdivide the element into regions (e. The bending strains in the 8-node version are recovered accurately if sampled at the reduced (2 × 2) Gauss points. Obviously.. . However.53).4 Triangular plate bending elements In this section we outline the development of some plate-bending triangular elements. considering rather difficult to generate a displacement function valid over the entire rectangular element. the standard (2 × 2) integration is reported to give good results for width-to-thickness ratios up to 50.78) where [ I 3 ] is defined by (10. The shear forces per unit length are ⎧ Qx ⎫ ⎨ ⎬=κ h ⎩ Qy ⎭ [ D ][ B ]{q }. This is avoided by selective integration. Benchmark problems have shown that the HTK element yields accurate solutions for simply supported or clamped plates. S S e (10.

6 The expression (10.1 Thin triangular element (non-conforming) Figure 10. that is w = α1 + α 2 x + α 3 y + α 4 x 2 + α 5 x y + α 6 y 2 + + α 7 x3 + α8 x 2 y + x y 2 + α 9 y 3 . 10.10. y )⎦ {α } .0) and (x3 . The local x-axis lies along the side 1-2 and the local y-axis is perpendicular to it. and the two rotations θ x = and ∂y θy = − ∂w with respect to the local axes. (x2 . Nodes 1. ∂x Since the element has 9 degrees of freedom. ( ) (10.81) (10. the transverse displacement w . (10. PLATE BENDING 245 10. In order to maintain symmetry.81.80) Note that a complete cubic has ten terms so that the polynomial (10. the displacement function can be represented by a polynomial having nine terms. There are three degrees of freedom at each ∂w node.1962). a) w = ⎣P ( x .4. Fig.6 shows the T element (Tocher .0) .80) can be written in the following matrix form w= 1 x ⎣ y x2 xy y2 x3 (x 2 y + x y2 ) y3 ⎦ {α } .82) Differentiating (10. the coefficients of x 2 y and x y 2 are taken to be equal. 2 and 3 have coordinates (0. (10. namely.81) gives . y3 ) .80) is incomplete. where {α }T = ⎣ α1 α 2 α3 L α9 ⎦ .

81.89) and. 0 0 0 0 x2 0 x3 y3 x3 − y3 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 y3 2 y3 0 0 0 0 3 x2 0 2 3 x2 3 x3 (10.86) ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ Solving (10. This element is non-conforming.84) for {α } gives {α } = [ Ae ] −1 {q } . a) yields [ ] { q }. Evaluating (10. the locations of the nodes should be altered to avoid this condition. e e (10. cannot be inverted. gives .246 ⎧w ⎪ ⎨ θx ⎪θ ⎩ y ⎫ ⎡ 1 x y x2 x y y2 x3 ⎪ ⎢ 0 0 x 2y ⎬=⎢0 0 1 ⎪ ⎢ 0 − 1 0 − 2 x − y 0 − 3x 2 ⎭ ⎣ FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS x2 y + x y2 x2 + 2x y − 2x y − y2 y3 3y2 0 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ {α }.87) into (10.87) Substituting (10. the matrix [ A ] is singular whenever w = ⎣P (x .83) at the nodal points gives { q } = [ A ] {α } .83) ⎥ ⎦ Evaluating (10.84) where { q } = ⎣w e T 1 θ x1 θ y1 L w3 θ x 3 θ y 3 ⎦ . Unfortunately. e −1 (10. (10. of equation y = 0 . (10.85) and the matrix ⎡1 0 0 ⎢0 0 1 ⎢ ⎢ 0 −1 0 ⎢ ⎢ 1 x2 0 =⎢0 0 1 ⎢ ⎢ 0 −1 0 ⎢1 x y3 3 ⎢ ⎢0 0 1 ⎢ ⎣ 0 −1 0 0 0 0 2 x2 0 − 2 x2 2 x3 0 0 0 0 2 x2 0 2 2 x3 y3 + x3 y3 2 x3 + 2 x3 y3 2 − 2 x3 y3 − y3 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 y3 2 3 y3 0 [A ] e 0 − 2 x3 0 2 − 3x3 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ . y )⎦ Ae e e (10. therefore.88) x2 − 2 x3 − y3 = 0 (10.83) along the side 1-2. If this occurs.

α 5 and α 8 . due to the x 2 y and x y 2 terms. 0⎥ ⎦ ⎧w ⎪ ⎨ θx ⎪θ ⎩ y ⎡ 1 x 0 x2 0 0 ⎫ x3 ⎢ ⎪ 0 x 0 0 ⎬ =⎢0 0 1 ⎪ ⎢ 0 − 1 0 − 2 x 0 0 − 3x 2 ⎭1− 2 ⎣ (10.94) Note that nodal coordinates are usually given in global axes. In this case θ x is a tangential component and θ y is a normal component of rotation.8) gives Ue = 1 2 { q } [ k ]{ q } e T e e (10.10.91) where the element stiffness matrix in the local coordinate system is h [ k ] = [ A ] ∫ 12 [ B ] e e −T 3 A T [ D ] [ B ]d A [A ] e −1 (10.4) and (10.90) The rotation θ x is a quadratic function having coefficients α 3 . the assumed function (10. (10.88) into (10. Calculation of the element stiffness matrix referred to local axes requires the local coordinates of . The edge 1-2 was taken along the x-axis. in some plate-bending elements a linear variation of the tangential component of rotation is adopted.92) and the strain-displacement matrix is 2y 0 ⎤ ⎡ 0 0 0 2 0 0 6x ⎢0 0 0 0 0 2 0 [B ]= ⎢ 2x 6y ⎥ . The vector of consistent nodal forces is given by (10.80) is not invariant with respect to the choice of coordinate axes. Substituting (10.92) is of the form which can be evaluated analytically. These cannot be determined using the values of θ x at nodes 1 and 2 only. { f }= [ A ] ∫ e e −T A T ⎣P ⎦ p z d A . To alleviate this. ⎥ ⎢ 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 4 (x + y ) 0 ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ A typical element of the integrand in (10.93) ∫x A m n y dA . The transverse displacement w and the normal component θ y are continuous between elements. Moreover. while the tangential component θ x is not. Therefore the normal slope is not continuous between elements. PLATE BENDING 247 0 x2 0 0⎤ ⎥ 0 ⎥ {α } .

There are three independent degrees of freedom at each node.248 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS nodes 2 and 3. (10. the element matrices have to be first transformed from local to global axes through a matrix triple product which is one of the more time-consuming procedures in finite element analysis.97) and ⎡ ζ1 0 0 ζ 2 0 0 ζ 3 0 0 ⎤ [ N ] = ⎢ 0 ζ1 0 0 ζ 2 0 0 ζ 3 0 ⎥ . Nodes 1. expressions (10.35). The displacement functions are assumed to be w = ∑ ζ i wi . Tocher. (10. ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ 0 0 ζ1 0 0 ζ 2 0 0 ζ 3 ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ (10. 2 and 3 have area coordinates ζ 1 . θY = ∑ ζ i θY i . They ensure that w . θ X and θY are continuous between elements. θ X = ∑ ζ i θ X i .4. the transverse displacement w . ζ 2 and ζ 3 (8. In order to assemble the global stiffness matrix. These can be obtained from their global coordinates using the corresponding transformation matrix. 10. θ X i and θY i are the degrees of freedom at node i.98) Functions expressed in area coordinates can be differentiated with respect to Cartesian coordinates using .95) where wi . In matrix form. 1969) referred to a global coordinate system.2 Thick triangular element (conforming) Consider a thick triangular element (THT element – Henschel. i =1 i =1 i =1 3 3 3 (10. and the two rotations θ X and θY with respect to the global axes.95) are written ⎧ w ⎪ ⎨θX ⎪θ ⎩ Y ⎫ ⎪ ⎬=[N ⎪ ⎭ ]{ q e }. namely.96) where the vector of nodal displacements is { q } = ⎣w e T 1 θ X 1 θ Y 1 L w3 θ X 3 θ Y 3 ⎦ .

99) Substituting (10.96) into (10.102) into (10. (10. ∂ x 2 A i =1 i where β i and γ i are defined in (8.104) S 33 where . ∂ 1 3 ∂ = ∑ γ i ∂ζ .103) gives the stiffness matrix due to shear ⎡ kS ⎢ 11 = κG h ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ SYM ⎣ [k ] S [ ] [ k ] [ k ] ⎤⎥ [ k ] [ k ] ⎥⎥ . [ k ] ⎥⎦ S S 12 13 S S 22 23 (10.96) into (10.24) and using (10. ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎦ (10.100) As this matrix is constant. the stiffness matrix due to bending is h [ k ] = 12 A [ B ] B 3 B T [ D ] [ B B ].24) and using (10. ∂ y 2 A i =1 i (10.102) Substituting (10.99) shows that the straindisplacement matrix due to shear is [B ] S ⎡ ⎢ =⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ β1 2A 0 − ζ1 ζ1 0 β2 2A 0 −ζ2 ζ2 0 β3 2A 0 −ζ3 ζ3 ⎥ ⎤ γ1 γ2 γ3 2A 2A 2A ⎥.10.67) and integrating using the formula ∫ζ A m n p 1 ζ2 ζ3 dA = m ! n!p ! 2A (m + n + p + 2)! (10.8). −γ3 ⎥ ⎦ (10. PLATE BENDING 249 ∂ 1 3 ∂ = ∑ β i ∂ζ .99) gives the straindisplacement matrix due to bending [B ] B ⎡ 0 0 − β1 0 0 1 ⎢ = 0 γ1 0 0 γ2 2A ⎢ ⎢ 0 β 1 − γ1 0 β 2 ⎣ −β2 0 −γ2 0 0 0 γ3 0 β3 −β3 ⎤ ⎥ 0 ⎥.101) Substituting (10.

⎥ A⎥ 6⎥ ⎦ [k ] S 12 ⎡ β2 β 1 + γ 2 γ1 ⎢ 4A ⎢ γ2 ⎢ =⎢ − 6 ⎢ β2 ⎢ ⎢ 6 ⎣ 2 ⎡β 2 +γ2 2 ⎢ ⎢ 4A γ2 ⎢ =⎢ − 6 ⎢ β 2 ⎢ ⎢ 6 ⎣ − γ1 6 A 12 0 ⎥ 6⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥.3 Discrete Kirchhoff triangles (DKT) The difficulties to formulate simple (minimum degrees of freedom) and high-performing elements based on the Kirchhoff theory at the continuum level (which requires a C1 continuity for w ) led to the development of the so-called Discrete Kirchhoff (DK) technique (Wempner-1969. ⎥ A⎥ 12 ⎥ ⎦ β1 ⎤ [k ] S 13 ⎡ β3 β 1 + γ 3 γ 1 ⎢ 4A ⎢ γ3 ⎢ =⎢ − 6 ⎢ β3 ⎢ ⎢ 6 ⎣ − γ1 6 A 12 0 ⎥ 6⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥.-1969. ⎥ A⎥ 6 ⎥ ⎦ [k ] S 23 ⎡ β3 β 2 + γ 3 γ 2 ⎢ 4A ⎢ γ3 ⎢ =⎢ − 6 ⎢ β3 ⎢ ⎢ 6 ⎣ − γ2 β2 ⎤ 6 A 12 0 ⎥ 6 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥.105) which shows that one third of the total force is concentrated at each node. ⎥ A⎥ 12 ⎥ ⎦ [k ] S 33 2 ⎡β 2 +γ3 3 ⎢ ⎢ 4A γ3 ⎢ =⎢ − 6 ⎢ β 3 ⎢ ⎢ 6 ⎣ − γ3 6 A 6 0 β3 ⎤ ⎥ 6 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥. For pz = constant. ⎥ A⎥ 6 ⎥ ⎦ The complete element stiffness matrix is the sum (10.65). substituting the shape functions from (10.250 2 2 ⎡ β 1 + γ1 ⎢ ⎢ 4A γ1 ⎢ =⎢ − 6 ⎢ β 1 ⎢ ⎢ 6 ⎣ FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS − γ1 6 A 6 0 β1 ⎤ [k ] S 11 ⎥ 6⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥. Dhatt1967).4. The above relationships are presented in reference [87].76) and integrating gives the vector of equivalent nodal forces { f }= p e z A T ⎣1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0⎦ 3 (10. 10. Stricklin et al.98) into (10. ⎥ A⎥ 12 ⎥ ⎦ β1 ⎤ − γ2 6 A 6 0 β2 ⎤ [k ] S 22 ⎥ 6 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥. .

in terms of the first derivatives of the rotations (10. the rotations vary quadratically and their tangential component (normal slope) is not continuous between elements.24). The tangential component θ s is assumed to vary linearly along each edge. only the bending strain energy is considered. For instance. while the normal component θ n varies quadratically (Fig. The aim is to preserve the C 0 continuity of the tangential components of rotations (normal slopes). 10.106) . in the discrete Kirchhoff triangles the two components of rotations are assumed independent of one another. the tangential and normal components of rotations θ s k and θ n k at the mid-side node k.4. The T element presented in section 10. The Kirchhoff constraints are imposed in a discrete manner on the element or/and on the sides.7. a Fig. along a side. 10.10.1 can be called a ‘continuous’ Kirchhoff triangle. of length l k . the transverse shear strains are either taken equal to zero at the mid-side points (collocation on sides) or their integral along each edge is taken equal to zero. The shear strain energy is neglected. as in the ReissnerMindlin plate theory. To remedy this. PLATE BENDING 251 In the formulation of various DK plate elements. The latter condition means that the transverse displacement w can vary cubically. in which the curvatures are expressed. In this case only C 0 approximations of these rotations can be considered. are defined in terms of the components along the coordinate axes by ⎧ θ s k ⎫ ⎡ ck ⎨θ ⎬ = ⎢ ⎩ n k ⎭ ⎣ − sk where sk ⎤ ⎧ θ x k ⎫ ⎨ ⎬ ck ⎥ ⎩ θ y k ⎭ ⎦ (10. Constant curvature patch-tests are needed to check the validity of the elements. a).7 b For a side i − j . It was shown that.

the degrees of freedom at mid-side nodes are eliminated. α 5 . The parameter α k has to be eliminated. 10.8. Initially. 10.252 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ck = x j − x i l k . ( ) sk = y j − y i l k . ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (10. Its expression in terms of the dimensionless coordinate can be written as s′ = s l k θ n = ( 1 − s′ )θ ni + s′θ n j + 4s′ ( 1 − s′ )α k .7. 2 θnk = ( ) where the first term in the right hand side is expressed in terms of the rotations at the corner nodes. At the mid-side node k 1 θ ni + θ n j + α k . 10. a).8. b). Then. The rotation θ s is assumed to vary linearly (Fig. it is assumed that it has six nodes (Fig. Fig.108) . One kind of ‘discrete’ Kirchhoff constraint is formulated in integral form as j j ∫ i γ s z ds = ∫ i ⎛ ∂w ⎞ ⎜ ⎜ ∂s + θn ⎟ ds = 0 . b) θ s = ( 1 − s′ )θ s i + s′θ s j .8 In order to eliminate the degrees of freedom at mid-side nodes. ( ) (10.107) Consider a discrete Kirchhoff triangle (DKT) with three nodes and three degrees of freedom per node (sometimes called DKT9). The rotation θ n varies parabolically (Fig. 10. the three parameters α 4 . This is done requiring the shear strains γ s z to vanish along each side. α 6 must be expressed in terms of the degrees of freedom at the corner nodes.

2l k 4 ( ) ( ) or. ⎣ P4 P5 P6 ⎦ = ⎣ 4ξ ( 1 − ξ − η ) 4ξη 4η ( 1 − ξ − η ) ⎦ . θ x and θ y in terms of the corner nodal variables Substituting (10. (10. the condition γ s z = 0 will be ∂s satisfied at all points along the contour. because w is cubical and θ n is quadratic. PLATE BENDING 253 Equation (10. wherefrom we obtain αk = 3 3 wi − w j − θ n i + θ n j . {θ y }= ⎣θ y1 α5 α6 ⎦ T . 2l k 4 ( ) ( ) (10.109) The equation (10. The rotations θ x and θ y can be expressed as θ x = ⎣N ⎦ {θ x } + ⎣Px ⎦ {α }. θ y = ⎣N ⎦ {θ y }+ ⎣Py ⎦ {α }.109) into (10.108) can be written ∫ dw + ∫ θ i 0 1 0 j lk n ds = 0 . (w j − wi ) + l k ∫ [ ( 1 − s′ )θ ni + s′θ n j + 4s′ ( 1 − s′ )α k ] d s′ = 0 . k. Then. j.10. where (10.111) {α } = ⎣ α 4 ⎣Px ⎦ = ⎣ − P4 s4 − P5 s5 − P6 s6 ⎦ . ⎣Py ⎦ = ⎣ P4c4 P5c5 P6 c6 ⎦ . in terms of the degrees of freedom of the corner points αk = 3 3 wi − w j − − s k θ x i + c k θ y i − s k θ x j + c k θ y j . θ y 2 θ y 3 ⎦T .109) can also be obtained by adopting a Hermitian cubic polynomial for w (s ) and using the discrete Kirchhoff collocation constraint (zero ∂w shear strain) γ s z = + θ n = 0 at points i.110) we obtain the explicit expressions of . {θ x } = ⎣θ x1 θ x 2 θ x3 ⎦T .110) ⎣N ⎦ = ⎣ N1 N 2 N3 ⎦ = ⎣1 − ξ − η ξ η ⎦ .

⎠i ⎝ ⎛∂w⎞ θ yi = − ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ∂x ⎟ . 4 4 3 3 Pk ck − Pm cm . (10.115) In (10. 3 ) allowing the introduction of Kirchhoff-type boundary conditions. Taking into account the hypotheses adopted in formulating the DKT. as shown in Table 10.114) ⎣N1x ⎦ = ⎣N ix1 N ix = − 1 N ix2 N ix . 3 ⎦ ⎣N1y ⎦ = ⎣Niy1 N iy = 1 N iy 2 N iy . 4 4 N ix2 = N i − N ix = 3 N iy = N ix . (10.115). 4 4 N iy = N i − 3 In the above expressions the indices k and m relate to the two edges having the common corner point i. the nodal rotations θ x i and θ y i have the expressions used in Kirchhoff’s theory θ xi = ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ∂y ⎟ . ⎠i ⎝ ⎛∂w⎞ ( i = 1. ⎥ y y y ⎥ ⎢ ⎣N1 ⎦ ⎣N 2 ⎦ ⎣N 3 ⎦ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ Nx 1 (10.113) [ N ]= ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣N 2x ⎦ ⎣N3x ⎦ ⎤ .1 Corner point. i 1 2 3 Side k ( i − j ) 5 (2−3 ) 6 (3 −1 ) 4 (1− 2 ) Side m ( i − j ) 4 (1− 2 ) 6 (3 −1 ) 5 (2−3 ) . Table 10.116) 3 3 2 2 Pk ck − Pm cm . 2.1.254 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎧ θx ⎫ ⎨ ⎬=[N ⎩θy ⎭ where ] {q e }. 3 2 3 3 Pk sk ck + Pm sm cm . 3 ⎦ (10.112) { q } = ⎣w e T 1 θ x1 θ y1 L w3 θ x 3 θ y 3 ⎦ . the shape functions have the following expressions 3 3 Pk sk + Pm sm . 2l k 2l m 3 3 2 2 Pk sk − Pm sm . 2l k 2l m (10.

10. can be rewritten as ⎣G ⎦ = ⎣1 ⎣H ⎦ = ⎣1 ⎢ ∂θ {χ }= ⎢ − y ⎣ ∂x ξ η ξ 2 ξη η 2 ⎦ [ G ] .118) The curvature vector (10. In the following. y2 ) and (x3 . the continuity C 0 of θ n is maintained. presented explicitly in terms of the local oblique coordinates ξ and η . (x2 .120) ⎧ β 2 ⎣G ⎦ + β 3 ⎣G ⎦ ⎫ 2 3 ⎪ ⎪ { X } = ⎨ 2β 2 ⎣G ⎦ 4 + β 3 ⎣G ⎦ 5 ⎬ . in a local coordinate system [18]. (10.119) The elements of the curvature vector can be expressed in terms of the rows of the ( 6 × 9 ) matrices [ G ] and [ H ] as follows χ1 = χ2 = 1 ⎣1 ξ η ⎦ { X 2A }{ q e }. { } (10. In (10. using a Hammer integration rule. ξ η ξ 2 ξη η 2 ⎦ [ H ] . Equation (10. it will be derived in global coordinates as in [68].112) can be split as θ x = ⎣G ⎦ q e .117) The shape function row vectors ⎣G ⎦ and ⎣H ⎦ . 1 e ⎣1 ξ η ⎦ {Y } q . 2A 1 e ⎣1 ξ η ⎦ { Z } q . (10. ⎪ γ H + 2γ H ⎪ 3 ⎣ ⎦6 ⎭ ⎩ 2 ⎣ ⎦5 . y1 ) . PLATE BENDING 255 Because the parameters α k are eliminated using an expression which is a function of the nodal variables of the side k only.24) is written for convenience as ∂θ x ∂y ∂θ x ∂θ y ⎥ − ⎥ ∂x ∂y ⎦ T = ⎣ χ1 χ2 χ12 ⎦ T . y3 ) . ⎪ β G + 2β G ⎪ 3 ⎣ ⎦6 ⎭ ⎩ 2 ⎣ ⎦5 ⎧ γ 2 ⎣H ⎦ + γ 3 ⎣H ⎦ ⎫ 2 3 ⎪ ⎪ {Y } = ⎨ 2γ 2 ⎣H ⎦ 4 + γ 3 ⎣H ⎦ 5 ⎬ . The stiffness matrix of the DKT element can be expressed in explicit form. 2A { } (10. { } θ y = ⎣H ⎦ q e .120) χ12 = { } where A is the area of the triangle with vertices (x1 .

256

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

⎧ γ 2 ⎣G ⎦ + γ 3 ⎣G ⎦ + β 2 ⎣H ⎦ + β 3 ⎣H ⎦ ⎫ 2 3 2 3 ⎪ ⎪ { Z } = ⎨ 2γ 2 ⎣G ⎦ 4 + γ 3 ⎣G ⎦ 5 + 2β 2 ⎣H ⎦ 4 + β 3 ⎣H ⎦ 5 ⎬ , ⎪ γ G + 2γ G + β H + 2 β H ⎪ 3 ⎣ ⎦6 2 ⎣ ⎦5 3 ⎣ ⎦6 ⎭ ⎩ 2 ⎣ ⎦5

(10.121)

where ⎣G ⎦ i and ⎣H ⎦ i represent the ith row of [ G ] and [ H ] , respectively, and

**β i = y j − yk and γ i = xk − x j as in (8.8), with i, j, k taking values 1, 2, 3
**

cyclically. Substituting for the curvature terms into the bending strain energy expression 1 { χ }T [ D ] { χ }d x d y , Ue = (10.122) 2

∫

A

**where the material matrix [ D
**

Ue =

]

1 2

has the form (10.13), U e can be written as

{ q } [ K ]{ q },

e T e e

where K e is the element stiffness matrix in global coordinates, given by

[ ]

[K ]

e

⎡ [ X ]⎤ 1 ⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ [Y ] ⎥ 2A ⎢ [Z ]⎥ ⎣ ⎦

T

⎡ D11 [ R ] D12 [ R ] D16 [ R ]⎤ ⎡ [ X ] ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ D22 [ R ] D26 [ R ]⎥ ⎢ [ Y ] ⎥ , ⎢ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ SYM D66 [ R ]⎥ ⎢ [ Z ] ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦

(10.123)

with ⎡ 12 4 4 ⎤ 1 ⎢ [ R ]= ⎢ 4 2 1 ⎥ . ⎥ 24 ⎢ 4 1 2⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (10.124)

The matrix K e is of rank 6, so there are 3 deformation modes with zero strain energy. The integrations in (10.122) have the form

[ ]

∫∫

0 0

ξ 1−ξ

ξ mη n dξ dη ==

m ! n! . (m + n + 2)!

The presented procedure avoids the matrix triple products needed when the element stiffness matrix is given in the local coordinate system.

References

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vector of − beam 90. 245 Numerical integration 200 100. 151 − − − − Band storage 38 Bars 47 Bar element 47 Beams 79 Beam element 83 − stiffness matrix 87 − vector of nodal forces 89 Bernoulli-Euler beam theory 79 BFS plate-bending element 238 Compatibility 28. 150. 187 Conforming elements 150. 238. 95 − frame 98 − constant strain triangle 160 − linear quad 199 31 . 98 Deep beam 117 Direct method 26 Direct stiffness method 17 Discrete Kirchhoff constraints 252 Discrete Kirchhoff triangle 250 Displacement method 9 Effective shear area 118 Eight-node quad 208 Eight-node rectangle 178 Energy methods 131 Equation of equilibrium 199 Equivalent nodal forces.Index ACM plate-bending element Admissible functions 144 Area coordinates 180 Aspect ratio 178 Assembly of global matrices Axial effects 97 232 8-node quad 214 ACM plate-bending element 237 T plate-bending element 247 THT plate-bending element 249 Expanded stiffness matrix 29 External potential energy 140 Force transformation 20 Four-node rectangle 176 Frame element 97 Gauss points 200 Gauss quadrature 200 − one-dimensional 200 − two-dimensional 203 Gravity loading 217 Grids 111 Hermitian polynomials 85 HTK plate-bending element 239 Initial strain effects 59 Internal forces 35 Inverse of Jacobian matrix 196 Isoparametric elements 191 Jacobian matrix 195 Jacobian positiveness 223 Joint force equilibrium equations Kinematic equivalent forces 47 Kirchhoff’s hypotheses 225 Lagrange polynomials 220 Linear elasticity 123 Linear strain triangle 182 Master element 192 Natural coordinates 192 Nine-node quad 219 Nodal approximation 155 Nodal forces 55 Node numbering 37 Non-conforming elements 232. 187 Coordinate transformation 19. 248 Consistent nodal forces 214 Consistent vector of nodal forces 89 Constant strain triangle 153 Continuity 132 Convergence 97.

139 − bending 231 − shear 232 Stress averaging 161 Stress-strain relations 122 Subparametric elements 191 T plate-bending element 245 Temperature effects 124 Thick plate theory 229 Thermal loads 36 Thin plate theory 225 Total potential energy 140 Transformation of − differential operators 195 − infinitesimal area 197 Triangle area 156 − quadratic strain triangle 185 Triangular membrane element 180 − linear strain triangle 182 − quadratic strain triangle 185 − six-node 221 Triangular thin plate element 245 − thick plate element 248 Two-dimensional elements 153 Two-point formula 202 Unreduced global stiffness matrix Virtual displacements 131 − work of external loads 133 − work of internal forces 193 WB plate-bending element 239 30 Pascal’s triangle 220 Patch test 190 Plate bending elements 225 − rectangular 232 − triangular 244 Polynomial approximation 154 Principle of − minimum total potential energy − virtual displacements 134 − virtual work 131 Quadratic strain triangle 185 − triangle 222 Quadrilateral membrane element − eight-node 208 − linear 191 − nine-node 219 139 191 Rayleigh-Ritz method 143 Reactions 35 Rectangular membrane element 176 − thin plate element 232 − thick plate elements 239 Reduced global stiffness matrix 33 − integration 205 Reference element 192 Reissner-Mindlin plate theory 229 Serendipity elements 209 Shaft elements 60 Shape functions − bars 50. 52 − shaft 61 − beam 87. 22. 230 Six-node triangle 221 . 53 − shaft 62 − beam 85. 236 − relations 121 Strain energy 124 . 107.266 Object of FEA 1 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Skyline storage 39 Stiffness matrix 17 − bars 17. 120 − constant strain triangle 157 − four-node rectangle 177 − eight-node rectangle 179 − linear strain triangle 182 − quadratic strain triangle 186 − linear quadrilateral 193 − eight-node quad 209 − nine-node quad 221 − six-node triangle 221 − ACM plate-bending element 234 − BFS plate-bending element 238 − HTK plate-bending element 240 − THT plate-bending element 248 Shear correction factor 118. 122 − constant strain triangle 159 − frame 98 − grid 113 − linear strain triangle 183 − linear quadrilateral 199 − eight-node quad 211 − T plate-bending element 247 − ACM plate-bending element 236 − HTK plate-bending element 242 − THT plate-bending element 249 Strain-displacement matrix 158.. 94.

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