Preface
This textbook represents the Finite Element Analysis lecture course given to students in the third year at the Department of Engineering Sciences (now F.I.L.S.), English Stream, University Politehnica of Bucharest, since 1992. It grew in time along with a course taught in Romanian to students in the Faculty of Transports, helped by the emergence of microcomputer networks and integration of the object into mechanical engineering curricula. The syllabus of the 28-hour course, supplemented by 28-hour tutorial and lab. classes, was structured along the NAFEMS recommendations published in the October 1988 issue of BENCHmark. The course represents only an introduction to the finite element analysis, for which we wrote simple stand-alone single-element programs to assist students in solving problems as homework. It is followed by an advanced course in the fourth year at F.I.L.S., called Computational Structural Mechanics, where students are supposed to use commercial programs. In designing the course, our aim was to produce students capable of: (a) understanding the theoretical background, (b) appreciating the structure of finite element programs for potential amendment and development, (c) running packages and assessing their limitations, (d) taking a detached view in checking output, and (e) understanding failure messages and finding ways of rectifying the errors. The course syllabus was restricted to 2D linear elastic structural problems. It has been found advantageous to divide the finite element analysis into two parts. Firstly, the assembly process without any approximations (illustrated by frameworks) followed by the true finite element process which involves approximations. This is achieved starting with trusses, then with beams and plane frames, and progressively dealing with membrane and plate-bending elements. Solid elements and shells are not treated. Our objective was to ensure that students have achieved: (a) a familiarity in working with matrix methods and developing stiffness matrices, (b) an understanding of global versus local coordinate systems, (c) the abilty to use the minimum potential energy theorem and virtual work equations, (d) the mapping from isoparametric space to real geometrics and the need for numerical integration, (e) an insight in numerical techniques for linear equation solving (Gauss elimination, frontal solvers etc), and (f) the use of equilibrium, compatibility, stress/strain relations and boundary conditions. As a course taught for non-native speakers, it has been considered useful to reproduce as language patterns some sentences from English texts. November 2006 Mircea Radeş

Prefaţă
Lucrarea reprezintă cursul Analiza cu elemente finite predat studenţilor anului III al Facultăţii de Inginerie în Limbi Străine, Filiera Engleză, la Universitatea Politehnica Bucureşti, începând cu anul 1992. Conţinutul cursului s-a lărgit în timp, fiind predat din 1992 şi studenţilor de la facultatea de Transporturi, favorizat de apariţia reţelelor de calculatoare şi de includerea sa în planul de învăţământ al facultăţilor cu profil mecanic. Programa cursului, care prevede 28 ore de curs şi 28 ore de seminar/laborator, a fost structurată în conformiatate cu recomandările NAFEMS publicate în numărul din Octombrie 1988 al revistei BENCHmark. Cursul reprezintă doar o introducere în analiza cu elemente finite, pentru care am scris programe simple, cu un singur tip de element finit, care să fie utilizate de studenţi la rezolvarea unor teme de casă. Nu se tratează învelişuri şi elemente tridimensionale. În anul IV, planul de învăţământ de la F.I.L.S. conţine cursul Computational Structural Mechanics, la care studenţii aprofundează modelarea cu elemente finite şi utilizează un program de firmă. La structurarea cursului am avut în vedere necesitatea formării unor studenţi capabili: (a) să înţeleagă baza teoretică, (b) să desluşească structura programelor cu elemente finite pentru eventuale corecţii şi dezvoltări, (c) să ruleze programe şi să recunoască limitele acestora, (d) să poată verifica rezultatele şi (e) să înţeleagă mesajele de eroare şi să găsească modalităţi de corectare a erorilor. Programa cursului a fost limitată la structuri elastice liniare bidimensionale. S-a considerat potrivit să se prezinte analiza cu elemente finite în două etape: întâi procesul de asamblare fără nici o aproximare (aplicat la grinzi cu zăbrele), apoi modelarea cu elemente finite, care presupune aproximarea câmpului de deplasări, de la triunghiul cu deformaţii specifice constante la elemente patrulatere izoparametrice, incluzând integrarea numerică. S-a urmărit ca studenţii să dobândească: (a) familiaritate cu metodele matriciale şi calculul matricelor de rigiditate; (b) înţelegerea utilităţii coordonatelor locale şi globale; (c) abilitatea folosirii principiului energiei potenţiale minime şi a principiului lucrului mecanic virtual; (d) trecerea de la coordonate naturale la coordonate fizice şi necesitatea integrării numerice; (e) o vedere de ansamblu asupra rezolvării sistemelor algebrice liniare (eliminarea Gauss, metoda frontală etc.) şi (f) utilizarea celor patru tipuri de ecuaţii – echilibru, compatibilitate, constitutive şi condiţii la limită. Fiind un curs predat unor studenţi a căror limbă maternă nu este limba engleză, au fost reproduse expresii şi fraze din cărţi scrise de vorbitori nativi ai acestei limbi. Noiembrie 2006 Mircea Radeş

Contents
Preface Contents 1. Introduction
1.1 Object of FEA 1.2 Finite element displacement method 1.3 Historical view 1.4 Stages of FEA

i iii 1
1 3 4 5

2. Displacement Method
2.1 Equilibrium equations 2.2 Conditions for geometric compatibility 2.3 Force/elongation relations 2.4 Boundary conditions 2.5 Solving for displacements 2.6 Comparison of the force method and displacement method

9
9 10 11 12 12 13

3. Direct Stiffness Method
3.1 Stiffness matrix for a bar element 3.2 Transformation from local to global coordinates
3.2.1 Coordinate transformation 3.2.2 Force transformation 3.2.3 Element stiffness matrix in global coordinates 3.2.4 Properties of the element stiffness matrix

17
17 19
19 20 21 22

3.3 Link’s truss 3.4 Direct method 3.5 Compatibility of nodal displacements 3.6 Expanded element stiffness matrix 3.7 Unreduced global stiffness matrix

25 26 28 29 30

iv
3.8 Joint force equilibrium equations 3.9 Reduced global stiffness matrix 3.10 Reactions and internal forces 3.11 Thermal loads and stresses 3.12 Node numbering Exercises

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 31 33 35 36 37 41

4. Bars and shafts
4.1 Plane bar elements
4.1.1 Differential equation of equilibrium 4.1.2 Coordinates and shape functions 4.1.3 Bar not loaded between ends 4.1.4 Element stiffness matrix in local coordinates 4.1.5 Bar loaded between ends 4.1.6 Vector of element nodal forces 4.1.7 Assembly of the global stiffness matrix and load vector 4.1.8 Initial strain effects

47
47
47 48 49 51 52 55 56 59

4.2 Plane shaft elements Exercises

60 63

5. Beams, frames and grids
5.1 Finite element discretization 5.2 Static analysis of a uniform beam 5.3 Uniform beam not loaded between ends
5.3.1 Shape functions 5.3.2 Stiffness matrix 5.3.3 Physical significance of the stiffness matrix

79
79 81 83
84 86 88

5.4 Uniform beam loaded between ends
5.4.1 Consistent vector of nodal forces 5.4.2 Higher degree interpolation functions 5.4.3 Bending moment and shear force

89
89 92 95

5.5 Basic convergence requirements 5.6 Frame element
5.6.1 Axial effects 5.6.2 Stiffness matrix and load vector in local coordinates

96 97
97 98

3 Stiffness matrix 100 111 116 117 118 121 6.1.1.1 FEM in Structural Mechanics 7.2 External potential energy 7.5 Stress-strain relations 6.1.1 Strain energy 7. Linear elasticity 6.4 Strain-displacement relations 6.3 Equations of equilibrium on the surface Sσ 6.2.4 FEM – a localized version of the Rayleigh-Ritz method 7.4.6.2 Principle of minimum total potential energy 7.1.2 Discretization 7.3 Virtual work of internal forces 7.6.7 Assembly of the global stiffness matrix 5.1 Static analysis of a uniform beam 5.9 Deep beam bending element 5.2 Virtual work of external forces 7.3 The Rayleigh-Ritz method 7.2 Equations of equilibrium inside V 6.4 Principle of virtual displacements 7.8 Grids 5.1 Virtual displacements 7.4.4. stresses and strain 6.1.5 Proof that PDV is equivalent to equilibrium equations 131 131 131 133 133 134 137 7.9.CONTENTS 5.3 Principle of virtual displacements 143 148 148 149 149 .3 Coordinate transformation 5.4 Stiffness matrix and load vector in global coordinates 98 100 v 5.9. Energy methods 7.1 Principle of virtual work 7.6 Temperature effects 6.2.1 Matrix notation for loads.2.2 Shape functions 5.7 Strain energy 123 123 125 126 127 128 130 130 7.3 Total potential energy 139 139 140 140 7.9.

4 Mapping from natural to Cartesian coordinates 9.1 Area coordinates 8. convergence and compatibility 8.7 Assembly of the global stiffness matrix and load vector 7.1 Linear quadrilateral element 9.5 Element stiffness matrix 9.1.1.5 Element stiffness matrix and load vector 8.3 The displacement field 9.1.1 The plane constant-strain triangle (CST) 8.2 Convergence and compatibility 187 187 188 9 Isoparametric elements 9.4.vi 7.1.2 Rectangular elements 8.2.2.6 Element stiffness matrix and load vector 7.1. Discretization of structure 8.5 Compatibility between strains and nodal displacements 7.3.4.1 Equilibrium vs.4.1.4 Approximating functions for the element FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 149 150 151 151 152 7.1.2.1.6 Remarks 153 153 153 154 155 158 159 160 8.1 One dimensional Gauss quadrature 200 200 .4.3 Quadratic strain triangle 180 180 182 185 8.1.1.8 Solution and back-substitution 8 Two-dimensional elements 8.2 The eight-node rectangle (quadratic) 176 176 178 8.1.1.4.3.2 Linear strain triangle (LST) 8.2 Polynomial approximation of the displacement field 8.4 Equilibrium.3.1.4.3 Nodal approximation of the displacement field 8.2 Shape functions 9. compatibility 8.4.3 Triangular elements 8.1 The four-node rectangle (linear) 8.6 Element load vectors 191 191 192 193 194 195 198 199 9.4 The matrix [ B ] 8.1 Natural coordinates 9.2 Numerical integration 9.

6 Consistent nodal forces 208 209 210 211 211 213 214 9.5 Stress calculation 9.3.3.2.1 ACM element (non-conforming) 10.4.3.4 Nine-node quadrilateral 9.3.4.2.2 Thick triangular element (conforming) 10.2 Two dimensional Gauss quadrature 9.1 Shape functions 9.3 Eight-node quadrilateral 9.3.2 BFS element (conforming) 10.2.3 Stiffness integration 9.3.3 HTK thick rectangular element 225 225 229 232 232 238 239 10.3.2 Shape function derivatives 9.1 Thin plate theory (Kirchhoff) 10.4 Stress calculations 203 204 207 vii 9.1 Thin triangular element (non-conforming) 10.4 Element stiffness matrix 9.3 Discrete Kirchhoff triangles (DKT) 244 245 248 250 References Index 257 265 .3 Rectangular plate-bending elements 10.4.3 Determinant of the Jacobian matrix 9.3.2 Thick plate theory (Reissner-Mindlin) 10.3.CONTENTS 9.6 Jacobian positiveness 219 221 223 10 Plate bending 10.5 Six-node triangle 9.4 Triangular plate-bending elements 10.

1. The tools are the computers. weighted-residual. This requires a matrix notation. The procedure is a discretized approach: the geometric shape or the internal stressstrain-displacement field are described by a series of discrete quantities (like coordinates) distributed through the structure.1 Object of FEA The object of FEA is to replace the infinite degree of freedom system in continuum applications by a finite system exhibiting the same basis as discrete analysis. involving approximation methods. strength of materials. based on knowledge from three fields: (1) Structural Mechanics. The subdomains are called finite elements. With the individually defined functions matching each other at certain points called nodes. (2) Numerical Analysis. INTRODUCTION Finite Element Analysis (FEA) as applied to structures is a multidisciplinary technique. eigenproblems. plasticity. etc. within each element. by means of a linear combination of trial functions. The primary difference between the FEA and other approximate methods for the solution of boundary-value problems (finite-difference. The aim is finding an approximate solution to a boundary. encompassing elasticity. Its task is to model and describe the mechanical behaviour of geometrically complex structures.and initialvalue problem by dividing the domain of the system into a set of interconnected finite-sized subdomains of different size and shape. solving linear sets of equations. able to store long lists of numbers and manipulate them. the unknown function is approximated over the entire domain. and (3) Applied Computer Science. . etc. FEA is used to solve large-scale analytical problems. the set of finite elements is known as the mesh and the trial functions are referred to as interpolation functions. dealing with the development and maintenance of large computer codes. and defining the unknown state variable approximately.1. dynamics.

Mathematically. Since the entire domain is divided into numerous elements and the function is approximated in terms of its values at the element nodes. which tend to have complicated expressions. . in the FEA an approximate solution is constructed using local admissible functions. coupled with the development of powerful computer codes based on the method. The wide use of the classical Rayleigh-Ritz method has been limited by the inability to generate suitable admissible functions for a large number of practical problems. This extreme versatility. the equations of equilibrium are obtained from variational principles implying the stationarity of the functional defined by the total potential energy. the FEA can change not only the size of the finite elements but also their shape. by making decisions concerning the finite element mesh and the assembly of stiffness matrices. In order to match a given irregular boundary. or to handle parameter non-uniformities. While solving differential equations with complicated boundary conditions may be difficult. Indeed.2 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Rayleigh-Ritz. In FEA. the evaluation of such a function will require the solution of simultaneous equations. FEA is a localized version of the Rayleigh-Ritz method. difficult to handle on a routine basis. should be easier. Perhaps more important is the fact that the finite element method can accommodate systems with complicated geometries and parameter distributions. The outstanding success of the finite element method can be attributed to a large extent to timing. solving [ A ] { x } = { b } is equivalent to 1 minimizing P (x ) = { x }T [ A ]{ x } − { x }T { b }. which is often difficult. Instead of finding an admissible function satisfying the boundary conditions for the entire domain. some of them made available as open source free software. The computer is not only able to solve the discretized equations of equilibrium. defined over small subdomains of the structure. This was possible only at the time the computers became available. This is the heart of the FEA when 2 applied to structures. systems with complex boundary conditions or complex geometry cannot be described easily by global admissible functions. has made the FEA the method of choice for the analysis of structures. integrating known polynomial functions. even approximately. but also to carry out such diverse tasks as the formulation of equations. which led to automation. so were increasingly powerful digital computers. Galerkin) is that in the FEA the approximation is confined to relatively small subdomains. While the finite element method was being developed. In turn. in the FEA the admissible functions (called shape functions) are defined over element domains with simple geometry and pay no attention to complications at the boundaries.

The first part of the finite element modeling process involves choosing the correct and appropriate types of elements. Developed originally as a method for analyzing stresses in complex aircraft structures. Displacements within the elements are expressed in terms of these nodal displacements using interpolation functions referred to as shape functions. This involves recognizing error messages when this process breaks down or when it simply becomes inefficient because the structure has been modeled inconveniently. INTRODUCTION 3 1. the governing discrete equations are generated by a variational approach. a structure is discretized (hypothetically) into finite elements and points named nodes are selected on the inter-element boundaries or in the interior of the elements. Finally. Mesh refinements (and automatic mesh generation) do not bring necessarily increased accuracy. Finer mesh yields also larger stiffness matrices. leaving only the magnitude to be found. a larger number of equations to be solved. The six basic steps of FEA are the following: (1) discretize the continuum. (2) the easiness of producing stiffness matrices (and load vectors).1. Finite elements are so small that the shape of the displacement field can be approximated without too much error. FEA has evolved into a technique that can be applied . and (6) make additional computations if desired. (3) find the element properties. Displacements at the nodes are taken as the primary discrete variables. and (3) the solution algorithms. and the prescribed boundary conditions are satisfied. The second part of the process is the assembly of the elements and the solution of the complete structural equations. (5) solve the system of equations. making curved lines straight.2 Finite element displacement method In the finite element modeling. by just assembling predetermined element matrices. and curved elements flat). The three main sources of approximation are: (1) the definition of the domain (physically or geometrically). Modeling the joints and the contact between structural parts as well as the damping in dynamic problems are the most difficult tasks. hence larger computer storage space and running time. and (3) the versatility. (4) assemble the element properties. the internal stresses are in equilibrium with the applied loads. All individual elements are assembled together in such a way that the displacements are continuous in some fashion across element interfaces. Among the reasons why the FEA has gained such universal acceptance are: (1) the routine choice of shape functions. understanding the pedigree of elements and spotting wrong answers due to the use of inadequate elements. (2) the discretization of the domain (cutting the corners. but may be trigonometric functions as well. (2) select interpolation functions. The “shapes” are polynomials.

In the early 1940s. where wings and fuselages are treated as assemblages of stringers. stability and dynamic engineering problems. In modern times. . 1955).3 Historical view The idea of representing a given domain as a collection of discrete elements is not novel with the finite element method. The formal presentation of the finite element method is attributed to Turner. collected later in a book by Argyris and Kelsey (1960). who during 1952-1953 succeeded to directly derive the stiffness of a triangular panel at Boeing. The term “finite element” was first used by Clough (1960). The theoretical background of FEA laids on the energy approach of Structural Mechanics and on the approximation techniques. Ancient mathematicians estimated the value of π approximating the circumference of a circle by the perimeter of a polygon inscribed in the circle. ribs. Martin. the Force Method (Flexibility Method) was sustained by Levy (1947) and Garvey (1951) and the matrix Displacement Method (Stiffness Method) was used by Levy (1953) in the sweptback wing analysis. The first energy theorems have been established by Maxwell (1864) and Castigliano (1875). the article series by Argyris in four issues of Aircraft Engineering (1954. Modeling delta wings required two-dimensional panel elements of arbitrary geometry. computers capable of solving large sets of equations of equilibrium did not exist. contains the derivation of the stiffness matrix of a flat rectangular panel using bilinear displacement interpolation. so that the method was not practical then. and Topp (1956). static. After a first attempt by Levy (1953) with triangular elements. who used an assemblage of small triangular elements and the principle of minimum potential energy to study Saint Venant’s torsion problem. After the Second World War. stiffeners and spars. But that geometry was inadequate to model delta wings. The approximation methods have been developed by Ritz (1908) and Galerkin (1915). the idea found application in aircraft structural analysis. The reason why Courant’s paper did not attract more attention can be attributed to poor timing. The development of the Force Method ended in 1969. panels. The use of piecewise continuous functions defined over a subdomain to approximate the unknown function dates back to Courant (1943). Clough. Ostenfeld (1926) is credited with the first book on the deformation method.4 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS to a large variety of linear and nonlinear. Turner formulated and perfected the Direct Stiffness Method at Boeing (1959). The development of delta wing structures revived the interest in stiffness methods. 1.

Preprocessing involves the input and preparation of data. Martin Baltimore and Bell Aero Systems under contract to NASA. lead by Zienkiewicz. SESAM – by Det Norske Veritas. (1978). electromagnetics etc). SAMCEF . (2) processing. developed by Swanson Analysis Systems (1970). Major contributions are due to B. fluids. INTRODUCTION 5 The first book devoted to FEA was written by Zienkiewicz and Cheung (1967). STARDYNE by Mechanics Research Inc.-J. J. (1975). Wilson. nonlinear static and dynamic response. and (3) postprocessing. Melosh. PATRAN.by SAMTECH (1965). General purpose programs have capabilities of linear dynamic response. developed the static condensation algorithm (1974) and three SAP computer programs (the first open source FEA software). He was joined later by K. MARC – by Marc Analysis Research Corporation. element connectivity. under Martin. Fraeijs de Veubeke (1964) and Irons and coworkers (1964. at Washington University. STRUDL . 1966. who studied the sparse matrix assembly and solution techniques (1963). Starting with 1965 the NASTRAN finite element system was developed by COSMIC.I. NISA – by Engineering Mechanics Research Corporation. MacNeal Schwendler. and at Swansea University.by Hibbitt.4 Stages of FEA FEA involves three stages of activity: (1) preprocessing. COSMOS-M – by Structural Research & Analysis Corp. material properties and . the inventor of isoparametric models. Irons. Archer. completed in 1968 and first revised in 1972.T. After 1967 the FEA has been applied to non-structural field problems (thermal. Karlsson @ Sorensen. M. Research developed in the Civil Engineering Department at Berkeley. Bathe at M. including computation of natural frequencies. such as nodal coordinates. who introduced the consistent mass matrix concept (1963). directed by Clough. Influential papers have been written by Argyris (1965). ALGOR etc. Inc. 1970). R.-J. L. followed by books by Przemieniecki (1968) and Gallagher (1964). Since 1963.by the Civil Engineering Department at Massachusetts Institute of Technology and McDonnell Douglas Automation Company (1967). (1985). frontal solvers and the patch test (1964-1980). SAP5 and NONSAP. finite element computer programs were freely disseminated into the nonaerospace community. static and dynamic stability. IDEAS-MS. and E. who systematized the variational derivation of stiffness matrices and recognized that FEA is a Rayleigh-Ritz method applied on small size elements (1963).1. crashworthiness. 1. ADINA – developed by K. J. S. Other known finite element codes are ANSYS. ABAQUS . shape functions. and thermal loading. Bathe to develop the finite element codes SAP4 (1973). boundary conditions.

1. through a userfriendly interface. or reading from a data file.D. Badly placed nodes or improper blocking of boundary nodes can be easily traced.A.2).6 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS loading.I.A. represented with hidden line removal. Fig.T. as obtained using the program SIMPAT developed by I.E.1) and a car engine piston (Fig.1 Three-dimensional finite element meshes. Mesh plotting is a convenient and useful way of checking the input data. Automatic mesh generation can be used to produce nodal coordinate data and optimal node numbering. as well as element connectivity data. or C. 1. Fig. Italia. Alternatively. some input data can be imported from other F. programs. 1. Data input can be carried out either in an interactive way. are presented for a connecting rod (Fig.2 . 1.

1. In static analyses. processing involves solving an eigenproblem or determining the transient response by incremental techniques. and element quantities such as stresses and gradients (backcalculation). Often this contains much more detail than the dynamic analysis requires.3.3 In the processing stage.4 In dynamic analyses. the finite element program processes the input data and calculates the nodal variable quantities such as displacements and temperatures (equation solving). 1. INTRODUCTION 7 The finite element model of a vehicle cabin frame obtained with MSC/NASTRAN is shown in Fig. . Fig. It would be obviously convenient to use in dynamic analyses the same finite element model that was built for the static analysis.1. 1. so that condensation and dynamic substructuring are used to reduce the size of the dynamic problem before the processing stage. The cost in terms of computer resource increases with the cube of the problem size. the cost of the solution of the linear set of equations increases linearly with the problem size. Fig.

as in Fig. a Fig. 1. 1.6. as obtained using ALGOR SUPERSAP. 1. 1.6 b Fig. Early programs used tabular presentations. Most programs produce displays of the deformed configuration. a shows the two-dimensional initial mesh for the analysis of a gear tooth.6. Fig.5 Scalar nodal variables such as temperatures or pressures are presented in the form of contour plots of isotherms or isobars. vibration mode shapes and stress distributions. 1. containing only 814 elements and a four times reduced global discretization error.8 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Postprocessing deals with the presentation of results. Fig.5 for a crankshaft. Fig. 1. . b shows the optimized mesh obtained with the postprocessor ESTEREF.4 shows the initial mesh and the deformed shape of a cooling tower under the wind action. More recent finite element programs show animated displays of the deformed configuration. with 1174 triangular 6-node elements.

2. F2 .2. Once the displacements are determined. and hence strains. DISPLACEMENT METHOD In solving any structural problem. T2 . 2. they are back-substituted into the compatibility equations to obtain bar extensions. Variables include reaction forces at the supports and internal forces. displacements of the bar ends and bar extensions (elongations). assume that all members are in tension and write the equilibrium of each node in turn. T1 . a relatively simple pin-jointed framework will be used. geometric compatibility conditions.1 . then stresses from the constitutive relationship. the procedure is referred to as the displacement method. F4 . 2. It works whether the structure is statically determinate or not. If forces and elongations are eliminated and the displacements are the variables which are solved first. In order to illustrate the usual longhand analytical procedure. there are four types of equations that should be used: equilibrium equations. T3 are the tensions in members and F1 .1 [74]. F5 are the reaction forces at the supports.1 Equilibrium equations Consider the truss shown in Fig. Fig. constitutive relationships and boundary conditions.

T2 2 / 2 + F2 = 0.2) (2.2. inclined an angle θ with respect to the X axis of the global coordinate system. a). a b Fig.2 c 2. At Node 3 (Fig. u 2 = U 2 cos θ + V 2 sin θ . and consideration must be given to the geometry of deformation.4) . 9 F − T2 2 / 2 − T3 2 /2 = 0. The displacements in the local coordinate frame xOy can be expressed in terms of the displacements in the global coordinate frame as u 1 = U 1 cos θ + V 1 sin θ .1) (2.1) to (2. 2. b). c) T3 2 /2 + F5 − T2 2 /2 = 0.3.10 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS At Node 1 (Fig. (2. 2. equilibrium gives 6 F − T1 − T3 2 /2 = 0. resolving forces horizontally and vertically leads to T1 + T2 2 2 + F1 = 0. Fig.3) have seven unknowns. 2.2. 2. The change in length of the member is (2. T3 2 / 2 + F4 = 0.3) The six equations (2. 2. The system is statically indeterminate.2 Conditions for geometric compatibility The compatibility equations relate a bar extension Δl to the displacements of the ends of the bar. At Node 2 (Fig.2. Consider a typical pin-jointed element 1-2 of a frame. The solution is not possible by using only equilibrium.

the force/elongation relations can be written Δl12 or T l = 1 .6) to (2. ( ) ( ) (2. Starting from the Hooke’s law for uniaxial stress-strain conditions. Δl 23 = 3 . six displacements and three elongations. 2 (2.5) Fig. 2 2 2 ⎠ 2 .U1 .3 Force/elongation relations Truss members are in either simple tension or compression. DISPLACEMENT METHOD 11 Δl = u 2 − u1 = U 2 − U1 cosθ + V 2 − V1 sin θ . Δl12 = .3 Applying equation (2. 2.8) have nine unknowns. Δl13 = 2 .8) ⎛ 2⎞ ⎟ + (V3 − V2 ) Δl 23 = (U 3 − U 2 ) ⎜ − ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ The three equations (2. 2E A Δl 23 = T3 2 l 2 2E A T l T1 l T l .9) EA 2E A 2E A Three more equations have been added and so there are now 12 equations for 16 unknowns. Δl13 = (U 3 − U1 ) 2 2 + (V3 − V1 ) . (2. EA Δl 13 = T2 2 l 2 .2.7) (2.6) (2.5) to each member in turn leads to Δl12 = U 2 . 2.

(2. (2.4 Boundary conditions The discrepancy of 4 equations is made up by adding the boundary conditions U1 = V1 = V2 = U 3 = 0 which complete the set of 22 linear algebraic equations.3) yields 6 equations 2 U1 + V1 − U 2 − U 3 − V3 = U1 + V1 − U 3 − V3 = F2 l .6)(2.8) to force/displacement equations as follows T1 = EA EA ( U 2 − U1 ) .1) . EA 9 Fl . Δl 12 = l l 2E A EA T2 = Δl 13 = 2 ( U 3 − U1 + V3 − V1 ) . l l 2E A EA T3 = Δl 23 = 2 ( − U 3 + U 2 + V3 − V2 ) . this set of six equations can be written in matrix form as .12 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 2. l l Substitution of the expressions for T1 to T3 into the equilibrium equations (2.5 Solving for displacements Equations (2. EA − U1 + 2 U 2 − V2 − U 3 + V3 = − U 2 + V2 + U 3 − V3 = F4 l . EA 6F l .10). EA − U1 − V1 − U 2 + V2 + 2 U 3 = − U1 − V1 + U 2 − V2 + 2 V3 = F5 l . EA F1 l . EA Taking into account the boundary conditions (2.9) can be used to convert the compatibility equations (2.10) 2.

13) Substituting these forces into the equilibrium equations (2.11) 1 − 1⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ F4 ⎥ 2 0 ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ F5 ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 0 2 ⎥ ⎢ V3 ⎥ ⎢ 9 F ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ The third and the sixth equation can be decoupled EA l and solved to give U2 = Fl . Determine the internal bar forces and the displacement of joint 8. (2. EA (2.. the equilibrium equations of joint 8 can be written Fx − Fy − ∑ Ti cosθi = 0. F5 = − F .14) . F2 = −4 F .3) yields the tensions in the members.12) ⎡2 1 ⎤ ⎡U 2 ⎤ ⎧6 F ⎫ ⎢1 2⎥ ⋅ ⎢ V ⎥ = ⎨9 F ⎬ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ 3⎦ ⎩ ⎭ Substituting U 2 and V3 into the remaining equations yields the reaction forces F1 = −5F . (2..7 ) the forces applied by each bar to the end nodes.. i =1 i =1 7 7 (2. Consider the 7-bar pin-jointed framework shown in Figure 2.1)-(2. F4 = −5 F . 2. Divided by the corresponding area they give the stresses.6 Comparison of the force method and displacement method Navier’s Problem. DISPLACEMENT METHOD 13 ⎡2 ⎢1 ⎢ EA ⎢ − 1 ⎢ l ⎢0 ⎢− 1 ⎢ ⎢− 1 ⎣ 1 1 0 0 −1 −1 −1 0 2 −1 −1 1 0 0 −1 1 1 −1 − 1 − 1⎤ ⎡ 0 ⎤ ⎡ F1 ⎤ − 1 − 1⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ F2 ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ − 1 1 ⎥ ⎢U 2 ⎥ ⎢ 6 F ⎥ ⎥ ⋅ ⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ ⎥ .2. ∑ Ti sinθi = 0. which are equal and opposite to the forces acting on the joints. EA V3 = 4 Fl .. The joint 8 is subjected to a force of components Fx and Fy . Force Method Denoting Ti ( i = 1.4.

16) since we are assuming no support movement.. so the framework is statically indeterminate.. We choose X1 = T3 . ∂Fx v8 = ∂U . They are of the form l1 T1 ∂T1 ∂T + l 2 T2 2 + l i X i = 0 . the five deformation conditions can be written ∂U = 0.4 The strain energy is U= 5 ⎞ 1 ⎛ 2 ⎜ T1 l 1 + T22l 2 + X i2l i ⎟ ⎟ 2 EA ⎜ i =1 ⎝ ⎠ ∑ (2.5 ) (2... Fig.14 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS This is a set of two equations with seven unknowns. X 2 = T4 .18) . ∂X i ( i = 1. The components of the displacement of joint 8 are given by Castigliano’s second theorem u8 = ∂U .15) where T1 and T2 are functions of X 1 to X 5 . X 4 = T6 . 2. ∂X i ∂X i ( i = 1... and X 5 = T7 as redundant forces.. Using Menabrea’s theorem.17) This is a set of five linear equations wherefrom the five redundant forces X 1 to X 5 are determined. according to (2. ∂Fy (2..5 ) (2.14). X 3 = T5 .

7 ) (2.2... 3 a Fy − u8 EA ∑ i =1 cosθ i sin θ i − v 8 ∑ i =1 which is solved for u8 and v 8 . In matrix form they can be written ⎧ Fx ⎫ ⎡ K11 ⎨ ⎬=⎢ ⎩ Fy ⎭ ⎣ K 21 K12 ⎤ ⎧ u8 ⎫ ⎨ ⎬ K 22 ⎥ ⎩ v 8 ⎭ ⎦ (2.19) into the force-elongation equations Ti = EA Δl i li . (2. a ( ) ( i = 1.5) are Δl i = u 8 cosθi + v 8 sin θi .20) Substituting (2..7 ) (2. the larger the number of bars.24) where the stiffness coefficients are .. The bar length is li = a .. hence the number of equations (2. sinθ i ( i = 1.. Displacement Method The elongation-displacement (compatibility) equations (2. Regardless the number of concurrent bars...7 ) (2... only two equations are obtained for the two joint displacements.22) into the equilibrium equations (2.. the larger the number of statically indeterminate forces.14) of joint 8 yields a Fx − u8 EA ∑ i =1 7 7 cos 2θ i sinθ i − v 8 2 ∑ i =1 7 7 sin 2θ i cosθ i = 0 ....19) ( i = 1.7 ) (2.16). DISPLACEMENT METHOD 15 In the force method. ( i = 1..22) Inserting (2.21) gives the force-displacement relations Ti = EA u 8 cos θ i + v 8 sin θ i sin θ i .23) sin θ i = 0 ..

(2.16 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS K11 = EA a ∑ cos2θi sinθi = 1.25) K12 = K 21 = K 22 = EA a 7 EA a ∑ cosθi sin 2θi = 0.24) gives u 8 = 0.219 Fy a EA . i =1 7 ∑ i =1 sin 3θ i = 4.26) The approach used in the displacement method is the same whether the structure is statically determinate or not. .409 i =1 7 EA .567 EA . a Solving (2. EA v 8 = 0.7097 Fx a . a (2.

Generally. which relates all joint displacements to all joint forces. Starting with simple planar frameworks it is possible to explain the assembly process and to make an introduction into the matrix stiffness method. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD The Finite Element Method (FEM) started as an extension of the stiffness method or displacement method. . with each element being placed in a preassigned location. We may imagine that the structure is built by adding elements one by one. They are natural finite elements. hence to the structure stiffness matrix. contributions are made to the structure load carrying capacity. the elements of the actual structure are connected together at discrete joints. The relationship between the end forces and end displacements of each member is represented by an element stiffness matrix. If the members are pin-ended bars they are real distinct elements requiring no approximation. In the stiffness method for skeletal structures. The nodal displacements are q 1 . pinconnected at the ends. respectively. Consider a two-noded pin-jointed element in the own local coordinate system (Fig. the basic steps of the Direct Stiffness Method (DSM) are shown using a pin-jointed plane truss. Assembly and solution for displacements are of main concern. Nodes are conveniently numbered 1 and 2. It is acted upon by the nodal forces f1 . the names “joint” and “member” are replaced by node and element. In the following.3. f 2 . It has length l e . 3.) . cross section area Ae and Young’s modulus Ee .1). bar elements are assumed to be uniform (EAe = const. q 2 . linearly elastic.1 Stiffness matrix for a bar element In the FEM. axially loaded (no bending) and with no forces between ends. 3. As elements are added to the structure.

then for q 1 = 0 .6) . q 2 = 2 e and Ee Ae E A f1 = − f 2 = − e e q 2 . (3. f l q 2 = 0 .3) Combining equations (3. The equilibrium equation for the bar element is f1 + f 2 = 0. which incorporate compatibility and stress/strain relations. the complete stiffness relationship is obtained as ⎧ f1 ⎫ Ee Ae ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ = 1⎥ le ⎢ ⎪ f 2 ⎪e ⎣ ⎦ ⎩ 23 144− 1443 ⎭ 2 1 nodal forces element stiffness matrix nodal displacements ⎧q1 ⎫ ⎨q ⎬ 2 ⎩ 2⎭e 1 3 (3. f 2 are positive in the positive x direction. the force/elongation relations are used.2) and (3. ⎣ ⎦ (3. q 1 = 1 e and Ee Ae f1 = − f 2 = Ee Ae q1 .1) Next.4) or { f }= [ k ] { q } e e e (3. (3.5) where the element stiffness matrix in local coordinates is [ k ] = El A e e e e ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎢− 1 1 ⎥ . q 2 and the nodal forces f1 . le (3.3). 3. if end 2 is now fixed but end 1 allowed to move.18 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Fig. If end 1 is fixed and end 2 is allowed to f l move.1 Both the nodal displacements q 1 .2) le Similarly.

q 2 = Q x 2 cos θ e + Q y 2 sin θ e . Displacements in the local coordinate frame xOy can be expressed in terms of the displacements in the global coordinate frame as (2.2 Let the bar be inclined an angle θ e with respect to the X-axis of the global coordinate system.3. In fact. the angle θ e is the angle between the positive X-axis and the positive direction of the beam (defined as 1 to 2).2. 3. End forces and displacements have two components at each node.1 Coordinate transformation A typical bar element 1-2 is shown in Figure 3.2. Nodal displacements are denoted by lower case letters in the local coordinate system and by upper case letters in the global coordinate system. so that nodal forces and nodal displacements can be arranged into 4-element column vectors related by a 4 × 4 stiffness matrix.7) . DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 19 3.2 Transformation from local to global coordinates Bar elements in a truss have different orientations in space and it is necessary to define their stiffness properties with respect to a single global coordinate system attached to the whole structure. where both the local coordinate system xOy and the global coordinate system XOY are drawn. In matrix form (3.4) q 1 = Q x1 cos θ e + Q y1 sin θ e . 3. Fig.

denoting X 2 − X1 le ( X 1 . sin θ e = Y 2 − Y1 le .10) is a coordinate transformation matrix.2. 3. respectively. 3. we obtain cos θ e = . e e e (3.Y 2 ) the coordinates of nodes 1 and 2.20 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎧ Qx1 ⎫ ⎪Q ⎪ ⎪ y1 ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ ⎪ Qx 2 ⎪ ⎪ Qy2 ⎪ ⎩4 4e ⎭ 123 local displacements ⎧ q1 ⎫ 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ cosθ e sinθ e ⎪ ⎪ = ⎢ ⎨q ⎬ 0 0 cosθ e sinθ e ⎥ ⎪ 2⎪ ⎣ ⎦ ⎩ ⎭ e 123 4 4 1444444 2444444 3 4 4 transformation matrix (3.8) global displacements or { q }= [T ] { Q }.3 The force components in the global coordinate system are .2 Force transformation Consider the pin-jointed member (Fig. 3. Fig. le = (X 2 − X 1 ) 2 + (Y 2 − Y1 ) 2 . The entries in the matrix (3. From nodal coordinate data.3) subjected to forces f1 and f2 applied at the ends 1 and 2.9) 0 ⎤ sinθ e ⎥ ⎦ where [T ] = ⎡⎢ cosθ 0 e e ⎣ sinθ e 0 0 cosθ e (3.Y1 ) and ( X 2 .10) are calculated based on the above equations.

e e T e (3.16) [ K ] = [T ] [ k ] [T ]. In matrix form Fx 2 = f 2 cosθ e .14) becomes { f } { q } = { f } [T ] { Q } = {F } { Q } . Fy1 = f1 sinθ e .3. and comparing with (3.13).14) Substituting (3.13) Equation (3. having the same value regardless the coordinate system { f } { q }= {F } { Q } . Work is a scalar quantity. e T e e T e e T e e T e (3. Fy 2 = f 2 sinθ e .13) {F }= [T ] { f }= [T ] [ k ] { q }= [14]4[2444] { Q } T k ][ T 4 3 e e T e e T e e e T e e e we find where {F } = [ K ] { Q } e e e (3.2. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 21 Fx1 = f1 cosθ e .3 Element stiffness matrix in global coordinates Inserting equation (3. equation (3. . =⎢ ⎨F ⎬ ⎢ 0 cosθ e ⎥ ⎩ f 2 ⎭ e ⎪ x2 ⎪ ⎢ ⎥ ⎪Fy ⎪ sinθ e ⎦ 2 ⎭e ⎩ 23 ⎣ 0 1 4 4 144 244 3 1 3 4 4 2 transformation matrix local forces (3.12) or { F } = [ T ] { f }.5) into (3.15) (3.13). e e T e hence { f } [T ] = { F } e T e e T which by transposition becomes (3. then equation (3. e e T e e . 3.11) global force components ⎧ Fx1 ⎫ 0 ⎤ ⎡cosθ e ⎪F ⎪ ⎢ sinθ 0 ⎥ ⎧ f1 ⎫ ⎪ y1 ⎪ e ⎥ ⎨ ⎬ .13) can be directly obtained from consideration of mechanical work.9) for the local displacements. (3.9) into the resulting matrix product.

1 Symmetric matrix Stiffness matrices are symmetrical [ K ]= [K ] e e T . a) 3. ⎢ c2 c s ⎥ ⎪Q x 2 ⎪ ⎢ ⎥ s 2 ⎥ ⎪Q y 2 ⎪e ⎢SYM ⎭ ⎣ ⎦ ⎩ (3.4. singular (order 4.2. 3. l e ⎢− c − cs c2 cs ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 2 cs s2 ⎥ ⎢− c s − s ⎣ ⎦ (3. [ ] .2. the stiffness matrix. [ ] (3.18) According to Maxwell’s reciprocity theorem. rank 1) and each column (row) sums to zero.17. Remember that the element stiffness matrix is a proportionality factor between the components of forces applied by the nodes to the element and the components of nodal displacements in global coordinates ⎧ Fx1 ⎫ ⎪F ⎪ Ee Ae ⎪ y1 ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ = Fx 2 ⎪ le ⎪ ⎪ Fy 2 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭e ⎡ c2 c s − c 2 − c s ⎤ ⎧ Qx1 ⎫ ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ s 2 − c s − s 2 ⎥ ⎪ Qy1 ⎪ ⎢ ⋅⎨ ⎬ . And so must be its inverse.22 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Carrying out the matrix multiplications and using (3.17) where c = cosθ e and s = sin θ e . with positive diagonal elements.4 Properties of the element stiffness matrix The element stiffness matrix is symmetric. the flexibility matrix δ e must be symmetrical about the leading diagonal. Expressing displacements in terms of forces gives { Q }= [ K ] { F }= [ δ ] { F } e e −1 e e e so that the inverse of the stiffness matrix is the flexibility matrix [K ] e −1 = δe .10) we find the element stiffness matrix in global coordinates [K ] e ⎡ c2 cs − c2 − cs⎤ ⎢ ⎥ E A cs s2 − cs − s2 ⎥ = e e⎢ 2 .

(3. a force and its corresponding displacement would be oppositely directed. 3. The rank deficiency is 3 and this corresponds to the three possible and independent forms of rigid body motion in plane for the unsupported bar: two translations and one rotation. this work is absorbed by the structure as strain energy.3 Positive diagonal elements Each diagonal entry of the matrix K e is positive.4. The zero determinant implies that there are linear relationships between its columns (rows). so that the stiffness matrix has rank 1 (or its rank deficiency is 3). displacements are proportional to the applied loads.3.20) 2 We = { }{ } { } [ ]{ } e T e T It is equal to its transpose Ue = 1 2 { Q } [K ] { Q } e (3. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 23 The same result can be obtained following strain energy arguments. The rigid body modes are defined {Q } e for which 2U e = Q e T e e e by the eigenvectors corresponding to its zero eigenvalues. (3. The rank of a matrix is the size of the largest sub-matrix with a non-zero determinant. The matrix [ K ] is said to be singular. As forces are increased from zero to their final values. [ K ]= [K ] e e T .2 Singular matrix The element stiffness matrix is of order 4 and rank 1. A single ungrounded bar can be moved in space as a rigid body without straining it and hence with zero strain energy. 3.15) into (3. This can only be true if the determinant of [ K ] vanishes.19) we obtain the strain energy which is a scalar T 1 Ue = Qe K e Qe . Substituting (3. If this were not so.4.19) 2 In the absence of dynamic effects. One can verify that the determinants of the 3× 3 and 2 × 2 reduced sets are still zero. the total work done by these forces is T 1 Qe Fe .2.2. This means that there exist a set of rigid body displacements e e e { } [ K ] { Q }= 0 wherefrom [ K ] { Q } = { 0 } . a) so that which defines the symmetry. which is [ ] .20. For linear structures.

a) can be written ⎧ Fx1 ⎫ ⎡ k11 ⎪F ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ y1 ⎪ ⎢k 21 ⎨ ⎬= ⎪ Fx 2 ⎪ ⎢ k31 ⎪ Fy 2 ⎪ ⎢k 41 ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ which yields . Moreover.17. 3.4 Equation (3. The displacement Qx1 = 1 produces an axial shortening Qx1 cosθ e = cosθ e . Equilibrium of horizontal and vertical forces yields k11 + k31 = 0 . . Q y1 = 0 as in Fig.24 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS physically unsound.2. . E A which corresponds to a compressive force e e cosθ e . .4 Each column (row) sums to zero [ ] Consider a bar element with end 2 fixed Qx 2 = Q y 2 = 0 and end 1 having a unit displacement along the global X-axis Qx1 = 1.21) Fx1 = k11 . the quadratic form that represents strain energy (3.4.20) is either positive or zero.4. 3. 3. . the matrix K e is positive semidefinite. Fy 2 = k 41 . k 21 . whose components must le be equilibrated by the external forces k11 . . . That is. Fx 2 = k31 . (3. k21 + k41 = 0 .⎥ ⎪Qx 2 = 0 ⎪ ⎥ . Fy1 = k21 .22) This shows that the first column of the stiffness matrix represents the forces that must be applied to the element to preserve static equilibrium when Qx1 = 1 and all other displacements are zero.⎦ ⎪Q y 2 = 0⎪ ⎩ ⎭ (3.⎤ ⎧ Qx1 = 1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ . . . k31 and k 41 .⎥ ⎪ Q y1 = 0 ⎪ ⎥⋅⎨ ⎬ . . ( ( ) ) Fig.

Fig. and acted upon by forces 6F and 9F. each column represents an equilibrium set of nodal forces produced by a unit displacement of one nodal degree of freedom. 3. firmly located in 1.3. 3.6.5. The global displacements and nodal forces are shown in Fig. It is simply supported in 2 and 3. A node whose global index is i has associated with it the global displacements and forces (2 i − 1) and 2 i .3 Link’s truss In order to illustrate the assembly of the global stiffness matrix from the elemental stiffness matrices. In the element stiffness matrix.1. The same applies for the other columns. 2.5 The truss comprises 3 elements and 3 nodes. a b . Fig. already analyzed in Chapter 2. 3. consider Link’s truss [74] shown in Fig. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 25 so that the first column sums to zero. 3.

1 Member Nodes θe 0 cosθ e 1 2 2 2 2 sinθ e 0 2 2 2 2 c2 1 s2 0 1 2 1 2 cs 0 i 1 1 j 2 le EAe EAe le l 2 l 2 EA EA l EA l EA l 2 1 3 45 1 2 1 2 1 2 − 1 2 2 EA 2 3 2 3 135 − 2 l 2 2 EA 2 3. their localization within the structure.4 Direct method Using the data from Table 3.6 Element data are given in Table 3. K⎥ K⎥ ⎥ K⎥ ⎦ [K ] 1 ⎡ 1 ⎢ EA ⎢ 0 = l ⎢− 1 ⎢ ⎣ 0 0 − 1 0⎤ 1 0 0 0⎥ 2 ⎥ 0 1 0⎥ 3 ⎥ 0 0 0⎦ 4 T 1 2 5 6 [ ] ⎡ 1 1 − 1 − 1⎤ 1 ⎢ ⎥ E A ⎢ 1 1 − 1 − 1⎥ 2 T K2 = 1⎥ 5 l ⎢− 1 − 1 1 ⎢ ⎥ 1⎦ 6 ⎣− 1 − 1 1 ⎡• • K K • •⎤ ⎢• • K K • •⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢K K K K K K⎥ ⎢ ⎥.1 together with information useful for the computation. i. 3.e. Table 3. ⎢K K K K K K⎥ ⎢• • K K • •⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢• • K K • •⎥ ⎣ ⎦ .26 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Fig.1. the element stiffness matrices (3. Element numbering can be arbitrary.17) are calculates as 1 2 3 4 ⎡• • • • K ⎢• • • • K ⎢ ⎢• • • • K ⎢ ⎢• • • • K ⎢K K K K K ⎢ ⎢K K K K K ⎣ K⎤ K⎥ ⎥ K⎥ ⎥. The first three columns define the element connectivities.

element 2 is located in the truss between the left end node i = 1 and the right end node j = 3 (nodal labels i and j may be assigned arbitrarily). K • • • •⎥ K • • • •⎥ ⎥ K • • • •⎥ ⎦ [ ] At the top and on the right of the element stiffness matrices. The simple addition of different stiffness coefficients in a location is based on the fact that finite element equations are in fact nodal equilibrium equations. locating each coefficient of the element stiffness matrices into the appropriate place in the global 6 × 6 matrix (for this example). . An alternative algebraic explanation of the assembly of system stiffness matrices is presented in the following. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 27 and 3 4 5 6 ⎡ 1 − 1 − 1 1⎤ 3 ⎢ 1 − 1⎥ 4 T E A ⎢− 1 1 ⎥ K3 = 1 − 1⎥ 5 l ⎢− 1 1 ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 1 − 1 − 1 1⎦ 6 ⎡K ⎢K ⎢ ⎢K ⎢ ⎢K ⎢K ⎢ ⎢K ⎣ K K K K K⎤ K K K K K⎥ ⎥ K • • • •⎥ ⎥. the two displacement and force components (along X and Y) for node i = 1 are numbered 2 i − 1 = 1 and 2 i = 2 . Table 3.2 Node Element 1 2 3 2 Direction X Y X Y Local nodal coordinate 1 2 3 4 Global nodal coordinate 1 2 3 4 1 2 5 6 3 4 5 6 1 The assembly of the unreduced global stiffness matrix (3. so that if a node is common to several elements. This is referred to as the direct matrix method. the numbering of coordinates in the global stiffness matrix is shown.28) is done systematically. eventually adding it to the coefficients already accumulated at that location.3. For instance. according to Table 3. and those for the node j = 3 are numbered 2 j − 1 = 5 and 2 j = 6 .2. each member will contribute with a force component to maintain equilibrium under an arbitrary set of nodal displacements. as indicated by dots above. In the global matrix.

{ } ⎧Q3 ⎫ ⎡0 ⎪Q ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ 0 Q3 = ⎨ 4 ⎬ = ⎢ ⎪Q5 ⎪ ⎢0 ⎪Q6 ⎪ ⎢0 ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 [ ] [ Q ].28 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 3.23) applied to the three elements yields ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎡1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪Q ⎪ 0 = ⎨ 2⎬ = ⎢ ⎪Q3 ⎪ ⎢0 ⎪Q4 ⎪ ⎢0 ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ 0⎤ ⎪Q2 ⎪ 0⎥ ⎪Q3 ⎪ ~ ⎥⋅⎪ ⎪ = T1 ⎨ ⎬ 0⎥ ⎪Q4 ⎪ ⎥ 0⎦ ⎪Q5 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪Q6 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ {Q } 1 [ ] [Q ] . {Q } is the ~ displacement vector of the truss structure and [T ] is referred to as a e For the truss from Fig. can be expressed by equations of the form ~ (3. { } ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎡1 ⎪Q ⎪ ⎢0 ⎪ ⎪ 2 Q = ⎨ 2⎬ = ⎢ ⎪Q5 ⎪ ⎢0 ⎪Q6 ⎪ ⎢0 ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ 0⎤ ⎪Q2 ⎪ ⎥ ⎪Q ⎪ 0⎥ ⎪ 3 ⎪ ~ ⋅⎨ ⎬ = T 2 0⎥ ⎪Q4 ⎪ ⎥ 1⎦ ⎪Q5 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪Q6 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ 0⎤ ⎪Q2 ⎪ 0⎥ ⎪Q3 ⎪ ~ ⎥⋅⎪ ⎪ = T 3 ⎨ ⎬ 0⎥ ⎪Q4 ⎪ ⎥ 1⎦ ⎪Q5 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩Q6 ⎭ [ ] [ Q ]. . { } [ ] where e full connectivity or localization matrix. containing ones at the nodal displacements of element nodes and zeros elsewhere. 3. equation (3.23) Q e = T e { Q }. { Q } is the element displacement vector in global coordinates.5.5 Compatibility of nodal displacements The compatibility of nodal displacements at element level. with the nodal displacements at the whole truss structure level.

equation (3.23) into (3.24) has the size of the system matrix. 0 1 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0 1⎦ . a) Ue = 1 2 ~ ~ { Q }T [T e ] T [ K e ][T e ]{ Q } Ue = 1 2 or ~ { Q }T [ K e ]{ Q }.24) yields ⎡1 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 =⎢ ⎢0 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎣ 0 0 0⎤ 1 0 0⎥ ⎡ 1 ⎥ ⎥ EA ⎢ 0 0 1 0 ⎢ ⎥ 0 0 1⎥ l ⎢− 1 ⎢ 0 0 0⎥ ⎣ 0 ⎥ 0 0 0⎥ ⎦ ~ [K ] = [T~ ] [ K ][T~ ] 1 1 T 1 1 0 − 1 0 ⎤ ⎡1 0 0 0⎥ ⎢0 ⎥⋅⎢ 0 1 0⎥ ⎢0 ⎥ ⎢ 0 0 0⎦ ⎣0 0 0 0 0 0⎤ ⎥ 1 0 0 0 0⎥ . substituting (3. where the expanded element stiffness matrix ~ ~ ~ [ K ] = [T ] [ K ] [T ] e e T e e (3. 0 1 0 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0 1 0 0⎦ or ⎡ 1 ⎢ 0 ⎢ ~ 1 EA ⎢− 1 K = ⎢ l ⎢ 0 ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎣ ⎡1 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 =⎢ ⎢0 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎣ 0 − 1 0 0 0⎤ 0 0 0 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 1 0 0 0⎥ ⎥.6 Expanded element stiffness matrix The element strain energy in global coordinates can be written in terms of the global displacement vector. For the truss from Fig. 3.3. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 29 3.5. 0 0 0 0 0⎥ 0 0 0 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0 0 0 0⎥ ⎦ 0 0 0⎤ 1 0 0⎥ 1 − 1 − 1⎤ ⎡1 0 0 ⎡ 1 ⎥ ⎢ 1 0 0 0⎥ EA ⎢ 1 − 1 − 1⎥ ⎢0 1 0 ⎥⋅⎢ ⎥ 0 0 0⎥ l ⎢ − 1 − 1 1 1 ⎥ ⎢0 0 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ 0 1 0⎥ 1 ⎦ ⎣0 0 0 ⎣− 1 − 1 1 ⎥ 0 0 1⎥ ⎦ [ ] ~ [K ] = [T~ ] [K ][T~ ] 2 2 T 2 2 0 0 0⎤ 0 0 0⎥ ⎥.20.

26) Comparing (3. 0 0 0 1 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0 0 0 1⎦ or ~ [K ] 3 ⎡0 ⎢0 ⎢ EA ⎢0 = ⎢ l ⎢0 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎣ 3. 0 −1 1 1 − 1⎥ 0 −1 1 1 − 1⎥ ⎥ 0 1 −1 − 1 1⎥ ⎦ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0⎤ ⎥ 0 0 1 0 0⎥ . .27) The global stiffness matrix is equal to the sum of the expanded element stiffness matrices.26) we get ~ [ K ]= ∑[K e ] e . T e T e e e e e (3. 2 can be calculated by simply adding the element strain energies U= (3.30 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS or ~ [K ] 2 1 ⎡ 1 ⎢ 1 1 ⎢ 0 EA ⎢ 0 = ⎢ 0 l ⎢ 0 ⎢− 1 − 1 ⎢ ⎢− 1 − 1 ⎣ ⎡0 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢1 =⎢ ⎢0 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎣ 0 0 − 1 − 1⎤ 0 0 − 1 − 1⎥ ⎥ 0 0 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0 0 0⎥ 0 0 1 1⎥ ⎥ 0 0 1 1⎥ ⎦ and ~ [K ] = [T~ ] [ K ][T~ ] 3 3 T 3 3 0 0 0⎤ 0 0 0⎥ ⎡ 1 − 1 − 1 1 ⎤ ⎡0 ⎥ 0 0 0⎥ EA ⎢− 1 1 1 − 1⎥ ⎢0 ⎥⋅⎢ ⎢ ⎥ 1 0 0⎥ l ⎢− 1 1 1 − 1⎥ ⎢0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ 0 1 0⎥ ⎣ 1 − 1 − 1 1 ⎦ ⎣0 ⎥ 0 0 1⎥ ⎦ 0 0 0⎤ 0⎥ ⎥ 0 1 −1 − 1 1⎥ ⎥.25) and (3.7 Unreduced global stiffness matrix The strain energy for the complete truss structure 1 { Q }T [ K ]{ Q }.25) U= 1 1 ~ ~ ∑U = ∑ 2 { Q } [ K ]{ Q } = 2 { Q } ∑ [ K ] { Q }. (3.

Apart from external forces and support reactions. nodes are acted upon by forces equal and in opposite direction to those applied to elements. 3.7. It corresponds to the free-free system. Resolving nodal forces horizontally and vertically. this matrix is condensed using the boundary conditions. For a grounded system. The effect of elastic supports modelled as lumped springs can be accounted for by adding their stiffnesses along the main diagonal at the appropriate locations in the stiffness matrix. Equal forces are labelled only once for clarity. involving forces applied by elements to nodes. singular (for a plane truss. the deficiency is 3). ⎢ 0 − 1 1 1 − 1⎥ l ⎢ 0 ⎢− 1 − 1 − 1 1 2 0⎥ ⎥ ⎢ 2⎥ ⎢− 1 − 1 1 − 1 0 ⎦ ⎣ [ ] ~ ~ ~ [ K ] = [ K 1 ]+ [ K 2 ]+ [ K 3 ] (3. they are never used in practice. An exploded layout of the truss is shown in Fig. based on joint equilibrium equations.5. using for convenience the truss from Fig.28) The expanded element stiffness matrices have been used above only to show algebraically how to assemble a global stiffness matrix. 3.5. has positive elements along the main diagonal and each column (row) sums to zero.3. The joint equilibrium equations.1) used so far involved only forces applied by nodes to the elements. The expensive product (3. are used in the following. Note that element equilibrium equations (3.8 Joint force equilibrium equations The assembly of the global stiffness matrix has been based on strain energy considerations. 3.27) yields ⎡ 2 1 − 1 0 − 1 − 1⎤ ⎢ 1 1 0 0 − 1 − 1⎥ ⎥ ⎢ 2 − 1 − 1 1⎥ EA ⎢− 1 0 = ⎥. 3. An alternative presentation is given below. we obtain 6 equilibrium equations . The global stiffness assembly is a simple book-keeping exercise and is done by directly placing the nonzero coefficients of element stiffness matrices in the right locations of the global stiffness matrix based on element connectivity. equation (3. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 31 The unreduced stiffness matrix K is symmetric.24) is never formed. For the truss from Fig.

3. Fig. e (3. 1 1 3 F4 = Fy 2 + Fy1 . 1 1 F3 = Fx 2 + Fx3 .29) . 1 1 F2 = Fy1 + Fy2 .32 1 F1 = Fx1 + Fx2 . FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS F5 = Fx22 + Fx32 . 3 F6 = Fy22 + Fy 2 .7 In matrix form 1 ⎧ Fx1 ⎫ ⎪ 1 ⎪ ⎪ Fy1 ⎪ ⎪ 1 ⎪ ⎪ Fx 2 ⎪ 1 ⎪ Fy 2 ⎪ ⎪−−− ⎪ 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0⎤ ⎪ ⎪ 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 ⎥ ⎪ Fx2 ⎪ 1 ⎥ 2 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 ⎥ ⎪ Fy1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎥⋅⎨ 2 ⎬ 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 ⎥ ⎪ Fx 2 ⎪ 2 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 ⎥ ⎪ Fy 2 ⎪ ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 ⎥ ⎪−−− ⎪ ⎦ 14 244 14 244 4 3 4 3 F3 ⎪ x1 ⎪ ~2 T ~3 T T T ⎪F3 ⎪ ⎪ y1 ⎪ 3 ⎪ Fx 2 ⎪ ⎪ 3 ⎪ ⎪ Fy 2 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎧ F1 ⎫ ⎡ 1 0 0 0 ⎪F ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ 2⎪ ⎢ 0 1 0 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ F3 ⎪ ⎢ 0 0 1 0 ⎨ ⎬=⎢ ⎪ F4 ⎪ ⎢ 0 0 0 1 ⎪ F5 ⎪ ⎢ 0 0 0 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ F6 ⎪ ⎢ 0 0 0 0 ⎣ 4 ⎩ ⎭ 14 244 3 [ T~ ] 1 T [ ] [ ] whose partitioned form can be written in scalar product form as ~ ~ ~ { F } = [ T 1 ] T {F 1 }+ [ T 2 ] T {F 2 }+ [ T 3 ] T {F 3 } or generally ~ { F } = ∑ [ T e ] T {F e }.

3.15) and (3. [ ] 3. Most often the support nodal displacements are zero. b j and b0 are known constants. Q1 = a1 . Another type are the multipoint constraints.32) .27). where bi . [ 2 ][ T 3 T e T e e (3.24) and (3.31) are of the form ⎡ K11 K12 L K1N ⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎧ F1 ⎫ ⎢K ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 21 K 22 L K 2 N ⎥ ⋅ ⎪ Q2 ⎪ = ⎪ F2 ⎪ . A general type of boundary conditions include specified displacements of the support nodes. equation (3. ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬ ⎢L L L L ⎥ ⎪ L ⎪ ⎪L⎪ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ K N 1 K N 2 L K NN ⎦ ⎪QN ⎪ ⎪ FN ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ Consider a single boundary condition. encountered in inclined roller supports and rigid connections. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 33 Substituting (3. using equations (3. the finite element equations in the remaining N − 1 unknowns are ⎡ K 22 ⎢K ⎢ 32 ⎢ L ⎢ ⎣K N 2 K 23 K 33 L KN3 L K 2 N ⎤ ⎧ Q2 ⎫ ⎧ F2 − K 21 a1 ⎫ L K 3 N ⎥ ⎪ Q3 ⎪ ⎪ F3 − K 31 a1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎥⋅⎪ ⎪ = ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬.9 Reduced global stiffness matrix The global truss should be supported adequately and there should be no internal mechanism. of the type bi Qi + b j Q j = b0 . Boundary conditions eliminate the possibility of the structure to move as a rigid body. As Q1 is known. of the type Qi = ai ( i = 1 to ns ). Qi = 0 . the finite element equations (3. where ns is the number of supports. For an N-degree-of-freedom structure.29) becomes ~ { F } = ∑ [ T e ] T [ K e ]{Q e }= ∑ e e ~ [1~4]44K 444] {Q }.30) then.31) The unreduced global stiffness matrix K relates the unreduced vector of nodal forces { F } to the unreduced vector of nodal displacements { Q }.23). it can be written ~ { F } = ∑ [ K e ] {Q } = [ K ] {Q } . e (3. L L ⎥ ⎪L⎪ ⎪ L ⎪ ⎥ L K NN ⎦ ⎪QN ⎪ ⎪ FN − K N 1 a1 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ (3.

35) The first two equations can be written EA ⎡2 1 ⎤ ⎡Q3 ⎤ ⎧6 F ⎫ ⋅⎢ ⎥ = ⎨ ⎬ l ⎢1 2⎥ ⎣Q6 ⎦ ⎩9 F ⎭ ⎣ ⎦ . after substitution of the boundary conditions Q1 = Q2 = Q4 = Q5 = 0 and the values of the applied forces F3 = 6 F and F6 = 9 F . (3. the following set of linear equations is obtained 1 −1 0 − 1 − 1⎤ ⎡ 0 ⎤ ⎡ F1 ⎤ ⎡ 2 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 1 1 0 0 − 1 − 1⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ F2 ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ 0 2 −1 −1 1 ⎥ ⎢Q3 ⎥ ⎢6 F ⎥ EA ⎢ − 1 ⎢ ⎥ ⋅⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ ⎥ . The final equations (3. Having assembled the unreduced global stiffness matrix. It is instructive now to consider the truss from Fig.5. the nodal forces are unknown. and where the forces are specified.33) can be solved for the displacement vector { Q } using Gauss elimination.32) may be written in condensed form [ K ] { Q } = { F }. The matrix [ K ] is not singular. respectively.34) can be rearranged as follows ⎡ 2 1 ⎢ 2 ⎢ 1 ⎢ EA ⎢− 1 − 1 l ⎢ 0 −1 ⎢ ⎢− 1 − 1 ⎢ ⎣− 1 0 0 − 1 − 1 ⎤ ⎡Q3 ⎤ ⎡6 F ⎤ ⎥ − 1 − 1 − 1 0 ⎥ ⎢Q6 ⎥ ⎢9 F ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ 2 1 0 − 1⎥ ⋅ ⎢ 0 ⎥ = ⎢ F1 ⎥ .34) It can be seen that where the displacements are specified. 0 −1 1 1 − 1⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ F4 ⎥ l ⎢ 0 ⎢− 1 − 1 − 1 1 2 0⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ F5 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 0 2⎥ ⎢Q6 ⎥ ⎢9 F ⎥ ⎢− 1 − 1 1 − 1 ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ (3.33) where [K ] is a reduced stiffness matrix. For a truss supported on many supports. Equations (3. the reduced global stiffness matrix is obtained deleting as many rows and columns as the number of specified displacements. Equation (3. obtained by eliminating the row and column corresponding to the specified or “support” degrees of freedom. { Q } and { F } are the reduced vectors of global displacements and forces.34 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The ( N − 1 ) × (N − 1) stiffness matrix above is obtained simply by deleting or eliminating the first row and column from the original ( N × N ) stiffness matrix. 3. ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 1 1 0 − 1⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ F2 ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 0 0 1 1⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ F4 ⎥ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ −1 −1 1 2⎦ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ F5 ⎥ −1 (3. the nodal displacements are unknown.

for non-zero boundary conditions. 3. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 35 and solved to give Fl Fl Q6 = 4 . 3.39) For the truss from Fig.40) which can be computed when all displacements have been determined. = ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬ l ⎢ − 1 − 1⎥ ⎩Q6 ⎭ ⎪ − 5 F ⎪ ⎪ F4 ⎪ ⎥ ⎢ ⎪ F5 ⎪ ⎪−F ⎪ ⎣− 1 0 ⎦ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ The elongation of an element (2.5. T { Fa } is the vector of known forces.10 Reactions and internal forces (3. (3. [ K bb ]⎥ ⎨ { Qb }⎬ ⎨ { Fb }⎬ ⎦ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ (3. EA EA In general. so that ⎧ F1 ⎫ ⎧− 5F ⎫ ⎡ − 1 − 1⎤ ⎪F ⎪ ⎢ 0 − 1⎥ Q ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 2 ⎪ EA ⎢ ⎥ ⋅ ⎧ 3 ⎫ = ⎪− 4 F ⎪ .3.37) then multiplied to the left by [ K aa ] −1 to yield the unknown displacements The unknown forces.36) is the vector of known where displacements and [ K ba ] = [ K ab ] . { Qa } = [ K aa ] −1 ( { Fa } − [ K ab ] { Qb } ) . which in this case are the external reactions. equations (3.5) is Δl e = q2 − q1 = ( Qx 2 − Qx1 ) cosθ e + ( Q y 2 − Q y1 ) sinθ e (3. { Qb } The first set of equations can be written { Fa } = [ K aa ] { Qa }+ [ K ab ] { Qb } . are given by { Fb } = [ K ab ] T { Qa }+ [ K bb ] { Qb } . the support displacements are zero.38) (3. The axial force in a truss element is . .33) can be written in partitioned form Q3 = ⎡ [ K aa ] ⎢[K ] ⎣ ba [ K ab ]⎤ ⎧ { Qa }⎫ ⎧ { Fa }⎫ ⋅ = .

C. Q3 ⎪ l l ⎪ ⎪ Q4 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎪Q ⎪ 2 EA 2 ⎪ 2⎪ T2 = b − 1 − 1 1 1c ⎨ ⎬= l 2 ⎪ Q5 ⎪ ⎪ Q6 ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ ⎧ Q3 ⎫ ⎪Q ⎪ 2 EA 2 ⎪ 4⎪ T3 = b1 1 − 1 1 c ⎨ ⎬= l 2 ⎪ Q5 ⎪ ⎪ Q6 ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ (3. l Stresses can be determined dividing these forces by the element crosssection areas. This produces thermal strains ε T = −α T .11 Thermal loads and stresses Thermal stresses are calculated using the “restraining method” suggested by J.36 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎧ Qx1 ⎫ ⎪Q ⎪ E A E A ⎪ y1 ⎪ Te = e e Δl e = e e b − c − s c s c ⎨ ⎬ . le le ⎪Q x 2 ⎪ ⎪Q y 2 ⎪ ⎭e ⎩ For the truss from Fig.42) . M. 3. The restrained state is equivalent to a pre-stressing with compressive stresses σ T = −α ET . (3. where A is the cross-section area. Accordingly.5. Restraining produces a compressive axial force α EAT in the element. Duhamel (1838).41) 2 EA Q6 = 4 2 F . where E is Young’s modulus. where α is the coefficient of thermal expansion and T is the amount of uniform heating (temperature difference). the member forces are ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎪Q ⎪ EA ⎪ ⎪ EA T1 = b−1 0 1 0c ⎨ 2 ⎬ = Q3 = F . Suppose the node displacements are completely restrained (blocked). l 2 EA ( Q3 + Q6 ) = 5 2 F . 3. the element acts upon its nodes with equal and opposite forces { FT } = α EAT b − c − s c s cT .

a) These forces should be included in the vector of nodal forces (added to the external forces. ⎜ l ⎟ ⎝ e ⎠ i. Even so. After determining the displacements produced by these forces. This is obvious for one-directional structures and can be achieved by rational node numbering in other structures. { fT } = α EAT b − 1 1cT .43) σ e = Ee ⎜ e − α T ⎟ . The half-bandwidth is denoted B. (3. there are many zero elements in the upper triangle.3. It is as if unrestraining forces are applied at the ends of the element to free it from the initial restraining. only the diagonal elements and those from one side of the main diagonal are retained. the initial stresses produced by restraining. . Consider the 12 × 12 unreduced global stiffness matrix of the truss from Fig. in local coordinates. ×⎥ ⎥ ×⎥ ⎥ ×⎥ ×⎥ ⎥ ×⎥ ×⎥ ⎦ [ ] ⎡× × × × ⎢ × × × ⎢ ⎢ × × ⎢ × ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ K =⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢s y m m ⎣ × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × e t r i c (3. They are also banded.42.8. with nonzero elements in the upper triangle identified by the symbol X ← B → × × × × × × × × × × × × 0 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥. adding to the stresses produced by the thermal (and external) loads. the element elongations are determined from (3. a.12 Node numbering Stiffness matrices are symmetric and sparse. i. 3. with the nonzero elements clustered in a band along the main diagonal.37) and the stresses are calculated as ⎛ Δl ⎞ (3.44) Because of symmetry. 3. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 37 or. due to the sparseness.e.e. if the case).

3. then progressing along the longer dimension. the mth diagonal of the original matrix is stored as the mth column. for the numbering from Fig. The number of columns in the banded-form storage is equal to B .44). B = 6 . a .8. i. a small bandwidth can be obtained by numbering nodes along the shorter dimension of a structure. The efficiency of band-storage increases with the order of the matrix. the information in the above matrix can be compactly stored in the 12× 6 matrix below 1 2 ↓ ↓ ⎡× ⎢ ⎢× ⎢× ⎢ ⎢× ⎢× ⎢ ⎢× =⎢ × ⎢ ⎢× ⎢ ⎢× ⎢× ⎢ ⎢× ⎢× ⎣ × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × B ↓ ×⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ×⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ×⎥ ⎥.8 b For plane trusses. 3. equal to the size of the original matrix.38 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Since only nonzero elements need to be stored. B = 12 .the half-bandwidth of the original matrix. 3. However.e. a Fig. For the numbering scheme of Fig. . The second column contains the elements from the second diagonal.8. ⎥ ×⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ [ Kb ] The first column contains the diagonal elements of the full matrix (3. B is equal to 2 plus twice the maximum node number difference in an element. As a general rule. In general. b.

⎨ ⎬ ⎪12 ⎪ ⎪13 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪17 ⎪ ⎪22⎪ ⎩ ⎭ . Gaussian elimination algorithms are used for symmetric banded matrices which enable also the reduction of computer time. In this case. Apart from storage savings. the columns of the matrix upper triangle are stored serially and concatenated in a column vector { K s } .3. For large sparse stiffness matrices. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 39 The half-bandwidth is automatically determined within the finite element program from the node numbering. The line separating the top zeroes from the first nonzero element is called the skyline. If there are zeros at the top of a column. only the elements between the diagonal term and the first nonzero term need be stored. efficient reduction of both storage and computing time can be achieved using the skyline storage and a skyline equation solver. Consider the following matrix Column height → 1 2 2 0 k 23 k33 4 k14 k 24 k34 k 44 3 0 0 k35 0 k55 1 0 0 0 0 0 k 66 4 0 0 0 k 47 0 k67 k77 5 0 ⎤ ⎥ 0 ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ k 48 ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ k 78 ⎥ ⎥ k88 ⎥ ⎦ ⎡k11 k12 ⎢ k 22 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ Skyline The active columns are stored in the column vector { K s } and a diagonal pointer vector { ID } is built up with the indices of diagonal elements in { K s } ⎧ k11 ⎫ ⎪ k ⎪←1 ⎪ 12 ⎪ ⎪ k22 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪←3 ⎪ k23 ⎪ ⎪ k33 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪←5 ⎪ k14 ⎪ {Ks } = ⎨ ⎬ ⎪ k24 ⎪ ⎪ k34 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ k44 ⎪ ⎪ L ⎪←9 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪L⎪ ⎪k ⎪ ⎩ 88 ⎭ ⎧1⎫ ⎪3⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪5⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 9 { ID } = ⎪ ⎪ .

A generic flow chart of the Matrix Displacement Method is given in the following.40 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The height of the jth column is given by ID ( j ) − ID ( j − 1) . For the solution of the finite element equations. Matrix Displacement Method Input Data Geometric data of truss (Nodal coordinates) Material properties + Cross-section area of members Connectivity table of elements Boundary conditions ↓ 1 Element stiffness matrix in local coordinates Transformation to global coordinates ↓ 2 Assembly of the global stiffness matrix ↓ 3 Introduction of boundary conditions ↓ 4 Solving the linear set of equations ↓ 5 Back-calculation External reactions Member forces (and stresses) 6 . Gaussian elimination can be applied using a skyline solver program.

6 4.1. a Answer. a) The finite element model consists of 8 nodes and 13 elements.16 -10. we obtain the following: Nodal data Node nr 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Restr X 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Restr Y 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Coord X 0 4 4 8 8 12 12 16 Coord Y 0 0 3 0 6 0 3 0 Displ X 0 64 208.8 -343.6 176 62. E = 1 and F = 1 . 6 4.9 224 Displ Y 0 -361. For the truss in Fig.7 0 Element data Element nr 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Nodes 1. 5 Axial stress 16 -10 0 16 -9. 3 2.7 -339. and c) the support reactions. Taking l = 1 . Plot the deformed shape.1 -361. Fig. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 41 Exercises E3.3. 8 7.83 0 12 -15 . E3. E3.1 -391. determine: a) the maximum nodal displacement and its location b) the maximum stress and its location. 2 1. 4 3. 7 5. a.1.1.83 8 Element nr 8 9 10 11 12 13 Nodes 4. A = 1 . 7 6.16 -10.3 128 127. 7 6. 8 Axial stress 12 -4. 4 3.7 -339. 3 2.

b. The deformed shape is presented in Fig. E3. c) The support reactions are R1 = − R3 = 5. Plot the deformed shape. E3. R2 = 6 . E3. Consider the pin-jointed framework shown in Fig.2. and R3 = 9 . The deformed shape is shown in Fig. Determine: a) the maximum nodal displacement. a.1.1. and c) the support reactions.2.4 F . a Answer.2. b) the maximum stress. The finite element model consists of 7 nodes and 11 elements. b) The axial stress in The vertical displacement of point 7 is v7 = −219. b. a) Fl . and R2 = 6 F . b E3.2.42 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The support reactions are R1 = −8 . . E3. E3.787 EA element 7 is N 7 = −6 F A . Fig. Fig.

3. Fig. b. . b) The axial stress in The vertical displacement of point 3 is v3 = −137. b E3.6 F . Plot the deformed shape. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 43 Fig. a) Fl . c) The support reactions are R1 = 0 . The finite element model consists of 6 nodes and 9 elements.83 EA element 1 is N1 = −7. Determine the location and the value of: a) the maximum nodal displacement.3. E3.3.4 F and R3 = 2. Calculate c) the support reactions. a.3. E3.2. Consider the truss shown in Fig.25 F A . a Answer. b) the maximum stress. The deformed shape is presented in Fig.3. E3. R2 = 3. E3.

we obtain the following: Nodal data Node nr 1 2 3 4 Restr X 1 1 0 0 Restr Y 1 1 0 0 Coord X 0 0 1 2 Coord Y 0 1 0 1 Displ X 0 0 -1.6705 Displ Y 0 0 -3.4.3. E = 1 and F = 1 . Plot the deformed shape. a. Fig.3294 2. Taking l = 1 . E3. and c) the support reactions.2095 -9.44 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Fig. b E3. a Answer.4. E3. Consider the truss shown in Fig. The finite element model consists of 4 nodes and 5 elements.4. E3. b) the maximum stress. Determine: a) the maximum nodal displacement. A = 1 .0896 .

E3. Fig. E3.335F and R4 = 0.5.335 .5. 4 Axial stress .4. b) The axial stress in element 4 is N 4 = 1.3.940 1. a .1. R2 = 0. 3 2. c) The support reactions are R1 = − R3 = 2 F . 4 1. 4 1.940 . b.0.329 0. a where point 6 is displaced v6 = −5 . E3.4.335 F A .665F . b E3. Consider the pin-jointed framework shown in Fig.09 F l E A . Determine the location and the value of: a) the maximum nodal displacement.5. The deformed shape is presented in Fig. Fig. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 45 Element data Element nr 1 2 3 4 5 Nodes 3. b) the maximum stress.0. Plot the deformed shape. 3 2.749 a) The vertical displacement of point 4 is v4 = −9. E3.

and the axial stress in element 15 is N15 = 0. The finite element model consists of 14 nodes and 25 elements. b . Taking l = 1 .5. E3. the vertical displacements of points 7 and 8 are v7 = v8 = −4.366 . E3.46 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Answer. b.538 . The deformed shape is presented in Fig. A = 1 and E = 1 . Fig.5.

4. The dimensions of p are force/length. This approximation becomes increasingly accurate as more elements are considered in the model. Their longitudinal dimension is much larger than the transverse dimensions. This implies replacement of the distributed loads by equivalent forces applied to nodes. The displacement at x + d x will be u + du . the corresponding element stiffness matrix and load vectors will be derived. chains and ropes. 4. It is shown that their use is tantamount to adding internal nodes. The displacement within the element is expressed in terms of the nodal displacements using shape functions. 4. .1 Plane bar elements Bars are structural elements used to model truss elements. it is common practice to use linear shape functions and two-node elements without loads between ends. However. They are modeled by elements having one-degree-of-freedom per node.1. there are axial displacements u = u (x ) due to axial loads p(x ) . For a bar without loads between ends the linear interpolation is exact. In this section. having one degree of freedom per node. Bars are loaded only by axial forces. Displacements must be continuous across the element boundary.1 Differential equation of equilibrium In a thin uniform rod of cross-section area A and Young’s modulus E. For bars with distributed loads. The compatibility of adjacent elements requires only C 0 continuity. cables. true displacements are described by higher order polynomials. BARS AND SHAFTS This chapter deals with simple one-dimensional structural elements. These kinematically equivalent forces are determined using the appropriate shape functions from the condition to perform the same mechanical work as the actual loading. The unknown displacement field within an element is usually interpolated by a linear distribution.

(4. . EA d2 u = − p (x ) . a).2.2 Coordinates and shape functions Consider a two-node pin-jointed element in the own or local coordinate system. N = Aσ x = E A dN + p (x ) = 0 .5) so that r = −1 at node 1 and r = +1 at node 2 (Fig.4) 4.2) Fig. d x2 (4.1 The internal axial force N is du . The normal stresses result from Hooke’s law (4.1) σ x = E du d x . 4. b).1) is d N + p d x = 0 . (4. dx or. 4. their coordinates in the physical (Cartesian) reference system being x 1 and x 2 respectively (Fig. 4. We define a natural or intrinsic reference system which permits the specification of a point within the element by a dimensionless number r= x + x2 ⎞ 2 ⎛ ⎜x− 1 ⎟ x 2 − x1 ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (4.1.2.48 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The axial strain is given by the strain-displacement relation ε x = du d x .3) dx The equation of equilibrium of an infinitesimal element of length dx of the rod (Fig.3). using (4. 4. Nodes are conveniently numbered 1 and 2.

7) 2 2 can be considered as geometric interpolation functions. a. BARS AND SHAFTS 49 Fig. so that the displacement field within the element may be expressed as a linear polynomial . .1. p = 0 . 4.2 Expressing the physical coordinate in terms of the natural coordinate yields x = N1 (r ) x 1 + N 2 (r ) x 2 . d u d x = const . They have a unit value at the node of the same index and zero at the other node. 4.4. where N1 (r ) = (4. 4.b. Fig. d 2u d x 2 = 0 .6) 1 ( 1 − r ) and N 2 (r ) = 1 ( 1 + r ) (4. The graphs of these functions are shown in Figs.3 4.3.3 Bar not loaded between ends For a prismatic bar not loaded between ends.

but the integration constants. ⎣N ⎦ In (4. x2 − x1 x2 − x1 1− r 1+ r q1 + q2 .10) is more complicated. With q1 = a + b x1 at node 1 and q2 = a + b x2 at node 2.8) becomes u= q2 − q1 q x − q2 x1 x+ 1 2 . using (4. 2 2 (4. q 1 and q 2 . but the integration constants. are the nodal displacements. (4. the displacement at any point within an element can be found by multiplying the matrix of shape functions by the vector of nodal displacements.9) Equation (4.6) is simpler. x2 − x1 x2 − x1 x − x1 − x + x2 q1 + q2 . a and b. equation (4.9) can also be written u= or.12) Thus. The nodal expansion (4. In matrix form u= where ∑ N q = ⎣N ⎦ { q }.8) The two integration constants above may be determined from the nodal displacements and the geometry of the element.5).11).50 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS u (x ) = a + b x .11) ⎣N ⎦ = ⎣N1 N 2 ⎦ and {q }= { q e 1 q2 }T . e i i i =1 2 (4. where N1 (r ) = element. q e is the column vector of element nodal displacements and is the row vector of displacement interpolation functions also named shape { } .10) 1 ( 1 − r ) and N 2 (r ) = 1 ( 1 + r ) are the shape functions of the 2 2 The polynomial form (4. (4. have no simple physical meaning. (4. u= The displacement of an arbitrary point within the element can be expressed in terms of the nodal displacements q 1 and q 2 as u = N1 (r ) q1 + N 2 (r ) q2 .

3. 2 (4.16) we obtain Ue = 1 2 { q } ∫ ⎣B ⎦ e T Ve T Ee ⎣B ⎦ dV { q }.17) 144 2444 4 3 The above equation is of the form Ue = 1 2 { q } [ k ] { q }.14) is the row vector of the derivatives of shape functions. BARS AND SHAFTS 51 functions. The transformation from x to r in equation (4. 4. 4. c). Equations (4. which is referred to as the isoparametric formulation.10) show that both the element geometry and the displacement field are interpolated using the same shape functions.13) in (4.1.4. and that u varies linearly (Fig.5) yields dx = x 2 − x1 2 dr = le dr .6) and (4. The element strain energy U e is Ue = 1 2 ∫σ e x εx dV = 1 2 ∫E ε e e 2 x dV . e (4.16) Substituting (4.15) where − 1 ≤ r ≤ +1 and the length of the element is l e = x 2 − x 1 .4 Element stiffness matrix in local coordinates Strains can be expressed in terms of the shape functions as εx = where du d e e = ⎣N ⎦ q = ⎣B ⎦ q dx dx { } { } (4. (4. generally called the element strain-displacement matrix. It gives the strain at any point due to unit nodal displacement.13) ⎣B ⎦ = d x ⎣N ⎦ d (4.18) where the element stiffness matrix k e is given by [ ] . e T e e (4. It is easy to check that u = q 1 at node 1 and u = q 2 at node 2.

. have to be determined from three boundary conditions. (4. b and c.5 Bar loaded between ends For a prismatic bar acted upon by a uniformly distributed axial load. . we can write dx dr d x l e dr [ ke ] = 2 Ee Ae le Substituting +1 −1 ∫ ⎢dN ⎥ ⎢dN ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ dr . a. p = const.21) d N2 1 d N1 1 = − and = + . d 2u d x 2 = const . equation (4.20) Because dN dN d r 2 dN = = . An internal node is added at the midpoint to comply with the requirement of a quadratic fit (Fig. .4. 4. This can be done if we use a three-node onedimensional element.23) The three integration constants. In terms of the shape functions [ ] e Ve [k ]= E A ∫ e e le ⎢dN ⎥ ⎢dN ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ dx .1. so that the displacement field within the element may be expressed as a quadratic polynomial u (x ) = a + b x + c x 2 .22) which is the same as equation (3.19) This form guarantees that k e will be a symmetric matrix.6).52 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS [ k ] = ∫ ⎣B⎦ e T Ee ⎣B ⎦ dV . a). ⎣ dx ⎦ ⎣ dx ⎦ T (4. 1⎥ ⎦ ⎧− 1 2 ⎫ ⎢ 1 1⎥ dr 2⎥ ⎦ or [ k ] = El A ⎡⎢−11 e e e e ⎣ (4. 4.21) yields dr 2 dr 2 [k ] e 2E A = e e le +1 −1 ∫ ⎨ 1 2 ⎬ ⎢⎣− 2 ⎩ ⎭ − 1⎤ . (4. ⎣ dr ⎦ ⎣ dr ⎦ T (4.

4. BARS AND SHAFTS

53

For a linearly distributed axial load (as in a bar rotating at constant angular speed around an end, acted upon by a distributed centrifugal load proportional to the distance to the rotation centre), the true displacement field is given by a cubic polynomial, involving four integration constants (see Example 4.8). For an exact solution, this implies using a four-node element (adding two internal nodes). The usual practice is to assume an approximate lower order linear displacement field, i.e. a two-node element and to replace the actual linearly distributed load by equivalent nodal forces, having thus an element not loaded between ends describable by linear shape functions.

Fig. 4.4 Consider the three-node quadratic element from Fig. 4.4, a, with node 3 at the midpoint. Nodal coordinates are x1 , x2 , x3 , and the vector of element nodal displacements is q e = { q1 q2 q3 }T . The x-coordinate system is mapped onto an intrinsic r-coordinate system, given by the transformation
T

{ }

2 ( x − x3 ) . x2 − x1 It comes out that r = −1 , 0, and + 1 at nodes 1, 3, and 2 (Fig. 4.4, b). r=

(4.24)

The displacements within the element can be written in terms of the three nodal displacements q 1 , q2 , and q 3 as

u = N1 (r ) q 1 + N 2 (r ) q 2 + N 3 (r ) q 3 ,
where the quadratic shape functions N i N1 (r ) = −

(4.25)

( i = 1, 2, 3 ) are
(4.26)

1 1 r ( 1 − r ) , N 2 (r ) = r ( 1 + r ) , 2 2 N 3 (r ) = ( 1 + r )( 1 − r ) .

The graphs of the shape functions (4.26) are shown in Fig. 4.5. They have a unit value at the node with the same index and zero at the other nodes. This is a general property of the shape functions.

54

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

The expressions for these shape functions can be written down by inspection. For example, since N1 = 0 at r = 0 and r = 1 , we know that N1 has to contain the product r ( 1 − r ) , i. e. the left hand part of the equations of the vertical lines passing through nodes 3 and 2. That is, N1 is of the form N1 = C r ( 1 − r ) . The constant C is obtained from the condition N1 = 1 at r = −1 , which yields C = −1 2 , resulting in the expression given in (4.26).

Fig. 4.5 The displacement field within the element is written in matrix form as u= where

∑ N q = ⎣N ⎦ { q } ,
e i i i =1

3

(4.27)

⎣N ⎦ = ⎣N1 N 2 N3 ⎦ and

{ q }= { q
e

1

q2

q3

}T .

(4.28)

At any point within an element the axial displacement can be found by multiplying the matrix of shape functions by the vector of nodal displacements, as in (4.27). It is easy to check that u = q 1 at node 1, because N1 = 1 and

N 2 = N3 = 0 . Similarly, u = q 2 at node 2, and u = q 3 at node 3. Thus, u is a
quadratic polynomial passing through q1 , q2 , and q3 (Fig. 4.6). It is obtained by interpolation, using quadratic shape functions.

4. BARS AND SHAFTS

55

The element strain-displacement row vector ⎣B ⎦ in (4.14) is given by
⎢ ⎣B ⎦ = d x ⎣N ⎦ = d r ⎣N ⎦ d x = l ⎢− 2 e ⎣ d d dr 2 1− 2r 1+ 2r 2 ⎥ − 2 r⎥ . ⎦

(4.29)

Fig. 4.6 The element stiffness matrix (4.19) is

[k ]
e

+1

Al = e e 2

∫⎣⎦
B
−1

T

Ee ⎣B ⎦ d r

or, substituting (4.29),

[k ]
e

1 − 8⎤ ⎡7 Ee Ae ⎢ = 7 − 8⎥ . ⎥ ⎢1 3l e ⎢− 8 − 8 16 ⎥ ⎦ ⎣

(4.30)

4.1.6 Vector of element nodal forces
Consider an axial load p (x ) , having the units of force per unit length, distributed along the bar element. The mechanical work of such a force is
W=

le

∫ u p dx = ∫ u
le

T

p dx .

(4.31)

Substituting (4.11), equation (4.31) becomes
W = qe It has the form

{ } ∫ ⎣N ⎦
T le

T

p dx .

(4.32)

56
W = qe

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

{ } {f }
T e

(4.33)
+1

where the element equivalent load vector is

{ f }= ∫ ⎣N ⎦
e

T

p dx =

le

le 2

∫1 ⎣N ⎦ −

T

p dr .

(4.34)

For the linear two-node element, if the axial force is uniformly distributed, p = const . , then

{f }
e

+1

l = e p 2

T ⎣N ⎦ d r

(4.35)

−1

or, substituting (4.7),

{ f }= p2l
e

e

⎧ 1⎫ ⎨ ⎬. ⎩ 1⎭

(4.36)

A force

p le , equal to half the total force on the element, is applied at each node. 2

For the quadratic three-node element, if p = const. , substituting the shape functions (4.26) into (4.35), gives

{ f }= p l
e

e

T ⎣1 6 1 6 2 3 ⎦ .

(4.37)

4.1.7 Assembly of the global stiffness matrix and load vector
Assembly of the system stiffness matrix for one-dimensional structures modelled as bars is carried out as shown in sections 3.4 to 3.7 for trusses. Consider the five-node finite element model in Fig. 4.7, a. Each node has only one degree of freedom in the x-direction. The nodal displacements are Q1 , Q2 ,…, Q5 (Fig. 4.7, b). The global vector of nodal displacements is denoted by

{Q } = ⎣ Q1
{ F } = ⎣ F1

Q2

Q3

Q4

Q5 ⎦ T .

The nodal forces are F1 , F2 ,…, F5 . The global load vector is denoted by
F2 F3 F4 F5 ⎦ T .

The unreduced global stiffness matrix [ K ] proportionality factor between the two global vectors

plays the role of a

4. BARS AND SHAFTS

57

{ F } = [ K ] {Q }.

Fig. 4.7 The assembly of [ K ] from the element stiffness matrices can be explained by an energy approach. Consider the strain energy in, say, element 3. We have
U3 = 1 2

{ q } [k ] { q }
3 T 3 3

or U3 = EA ⎡ 1 − 1 ⎤ ⎧ Q3 ⎫ 1 ⎣ Q3 Q4 ⎦ l 3 ⎢ − 1 1⎥ ⎨ Q ⎬ . 2 ⎦ ⎩ 4⎭ 3 ⎣

We can write U 3 as

U3 =

1 ⎣ Q1 Q2 2

Q3 Q4

⎡0 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 Q5 ⎦ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎣

0 0

0 0 EA3 0 l3 EA 0 − 3 l3 0 0

0 0 EA − 3 l3 EA3 l3 0

0⎤ 0⎥ ⎥ ⎥ 0⎥ ⎥ 0⎥ ⎥ 0⎥ ⎦

⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩

Q1 ⎫ Q2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ Q3 ⎬ Q4 ⎪ ⎪ Q5 ⎪ ⎭

or
U3 = 1 2 ~ { Q }T [ K 3 ] { Q },

1⎥ 2 ⎦ 4 2 3 ⎣ [ k ] = ElA 2 2 2 ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ 2 ⎢ − 1 1⎥ 3 . ⎣ ⎦ 4 5 ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ 4 . Table 4. but the elements of the matrix k 3 occupy the third and [ ] The strain energy of the entire structure is equal to the sum of the element strain energies U= 1 1 ~ T ~ T ∑ U e = ∑ 2 { Q } [ K e ]{ Q } = 2 { Q } ∑ [ K e ] { Q } e e e so that. based on element connectivity. ⎢− 1 1⎥ 4 ⎣ ⎦ [ k ] = ElA 4 4 4 At the top and on the right of the element stiffness matrices.1 Element 1 2 3 4 Node i 1 2 3 4 j 2 3 4 5 . as in (3. Overlapping elements are simply added as already shown in section 3.58 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ~ where K 3 is the expanded stiffness matrix of element 3. The element matrices can be written This is a convenient algebraic explanation of the assembly process.4 for truss elements. ⎢− 1 1⎥ 5 ⎣ ⎦ 3 [ k ] = ElA 3 3 3 ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ 3 . The entries of the element matrices k e are placed in [ ] 1 1 [ k ] = ElA ⎡⎢− 1 1 1 1 2 − 1⎤ 1 . which is never done in practice.27). It has the size of the [ ] fourth rows and columns of the [ K ] matrix. the numbering of coordinates in the global stiffness matrix is shown. according to the connectivity Table 4.1. This is based on the simple addition of element strain energies. the global stiffness matrix is equal to the sum of the expanded element stiffness matrices ~ [ K ]= K e . global stiffness matrix. ∑[ e ] the appropriate locations of the global [ K ] matrix by the so-called direct method.

Stresses are then calculated from the axial forces obtained using equation (3. ⎥ A4 ⎥ − ⎥ l4 ⎥ A4 ⎥ l4 ⎥ ⎦ The global load vector is assembled as {F }= ⎣ − R1 F2 The final finite element equations are obtained. BARS AND SHAFTS 59 The result is the following unreduced global stiffness matrix ⎡ A1 ⎢ l ⎢ 1 ⎢− A1 ⎢ l1 ⎢ [ K ]= E ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎣ A1 l1 A1 A2 + l1 l 2 A − 2 l2 − 0 0 0 A2 l2 A2 A3 + l2 l3 A − 3 l3 − 0 0 0 A3 l3 A3 A4 + l3 l4 A − 4 l4 − 0 0 F5 ⎦ T . In fact. and the reduced load vector .1. as shown in section 3. this information is stored for the subsequent calculation of the reaction R 1 . It may arise from thermal action or by forcing members into place that are either too short or too long. The reduced (non-singular) stiffness matrix is obtained deleting the first row and column of the unreduced matrix.by deleting the first element.38) The mechanical work of external nodal forces applied to suppress the initial prestressing due to ε 0 is W= Ve ∫σε 0 dV = Ve ∫σ T ε 0 dV = ε 0 Ee Ae le ∫ε T dx . (4. (4. The stress-strain law in the presence of ε 0 is of the form σ = E ( ε − ε0 ) . the expression (4.8 Initial strain effects Let an initial strain ε 0 be induced in a bar element.5.13). ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥. using the boundary condition.41). 4.39) Substituting (4. Q 1 = 0 . due to fabrication errors.39) becomes .4.

where the element load vector due to initial straining is { f }= ε e 0 Ee Ae le ∫ ⎣B ⎦ T l dx = ε 0 Ee Ae e 2 T +1 −1 ∫ ⎣B⎦ +1 T dr (4. where I p = is the polar second GIp 32 moment of area of the shaft cross section.41) or { f }= ε e +1 0 Ee Ae −1 ∫ ⎢dN ⎥ le ⎢ ⎥ d r = ε 0 Ee Ae 2 ⎣ dr ⎦ ⎧ − 1⎫ Ae ⎨ ⎬ .60 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS W = qe { }ε T 0 Ee Ae le ∫ ⎣B⎦ T dx . from a material with shear modulus of elasticity G.42) After solving for nodal displacements. 4.44) where α is the coefficient of thermal expansion and T is the average change in temperature within the element. ε0 = αT . The nodal torques M 1 and M 2 can be related to the nodal rotation angles θ 1 and θ 2 using the equilibrium and the torque/rotation equations . (4. stresses are computed as σ e = Ee q2 − q1 + ( − Ee ε 0 ) . acted upon by a torque M t will twist an angle θ = πd4 Mt l . θ l A two-node shaft finite element. (4. The shaft torsional stiffness is then GIp M K= t = .33). is shown in Fig.40) It has the form (4.2 Plane shaft elements From Mechanics of Materials it is known that a uniform shaft of diameter d and length l . 4. ⎩ 1 ⎭ −1 ∫ ⎧− 1⎫ ⎨ ⎬ dr . of length l and torsional rigidity G I p .43) In the case of thermal loading. ⎩1⎭ hence { f }= ε e 0 Ee (4. le (4.8.

The differential equation for torsional displacement is Mt dθ . Similarity between these two derivations occurs because the differential equations for both problems have the same mathematical form. e e e where [ k ] = GlI e p ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎢− 1 1⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (4. (4. 4. BARS AND SHAFTS 61 M1 = − M 2 = K θ 1 when θ 2 = 0. θ 1 = 0.47) is the stiffness matrix of the shaft element.46) { M }= [ k ] { θ }.3) du N = .45) Equations (4.4. (4. (4.48) = dx GI p while for the axial displacement is (4.45) may be written in matrix form as ⎧ M1 ⎫ ⎡ K ⎨ ⎬=⎢ ⎩ M 2 ⎭ ⎣− K or in shorthand form − K⎤ ⎧ θ1 ⎫ ⎨ ⎬ K ⎥ ⎩θ 2 ⎭ ⎦ (4.50) . M 1 = − M 2 = − K θ 2 when (4. Fig.49) dx E A The rotation angle of an arbitrary section within the shaft element can be expressed in terms of the nodal rotations θ 1 and θ 2 as θ = N1 (r ) θ1 + N 2 (r ) θ 2 .8 The derivation of the shaft stiffness matrix is essentially identical to the derivation of the stiffness matrix for an axially loaded bar element.

2 m . l = 0. . loaded by an axial load F = 2 kN . as equation (4. E = 200 GPa . E4. Determine: a) the displacement of point 2. For non-axially-symmetric cross sections.1 with d = 5 mm .52) or [ ke ] = which yields e 2 Ge I p e le e pe +1 −1 ∫ ⎢dN ⎥ ⎢dN ⎥ ⎢ dr ⎥ ⎢ dr ⎥ dr ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ (4.62 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS where N1 (r ) = 1 ( 1 − r ) and N 2 (r ) = 1 ( 1 + r ) 2 2 (4.1 Solution. a) The bar is divided into three bar finite elements. Analogous to equation (4. b) the stresses in bar.20).53) [ k ] = G lI e ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎢− 1 1⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (4. and c) the support reactions. Example 4. Fig. the stiffness matrix for the shaft element can be calculated from [ k ] = G I ∫ ⎢⎢ ddN ⎥⎥ ⎣ x⎦ e e pe le T ⎢dN ⎥ ⎢ dx ⎥ dx ⎣ ⎦ T (4.1 Consider the bar in Fig.51) are the shape functions of the shaft element. E4.54) Equation (4.54) is also used to account for torsional effects in grid finite elements. the same as for the axially loaded bar element. the polar second moment of area I p is replaced by the torsional constant I t .22) is used to account for axial effects in inclined beam finite elements.

47 ⎡⎢− 1 1 2 3 5 ⎣ − 1⎤ = 38. 2 ⋅ 103 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ − R4 ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ Retaining only the second and third equation yields ⎡ 48.21 mm .94 ⎦ ⎩ Q3 ⎭ ⎩ 2 ⋅ 10 ⎭ with solutions Q2 = 34.47 0 ⎥ 3 ⎢ ⎥.47 + 38.81 ⋅ 103 ⋅ 34.81 ⋅ 103 1⎥ ⎦ ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ N .28 − 38.81 0 0 ⎤⎧ 0 ⎡ 9.21 = 1662 .47 38.47 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 0 − 38.47 38.2 N .47 − 38.81 Q2 = 9. ⎢− 1 1⎥ mm ⎣ ⎦ ⋅ 38 [ k ] = [ k ] = 2 ⋅10200 .47 ⎦ ⎪ 0 0 ⎩ ⎣ 0 ⎫ ⎧ − R1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬=⎨ ⎬.47 ⋅103 ⋅ 43.62 ⎡⎢− 1 1 1 5 ⎣ − 1⎤ = 9.47 76. Q3 = 43.42 = 337.47 ⎤ ⎧ Q2 ⎫ ⎧ 0 ⎫ 103 ⎢ ⎬=⎨ ⎥⎨ 3 ⎬ ⎣− 38. [ K ] = 10 ⎢ 0 − 38.62 mm 2 .47 76.47 ⎦ ⎣ 0 Including the boundary conditions (degrees of freedom 1 and 4 are fixed).47 mm 2 .4 d 4 )2 = 38. b) The reactions are obtained from the first and fourth equation R1 = 9.4.81 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ 9.28 − 38.94 − 38.81 48.47 − 38.47 ⋅ 103 1⎥ ⎦ The global unreduced stiffness matrix is − 9.47 ⎥ ⎪ Q3 ⎥ ⎢ − 38.81 9.81 + 38.81 ⎢− 9.47 Q3 = 38. the finite element equations can be written − 9. c) Stresses are . The element stiffness matrices are ⋅ 19 [ k ] = 2 ⋅10400 .47 0 ⎥ ⎪ Q2 ⎥⎪ 103 ⎢ ⎨ ⎢ 0 − 38. ⎢− 1 1⎥ mm ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ N . R4 = 38.42 mm . A2 = A3 = π ( 1.47 38.8 N .81 ⎢− 9. BARS AND SHAFTS 63 The areas of the cross sections are A1 = π d2 4 = 19.

64

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

σ 12 = E ε12 = E σ 23 = E ε 23 = E
σ 34 = E ε 34 = E

Q2 − Q1 Q 34.42 N = E 2 = 2 ⋅ 105 = 17.2 , l1 2l 400 mm 2 Q3 − Q2 Q − Q2 8.79 N =E 3 = 2 ⋅105 = 8.79 , 200 l2 l mm 2
Q4 − Q3 Q 43.21 N = − E 3 = −2 ⋅ 105 = − 43.2 . l3 l 200 mm 2

Example 4.2
A support, consisting of a steel bar 1 fitted inside a cast iron tube 2, is loaded by a 60 kN axial force, as in Fig. E4.2. Consider A1 = 200 mm 2 ,
A2 = 800 mm 2 , E1 = 210 GPa , E2 = 120 GPa , l = 0.2 m . Determine: a) the elongation of the assembly, b) the stress in each material, and c) the internal forces in bar and tube.

Fig. E4.2 Solution. a) Using a two-node two-element finite element model, the element stiffness matrices are

[ k ] = 2.1⋅10 ⋅ 200 ⎡⎢− 1 1 200
1 5

− 1⎤ = 2.1 ⋅ 105 1⎥ ⎦

⎡ 1 − 1⎤ N , ⎢− 1 1⎥ mm ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ N . ⎢− 1 1⎥ mm ⎣ ⎦

1 [ k ] = 1.2 ⋅10 ⋅ 800 ⎡⎢− 1 200
2 5

− 1⎤ = 4.8 ⋅ 105 1⎥ ⎦

The global unreduced stiffness matrix is 48 [ K ] = 105 ⎡− 2.1 + 4..8 ⎢ 2.1 − ⎣ − 2.1 − 4.8⎤ 5 ⎥ = 6.9 ⋅ 10 2.1 + 4.8⎦ ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ N . ⎢− 1 1⎥ mm ⎣ ⎦

4. BARS AND SHAFTS

65

If point 1 is fixed, the finite element equations are
⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎧ R1 ⎫ 6.9 ⋅105 ⎢ ⎬=⎨ ⎥⎨ 4 ⎬, ⎣− 1 1 ⎦ ⎩ Q2 ⎭ ⎩ − 6 ⋅10 ⎭

Q2 = − 0.087 mm ,
which is equal to the beam shortening. b) Stresses are
Q2 − Q1 Q − 0.087 N = E1 2 = 2.1 ⋅105 = −91.3 , 200 l l mm 2 Q2 − Q1 Q − 0.087 N = E2 2 = 1.2 ⋅ 105 = −52.14 . l l 200 mm 2

σ 1 = E1 ε 1 = E1

σ 2 = E2 ε 2 = E2

c) Internal forces are
N1 = σ 1 A1 = − 91.3 ⋅ 200 = − 18.26 kN ,
N 2 = σ 2 A2 = − 52.14 ⋅ 800 = − 41.74 kN .

Example 4.3
The temperature of the bar in Fig. E4.3 is raised 800 C . If E = 130 GPa and α = 17 ⋅10−6 , determine the thermal stresses.

Fig. E4.3 Solution. We should first determine whether contact occurs between the bar and the wall. If the wall does not exist, the displacement of point 2 is

Δl = lα T = 1800 ⋅ 17 ⋅ 10 −6 ⋅ 80 = 2.448 mm > 2 mm
so that the contact does occur. Denoting by A the cross section area, the temperature forces (4.42) are

66

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

{ fT } = α T E A ⎧ ⎨

− 1⎫ ⎧ − 1⎫ ⎧ − 1⎫ −6 5 ⎬ = 17 ⋅ 10 ⋅ 80 ⋅ 1.3 ⋅ 10 ⋅ A ⎨ ⎬ = 176.8 ⋅ A⎨ ⎬ N . ⎩ 1⎭ ⎩ 1 ⎭ ⎩ 1⎭

The stiffness matrix is

[ k ] = 1.3 ⋅10

⋅ A ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ N . 1⎥ mm 1800 ⎢ − 1 ⎣ ⎦
5

As point 1 is fixed, the finite element equations are
1.3 ⋅ 105 ⋅ A ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎧ R 1 − 176.8 A ⎫ ⎢− 1 1 ⎥ ⎨ 2 ⎬ = ⎨ R + 176.8 A ⎬ 1800 ⎣ ⎦⎩ ⎭ ⎩ 2 ⎭

wherefrom we get the reactions

R 1 = 176.8 A − 144.4 A = 32.4 A ,
so that the normal stress is

R 2 = − 32.4 A ,

σ=

R2 N . = − 32.4 A mm 2

Example 4.4
A prismatic bar is made of two different materials, as shown in Fig. E4.4. The temperature of the central part is raised T 0C . Determine the axial stress in the bar.

Fig. E4.4 Solution. The bar is divided into three linear finite elements. The element stiffness matrices are 1 [ k ] = [ k ] = El A ⎡⎢− 1
1 3 2

− 1⎤ , 1⎥ ⎦

1 [ k ] = E2lA ⎡⎢− 1
2 1

− 1⎤ . 1⎥ ⎦

For element 2, the vector of nodal thermal forces is

{ f }= α T E A ⎣ − 1
2 1

1⎦T .

4. BARS AND SHAFTS

67

Using the boundary conditions Q1 = Q4 = 0 , the finite element equations can be written

⎡ E2 ⎢ A ⎢ − E2 ⎢ l ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎣

− E2 E E2 + 1 2 E1 − 2 0

0 E − 1 2 E1 + E2 2 − E2

0 ⎤ ⎥⎧ 0 0 ⎥ ⎪Q ⎪ 2 ⎥⎨ − E2 ⎥ ⎪ Q3 ⎥⎪ 0 E2 ⎥ ⎩ ⎦

R1 ⎫ ⎫ ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ −α T E A ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 1 ⎪ ⎬. ⎬=⎨ ⎪ ⎪ α T E1 A ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ R4 ⎭ ⎩ ⎭

The second and third equation yield
E1 ⎡ ⎢ E2 + 2 ⎢ E ⎢ − 1 2 ⎣ E1 ⎤ 2 ⎥ ⎧ Q2 ⎫ = α T E A ⎧ − 1 ⎫ ⎬ ⎬ 1 ⎨ E ⎥⎨ ⎩ 1 ⎭ E2 + 1 ⎥ ⎩ Q3 ⎭ 2⎦ −

A l

with solutions Q2 = − α T l E1 , E1 + E2 Q3 = α T l E1 . E1 + E2
Q3 − Q2 E1 . =αT 2l E1 + E2

The strains in elements are

ε1 = ε 3 =

Q2 Q E1 , = − 4 = −α T l l E1 + E2

ε2 =

Stresses are

σ 1 = σ 3 = E2 ε 1 = −α T

1 , 1 1 + E1 E2

σ 2 = E1 ε 2 − E1α T = −α T

1 = σ1. 1 1 + E1 E2

Example 4.5
A steel bolt of active length l = 100 mm and diameter δ = 10 mm is single threaded with a 1.6 mm pitch. It is mounted inside a copper tube with diameters d = 12 mm and D = 18 mm (Fig. E4.5, a). After the nut has been fitted smugly, it is tightened one-quarter of a full turn. Determine stresses in bolt and tube, if for steel E1 = 208 GPa and for copper E2 = 100 GPa . Solution. The assembly is modeled by two bar finite elements as in Fig. E4.5, b. Both elements have fixed ends at points 1 and 4 so that Q1 = Q4 = 0 . The problem has a multipoint constraint

68

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

Q3 − Q2 = 0.4 mm .
Such conditions are programmed using a so-called penalty approach. Herein a simpler straightforward solution is given.

Fig. E4.5 The cross section areas are
A1 =

π δ2
4

= 78.54 mm 2 , A2 =

π D2 − d 2
4

(

) = 141.37 mm

2

.

The element stiffness matrices are

[ k ] = 2.08 ⋅10 ⋅ 78.54 ⎡⎢− 1 1 100
1 5

− 1⎤ 5 ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ N , ⎥ = 1.63 ⋅ 10 ⎢ − 1 1⎥ mm 1⎦ ⎦ ⎣

[ k ] = 10
2

5

⋅ 141.37 ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ 5 ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ N . ⎢ − 1 1⎥ = 1.41 ⋅ 10 ⎢ − 1 1⎥ mm 100 ⎦ ⎦ ⎣ ⎣ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬. ⎪ ⎪ ⎭

The finite element equations are 0 0 ⎤ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎧ R1 ⎡ 1.63 − 1.63 ⎢− 1.63 1.63 0 0 ⎥ ⎪ Q2 ⎪ ⎪ − F ⎪ ⎪ ⎥⎪ 105 ⎢ ⎨ ⎬=⎨ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎪ − Q3 ⎪ ⎪ − F 0 1.41 − 1.41 ⎢ ⎥ − 1.41 1.41 ⎦ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ R4 0 ⎣ 0 ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ Retaining only the second and third equation yields
⎡1.63 0 ⎤ ⎧ Q2 ⎫ ⎧ − F ⎫ 105 ⎢ ⎬=⎨ ⎬ ⎥⎨ ⎣ 0 1.41⎦ ⎩ − Q3 ⎭ ⎩ − F ⎭

with solutions

For the bar of Fig. the element stiffness matrices are .4.6 For the bar of Fig.6. σ1 = F 30316 N = = 386 .6. A1 78. E4. E4.63 ⋅ 10 5 Q2 = − .6 Solution.41 ⋅ 105 . with linearly variable cross-section x ⎞ ⎛ A ( x ) = A0 ⎜1 + ⎟ . divided into two equal length tapered elements. The stiffness matrix for a bar element with variable cross section is [ k ] = lE e 2 e ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎢− 1 1⎥ ⎣ ⎦ le ∫ A dx . find the displacement at the free end under the action of force ⎝ 2l ⎠ F.41 ⋅ 10 ⎠ or Stresses are given by F = 30314 N . Q3 = F 1.63 ⋅ 10 1. using two tapered bar finite elements. BARS AND SHAFTS 69 F 1.4 . 5 5⎟ ⎝ 1. E4.5 A2 141. =− = −214. Fig.37 mm 2 σ2 = − Example 4.54 mm 2 F 30316 N . Substituting in the multipoint constraint condition gives 1 1 ⎛ ⎞ F⎜ + = 0.

7 Write the stiffness matrix of the bar shown in Fig. the finite element equations can be written ⎡ 5 − 5 0 ⎤ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎧ R1 ⎫ EA0 ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎥⎪ ⎢ − 5 12 − 7 ⎥ ⎨ Q2 ⎬ = ⎨ 0 ⎬ . b) a three-node quadratic element. Fig. 35 E A0 ⎡ 12 − 7 ⎤ ⎧ Q2 ⎫ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎢− 7 7 ⎥ ⎨ Q ⎬ = ⎨ F ⎬ . ⎣ ⎦⎩ 3⎭ ⎩ ⎭ The approximate assumed linear variation of the displacement field yields constant strain elements. hence a stepwise variation of stresses along the bar. a) Consider the bar divided into two linear elements. E4. 5 E A0 Q3 = 48 F l .7.70 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS [k ] 1 2 E ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ = 2⎢ ⎥ A0 l ⎣− 1 1⎦ E ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ A0 = 2⎢ 1⎥ l ⎣− 1 ⎦ ∫ 0 2l l 5 E A0 ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ x ⎞ ⎛ .7 Solution. E4. Model the bar by: a) two two-node linear elements. Comment the results. Example 4. ⎢− 1 1⎥ ⎣ ⎦ [k ] ∫ l With Q1 = 0 . 4l ⎢ 0 − 7 7 ⎥ ⎪ Q3 ⎪ ⎪ F ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ ⎦⎩ From the second and third equation EA0 4l wherefrom Q2 = 4 Fl . ⎜ 1 + ⎟ dx = 4l ⎢− 1 1⎥ ⎝ 2l ⎠ ⎣ ⎦ 7 E A0 x ⎞ ⎛ ⎜ 1 + ⎟ dx = 4l ⎝ 2l ⎠ ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ . The element stiffness matrices are . condensing Q3 from condition F3 = 0 .

The finite element equations can be written . the last equation yields Q3 = ⎧Q ⎫ Q1 + Q2 =⎣ 1 2 1 2 ⎦⎨ 1 ⎬ 2 ⎩ Q2 ⎭ ⎫ ⎪ ⎬.4. BARS AND SHAFTS 71 1 [ k ] = [ k ] = 2EA ⎡⎢− 1 l 1 2 ⎣ − 1⎤ . b) Consider the bar modeled by a 3-node quadratic bar element. The first two equations give 2 EA l ⎧ F1 ⎫ ⎡ 1 0 ⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ 2 EA ⎧ − 1 ⎫ ⎢ 0 1 ⎥ ⎨ Q ⎬ + l ⎨ − 1 ⎬ Q3 = ⎨ F ⎬ ⎣ ⎦⎩ 2⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ 2⎭ and upon substitution of Q3 2 EA l which can be written EA l ⎡ 1 − 1 ⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎧ F1 ⎫ ⎢ − 1 1 ⎥ ⎨ Q ⎬ = ⎨F ⎬ ⎣ ⎦ ⎩ 2 ⎭ ⎩ 2⎭ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎧ F1 ⎫ ⎡ 1 0 ⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ 2 EA ⎧ − 1 ⎫ ⎢ 0 1 ⎥ ⎨ Q ⎬ + l ⎨ − 1 ⎬ ⎣ 1 2 1 2 ⎦ ⎨ Q ⎬ = ⎨F ⎬ ⎣ ⎦⎩ 2⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ 2 ⎭ ⎩ 2⎭ where the left hand side contains the (2 × 2) stiffness matrix of the two-node linear element. ⎪ ⎭ which assumes a linear displacement field within the bar. 1⎥ ⎦ The unreduced global stiffness matrix is ⎡ 1 −1 0 ⎤ 2 EA ⎢ [ K ] = l ⎢ −1 2 −1 ⎥ . ⎥ ⎢ 0 −1 1 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ The finite element equations can be written ⎡ 1 0 − 1 ⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎧ F1 2 EA ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ ⎥⎪ ⎢ 0 1 − 1 ⎥ ⎨ Q2 ⎬ = ⎨ F2 l ⎢ − 1 − 1 2 ⎥ ⎪ Q3 ⎪ ⎪ F3 ⎭ ⎩ ⎣ ⎦⎩ For F3 = 0 .

c) Comments.72 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 1 − 8 ⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎧ F1 ⎡ 7 EA ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 7 − 8 ⎥ ⎨ Q2 ⎬ = ⎨ F2 ⎢ 1 ⎥ 3l ⎢ − 8 − 8 16 ⎥ ⎪ Q3 ⎪ ⎪ F3 ⎭ ⎩ ⎣ ⎦⎩ Condensing Q3 from condition F3 = 0 yields Q3 = ⎫ ⎪ ⎬.18) gives 1 U e = ⎣Q1 Q2 2 1 − 8 ⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎡ 7 EA ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ 1 7 − 8 ⎥ ⎨ Q2 ⎬ . 2 ⎩ Q2 ⎭ The first two equations give ⎧ F1 ⎫ EA ⎡ 7 1 ⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ EA ⎧ − 8 ⎫ ⎢ 1 7 ⎥ ⎨ Q ⎬ + 3l ⎨ − 8 ⎬ Q3 = ⎨ F ⎬ 3l ⎣ ⎦⎩ 2⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ 2⎭ and upon substitution of Q3 ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎧ F1 ⎫ EA ⎡ 7 1 ⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ EA ⎧ − 8 ⎫ ⎢ 1 7 ⎥ ⎨ Q ⎬ + 3l ⎨ − 8 ⎬ ⎣ 1 2 1 2 ⎦ ⎨ Q ⎬ = ⎨ F ⎬ 3l ⎣ ⎦⎩ 2⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ 2 ⎭ ⎩ 2⎭ which can be written again EA ⎡ 1 − 1 ⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎧ F1 ⎫ ⎨ ⎬ = ⎨ ⎬. l ⎢ − 1 1 ⎥ ⎩ Q2 ⎭ ⎩ F2 ⎭ ⎣ ⎦ where the matrix in the left hand can be recognized as the conventional bar matrix developed from linear polynomials. Substituting ⎧ Q1 ⎪ ⎨ Q2 ⎪Q ⎩ 3 0 ⎤ ⎫ ⎡ 1 ⎧Q ⎫ ⎪ ⎢ 1 ⎥⎨ 1⎬ ⎬=⎢ 0 ⎥ Q ⎪ ⎢1 2 1 2 ⎥ ⎩ 2 ⎭ ⎭ ⎣ ⎦ into the expression of the strain energy (4. ⎪ ⎭ ⎧Q ⎫ Q1 + Q2 =⎣ 1 2 1 2 ⎦⎨ 1 ⎬. ⎭ 1 U e = ⎣ Q1 Q2 2 ⎦ ⎡1 0 1 ⎢0 1 1 ⎣ . Q3 ⎦ ⎥ 3l ⎢ ⎢ − 8 − 8 16 ⎥ ⎪ Q3 ⎪ ⎭ ⎣ ⎦⎩ 0 ⎤ 1 −8 ⎤ ⎡ 1 ⎡ 7 2⎤ EA ⎢ ⎧Q ⎥ ⎢ 0 1 ⎥⎨ 1 7 −8 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 3l ⎢ 1 ⎥ Q 2⎦ ⎢ − 8 − 8 16 ⎥ ⎢ 1 2 1 2 ⎥ ⎩ 2 ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎫ ⎬.

8 ω = 30 rad sec (Fig. The parameters in the particular part of the solution are prescribed and do not take part in the process of minimization.8.4). the variable Q3 must be computed from the exact nodal displacements (computed for the conventional linear element). before using equation (4. BARS AND SHAFTS 73 1 ⎣ Q1 Q2 2 Ue = ⎦ l ⎢− 1 1 ⎥ ⎨ Q ⎬ . the work of nodal forces is W = ⎣Q1 Q2 e Q3 ⎦ ⎧ F1 ⎪ ⎨ F2 ⎪F ⎩ 3 Q3 ⎦ W = ⎣Q1 Q2 e ⎦ ⎧1 6 ⎫ ⎡1 0 1 2 ⎤ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢0 1 1 2⎥ ⎨ 1 6 ⎬ pl e = ⎣Q1 Q2 ⎣ ⎦ ⎪2 3⎪ ⎭ ⎩ ⎦ ⎨1⎬ 2 e . form the complete homogeneous solution of the differential equation of equilibrium (4. The exactness of the stiffness matrix and load vector also implies that the computed nodal displacements will also be exact. Whenever the assumed functions. a).4. However. E4. . For the case p = const. displacements within elements depend upon the general (homogeneous plus the particular) solution. The beam is acted upon by a centrifugal linearly distributed load Consider a prismatic robot arm. This is because. and b) three linear elements. Determine the axial stress distribution due to the centrifugal force in the rod using: a) two quadratic elements. The conventional formulation based on a linear polynomial will yield exact displacements within the elements only when p = 0 . Example 4. only the homogeneous part of the solution contains the free parameters with respect to which the total potential energy is minimized. exact displacements within the elements may be obtained from equation (4. Solution. ⎣ ⎦ ⎩ 2⎭ ⎫ ⎪ ⎬ = ⎣Q1 Q2 ⎪ ⎭ ⎧1 6 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ 1 6 ⎬ pl e . ⎪2 3⎪ ⎭ ⎩ EA ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ For p = const .25).23) does not bring about a change in the conventional stiffness matrix and load vector.25). rotating at constant angular velocity . used to describe the displacement field. via a constraint equation between Q3 and the remaining nodal variables. ⎩⎭ ⎧1⎫ pl We may conclude that the introduction of the quadratic term in equation (4. as it is shown in a next chapter. the developed stiffness matrix and the equivalent load vector will be exact. obtained by a minimization of the total potential energy with respect to Q3 at element level. However. .

l FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS where p0 = ρ Al ω 2 .74 p ( x ) = p0 x . E4.8 . Fig.

c are replaced by the kinematically equivalent nodal forces shown in Fig. d. E4.8. E4. b. { f }= p l ⎣ 1 2 12 2 0 3 1⎦T . are given by equation (4. For a uniformly distributed load they are given by equation (4.37). The model has five degrees of freedom. ⎢ ⎥ − 8 16 − 8 ⎥ 0 ⎢ 0 ⎢ 0 −8 7 ⎥ 0 1 ⎣ ⎦ The axial load acting on the two elements can be decomposed as in Fig. c. The element nodal load vectors are { f }= p l ⎣ 0 12 1 0 1 1 2 ⎦T .8. where ξ = x l e and the shape functions (4. 3l ⎢ 1 −8 7 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ [k ]= [k ] 1 2 The unreduced global stiffness matrix is 1 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ 7 −8 ⎢ − 8 16 − 8 0 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ EA [ K ] = 23l ⎢ 1 − 8 7 + 7 − 8 1 ⎥ . 1] .26) are defined for convenience over an The distributed loads from Fig.34) { f }= ∫ ⎣N ⎦ e le T p dx = p0 l e ∫ 0 1 ⎧(1 − 2ξ )(1 − ξ )⎫ ⎧0⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ − ξ (1 − 2ξ ) ⎬ ξ dξ = p0 l e ⎨1 6⎬ . Using the boundary condition Q1 = 0 .8. The element stiffness matrices are ⎡ 7 −8 1 ⎤ 2 EA ⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ − 8 16 − 8 ⎥ . The nodal forces.4. 3l ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ 3 p0l 12 0 − 8 16 − 8 ⎥ ⎪ Q4 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 0 ⎪ p0l 12 0 1 − 8 7 ⎥ ⎪ Q5 ⎪ ⎪ ⎣ ⎦⎩ ⎭ ⎭ ⎩ . E4. the finite element equations can be written R1 0 0 ⎤⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎧ ⎫ ⎡ 7 −8 1 ⎪ ⎢ − 8 16 − 8 0 ⎥⎪Q ⎪ ⎪ p0l 12 0 ⎥⎪ 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 2 EA ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 1 − 8 14 − 8 1 ⎥ ⎨ Q3 ⎬ = ⎨ p0l 24 + p0l 24 ⎬ .8. BARS AND SHAFTS 75 a) A finite element model with two quadratic elements is shown in Fig. equivalent to a linearly distributed load. ⎪ 4 ξ (1 −ξ ) ⎪ ⎪1 3⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ interval [0. E4.

l 48 EA d 1 ε1 = ε2 = which yields the following nodal values ε1 = 25 p0l 22 p0 l 19 p0 l 10 p0 l 1 p0 l . The element strain-displacement row vector ⎣B ⎦ in (4. ε5 = . σ2 = .76 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Deleting the first row and column. 48 EA 48 EA 48 EA 48 EA 48 EA The corresponding axial stresses are σ1 = 25 p0l 22 p0 l 19 p0 l 10 p0 l 1 p0 l . we obtain the reduced global stiffness matrix and reduced global load vector which yield Q2 = 47 p0 l 2 88 p0 l 2 117 p0 l 2 128 p0 l 2 . given by u( x ) = We obtain p0 l 2 2E A ⎛ x x3 ⎞ ⎜ − ⎟. Q4 = . Q5 = .29) is given by ⎣B ⎦ = d x ⎣N ⎦ = l ⎣− 3 + 4ξ − 1 + 4ξ 4 − 8 ξ ⎦ . 48 A 48 A 48 A 48 A 48 A The stresses can be compared with the exact solution . the displacements within the elements are approximate because the exact cubic distribution (a) has been replaced by a quadratic law. Q3 = . This is due to the nodal equivalence of forces. The strains are calculated as 2 ′ ′ (N 2 Q3 + N 3 Q2 ) = p0l ( 25 − 6ξ ) . ε2 = . σ5 = . ε4 = . ε3 = . 48 EA l 2 ′ ′ (N1′ Q3 + N 2 Q5 + N 3 Q4 ) = p0l ( 19 − 18ξ ) . u (l ) = . u⎜ ⎟ = . u⎜ ⎟ = . 3 2E A ⎝ 4 ⎠ 384 2 E A ⎝ 2 ⎠ 48 2 E A ⎝ 4 ⎠ 384 2 E A The finite element values of the nodal displacements are exact. σ4 = . ⎜ l 3l 3 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (a) 2 2 2 1 p0 l 2 ⎛ l ⎞ 47 p0 l ⎛ l ⎞ 11 p0 l ⎛ 3l ⎞ 117 p0 l u⎜ ⎟ = . σ3 = . While the nodal displacements are exact. 384 E A 384 E A 384 E A 384 E A The nodal displacements can be compared with the exact solution.

1 ] . p ( ξ ) = p1 + ( p2 − p1 )ξ . The element stiffness matrices are 1 [ k ] = [ k ] = [ k ] = 3EA ⎡⎢− 1 l 1 2 3 ⎣ − 1⎤ .8.26) are defined for convenience over an interval [ 0. respectively.5 p0 l . f. g. The distributed loads from Fig. ⎭ where ξ = x l e and the shape functions (4. the finite element equations can be written . The element nodal load vectors are { f }= p l ⎣1 54 1 0 2⎦ T .8.4.8. 48 A ⎝ 4 ⎠ 48 A A graph of the stress distribution is shown in Fig. the nodal forces are given by equation (4. 1⎥ ⎦ The axial load acting on the three elements can be decomposed as in Fig. E4.5 p0 l . e. equivalent to a load per unit length.34). { f }= p l ⎣4 54 2 0 5⎦ T . The model has four degrees of freedom. σ⎜ ⎟= .8. Using the boundary condition Q 1 = 0 . are given by equation (4. E4. σ⎜ ⎟= .8. g are replaced by the kinematically equivalent nodal forces shown in Fig. BARS AND SHAFTS 77 σ ( x )= p0 l 2A 2⎞ ⎛ ⎜ 1− x ⎟ . h. 48 A ⎝ 4 ⎠ 48 A 18 p0 l ⎛ 3l ⎞ 10.36). b) A finite element model comprised of three linear elements is shown in Fig. ⎜ l2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (b) which yields the following nodal values σ (0) = σ⎜ ⎟= ⎛l⎞ ⎝2⎠ 24 p0 l ⎛ l ⎞ 22. E4. For p1 = p2 = p . E4. If p1 and p2 are the intensities of a linearly distributed load at nodes 1 and 2. { f }= p l ⎣7 54 3 0 8⎦ T . The nodal forces. { f }= ∫ ⎣ N ⎦ e le T p dx = l e ∫ 0 1 ⎧1 − ξ ⎫ l e ⎧ 2 p1 + p2 ⎨ ⎬ [ p1 + ( p2 − p1 ) ξ ] dξ = ⎨ 6 ⎩ p1 + 2 p2 ⎩ ξ ⎭ ⎫ ⎬. E4. σ (l ) = 0 .

in local natural coordinates. 27 A 10 p0 l .8. N 2 (r ) = ⎜ ⎟ 16 ⎝3 ⎠ N1 (r ) = − 27 (1 + r ) (1 − r ) ⎛ 1 + r ⎞ . The corresponding axial stresses are 13 p0l . ε 2 = ( Q3 − Q2 ) = . Q3 = . Example 4. E4.9 Show that the shape functions of the four-node cubic bar element.78 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎡ 1 −1 0 0 ⎤ ⎧ 0 ⎢ ⎥⎪ 3EA ⎢ − 1 2 − 1 0 ⎥ ⎪ Q2 ⎨ l ⎢ 0 − 1 2 − 1 ⎥ ⎪ Q3 ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 0 0 − 1 1 ⎦ ⎪ Q4 ⎩ The last three equations yield Q2 = 54 R1 ⎧ ⎫ ⎪1+ p l ⎪ 0 ⎪ p0 l ⎪ ⎪ 6 = ⎬ ⎨ ⎪ 54 ⎪ 12 ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎪ 8 ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬. 81 E A 81 E A 81 E A 3 E A The element strain-displacement row vector ⎣B ⎦ in (4. 27 A σ1 = σ2 = σ3 = In Fig.29) is given by ⎣B ⎦ = d x ⎣N ⎦ = l ⎣− 1 1⎦ . 27 A 4 p0 l . Q4 = . 16 ⎝ 3 ⎠⎝3 ⎠ N 3 (r ) = . ⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟ 16 ⎝3 ⎠⎝3 ⎠ 27 (1 + r ) (1 − r ) ⎛ 1 − r ⎞ . ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ 13 p0 l 2 23 p0 l 2 27 p0 l 2 1 p0 l 2 = . ε 3 = ( Q4 − Q3 ) = . i they are compared to those given by equation (b). ⎜ ⎟ 16 ⎝3 ⎠ 9 ⎛1 ⎞⎛1 ⎞ N 4 (r ) = − ⎜ + r ⎟ ⎜ − r ⎟ (1 + r ) . l 27 EA 27 EA l 27 EA and are constant within each element. are the following 9 (1 − r ) ⎛ 1 + r ⎞ ⎛ 1 − r ⎞ . e d 1 The strains are calculated as ε 1 = Q2 = 3 l 13 p0 l 3 4 p0 l 3 10 p0 l .

apart from forces. FRAMES AND GRIDS Frames are structures with rigidly connected members called beams. as shown in Fig. BEAMS. and the Timoshenko beam theory. then extend it to plane frames. in particular. In this section. 5. It is based on the assumption that plane sections remain plane but not necessarily normal to the deformed neutral surface. This requires that both transverse displacements and slopes must be continuous over the entire member and. that incorporates a first order correction for transverse shear effects. that neglects transverse shear deformations. Beam behaviour is described by fourth order differential equations and require C1 continuity. which is constant over the element. defined as the displacement along the X axis. One-dimensional mathematical models of structural beams are constructed on two beam theories: the Bernoulli-Euler beam theory. respectively. Beams are slender members used to support transverse loading. the degrees of freedom of node i are Q3 i − 2 . An inclined beam element will be referred to as a frame element. Grids are planar frames subjected to loads applied normally to their plane. The Timoshenko beam model pertains to the class of C 0 elements. two linear displacements and a rotation.5. .1 Finite element discretization A plane frame is divided into elements. They are connected by rigid joints that have determinate rotations and. transmit bending moments from member to member. between adjacent beam elements. we first present the finite element formulation for plane Bernoulli-Euler beams. and for grids. This leads to the introduction of a mean shear distortion. Typically. the displacement along the Y axis and the rotation about the Z axis. Each node has three degrees of freedom. Q3 i −1 and Q3 i . 5.1.

2 . then the element stiffness matrix is calculated first in the local coordinate system. Imposing the boundary conditions. Elements are modelled as uniform beams without shear deformations and not loaded between ends. then in the global coordinate system. then simply added to get the global uncondensed stiffness matrix. Their properties are the bending rigidity E I and the length l . Fig. Fig.1 In the following. the shape functions are established for the plane Bernoulli-Euler beam element. 5. The latter are expanded to the structure size. the reduced stiffness matrix and load vector are calculated and used in the static analysis. 5.80 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Nodes are located by their coordinates in the global reference frame XOY and element connectivity is defined by the indices of the end nodes.

1) and the corresponding vector of element nodal forces can be written { f }= ⎣ f 1 f2 f3 f4 f5 f6 ⎦ T .2. f 5. Only transverse loads act upon the beam. Transverse shear deformations are neglected. f 6 and the corresponding displacements q 2 . 5. Fig. where the nodal displacements are also shown. axial forces are ignored. 5.3) dx . an intrinsic (natural) coordinate system can be used. b) while axial forces f 1 .3 The axial displacement of any point on the section. the x axis. FRAMES AND GRIDS 81 Consider an inclined beam element. c).2) Forces f 2. In a local physical coordinate system. (5. describe the element stretching (Fig. as illustrated in Fig. and axial displacements q 1 . 5. Alternatively.5. The vector of nodal displacements in the local coordinate system is { q }= ⎣ q e e 1 q2 q3 q4 q5 q6 ⎦ T (5.2 Static analysis of a uniform beam Beams with cross sections that are symmetric with respect to the plane of loading are considered herein (Fig. 5. q 4 . q 6 describe the element bending (Fig. 5. Their action is decoupled so that the respective stiffness matrices can be calculated separately. as in the Bernoulli-Euler classical beam theory. q 3 .2. a. is approximated by dv u = −ϕ y = − y. f 3.2. (5. f 4 . 5. is inclined an angle θ with respect to the global X axis.3). at a distance y from the neutral axis. q 5 . oriented along the beam. BEAMS.

σ x = E ε x = −E (5. dx4 (5. dx dx4 (5.82 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS where v is the deflection of the centroidal axis at x and ϕ = v′ is the cross section rotation (or slope) at x . The product E I z is called the bending rigidity of the beam. The negative sign above is introduced because M is considered positive if it compresses the upper portion of the beam cross section. Axial strains are εx = du d2 v = − 2 y = −χ y . dx2 where E is Young’s modulus of the material. dx dx 3 (5. and physical boundary conditions.9) This is a fourth order differential equation and consequently four boundary conditions are required. Normal stresses on the cross section are given by Hooke’s law d2 v y.4) where χ ≈ v′′ denotes the deformed beam axis curvature.8) The differential equation of equilibrium is EIz d4 v = p (x ) . . two at each end.7) The transverse load per unit length is p (x ) = − dT d4 v = EIz = E I z v IV . dx dx (5.6) A where I z is the second moment of area of the section with respect to the neutral axis z. involving the shear and bending moment.5) The bending moment is the resultant of the stress distribution on the cross section M (x ) = − σ x y dA = E I z ∫ d2 v dx2 = EIz χ (5. involving the transverse displacement and slope. They can be geometric or kinematic boundary conditions. The shear force is given by T (x ) = − dM d3 v = −E I z = − E I z v III .

and d v d x = ϕ1 = q3 . 5. ϕ1 .5. a 4 can be expressed in terms of the nodal displacements v1 . the four integration constants a 1 .10) can be determined from the geometric boundary conditions at each end (Fig.10) For a free-free beam element. ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ On inversion. the integration constants a 1 . a 3 . so that the beam deflection can be expressed in terms of the nodal displacements.3. FRAMES AND GRIDS 83 5.4 This gives ⎧ v1 ⎪ϕ ⎪ 1 ⎨ ⎪ v2 ⎪ ϕ2 ⎩ 3 ⎫ ⎡ x1 ⎪ ⎢ 2 ⎪ ⎢ 3 x1 ⎬=⎢ 3 ⎪ ⎢ x2 ⎪ ⎢ 3x2 ⎭ ⎣ 2 2 x1 2 x1 2 x2 2 x2 x1 1 x2 1 1 ⎤ ⎧ a1 ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎥ ⎪ a2 ⋅⎨ 1 ⎥ ⎪ a3 ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎪ a4 ⎦ ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬. b) Fig.11. v = v1 = q2 . at x = x 2 . a 4 in (5.3 Uniform beam not loaded between ends For a uniform beam not loaded between ends. v = v2 = q5 .1 Shape functions The transverse displacement v can be expressed in terms of the nodal displacements as . Integrating four times. p = 0 and equation (5. a 2 . 5. a 3 .4): (5. a 2 .11. 5.9) yields d 4 v d x 4 = 0 . (5. (5. and d v d x = ϕ 2 = q6 . v2 . BEAMS. we obtain the deflection v described by a third order polynomial v (x ) = a 1 x 3 + a 2 x 2 + a 3 x + a 4 . ϕ 2 . a) at x = x1 .

(5.18) or v (r ) = N1 ⋅ q2 + le l N 2 ⋅ q3 + N 3 ⋅ q5 + e N 4 ⋅ q6 .13) Using natural coordinates.12) the row vector of shape functions is ⎣N ⎦ = ⎢ N1 ⎣ ⎢ le N2 2 N3 le ⎥ N4 ⎥ 2 ⎦ .19) In (5. { } (5. dr 2 dx equation (5.14) the beam transverse displacement can be written ⎛dv⎞ ⎛dv⎞ v (r ) = N1 (r ) v 1 + N 2 (r ) ⎜ ⎜ d r ⎟ + N 3 (r ) v 2 + N 4 (r ) ⎜ d r ⎟ .15) Because the coordinates transform by the relationship (5.12) where ⎣N ⎦ is a row vector containing the shape functions. ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠1 ⎝ ⎠2 (5. (5. with r = −1 at node 1 and r = +1 at node 2.20) . and { q }= ⎣ v e 1 ϕ1 v2 ϕ 2 ⎦ T .84 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS v (x ) = ⎣N ⎦ q e . called Hermitian cubic polynomials.17) (5. r= x + x2 ⎞ 2 ⎛ ⎟ ⎜x− 1 ⎜ 2 ⎟ x 2 − x1 ⎝ ⎠ (5.14) x= x1 + x 2 2 + x 2 − x1 2 r and since l e = x 2 − x 1 is the length of the element. 2 (5.15) becomes v (r ) = N1 (r ) v 1 + N 2 (r ) le 2 ⎛dv⎞ le ⎜ ⎜ d x ⎟ + N 3 (r ) v 2 + N 4 (r ) 2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠1 ⎛dv⎞ ⎜ ⎜dx⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠2 (5.16) Using the differentiation chain rule d v le d v = . dx = le dr . 2 2 (5.

21) N 3(r ) = 1 ( 1 + r ) 2 ( 2 − r ) = 1 2 + 3r − r 3 . Table 5. 4 4 ( ) N 4 (r ) = − ( ) Fig.5 N 1(r ) = N 2 (r ) = 1 ( 1 − r ) 2 ( 2 + r ) = 1 2 − 3r + r 3 . 5.1 N1 r = −1 r = +1 1 0 N′ 1 0 0 N2 0 0 N ′2 1 0 N3 0 1 N ′3 0 0 N4 0 0 N ′4 0 1 Imposing the above conditions to cubic polynomials with four arbitrary constants. BEAMS.5 . 5. 4 4 1 ( 1 − r ) 2 ( 1 + r ) = 1 1 −r − r 2 + r 3 . FRAMES AND GRIDS 85 The Hermitian shape functions are cubic polynomials which should satisfy the boundary conditions given in Table 5. graphically shown in Fig.5. we obtain the expressions of the beam element shape functions in terms of r. 4 4 1 ( 1 + r ) 2 ( 1 − r ) = − 1 1 + r −r 2 − r 3 . where primes indicate differentiation with respect to r. 4 4 ( ) ( ) (5.1.

25) . dr 2 d v le = q 3 .3. dr 2 5. e (5.22) we get the element strain energy 1 Ue = 2 which has the form {q } e T 8E I e l3 e +1 −1 ∫ e ′ T ′ ⎣N r′ ⎦ ⎣N r′ ⎦ d r { q } (5. d x2 l2 d r 2 e 2 (5. while at node 2. ⎢ dr ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ { } ⎛ d 2v ⎞ ⎟ = qe ⎜ ⎜ d x2 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ 2 { } T 16 N ′′ T N ′′ q e . ⎜ d x2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ d 2v 4 d 2 v = . 4 ⎣ r⎦ ⎣ r⎦ le { } (5.86 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS It is easy to check that at node 1.2 Stiffness matrix The strain energy U e of a beam element is E Ie Ue = 2 Equation (5. v = q 2 and v = q 5 and d v le = q6 .16) and (5.24) On substituting (5.24) into (5.12) we obtain and d 2v dx 2 = 4 ⎢d 2 N ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ l2 ⎢ d r 2 ⎥ e ⎣ ⎦ { q }.22) dv 2 d v = d x le d r Substituting (5.23) The square of the above quantity is calculated as ⎛ 2 ⎞ ⎛ d 2v ⎞ ⎟ =⎜d v⎟ ⎜ ⎜ d x2 ⎟ ⎜ d x2 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ which can also be written 2 T ⎛ d 2v ⎞ ⎟ = qe ⎜ ⎜ d x2 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ { } T 16 l4 e ⎢d 2 N ⎥ ⎢ 2⎥ ⎢ dr ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ T ⎢d 2 N ⎥ e ⎢ 2 ⎥ q .17) yields ∫ e ⎛ d 2v ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ dx .

30) The curvature χ (5. FRAMES AND GRIDS 87 Ue = 1 2 { q } [ k ] { q }.26) Comparing (5.23) can be expressed in terms of the nodal displacements as χ= d 2v dx 2 = 4 ⎢d 2 N ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ l2 ⎢ d r 2 ⎥ e ⎣ ⎦ { q }= ⎣B⎦ { q }.30) gives the matrix (5.27) −1 or EI [ k ] = 8l ∫ e B e 3 e +1 −1 ⎡ (N1′)2 N1′N 2 ′ ′ ′′ ⎢ ′′ ′ ′′ 2 ⎢ N 2 N1′ (N 2 ) ⎢ N ′′N ′′ N ′′N ′′ 3 2 ⎢ 3 1 ′′ ′ ′′ ′′ N 4 N1′ N 4 N 2 ⎢ ⎣ ′ ′ N1′N 3′ ′′ ′ N 2 N 3′ ′ (N 3′ )2 ′′ ′ N 4 N 3′ ′ ′′ N1′N 4 ⎤ ⎥ ′′ ′′ N2 N4 ⎥ dr .28) Substituting the shape functions (5.32) and d V = Ae d x into (5. . e T e B e (5. BEAMS.21) and performing the integration yields the stiffness matrix due to bending in local coordinates [k ] e B 6l − 12 6l ⎤ ⎡ 12 ⎢ 6l 4l 2 − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ EI ⎥ .29) is based on the general formula (4.32) Substituting (5. = 3e ⎢ l e ⎢− 12 − 6l 12 − 6l ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ 2 − 6l 4l 2 ⎦ e ⎣ 6l 2l (5. e ⎣ e e ⎦ 1 ⎢ r r ⎥ (5.29).31) where the curvature-displacement row vector ⎣B ⎦ is ⎣B ⎦ = l ⎢6 l 3r − 1 − 6 l 3r + 1⎥ .29) An alternative way of deriving the matrix (5.19) [ k ] = ∫ ⎣B⎦ e Ve T Ee ⎣B ⎦ dV .26) we obtain the element stiffness matrix due to bending EI [ k ] = 8l ∫ e B e 3 e +1 ′ T ′ ⎣N r′ ⎦ ⎣N r′ ⎦ d r (5. e e (5. ′ ′′ N 3′N 4 ⎥ ⎥ ′ ⎦ (N 4′ )2 ⎥ (5. (5.5.25) with (5.

(5.3 Physical significance of the stiffness matrix The element stiffness matrix (5.33) can be written ⎧ f 2 ⎫ ⎡ k11 ⎪ f ⎪ ⎢k ⎪ 3 ⎪ ⎢ 21 ⎨ ⎬= ⎪ f 5 ⎪ ⎢ k31 ⎪ f 6 ⎪ ⎢k 41 ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ which gives f 2 = k11 . f 3 = k 21 . 5.34) f 5 = k31 . 5. (5.33) Consider a beam element with end 2 fixed ( q5 = q6 = 0 ) and end 1 having a unit displacement along the global X-axis ( q2 = 1. .6 Equation (5. as in Fig.6.88 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 5. . .⎥ ⎪q3 = 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎥⋅⎪ ⎨ ⎬ ⎥ ⎪q5 = 0 ⎪ .29) relates the vector of nodal forces to the vector of nodal displacements ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ f2 ⎫ f3 ⎪ EI e ⎪ ⎬ = 3 f5 ⎪ le f 6 ⎪e ⎭ 6l − 12 6l ⎤ ⎧ q2 ⎡ 12 ⎢ 6l 4l 2 − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ ⎪ q ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ 3 ⎨ ⎢− 12 − 6l 12 − 6l ⎥ ⎪ q5 ⎢ ⎥ 2 − 6l 4l 2 ⎦ e ⎪ q6 ⎣ 6l 2 l ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ . . q3 = 0) and zero rotation. k 21 + k 41 + k31 l = 0 . . . .⎤ ⎧ q2 = 1⎫ . .⎦ ⎪q6 = 0⎪ ⎩ ⎭ f 6 = k 41 .35) This shows that the first column of the stiffness matrix represents the forces and moments that must be applied to the beam element to preserve static equilibrium when q2 = 1 and all other displacements are zero. ⎪ ⎪ ⎭e (5.36) . . ⎥ . Fig.3. (5. For equilibrium k11 + k31 = 0 .

the computed nodal displacements are exact. They can be determined. the displacements. moments and shear forces are in error.12).4 Uniform beam loaded between ends For a uniform beam loaded between ends. For a linearly distributed transverse load. adding the transverse displacement and slope at the element midpoint to the element nodal coordinates. v (x ) will be a quintic with six arbitrary constants.5. p = const . rising the power of the function describing the displacement within a beam element is tantamount to introducing additional internal nodes. The corresponding five constants have to be determined from five boundary conditions.39) . But they can be used only if the element has uniform rigidity E I z and is not loaded between nodes. having the units of force per unit length. For beams with transverse forces.38) W = qe where the element load vector is { } {f } T e (5.9) and the beam deflected shape is no more a cubic polynomial. The mechanical work of such a force is W= le ∫ v p dx = ∫ v le T T T p dx .1 Consistent vector of nodal forces Consider a transverse load p (x ) . The cubic shape functions do the job. equation (5. the current practice is to use lower order approximate assumed shape functions that ensure the minimal convergence requirements. the solution is to replace the actual distributed load by equivalent nodal forces. However. distributed along the beam element. (5. 5. FRAMES AND GRIDS 89 5. As already shown in Chapter 4. Within the elements. BEAMS. Using cubic polynomials as admissible functions.4. it is the homogeneous solution of the differential equation. as shown in the following. An internal node added at the centre of element will solve the problem. the general solution of equation (5. d 4 v d x 4 ≠ 0 in equation (5. When the transverse load is uniformly distributed.37) Substituting (5. . (5. p ≠ 0 . However.37) becomes W = qe It has the form { } ∫ ⎣N ⎦ le p dx .9) is a quartic polynomial. introducing its nodal displacement as the fifth nodal coordinate.

. 5. b) would be incorrect since the beam element has the ends rigidly jointed.40) For the Hermitian two-node element.7. by statically equivalent forces (Fig. To replace p = const . the vector of element consistent nodal forces is {f } e l = e p 2 ⎢ pl =⎢ e ⎢ 2 ⎣ +1 −1 ∫ ⎣N ⎦ T (5. a b c Fig. if the transverse force is uniformly distributed.41) or. a it is seen that f 2e is a shear force and f 3e is a moment.6. if applied in the opposite direction as constraints.90 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS { f } = ∫ ⎣N ⎦ e le T l p ( x ) dx = e 2 +1 −1 ∫ ⎣N ⎦ dr T p (r ) d r . substituting (5. would keep all nodal displacements zero in the presence of the true loading. 12 ⎥ ⎦ T (5. They are called “kinematically equivalent” nodal forces since they replace a distributed load p (r ) weighted with the shape functions N i (r ) so that the correct work is simulated.42) In Fig. p = const .18). (5. 5. {f } e p l2 e 12 p le 2 p l2 ⎥ e − ⎥ . 5.7 d The kinematically equivalent loads are those which. .

i.1. E5. FRAMES AND GRIDS 91 i. The deflections of this over-stiff finite element model are smaller “in the mean” than the true deflections of the actual structure.e. nodal forces must include moments. The finite element solution is therefore referred to as a lower bound. Fig. This is equivalent to applying additional constraints to the beam. Assuming approximate deflected shapes instead of the true ones may be imagined as the result of application of a fake loading. or refining the mesh. Assuming cubic displacement functions implies linearly varying bending moments (and hence stresses) in uniform beams. Equivalent nodal forces for linearly distributed loads are given in Figs. for uniform loading. for instance. not only shear forces.5. it is rigidly built in the adjacent beam elements. c and d. E5. as shown in Example 5.6. In order to ensure the C1 continuity across elements.1. This applies only to the strain energy and not to the displacement or stress at a point.1 . the smaller the error. due to the difference between the applied load p (x ) and the resistance E I z v IV which gives rise to a sort of unbalanced residual force. BEAMS. forcing the beam to maintain the approximate deflection. 5. they have a quadratic distribution. Example 5. the equilibrium within the elements is broken. A correct solution will approach the true value with monotonically increasing values of displacements.e. The source of error comes from the arbitrary selection of the shape functions.1 Calculate the transverse displacement at the centre of the simply supported beam shown in Fig. Even if these functions are built up to satisfy the geometric boundary conditions at the ends. even if it is known that. Kinematically equivalent loads yield displacements which do not coincide with those produced by actual loading. Local stresses may be higher than the true ones. so we would expect to increase the accuracy by increasing the number of elements modeling the same structure. stiffening it. The smaller the element.

Using the boundary conditions and the equivalent nodal loads. smaller ⎛l⎞ 4 v ⎜ ⎟ = vtrue . as expected.2 Higher-degree interpolation functions Let explore the possibility of approximating the displacements of a fourth order system by a quadratic function of the form . 24 E I pl 4 ⎛l⎞ ⎛l⎞ ⎛l⎞ v ⎜ ⎟ = N 2 ⎜ ⎟ q3 + N 4 ⎜ ⎟ q6 = . 96 E I ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ The true solution is v true = 5 pl 4 384 E I so that the approximate finite element solution is. ⎝ 2⎠ 5 5. 12 l with solutions q6 = − q3 = − The displacement at the middle is pl3 . the equations of equilibrium can be written ⎧ pl ⎫ ⎪ 2 ⎪ ⎪ 6l − 12 6l ⎤ ⎧ q2 = 0 ⎫ ⎪ ⎡ 12 pl 2 ⎪ ⎢ 6l 4l 2 − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ ⎪ q ⎪ ⎪ EIz ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ 3 ⎪ = ⎪ 12 ⎪ . 12 l 2 EI ( 2q3 + 4q6 ) = − pl . the distributed load is replaced by two concentrated moments at the ends.4. Using a single beam element.92 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Solution. ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬ 3 ⎢ − 12 − 6l 12 − 6l ⎥ ⎪ q5 = 0 ⎪ ⎪ pl ⎪ l ⎥ ⎢ 2 − 6l 4l 2 ⎦ ⎪ q6 ⎪ ⎪ 2 2 ⎪ ⎣ 6l 2l ⎩ ⎭ ⎪ pl ⎪ ⎪− ⎪ ⎩ 12 ⎭ The set of equations in the unknown displacements is 2 EI ( 4q3 + 2q6 ) = pl .

⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ v (x ) = ⎣N ⎦ q e = ⎣N1 { } N2 N3 N4 (5. d v d x = ϕ2 .44) ⎡1 ⎫ ⎢ ⎪ ⎢0 ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ 1 ⎬=⎢ ⎪ ⎢0 ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ ⎢1 ⎭ ⎣ 0 1 l 1 l 2 0 0 l2 2l l2 4 0 0 l3 3l 2 l3 8 0 ⎤ ⎧ a5 ⎫ 0 ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ ⎥ a4 ⎪ ⎪ l4 ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ ⎥ ⋅ ⎨ a3 ⎬ .5. v = v1 .45) where the quartic shape functions are .8): at x = x1 . a 3 . at x = x3 .12) ⎧ v1 ⎪ϕ ⎪ 1 ⎪ N 5 ⎦ ⎨ v2 ⎪ϕ ⎪ 2 ⎪ v3 ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬. at x = x 2 . (5. FRAMES AND GRIDS 93 v (x ) = a 1 x 4 + a 2 x 3 + a 3 x 2 + a 4 x + a5 . 4l 3 ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ a2 l4 ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ ⎥ ⎪ a1 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ 16 ⎦ − 3 l − 2 l 2 l3 The beam deflection is given by an expression of the form (5.43) can be determined from the end displacements and slopes. v = v2 . 5. a5 in (5. ⎨ ⎬ 32 ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ − 3 ϕ2 l ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ ⎥ ⎪ v3 ⎪ 16 ⎩ ⎭ ⎥ l4 ⎥ ⎦ and and d v d x = ϕ1 . and the displacement of the internal node at the centre of the element (Fig. (5. a 4 .43) The five integration constants a 1 . This gives the nodal coordinates in terms of the polynomial coefficients ⎧ v1 ⎪ϕ ⎪ 1 ⎪ ⎨ v2 ⎪ϕ ⎪ 2 ⎪ v3 ⎩ On inversion ⎡ 1 ⎢ ⎧ a5 ⎫ ⎢ 0 ⎪ a ⎪ ⎢ 11 ⎪ 4⎪ ⎢ − ⎪ ⎪ 2 ⎨ a3 ⎬ = ⎢ l ⎪ a ⎪ ⎢ 18 ⎪ 2 ⎪ ⎢ l3 ⎪ a1 ⎪ ⎢ 8 ⎩ ⎭ ⎢− ⎢ l4 ⎣ 0 1 − 4 l 5 l2 2 0 0 5 − 2 l 14 − 4 l l3 8 0 0 1 l 3 0 ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎧ v1 ⎫ ⎥ 16 ⎥ ⎪ ϕ1 ⎪ ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ l 2 ⎥ ⋅ ⎪ v2 ⎪ . BEAMS. a 2 . v = v3 .

46) N 5 (r ) = (1 − r ) 2 (1 + r ) 2 . Fig. 8 N 1( r ) = − FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS (5. N 5 is called a “bubble function”.46) into equation (5. 4 1 N 4 (r ) = − (1 − r ) r (1 + r ) 2 l .8 Substituting the shape functions (5. the element consistent load vector (5.41) is . 5. we obtain the element stiffness matrix ⎡ 316 94l e 196 − 34l e ⎢ 36l 2 34l e − 6l 2 e e EI e ⎢ = 3⎢ 316 − 94l e 5l e ⎢ 36l 2 e ⎢SYM ⎣ − 512 ⎤ − 128l e ⎥ ⎥ − 512 ⎥ . 4 1 N 2 ( r ) = − ( 1 −r ) 2 r ( 1 + r )l . In equations (5. having zero displacements and slopes at the ends.27) and performing the integration. 8 1 N 3 ( r ) = ( 3 − 2r ) r ( 1 + r ) 2 .47) For p = const .46). 128l e ⎥ 1024 ⎥ ⎦ [k ] e B (5. .94 1 ( 1 − r ) 2 r ( 3 + 2r ) .

50) For elements with uniformly distributed load. FRAMES AND GRIDS 95 {f } e ⎢7 ple =⎢ ⎢ 30 ⎣ p l2 e 60 7 p le 30 p l2 e − 60 8 p le ⎥ ⎥ .49) and (5. + 12 2 2 2 4 . 2 2 dx l e dr le { } EIz ⎣6 r l2 e (3r − 1) l e − 6r (3r + 1) l e ⎦ { q e }.6) and equation (5.49) The shear force is given by equation (5. they are obtained substituting r = −1 and r = +1 in (5. the exact moment and shear force within the element are Mp =M − 2 pl 2 pl e l e e ( r + 1) + p l e ( r + 1) 2 . BEAMS.48) 5. the end equilibrium loads are given by ⎧ pl e ⎫ ⎪− 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎧ R2 ⎫ 6l − 12 6l ⎤ ⎧ q2 ⎫ ⎪ ⎡ 12 pl2 ⎪R ⎪ ⎢ 6l 4l 2 − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ ⎪ q ⎪ ⎪− e ⎪ EI e ⎪ 3⎪ ⎥ ⎪ 3 ⎪ + ⎪ 12 ⎪ . 3 3 dx l e dr le 2 − l e ⎦ qe . When p = const .5.51) ⎨ ⎬ = 3 ⎢ ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬ R5 ⎪ ⎢− 12 − 6l 12 − 6l ⎥ ⎪ q5 ⎪ ⎪ p l e ⎪ le ⎪ − ⎢ ⎥ 2 ⎪ R6 ⎪ − 6l 4l 2 ⎦ e ⎪ q6 ⎪e ⎪ 2 ⎪ ⎣ 6l 2l ⎩ ⎭ ⎪ ⎩ ⎭e pl 2 ⎪ e ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ 12 ⎭ e The first term on the right is k B elements that are called fixed-end reactions. { } 6E I z ⎣− 2 − l e l3 e { } (5. (5.4. The second term consists of The shear forces at the two ends of the beam element are T1 = − R2 and T2 = R5 . For p = 0 .3 Bending moment and shear force Using the bending moment expression (5.50).12) we get M = EIz M= d2 v 4 d2 v 4 = EIz 2 = E I z 2 ⎣N ′′⎦ q e . e [ ]{ q }.7) T = −E I z T= d3 v 8 d3 v 8 = −E I z 3 = − E I z 3 ⎣N ′′′⎦ q e . The end bending moments are M 1 = − R3 and M 2 = R 6 . . 15 ⎥ ⎦ T (5. (5.

12) gives ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ v (x ) = ⎣N ⎦ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ 0⎫ 1 ⎪ le l l ⎪ N 2 + l e N 3 + e N 4 = e ( 1 + r ) = linear . an element as a whole should be in equilibrium. 5. When nodal displacements are given values corresponding to a state of rigid body motion.9. a. respectively. the sequence of solutions to a problem is expected to converge to the correct result if the assumed element displacement fields satisfy the following criteria: 1. 5. with node 1 fixed and node 2 having a vertical displacement l e (Fig. valid for p = 0 .49) and (5. equation (5.5 Basic convergence requirements As element sizes are reduced. If the nodes are given unit vertical displacements (Fig. Although equilibrium is not satisfied exactly at every interior point or across interfaces. Rotation. a). Vertical translation. b. ⎬= l⎪ 2 2 2 1⎪ ⎭ which shows that the element has indeed an anticlockwise rotation as a rigid body.50). 1⎪ 4 4 ⎪ 0⎭ ( ) ( ) which shows that the element has indeed a vertical displacement as a rigid body.9.96 Tp = T − pl e r. An element should describe rigid body modes exactly. the element must exhibit zero strain and therefore zero nodal forces. equation (5. If the nodes are given unit rotations. b). .12) gives ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ v (x ) = ⎣N ⎦ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ 1⎫ 0⎪ 1 1 ⎪ 3 3 ⎬ = N1 + N 3 = 2 − 3 r + r + 2 + 3 r − r = 1 = const . and the interior points should correspond to the assumed rigid body displacement. 2 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS where M and T are the expressions (5. 5. because the structure as a whole should be in equilibrium.

1 Axial effects The axial nodal forces are related to the nodal displacements by equation ⎧ f1 ⎫ e ⎧ q1 ⎫ ⎨ ⎬ = kS ⎨ ⎬ ⎩ f4 ⎭ ⎩ q4 ⎭ where the stiffness matrix for stretching (4. it is acted upon by axial forces.6 Frame element As shown in Fig. the two stiffness matrices can be added taking into account the proper location of their elements.53) . c) ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎪ 1 ⎪ l l ⎪ ⎪ le v (x ) = ⎣N ⎦ ⎨ N2 − e N4 = e 1 − r 2 . when element sizes shrink to zero. Assuming zero nodal vertical displacements and unit rotations in opposite directions (Fig. 1⎥ ⎦ (5.6. Because there is no coupling between the bending and stretching displacements. ⎬= 2 4 ⎪ 0 ⎪ 2 ⎪ −1 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ so that the second derivative (curvature) is constant ( ) v′′ = . 5. An element should simulate constant strain states.5.2. apart from moments and shear forces.l 2 = const . 5. 5. they must have at least constant curvature. 5. BEAMS. 5. an inclined beam element should include longitudinal displacements since.9 c 2. FRAMES AND GRIDS 97 a b Fig.9.52) [ k ]= ElA ⎡⎢−11 e S e ⎣ − 1⎤ .22) is [ ] e (5. In the case of beams.

For node 1.29).56) Equations (5. combining equations (5. ⎧ q1 ⎫ ⎡ c ⎨q ⎬=⎢ ⎩ 2 ⎭ ⎣− s s ⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎨ ⎬ c⎥ ⎩ Q 2 ⎭ ⎦ . the local linear displacements q 1 and q 2 are related to the global linear displacements Q 1 and Q 2 by the equations q 1 = Q 1 cos θ + Q 2 sin θ .54) ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ 6E I ⎥ − 2 ⎥ l 4E I ⎥ ⎥ l ⎥e ⎦ 0 [k ] e . For slender beams.55) 5.53) and (5. the vector of consistent nodal forces is (i l ) The ratio of the bending terms to the stretching terms in (5.6. 5.98 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 5. q 2 = −Q 1 sin θ + Q 2 cos θ .57) . this ratio may be as small as 1 20 or 1 50 .10 both in the initial and deformed state.54) is of order 2 { f } = ⎢0 ⎢ e ⎢ ⎣ p le 2 p l2 e 12 0 p le 2 − p l2 ⎥ e ⎥ . (5.56) can be written in matrix form as (5.6. If there is a uniformly distributed load on a member.3 Coordinate transformation A frame element is shown in Fig. 12 ⎥ ⎦ T (5. (5. so the stiffness matrix may possibly be numerically ill-conditioned. where ‘i’ is the relevant radius of gyration. and arranging the elements in proper locations we get the element stiffness matrix given by ⎡ EA ⎢ l ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ 0 =⎢ ⎢− E A ⎢ l ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎣ 0 12 E I l3 6E I l2 0 − 12 E I l3 6E I l2 − 0 6E I l2 4E I l 0 6E I l2 2E I l − EA l 0 0 EA l 0 0 0 − 12 E I l3 6E I − 2 l 0 12 E I l3 6E I − 2 l ⎤ ⎥ 6E I ⎥ ⎥ l2 ⎥ 2E I ⎥ l ⎥ .2 Stiffness matrix and load vector in local coordinates For the frame element.

FRAMES AND GRIDS 99 where c = cos θ and s = sin θ .60). BEAMS.58) Fig. (5.61) is the local-to-global coordinate transformation matrix for plane frames.60) In (5. (5. (5. 5. { q } is the beam element displacement vector in the local coordinate system.5. { Q } is the beam element displacement vector in the global e e coordinate system and [T ] e ⎡c ⎢− s ⎢ ⎢0 =⎢ ⎢0 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎣ s 0 c 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0⎤ 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0 0⎥ ⎥ c s 0⎥ − s c 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0 1⎥ ⎦ 0 0 (5. c⎥ ⎩ Q 5 ⎭ ⎦ e e q6 = Q6 .59) { q } = [ T ] { Q }.10 Adding the similar relationships for node 2 ⎧ q4 ⎫ ⎡ c ⎨q ⎬=⎢ ⎩ 5 ⎭ ⎣− s we obtain e s ⎤ ⎧ Q4 ⎫ ⎨ ⎬. . The angular displacements (rotations) are the same in both coordinate systems q 3 = Q3 .

e e T e e (5.6. {F }= [T ] { f } e e T e (5. Having solved [ K ] { Q } = { F } it is routine to backtrack and recover the eth element strains.60) ε e = − y v′′ = − y ⎣N ′′⎦ q e = − y ⎣N ′′⎦ T e { } [ ] { Q }. (5.7 Assembly of the global stiffness matrix is assembled from element matrices ~ K e using element connectivity matrices T e . by equations of the form ~ Q e = T e { Q }. (5. using equations (5. the stiffness matrix of the frame element in global coordinates is obtained as [ K ]= [T ] [ k ][T ] . that relate the nodal displacements at element level with the nodal displacements at the entire structure level. [ ] { } [ ] The global uncondensed stiffness matrix is equal to the sum of the expanded element stiffness matrices ~ [K ] = K e .4).100 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 5.67) . [K ].62) The nodal loads due to a uniformly distributed load p are given by The values of F e { } are added to the global load vector. (5.12) and (5. e e T e e (5.4 Stiffness matrix and load vector in global coordinates Using the same procedure as in section 3.66) The equations of equilibrium can be regarded as having been derived as soon as the reduced stiffness matrix and load vector have been calculated using the boundary conditions.63) 5. e (5.65) ∑[ ] e where ~ ~ ~ [ K ] = [T ] [ K ][T ] .7.64) [ ] The global stiffness matrix.

= 3 ⎢ ⎢− 12 − 6l 12 − 6l ⎥ l ⎢ ⎥ 2 − 6l 4l 2 ⎦ ⎣ 6l 2l 0 ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥ − 12 6l ⎥ ⎥. Fig.second derivatives) and differentiation inevitably decreases accuracy. we obtain the finite element equations . Strains are derivatives of an approximate displacement (in beams .2 Solution. BEAMS.2 Calculate the transverse displacement at the free end of the cantilever stepped beam shown in Fig. are not accurate. The element stiffness matrices are [k ] 1 6l − 12 6l ⎤ ⎡ 12 ⎢ 6l 4l 2 − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ 2E I ⎥ . and hence stresses. − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ 12 − 6l ⎥ ⎥ − 6l 4l 2 ⎥ ⎦ 0 0 The unreduced global stiffness matrix is 12l − 24 12l ⎡ 24 ⎢ 12l 8l 2 − 12l 4l 2 ⎢ − 6l E I ⎢− 24 − 12l 36 K ]= 3 ⎢ 2 − 6l 12l 2 l ⎢ 12l 4l ⎢ 0 0 − 12 − 6l ⎢ 0 6l 2l 2 ⎢ 0 ⎣ [ Using the boundary conditions at the fixed end Q1 = Q2 = 0 . Consider the beam divided into two cubic Hermitian elements. = 3 ⎢ ⎢− 12 − 6l 12 − 6l ⎥ l ⎢ ⎥ 2 − 6l 4l 2 ⎦ ⎣ 6l 2l [k ] 2 6l − 12 6l ⎤ ⎡ 12 ⎢ 6l 4l 2 − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ EI ⎥ . and omitting the first two rows and columns.5. Example 5. E5. FRAMES AND GRIDS 101 Strains. E5.2.

⎢ 9l 216 l ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ − 21l − 27 99 ⎥ ⎪ 6l ⎪ ⎩ 180 ⎭ ⎦⎩ ⎭ ⎣ By substitution into the equation with non-zero right hand side EI (− 12 Q3 − 6l Q4 + 12 Q5 − 6l Q6 ) = − F l3 the transverse displacement in 3 is obtained as F l3 .29). Consider the beam modeled by two Bernoulli-Euler beam elements. Assembling the element stiffness matrices (5. ⎪ ⎪ 6l ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎡ 11l 2 9l − 21l ⎤ ⎧ 12 ⎫ ⎧ 60l ⎫ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 1 ⎪ ⎪ 27 − 27 ⎥ ⎨ 6l ⎬ Q5 = ⎨ 108 ⎬ Q5 . the unreduced global stiffness matrix is obtained as 6l − 12 6l 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ 12 ⎢ 6l 4l 2 − 6l 2l 2 0 0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ 0 − 12 6l ⎥ E I ⎢− 12 − 6l 24 [ K ] = 3 ⎢ 6l 2l 2 0 8l 2 − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ .3. l ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0 0 − 12 − 6l 12 − 6l ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ 0 6l 2l 2 − 6l 4l 2 ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎦ ⎣ .3 Calculate the transverse displacement at 2 and the support reactions for the beam shown in Fig. E5. ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ The three equations with zero right hand side can be written 6l 2l 2 4l 2 ⎫ ⎧ 12 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ = ⎨ 6l ⎬ Q5 .102 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎡ 36 − 6l ⎢ 2 EI ⎢ − 6l 12l l 3 ⎢ − 12 − 6l ⎢ 2l 2 ⎣ 6l ⎡ 36 − 6l ⎢ − 6l 12l 2 ⎢ ⎢ 6l 2l 2 ⎣ or ⎧ Q3 ⎪ ⎨ Q4 ⎪Q ⎩ 6 ⎫ 1 ⎪ ⎬= 2 ⎪ 216l ⎭ − 12 6l ⎤ ⎧ Q3 − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ ⎪ Q4 ⎥⎪ ⎨ 12 − 6l ⎥ ⎪ Q5 ⎥ − 6l 4l 2 ⎦ ⎪ Q6 ⎩ ⎤ ⎧ Q3 ⎥ ⎪Q ⎥⎨ 4 ⎥ ⎪ Q6 ⎦⎩ ⎫ ⎧ 0 ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎬=⎨ ⎪ ⎪−F ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎭ ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬.5 Example 5. Solution. EI v3 = Q5 = −1.

96 E I ϕ3 = Q6 = 12 F l 2 . E5. Omitting the corresponding rows and columns. 3 ⎢ ⎥ l ⎢ 6l 2l 2 4l 2 ⎥ ⎪ Q6 ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎭ ⎣ ⎦⎩ ⎭ ⎩ The last two equations give ⎡ 8l 2 ⎢ 2 ⎢ 2l ⎣ or Q4 = 3 Q3 . at the simply supported end Q5 = 0 . 96 E I The support reactions are given by .3 Substitution of Q4 and Q6 into the first equation gives ⎧ 3 7l ⎫ F l3 24 Q3 + ⎣ 0 6l ⎦ ⎨ ⎬ Q3 = − EI ⎩ − 12 7l ⎭ or 7 F l3 . 96 E I v2 = Q3 = − The rotations are ϕ 2 = Q4 = − 3 F l2 . FRAMES AND GRIDS 103 At the fixed end Q1 = Q2 = 0 . 7l ⎧0 ⎫ 2l 2 ⎤ ⎧ Q4 ⎫ ⎥⎨ ⎬ = − ⎨ ⎬ Q3 4l 2 ⎥ ⎩ Q6 ⎭ ⎩ 6l ⎭ ⎦ Fig. 7l Q6 = − 12 Q3 . BEAMS.5. we obtain the finite element equations 6l ⎤ ⎧ Q3 ⎫ ⎧ − F ⎫ ⎡ 24 0 EI ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 2 0 8l 2l 2 ⎥ ⎨ Q4 ⎬ = ⎨ 0 ⎬ .

5l − 1. 16 Example 5.5l 2l l ⎥ ⎪Q4 ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎪ l ⎢ ⎢ 0 − 1.4 Find the transverse displacement at 2 and the support reactions for the beam with fixed ends shown in Fig. Using the boundary conditions Q1 = Q2 = Q5 = Q6 = 0 . 81 E I ϕ 2 = Q4 = − 2 F l2 .5 − 4. E5. Fig.5l 6l − 1. the finite element equations can be written − 12 6l 6l 0 0 ⎤ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎧ V1 ⎫ ⎡ 12 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 6l 4l 2 2 − 6l 2l 0 0 ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ M1 ⎪ ⎢ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ E I ⎢− 12 − 6l 13.5l 2l 2 ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ M 3 ⎪ 0 1.5l l ⎢ 0 ⎦⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎣ ⎭ From the third and fourth rows we obtain E I ⎡ 13.5l 1.5l 6l ⎦ ⎩ Q4 ⎭ ⎩ 0 ⎭ with solutions v2 = Q3 = − 8 F l3 .5 − 1.4 Solution. Consider the beam modeled by two Bernoulli-Euler beam elements.5 − 1.5 − 4.104 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 0 ⎤ ⎧ Q3 ⎡ − 12 6l EI ⎢ ⎪ 2 0 ⎥ ⎨ Q4 − 6l 2l 3 ⎢ ⎥ l ⎢ − 12 − 6l − 6l ⎥ ⎪ Q6 ⎣ ⎦⎩ which yield V1 = ⎫ ⎧ V1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ = ⎨ M1 ⎬ ⎪ ⎪V ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ 3 ⎭ 11 F. E5. 8 V3 = 5 F. 27 E I .5l ⎥ ⎪Q3 ⎪ ⎪− F ⎪ ⎬=⎨ ⎬.5l ⎤ ⎧ Q3 ⎫ ⎧ − F ⎫ ⎬=⎨ ⎬ ⎢ 2 ⎥⎨ l 3 ⎣ − 4. 16 3 M1 = − F l . 2 2 2 ⎥⎨ 3 ⎢ 6l − 4.5 1.5l ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ V3 ⎪ 0 ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ 2 − 1.4.

E5. BEAMS.5 Calculate the rotations at supports and the reaction forces for the two-span beam shown in Fig. E5. ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬ l 3 ⎢− 1. The continuous beam is modeled by two Bernoulli-Euler beam elements.5. third and fifth rows and columns. M3 = − Fl . FRAMES AND GRIDS 105 Substituting the displacements into the other four equations yields 6l ⎤ ⎧ V1 ⎫ ⎡ − 12 8 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ ⎧− l ⎫ 2 EI ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ 81 ⎪ F l = ⎪ M 1 ⎪ . Fig. we obtain ⎡ 4l 2 ⎢ 2 ⎢ 2l ⎢ 0 ⎣ 0 ⎤ ⎧ Q2 ⎥⎪ 2l 2 ⎥ ⎨ Q4 4l 2 ⎥ ⎪ Q6 ⎦⎩ EI l3 2l 2 8l 2 2l 2 0 ⎫ ⎧ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 2 ⎬ = ⎨ − p l 12 ⎬ . V3 = F .5 − 1. Using the boundary conditions Q1 = Q3 = Q5 = 0 . 3 ⎢ 6l 0 8l 2 − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ ⎪Q4 ⎪ ⎪ − p l 2 12 ⎪ 2l 2 l ⎢ ⎢ 0 0 − 12 − 6l 12 − 6l ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪V3 − p l 2 ⎪ ⎢ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 0 6l 2l 2 − 6l 4l 2 ⎥ ⎪Q6 ⎪ ⎪ p l 2 12 ⎪ ⎢ 0 ⎣ ⎦⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ Omitting the first. ⎪ ⎪ p l 2 12 ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ . 27 9 27 9 Example 5.5l ⎩ ⎭ The support reactions are V1 = 20 4 7 2 F .5 where the right span carries a uniformly distributed load.5l ⎥ ⎪ − 2 ⎪ E I ⎪ V3 ⎪ ⎢ ⎥ ⎪M 3 ⎪ l 2 ⎦ ⎩ 27 ⎭ ⎣ 1. M 1 = F l .5 Solution. the finite element equations can be written 6l − 12 6l 0 0 ⎤ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎧ V1 ⎫ ⎡ 12 ⎢ 6l 4l 2 − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ ⎪Q ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 0 0 0 ⎥ ⎪ 2⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ − 12 6l ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪V2 − p l 2⎪ 0 E I ⎢− 12 − 6l 24 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎥⎨ ⎬=⎨ ⎬.

E5. 16 Example 5. 8 V3 = 7 pl .6.106 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The first equation above yields ⎧Q ⎫ Q2 = ⎣ − 1 2 0 ⎦ ⎨ 4 ⎬ ⎩ Q6 ⎭ (a) which. 32 E I (b) Substituting the rotations (b) in (a) we obtain pl3 . Fig. 48 E I ϕ3 = Q6 = pl3 .6 Find the transverse displacement and the angle of rotation at 2 for the beam shown in Fig.6 . 16 V2 = 5 pl . 96 E I The reaction forces are calculated from ϕ1 = Q2 = 6l 0 ⎤ ⎧ Q2 ⎡ 6l EI ⎢ ⎪ − 6l 0 6l ⎥ ⎨ Q4 3 ⎢ ⎥ l ⎢ 0 − 6l − 6l ⎥ ⎪ Q6 ⎣ ⎦⎩ obtaining V1 ⎫ ⎧ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ = ⎨ V2 − p l 2 ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ V − pl 2 ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ 3 ⎭ V1 = − pl . E5. 4l 2 ⎥ ⎩ Q6 ⎭ ⎟ 12 ⎩ 1 ⎭ ⎦ ⎠ ϕ 2 = Q4 = − pl3 . substituted into the second and third equation EI l3 gives ⎛ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ ⎧ 2l 2 ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ 0 ⎩ ⎫ ⎡ 8l 2 ⎪ ⎬ Q2 + ⎢ 2 ⎪ ⎢ 2l ⎭ ⎣ 2l 2 ⎤ ⎧ Q4 ⎫ ⎞ p l 2 ⎧− 1⎫ ⎥⎨ ⎬⎟= ⎨ ⎬.

BEAMS.1333 p0l ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎭ ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎬.7 p0 l ⎫ − 1. ⎟ 0 ⎭ ⎦⎩ 4⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ ⎠ ⎩ v2 = Q3 = −0.5l − 12 6l ⎥ ⎪Q3 ⎪ ⎪ − 0.3 p 0 l ⎪ ⎪ 2 ⎬ = ⎨ 0. Two Bernoulli-Euler beam elements are used to model the system.5l ⎡ 1.5l l 4.5 4.5l 13.5l ⎤ ⎧ Q3 ⎫ ⎧ 6l ⎫ ⎢ 4.5l l ⎪ ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ E I ⎢− 1.0518 p0 l 3 .5 1. EI Example 5. EI ϕ 2 = Q4 = 0.3 p0l ⎫ ⎡ 13. Answer.5l 6l 2 2l 2 ⎥ ⎨ Q4 3 ⎢ ⎥ l ⎢ 6l 2l 2 4l 2 ⎥ ⎪ Q6 ⎣ ⎦⎩ The last equation yields ⎫ ⎧ − 0 .5l 2 2 2l 0 0 ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪M 1 − 0. FRAMES AND GRIDS 107 Solution. N 1( r ) = 1 2 r 4 − 5r − 2r 2 + 3r 3 .084 p0 l 4 . second and fifth rows and columns we obtain ⎡ 13. ⎪ ⎭ Q6 = − 3 1 Q3 − Q4 2l 2 which.1333 p l 2 ⎬ . 3 ⎢ 1.3 p0 l ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬=⎨ 2 2 2⎥⎨ 2 ⎬.5l 0 0 ⎤ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎧ V1 − 0.5l 6l − 6l 2l ⎥ ⎪Q4 ⎪ ⎪ 0. 4 ( ) N 2 (r ) = 1 2 r 1 −r − r 2 + r 3 .5l 6l ⎤ ⎧ Q3 EI ⎢ ⎪ 4.5l 6l 2 ⎥ ⎨ Q ⎬ + ⎨ 2l 2 ⎬ Q6 ⎟ = ⎨0. 4 ( ) .7 Find the shape functions for the 3-node beam element shown in Fig.7.1333 p0 l ⎪ l ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎪ 0 V3 − 12 − 6l 12 − 6l ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 0 6l 2l 2 − 6l 4l 2 ⎥ ⎪Q6 ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎢ 0 ⎣ ⎦⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ Deleting the first.5 4.2 p0 l 2 ⎪ − 1. Using the boundary conditions Q1 = Q2 = Q5 = 0 . E5. the finite element equations can be written 1.5 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 1.5 4. substituted into the first two equations EI l3 gives ⎛ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ ⎞ ⎧ − 0.5 − 1.5.

108 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS N 3(r ) = 1 − r 2 N 5 (r ) = ( ) 2 . 2 1 2 r 4 + 5r − 2r 2 − 3r 3 . 4 ( ) Fig. E5. E5.7. b . N 4 (r ) = r 1− r 2 ( ). a Fig.7. 4 ( ) N 6 (r ) = 1 2 r −1− r +r 2 + r3 .

0699e-2 1. The diagrams of the axial force N .8. d.260e-3 -6.8. E5. FRAMES AND GRIDS 109 Example 5.700e-6 1.5. It has E = 2 ⋅ 1011 N m 2 .592e-3 -1. Answer. a has pinned ends and is loaded in 2 by a force 5 4 F = 1000 N .232e-2 -5.321e-3 -8.5 1. Nodal data Node nr 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Restr X 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 Restr Y 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 Restr Z 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Coord X 0 0 0 0.8 The planar frame shown in Fig.4 2 2 Coord Y 0 1 2 2 2 2 1 Displ X 0 0. a b c d e Fig.8.8 .500e-7 1. The frame is modeled with 6 elements and 7 nodes. shear and bending moment. b. Determine the nodal displacements. E5. E5.531e-3 2.500e-7 0 Rotation Z -1.010 1.260e-2 The deformed shape is shown in Fig.0698e-2 1. shear T and bending moment M are shown in Figs.309e-3 2. BEAMS. plot the deformed shape and the diagrams of axial force. E5.353e-3 2.889e-3 -1. c.0697e-2 1.0696e-2 0 Displ Y 0 8. e. A = 1600 mm 2 and I = 2 ⋅ 10 mm .

a has fixed ends in 1. b. ϕ 6 = −0. For E = 2 ⋅105 N mm 2 . a The displacements in 6 are h 6 = 0. Answer. E5.00623 rad . The frame is modeled with 12 elements and 13 nodes. b . Fig.9. It is loaded by a couple M 3 = 2 ⋅ 106 N mm and two point loads F6 = −2 ⋅ 10 4 N and F12 = −10 4 N . Fig. E5. A = 400 mm 2 . 5. E5.2476 mm .9. 10.9. find the displacements in 6 and plot the deformed shape.9673 mm . 13.9.110 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Example 5. E5. The deformed shape is presented in Fig.9 The planar frame shown in Fig. v 6 = −0. l1− 2 = 100 mm and l 9 −10 = l 9 −11 = 200 mm . I = 2 ⋅104 mm 4 .

the torsional rigidity G I t and the length l .8. Their properties are the flexural rigidity E I .2 Element stiffness matrix in local coordinates Consider an inclined grid element. respectively.8 Grids Grids or grillages are planar structural systems subjected to loads applied normally to their plane. defined as the rotation about the X axis. a. Elements are modelled as uniform rods with bending and torsional flexibility. 5. two rotations and a linear displacement. a translation and two rotations. Fig.12. 5.1 Finite element discretization The grid is divided into finite elements. the rotation about the Y axis and the displacement along the Z axis.11 5. the degrees of freedom of node i are Q3 i − 2 .8. Each node has three degrees of freedom. without shear deformations and not loaded between ends. Only cross sections whose shear centre coincides with the centroid are considered. as shown in Fig. describing bending and torsional effects. Nodes are located by their coordinates in the global reference frame XOY and element connectivity is defined by the indices of the end nodes. where the nodal displacements are also shown. . Q3 i −1 and Q3 i . Typically. 5. FRAMES AND GRIDS 111 5. They are special cases of tree-dimensional frames in which each joint has only three nodal displacements. BEAMS.5. as illustrated in Fig.11. 5.

112

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

In a local physical coordinate system, the x axis, oriented along the beam, is inclined an angle α with respect to the global X axis. The z axis for the local coordinate system is collinear with the Z axis for the global system. Alternatively, an intrinsic (natural) coordinate system can be used.

Fig. 5.12 The vector of element nodal displacements is

{ q }= ⎣ q
e e

1

q2

q3

q4

q5

q6

⎦T ⎦T .

(5.68)

and the corresponding vector of element nodal forces can be written

{ f }= ⎣ f
In (5.69)
f 3 and

1

f2

f3

f4

f5

f6

(5.69)
f 5 are

f 6 are transverse forces, while f 2 and

couples producing bending (Fig. 5.12, b). The corresponding displacements q 3 , q 6 are translations, while q 2 , q 5 are rotations. Their column vectors are related by the flexural stiffness matrix. Rearranging the matrix (5.29) we obtain

⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩

f2 f3 f5

⎡ 4l 2 6l 2l 2 − 6l ⎤ ⎧q 2 ⎫ ⎫ ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 12 6l − 12 ⎥ ⎪q 3 ⎪ ⎪ EI e ⎢ 6l ⎨ ⎬. ⎬= 3 ⎢ 2 6l 4l 2 − 6l ⎥ ⎪q 5 ⎪ ⎪ l e ⎢ 2l ⎥ f6 ⎪ ⎢− 6l − 12 − 6l 12 ⎥ e ⎪q 6 ⎪ ⎭ ⎣ ⎦ ⎩ ⎭

(5.70)

The axial nodal forces f 1 , f 4 are torques and the nodal displacements q 1 , q 4 are twist angles. They describe torsional effects so that their action is decoupled from bending. The respective stiffness matrix can be calculated

5. BEAMS, FRAMES AND GRIDS

113

separately. The derivation of this matrix is essentially identical to the derivation of the stiffness matrix for axial effects in a frame element or in a truss element. The twist angle can be expressed in terms of the shape functions (4.51) as

θ (r ) = N1 (r ) q 1 + N 2 (r ) q 4 ,
which substituted into the strain energy
Ue = G It e 2

(5.71)


e

⎛ ∂θ ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ dx ⎜ ∂x ⎟ ⎝ ⎠
+1

2

(5.72)

yields, after the change of coordinates, the element stiffness matrix

[ ]=
kte

2 G It e

le

−1

∫ ⎣N ′ ⎦
r

T

′ ⎣N r ⎦ d r .

(5.73)

As a consequence of this analogy, the nodal forces are related to the nodal displacements by equation ⎧ f1 ⎫ e ⎧ q1 ⎫ (5.74) ⎨ ⎬ = kt ⎨ ⎬ ⎩ f4 ⎭ ⎩ q4 ⎭

[ ]
te

where the stiffness matrix for torsional effects is

[ k ] = GlI
e t

e

⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎢− 1 1 ⎥ . ⎣ ⎦

(5.75)

In (5.75), G is the shear modulus of elasticity and I t e is the torsional constant of the cross section. For axially symmetrical cross sections the latter is the polar second moment of area. For the grid element, combining the stiffness matrices from equations (5.70) and (5.75), we get the stiffness matrix in local coordinates relating the nodal forces (5.69) and the nodal displacements (5.68) −a 0 0 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ a ⎢ 0 4l 2 6l 2 − 6l ⎥ 0 2l ⎥ ⎢ 6l 12 0 6l − 12 ⎥ EI e ⎢ 0 = 3 ⎢ ⎥ a 0 0 0 0 ⎥ l e ⎢− a ⎢ 0 2l 2 6l 0 4l 2 − 6l ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ 0 − 6l − 12 0 − 6l 12 ⎥ e ⎦ ⎣

[k ]
e

(5.76)

where a = G I t e l 2 E I e . e

114

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

5.8.3 Coordinate transformation
It is necessary to transform the matrix (5.76) from the local to the global system of coordinates before its assemblage in the stiffness matrix for the complete grid. As has been indicated, the z direction for local axes coincides with the Z direction for the global axes, so that only the rotational components of displacements should be converted. The transformation of coordinates is defined by equation

where q e system,

{ } is the element displacement vector (5.68) in the local coordinate

{ q } = [ T ] { Q },
e e e

(5.77)

{ Q } = ⎣Q
e

1

Q2

Q3

Q4

Q5

Q6 ⎦ T

is the element displacement vector in the global coordinate system (Fig. 5.12) and ⎡c ⎢− s ⎢ ⎢0 =⎢ ⎢0 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎣ s 0 c 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0⎤ 0 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0 0⎥ ⎥, c s 0⎥ − s c 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0 1⎥ ⎦ 0

[T ]
e

(5.78)

where c = cos α and s = sin α , is the local-to-global coordinate transformation matrix. The same transformation matrix (5.78) serves to transform the nodal forces from local to global coordinates.

5.8.4 Element stiffness matrix in global coordinates
Using the same procedure as for frame elements, we obtain the stiffness matrix of the grid element in global coordinates as

[ K ]= [T ] [ k ][T ] .
e e T e e

(5.79)

It is used to assemble the unreduced global stiffness matrix [ K ] using ~ element connectivity matrices T e that relate the nodal displacements at element level with the nodal displacements at the complete structure level, by equations of the form (5.64).

[ ]

5. BEAMS, FRAMES AND GRIDS

115

For grounded systems the unreduced matrix [ K ] is then condensed using the boundary conditions. The effect of lumped springs can be accounted for by adding their values along the main diagonal at the appropriate locations in the global stiffness matrix.

Example 5.10
The grid shown in Fig. E5.10 is fixed at points 1 and 2, has E = 210 GPa , G = 81 GPa , l = 1 m and diameter d = 20 mm . Find the vertical displacement of point 7 when the grid is loaded by forces F7 = F8 = −500 N and draw the spatial deflected shape.

a Fig. E5.10

b

Answer. The grid is modeled with 14 elements and 8 nodes, having 18 dof’s. The deflected shape is presented in Fig. E5.10, b. The deflection is w7 = − 0.436 m .

Example 5.11
The grid shown in Fig. E5.11, a is fixed at points 1 and 2, and has l = 1 m , I = 0.785 ⋅ 10 −8 m 4 , I t = 1.57 ⋅ 10 −8 m 4 , E = 210 GPa and G = 81 GPa . Find the vertical displacement of point 5 when the grid is loaded by a force F5 = −103 N . Draw the deflected shape and the diagrams of the bending moment and torque.

116

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

a

b

c Fig. E5.11

d

Answer. The grid is modeled with 5 elements and 5 nodes, having 9 dof’s. The largest displacement is w5 = − 0.4 m . The deflected shape is presented in Fig. E5.11, b. The bending moment and torque diagrams are shown in Figs. E5.11, c, d.

5.9 Deep beam bending element
Shear deformation becomes important when analyzing deep beams, for which Bernoulli’s hypothesis is no more valid. The nonlinear distribution of shear stresses produces the warping of the cross section. A simplifying hypothesis (Poncelet, 1825) considers an average shear strain, constant over the cross section. This way, planar cross sections remain undistorted and plane (warping neglected) but no more perpendicular to the centroidal axis. The assumption is adopted in the formulation of the Timoshenko beam element used in vibration studies.

at a distance y from the neutral axis. 5. Fig. σ x = E ε x = −E (5. Only transverse loads act upon the beam. BEAMS.5. The strain components ε x and γ xy are given by (5.13.9.83) The bending moment is the resultant of the normal stress distribution on the cross section .81) (5. is approximated by u (x.13 The axial displacement of any point on the section.82) γ xy = dv ∂u ∂ v + = −ϕ + = −ϕ + v′ . Normal stresses on the cross section are given by Hooke’s law dϕ y. as in the Bernoulli-Euler theory.80) εx = du dϕ = −y = − yϕ ′ . dx ∂ y ∂x where v′ is the slope of the deformed beam axis. axial forces are ignored. dx where E is Young’s modulus of the material. y ) = − y ϕ (x ) . where ϕ is the cross section rotation at position x . 5. FRAMES AND GRIDS 117 5. dx dx (5. a). Note that the slope v′ is no more equal to the rotation ϕ .1 Static analysis of a uniform beam Beams with cross sections that are symmetric with respect to the plane of loading are considered herein (Fig.

89) For a uniform beam not loaded between ends ( p = 0 ) .13. (5.84) where I z is the second moment of area of the cross section.90) (5.82) and (5. 5. (5.91) G As v′ + E I z ϕ ′′ − G Asϕ = 0 .86) The average shear strain is γ xy = T T = G As κ AG (5. 5.87) give T = G As ( v′ − ϕ ) .118 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS M (x ) = − σ x y dA = E I z A ∫ dϕ = E I zϕ′ dx (5. . b) is that positive internal forces and moments act in positive (negative) coordinate directions on beam cross sections with a positive (negative) outward normal. 5. The sign convention used here (Fig. elimination of M and T gives the differential equations of equilibrium G As v′′ − G Asϕ ′ = 0 . (5.9. Using natural coordinates. r = 2 x l .87) where G is the shear modulus of elasticity. dx (5.85) The transverse load per unit length is p (x ) = − dT . κ is a shear factor and As is the ‘effective shear area’ calculated as As [ ∫τ dA ] = ∫τ 2 2 dA .88) Equations (5. dx (5.2 Shape functions Consider a prismatic beam element (Fig.14) of length l (the index e is omitted) not loaded between ends ( p = 0 ) . The shear force is given by T (x ) = − dM .

l b1 = 2 12 a2 + β a 4 . FRAMES AND GRIDS 119 Fig. The seven constants of integration are not independent since the above solutions must also satisfy equation (5. l b2 = 4 a3 .93) The general solutions of these equations are v (r ) = a 4 r 3 + a 3 r 2 + a 2 r + a 1 . d r4 and d 3ϕ = 0. d x4 and d 3ϕ = 0. The resulting displacement functions are .95) at r = ± 1 .94) and (5. in the new variable r.96) where β= 4E I z .5.97) Substituting (5.14 Eliminating ϕ and v in turn in (5.95) ϕ (r ) = b 3 r 2 + b 2 r + b 1 .91) which. 5. BEAMS.98) This leaves only four independent constants which can be determined by evaluating (5. G As l 2 (5. d r3 (5. l dr d r2 (5.94) (5. becomes 2 dv d 2ϕ +β −ϕ = 0. l l (5.90) and (5. d x3 (5.94) and (5.91) gives d4v =0.95) into (5.92) Changing to the r coordinate yields d4v =0.96) gives b3 = 6 a4 . (5.

e e (5. and defined by . ( )] ) ( − 3 + 3r ) . (5.102) 2 ~ N 2 (r ) = ~ N3 ( r ) = 1 4 ( 1 + 3β 1 4 ( 1 + 3β ) ) ) [ − 1 −2r + 3r ( 3 − 3r ).21) and the last four functions satisfy the relationship 2 ∂ Ni ~ N i (r ) = l ∂r ( i = 1.103) It is useful to introduce a third set of shape functions which are used in the derivation of the element stiffness matrix. 2 + 6β ( 1 − r ) .120 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎢ v = ⎢ N1 ⎣ ⎢2 ~ ⎣l l N2 2 N3 2 ~ N3 l e l ⎥ N4 ⎥ 2 ⎦ { q } = ⎣N ⎦ { q }. (5.101) 1 4 ( 1 + 3β ) [ 2 − 3r + r 2 3 + 6β ( 1 − r ) .100) { q }= ⎣v The shape functions are N 1( r ) = 1 ϕ 1 v2 ϕ 2 ⎦ T ... ] N 2 (r ) = N 3(r ) = 1 4 ( 1 + 3β 1 4 ( 1 + 3β [1 −r − r ) ) + r 3 + 3β 1 − r 2 . the first four functions (5.99) ϕ = ⎢ N1 N 2 where ~ ~ ⎥ N4 ⎥ ⎦ ~ { q } = ⎣N ⎦ { q }.. ] ~ N 4 (r ) = 1 4 ( 1 + 3β [ − 1 +2r + 3r 2 + 6β ( 1 + r ) . ] For β = 0 . 3 ( )] [ 2 + 3r − r + 6β ( 1 + r ) .. (5. ] N 4 (r ) = ~ N1 ( r ) = 4 ( 1 + 3β ) 1 4 ( 1 + 3β 1 [ − 1 −r + r 2 2 + r 3 + 3β − 1 + r 2 . 4 ) .102) become the third degree Hermitic polynomials (5. e e (5.

l e B T z −1 +1 (5.106) dϕ 2 d ϕ = dx l dr +1 and dx = (5.100) into (5.108) and the contribution due to shear is G As l S Ue = 2 2 +1 ∫ −1 ⎛ 2 dv ⎞ ⎟ dr .3 Stiffness matrix The strain energy for a beam element with shear effects included is E Iz Ue = 2 As l2 −l 2 ∫ ⎛dϕ ⎞ G As ⎜ ⎜ d x ⎟ dx + 2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 2 l 2 −l 2 ∫ ⎛ dv ⎞ ⎜ϕ − ⎟ dx .107) the contribution due to bending is B Ue E Iz 2 = 2 l −1 ∫ ⎛dϕ ⎞ ⎜ ⎜ d r ⎟ dr .104) They are 3β 1 ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ N1 (r ) = N 2 (r ) = − N 3 (r ) = N 4 (r ) = .109) On substituting (5. ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 2 (5.109) we get .100) and (5. FRAMES AND GRIDS 121 2 ⎢ dN ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ .110) wherefrom we obtain the element stiffness matrix due to bending ~ ~ [ k ] = E I 2 ∫ ⎣N ′⎦ ⎣N ′⎦ dr . 1 + 3β l (5. ⎣ dr ⎦ ~ ˆ ⎣ N ⎦= ⎣ N ⎦ − l (5. ⎜ dx⎟ ⎝ ⎠ l dr .108) we get B Ue 1 = 2 {q } +1 e T 2 EIz l −1 ∫ ⎣N ′⎦ ⎣N ′⎦ dr { q } ~ T ~ e (5. 2 2 (5.105) 5.111) On substituting (5.99) into (5.9.5. BEAMS. ⎜ϕ − ⎜ l dr⎟ ⎠ ⎝ 2 (5.

114) The vector of consistent nodal forces is identical to the corresponding vector (5.42) derived for a slender beam.102) and (5.112) wherefrom we obtain the element stiffness matrix due to shear l ˆ ˆ [ k ] = G A 2 ∫ ⎣N ⎦ ⎣N ⎦ dr . . ⎥ 2⎥ (4 + 3β ) l ⎦ − 6l (2 − 3β ) l 6l 2⎥ ⎤ (5. e S T s −1 +1 (5.113) Substituting the shape functions (5.105) and performing the integration yields the stiffness matrix [k ] e ⎡ 12 ⎢ 1 EI z ⎢ 6l = 1 + 3β l 3 ⎢− 12 ⎢ ⎣ 6l (4 + 3β ) l − 6l 6l − 12 2 − 6l 12 − 6l (2 − 3β ) l 2 ⎥.122 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS S Ue 1 = 2 {q } +1 e T l G As 2 −1 ˆ ∫ ⎣N ⎦ T ˆ ⎣N ⎦ d r { q e } (5.

6. Their the magnitude per unit volume is denoted by components pv x . It is convenient to write these components as a single body force vector { pv } = ⎣ pv x pv y pv z ⎦ T . (6.1 Matrix notation for loads.1. In general there may be three sets of applied forces: (a) internal body forces. the portion of the boundary on which displacements are prescribed. pv y . LINEAR ELASTICITY In this chapter the fundamental concepts from the linear theory of elasticity are recalled. (c) stress/strain relations or Hooke’s law. and S σ . y. The total surface S of the body has two distinct parts: S u . the portion on which surface forces are prescribed. and (d) boundary conditions. stresses and strains An arbitrarily shaped tree-dimensional body of volume V. like centrifugal or gravity forces. The four main groups of equations are written in the matrix notation used in FEA: (a) equations of equilibrium. pv z . is shown in Fig. (b) surface forces. and (c) concentrated forces. Any point on the surface has a local outward-pointing normal n whose orientation is usually described by its three direction cosines ∂n ∂x . Points in the body are located by x. in equilibrium under the action of external loads and the reactions in supports. Internal body forces Internal body forces inside the volume V can be inertial forces. z coordinates.1) . with emphasis on two-dimensional problems. (b) equations of compatibility or strain/displacement relations. 6. 6. ∂n ∂y . ∂n ∂z .

124 Surface tractions FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Likewise there could be surface forces (not necessarily normal pressures) on the surface Sσ .1 Displacements It is natural to form the single displacement vector { u} = ⎣u v w⎦ T . v . also having three components { ps } = ⎣ ps x Concentrated loads ps y ps z ⎦T . Thus {σ } = ⎣σ x σ y σ z τ xy τ yz τ zx ⎦T . (6.2) Concentrated loads are defined by their three components { Fi } = ⎣ Fi x Fi y Fi z ⎦T .5) . defined by the magnitude per unit surface area. It is convenient to represent both stress and strain components as single column matrices.3).τ zx . (6. w are the displacement components inside the body or on the surface Sσ with unprescribed displacements.1) to (6.4) where u . the direct stress components σ x . σ y . (6.σ z and the shear stresses τ xy . Stresses and strains The stresses inside V will have two types of component.3) Any system of loads has to fall into categories (6.τ yz . (6. Fig. 6.

The small linear increments in stresses are equilibrated by the applied body forces yielding the following equilibrium equations. equations (6.6) In two-dimensional problems {ε } = ⎣ε x ε y γ xy ⎦T . a) Strains are represented in vector form as ε y ε z γ xy γ yz γ zx (6. LINEAR ELASTICITY 125 In two-dimensional problems {σ } = ⎣ σ x {ε } = ⎣ε x σ y τ xy ⎦T . (6. ∂x ∂y (6. 6.2 In matrix form. where τ xy = τ yx ∂σ x ∂τ yx + pv x = 0.2 shows stresses acting on an infinitesimal element in the plane xOy.7) can be written . ⎦T .2 Equations of equilibrium inside V Figure 6.6. + ∂y ∂x ∂τ xy ∂σ y + + p v y = 0.6. (6.7) Fig. a) 6.5.

1) ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ∂ ⎥ . denoting the matrix of differential operators ⎡ ∂ ⎢ ⎢ ∂x [∂ ]= ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ∂ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ ∂y and using (6.9) [ ∂ ]T {σ } + { pv } = { 0 } . 6. Sσ (6.10) 6.11) the direction cosines for the outward normal n are . τ xy l + σ y m = ps y .2 Equations of equilibrium on the surface Let now consider an element near the loaded boundary Sσ . (6. ∂y ⎥ ∂ ⎥ ⎥ ∂x ⎦ ⎥ (6.126 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎡ ∂ ⎢ ∂x ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎣ 0 ∂ ∂y ∂ ∂y ∂ ∂x ⎤ ⎧σ ⎥⎪ x ⎥ ⎨σy ⎥⎪ ⎥ ⎩ τ xy ⎦ ⎫ ⎧ p vx ⎫ ⎪ ⎬ ⎬ = −⎨ ⎩ pvy ⎭ ⎪ ⎭ (6.8) or. The equilibrium along the two axes directions yields σ x l + τ yx m = ps x .11) Fig.3 In (6.

17) {ε } = [ ∂ ] { u } . ∂y ∂ v ∂u + . The equations of compatibility have the familiar form ∂u . x ) = ∂n = nx . (6. sometimes written (6. y ) = = ny .18) . ∂x ∂v . ∂y ⎥⎩ v ⎭ ∂ ⎥ ⎥ ∂x ⎥ ⎦ (6.3 Strain-displacement relations Figure 6.6. 6.15) where ∂T n implies that the operators in [ ∂ ] T are acting upon n. (6. ⎪ ⎩ sy ⎭ ⎭ (6. ∂x ∂n m = cos (n .16) In matrix form ⎡ ∂ ⎢ ⎧ εx ⎫ ⎢ ∂x ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎨ εy ⎬ = ⎢ 0 ⎪γ ⎪ ⎢ ⎩ xy ⎭ ∂ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ ∂y and can be summarized as ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ∂ ⎥⎧u⎫ ⎨ ⎬.12) In matrix form.11) can be written ⎧σ ⎡ nx 0 n y ⎤ ⎪ x ⎢ 0 n n ⎥ ⎨σy y x ⎦⎪ ⎣ ⎩ τ xy ⎫ ⎪ ⎧ ps x ⎫ ⎬ =⎨ p ⎬ .4 gives the deformation of the dx − dy face for small deformations.13) or in condensed form [ n ] T {σ } = { p s } .14) [ ∂ n ] {σ } = { p T s }. ∂y (6. LINEAR ELASTICITY 127 l = cos (n . equations (6. ∂x ∂ y εx = εy = γ xy = (6.

19) −ν ⎡1 − ν ⎢ 1 −ν ⎢ ⎢ 1 [C ]= 1 ⎢ E ⎢ ⎢ SYM ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ The inverse relation is 0 0 0 2 (1 +ν 0 0 ) 0 0 2 (1 +ν ) ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥.4 Stress-strain relations For linear isotropic elastic materials. the stress-strain relations come from the generalized Hooke’s law {ε } = [ C ] {σ } . where the material elastic compliance matrix is (6. 6. The inverse of [ C ] is the material stiffness matrix (6.20) {σ } = [ C ] −1{ε } = [ D ] {ε } . 0 ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ 2 ( 1 + ν )⎥ ⎦ 0 0 (6.4 6.128 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Fig.21) .

22). from (6. a small thickness in the loaded area can be treated as subjected to plane strain.6. If stresses σ z .20). we obtain ⎧σx ⎪ ⎨σy ⎪τ ⎩ xy ⎡ ⎫ ν ⎢ 1 −ν ⎪ E ⎢ ν 1 −ν ⎬= (1 + ν )(1 − 2ν ) ⎢ ⎪ 0 ⎢ 0 ⎭ ⎣ ⎤⎧ ⎥ ⎪ εx ⎥ ⎨ εy ⎥⎪ ⎥ ⎩ γ xy ⎦ 0 0 1 −ν 2 ⎫ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎭ (6. γ xz . and τ yz are set as zero. discarding rows and columns 3.25) .23) The inverse relations are given by ⎧σx ⎪ ⎨σy ⎪τ ⎩ xy ⎫ ⎪ E ⎬= 2 ⎪ 1 −ν ⎭ ⎡ 0 ⎢1 ν ⎢ν 1 0 ⎢ 1 −ν ⎢0 0 2 ⎣ ⎫ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎭ (6. ⎪ ⎭ (6.24) which is used as {σ } = [ D ] {ε }. Plane strain If a long body of uniform cross section is subjected to transverse loading along its length. 5 and 6 in (6. LINEAR ELASTICITY 129 ⎡1 − ν ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ E ⎢ [D] = (1 + ν )(1 − 2ν ) ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ Plane stress ν 1 −ν ν ν 1 −ν 0 0 0 1 −ν 2 0 0 0 0 1 −ν 2 SYM 0 ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ . and γ yz are set as zero.(6. If strains ε z . τ xz .21) and discarding rows and columns 3. 5 and 6 in (6. the Hooke’s law can be written ⎧ εx ⎪ ⎨ εy ⎪γ ⎩ xy ⎫ ⎡ 1 ⎪ 1 ⎢ ⎬ = ⎢ −ν ⎪ E⎢ 0 ⎣ ⎭ −ν 1 0 ⎤ ⎧σx ⎪ 0 ⎥ ⎨σy ⎥ 2 (1 + ν ) ⎥ ⎪ τ xy ⎦⎩ 0 ⎤⎧ ⎥ ⎪ εx ⎥ ⎨ εy ⎥⎪ ⎥ ⎩ γ xy ⎦ ⎫ ⎪ ⎬.22) ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ 1 −ν ⎥ 2 ⎦ A thin planar body subjected to in-plane loading on its edge surface is said to be in plane stress.

1. The stress-strain relations become {σ } = [ D ] ( {ε } − {ε 0 } ) .32) .24). (6. (6.5 Temperature effects The temperature strains are represented as initial strains {ε 0 } = ⎣ α T αT αT 0 0 0 ⎦ T . the total strain energy is given by U= 1 2 V ∫ {ε } {σ } dV . In plane stress (6. 6. (6. T (6.26) where T is the temperature rise and α is the coefficient of linear expansion of the material.6 Strain energy For linear elastic materials.130 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS which is also used as {σ } = [ D ] { ε } but here [ D ] has a different expression as in (6.30) For the elastic body shown in Fig. the strain energy per unit volume in the body is U0 = 1 {σ 2 }T {ε } = 1 {ε }T {σ }.29) 6. 6. 2 (6. T (6.28) {ε 0 } = (1 + ν ) ⎣α T αT 0⎦ T .31) Substituting (6.21) we obtain the strain energy in terms of strains U= 1 2 V ∫ {ε } [ D ] {ε } dV .27) {ε 0 } = ⎣α T In plane strain αT 0 ⎦ T .

Unfortunately.1. the finite element method evaluates integrals of relatively simple polynomial functions. as applied to elastic bodies. ENERGY METHODS The finite element method can be considered a Rayleigh-Ritz method. systems with complex geometry or complex boundary conditions cannot be accomodated easily by global admissible functions. Variational methods put less strict conditions on the functions approximating the displacement field than the analytical methods based on differential equations. 7. virtual displacements are: a) arbitrary (fictitious. defined over small subdomains of the structure. Good approximations can be realized with low-degree polynomials.1 Principle of virtual work (PVW) PVW is basically a statement of the static equilibrium of a mechanical system. In the finite element method. the approximate solution is constructed using local admissible functions. The classical Rayleigh-Ritz technique represents a variational approach whereby a distributed system is approximated by a discrete one by assuming a solution of the differential eigenvalue problem as a finite series of admissible functions. Instead of solving differential equations with complicated boundary conditions. Displacements are calculated by methods based on the principle of virtual work and/or the principle of minimum total potential energy.1 Virtual displacements By definition. the form known as the principle of virtual displacements (PVD) will be used. b) infinitesimal (follow the rules of differential calculus). . In the following. virtual). 7.7.

the geometrical boundary conditions must be satisfied to the (n − 1)th derivative. the vector of virtual displacements is {δu } = ⎣ δu δv δw ⎦ T . m = 2 and the assumed functions must have continuity C 0 . Exceptions do exist. (7. i. If the differential equation of the problem is of order m = 2n . exist and are continuous in the domain V. consistent with the system kinematic boundary conditions (geometric constraints). up to the mth order inclusive.g. A virtual displacement will be denoted by ‘ δ ’ in front of a letter.1) The vector of the corresponding virtual strains will be { δε } = [ B ] { δu } .1).e. the functional is said to have a “weak form”. e) kinematically admissible. Because the continuity required is reduced from C 2 in the governing differential equation to C1 in the variational equation. d) continuous in the interior and on the surface of the body.132 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS c) not related to either the actual displacements or to the forces producing them. the admissible functions must have continuity C n −1 . while a continuity C1 is imposed for beams. The symbol ‘ δ ’ was introduced by Lagrange to emphasize the virtual character of the variations. For beams m = 4 and the approximating functions must have continuity C . Remember that a function of several variables is said to be of class C m in a domain V if all its partial derivatives. i. the displacement vector (6.e. δu .2) . e.4) inside the body or on the surface Sσ with unprescribed displacements (Fig. Denoting by 1 { u} = ⎣u v w⎦ T . where [ B ] is the strain-displacement matrix. For bars. A continuity C 0 is generally required for bars and elasticity problems. 6. (7. as opposed to the symbol d which designates actual differentials of position coordinates. plates and shells.

ENERGY METHODS 133 7. i T T T Sσ (7.1. (7.2) and point forces (6. b) or nonlinear elastic (Fig. the virtual work of the external force F is δWE = F ⋅ δu . 7. hence independent of the force. a).3 Virtual work of internal forces For a three-dimensional continuum. Note that it is simply (force × displacement).3) It has the same value whether the bar material is linear elastic (Fig.1.1). 7. 7.1. surface tractions (6. 7. In the general case of loading by conservative body forces (6.7. the virtual work of external loads is δ WE = V ∫ { δu } { pv }dV + ∫ { δu } { ps }d A + ∑ { δui } { Fi } . 7. because the force is constant along the virtual displacement. a b Fig. c). .4) Note that the scalar product under the first integral is { δu }T { pv } = δu ⋅ pv x + δ v ⋅ pv y + δ w ⋅ pv z .5) as shown in Fig.3).1. T (7. because the external loads remain constant during the action along the virtual displacements.1 c Note also the absence of the factor 1 2 which occurs in the expression of the work of elastic forces. the virtual work of internal stresses is δ WI = V ∫ { δε } {σ }dV . 7.2 for the uniaxial case.1.2 Virtual work of external loads For a bar in tension (Fig. the latter being arbitrary.

whether the material is elastic or inelastic.6) δWE is the work of external loads on the virtual displacements { δu } which are independent of loading and kinematically admissible. the principle of virtual displacements states that: If a system is in equilibrium. a) In (7. i T T T T V Sσ (7.134 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Fig. It applies only . (7.e. V ∫ { δε } {σ }dV − ∫ { δu } { pv }dV − ∫ { δu } { ps }d A − ∑ { δui } { Fi } = 0 . If stresses are expressed in terms of a set of parameters defining completely the displacement pattern – the nodal displacements.6. so that the PVD will ensure approximate equilibrium. 7.1. i. Note that the virtual work of reaction forces at supports is zero. then equilibrium relations can be obtained and the displacement parameters determined. the virtual work of applied loads equals the virtual work of internal forces δWE = δWI .6) Also: A body is in equilibrium if the internal virtual work equals the external virtual work for every kinematically admissible displacement field. The nodal displacements do not permit the fully equilibrating position to be reached. Since the principle of virtual displacements is an equilibrium requirement. then during an arbitrary small displacement from the equilibrium position.2 Again. 7. it is independent of material behaviour. stresses remain constant during the action on virtual strains.4 Principle of virtual displacements For elastic bodies.

in which the external force F.19) . produces a displacement of the joint 4. 7. producing the elongations Δ1 . a).4. 7. δΔ 2 . loaded by a force F. The external work is independent of the path taken. which produce virtual elongations in bars δΔ1 . f).4. Consider three states of the analyzed system: 1.4. Fig. δΔ3 (Fig. δΔ2 . T2 . ENERGY METHODS 135 for loading by conservative forces.3. The final state of static equilibrium. T3 (Fig.7. 7. 7.3 Solution. b). which do not change direction during the action on the virtual displacements. c). The initial state. in which the joint 4 is given a virtual displacement of components δu1 and δu2 (Fig. 7. find the internal bar forces and the displacement of point 4. 3.4. 7. Example 7.4. F2 and by internal forces T1 .4. 2. 7. of components u1 and u2 (Fig. of components F1 = F sinα and F2 = F cosα . δΔ3 satisfy the compatibility equations (2. in which bars are not loaded by external forces and are not prestressed (Fig. The joint reacts with forces equal in magnitude but of opposite sign. d).1 For the three-bar pin-jointed framework shown in Fig. An imaginary state. The virtual displacements δu1 and δu2 and the virtual bar extensions δΔ 1 . 7. Δ2 . e). The joint 4 is acted upon by the external forces F1 . the applied forces remaining constant. Δ3 (Fig.

4 Equating internal work to external work (7. the force-elongation equations (2. δΔ2 = δu 2 .7) Δ 1= T1 l . 7. EA Δ 3= T3 l . gives (7. EA Δ 2= T2 l cosθ .7) into (7.136 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS δΔ1 = δu1 sinθ + δu 2 cosθ . EA (7. δΔ3 = −δu1 sinθ + δu 2 cosθ . For the three bars.8) Fig.6) using the products of real forces and virtual displacements we obtain T1 δ Δ 1+ T2 δ Δ 2 + T3 δ Δ 3 = F1 δu1 + F2 δu2 .9) and collecting coefficients of δu1 and δu2 .21) can be written (7.9) Substituting (7.

we could put either to zero. Equation (7. the components of the displacement of point 4 can be determined from the following equations 2 EA 2 sin θ ⋅ u 1 = F1 .12) 7.6.8) in the finite form of (7. l EA ⎛ 1 ⎞ 2 ⎜ 2 cos θ + ⎟ u 2 = F2 . (7. T1 cosθ + T2 + T3 cosθ = F2 . ENERGY METHODS 137 δu1 (T1 sin θ − T3 sin θ − F1 ) + δu2 (T1 cos θ + T2 + T3 cos θ − F2 ) = 0 .6. (7.5 Proof that PDV is equivalent to equilibrium equations Consider a form of equation (7.11). T T T V Sσ (7.7.7). a) without point forces V ∫ { δε } {σ }dV = ∫ { δu } { pv }dV + ∫ { δu } { ps }d A .10) Since δu1 and δu2 are unrelated to each other.11) These are indeed the equations of equilibrium. then in (7. Substituting (7. ∂x dV = Sσ ∫ σ x d(δu ) l d A = ∫ σ x δu l d A − ∫ Sσ V V ∫ σ y δε y dV = Sσ ∫ σ y δv m d A − ∫ δv V ∂σ y ∂y dV . V ∫ τ xy δγ xy dV = ∫ τ xy (δ v ⋅ l + δu ⋅ m)d A − ∫ Sσ V ∂τ xy ⎞ ⎛ ∂τ xy ⎜ ⎜ ∂ x δ v + ∂ y δu ⎟ dV . This can only be true if their coefficients vanish T1 sinθ − T3 sinθ = F1 .10) must be zero whatever the values of δu1 and δu2 .1. It is confirmed that the principle of virtual work is an equivalent statement of statical equilibrium. cosθ ⎠ l ⎝ (7. ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ . b) Convert { δε } to { δu } using the integration by parts V ⎜ ⎟ ∫ σ x δε x dV = ∫ σ x δ ⎜ ∂ x ⎟ d x dy dz = ∫ ⎝ ⎠ V ⎛ ∂u ⎞ σx Sσ ∂ (δu ) d x l d A = ∂x δu ∂σ x dx dy dz .

6. but only in the mean. ⎟ ⎠⎥ ⎦ In matrix form (Gauss’ theorem) T T T T T ∫ { δε } {σ }dV = ∫ { δu } [ n ] {σ }d A − ∫ { δu } [ ∂ ] {σ }dV . Sσ V Because { δu } are arbitrary.e. i. This applies only within a single element and up to its surface.138 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS where l and m are direction cosines of the outward normal at the surface. The equations of equilibrium emerge from the brackets [ ∂ ]T {σ } + { pv } = { 0 } in V. it is not necessary to worry about the equilibrium boundary conditions. Most finite elements in use today do not achieve continuous stresses across interfaces. that is the stress and displacement fields are continuous. So. Part of the surface. Sσ . is supported in some way and there the tractions { ps } will be unknown reactions and not specified loads. The PVD supplies equilibrium conditions both within and on the surface of the body. The componets of stresses at element interfaces may not balance at a point. . when using approximate functions for { u }. its coefficients must vanish. It is conventional to remove the unknown reactions by choosing the virtual displacements { δu } to be zero over Sσ . [ n ]T {σ } − { ps } = { 0 } on Sσ . On substituting in (7. b) T T T T ∫ { δu } ( [ ∂ ] {σ } + { pv }) dV − ∫ { δu } ( [ n ] {σ } − { ps }) d A = 0 . Adding together V ∫ ( δε x σ x + δε y σ y + δγ xy τ xy )dV = ∫ [ δu (σ x l + τ xy m)+ δ v (τ xy l + σ y m) ] d A − Sσ − V ∫ ⎡ ⎛ ∂σ x ∂τ xy + ⎢δ u ⎜ ⎜ ∂y ⎢ ⎝ ∂x ⎣ ∂σ y ⎞ ⎛ ∂τ ⎟ + δ v ⎜ xy + ⎟ ⎜ ∂x ∂y ⎠ ⎝ ⎞⎤ ⎟⎥ dV . Sσ V V which is true provided [ ∂ ] T {σ } and {ε } are finite in V.

the virtual variation of the strain energy is equal to the virtual work of the internal stresses on virtual strains.13) 7.15) For a beam in bending.2 Principle of minimum total potential energy The total potential energy Π of an elastic body is defined as the sum of the strain energy U and the work potential of external loads WP Π = U + WP . ∫ { δε } V T [ D ] {ε } dV = ∫ { δε }T {σ } dV = δWI .1 Strain energy Consider the strain energy (6. 2 V T ({ δε } δU = T [ D ] {ε } ) = { ε } T [ D ] { δε } . substituting σ = E ε and ε = du .4). yields dx δU = V ∫ δε σ dV = ∫ δε Eε A d x = ∫ l l d δu du EA dx .2.14) For an elastic body. d x2 d x2 (7. (7. gives d x2 (7.7. V ∫ { δε } [ D ] {ε } dV + 1 ∫ { ε }T [ D ] { δε } dV . ENERGY METHODS 139 7. dx dx d2v (5. the virtual increase of strain energy is δU = Because 1 2 V ∫ {ε } T T [ D ] { ε } dV . For a bar in tension.32) U= 1 2 For a virtual strain { δε } . substituting ε = − y δU = ∫ l ⎛ ⎞ ∂ 2δv ∂ 2 v ⎜ 2 ⎟ E y dA ⎟ dx = ⎜ ⎟ ∂ x2 ∂ x2 ⎜ ⎝A ⎠ ∫ ∫ l d 2δv d2v EI dx .16) The above expressions can be obtained directly from the strain energies . (7. V δ U = δWI .

An external point load F j has potential energy − F j u j ( ) instead of ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎜ − F j u j ⎟ .13) can be written Π = ∫ { δε }T {σ } dV − ∫ { u }T { pv }dV − V V Sσ ∫ {u } { ps }d A − ∑ { ui } { Fi } .3 Total potential energy The total potential energy (7. For a three-dimensional continuum WP = − V ∫ {u } { pv }dV − ∫ {u } { ps }d A − ∑ {ui } { Fi } . (7.17) for a beam U= ∫ l EI 2 ⎛ d2v ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ x.2 External potential energy The work potential of external loads WP is equal to the negative product of external forces by the corresponding displacement WP = − WE . i T T (7.140 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS for a bar U= ∫ l E A ⎛ du ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ dx .2.21) 7.13. because this potential arises from the magnitude of force and its ⎝ 2 ⎠ capacity to do work when it moves. (7. For example. i T T T Sσ (7.19) The negative sign appears because the external loads lose some of their capacity for doing work when displaced in the direction they act. ⎜ d x2 ⎟ d ⎝ ⎠ 2 (7.18) 7. 2 ⎜ dx ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 2 (7. a) Its variation is .20) For virtual displacements {δu } δWP = − δWE . a gravitational force F = m g acts in the opposite direction to a vertical displacement h and the potential becomes m g h . being independent of the linear properties of the body on which it acts.2.

22) δΠ = 0 . Example 7. The principle of minimum total potential energy states that: If a deformable body is in equilibrium under the action of external loads and reaction forces. An equivalent statement is: For conservative systems.7. at equilibrium. then it is in a stable equilibrium state. according to the compatibility relations. Thus. U i = Ti Δ i = 2 2 li and the external potential energy is WP = − ∑F u . then the total potential energy has a minimum value. any kinematically admissible displacement field which minimizes the total potential energy represents a stable equilibrium configuration. rather than a result of the equilibrium. the total potential energy can be written .6) it follows that (7. Based on equation (7. the stationary value is a minimum. i i i Expressing the elongations in terms of displacements. the strain energy for a bar is 1 1 E Ai 2 Δi . the equilibrium is stable. a) hence. If δ 2 Π > 0 . if under the action of external loads and reaction forces the total potential energy of a deformable body is a minimum. Reciprocally. (7. Reciprocally. ENERGY METHODS 141 δΠ = δU + δWP = δWI − δWE . of all possible kinematically admissible displacement fields. 7. the total potential energy has a stationary value.3.22. a) is a condition that establishes or defines the equilibrium. it can be considered that (7.2 For the truss shown in Fig. the one satisfying equilibrium corresponds to a minimum value of the total potential energy.22.

Show that PMTPE is equivalent to the equilibrium conditions inside and at the ends of the beam. 7. the total potential energy is Π = 1 2 ∫ E I (v′′) d x − ∫ p v dx + M 2 0 v′ 0 − M l v′ − T0 v0 + Tl vl . For a beam segment loaded as shown. ∂ u2 we obtain the equilibrium equations (7. Cancelling the derivatives of Π with respect to each independent variable ∂Π = 0. subjected to a distributed load and to the end bending moments and shear forces as shown in Fig. δΠ = 0 or ∫ E I v′′ δ(v′′)d x − ∫ p δv dx + M l l 0 ′ δ v0 − M l δ v′ − T0 δ v0 + Tl δ vl = 0 .3 Apply the principle of minimum total potential energy to a beam in bending.142 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Π = + EA ( u1 sinθ + u2 cosθ 2l EA (− u1 sinθ + u2 cosθ 2l )2 + EA 2 u2 + 2 l cosθ )2 − F1 u1 − F2 u2 .5 Solution.5. 7. ∂ u1 ∂Π =0. Example 7.11). l l l At equilibrium. l (a) Integrating by parts the first term gives . Π is stationary. Fig.

For a beam. or δ v′ = 0 . the transverse displacement v (x ) is approximated by a finite series . As δ v is arbitrary. the other terms deliver the equilibrium conditions at the beam ends ( E I v′′) 0 = M 0 . or δ v0 = 0 . 0 ( E I v′′)0′ = T0 . l l d ′ Integrating by parts the last term gives ∫ (E I v′′) δv′ dx = ∫ (E I v′′) d x (δv)dx = ∫ (E I v′′) d (δv)= l l l ′ ′ d ′ = (E I v′′)′ δ v l 0 − ∫ l l 0 d (E I v′′)′ dx δ v = (E I v′′)′ δ v dx l 0 − ∫ (E I v′′) δv dx. The coefficient of δ v in the integrand gives the equation of equilibrium (E I v′′)″ = p (x ) .3 The Rayleigh-Ritz method The Rayleigh-Ritz method involves the construction of an assumed displacement field. ( E I v′′) l = M l . 7.7. or δ vl = 0 .M ) δv′ − (( E I v′′ ) − T )δv l l 0 =0. and l ( E I v′′)l′ = Tl . or δ v′ = 0 . l l 0 ″ Equation (a ) becomes l E I v′′ δ v′ 0 − (E I v′′)′ δ v + ∫ (E I v′′) δv dx − ∫ p δv dx − M δv′ l l l 0 ″ + T δv l 0 =0 or ″ ′ ∫ ((E I v′′) − p ) δv dx + ( E I v′′ . ENERGY METHODS 143 ∫ l E I v′′ δ(v′′) d x = l ∫ l E I v′′ d ⎛ dv ⎞ ⎜ δ ⎟ dx = dx ⎜ dx ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ∫ E I v′′ d (δv′) = l l 0 = E I v′′ δ v′ 0 − ∫ d x (E I v′′) dx δv′ = E I v′′ δv′ − ∫ (E I v′′) δv′ dx. which are the boundary conditions.

and ϕ j ( x ) are prescribed functions of x .6 find the vertical displacement of point 2.. ∂aj ( j = 1. which is more accurate the more terms are selected in the respective series. Solution. whose values are determined from the stationarity conditions δΠ = ∑ ∂a j ∂Π j δa j = 0 . I = 1600 mm4 .23) which represents an approximate deflected shape.. (7.23) where a j are undetermined constants called generalized coordinates.144 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS v (x ) ≅ ∑ a ϕ (x ) j j j =1 n (7.. ∂Π =0. The necessary requirements for the convergence of the Rayleigh-Ritz method are the following: a) The approximating functions must be continuous to one order less the highest derivative in the integrand.4 For the beam shown in Fig. that satisfy the kinematic (geometric) boundary conditions and are continuous within the definition interval. Consider: E = 210 MPa . The solutions are back-substituted into (7. 7. i. F = 100 N and q = 200 N m . l = 3 m . n ) .23) into the expression of the total potential energy Π . b) The functions must individually satisfy the geometric boundary conditions.. Substituting the displacements (7. the latter becomes a function of the parameters a j . to be admissible functions. Because δa j are arbitrary.e. If the functions are not selected from the domain space of the operator of the equation being solved (completeness property) the resulting solution could be either zero or wrong. The total potential energy is . called admissible functions.24) which is a linear algebraic set of equations in the constants a j . Example 7. c) The sequence of functions must be complete.

27) ϕ1 (x ) = x 2 (3 x − 2 l )( x − l ) l4 .26) In the following. (7.27) into (7. leads to two equations relating the generalized coordinates ∂Π = EI ∂ a1 ∫ ( a1 ϕ1′′ + a2 ϕ2′′ ) ϕ1′′ d x − ∫ q ϕ1 d x − F ϕ1(l 2) = 0 .6 Substituting (7. v′ (0) = 0 . ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ d x2 ⎟ ⎝2⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 2l 3 2 ∫ l (7.28) satisfy all geometrical boundary conditions (7.25) The geometric boundary conditions are v (0) = 0 .7. for simplicity. the transverse displacements are approximated by a series consisting of only two terms v ( x ) = a1 ϕ1 (x ) + a2 ϕ 2 (x ) . 2 0 l l −F [ a1 ϕ1(l 2) + a2 ϕ2 (l 2) ]. (7. ϕ 2 (x ) = x 3 (3 x − 2 l )( x − l ) l5 . where the functions (7. ⎝ 3 ⎠ v (l ) = 0 .25) we obtain the functional 1 Π = EI 2 ′ ∫ ( a1 ϕ1′′ + a2 ϕ2′ ) dx − ∫ q ( a1 ϕ1 + a2 ϕ2 ) dx − . 0 2l 3 l . ⎛ 2l ⎞ v ⎜ ⎟=0. Fig. ENERGY METHODS 145 1 Π = EI 2 ∫ 0 l ⎛ d2v ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ d x − q v (x )d x − F v ⎛ l ⎞ . l 2l 3 Requiring Π to be stationary with respect to a1 and a 2 .26). 7.

The total potential energy (Fig. Comment on the approximations of the Rayleigh-Ritz method. 2 Π = (7. E I (7. 7.00207 q l4 . .7. 3 1 3 2 7 l 46656 l For example. b) is 1 2 ku − Fu .146 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ∂Π = EI ∂ a2 ∫ ( a ϕ ′′ + a ϕ ′′ ) ϕ ′′ d x − ∫ q ϕ 1 1 2 2 2 0 2l 3 l l 2 d x − F ϕ 2 (l 2 ) = 0 . EI a2 = −0.9 ⋅10− 5 16 32 E Iy Example 7. a) subjected to a load F.00257 q l4 . Because Π is of second order in ϕ and ϕ ′ . for F = q l 6 . the equations are linear in aj . a1 + a2 = 4.28). we obtain 56 E I 11 EI a 1 + 10 3 a2 = − ql. Substituting the functions (7.7.30) For a small virtual displacement δu . 5 l3 The solutions are a1 = 0. the coefficient of a1 in the first equation is EI ∫ ( ϕ ′′ ) 1 0 l 2 dx = EI 1 ∫ l ( 36 x 8 0 l 2 − 30 l x + 4 l 2 ) 2 dx = 56 E I . 7. the variation of the total potential energy is δ Π = k u δu − F δ u = ( k u − F ) δ u . Answer.29) In 2.48 mm. 3 5 l 4320 l 10 72 E I 269 EI a + a =− ql. the displacement is v (l 2 ) = a1 ϕ1 (l 2) + a2 ϕ 2 (l 2) = = 1 1 q l4 = 2.5 Consider a linear spring of stiffness k (Fig.

33) U eq = 1 2 1 F2 = −Π eq . = 2 Π eq 2 Π eq Π eq = The stiffness is (7. b indicate that a) Because Π eq is a minimum.32) – (7. The total potential energy of the equilibrium configuration is 1 1 1 F2 .7. ENERGY METHODS 147 The equilibrium equation is obtained by requiring δΠ to be zero ( Π be stationary) for arbitrary δu .34) and Fig. the potential energy for an approximate displacement which satisfies the kinematic boundary conditions is greater than the true value Π app > Π eq .7. F ueq − F ueq = − F ueq = − 2 2 2 k 1 F2 1 F2 . 7.7. Fig. (7. 7.31) As seen in Fig. equations (7. In magnitude Π app < Π eq . b. .32) k =− The strain energy is (7. k ueq = 2 2 k (7. the exact solution corresponds to an absolute minimum value of Π . 7.7 For δΠ =0 we obtain k ueq − F = 0 .34) If F is prescribed and the resulting u has been approximated by a RayleighRitz solution uapp ≠ ueq .

6. etc. in Structural Mechanics a) Problem. Use PVD or PMTPE as an approximate method for solving the boundary-value problem. Admissible functions are defined over small size finite elements.a localized version of the Rayleigh-Ritz method Instead of finding an admissible function satisfying the boundary conditions for the entire domain. k↑ (7. reaction forces.M. .1). the unknown function is approximated piecewise over the entire domain (continuity at global level). taking advantage of graphical and animation facilities. b) Solution approach.4 F. to present output data in an engineering format. For this a matrix notation is used. 7. internal forces.4.E. With these individually defined functions matching each other at certain points (nodes) at the element interfaces.M. 2 Π eq ↓ (7. { ps } .1 F.148 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS the approximate total potential energy is underestimated. b) The approximate stiffness is overestimated k ↑= 1 F2 . find the displacement field { u } within V and on the surface Sσ (Fig. 7. in the FEM the admissible functions are defined over small size subdomains. .E.36) An approximate compatible displacement field corresponds to a structure which is stiffer than the actual structure and therefore will give a lower bound on displcement. c) Procedure. Given a geometrically complex structure (including the boundary conditions) and the external loads { pv } . Then determine stresses. d) Tools. The geometric shape and the internal displacement field are described by a series of discrete quantities (like nodal coordinates and nodal displacements) distributed through the structure. which is often difficult. { Fi } . Computers are used to store long lists of separate numbers and to manipulate them. with simple geometry and well identified structural behaviour.35) c) The approximate displacement is underestimated u ↓= F .

The aim is the calculation of the element stiffness matrix and load vector. Fig.8 7.4 Approximating functions for the element In the Rayleigh-Ritz method. a) can be written (considering only surface tractions) δΠ = V ∫ { δε } {σ }dV − ∫ { δu } { ps }d A = 0 .6.4. PVD yields δΠ = ∑ δΠ e e = ∑ ∫ e ⎛ ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ T T ⎜ { δε } {σ }dV − { δu } { ps }d A ⎟ = 0 . 7.7. Elements are defined by their nodal coordinates and some physical parameters.4. 7.3 Principle of virtual displacements For the entire structure.37) As a summation of virtual works on all elements. ENERGY METHODS 149 7. the trial function is expressed as a finite expansion .2 Discretization The structure is divided into finite elements (Fig.4. equation (7. 7.38) In the following.8) that define the mesh. T T Sσ (7. only δ Π e will be considered. ⎜ Ve ⎟ Sσ e ⎝ ⎠ ∫ (7.

40) or { u } = [ N ] {Q e }.5 Compatibility between strains and nodal displacements From the compatibility relationship (6.39) u (x ) ≅ a j ϕ j (x ) = ⎣ϕ1 ϕ 2 L ϕ n ⎦ ⎨ 2 ⎬ = ⎣ϕ ⎦ { a } L⎪ ⎪ j =1 ⎪ an ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ where the undetermined constants a j have no direct evident signification. The reason is that elements are small enough so that the shape of the displacement field can be approximated without too much error and only the magnitude. { } The proper selection of shape functions ensure the continuity of the displacement field at global level. defined by Q e remains to be found. 7. .18) {ε } = [ ∂ ] { u } = [ ∂ ][ N ] {Q e }= [ B ] {Q e }.150 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎧ a1 ⎫ ⎪a ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ (7.4. The strain virtual variation is (7. where [ N ] is the matrix of shape functions (interpolation functions). where [ B ] is the matrix of differentiated shape functions.41) { δε } = [ B ] {δQ e }.the displacement unknowns at the nodes { a } = Q e and to prescribe admissible functions denoted ⎣ϕ ⎦ = ⎣N ⎦ so that { } 0 ⎧ u ⎫ ⎡ ⎣N u ⎦ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎨ v ⎬=⎢ 0 ⎪w⎪ ⎢ 0 ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ ⎣N v ⎦ 0 e ⎤ ⎧ Qu ⎪ e 0 ⎥ ⎨ Qv ⎥ e ⎣N w ⎦ ⎥ ⎪ Qw ⎦⎩ 0 { }⎫ { }⎪ ⎬ { }⎪ ⎭ (7. A finite element described by admissible shape functions (integrable in the interior and with equal values of generalized coordinates at element interfaces) is referred to as co-deformable or conforming. ∑ n The basic idea of FEM is to choose the constants .

42) where the element stiffness matrix is [ K ]= ∫ [ B ] e Ve e T [ D ][ B ] dV (7. {Q } is the vector of the ~ global displacements of the structure and T e is a connectivity matrix. cancelation of the bracket yields the element equilibrium equation { } [ K ] {Q }= {F }. e e e (7. containing ones at the nodal displacements of element nodes and zeros elsewhere.4.7 Assembly of the global stiffness matrix and load vector In the next step. (7.44) 7.45) where Q e is the vector of nodal element displacements. { } { } [ ] [ ] The variation of element displacements is .6 Element stiffness matrix and load vector Using the constitutive equation element is δΠ e = or δΠ e {σ } = [ D ] {ε } . ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ ⎞ As δQ e are arbitrary and non-zero.4. the virtual work for an Ve T T e T e e T ∫ {δ Q } [ B ] [ D ][ B ]{Q }dV − ∫ { δQ } [ N ] { ps }d A = 0 Ae ⎜ = { δQ } ⎜ ∫ [ B ] ⎜ e T ⎛ T [ D ][ B ] dV ⎝ Ve {Q }− ∫ [ N ] e Ae T { ps }d A ⎟ = 0 . The kinematic connectivity is expressed by the relationship between element and global displacements ~ Q e = T e { Q }. ENERGY METHODS 151 7. (7.7.43) and the vector of consistent nodal forces is {F }= ∫ [ N ] Ae T { ps }d A . all individual elements are assembled together so that the displacements are continuous across element interfaces and the boundary conditions are satisfied.

47) where the global stiffness matrix is [ K ]= ∑ e ~ ~ [ T ] [ K ][ T ] e e (7.24) or (6. It has been used only to show algebraically how to assemble a global stiffness matrix. The assembly is done by directly placing the nonzero entries of element stiffness matrices in the right locations of the global stiffness matrix based on element connectivity. 7.8 Solution and back-substitution Nodal displacements are determined by solving the linear equations (7. . the condensed equilibrium equations are [ K ] {Q } = { F } .152 ~ { δQ }= [ T ] { δQ }.46) The PVD equation for the entire structure is ∑ {δQ } [ K ] {Q }= ∑ {δQ } {F }.46) {δQ }T ∑ e ~ ~ ~ [ T ] [ K ][ T ] {Q } = {δQ } ∑ [ T ] {Q }. e (7. In the back-substitution phase. e T e e T e T e e As { δ Q } are arbitrary and non-zero.4. element stresses are evaluated as ~ {σ } = [ D ] {ε } = [ D ][ B ] Q e = [ D ][ B ] T e { Q } { } [ ] where [ D ] is given by (6. e T e e e T e e e or using (7. e e FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS (7. e T (7.50) The above procedure is never used in practice.45) and (7.49) Applying the boundary conditions. the unreduced global equilibrium equations are [ K ] {Q } = { F } .25).48) and the global load vector is ~ { F } = ∑ [ T e ] T {Q e }. (7.50).

This unfilled region exists for curved boundaries and it can be reduced by choosing smaller elements. In-plane displacement. . It is a much more adaptable shape than the rectangle and it allows the user to tailor the element mesh to suit any structural geometry. Only transversely homogeneous plates will be analyzed herein. strain and stress components are uniform through the plate thickness. This chapter presents the element stiffness matrices and consistent force vectors for triangular and rectangular elements. is treated separately.1.8. designed to be primarily loaded in their plane and to resist loads by membrane action rather than bending. the three-noded triangle with constant strain field. TWO-DIMENSIONAL ELEMENTS Many engineering structures can be modeled as two-dimensional flat plates. which is considered constant. The elements fill the entire region except of a small region at the boundary. without the need for numerical integration. so that the corners of adjacent elements have common displacements.1 The plane constant-strain triangle (CST) Before the advent of arbitrarily shaped isoparametric elements. 8. discussed in the next chapter. the CST was one of the most widely used elements and is still available in systems today.1. The very first approximate finite element developed in 1956 to model delta wing skin panels. A large number of small elements can be densely packed into a region of expected high stress gradients. joined together at their corners (nodes).1 Discretization of structure The plate is divided into a number of straight-sided triangles (Fig. that allow closed form derivations. a). 8. 8. and uniformly stressed regions can be left with a small number of larger triangles. composite and sandwich plates being studied in other courses.

Thus. each node has two degrees of freedom.2) . b are numbered locally as 1. The displacement components of a local node j are denoted as u j in the x direction and v j in the y direction. 8. y1 ) .1 b Each node is permitted to displace in the two directions x and y. y ) = a4 + a5 x + a6 y with six arbitrary parameters. y ) = a1 + a2 x + a3 y . y2 ) and ( x3 . ( x2 . v ( x . y3 ) . Because for two displacements there are six boundary conditions. 2 and 3.1. The numbering is in anticlockwise direction to avoid calculating a negative area. (8. a Fig. The corresponding nodal coordinates are designated as ( x1 . The vector of element nodal displacements is defined as { q }= ⎣ u e 1 v1 u2 v2 u3 v3 T ⎦ .1.2 Polynomial approximation of the displacement field The displacements u and v of a point within the triangle are expressed in terms of the nodal displacements.154 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The three nodes of the isolated element from Fig.1) 8. the assumed displacement field is linear u (x . 8. (8.

1. ∂ y ∂x hence the name “constant strain triangle”. ∂y γ xy = ∂u ∂ v + = a3 + a5 = const . We can write u = ⎣1 x ⎧ a1 ⎪ y ⎦ ⎨ a2 ⎪a ⎩ 3 ⎫ ⎪ ⎬ = ⎣1 x ⎪ ⎭ y⎦ { a } . Since the functions for u and v are of the same form. ⎡ 1 x1 [A ] = ⎢ 1 x2 ⎢ ⎢ 1 x3 ⎣ By inversion y1 ⎤ y2 ⎥ . 8.4. . only one need be considered in detail.6) where . ⎥ y3 ⎥ ⎦ (8. a) where (8. in which the constants are the nodal displacements and the displacement field is obtained by interpolation based on values of corner displacements. . ∂x εy = ∂v = a6 = const .16) are εx = ∂u = a2 = const .4) { u }= [ A ] { a } .8.2) the constants ai have no physical meaning. . (8.3 Nodal approximation of the displacement field In the polynomial approximation (8.3) Evaluating the expression for u at the three nodes gives the nodal displacements in terms of the polynomial coefficients ⎧ u1 ⎪ ⎨ u2 ⎪u ⎩ 3 or e ⎫ ⎡ 1 x1 ⎪ ⎢ ⎬ = ⎢ 1 x2 ⎪ ⎢1 x 3 ⎭ ⎣ y1 y2 y3 ⎤ ⎧ a1 ⎥ ⎪a ⎥⎨ 2 ⎥ ⎪ a3 ⎦⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎬ .5) { a } = [ A ] −1 { u e }. ⎪ ⎭ (8. (8. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 155 The strains (6. A nodal approximation is preferred.

8) and the subscripts i .156 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS [A ] in which −1 ⎡α1 α 2 α 3 ⎤ 1 ⎢ β1 β 2 β 3 ⎥ . 3 ) (8. y3 y1 (8. 2.10) where the row vector of shape functions −1 ⎣N ⎦ = ⎣N1 N 2 N 3 ⎦ = ⎣ 1 x y ⎦ [ A ] . 2A ( i = 1. j .12) 1 ( α i + βi x + γ i y ) . Substituting (8. = ⎥ 2A ⎢ ⎢γ 1 γ 2 γ 3 ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ (8. (8. 2. 3 are labeled anticlockwise around the element. ⎧ N1 ⎪ ⎨ N2 ⎪N ⎩ 3 or Ni = ⎫ ⎡ α1 ⎪ 1 ⎢ ⎬= ⎢α 2 ⎪ 2 A ⎢α ⎭ ⎣ 3 β1 γ 1 ⎤ ⎧ 1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ β2 γ 2 ⎥ ⎨ x ⎬ ⎥ β3 γ 3 ⎥ ⎪ y ⎪ ⎦⎩ ⎭ (8. The area of the triangle A is equal to one half the magnitude of the determinant of [ A ] 1 x1 2 A = 1 x2 1 x3 y2 = (x2 y3 − x3 y2 ) + ( x3 y1 − x1 y3 ) + (x1 y2 − x2 y1 ) .6) into (8.13) . a) Similarly v = ⎣N ⎦ v e .3) gives u = ⎣N ⎦ {u } e (8. γ i = xk − x j (8.9) The determinant is positive if nodes 1.11) By transposition T −T T ⎣N ⎦ = [A ] ⎣1 x y ⎦ .7) α i = x j yk − xk y j . { } (8. β i = y j − yk . k permute in a natural order.12.

3 (8. 8.8. 2. 3 ) (8. 2A (8. have a unit value at node i and zero values at the other two nodes.12. y ) = N 2 (x . 2A 1 [ x3 y1 − x1 y3 + ( y3 − y1 ) x + (x1 − x3 ) y ] . b) Fig.2: N i ( xi .15) Combining (8. and i =1 ( i .14) yields . as illustrated in Fig. yi ) = δ i j . TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 157 The shape functions (8. 2A 1 [ x1 y2 − x2 y1 + ( y1 − y2 ) x + (x2 − x1 ) y ] . j = 1.2 The shape functions N i vary linearly. 8.10) and (8. y ) = 1 [ x2 y3 − x3 y2 + ( y2 − y3 ) x + (x3 − x2 ) y ] . y ) = N 3 (x .12.14) ∑ Ni = 1 . a) can also be written N1 (x .

8.3 The displacement u (x.16) or ⎧u⎫ ⎨ ⎬=[N ⎩v⎭ ] { q e }. 8. as shown in Fig.4 The matrix [B ] Strains are expressed in terms of displacements as ⎡ ∂ ⎢ ⎢ ∂x = [ ∂ ] { u }= ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ∂ ⎢ ⎢ ∂y ⎣ ⎤ ⎡ ∂ 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ∂x ⎧u⎫ ⎢ ∂ ⎥ ⎨ ⎬= 0 ∂y ⎥ ⎩ v ⎭ ⎢ ⎢ ∂ ∂ ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ∂x ⎦ ⎥ ⎢ ∂y ⎣ ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ∂ ⎥ [N ∂y ⎥ ∂ ⎥ ⎥ ∂x ⎦ ⎥ {ε } e ] { q e }= [ B ] { q e }.y ) + u2 N 2 (x. 8.y ) + u3 N 3 (x.158 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎧ u ⎫ ⎡ N1 ⎨ ⎬=⎢ ⎩v⎭ ⎣ 0 0 N1 N2 0 0 N2 N3 0 ⎧ u1 ⎪v ⎪ 1 0 ⎤ ⎪ u2 ⎪ ⎨ N 3 ⎥ ⎪ v2 ⎦ ⎪ u3 ⎪ ⎪ v3 ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ (8.y ) =u1 N1 (x.3.16. u2 and u3 .1. a) Fig. .y ) determines a plane surface passing through u1 . (8.

⎥ y1 − y2 ⎥ ⎦ 0 x3 − x2 y 2 − y3 y1 − y2 x2 − x1 0 0 x1 − x3 (8. (8. 8. ∂y ⎥ ∂ N3 ⎥ ⎥ ∂x ⎦ ⎥ ⎡ β1 1 ⎢ [ B ]= ⎢ 0 2A ⎢ γ1 ⎣ ⎡ y2 − y3 1 ⎢ [ B ]= ⎢ 0 2A ⎢ x3 − x2 ⎣ 0 β2 0 β3 γ1 0 β1 γ 2 y3 − y1 γ2 0 β2 γ 3 0 x1 − x3 y3 − y1 0 ⎤ γ3 ⎥ .17. the shape function N 3 is zero while N1 and N 2 are similar to the shape functions in one dimension. ⎥ β3 ⎥ ⎦ 0 ⎤ x2 − x1 ⎥ .5 Element stiffness matrix and load vector The element stiffness matrix (7.18) where t e is the element thickness. The consistent nodal forces due to traction loads acting on a portion of the boundary are calculated as for a linear two-node element.1. Along an edge 1-2.43) is [k ]= ∫ [ B ] e Ve T [ D ][ B ] dV = [ B ]T [ D ][ B ] t e A.17) The matrix written simply [B] is constant for a given CST element.8. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 159 The matrix of the derivatives of shape functions is ⎡ ∂ N1 ⎢ ⎢ ∂x [ B ]= ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ∂N 1 ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ ∂y 0 ∂ N1 ∂y ∂ N1 ∂x ∂ N2 ∂x 0 ∂ N2 ∂y 0 ∂ N2 ∂y ∂ N2 ∂x ∂ N3 ∂x 0 ∂ N3 ∂y ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ∂ N3 ⎥ . When the surface load distribution (per unit .25) for plane strain conditions. A is the element area and [ D ] is the material stiffness matrix given by (6. satisfying N1 + N 2 = 1 . Sometimes it is 0 x32 y23 y31 ⎡ y23 1 ⎢ [ B ]= ⎢ 0 2A ⎢ x32 ⎣ 0 x13 y31 y12 0 x13 0 x21 0 ⎤ x21 ⎥ ⎥ y12 ⎥ ⎦ (8. a) where the notation is obvious.24) for plane stress and by (6.

even in a fine mesh.19) where t e is the thickness of the element. 8. 8.1. the nodal forces are f1e = lte ( 2 p1 + p2 ) . varying from p1 at node 1 to p2 at node 2 (Fig. Because of linearity they coincide with the static resultants.6 Remarks A mesh like in Fig.5 .4 The nodal forces associated with the weight of an element are equally distributed at the nodes.4). 8. Fig. and this could be corrected by using the “union jack” pattern of Fig. 8. 8. b which however produces a larger bandwidth. a is clearly a directionally sensitive assembly. 8. are much inferior to higher order elements in a coarse mesh. Benchmark tests using triangular elements have shown that CST elements.160 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS area) is linear.5. Fig. 6 f 2e = lte ( p1 + 2 p2 6 ) (8.5.

Fig. 8. This means that along an edge which is common to two elements the stresses are different across the edge. Taking advantage of symmetry. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 161 A drawback of the displacement form of the finite element method is that equilibrium is only satisfied in the mean or over the element.8. only one quarter of the plate is considered.6 for a square plate with a circular hole. where they should be continuous.6 . The diagram compares the theoretical stress distribution along the marked line with the averaged values calculated using CSTs. 8. A simple example of stress averaging is shown in Fig. Most programs contain facilities for averaging the stresses. The simplest form of averaging consists of simply connecting the centroids of two adjacent triangles and to assign the mean stress value to the crossing point of this line with the common edge.

⎥ l ⎢ −1 −1 0 1 1 0 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (b) The element stiffness matrix (8. Let ν = 0 . ⎢ ⎥ ⎢0 0 1 2⎥ ⎣ ⎦ b (a) With the origin of coordinate axes at the plate centre. a Fig.18) is .1.1 A square plate of thickness t and Young’s modulus E is pin-jointed at three corners and subjected to a force F at the free corner (Fig.3 Example 8. x3 = 0 . y2 = 0 .162 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The procedure will be used in Example E8. E8.24) is ⎡1 0 0 ⎤ [ D ]= E ⎢ 0 1 0 ⎥ . The area is A = l 2 2 and the matrix (8. y3 = l .17) is [B ] 1 ⎡ −1 0 1 0 0 0 ⎤ 1⎢ = ⎢ 0 −1 0 0 0 1 ⎥ . a). the nodal coordinates of element 1 are x1 = y1 = 0 . E8.1 Solution. x2 = l . The material stiffness matrix (6. and c) the support reactions. Divide the plate into four CST elements and find: a) the nodal displacements. b) stresses in elements.

. The stiffness matrix of the rotated element is [ K ] = [T ] [ k ] [T ]. In general. the transformation matrix for a rotation with an angle θ is ⎡ c ⎢−s ⎢ ⎢ 0 =⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎣ s c 0 0 0 0 0 c 0 0 0 0 s 0 0 0⎤ 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0⎥ c s⎥ ⎥ −s c⎥ ⎦ 0 [T ] e 0 −s c (e) where c = cos θ and s = sin θ . 12 12 0 ⎥ 2 ⎢ ⎢ SYM 12 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 1 ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ ⎦ (d) Element 2 can be obtained by rotating 900 anticlockwise element 1. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 163 1 T [ K ]= [k ]= [ B ] 1 1 [ D ] [ B1 ] t A .8. 2 2 T 1 2 . (c) [K ] 1 ⎡ 3 2 1 2 −1 −1 2 −1 2 0 ⎤ ⎢ 32 0 −1 2 −1 2 −1 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 1 0 0 0 ⎥ Et ⎢ = ⎢ ⎥. . e e T e e (f) For θ = 900 we obtain ⎡ 0 ⎢ −1 ⎢ ⎢ 0 =⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎣ 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0⎤ 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0⎥ 0 1⎥ ⎥ −1 0 ⎥ ⎦ 0 [T ] 2 0 −1 0 (g) The stiffness matrix of element 2 is [ K ] = [T ] [ k ] [T ].

x2 = 0 . so that for the entire plate H4 = − F 2 . E8. y2 = 1 .1. x3 = −1 . 2E t u2 = 3F . . H5 = − F 4 . 1 0 0 ⎥ 2 ⎢ ⎢ SYM 1 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 12 ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ ⎦ (h) The same matrix is obtained by substituting the nodal coordinates x1 = y1 = 0 .18). ∗ H4 = − F 4 . b). the finite element equations can be written 0 0 − 1 1 2 ⎤ ⎧ u1 ⎫ ⎧ 0 ⎫ −1 −1 2 −1 ⎡ 3 ⎢ 0 3 0 −1 2 0 − 2 0 − 1 2 ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ V1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ −1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 ⎥ ⎪ u2 ⎪ ⎪ F 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 12 0 0 0 ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ V2 ⎪ Et ⎢ − 1 2 −1 2 0 1 2 ⎨ ⎬=⎨ ⎬. Due to symmetry. Using the appropriate boundary conditions.17) and performing the product (8. 2E t The reaction forces for half the plate are obtained as H3 = − F 4 . only the upper half of the plate can be considered (Fig. y3 = 0 in (8.164 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS [K ] 2 ⎡ 3 2 −1 2 −1 2 0 −1 1 2 ⎤ ⎢ 32 1 2 −1 0 −1 2 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 12 0 0 −1 2 ⎥ Et ⎢ = ⎢ ⎥. 0 0 12 1 0 0 −1 2 ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ H3 ⎪ 2 ⎢ −1 ⎢ ⎥ 0 0 0 2 0 0 ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ V3 ⎪ −2 ⎢ 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ∗ ⎪ ⎢ −1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ H4 ⎪ ⎢ ⎥ 0 0 1 2 ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ V4 ⎪ −1 2 0 ⎢ 1 2 −1 2 0 ⎣ ⎦⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ Solving E t ⎡ 3 − 1⎤ ⎧ u1 ⎫ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎨ ⎬=⎨ ⎬ 2 ⎢ − 1 1 ⎥ ⎩ u2 ⎭ ⎩ F 2 ⎭ ⎣ ⎦ we obtain the nodal displacements u1 = F .

⎬ ⎢ ⎥ 2l E t ⎨ ⎬ 2 l t ⎨ ⎪− 1 2 ⎪ ⎪− 1⎪ ⎢0 0 1 2⎥ ⎭ ⎩ ⎣ ⎦ ⎩ ⎭ ⎧ σx ⎪ ⎨ σy ⎪τ ⎩ xy { } { ε }= [ B ] { q } 2 2 2 ⎧u1 ⎫ ⎪0⎪ 0 0 0 −1 0 ⎤ ⎪ ⎪ ⎡ 1 ⎧1⎫ ⎪ ⎪ 1⎢ ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ = F ⎪ 0 ⎪.8.2). ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ { ε }= [ B ]{ q } 1 1 1 {ε } 1 ⎧2⎫ ⎡− 1 1⎤ 1⎢ ⎥ ⎧ u1 ⎫ = F ⎪ 0 ⎪ . TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 165 Strains and stresses in elements are ⎧ u1 ⎪ 0 ⎡ −1 0 1 0 0 0 ⎤ ⎪ ⎪u 1 ⎪ = ⎢ 0 −1 0 0 0 1 ⎥ ⎨ 2 ⎥ 0 l⎢ ⎢ −1 −1 0 1 1 0 ⎥ ⎪ ⎣ ⎦⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬. The units are coherent. Assume the cantilever to have unit thickness t = 1 and be in plane stress. Divide the plate into three CST elements and find: a) the nodal displacements. b) stresses in elements.2 A thin triangular plate is fixed along the edge 5-4 and loaded by forces F1 = −1 and F2 = −2 along the upper edge in its plane (Fig. with Young’s modulus E = 1 and Poisson’s ratio ν = 0. E8. = ⎢ 0 −1 0 1 0 0 ⎥ ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬ l ⎪ 0 ⎪ 2l E t ⎪− 1⎪ ⎢ −1 1 0 0 1 −1 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎪0⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪0⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎧ σx ⎫ ⎡1 0 0 ⎤ ⎧ 1 ⎫ ⎧1⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢0 1 0 ⎥ F ⎪ 0 ⎪= F ⎪ 0 ⎪. = ⎢ 0 0⎥ ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬ u l 2l E t ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ − 1 0⎥ ⎩ 2 ⎭ ⎩− 1⎭ ⎣ ⎦ ⎫ ⎪ 1 ⎬ =[D ] ε = E ⎪ ⎭1 ⎡1 0 0 ⎤ ⎧ 2 ⎫ ⎧2⎫ ⎢0 1 0 ⎥ F ⎪ 0 ⎪= F ⎪ 0 ⎪. .3 . and c) the support reactions. 2 ⎬ ⎨ σy ⎬ =[D ] ε = E ⎢ ⎥ 2l E t ⎨ ⎬ 2 l t ⎨ ⎪− 1 2 ⎪ ⎪ τ ⎪ ⎪− 1⎪ ⎢0 0 1 2⎥ ⎭ ⎩ ⎣ ⎦ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ xy ⎭2 { } Example 8.

18). based on the nodal coordinates. and the matrix [ D ] is given by (6.166 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Fig. where the matrix [ B ] is obtained from (8. The input data are given below For each element. . the stiffness matrix is calculated longhand from equation (8.24). E8.2 Solution.17).

192 1.823 .903 0 2.666 0 1.712 .125 0 − 1.165 ⎤ ⎧ u1 ⎡ 0. u2 = 6. ⎪ ⎪−2⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎭ ⎭ ⎩ u1 = 7. v1 = −40.903 ⎥ ⎪ v2 ⎢ 0.8.165 − 0.317 0.666 ⎢ ⎥⎨ 0 2.582 .542 . u3 = −2. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 167 The element stiffness matrices are the following: The condensed global stiffness matrix is The condensed finite element equations can be written 0 0 − 0.165 − 0. .835 .165 ⎣ ⎦⎩ The solution to these equations gives ⎫ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ −1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎬=⎨ ⎬.301 0 0 ⎥ ⎪ u2 − 0.317 ⎢ 0 0. v2 = −15.125 ⎥ ⎪ v3 ⎢ − 0.192 0 ⎥ ⎪ v1 ⎢ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎢ − 0. v3 = −13.301 0 ⎥ ⎪ u3 ⎢ ⎥⎪ 0 0 − 1.317 0.111 − 0.192 − 0.686 .192 − 0.111 0.111 ⎢ 0 − 0.

which is wrong.3 .168 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The output data are presented below: The reaction forces at nodes 4 and 5 are obtained from the ‘unused’ unreduced equations. Note that the adopted discretization is very crude. Example 8. E8. is subjected to loads that produce uniform tensile stresses σ 0 = 5 MPa at its ends (Fig. However. width b = 40 mm . Ascribing stress values to the element centroids and averaging them as shown in section 8. being a constant strain element. c) the distribution of σ x stresses in the midsection. . Along the edge 4-5.6.3. the plate should be modeled by many more elements. and this leads to misleading results.1. a distribution of bending stresses from compressive at 4 to tensile at 5 is expected. Taking advantage of the symmetry of geometry and symmetry of loading. a more realistic stress distribution along the edge 4-5 is obtained. Determine: a) the deformed shape of the hole. to allow longhand calculation. we can analyze only one-quarter of the plate (upper right). Compare the stress values at the periphery of the hole obtained by FEM and from the theory of elasticity. Solution. E = 210 GPa and ν = 0. gives only one value of σ x . Normally. a). b) the location and magnitude of the maximum von Mises stress in the plate. containing a circular hole of radius a = 10 mm . thickness t = 5 mm . element 3.3 A thin rectangular plate. The plate has length l = 60 mm .

b The applied nodal forces are shown. Fig. . Let x and y represent the axes of symmetry.3. E8. 81-element mesh is created as shown in Fig.3. and the crossing points of the lines connecting the centroids with the common sides (where stresses are averaged).3. and points along the y axis are constrained along the x direction. E8. are denoted a to f. a A 55-node. b.3. The hole is elongated in the direction of the loading axis. c. but the element numbering is omitted for clarity. The points along the x axis are constrained in the y direction. The centroids of the elements near the midsection are marked. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 169 Fig. E8. The deformed shape is shown in Fig. E8.8.

3.170 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Fig. Elements are hatched according to the value of von Mises stresses. Stress values in elements near the midsection are given in Table E8. c The calculation of stresses is summarized in Fig.3. E8. . d The maximum von Mises stress is 19. d.3. E8.3. using five intervals with limits shown in the legend. Fig.6 MPa and occurs in element 1. E8.

7073 3. which is surprisingly accurate for the rough mesh used in the exercise. ⎜ 2r 2r ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ where r is the distance from the x axis (Fig.815 1.39 c 9.9433 7.85 e 6.69 d 7.1651 0.5768 0.2632 0.0595 0. fillet radius 20 mm . TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 171 Table E8. E = 2 ⋅ 105 MPa and ν = 0.6821 10. MPa The theoretical distribution of stresses σ x in the midsection of a plate containing a small circular hole and subjected to uniaxial tension is approximated by ⎛ a2 3 a4 ⎞ σ x = σ0 ⎜ 1+ 2 + 4 ⎟ .8037 Stresses σ x . thickness 5 mm . have the following values: Point a 15.4.0752 σy 0.6221 0. width of the reduced portion 40 mm . The averaged value of elements 1 and 2.3595 σ eq 19.5693 5.7162 4. Example 8.78 MPa . The maximum stress occurs at the periphery of the hole (r = a ) and is σ xmax = 3σ 0 = 15 MPa .3275 8. E8. width of the extended portion 80 mm .174 0. The normal stress at a point far to the right of the fillet has a uniformly distributed value .3.78 b 11.068 7.68 f 4.9228 0.5786 7. averaged at points a to f.927 0.6155 10.5706 -0. a).4 An axially loaded thin plate with a circular fillet (Fig.6445 5. E8.763 τ xy -0.0178 11. is σ xa = 15.25 .8.8845 1.6667 0.4577 11. in point a.3 Element 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 σx 20. a) has length 150 mm .89 σ x .

The resulting five nodal forces. c for five stress intervals given in the legend. Fig. . for the quarter plate.4. each with a surface of 25 mm 2 . The points along the symmetry axis are constrained in the vertical direction.4.172 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS of 440 MPa . The nodal loads for each element are 440 × 25 / 2 = 5500 N . only half of the plate is considered. Points along the left edge are constrained in the horizontal direction. and 11000 N at the three middle nodes. The right edge has four elements. E8. Fig.7 MPa . The largest equivalent stress is 604. Taking advantage of the symmetry. Find the location and magnitude of the maximum von Mises stress in the plate.19). E8. subjected to a normal stress of 440 N mm 2 .4. have magnitudes of 5500 N at the upper and lower node. The distribution of von Mises stresses is shown in Fig. b The nodal loads are calculated from equation (8. E8. a Answer. A model comprising 95 nodes and 144 CST elements is constructed as shown in Fig.4. Determine the stress concentration factor for the circular fillet. b. E8.

y65 = 20.0596 − 0. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 173 Fig.1216 0. E8.5 The nodal coordinates and the nodal displacements of element 96 in Fig.12367 .97e − 3 .4198 0 ⎤ ⎡ − 0. v64 = −3.8. This value is reasonably close to the theoretical true value of 1.42 given by Singer (1962).3757 0 0. The largest principal stress σ 1 is 622.92e − 3 .3160 ⎥ .5 . = 0. The stress concentration factor relative to the value 440 MPa is 1. x65 = 95.3757 − 0. c Values of the principal stress σ 1 around the fillet are presented in the upper part. Calculate the element stresses.3160 0. x64 = 95 . u65 u60 = 0. Example 8.0596 0 − 0. b are given below: x60 = 92.52 . E8. u64 = 0. Solution. v60 = −3.17) 0 − 0. y64 = 18 .4.35 .2982 ⎢ [ B ]= ⎢ 0 0. y60 = 21. E = 2 ⋅ 105 MPa and ν = 0.1216 0 0. v65 = −4.63e − 3 .7 MPa .4.4198 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ . The triangle area is A96 = 4.415.11224 .1925 mm 2 .12247 .25 .2982 − 0. ⎥ ⎢ 0. The matrix [ B ] is (8.5 .

97e − 3 0. ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0 0 0 .5333 0 ⎤ [ D ] = 10 ⎢ 0. E8.6. a .63e − 3 0.12367 − 3.6 Find the deformed shape and the stress distribution in the loaded gear tooth shown in Fig.92e − 3 ⎦ T .1) is { q } = ⎣ 0.6.12247 − 4. Fig. E8. but is distributed over a larger area than for the mating contact of two teeth.08⎦ T .1333 0.1333 0 ⎥ . Element stresses are given by {σ } = [ D ][ B ] { q }.11224 − 3. σ y τ xy ⎦ T = ⎣596.58 − 120. {σ } = ⎣σ x Example 8. a.5333 2. to concentrate only on the influence of fillet geometry. The load is not applied at the tooth tip.174 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The matrix [ D ] is (6.24) ⎡ 2.8 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 5 The vector of nodal displacements (8.72 63.

Fig. E8. where the equivalent von Mises stresses are indicated.8.6. c. The deformed shape is presented in Fig. The adopted finite element mesh has 126 nodes and 212 CST elements.6.6. E8. Note the stress concentration at both fillet areas. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 175 Answer. c . Note the restraints which model the tooth built-in end. E8. b.6. Fig. E8. b The stress distribution is shown in Fig.

y j = δ ij . a⎠ ⎝ It is convenient to transform to dimensionless central coordinates . N1 ( x . built up beams and boxes. y ) = x a y ⎞ ⎛ ⎜ 1− ⎟ . y ) = ⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟ ab a ⎠⎝ b ⎠ ⎝ Likewise. y1 ) = 1 .2. Fig. For example. and has a unit value at the node with the same index N1 ( x1 .0 ) = 1 we get c1 = 1 .20) They can be generated using the equations of the sides. y ) = c1 ( a − x ) ( b − y ) .176 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 8.2 Rectangular elements Rectangular elements are the easiest to discuss and are used to model stiffened thinwalled panel structures.7. y1 ) = N1 ( 0. 8. ( ) (8. hence ab 1 ( a − x ) ( b − y ) = ⎛ 1− x ⎞ ⎛ 1− y ⎞ . the remaining three shape functions are N2 ( x. y ) = x y . From condition N1 ( x1 . but zero at all other nodes on the element N i x j . 8. b ⎠ ⎝ N3 ( x. N1 is identically zero on lines x = a and y = b .1 The four-node rectangle (linear) Consider the 4-node element in Fig.7 We have to find two-dimensional shape functions which have unit values at one selected node. a b N4 ( x. y ) = y b x⎞ ⎛ ⎜ 1− ⎟ . hence it must be of the form N1 ( x . 8.

8.22) (8. N4 ⎥ ⎦ u4 v4 ⎦ .23) has one drawback – they are not complete. y ) = a 1 + a2 x + a3 y + a4 x y . The required shape functions are 1 (1 − r ) (1 − s ) . Because. a (8. 4 4 N1 = (8. In this case x y is present but x 2 and y 2 are not.23) The displacements inside the element can be expressed in terms of the nodal displacements as ⎧ u ⎫ ⎡ N1 ⎨ ⎬=⎢ ⎩v⎭ ⎣ 0 0 N1 N2 0 0 N2 N3 0 0 N3 N4 0 0 ⎤ e q . N 4 = ( 1 − r ) ( 1 + s ) . where the stiffness has to be reevaluated as the load increments are applied and plasticity spreads. all like powers in x and y are not present. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 177 s= 2y −1. { } (8.25) The use of the shape functions (8.….21) The equations of element sides become 1 ± r = 0 . v ( x . 1 ± s = 0 . The displacements u and v of a point within the rectangle can be expressed in terms of the nodal displacements by a polynomial approximation. the assumed displacement field is u (x .24) where {q } e T = ⎣u1 v1 u2 v2 u3 v3 (8.26) The direct strain ε x = a2 + a4 y is constant in the x direction whereas the shear strain γ xy = a3 + a4 x + b2 + b4 y varies linearly with x and y . (8. 4 4 1 1 N3 = ( 1 + r ) ( 1 + s ) . Many users prefer to use higher order elements rather than use a larger number of small 4-noded rectangles. for two displacements. N2 = 1 (1 + r ) (1 − s ) . The 4-noded rectangular element is exploited in non-linear problems like elasto-plastic behaviour. Some improvement can be gained by diminishing the shear variation through the use of reduced integration on the shear contribution in the element stiffness matrix. there are eight boundary conditions. b r= 2x −1. y ) = b1 + b 2 x + b 3 y + b4 x y . . Thus the variation of strain does not have the same order in all directions. That is.

Generally. Adding four nodes means adding four supplementary boundary conditions (or nodal displacements) so that in the polynomial approximation we can add four more (higher order) terms. bending strains b This explains the poor results obtained with high aspect ratio elements which have also badly conditioned stiffness matrices. (≥ 3) 8.2 The eight-node rectangle (quadratic) The higher order 8-node rectangular element is shown in Fig. . b shows the expected circular deformed shape free of shear deformations. stresses are lower than the true values. in an example where it is expected to behave like a slender beam in which bending stresses are dominant.2. The ratio spurious shears a = = aspect ratio . a shows the deformed shape of a single element in pure bending. 8. where [ B ] = [ ∂ ][ N ] . Fig. 8. The 4-node element has flat sides.8.178 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The element stiffness matrix (7. In comparison. The stress discontinuities at element interfaces can be comparable with the mean values and the free edge stresses are not zero. Fig. because the strain energy is underestimated. The poor performance of the 4-noded element is shown below.9.8 Figure 8. The direct strains are ε x = d a on the upper and lower surface.39) is [k ]= ∫ [ B ] e Ve T [ D ][ B ] dV .8. 8. At the element ends the shear strain is γ xy = d b and only the centre has no shear deformation.

the shape functions have the following expressions 1 ( 1 − r ) ( 1 − s ) (1 + r + s ) .8. + N8 v8 . 8. N 8 = ( 1 − r ) ( 1 − s ) ( 1 + s ).. The 16 constants can be expressed (interpolated) in terms of the 16 nodal displacements and the nodal coordinates. 4 4 (8.9 In Fig. y ) = a 1 + a2 x + a3 y + a4 x 2 + a5 x y + a6 y 2 + a7 x 2 y + a8 x y 2 . 8.7. N6 = ( 1 + r ) ( 1 − s ) ( 1 + s ) .. the displacement field is expressed as u = N1 u1 + N 2 u2 + N 3 u3 + .9 only the lines through the new nodes are shown for clarity. N 4 = − ( 1 − r ) ( 1 + s ) (1 + r − s ) . the old ones are presented in Fig. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 179 The assumed displacement field is cubic u (x . 4 4 1 1 N 3 = − ( 1 + r ) ( 1 + s ) ( 1 − r − s ). Note that choosing the last terms in x 3 and y 3 would make the element more anisotropic. (8. v ( x . + N8 u8 ..27) so that the strains are quadratic.. 8.28) where the shape functions N i can be easily built up based on the equations of the lines passing through the nodes (serendipity approach). 2 4 N1 = − . (8. v = N1 v1 + N 2 v2 + N 3 v3 + . N 2 = − 1 ( 1 + r ) ( 1 − s ) (1 − r + s ) .29) 1 1 N5 = ( 1 − r ) ( 1 + r ) ( 1 − s ) . Using the nodal approximation. 2 2 1 1 N 7 = ( 1 − r ) ( 1 + r ) (1 + s ) . y ) = b1 + b2 x + b3 y + b4 x 2 + b5 x y + b6 y 2 + b7 x 2 y + b8 x y 2 . In the natural system of coordinates r and s. Fig.

h2 . which gives the expression of N1 in (8. ζ3 = . Having generated the shape functions [ N ] . Therefore N1 is of the form N1 = c1 ( 1 − r ) ( 1 − s ) (1 + r + s ) . quadratic or higher-order strain expansions. i.. The displacements inside the element can be expressed in terms of the nodal displacements as ⎧ u ⎫ ⎡ N1 ⎨ ⎬=⎢ ⎩v⎭ ⎣ 0 where 0 N1 N2 0 0 L L N8 N2 L L 0 0 ⎤ e q .e.29). Equivalently. 8.1 Area coordinates For a triangle it is possible to define a completely symmetrical coordinate system known as area coordinates.3 Triangular elements In order to obtain accurate results for stresses with a constant strain discretization. N8 ⎥ ⎦ v8 ⎦ T . by division to the triangle heights. as h1 h2 h3 .180 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The interpolation function N1 should be zero at nodes 2.30) { q }= ⎣u e 1 v1 u2 v 2 L L u8 (8. where c1 is a constant which is determined so as to yield N1 (− 1. and nondimensionalized.. 8. the functions [ B ] = [ ∂ ][ N [ ] ] 8. Considerable effort has been devoted to develop ‘refined’ elements. 1 − r = 0 . 8 and have a value of unity at node 1.e. elements having linear.. c1 = −1 4 . i. { } (8. 1 + r + s = 0 .−1) = 1 .3. ζ1 = H1 H2 H3 . ζ2 = . N1 should vanish on the sides defined by the equations of lines passing through nodes 2 to 8: 1 − s = 0 . The position of any point M in the triangle is identified by the perpendicular distances h1 ..10. 3. one has to use a large number of elements.31) follow and the element stiffness matrix k e can be evaluated using [ D ] . a). h3 from the three sides (Fig.

8.10 The physical coordinates of point M can be expressed in terms of the nodal coordinates as x = ζ 1 x1 + ζ 2 x 2 + ζ 3 x3 . (8.10. ζ2 = A2 A .32) As A1 + A2 + A3 = A (Fig.8. (8.34) By inversion. one obtains ζ1 + ζ 2 + ζ 3 = 1 . TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 181 or ζ1 = A1 A .33) so the three coordinates are not independent and they behave like the shape functions. ζ3 = A3 A . y = ζ 1 y1 + ζ 2 y2 + ζ 3 y3 .12) ⎫ ⎡α1 ⎪ 1 ⎢ ⎬= ⎢α 2 ⎪ 2 A ⎢α ⎭ ⎣ 3 β1 γ 1 ⎤ ⎧ 1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ β2 γ 2 ⎥ ⎨ x ⎬ ⎥ β3 γ 3 ⎥ ⎪ y ⎪ ⎦⎩ ⎭ . Fig. or in matrix form ⎧1 ⎫ ⎡1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎨ x ⎬ = ⎢ x1 ⎪ y ⎪ ⎢y ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ 1 ⎧ ζ1 ⎪ ⎨ ζ2 ⎪ζ ⎩ 3 or 1 x2 y2 1 ⎤ ⎧ ζ1 ⎪ x3 ⎥ ⎨ ζ 2 ⎥ y3 ⎥ ⎪ ζ 3 ⎦⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎬. we obtain equation (8. 8. ⎪ ⎭ (8. b).

36) The displacements in terms of the nodal displacements are ⎧ u ⎫ ⎡ N1 ⎨ ⎬=⎢ ⎩v⎭ ⎣ 0 0 N1 1 N2 0 0 L L N6 N2 L L 0 0 ⎤ e q . N 6 = 4 ζ 3 ζ1 . 3 ) (8. 2A FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ( i = 1.38) . Fig.9) and the expressions (8.182 ζi = 1 ( α i + βi x + γ i y ) . γ i = xk − x j . N 3 = 2 ⎜ ζ 3 − ⎟ ζ 3 . N6 ⎥ ⎦ v6 ⎦ T . (8.11 The shape functions are readily seen to be 1 ⎛ N1 = 2 ⎜ ζ1 − 2 ⎝ N 4 = 4 ζ1 ζ 2 .3.37) where { q }= ⎣u e v1 u2 v 2 L L u6 (8.8) are α i = x j yk − xk y j . 2.35) where A is given by (8. the equations of the three sides and the lines through the mid-side nodes are shown using area coordinates. 8. { } (8. β i = y j − yk . 2⎠ 2⎠ ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ N 5 = 4 ζ 2 ζ 3 .11. 8.2 Linear strain triangle (LST) The linear strain triangle is a six-noded element. In Fig. obtained adding three mid-side nodes to the CST. 8. N 2 = 2 ⎜ ζ 2 − ⎟ ζ 2 . 1⎞ 1⎞ ⎞ ⎛ ⎛ ⎟ ζ1 .

∂y ∂ ζ2 ∂y ∂ ζ3 ⎤⎧ ∂ ⎥⎪ ∂x ⎪ ⎥⎨ ⎥⎪ ∂ ⎥⎪∂y ⎦⎩ ⎧ ∂ ⎪ ] ⎪ ∂∂x ⎨ ⎪ ⎪∂y ⎩ (8.44) .41) where A is the triangle area (8. (8. b and [ D ] using the integration formula for monomials ∫ζ A a b i ζj dA = 2 A a! b! .and second-degree terms are ∫ζ A i dA = A .42) where d A = l 3 dζ 2 l 2 dζ 3 sinθ = 2 A dζ 2 dζ 3 .43) The results for first.8.40) where [ J ] is the Jacobian of the transformation. y = ( y2 − y1 ) ζ 2 + ( y3 − y1 ) ζ 3 + y1 . it can be solved explicitly in terms of a.8). The inverse relationship is ⎧ ∂ ⎪ ∂x ⎪ ⎨ ∂ ⎪ ⎪∂y ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬=[J ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎧ ∂ ⎪ ζ ] −1 ⎪ ∂∂ 2 ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ∂ ζ3 ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ 1 ⎡ β2 ⎪ ⎬= ⎢ ⎪ 2A ⎣ γ 2 ⎪ ⎭ ⎧ ∂ β3 ⎤ ⎪ ∂ ζ 2 ⎪ ⎥⎨ ∂ γ3 ⎦ ⎪ ⎪ ∂ ζ3 ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬. ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ (8.39) Using the chain rule for partial derivatives ⎧ ∂ ⎪ ∂ζ ⎪ 2 ⎨ ∂ ⎪ ⎪ ∂ ζ3 ⎩ ⎫ ⎡ ∂x ⎪ ⎢ ∂ζ ⎪ 2 ⎬ = ⎢ ∂x ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ∂ ζ3 ⎭ ⎣ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬=[J ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 183 To form [ B ] = [ ∂ ][ N ] we need to find the derivatives of shape functions with respect to the physical coordinates. Using (8. 12 ∫ζ A 2 i dA = A .33) we can eliminate ζ1 in (8. However. (2 + a + b ) ! (8. The integration is frequently performed numerically. 3 ∫ζ ζ i A j dA = A . so we must transform from x . 6 (8.34) obtaining x = (x 2 − x1 ) ζ 2 + (x3 − x1 ) ζ 3 + x1 . γ i are defined by (8.9) and β i . ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ (8. ζ 2 . The element stiffness matrix is [k ]= ∫ [ B ] e A T [ D ][ B ] t e d A . ζ 3 . y to ζ1 .

y = ( 1 − r − s ) y1 + r y2 + s y3 . the displacement expansion on a boundary must involve only the nodal quantities for that boundary.184 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The LST element is based on expanding the displacements in a complete second-degree polynomial in ζ 2 and ζ 3 2 u = a1 + a2 ζ 2 + a3 ζ 3 + a4 ζ 2 + a5 ζ 2 ζ 3 + a6 ζ 3 .48) . six for each component. (8. In order to satisfy inter-element displacement compatibility. N3 = s . 8. The physical coordinates of a point within the triangle are x = ( 1 − r − s ) x1 + r x 2 + s x3 . so the element is truly isotropic. 2 2 v = b1 + b2 ζ 2 + b3 ζ 3 + b4 ζ 2 + b5 ζ 2 ζ 3 + b6 ζ 3 . There are three constants for this case (the function is quadratic) and an additional interior node is required for each boundary. (8.47) Fig. N2 = r . 8.45) The displacement field is complete. ζ 3 = s.12 The coefficients of the nodal coordinates are genuine geometric interpolation functions N1 = 1 − r − s .37) is obtained. Denoting ζ 2 = r.12). the nodal approximation (8. containing all possible products. There are twelve nodal displacements.46) we can introduce oblique triangular coordinates (Fig. It is convenient to locate these interior nodes at the mid-points of the sides. 2 (8. ζ1 = 1 − ζ 2 − ζ 3 = 1 − r − s (8. without recourse to computationally inefficient internal nodes. Solving for the constants in terms of the nodal displacements.

i =1 9 (8.50) where . It is convenient to take the interior node at the centroid. Since the function is cubic. An additional interior node is needed to maintain completeness of the polynomial since.49) so that the same functions can be used as interpolation functions. the stiffness will have preferred direction which is not desirable. treated in the next chapter.3. the displacement function for a side must depend only on the nodal displacement quantities for the side.13.13 The displacements are expressed as complete cubic polynomials.8. four nodal quantities are required to define the distribution on a side. if the polynomial is not complete. In order to satisfy inter-element displacement compatibility. i =1 9 v = ∑ N i vi + N c v c . The side nodes are located at the third points. 8. a. This element is shown in Fig. 8. 8. The displacement nodal expansion has the form u = ∑ N i ui + N c u c .3 Quadratic strain triangle A triangular element with a quadratic displacement field can be built up in two ways. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 185 The nodal displacements for the 3-node triangle can also be written u = ( 1 − r − s ) u1 + r u2 + s u3 . v = ( 1 − r − s ) v1 + r v2 + s v3 . This is the basic idea behind the isoparametric formulation. One possibility is to work with corner point nodes and two interior nodes per side. (8. taking as nodal quantities the displacement components. Fig.

2 2 N 7 = ζ 3 ( ζ 3 + 3 ζ1 + 3 ζ 2 ) − 7 ζ1 ζ 2 ζ 3 . are 2 N1 = ζ1 ( ζ1 + 3 ζ 2 + 3 ζ 3 ) − 7 ζ1 ζ 2 ζ 3 . 8. The solution is to include displacement ∂ u ∂ u ∂v ∂v derivatives . It is convenient to take the displacement components of the centroid (uc . 2 2 9 9 = ζ 3 ζ1 ( 3 ζ 3 − 1 ) . 2 N 5 = ζ 2 ( γ 1 ζ 3 − γ 3 ζ1 ) + ( γ 3 − γ 1 ) ζ 1 ζ 2 ζ 3 . expressed in terms of triangular coordinates. 2 N 6 = ζ 2 ( β 3 ζ1 − β1 ζ 3 ) + ( β1 − β 3 ) ζ1 ζ 2 ζ 3 .. a total of 18 parameters (Fig. ∂x ∂ y ∂x ∂ y nodal variables. b). 2 2 1 = ζ3 ( 3 ζ3 − 1 ) ( 3 ζ3 − 2 ) . N 5 = ζ1 ζ 2 ( 3 ζ 2 − 1 ). At each corner.13. + + N 9 u′y 3 + N cuc . 2 9 9 = ζ1 ζ 2 ( 3 ζ1 − 1 ) . (8. N 4 = ζ 2 ( ζ 2 + 3 ζ 3 + 3 ζ1 ) − 7 ζ1 ζ 2 ζ 3 . 2 2 9 9 = ζ 2 ζ 3 ( 3 ζ 2 − 1 ).. 2 2 = 27 ζ1 ζ 2 ζ 3 . 2 N8 = ζ 3 ( γ 2 ζ1 − γ 1 ζ 2 ) + ( γ 1 − γ 2 ) ζ1 ζ 2 ζ 3 .186 N1 = N3 N4 N6 N8 Nc FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 1 1 ζ1 ( 3 ζ1 − 1 ) ( 3 ζ1 − 2 ) . (8. 2 N 3 = ζ1 ( β 2 ζ 3 − β 3 ζ 2 ) + ( β 3 − β 2 ) ζ1 ζ 2 ζ 3 . .52) the interpolation polynomials.53) N c = 27 ζ1 ζ 2 ζ 3 . as nodal quantities. vc ) as the remaining parameters. 2 N 9 = ζ 3 ( β1 ζ 2 − β 2 ζ1 ) + ( β 2 − β1 ) ζ1 ζ 2 ζ 3 . 2 N 2 = ζ1 ( γ 3 ζ 2 − γ 2 ζ 3 ) + ( γ 2 − γ 3 ) ζ1 ζ 2 ζ 3 . . x x (8. in order to reduce the bandwidth of the stiffness matrix.52) In (8. there are six .51) Another possibility is to work only with corner nodes. N 9 = ζ 3 ζ 1 ( 3 ζ 1 − 1 ) . N 2 = ζ 2 ( 3 ζ 2 − 1 ) ( 3 ζ 2 − 2 ) . N 7 = ζ 2 ζ 3 ( 3 ζ 3 − 1 ). Two additional displacement quantities not associated with the boundaries are required for completeness. The nodal expansion for u has the form u = N1 u1 + N 2 u′ 1 + N 3 u′y1 + N 4 u2 + N 5 u′ 2 + . two displacements and four first derivatives.

+ = − 2 ⎜ ∂ x 2 ∂ x ∂y ⎟ ∂ x2 ∂ y 2 ⎝ ⎠ u ( x . y ) = b1 + b2 x + b3 y + b4 x y . y ) = a1 + a2 x + a3 y + a4 x y . pv x Let write the equilibrium equations in terms of displacements for the case = pv y = 0 . β i are defined by (8.55) Equations (8. compatibility In a FEM solution based on assumed displacement fields.7) we obtain ( ) ( ) (8. 2 ∂x ∂y equations (6.4 Equilibrium.8. of the rectangular element.56) .16) in (8.4.24) into the equilibrium ∂ 1− ν ∂ ε x +ν ε y + γ xy = 0.54) Substituting the strain-displacement relations (6.54) gives ∂ 2u ∂ 2u 1 + ν ⎛ ∂ 2u ∂ 2v ⎞ ⎜ ⎟.55) are not satisfied by the assumed displacement field (8. v ( x .1 Equilibrium vs. compatibility is satisfied if the assumed element displacement field is continuous. 8. convergence and compatibility It is useful to make some general comments on the fulfilment of the equilibrium and compatibility conditions in a finite element solution based on assumed displacement fields [33]. 8. one can say that: a) Within elements.8) and the subscript c refers to the centroid. For example. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 187 where γ i . but equilibrium is usually not satisfied. Substituting the stress-strain relations (6.26) (8. (8. ∂x 2 ∂y 1− ν ∂ ∂ γ xy + ε y + ν ε x = 0. The same interpolation functions are valid for v . + 2 = − 2 ⎜ ∂ y 2 ∂ x ∂y ⎟ ∂ x2 ∂ y ⎝ ⎠ ∂ 2 v ∂ 2 v 1 + ν ⎛ ∂ 2 v ∂ 2u ⎞ ⎜ ⎟.

the solution will converge monotonically to the true solution. = a3 + a4 x . In some cases it can give better results. As the discretization is refined. So. provided that the new mesh contains all the nodes of the previous meshes. the elements fit together. for both the 3-node triangle and the 4-node rectangle. When inter-element compatibility is satisfied. 8. b) Between elements. where stresses are constant within the element but differ from one element to another. The finite element equations are a set of equilibrium equations and the solution is such that resultant forces and moments acting on each node are zero.188 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ∂u ∂u ∂ 2v ∂ 2u ∂ 2u = a2 + a4 y . the edges remain straight. equilibrium is satisfied within the CST because of its extreme simplicity. For example. c) At nodes. However. and equilibrium of nodal forces and moments is satisfied.2 Convergence and compatibility As the mesh of elements is refined. and adjacent elements do not overlap or separate. Inter-element equilibrium is obviously violated in the CST. The rectangle would satisfy equilibrium if a4 = b4 = 0 . inter-element stress continuity may exist. the direct strain ε x is linear in the y direction whereas the shear strain γ xy varies linearly with x and y . compatibility is enforced by joining elements at these locations. the finite element solution gives an upper bound on the total potential energy. so the first equation (8. and ∂x ∂y ∂ x ∂y ∂ x2 ∂ y which is not zero. However. in a ‘proper’ finite element solution. any violations of equilibrium and compatibility tend to vanish as more and more elements are used in the mesh. u and v are linear in x (or y ) along element edges. = b4 = 2 = 0 . But as already shown. the convergence of displacements with the mesh refinement must be monotonic from below. but this is the case only in a field of constant strain. for any nodal displacement. compatibility may or may not be satisfied. Happily. in general. the rectangle is inferior to the triangle.4. Moreover. the sequence of solutions to a problem is expected to converge to the correct result if the assumed element displacement fields satisfy the following criteria: . One cannot conclude from this that. as in the case of uniform beams loaded only at nodes. and equilibrium is usually not satisfied.55) is not satisfied.

When nodal degrees of freedom are given values corresponding to a state of rigid body motion. c) Rigid body modes must be represented. The check is done using the so called “patch test”. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 189 a) The displacement field within an element must be continuous. b) When the nodal degrees of freedom are given values corresponding to a state of constant strain. It is achieved even when based on incomplete polynomials. we will not be able to reproduce the displacement patterns corresponding to the n − 1 previous discretizations. However. This is normally ensured by the selection of shape functions. If this requirement is violated. Elements should be invariant with respect to the orientation of the load system. the element type is invalid or at least suspect (it may happen that an element is valid in certain configurations only). extraneous nodal forces appear. plate and shell elements. and the equations of nodal equilibrium are altered. The model consists of an assembly of several elements arranged so that at least one node is completely surrounded by elements. Elements must not overlap or separate. strains. Such elements do satisfy inter-element compatibility in the limit of mesh refinement. To satisfy the requirements on both rigid body modes and constant strain rates. This means that by suitably specializing the nodal displacements for the nth discretization. The computed displacements. In the case of beam.8. the displacement field must produce the constant strain state throughout the element. as each element approaches a state of constant strain. the slope must be continuous across interelement boundaries. we do not know whether the potential energy corresponding to a particular non-conforming element is higher or lower than the true value. The boundary nodes are then given either displacements or forces consistent with a constant strain state. e) The element should have no preferred directions.e. it is not possible to construct a minimizing sequence with non-compatible elements. and stresses within elements should be consistent with the constant strain state. . the element must exhibit zero strain and therefore zero nodal forces. Also. noncompatible elements do not provide a bound on the potential energy. d) Compatibility must exist between elements. If not. i. This requirement is violated by many successful non-conforming elements. if there is a ‘balanced’ representation of terms in the polynomial expansion. Internal nodes are to be neither loaded nor restrained. Invariance exists if complete polynomials are used for element displacement fields. the expansion must be at least a complete polynomial of order equal to the highest derivative occurring in the strain-displacement relations.

190 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Example 8. Its solution must be u5 ⎫ ⎬ = {F } . v2 = 1 . Fig. The resulting nodal displacements are u1 = 0 . u4 = 1 . v4 = 1 .7 For the assembly of four triangular elements shown in Fig. u3 = 4 .6. the internal node must behave accordingly. The condensed set of finite element equations has the form [K ] ⎧ ⎨ where [K ] depends on the material properties and {F } depends on both the material properties and the prescribed nodal displacements. E8. v1 = 0 . E8.25 and the strains at any point must be {ε } = ⎣1 1 2⎦ T . . v3 = 4 . u2 = 1 . ⎩v5 ⎭ u5 = v5 = 1.7 Assume a displacement field u=v= x+ y for which the strains are {ε } = ⎣1 1 2⎦ T . If these are the boundary conditions imposed to the model. a simple patch test is carried out as follows.

The local nodes 1. the same interpolation functions are used to define the element shape as are used to define the displacement field within the element. the result is an isoparametric element. because only the displacement expansion is refined whereas the geometry definition remains the same.1) . we obtain a subparametric element.1. 3 and 4 are labelled counterclockwise. Each node has two degrees of freedom. It is possible to construct subparametric elements whose geometry is determined by a lower order model than the displacements. In fact. 9. 2. the shapes of the interpolation functions and not the parameters are the same. yi ) . If we develop higher order triangular elements while keeping straight sides. The vector of element nodal displacements is defined as { q }= ⎣ u e 1 v1 u2 v2 u3 v3 u4 v4 ⎦ T . (9. When it is mapped into a quadrilateral with parabolically curved sides. The coordinates of node i are ( xi . For isoparametric elements.1 Linear quadrilateral element Consider the general quadrilateral element shown in Fig. The constant strain triangle is an isoparametric element though it was not treated like that. When the eight node rectangle is transformed into a quadrilateral with straight sides. The construction of shape functions and evaluation of stiffness matrices for quadrilateral and higher-order elements with curved sides faces difficulties which are overcome by the use of isoparametric elements and numerical integration. Elements with curved sides provide a better fit to curved edges of an actual structure. The displacement components of a local node i are denoted as ui in the x direction and vi in the y direction. 9. a. they are subparametric elements.9. ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS Simple triangular and rectangular elements allow closed form derivations of stiffness matrices and load vectors.

2 b . taking the value zero over the quadrilateral medians. called the reference element (or master element). 1 ] . a). In the reference plane. 9. The transformation between the natural coordinates { r . s ∈ [ − 1.1. 9. s } plane. quadrilateral elements become a square of side 2 (Fig. y } is called the isoparametric mapping. 1 ] . They are called quadrilateral coordinates. This is called the reference plane. 9. The coordinates r and s vary from − 1 on one side to + 1 at the other.192 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 9.1. which extends over r ∈ [ − 1. s } in the reference plane and the cartesian coordinates { x . a Fig.1 b In the development of isoparametric elements it is useful to visualize the quadrilateral coordinates plotted as cartesian coordinates in the { r .2.1 Natural coordinates A natural coordinate system can be attached to a quadrilateral element as illustrated in Fig. b. a Fig. 9.

23) developed for the rectangle are directly applicable 1 1 N1 = ( 1 − r ) ( 1 − s ) . ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ (9. 9. si ) are the coordinates of node i . b).4.1.3) where ( ri . 9. The advantage is that the interpolation functions defined for the reference element are the same for all actual elements and have simple expressions. 4 4 (9. ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 193 Each quadrilateral ‘child’ in the { x . N 4 = ( 1 − r ) ( 1 + s ) . The coordinates of a point within the element are expressed in terms of the nodal coordinates as x = N1 x1 + N 2 x 2 + N 3 x3 + N 4 x 4 = ∑ N i x i . N 2 = ( 1 + r ) ( 1 − s ) . i =1 i =1 4 4 (9. The drawback is that the mapping is a change of coordinates which implies complications in the evaluation of the integral in the element stiffness matrix. a) y = ⎣N ⎦ y e = ⎣N1 { } N2 N3 ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ N4 ⎦ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ y1 y2 y3 y4 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬. b) . y = N1 y1 + N 2 y2 + N 3 y3 + N 4 y4 = ∑ N i y i .4) In matrix form x = ⎣N ⎦ x e = ⎣N1 { } N2 N3 ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ N4 ⎦ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ x1 ⎫ x2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎬. 4 (9.2) 1 1 N3 = ( 1 + r ) ( 1 + s ) . s } plane (Fig.2 Shape functions The interpolation functions (8.9. 4 4 The following compact representation is useful for the implementation in a computer program Ni ( r . s ) = 1 ( 1 + r ri )( 1 + s si ) . x3 ⎪ x4 ⎪ ⎭ (9.4. y } is generated by the ‘parent’ or ‘reference’ element from the { r .2.

2. 9. As mentioned in Chapter 8. a). i.3 The displacement field In the isoparametric formulation.5) which can be written in matrix form { u } = [ N ] { q e }. i =1 i =1 4 4 (9. Then it is easy to show that the displacements along a side of the element depend only upon the displacements of the nodes occurring on that side. s ) .194 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 9. 2 2 r =1 The four-node quadrilateral is termed a “linear” (sometimes bi-linear) element because its sides remain straight during deformation. For example. along the side 2-3 (Fig.8) = a1 + a2 + ( a3 + a4 ) s . there are no openings. the compatibility requirement is satisfied in cartesian coordinates too. along each side the approximation is linear.6) [ N ]= ⎡ ⎢ N1 0 N1 N2 0 0 N2 N3 0 0 N3 N4 0 ⎣ 0 0 ⎤ . then u = N1 u 1 + N 2 u 2 + N 3 u 3 + N 4 u 4 = ∑ N i u i . polynomial models are inherently continuous within the element. overlaps or discontinuities . = 1− s 1+ s u2 + u3 . N4 ⎥ ⎦ (9. because r (or s) is constant. the same shape functions are used to express the displacements within the element in terms of the nodal values as are used to define the element shape. If u and v are the displacement components of a point located at ( r .1. r = 1 and u u r =1 (9.7) As the shape functions in natural coordinates (9. This ensures interelement compatibility.2) fulfil continuity of geometry and displacements both within the element and between adjacent elements.e. where (9. v = N1 v1 + N 2 v2 + N 3 v3 + N 4 v4 = ∑ N i v i . If the u displacement is approximated as u ( r . s ) = a1 + a2 r + a3 s + a4 r s .

9) For example.10) and (9. s ) ] .1. ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ (9. The 4-node isoparametric quadrilateral is a conforming element. 9. y ) = b1 + b2 x + b3 y + b4 x y . This is done considering the function f = f ( x . the equation of the side 2-3 (Fig. ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 195 between the elements. (9. y ) to be an implicit function of r and s as f = f [ x (r . a) has the form y = m x + c .9) is non-conforming.9. 9. it can also be expressed as . s } coordinates.4). the conditions of both rigid body displacements and constant strain states are satisfied in cartesian coordinates too. Along 2-3. The approximation (9.10) where [ J ]= ⎡ ⎢ J11 ⎣ J 21 J12 ⎤ J 22 ⎥ ⎦ (9.4 Mapping from natural to cartesian coordinates Subsequently. If the u displacement is approximated as u ( x . Using (9. along each side the approximation is quadratic. we have ⎧ ∂ ⎪ ∂r ⎪ ⎨ ∂ ⎪ ⎪ ∂s ⎩ ⎫ ⎡ ∂x ⎪ ⎢ ∂r ⎪ ⎬ = ⎢ ∂x ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ ⎢ ∂s ⎭ ⎣ ∂y ∂r ∂y ∂s ⎤⎧ ∂ ⎥⎪ ∂x ⎪ ⎥⎨ ⎥⎪ ∂ ⎥⎪∂y ⎦⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬=[J ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎧ ∂ ⎪ ] ⎪ ∂∂x ⎨ ⎪ ⎪∂y ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬.1. we need to express the derivatives of a function in { x . Also. y } coordinates in terms of its derivatives in { r . s ) . the 4-node quadrilateral is a non-conforming element. Transformation of differential operators Using the chain rule of differentiation. because the interpolation displacement model provides rigid body displacements in the natural coordinate system. y (r . where m is the slope of 2-3. u ( x ) varies quadratically and cannot be uniquely defined as a function of u 2 and u 3 . so that u ( x) 2 −3 = b1 + cb3 + ( b2 + m b3 + c b4 ) x + m b4 x 2 .11) is the Jacobian matrix. On the contrary.

13) ⎡ − x1 + x 2 + x3 − x 4 + ⎢ 1 ⎢ + s (x1 − x 2 + x3 − x 4 ) [ J ]= ⎢ 4 − x1 − x 2 + x3 + x 4 + ⎢ ⎢ + r (x1 − x 2 + x3 − x 4 ) ⎣ ⎧ ∂ ⎪ ∂x ⎪ ⎨ ∂ ⎪ ⎪∂y ⎩ ⎫ ⎡ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ ⎬=⎢ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ ⎢ ⎭ ⎣ ∂r ∂x ∂r ∂y ∂s ∂x ∂s ∂y ⎤⎧ ∂ ⎥ ⎪ ∂r ⎪ ⎥⎨ ⎥⎪ ∂ ⎥ ⎪ ∂s ⎦⎩ − y1 + y2 + y3 − y4 + ⎤ ⎥ + s ( y1 − y2 + y3 − y4 ) ⎥ ⎥. where A0 = 1 8 (9. the inverse relationship is (9.13. a) Analogously. ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ∂s ⎪ ⎭ ⎭ ⎩ (9.16) [ ( y4 − y2 )( x3 − x1 ) − ( y3 − y1 )( x4 − x2 ) ] .12) ⎫ ⎧ ∂ ⎪ ∂ r ⎣N ⎦ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ =⎨ ⎬ ∂ ⎪ N⎦ ⎪ ⎣ ⎪ ⎪ ∂s ⎭ ⎩ ⎣{ x e } { y e }⎦ .15) For the four-node quadrilateral element det [ J ] = A0 + A1 r + A2 s . .14) where [ j ] = [ J ] −1 is the inverse of the Jacobian matrix [ j ]= ⎡ ⎢ j11 ⎣ j21 j12 ⎤ 1 ⎡ J 22 − J12 ⎤ . For the four-node quadrilateral element [ J ]= 1 ⎡ ⎢ − (1 − s ) (1 − s ) 4 ⎣ − (1 − r ) − (1 + r ) (1 + s ) (1 + r ) ⎡ x1 − (1 + s ) ⎤ ⎢ x 2 ⎢ (1 − r ) ⎥ ⎢ x3 ⎦ ⎢ ⎣ x4 y1 y2 y3 y4 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥. − y1 − y2 + y3 + y4 + ⎥ + r ( y1 − y2 + y3 − y4 ) ⎥ ⎦ ⎫ ⎧ ∂ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ∂r ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ = [ j ]⎨ ∂ ⎬ . ⎥= j22 ⎦ det [J ] ⎢ − J 21 J11 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (9.196 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎧ ∂ ⎪ [ J ] = ⎪ ∂∂r ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ∂s ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎣x ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎧ ∂ ⎪ ∂r ⎪ y⎦ = ⎨ ∂ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ∂s ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎣ ⎣N ⎦ { x e } ⎣N ⎦ { y e }⎦ = (9. ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ (9.

and i . y }. The components of these vectors in a cartesian coordinate system are dr = ∂x ∂y d r ⋅ i + d r ⋅ j = ( J11 i + J12 j ) d r . y ) .17) It is needed because. d y = d y ⋅ j . the elementary area dA is given by the modulus of the cross product d x ×d y .9. s = s ( x . the elementary area dA is given by the modulus of the cross product d r ×d s . In a curvilinear system { r . In cartesian coordinates { x . The above expressions will be used in the derivation of the element stiffness matrix. in terms of ∂x ∂y Usually [ j] is used because we want to express ∂f ∂f . y ) ∂r ∂s are not explicitly known. where d x = d x ⋅ i . determined on the reference element. j are base vectors. contours respectively. . for the evaluation of the element stiffness matrix. the integration on the real element is replaced by the simpler integration over the reference element. ∂r ∂r d s = ( J 21 i + J 22 j ) d s . s } . [ ( y4 − y1 )( x3 − x2 ) − ( y3 − y2 )( x4 − x1 ) ] . and s = const . . ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 197 A1 = A2 = 1 8 1 8 [ ( y3 − y4 )( x2 − x1 ) − ( y2 − y1 )( x3 − x4 ) ]. It is equal to the area of the elemental parallelogram enclosed by the two vectors d r and d s directed tangentially to the r = const . Because r = r ( x . ∂f ∂f . Transformation of an infinitesimal area An additional result that will be needed is the relation dx dy = det [ J ] dr ds . we need [ j ]. By equating the moduli of the cross products d x ×d y = d x d y ⋅ k . (9.

41) [ B ] = [ ∂ ][ N ] . ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ (9. (9.198 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS i d r ×d s = J11 J 21 we obtain equation (9.21) ⎡ j11 [ B1 ] = ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ j21 ⎣ j12 0 j22 0 j21 j11 0 j22 j12 ⎤ ⎥.9) and shape functions (9. The matrix of differentiated shape functions [ B ] is (7. (9. where (9.18) where [ D ] is the material stiffness matrix and t e is the element thickness.41) gives the strain-displacement matrix ⎡ ∂ ⎢ ⎢ ∂x [ B ]= [∂ ] [ N ]= ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ∂ ⎢ ⎢ ∂y ⎣ ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ∂ ⎥ [ N ]. where [ ∂ ] is the matrix of differential operators (6.20) Using the transformation (9.9) into (7.1.7).17).22) . j J12 J 22 k 0 d r d s = det [J ] d r d s ⋅ k 0 9. ∂y ⎥ ∂ ⎥ ⎥ ∂x ⎥ ⎦ (9.5 Element stiffness matrix The element stiffness matrix (7.14) we obtain [ B ] = [ B1 ][ B2 ] .43) is [k ]= t ∫ [ B ] e e A T [ D ][ B ] d A .19) [ N ] is the matrix of Substituting (6.

− (1 + s )⎥ (1 − r ) ⎥ ⎦ 0 Using equation (9.6 Element load vectors Because the displacements along a side of the quadrilateral isoparametric element are linear. as shown in the following. the consistent nodal forces applied along that side are calculated as for a linear two-node element. If there is a distributed load having components ( px . ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 199 and ⎡ ∂ ⎢ ∂r ⎢ ⎢ ∂ [ B2 ] = ⎢ ∂ s ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎣ ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ [ N ].24) Because [ B ] and det [ J ] are involved functions of r and s. along side 2-3 in Fig.1. p y ) per unit length 0 0 ⎦T . 9. the element stiffness matrix can be written [k ]= t ∫ ∫ [ B ] e e −1 −1 +1 +1 T [ D ][ B ] det [ J ] dr ds .23) or 0 0 (1 − s ) ⎡ − (1 − s ) ⎢ − (1 − r ) 0 − (1 + r ) 0 [ B2 ] = 1 ⎢ (1 − s ) 0 − (1 − s ) 0 4⎢ ⎢ 0 − (1 − r ) 0 − (1 + r ) ⎣ (1 + s ) (1 + r ) 0 0 0 0 (1 + s ) (1 + r ) − (1 + s ) (1 − r ) 0 0 ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥.17).1. then the equivalent nodal force vector is { f }= 1 l ⎣ 0 2 e 2−3 0 px py px py (9. 9. (9. the above integration has to be performed numerically.9. ∂ ⎥ ⎥ ∂r ⎥ ∂ ⎥ ∂s ⎥ ⎦ (9. .25) if p x and p y are constants and l 2 −3 is the length of the side 2-3.

A polynomial of order (2n − 1) can be ‘fitted’ to f ( r ) by imposing n weights wi and n sampling points in such a way that the summation +1 −1 ∫ f (r ) d r = ∑ wi f ( r i ) i =1 n (9... The particular positions of these sampling points are known as Gauss Points.27) .1 One dimensional Gauss quadrature The one-dimensional version of the Gauss method relies on the concept that any function f ( r ) can be represented approximately over the interval r ∈ [ − 1. the differentiated shape functions in the matrix [ B ] grow algebraically more cumbersome. + wi f (ri ) + .2 Numerical integration The numerical evaluation of stiffness integrals is usually done by Gaussian quadrature. whose heights are equal to the function values at the sampling points. The actual area represented by the integral is replaced by a series of rectangles of unequal widths. They turn out to be the roots of Legendre polynomials and so the method is referred to as a Gauss-Legendre integration.2.. As the order of the displacement field increases.26) is exact up to the chosen order. 9. The 2n coefficients are determined from the condition that the above equation is satisfied for a polynomial of order 2n − 1 of the form f ( r ) = a1 + a2 r + a3 r 2 + . (9. 1 ] by a polynomial which can be integrated exactly. as for example the NewtonCotes integration. + wn f (r n ) . The isoparametric mapping introduces det [ J ] in the integrand so that closed form evaluation of stiffness integrals becomes impossible. For higher order elements.200 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 9. the stiffness integrals become progressively more complicated. In other words. the integral of a polynomial function is replaced by a linear combination of its values at the integration points ri : +1 −1 ∫ f ( r )d r = w1 f (r1 ) + w2 f (r 2 ) + . It is more efficient than other methods.. + a2 n r 2 n −1 . because it involves only a half of the sample values of the integrand required by the latter...

linear in wi and nonlinear in r i . + wn r n 2 n −1 . a) +1 −1 ∫ f ( r )d r ≈ w1 f (r1 ) . 0 = w1 r1 + w2 r 2 + . i =1 n Generally +1 0 ⎧ ⎪ rα dr = ⎨ 2 ⎪ α +1 ⎩ −1 ∫ if i is odd if i is even (9.29) so that 2 = w1 + w2 + . + wn ) + ) ( ) (9.28) Identifying the terms +1 −1 ∫ d r = ∑ wi ...3. − 1 < r i < +1 ⎬ ⎭ One-point formula For n = 1 we have the midpoint rule (Fig... The 2 n parameters are determined from conditions wi > 0 ⎫ i = 1. This is a set of 2 n equations. + a2 n −1 +1 +1 −1 ∫r 2 n −1 d r = a1 ( w1 + w2 + . n . 3 (9.. ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 201 On substitution above we get +1 a1 + a2 w1 r1 + w2 r 2 + . + wn r n + . ( −1 ∫ d r + a2 ∫ r d r + .... + wn r n n −1 .. i =1 n +1 −1 ∫ r α d r = ∑ wi riα . 2 .. + a2 n w1 r12 n −1 + w2 r 2 2 n −1 + . i =1 n +1 −1 ∫ r d r = ∑ wi r i .... + wn . + wn r n ... + wn r n ...9.. 9.30) L L L L L L 2 2 2 0 = w1 r1 n −1 + w2 r 2 n −1 + . 2 2 2 2 = w1 r1 + w2 r 2 + .....

57735 ) + 1 ⋅ f ( − 0.g. to separate shear from extension effects. 9.202 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS which is exact only when f (r ) is a polynomial of order 1. b) +1 −1 r1 = − r 2 = 1 = 0.57735 ) . (9. The solution to this set of equations is w1 = w2 = 1 . equations (9. e. Two-point formula For a two-point integration +1 −1 ∫ f ( r )d r = w1 f (r1 ) + w2 f (r 2 ) .3. 0 = w1 r1 + w2 r 2 .5773502691 3 ∫ f ( r )d r = 1 ⋅ f ( 0.31) For a polynomial of order 2n − 1 = 2 ⋅ 2 − 1 = 3 .3 . Fig. However. avoiding the so-called shear locking by using reduced integration for shearing. 3 3 3 0 = w1 r1 + w2 r 2 . it is employed in some selective integration schemes. so that (Fig.30) give 2 = w1 + w2 . 9. 2 2 2 = w1 r1 + w2 r 2 .

339981 ± 0.57735 . s1 ) + f ( r2 . so that I = f ( r1 .0 0.774) + 0.347854 1 2 3 4 1 3 5 7 ± 0.555 ⋅ f ( 0.3.888 ⋅ f ( 0 ) + 0. 9.555 ⋅ f ( − 0. r 2 = s 2 = 0. Table 9.652145 0. Weights.2 Two dimensional Gauss quadrature The one dimensional version of Gaussian quadrature is readily extended to two dimensions if we use the rectangles or isoparametric quadrilaterals of section 9. ∫ ⎥ i =1 j =1 −1 ⎢ j =1 ⎣ ⎦ ( ) ( ) I= For n = 2 ∫ ∫ f ( r . s ) d r d s = ∑ ∑ wi w j f ri . s2 ) + f ( r2 .2. 3 i =1 Gauss points and weights are given in Table 9.57735 ± 0. s )d r d s ≅ +1 +1 −1 −1 +1 n n ⎡ n ⎤ ⎢ ∑ w j f r . s1 ) + f ( r1 . .774 ) .774596 ± 0.5555 0. i =1 j =1 n n ( ) (9.1 for the first four orders. c) ∑ wi f (ri ) = 0.9.0 1. s j . r1 = s 1 = − 0.8888 0.1: I= +1 +1 −1 −1 ∫ ∫ f ( r . s j ⎥ ds = ∑ wi ∑ w j f ri .861136 0 9.1 Number of Gauss points Order of polynomial integrated exactly Gauss Points. Gauss quadrature formulae for quadrilateral elements are shown in Table.57735 . s2 ) . s j .2.32) w1 = w2 = 1 . ri 0 wi 2. ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 203 Three-point formula For a three-point integration (Fig. 9.

4 81 ⎝ 9 9 ⎠ 64 ⎛ 8 8 ⎞ ⎜ = × ⎟ at points 1. 4 25 ⎛ 5 5 ⎞ ⎜ = × ⎟ at points 1. s j Weights. det [ J ] is a linear function of r and s .204 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Table 9. For a rectangle or parallelogram it is a constant. 2. 3. Therefore. The elements of [ B ] are obtained by dividing a bilinear function of r and s by a linear function. 2. 4 81 ⎝ 9 9 ⎠ 3 9 (3 × 3) 40 ⎛ 5 8 ⎞ ⎜ = × ⎟ at points 1. wi . In general. the elements of . 3.2 n Number of Gauss points n×n Gauss Points. ri . w j 1 (1×1) 1 4 (= 2 × 2) at centre 2 4 (2 × 2) 1 (= 1 × 1) at points 1.2. 4 81 ⎝ 9 9 ⎠ 9. 3. 3. 2 .24) is [k ]= t ∫ ∫ [ B ] e e 1 1 −1 −1 T [ D ][ B ] det [ J ] dr ds which means that the integral above actually consists of the integral of each element (below or above the main diagonal) in an ( 8 × 8 ) matrix. 2.3 Stiffness integration The element stiffness matrix (9.

4 However. This means that k e cannot be evaluated exactly using numerical integration. in the present case. A lower limit on the number of integration points can be obtained by observing that as the mesh is refined. to be constant and noting that det [ J ] is linear. the stiffness matrix equation (9. indicates that the volume can be evaluated exactly using one integration point. From practical considerations. Using the 2 × 2 rule (9. ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 205 [ B ]T [ D ][ B ] det [ J ] are bi-quadratic functions divided by a linear function.33).9. 9. An alternative is to use reduced integration at fewer points than necessary. Experience has shown that the best order of integration for the 4-node quadrilateral element is a ( 2 × 2 ) array of points. These are modes of deformation which give rise to zero strain energy.33) The integral in (9. Taking the thickness. Therefore.33) represents the volume of the element. t e . the state of constant strain is reached within an element. we can write .24) becomes [ ] [k ]≈ [ B ] e T [ D ][ B ] ∫ +1 +1 −1 −1 ∫ t det [ J ] dr ds . with the aim of decreasing the stiffness and so compensating for the overstiff finite element model. The existence of these modes is indicated by the stiffness matrix having more zero eigenvalues than rigid body modes. is the number required to evaluate exactly the volume of the element.4). one integration point is unacceptable since it gives rise to zero-energy deformation modes (Fig. This will be the case if one of these modes gives zero strain at the integration point. Fig. In this case. This is cheaper as well. it is best to use as few integration points as is possible without causing numerical difficulties. 9. the minimum number of integration points. e (9.

1 Consider the quadrilateral element from Fig. s )] ] [ B ( r . s2 ) ] T [ [ D ] det [ J ( r2 . Example 9. consider approximately the Gauss Points at r i . ( ) c) Calculation of the [ B ] matrix (9.206 e e 1 1 T 1 1 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS [ k ] ≅ t [ B ( r . s j = ± 0. d) Calculation of [k ] e using the 2 × 2 rule (9.5 instead of r i . 9. s 1 ) ]+ +t e T (9. s2 ) ] [ [ D ] det [J ( r1 . s j = ± 0. b) Calculation of the inverse [ j ] = [ J ] −1 at the Gauss points. s ) ] [ [ D ] det [J ( r . For the first term in (9. s 1 )] ] [ B ( r2 .34) we need .1 with the following nodal coordinates ⎡ x1 ⎢x ⎢ 2 ⎢ x3 ⎢ ⎣ x4 y1 y2 y3 y4 ⎤ ⎡ 10 ⎥ ⎢ 20 ⎥ =⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 25 ⎥ ⎢ ⎦ ⎣ 8 10 ⎤ 15 ⎥ ⎥. s2 )] ] [ B ( r2 . s 1 ) ]T [ [ D ] det [ J ( r2 . 30 ⎥ ⎥ 25 ⎦ det [ J ] and [ B ] calculated at GP1.57735 . s2 )] ] [ B ( r1 . The calculation consists of four basic steps: a) Calculation of [ J ] at the Gauss points (9.11) [ J ( ri . For convenience. s2 ) ]+ + t e [ B ( r2 .s j ) ] = 1 ⎡ −( 1 − s j ) ( 1 − s j ) ( 1 + s j ) − ( 1 + s j ) ⎢ 4 ⎢ − ( 1 − ri ) ⎣ − ( 1 + ri ) ( 1 + ri ) ( 1 − ri ) ⎡ x1 ⎤ ⎢ x2 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ x3 ⎦ ⎢ ⎣ x4 y1 ⎤ y2 ⎥ ⎥ y3 ⎥ ⎥ y4 ⎦ and its determinant. s2 ) ] .34) + t e [ B ( r2 .21) ⎡ j11 [B ]= 1 ⎢ 0 4⎢ ⎢ j 21 ⎣ j12 0 j 22 0 j 21 j11 0 ⎤ ⎥ j 22 ⎥ j12 ⎥ ⎦ 0 ⎡− 1 − s j ⎢ 0 − (1 − ri ) ⎢ ⎢ 0 − 1− s j ⎢ 0 − (1 − ri ) ⎢ ⎣ ( ) ( ) 1− s j 0 1+ s j 0 1 + ri − (1 + ri ) 0 1− s j 0 0 0 − (1 + ri ) 0 0 1+ s j 1 + ri − 1+ s j 1 − ri 0 0 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ − 1+ s j ⎥ ⎥ 1 − ri ⎥ ⎦ ( 0 0 ) .34). s ) ]+ 1 1 [ B ( r1 .

5 ⎣ 0. stresses are evaluated at the Gauss points.9.5 0 0 0 0 1.4 Stress calculations In the quadrilateral element. [ j ] = [ J ] −1 = 1 ⎡ 60 − 20 ⎤ .5 ⎥ ⎢ 25 ⎣ ⎦ ⎢ ⎣ 8 Its determinant and inverse are 10 ⎤ 15 ⎥ 1 ⎥= 30 ⎥ 8 ⎥ 25 ⎦ ⎡ 61 20 ⎤ ⎢ 13 60 ⎥ . 1976).5 0. − 1.5 − 1.35) In practice. ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 207 At GP1.5 − 1.5 − 1. 5 1.5⎤ ⎢ 20 ⎢ [ J ]= 1 ⎡ 4 ⎢− 0. 5 1. ⎥ 850 ⎢− 12 10 − 49 30 36 30 25 − 50⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 9.5 ⎢− 0.11) is ⎡ 10 −0.5 0 0 0 0 0. Gauss point values are ideal for constructing internal stress contours.5 ⎢ 0 − 0.125 . 5 0. However.5 1. 5 ⎥ ⎥ 0. the matrix [ B ] is given by (9. Some programs which use Gauss point stresses extrapolate to the element nodes and then output the mean value if several elements meet at a node. (9. 425 ⎢ − 13 61 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ At GP1. In order not to miss these peak stresses.21) 0 ⎤ ⎡ 60 − 20 0 [ B ] = 1 ⎢ 0 0 − 13 61 ⎥ ⎥ 1700 ⎢ ⎢− 13 61 60 − 20⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 0 ⎡− 0. ⎣ ⎦ det [ J ]= 53. where they are found to be accurate (Barlow.5 1. a refined mesh should be used in these regions. . the Jacobian matrix (9. stresses {σ } = [ D ] [ B ] {q e } vary within the element.5 1.5 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 − 0.5 0 0 0 ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥.2. Maximum stresses usually occur at edges of plates or at other discontinuities at the element boundaries.5 − 1.5 0.5 − 1.5 ⎦ 0 30 0 30 0 − 50 0 ⎤ ⎡− 10 1 ⎢ [ B ] = ⎢ 0 − 12 0 − 49 0 36 0 25 ⎥ .

a) and the master element is a square (Fig. as are the stresses.5 The displacement functions in simple polynomial form (8. 9.5.27) are u = a1 + a2 r + a3 s + a4 r 2 + a5 r s + a6 s 2 + a7 r 2 s + a8 r s 2 . In practice. v = b1 + b2 r + b3 s + b4 r 2 + b5 r s + b6 s 2 + b7 r 2 s + b8 r s 2 .3 Eight-node quadrilateral This element is the isoparametric version of the eight-node rectangle presented in section 8. It would seem necessary to use a 4 × 4 Gauss quadrature for exact stiffness integration.5. and 2 × 2 integration is normally used for this popular element.208 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 9. b). (9. 9. For a single 8-node rectangular element. The optimal sampling points for this element are the Gauss points for the 2 × 2 scheme .2.2. 9. large groups of elements will not suffer from such mechanisms. so that the displacement variation should be parabolic (three constants) to satisfy compatibility. using a 2 × 2 integration scheme would result in a singular stiffness matrix. The product [ B ] T [ D ][ B ] is therefore fourth order and det [ J ] is cubic. Fig.36) The element has three nodes along one edge. even if it is supported conventionally. The difference is that in cartesian coordinates it has curved sides (Fig. The eight-node quadrilateral employs displacement fields quadratic in r and s .

9. 4 N5 = ( ( ) ( ) ( ) ) As they are constructed based on the equations of the lines passing through the nodal points. 4 1 N 4 = − ( 1 − r ) ( 1 + s ) (1 + r − s ) . 4 N1 = − 1 1 − r 2 (1 − s ) .38) ___________ *) After the extraordinary discoveries of the princes of Serendip from the horror novels by Horace Walpole (1717-1797). (9.3. The eight-node curved ‘quad’ is ideal for nonlinear problems and can be easily adapted to model cracks by moving the midside nodes. si ) are the natural coordinates of node i: for corner nodes 1 ( 1 + r ri ) ( 1 + s si ) (r ri + s si − 1) . It was shown that. 2 1 N6 = (1 + r ) 1 − s 2 . = ∂r ∂s 4 4 Ni = (9. so the advantages of reduced integration are compounded. ∂ N i = si ( 1 + r ri ) (2s si + r ri ) . . 4 ∂ N i ri ( 1 + s si ) (2r ri + s si ) .37) 2 1 N8 = ( 1 − r ) 1 − s 2 . Care is needed because the accuracy declines with excessive shape distortion. they belong to the serendipity *) family of elements. 4 1 N3 = − ( 1 + r ) ( 1 + s ) ( 1 − r − s ). due to reduced integration. better displacements are obtained using a 3 × 3 Gauss point mesh. For an 8-node quadrilateral element.1 Shape functions The shape functions (8.29) have the following expressions 1 ( 1 − r ) ( 1 − s ) (1 + r + s ) .9. one can also use the following equivalent formulae in which ( ri . For ease in programming. it is sufficient to examine the Jacobian determinant. 2 1 N 7 = 1 − r 2 ( 1 + s ) . ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 209 and not those for the higher order 3 × 3 scheme. 4 1 N 2 = − ( 1 + r ) ( 1 − s ) (1 − r + s ) . For the 8-node quadratic element. det [ J ] is of third order hence the minimum number of integration points is 4 (2 × 2) . in order to evaluate the minimum order of the numerical integration.

the matrix [ B ] = [ ∂ ][ N ⎡ ∂ N1 ⎢ ⎢ ∂x [ B ]= ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢∂N ⎢ 1 ⎢ ∂y ⎣ 0 ∂ N1 ∂y ∂ N1 ∂x ∂ N2 ∂x 0 ∂ N2 ∂y 0 L ∂ N8 ∂x 0 ∂ N8 ∂y ∂ N8 ∂x ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥.40) The displacements inside the element can be expressed in terms of the nodal displacements as ⎧u⎫ e (9. 2 ∂ Ni ∂ Ni 1 = − r ( 1 + s si ) . 2 ∂ Ni 1 ∂ Ni = ri 1 − s 2 . (9.39) for mid-side nodes. v⎭ ⎩ where N 0 N 2 0 L L N8 0 ⎤ [ N ]= ⎡ 1 . when si = 0 1 1 − s 2 ( 1 + r ri ) .43) Having generated the shape functions [ N ] .42) ⎢ 0 N 0 N 2 L L 0 N8 ⎥ 1 ⎣ ⎦ { } { q }= ⎣u e 1 v1 u2 v 2 L L u8 v8 ⎦ T . (9. ∂r ∂s 2 Ni = ( ) ( ) (9.210 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS for mid-side nodes.44) 9.45) leads to .2 Shape function derivatives Use of the isoparametric formulation x = ∑ N i (r . (9.41) ⎨ ⎬ =[N ] q . s ) y i i =1 8 (9. = − s ( 1 + r ri ∂r ∂s 2 Ni = ( ) ( ) ). when ri = 0 1 1 − r 2 ( 1 + s si ) . = si 1 − r 2 . ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ ] is ∂ N2 L 0 ∂y ∂ N2 ∂ N8 L ∂x ∂y (9. i =1 8 y = ∑ N i (r .3. s ) x i .

∂s 9. ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0 0 D5⎥ ⎣ ⎦ e . (9. ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ (9.46) where ∂x = ∂r ∂y = ∂r ∑ ∑ i =1 i =1 8 ∂ N i (r .3.50) where t is the thickness of the plate and the material stiffness matrix [ D ] has the form ⎡ D1 D 2 0 ⎤ (9. ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 211 − ∂y ∂r ∂x ∂r ⎤ ⎧ ∂ Ni ⎥ ⎪ ∂r ⎪ ⎥⎨ ⎥ ⎪ ∂ Ni ⎥ ⎪ ∂s ⎦⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬. ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎧ ∂ Ni ⎪ ∂x ⎪ ⎨ ∂N i ⎪ ⎪ ∂y ⎩ ⎫ ⎧ ∂ Ni ⎫ ⎡ ∂y ⎪ ⎪ ∂r ⎪ 1 ⎢ ∂s ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎬ = [ j ]⎨ ∂N ⎬ = i ⎪ det [ J ] ⎢ ∂ x ⎪ ⎪ − ⎢ ∂s ⎪ ⎪ ∂s ⎪ ⎣ ⎭ ⎭ ⎩ 8 (9.3 Determinant of the Jacobian matrix The Jacobian matrix is ⎡ ∂x ⎢ r [ J ]= ⎢ ∂x ⎢∂ ⎢ ∂s ⎣ ∂y ∂r ∂y ∂s ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ .4 Element stiffness matrix The element stiffness matrix is +1 +1 [k ]= t ∫ ∫ [ B ] e e −1 −1 T [ D ][ B ] det [ J ] d r d s (9.9. s ) xi . s ) yi .51) [ D ] = ⎢D 2 D 4 0 ⎥ .3. s ) x i 8 i .49) 9.47) ∑ i =1 i =1 8 ∂ N i (r . − ∂r ∂s ∂s ∂r (9. ∂r ∂ N i (r .48) and its determinant is det [ J ] = ∂x ∂ y ∂x ∂ y . ∂r ∂x = ∂s ∂y = ∂s ∑ ∂ N∂(sr . s ) yi .

a) w = t e w p wq det [ J ] . (9.53. (9. k 1 i j = ∑∑ w ⎜ D 1 + D5 ⎜ ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ k2 k3 ij ⎛ ∂ Ni ∂ N j ∂ Ni ∂ N j ⎞ ⎟. = ∑∑ w ⎜ D 2 + D5 ⎜ ∂x ∂ y ∂ y ∂x ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ ∂ Ni ∂ N j ∂ Ni ∂ N j ⎞ ⎟.44).54) the elements of the matrix (9.53) ∂y ⎥ ⎥ ∂N j ⎥ ∂x ⎥ ⎦ or Denoting [ k ] i j = ⎢k 1 ⎣ ⎡k 3 k 2⎤ k 4⎥ ⎦ . the stiffness matrix (9. a) can be determined as ⎛ ∂ Ni ∂ N j ∂ Ni ∂ N j ⎞ ⎟.52) The (16 × 16) element stiffness matrix contains submatrices [ k ] i j which.50) can be written ⎡ ∂ N1 ⎢ ∂x ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ∂ N2 +1 +1 ⎢ ∂x ⎢ ⎡ ke ⎤ = te ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎢ −1 −1 ⎢ ⎢ L ⎢∂N ⎢ 8 ⎢ ∂x ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎣ 0 ∂ N1 ∂y ∫∫ 0 ∂ N2 ∂y L 0 ∂ N8 ∂y ∂ N1 ⎤ ∂y ⎥ ⎥ ∂ N1 ⎥ ∂x ⎥ ⎥ ∂ N2 ⎥ ∂y ⎥ ⎥ ∂ N2 ⎥ ∂x ⎥ ⎥ L ⎥ ∂ N8 ⎥ ⎥ ∂y ⎥ ∂ N8 ⎥ ⎥ ∂x ⎦ ⎥ T ⎡ ∂ N1 ⎢ ⎢ ∂x [D ] ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ∂ N1 ⎢ ∂y ⎣ 0 ∂ N1 ∂y ∂ N1 ∂x ∂ N2 ∂x 0 ∂ N2 ∂y ∂ N2 ∂x L L ∂ N8 ∂x 0 ∂ N8 ∂y ∂ N8 ∂x 0 ∂ N2 ∂y 0 ∂ N8 L ∂y ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ det [ J ] d r d s ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ . = ∑∑ w ⎜ D 2 + D5 ⎜ ∂ y ∂x ∂x ∂ y ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (9. have the form ⎡ ∂ Ni ⎢ ∂x w p wq ⎢ ⎢ 0 q =1 ⎢ ⎣ n [k ] i j = t e ∑∑ p =1 n 0 ∂ Ni ∂y ∂ Ni ∂y ∂ Ni ∂x ⎡ ∂N j ⎢ ⎤ ⎢ ∂x ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ [D]⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ∂N j ⎦ ⎢ ∂y ⎣ ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ∂N j ⎥ det [ J ] .53.55) ij . (9.212 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Substituting (9. evaluated by numerical integration. ij (9.

ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 213 ⎛ ∂ Ni ∂ N j ∂ Ni ∂ N j ⎞ ⎟.55) shows that all the terms are of the form (cons tan t ) × (material property) × ( product of shape function derivatives ) . 1972) reduces the computing time by a factor of nine over the full matrix multiplication method. This method (K. Gupta & B.55) by incorporating the relevant material constants. k 4 i j = ∑∑ w ⎜ D 4 + D5 ⎜ ∂y ∂y ∂x ∂x ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ When i = j .5 Stress calculation The vector of element stresses is {σ } = [ D ][ B ]{ q e }. it is useful to store separately in an array [ S ] i j the sum of the products of the shape function derivatives multiplied by w . Therefore. A close inspection of equations (9. providing that the material properties are constant throughout the element. 9.57) for the quadratic 8-node element is ⎧σx ⎪ ⎨σy ⎪τ ⎩ xy ⎫ ⎡ D1 ⎪ ⎢ ⎬ = ⎢D 2 ⎪ ⎢ 0 ⎭ ⎣ ⎡ ∂ N1 ⎢ 0 ⎤ ⎢ ∂x ⎥ 0 ⎥⎢ 0 ⎢ D5⎥ ⎢∂N ⎦ ⎢ 1 ⎢ ∂y ⎣ 8 D2 D4 0 L ∂ N2 L 0 ∂y ∂ N2 ∂ N8 L ∂x ∂y ⎤ ⎧u 1 ⎫ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎥ ⎪v1 ⎪ ⎥ ⎪u ⎪ ⎥ ⎨ 2⎬ ⎥ ⎪L ⎪ ⎥ ⎪v ⎪ ⎥ ⎪ 8⎪ ⎦⎩ ⎭ wherefrom σ x = D1 ∑ i =1 8 ∂ Ni ∂ Ni ui + D2 ∑ vi . A.57) The explicit form of equation (9. Mohraz. 0 ∂ N1 ∂y ∂ N1 ∂x ∂ N2 ∂x 0 ∂ N2 ∂y 0 ∂ N8 ∂x 0 ∂ N8 ∂y ∂ N8 ∂x (9.9. k 2 = k 3 . such that ⎡ ⎢∑∑ w =⎢ ⎢ ⎢∑∑ w ⎣ ∂ Ni ∂x ∂ Ni ∂y ∂N j ∂x ∂N j ∂x ∂ Ni ∂x ∂N ∑∑ w ∂ yi ∂N j ⎤ ⎥ ∂y ⎥ ∂N j ⎥ ∂y ⎥ ⎦ [ S ]i j ∑∑ w (9.56) and then to work out equations (9.3. ∂x i =1 ∂ y .

in which all loads can be reduced to nodes intuitively or by statics. It is usual to use all the nodes of the element in the computation. the actual pressure distribution along an element edge is replaced by a parabolic distribution defined by the pressure values at each of the three nodes along that edge. in which superior accuracy is obtained and averaging is not necessary. The components of the force p d r acting upon an elemental length d r are .6 Consistent nodal forces Unlike the triangular element. However. ui + D4 ∑ ∂x i =1 ∂ y (9. closer results to the true values are obtained.44) { f }= ∫ [ N ] e Ve T { p }d V . acting along the s = +1 edge of an element. and it is therefore reasonable to expect the most accurate stresses and strains occurring at the same points. 9. element by element. Edge pressure When coding the load vectors in a computer program.58) τ xy = D 5 ∑ ⎜ ⎜ ⎛ ∂ Ni ∂ Ni ⎞ vi ⎟. All intermediate values can be calculated using the shape functions. specified in force per unit length. for a quadratic isoparametric element the nodal forces due to distributed loads must be computed in accordance with equation (7.59) The equivalent nodal forces are added. so that there is no need to sort out the appropriate shape functions for the three nodes with given pressure values. into the global load vector which represents the right hand side of the linear set of equations to be solved for displacements.3. if the stresses of all elements meeting at a node are averaged. A better alternative is to calculate stresses at the Gauss points. (9.214 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS σ y = D2 ∑ 8 8 i =1 8 ∂ Ni ∂ Ni vi . It has been found that nodal stresses from an 8-node quadratic element are usually incorrect. Consider a distributed load p . ui + ⎟ ∂x ⎠ i =1 ⎝ ∂ y In some programs the stresses are determined at nodes. This is due to the fact that the element stiffness is calculated by sampling at the Gauss points. since the nodal positions are readily located and it is convenient to output the displacements and stresses at the same points.

⎪ ⎪i ⎭ (9.9.61) The above vector is usually integrated numerically and is written as ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ (9. ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 215 ⎧ ∂y ⎫ ⎪ ∂r ⎪ ⎧ px ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ = p ⎨ ∂ x ⎬ dr . since a positive pressure is assumed to act towards the centre of e If the same pressure acts on the edge s = −1 .64) A similar expression for pressure loads on the r = ±1 edges is { f }= ∑ e n i =1 ⎧ ∂y − ⎞ ⎪ ∂s ⎛ 8 ⎪ T⎜ wi wr [N ] ⎜ ∑ N k p k ⎟ ⎨ ⎟ ∂x ⎠⎪ ⎝ k =1 ⎪ ∂s ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ .62) wi [ N ] T fe = ⎬ ⎪ i =1 ⎪i ⎭ where pi is the pressure at the Gauss point i along the s = +1 edge and is computed by equation { } ∑ n ⎧ ∂y ⎪ ∂r ⎪ pi ⎨ ∂x ⎪− ⎪ ∂r ⎩ p= ∑ N (r .42).60) The consistent load for p is given by a modified form of equation (9.65) . (9.63) the element. { f } is reversed.59) in which the volume integral has been reduced to a line integral { f }= ∫ e +1 −1 where [ N ] is given by (9.s ) p k k =1 8 k . A more general equation applicable to the two edges s = ±1 is ⎧ ∂y ⎫ ⎞ ⎪ ∂r ⎪ ⎛ 8 ⎪ ⎪ f e = ∑ wi ws [N ]T ⎜ ∑ N k p k ⎟ ⎨ ⎟ ⎜ ∂x ⎬ i =1 ⎠⎪− ⎝ k =1 ⎪ ⎪ ∂ r ⎪i ⎩ ⎭ where w s takes up the value of the s coordinate for the loaded edge. ⎧ ∂y ⎪ ∂r ⎪ p [ N ]T ⎨ ∂x ⎪− ⎪ ∂r ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ dr ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ (9. the sign of the force vector { } n (9. py ⎭ ⎩ ⎪− ⎪ ⎪ ∂r ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ (9.

2 Solution. ⎪ ⎭ (9. For the edge s = +1 we have N1 = N 5 = N 2 = N 6 = N8 = 0 .216 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS For a rectangular isoparametric element with edges parallel to the x . Fig.61) gives ∂r ∂r {f } e ⎧ f y3 ⎪ = ⎨ f y7 ⎪f ⎩ y4 ⎫ +1 ⎪ ⎬= p ⎪ −1 ⎭ ∫ ⎧ N3 ⎪ ⎨ N7 ⎪N ⎩ 4 ⎫ ⎪ ⎬ (− a ) d r . Example 9. 1 2 ∫ 4 ( 1 + s si ) ( 1 − r ) d r . Find the equivalent nodal forces. . For the rectangular element ∂y ∂x = 0 and = a .2. Equation (9. y axes. E9. we can write f y3 = − f y7 = − P 2 P 2 +1 −1 +1 −1 1 ∫ 4 ( 1 + r ri ) ( 1 + s si ) ( r ri + s si − 1) d r . it is possible to integrate the equations for the equivalent nodal forces explicitly. E9.2 Consider the element of Fig. a with a uniform pressure load along the top edge.66) Denoting the total pressure load P = 2 p a .

Because all the equivalent nodal forces act in the y direction.3 Consider the rectangular element of Fig. substituting r i = 1 and s i = 1 for node 3. ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS P 2 +1 −1 217 f y4 = − ∫ 1 (1 + r ri 4 ) (1 + s si ) ( r ri + s si − 1) d r . The same result could have been obtained noticing that the integrands in the above equations are the shape functions of the three-node isoparametric onedimensional element (4. r i = 0 and s i = 1 for node 7. ⎩− g ⎭ (9. E9. Solution.3. a with gravity loading.68) Example 9. The integration is carried out numerically and equation (9. In the above expressions. Gravity loading For gravity loading (downwards negative) the vector of equivalent nodal forces (9. yields f y3 = − f y7 = − f y4 = − +1 −1 +1 −1 +1 −1 P 2 P 2 P 2 ∫ 1 (1 + r )( 2)( r + 1 − 1) d r = − P .2. E9.26). 4 3 1 (1 − r )(2)(− r + 1 − 1) d r = − P . but in the ratio 1 6 : 2 3 : 1 6 (Fig.59) is { f }= ∫ m [ N ] e T ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎨ ⎬d x d y = ⎩− g ⎭ +1 +1 −1 −1 ∫ ∫ m [N ] T ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎨ ⎬ det [ J ] d r d s ⎩− g ⎭ (9. b). .67) where m is the mass per unit area and g the acceleration in the y direction. and r i = −1 and s i = 1 for node 4.9. 4 6 ∫ ( ) ∫ Hence a uniform load acting along an edge is not distributed in the intuitive ratio of 1 4 : 1 2 : 1 4 . 4 6 1 ( 2 ) 1 − r 2 dr = − 2P . Find the equivalent nodal forces.67) takes the form { f }= ∑∑ w w e n n i i =1 j =1 j ⎧ 0 ⎫ m [ N ] T ⎨ ⎬ det [ J ] .

71) 4 where +1 +1 I1 = −1 −1 ∫ ∫ (1 + r ri ) (1 + s si ) r ri d r d s = 3 +1 +1 (9.218 ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ f y1 ⎫ f y2 ⎪ ⎪ = L ⎬ ⎪ f y8 ⎪ ⎭ +1 +1 −1 −1 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎧ N1 ⎫ ⎪N ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ m g ⎨ 2 ⎬ det [ J ] d r d s .69) For a rectangular element det [ J ] = ab . W ( I1 + I 2 + I 3 ) . (9.74) Therefore. I2 = −1 −1 ∫ ∫ (1 + r ri ) (1 + s si ) s si d r d s = 3 +1 +1 4 (9. 16 1 (9. the integral is f yi = − 1 W 2 ∫ ∫ m g 2 (1 − s ) (1 + r ri ) det [ J ] d r d s = − 3 . W ( I1 + I 2 + I 3 ) = − W ⎛ 4 + 4 − 4 ⎞ = W . L⎪ ⎪ ⎪ N8 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ∫ ∫ (9. and I3 = − −1 −1 ∫ ∫ (1 + r ri ) (1 + s si ) d r d s = − 4 .77) −1 −1 . 1 1 (9.75) For a midside node i with ri = 0 . ⎜ ⎟ 16 16 ⎝ 3 3 ⎠ 12 (9. the equivalent nodal forces for gravity loading at a corner node i are given by f yi = − +1 +1 (9.73) since si = ±1 for all corner nodes.70) can be written f yi = − (9.70) Denoting the total weight of the element W = m g ⋅ 2a ⋅ 2b .72) since ri = ±1 for all corner nodes. +1 +1 For a corner node i the integral becomes f yi = − −1 −1 ∫ ∫ m g 4 (1 + r ri ) (1 + s si ) ( r ri + s si − 1) det [ J ] d r d s . the integral is f yi = − 1 W 2 ∫ ∫ m g 2 (1 − r ) (1 + s si ) det [ J ] d r d s = − 3 .76) −1 −1 For a midside node i with si = 0 . the force (9.

b. ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 219 Fig. Again. Fig. it contains an internal node. E9. Apart from the eight nodes located on the boundary.3 Hence for gravity loading the equivalent nodal forces are as shown in Fig. they are different from the values of − W 12 and − W 6 .9.6 . which would have been assigned intuitively to the corner and midside nodes respectively. b. The master element is presented in Fig. 9.6. The local node numbers for this element are shown in Fig. 9.6. E9. a.3. 9. 9.4 Nine-node quadrilateral This element belongs to the Lagrange family of elements.

Fig.220 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The associated displacement functions in polynomial form are u = a1 + a2 r + a3 s + a4 r 2 + a5 r s + a6 s 2 + a7 r 2 s + a8 r s 2 + a9 r 2 s 2 . 9. the polynomial is quadratic (with three terms . (9. L 3 (r ) = r (1 + r ) . s. The polynomial is incomplete. Considering the r axis alone. 9. The shape functions are defined as follows. which contains the terms of polynomials of various degrees in the two variables r and s . The quadratic quadrilateral element has 9 nodes. In general. a pth-order Lagrange rectangular element has ( p + 1) 2 nodes ( p = 0. Higher-order rectangular elements can be systematically developed with the help of the so-called Pascal’s triangle. as shown in Fig.) . 2 (9. It contains the complete polynomial of the second degree (6 terms) plus other three terms which have to be located symmetrically: the third degree terms r 2 s and r s 2 and also an r 2 s 2 term.as can be seen setting s = 0 in u ).7 Since a linear quadrilateral element has four nodes..7.. 9. r. have the expressions .6. as shown at the bottom of Fig.1. v = b1 + b2 r + b3 s + b4 r 2 + b5 r s + b6 s 2 + b7 r 2 s + b8 r s 2 + b9 r 2 s 2 . . we can define generic shape functions L1 . 2 L 2 (r ) = ( 1 + r )( 1 − r ) . the polynomial should have the first four terms 1. which. b. and rs . and is determined by its values at the three nodes on that side.78) Along the sides of the element. L2 and L3 having unit value at the node with the same index and zero at the other two nodes L1 (r ) = − r (1 − r ) . for three points.79) They turn out to be Lagrange polynomials.

9. Alternatively.36) N1 = ζ1 ( 2 ζ1 − 1 ) .8).9. 9. L 2 (r ) = ( r − r1 ) ( r − r 3 ) ( r 2 − r1 ) ( r 2 − r 3 ) . the shape functions can be expressed in terms of area coordinates as for the linear strain triangle (8.9. N 2 = ζ 2 ( 2 ζ 2 − 1 ) . b L1 (s ) = − s (1 − s ) . b. generic shape functions can be defined along the s axis. (9. N5 = 4 ζ 2 ζ 3 . a) is an element of order 2 (i. which can be expressed in terms of the nodal values of the variable being interpolated. The six node triangle (Fig. 9. 2 L 2 (s ) = ( 1 + s ) ( 1 − s ) . 9..81) It should be cautioned that the subscripts of N i refer to the node numbering used in Fig.5 Six-node triangle Higher-order triangular elements can be developed using Pascal’s triangle (Fig. L 3 (s ) = s (1 + s ) . 9.82) . By referring to the master element in Fig. 2 (9. Since the internal nodes of the higher-order elements of the Lagrange family do not contribute to the inter-element connectivity. N 4 = 4 ζ1 ζ 2 . 9. ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS L 1 (r ) = 221 ( r − r 2 ) ( r − r3 ) ( r1 − r 2 ) ( r1 − r3 ) . a. one can use the serendipity elements. L 3 (r ) = ( r − r1 ) ( r − r 2 ) ( r 3 − r1 ) ( r 3 − r 2 ) . with the constant term and the first and last terms of a given row being the vertices of the triangle. 9. One can view the position of the terms as the nodes of the triangle. N 6 = 4 ζ 3 ζ1 . as can be seen from the top three rows of Pascal’s triangle. Similarly. as shown at the right of Fig.e.6. The polynomial involves six constants. but their shape functions cannot be obtained using products of one-dimensional interpolation functions. they can be condensed out at the element level to reduce the size of the element matrices. N 3 = ζ 3 ( 2 ζ 3 − 1 ) .6.80) The shape functions N i can be constructed as products of the above onedimensional functions ⎡ N1 ⎢N ⎢ 5 ⎢ N2 ⎣ N8 N9 N6 N 4 ⎤ ⎧ L 1 (r ) ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ N 7 ⎥ = ⎨ L 2 (r ) ⎬ ⎣ L 1 (s ) L 2 (s ) L 3 (s ) ⎦ . ⎥ N 3 ⎥ ⎪ L 3 (r ) ⎪ ⎦ ⎩ ⎭ (9. the degree of the polynomial is 2).

Because of terms ζ 2 .222 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 2 2 where ζ 1 = 1 − ζ 2 − ζ 3 .84) Fig. Fig.37) ⎧ u ⎫ ⎡ N1 ⎨ ⎬=⎢ ⎩v⎭ ⎣ 0 0 N1 v1 u2 6 N2 0 0 N2 L L N6 L L 0 0 ⎤ e q .8 The isoparametric representation is (8. i =1 (9. i =1 y = ∑ Ni y i .9 .83) where { q }= ⎣u e 1 v 2 L L u6 6 v6 ⎦ T . ζ 3 in the shape functions. 9. this element is also called a quadratic triangle. and x = ∑ Ni x i . 9. N6 ⎥ ⎦ { } (9.

a warning message will be signaled indicating the nonuniqueness of mapping. Therefore to ensure that [ J ] can be inverted.9. 9. 39].6 Jacobian positiveness In the higher-order isoparametric elements discussed above. where stresses may be computed.85) Details on numerical integration schemes for triangles are given in [18. It must be placed inside the middle third of a side. The midside node should be as near as possible to the centre of the side. as an internal angle approaches 1800 there is a loss of accuracy in the element stress. This condition ensures that det [ J ] does not attain a value of zero in the element. which has to be integrated numerically.24) if the (r . it is more likely to be negative at corners.13) to shape functions is that [ J ] can be inverted. particularly at that corner. The Gauss quadrature formulas for a triangle differ from those considered earlier for the rectangle. If the Jacobian becomes negative at any location. 4. [∂ ] will The above statements are illustrated for the one-dimensional quadratic isoparametric element shown in Fig. Note that while the Jacobian is always computed at Gauss points. The row vector of shape functions is ⎢ ⎥ ⎣N ⎦ = ⎣N1 N 2 N 3 ⎦ = ⎢ 2 r ( r − 1) ( 1 + r )( 1 − r ) 2 r ( r + 1) ⎥ . s ) coordinates are defined by (8. can be evaluated using (9. ∂ s ∂ N 3 ∂ N1 (9. When the element is degenerated into a triangle by increasing an internal angle to 1800 then [ J ] is singular at that corner. This inverse exists if there is no excessive distortion of the element such that lines of constant r or s intersect inside or on the element boundaries or there are re-entrant angles. The sign of det [ J ] should be checked. then [ j ] and the operators in increase without limit and consequently produce infinite strains. ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 223 The element stiffness matrix.4. ∂ r ∂ N 2 ∂ N1 ∂ ∂ ∂ = − . A similar situation occurs when two adjacent corner nodes are made coincident to produce a triangular element. A necessary requirement for applying equation (9. we note the presence of ‘midside’ nodes. If the determinant det [ J ] → 0 . ⎦ ⎣ 1 1 . This gives ∂ ∂ ∂ = − . any internal angle of each corner node of the element should be less than 1800 . and.46).

5 l ≤1. 0 .5 ) l − 2 r x2 . 9.5 l . ⎪ ⎭ The determinant of the Jacobian matrix is det [ J ] = J11 = ( r + 0. i.e.224 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The Jacobian matrix is [ J ] = J11 = ⎢ ∂N1 ⎢ ⎣ ∂r ∂N 2 ∂r ⎧ x1 ∂N 3 ⎥ ⎪ ⎥ ⎨ x2 ∂r ⎦ ⎪ ⎩ x3 ⎫ ⎪ ⎢ 2r − 1 − 2r ⎬=⎢ ⎪ ⎣ 2 ⎭ ⎧ 0 2r + 1 ⎥ ⎪ ⎨ x2 2 ⎥⎪ ⎦ ⎩ l ⎫ ⎪ ⎬. This explains 4 4 why it is recommended to place precautiously the ‘midside’ node inside the middle third of a side. 2x2 −l If .10 This point lies within the element (Fig. l 3l < x 2 < . For any x2 this determinant vanishes at the point r0 = 0. 2x2 −l Fig. then det [ J ] does not vanish on the element. if −1 ≤ where 0 ≤ x 2 ≤ l . 9.10) if − 1 ≤ r 0 ≤ 1 .

.1 . enclosures surrounding machinery and bridge decks are subject to loads normal to their plane. such as the floors of buildings and aircraft. b) normals to the middle plane of the undeformed plate remain straight and normal to the middle surface of the plate during deformation. For thick or composite plates some higher-order shear deformation plate theories are available.1 Thin plate theory (Kirchhoff) A plate is described as a structure in which the thickness is very small compared with the other dimensions. which is the plane midway between the faces of the plate. The x-y plane is taken to coincide with the middle surface of the plate (Fig. that is the thickness-to-span is h l ≤ 0. For this case. Such structures can be analyzed by dividing the plate into an assemblage of twodimensional finite elements called plate bending elements. Plates with a constant shear deformation through the plate thickness are treated in the Reissner-Mindlin plate theory. finite element displacement models for the flat plate bending problem are discussed. PLATE BENDING Flat plate structures. and c) the direct stress in the transverse direction can be disregarded. 10. In this chapter.10. Kirchhoff’s hypotheses are adopted: a) there is no deformation (stretching) in the middle plane of the plate. These elements may be either triangular. it can be assumed that the plate deformation may be expressed by the deformation state at the middle surface. The plate has constant thickness h and is subject to distributed surface loads. Thin plates with transverse shear neglected are analyzed based on Kirchhoff’s classical theory. in which on the faces of plate the shear strains are equal to zero. 10.1) and the positive z-direction is upwards. rectangular or quadrilateral in shape. For thin plates.

10.2. y. ∂y (10. = −z 2 . (10.3) . ∂x v ( x. y.226 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The displacements parallel to the undeformed middle surface are given by u ( x. a).1) where w ( x. z ) = − z ∂w .2) a Fig.1 The components of the strain are given as follows: εx = ∂2w ∂u ∂v ∂u ∂2w ∂v ∂2w . ∂x ∂z (10. z ) = − z ∂w . 10. Fig. γ x y = = −2 z + ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂ y ∂ y ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂v ∂w + =0. ε y = = −z 2 .2 The strain vector can be written in the form b {ε } = ⎣ ε x where the curvature vector ε y γ x y ⎦ T = − z { χ }. y ) denotes the displacement of the middle surface in the z-direction (Fig. ∂z ∂ y γ yz = γ zx = ∂w ∂u + = 0. 10.

d12 d 22 d 26 d16 d 26 d 66 ⎤ ⎥.10) .9) Denoting Di j = −h 2 ∫d ij z2 d z (10.3 The positive sense of internal bending and twisting moments (per unit length) is shown in Fig.3. 12 (10. ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ ⎡ d11 [ D ] = ⎢ d12 ⎢ ⎢ d16 ⎣ (10.7) The strain energy in the plate can be written as U= 1 2 V ∫ {σ }T {ε }dV = 1 2 ∫ A h3 { χ }T [ D ] { χ }d A .8) Fig. 10. (10. 10.5) (10.10.6) {σ } = ⎣σ x and σ y τ x y ⎦T . where (10.4) Since σ z = 0 . (10. Their definig equations are h2 ⎣M x My Mxy ⎦= −h 2 ∫ z ⎣σ h2 x σ y τ xy ⎦ dz . the stress-strain relations take the form {σ } = [ D ] {ε } = − z [ D ] { χ } . PLATE BENDING 227 ⎢ 2 {χ }= ⎢ ∂ w 2 ⎢ ∂x ⎣ ∂2w ∂ y2 ∂2w ⎥ 2 ⎥ ∂x ∂ y ⎥ ⎦ T .

15) where p z is the lateral distributed load (per unit surface) and Qx . ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ (10. Q y are the shear Qx = − D ∂ ⎛ ∂2w ∂2w ⎜ + ∂ x ⎜ ∂ x2 ∂ y2 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟. ∂x ∂y ∂ Qx ∂ Q y + + pz = 0 .11) or { M } = − [ D ]{ χ } For isotropic materials . The equilibrium equations are ∂M x ∂M y x − Qx = 0 .13) D= 12 1 − ν ( E h3 2 ) . ∂x ∂y forces (per unit length).228 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS the moment . + ∂y ∂x ∂M x y ∂M y + − Qy = 0 .12) ⎡ 0 ⎢1 ν [ D ] = D ⎢ν 1 0 ⎢ 1 −ν ⎢0 0 2 ⎣ where ⎤ ⎥ ⎥. (10. (10.15) it can be shown that (10.11) and (10.14) E is Young’s modulus and ν is the Poisson’s ratio. ⎟ ⎠ (10. ⎟ ⎠ Qy = − D ∂ ⎛ ∂2w ∂2w ⎜ + ∂ y ⎜ ∂ x2 ∂ y2 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟.curvature equations can be expressed as follows ⎧ ∂2w ⎪ ∂ x2 D16 ⎤ ⎪ 2 ⎪ ⎥⎪ ∂ w D26 ⎥ ⎨ ∂ y2 D66 ⎥ ⎪ 2 ⎦⎪ ∂ w ⎪ ⎪ ∂x∂ y ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎧ Mx ⎪ ⎨ My ⎪M ⎩ xy ⎫ ⎡ D11 ⎪ ⎢ ⎬ = ⎢ D12 ⎪ ⎢D ⎭ ⎣ 16 D12 D22 D26 (10.16) . From (10.

(10. Then. the differential equilibrium equation for isotropic materials can be obtained as ∂4w p ∂4w ∂4w +2 2 2 + 4 = z .8) can be expressed as D U= 2 ∫ A 2 ⎡⎛ 2 2 ⎢ ⎜ ∂ w + ∂ w ⎞ + 2 (1 − ν ⎟ ⎢ ⎜ ∂ x2 ∂ y 2 ⎟ ⎠ ⎢⎝ ⎣ ⎞⎤ ⎛ ⎛ 2 ⎞2 ∂2w ∂ 2w ⎟ ⎥ ⎜⎜ ∂ w ⎟ )⎜ ⎜ dx dy . Reissner proposed to introduce the rotations of the normal to the plate midsurface in the xOz and yOz plane as independent variables. b). the displacements parallel to the middle surface can be expressed as .21) 10. First.19) The strain energy (10.20) The potential of the external load is W P = − p z w dx dy . A ∫ (10.2. PLATE BENDING 229 By substituting (10. ⎣τ z x τ yz ⎦= 3 2h ⎞ ⎟ ⎣ Qx ⎟ ⎠ Qy ⎦.2 Thick plate theory (Reissner-Mindlin) For moderately thick plates. To overcome this problem. D ∂y ∂x ∂ y ∂ x4 The bending and torsion stresses are given by (10. The transverse normal stress is disregarded as in the Kirchhoff’s theory.10.9) (10. − 2 ∂ x ∂ y2 ⎟ ⎥ ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ ∂x ∂ y ⎟ ⎠ ⎠⎥ ⎝ ⎦ (10.17) ⎣σ x σ y τxy ⎦= 12 z ⎣M x h3 My Mxy ⎦ (10. The displacements of the middle surface are independent of the rotations of the normal (Fig. 10.15). According to Reissner-Mindlin assumptions.18) and the shear stresses by 2 ⎛ ⎜ 1 − 4z ⎜ h2 ⎝ where a parabolic distribution is assumed.16) into the last equation (10. Mindlin simplified Reissner’s assumption considering that normals to the plate midsurface before deformation remain straight but not necessarily normal to the plate after deformation. the thickness-to-span ratio is not small enough to neglect transverse shear deformations and Kirchhoff’s assumption is no longer valid. the classical hypothesis of zero transverse shear strain is relaxed.

y ) . (10. ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ (10. z ) = − zθ x (x . equation (10.24) reduces to (10. θ y are the rotations about the Ox and Oy axes of lines originally normal The in-plane strains are now given by { ε } = − z { χ }. ∂x The average shear stresses are given by {τ } = ⎨ ⎧τ yz ⎫ = κ DS τzx ⎬ ⎩ ⎭ 0 G [ ]{ γ } . y ) . and equation (10. ⎣ ⎦ ⎦ (10. y . (10. + ∂x ∂z (10. ∂z ∂ y ∂θ x ∂y ∂θ x ∂θ y ⎥ − ⎥ ∂x ∂y ⎦ T .23) ⎢ ∂θ {χ }= ⎢ − y ⎣ ∂x ∂v ∂w + .27) where κ is a shear correction factor and [ D ] = ⎡⎢ G 0 S ⎣ ⎡1 0⎤ ⎤ E ⎥ = 2 (1 +ν ) ⎢ 0 1 ⎥ . (10. γ z x = 0 .26) gives θ x = θy = − ∂w .25) Substituting for the displacements from (10. to the middle plane before deformation. y .4).22) gives ∂w ⎧ −θ + ⎧γ yz ⎫ ⎪ x ∂ y {γ } = ⎨ ⎬ = ⎪ ⎨ ∂w ⎩ γ zx ⎭ ⎪ θy + ⎪ ∂x ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬. where the curvature vector is (10.28) The strain energy in the plate can be written as the sum of the energies due to bending and shear deformation U= 1 2 V ∫ {σ } {ε }dV + 2 ∫ T 1 {τ }T {γ }dV .26) ∂w . ∂y Note that when γ y z = 0 . v (x .29) V .230 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS u (x . (10.24) The transverse shear strains are γ yz = γ zx = ∂w ∂u . z ) = z θ y (x .22) where θ x .

equation (10. the shear strain energy predicted by the finite element analysis can be magnified unreasonably and a ‘shear locking’ occurs for large span-to-thickness ratios.20).31) or (10. on the faces of plate the shear strains are not zero. The transverse shear constitutive equation is ∂w ⎫ ⎧ ⎪ −θx + ∂ y ⎪ ⎧ Qy ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ . PLATE BENDING 231 or. As the thickness of the plate becomes extremely thin. where { χ } is given by (10. ∂y ∂x The main drawback of this theory is the arbitrary averaging of the shear strains. which is not true. the above expression reduces to (10. T S A (10.32) The strain energy (10. ⎟ ⎠⎦ + ∫ A ⎡ ⎛ ∂w ⎢Qx ⎜ θ y + ⎜ ∂x ⎣ ⎝ ∂w ∂w and θ y = − .12). If a constant shear strain is considered through the plate thickness. If θ x = .30) can be expressed as U= 1 2 1 2 ∫ A ⎡ ⎛ ∂θ y ⎢M x ⎜ − ⎜ ∂x ⎢ ⎝ ⎣ ∂θ ⎞ ⎛ ∂θ ⎟ + Mxy ⎜ x − y ⎟ ⎜ ∂x ∂y ⎠ ⎝ ⎛ ⎞ ∂w ⎟ + Qy ⎜ − θ x + ⎜ ⎟ ∂y ⎝ ⎠ ⎞ ∂θ ⎤ ⎟ + M y x ⎥ dx dy + ⎟ ∂y ⎥ ⎠ ⎦ ⎞⎤ ⎟⎥ dx dy . integrating through the thickness U= 1 2 ∫ A h3 { χ }T [ D ] { χ }d A + 1 12 2 ∫ κ h {γ } [ D ]{γ }d A . ⎬=κG ⎨ ⎨ ∂w ⎬ ⎩ Qx ⎭ ⎪ ⎪ θy + ⎪ ∂x ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ (10.24). This assumption is equivalent to the introduction of ‘parasitic’ shear stresses that force the normal to remain a straight line.10.11) becomes ⎡ ⎫ 0 ⎢1 ν ⎪ ⎢ν 1 0 ⎬=D ⎢ 1 −ν ⎪ ⎢0 0 ⎭ 2 ⎣ ⎧ ∂θ y − ⎤⎪ ∂x ⎥⎪ ∂θ x ⎪ ⎥⎨ ∂y ⎥⎪ ⎥ ⎪ ∂θ ∂θ y x ⎦ ⎪ ∂x − ∂ y ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎧ Mx ⎪ ⎨ My ⎪M ⎩ xy (10.30) For isotropic materials.

having four node points. 10. 1963). and the two rotations θ x = and θ y = − . taken as degrees of freedom at each node. irrespective of the element shape. Clough. it will be necessary to ∂w ∂w and are continuous between ensure that w and its first derivatives ∂x ∂y elements.4 The dimensionless coordinates ξ = x a and η = y b will be used in the following with the origin at the plate centre. (10. In terms of the ∂y ∂x dimensionless coordinates ξ and η . Also.20) and the potential of the external load by (10. The assumed form of the displacement function. namely. the strain energy is given by (10. is w = a1 + a2 x + a3 y + a4 x 2 + a5 x y + a6 y 2 + higher degree terms.1 ACM element (non-conforming) Figure 10. 10. according to the convergence criteria of the Rayleigh-Ritz method. The highest derivative appearing in these expressions is the second.21).33) Figure 10. the transverse ∂w ∂w displacement w . Hence. for convergence. complete polynomials of at least degree two should be used. one at each corner. These three quantities are.3 Rectangular plate bending elements For a thin plate bending element.5 shows the ACM element (Adini. these become .1961. Fig. There are three degrees of freedom at each node. therefore. Melosh .4 shows a thin rectangular element of thickness h.232 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 10.3.

the displacement function can be represented by a polynomial having twelve terms. (10. (10.5 The expression (10. that is w = α1 + α 2 ξ + α 3η + α 4 ξ 2 + α 5 ξ η + α 6η 2 + + α 7 ξ 3 + α 8 ξ 2η + α 9 ξη 2 + α10η 3 + α11ξ 3η + α12 ξη 3 .η )⎦ {α } . which are symetrically located in Pascal’s triangle.36) (10. PLATE BENDING 233 θx = 1 ∂w . b ∂η θy = − 1 ∂w . 10. 2η 0 ξ2 2ξη 3η 2 ξ 3 3ξη 2 (10. a ∂ξ (10.36. (10. This ensures that the element is geometrically invariant.39) ∂w = 0 0 1 0 ξ ∂η ⎦ {α }. Fig. a) w = ⎣P ( ξ . .37) Differentiating (10.38) (10.10.36) gives ⎣ ⎣ η 0 3ξ 2 2ξη η 2 0 3ξ 2η η 3 ⎦ {α } . where {α }T = ⎣ α1 ∂w = 0 1 0 2ξ ∂ξ α 2 α 3 L α12 ⎦ .35) can be written in the following matrix form w = 1 ξ η ξ 2 ξ η η 2 ξ 3 ξ 2η ξ η 2 η 3 ξ 3η ξη 3 ⎣ ⎦ {α }.34) Since the element has 12 degrees of freedom.35) Note that this function is a complete cubic to which two quartic terms ξ 3η and ξη 3 have been added.

η )⎦ q e = ⎣ ⎣N1 ⎦ −1 {q } . ⎪ ⎭ ⎣N 4 ⎦ T ⎧0⎫ ⎪ ⎪ = ⎨ 0 ⎬. ⎬ ⎪ ⎭ ⎣N 3 ⎦ T ⎧ (1 4 )( 1 + η ) 2 + η − η 2 ⎪ = ⎨ (b 4 )( 1 + η ) η 2 − 1 ⎪ 0 ⎩ ( ( ) )⎫ ⎪ ⎬. Indeed. ⎪0⎪ ⎩ ⎭ .234 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Evaluating (10.43) where the vector of nodal displacements is { q } = ⎣w e T 1 θ x1 θ y1 L w4 θ x 4 θ y 4 ⎦ .38) and (10. for conciseness. (10.40) for {α } gives {α } = [ Ae ] w = ⎣N (ξ .44) and the shape functions are defined as ⎣N i (ξ . η = ±1 gives { q }= [ A ]{α }. evaluating (10.36. ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ = ⎨ 0 ⎬ .45) on the side 2-3 (for ξ = +1 ) gives ⎣N 1 ⎦ T ⎣N 2 ⎦ T ⎧ (1 4 )( 1 − η ) 2 − η − η 2 ⎪ = ⎨ (b 4 )( − 1 + η ) η 2 − 1 ⎪ 0 ⎩ ( ( )⎫ ) ⎪.41) and the matrix [ A ] is given in [87] but not reproduced here.42) Substituting (10.ηi ) are the coordinates of node i. (10. ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ The element is non-conforming. e e (10.40) where { q } = ⎣w bθ aθ L w bθ aθ ⎦ {α }.39) at ξ = ±1 .42) into (10. a) yields { } (10.36). (10.45) where ( ξi . ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ (10. e T 1 x1 y1 4 x4 y4 e Solving (10. e e ⎣N 2 ⎦ ⎣N 3 ⎦ ⎣N 4 ⎦ ⎦ {q }.η )⎦ T ⎧1 2 2 ⎪ 8 ( 1 + ξ i ξ ) 1 + η jη 2 + ξ i ξ + ηi η − ξ − η ⎪ b ⎪ ( 1 + ξi ξ )( ηi + η ) η 2 − 1 =⎨ 8 ⎪ a ⎪ ( ξi + ξ ) ξ 2 − 1 ( 1 + ηi η ) ⎪ 8 ⎩ ( )( ( ) )⎫ ⎪ ( ) ⎪ ⎪ ⎬. (10.

PLATE BENDING 235 This indicates that the displacement w .4) and (10. then w and θ x will be continuous along the common side. ∂ξ ⎪ ⎪ − (a 2 ) ( 1 − η ) ⎭ ⎩ ( ) ⎫ ⎪ ⎬. 2. ⎪ ⎭ η (− 1 − η ) ⎧ ∂ ⎣N 3 ⎦ T ⎪ = ⎨ (b 8) ( 1 + η ) η 2 − 1 ∂ξ ⎪ − (a 2 ) ( 1 + η ) ⎩ ( ) ⎫ ⎪ ⎬. and 4 as well as by θ y at nodes 2 and 3.47) Evaluating (10.46) Substituting (10.49) A and the strain-displacement matrix is . If the element is attached to another rectangular element at nodes 2 and 3. Substituting (10. The rotation θ y is given by (10. The rotation θ y is not continuous across the side 2-3 and the element is non-conforming.46) gives ∂ ⎣N i (ξ . Unfortunately.34) θy = − ∂ ⎣N 4 ⎦ ⎥ e 1 ∂w 1⎢∂ N = − ⎢ ⎣ 1⎦ L ⎥ q .η )⎦ T ∂ξ ⎫ ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ξ i η ( ηi − η ) ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ b ξ i ( ηi + η ) η 2 − 1 ⎬ . =⎨ ⎪ ⎪ 8 ⎪ − a ( 2 + 2ξ ) ( 1 + η η ) ⎪ i i ⎪ ⎪ 8 ⎭ ⎩ ( ) (10.8) gives Ue = 1 2 { q } [k ] { q }. 3.10.45) into (10. and hence the rotation θ x . ∂ξ ⎦ a ∂ξ a ⎣ ∂ξ { } (10. are uniquely determined by their values at nodes 2 and 3.47) along ξ = +1 gives −η ( − 1 − η ) ⎧ ∂ ⎣N1 ⎦ T ⎪ = ⎨− (b 8) ( − 1 + η ) η 2 − 1 ∂ξ ⎪ 0 ⎩ ( ) η (− 1 − η ) ⎫ ⎧ ⎪ ∂ ⎣N 2 ⎦ T ⎪ = ⎨ (b 8) ( − 1 + η ) η 2 − 1 ⎬.48) where the element stiffness matrix is h [ k ] = ∫ 12 [ B ] e 3 T [ D ] [ B ]dA (10. ⎪ ⎭ −η ( 1 − η ) ⎧ ∂ ⎣N 4 ⎦ T ⎪ = ⎨ − (b 8) ( 1 + η ) η 2 − 1 ∂ξ ⎪ 0 ⎩ ( ) The above expressions indicate that θ y is determined by the values of w and θ x at nodes 1. this is not the case with the rotation θ y .43) into (10. ⎪ ⎭ ⎫ ⎪ ⎬. e T e e (10.

⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ (10.η )⎦ .50) Substituting the shape functions from (10.51) where the submatrices have the following expressions ⎡ 2 ⎧ 2 1 ⎫ 2 2 ⎢4 β + α + 5 (7 − 2ν ) ⎨2α + 5 (1 + 4ν )⎬ b ⎩ ⎭ ⎢ ⎧4 2 4 ⎫ 2 ⎢ [ k11 ] = ⎢ ⎨ α + (1 − ν )⎬ b 15 ⎩3 ⎭ ⎢ ⎢ SYM ⎢ ⎣ ( ) ⎧ ⎫ ⎤ 2 1 ⎨− 2β − (1 + 4ν )⎬ a ⎥ 5 ⎩ ⎭ ⎥ ⎥. −ν a b ⎥ ⎥ 4 2 4 ⎧ ⎫ 2 ⎨ β + ( 1 − ν )⎬ a ⎥ 15 ⎩3 ⎭ ⎥ ⎦ 1 ⎧ ⎫ ⎤ − ⎨2β 2 + (1 − ν )⎬ a ⎥ 5 ⎩ ⎭ ⎥ ⎥.236 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎧ ∂2 ⎪ 2 ⎪ ∂x 2 ⎪ [ B ]= ⎪ ∂ 2 ⎨ ⎪ ∂y ⎪ ∂2 ⎪2 ⎪ ∂x∂ y ⎩ ⎫ ⎧ 1 ∂2 ⎪ ⎪ 2 2 ⎪ ⎪ a ∂ξ ⎪ ⎪ 1 ∂2 ⎪ ⎪ N⎦ = ⎨ 2 ⎬⎣ 2 ⎪ ⎪ b ∂η ⎪ ⎪ 2 ∂2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ab ∂ξ ∂η ⎭ ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎣N (ξ . 0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎧1 2 1 ⎫ 2 ⎨ β + ( 1 − ν )⎬ a ⎥ 15 ⎩3 ⎭ ⎥ ⎦ ⎡ ⎧ 2 ⎧ 2 1 ⎫ ⎫ 2 2 ⎨α − (1 + 4ν )⎬ b ⎢− ⎨2 2 β − α + 5 (7 − 2ν )⎬ 5 ⎩ ⎭ ⎭ ⎢ ⎩ ⎧2 2 4 ⎫ 2 ⎧ 2 1 ⎫ ⎢ [ k12 ] = ⎢ ⎨ α − (1 − ν )⎬ b ⎨α − (1 + 4ν )⎬ b 5 15 ⎩3 ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎢ ⎧ 2 1 ⎫ ⎢ 0 ⎨ 2 β + (1 − ν )⎬ a ⎢ 5 ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ ⎡ ⎧ 2 ⎧ 2 1 ⎫ ⎫ 2 2 ⎨α − ( 1 − ν )⎬ b ⎢− ⎨2 β + α + 5 (7 − 2ν )⎬ 5 ⎩ ⎭ ⎭ ⎢ ⎩ ⎧1 2 1 ⎫ 2 ⎧ 2 1 ⎫ ⎢ [ k13 ] = ⎢ ⎨− α + ( 1 − ν )⎬ b ⎨ α + ( 1 − ν )⎬ b 5 15 ⎩3 ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎢ ⎧ 2 1 ⎫ ⎢ 0 ⎨ β − ( 1 − ν )⎬ a ⎢ 5 ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ ( ) ( ) . 0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎧2 2 1 ⎫ 2 ⎨ β − (1 − ν )⎬ a ⎥ 15 ⎩3 ⎭ ⎥ ⎦ ⎧ 2 1 ⎫ ⎤ ⎨− β + ( 1 − ν )⎬ a ⎥ 5 ⎩ ⎭ ⎥ ⎥.45) and integrating gives the element stiffness matrix [k ] e ⎡ [ k11 ] ⎢ Eh ⎢ = 2 48 1 −ν a b ⎢ ⎢ ⎣SYM 3 ( ) [ k12 ] [ k13 ] [ k14 ]⎤ [ k22 ] [ k23 ] [ k24 ]⎥ ⎥ [ k33 ] [ k34 ]⎥ [ k44 ]⎥ ⎦ (10.

52) where ⎡ − 1 0 0⎤ [ I1 ] = ⎢ 0 1 0⎥ . A typical integration is then of the form +1 +1 −1 −1 ∫∫ ξ mη n dξ dη = ⎨ ⎧ ⎪ 0 4 ⎪ (m + 1)(n + 1) ⎩ m or n odd m and n even For p z = constant .53) The above relationships are presented in reference [87]. In terms of the nodal displacements they can be expressed as e z { f }= p . ⎢ ⎥ ⎢0 0 1 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡1 0 0 ⎤ [ I 3 ] = ⎢0 1 0 ⎥ . 3 Stresses at any point in the plate are given by (10.51) are [ k22 ] = [ I 3 ]T [ k11 ][ I 3 ] . ⎢ ⎥ ⎢0 0 − 1⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (10. In deriving this result. [ k44 ] = [ I 2 ]T [ k11 ][ I 2 ] . it is simpler to use the expression (10. PLATE BENDING ⎡ 2 ⎧ 2 1 ⎫ 2 2 ⎢2 β − 2α − 5 (7 − 2ν ) ⎨ 2α + 5 (1 − ν )⎬ b ⎩ ⎭ ⎢ ⎧2 2 1 ⎫ 2 ⎢ ⎧− 2α 2 − 1 (1 − ν )⎫ b [ k 41 ] = ⎢ ⎨ ⎨ α − (1 − ν )⎬ b ⎬ 5 15 ⎩3 ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎢ 1 ⎧ ⎫ ⎢ ⎨− β 2 + (1 + 4ν )⎬ a 0 ⎢ ⎩ 5 ⎭ ⎣ 237 ( ) ⎧ ⎫ ⎤ 2 1 ⎨− β + (1 + 4ν )⎬ a ⎥ 5 ⎩ ⎭ ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎧2 2 4 ⎫ 2 ⎨ β − (1 − ν )⎬ a ⎥ 15 ⎩3 ⎭ ⎥ ⎦ and α= a . a The remaining submatrices of (10. [ k24 ] = [ I 3 ]T [ k23 ][ I 3 ] . [ k34 ] = [ I1 ]T [ k12 ][ I1 ] . ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0 0 1⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡1 0 0⎤ [ I 2 ] = ⎢0 − 1 0 ⎥ .5). b β= b . [ k33 ] = [ I1 ]T [ k11 ][ I1 ] .10. substituting the shape functions into { f } = ∫ ⎣N ⎦ e A T pz d A (10. (10. the vector of equivalent nodal forces is obtained as ab T ⎣ 3 b − a 3 b a 3 − b a 3 − b − a⎦ .54) and integrating.36) for w and substitute for {α } after performing the integration. [ k23 ] = [ I 3 ]T [ k14 ][ I 3 ] .

2). Fox and Schmit .3. can be obtained using products of separate one-dimensional Hermitian shape functions (5. as an increasing number of elements is used. as the mesh is refined and the element size is decreased.2 BFS element (conforming) A conforming rectangular element. the plate will tend towards a zero twist condition.57) in which ( ξi . In the limit.43) but with 16 terms . the displacement function is of the form (10. 4 4 1 1 f i (η ) = 2 + 3ηi η − ηi η 3 . the results are convergent.43) with ⎣N i (ξ . this violates the fundamental requirement that the element can represent all constant strain states. Unfortunately. and discontinuities in slope occur at interfaces. This element does have constant strain but is non-conforming.21) as for uniform slender beams. 10.238 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS {σ } = − z [ D ][ B ]{q e }. 10. However.50). A compromise is to use the cubic Hermitian polynomials for the deflection shape functions but reduce the order to linear for the rotation shape functions. (10.ηi ) are the coordinates of node i. The nodal expansion of the displacement function has the form (10. In this case. The solution used for the BFS element is the introduction of ∂ 2 w ∂ξ ∂η as an additional degree of freedom at each node. g i (ξ ) = − ξ i − ξ +ξ i ξ 2 + ξ 3 . 4 4 f i (ξ ) = ( ( ) ) ( ( ) ) (10. It is a four-node thin plate bending element. As this controls the shear strain in equation (10. commonly referred to as the BFS element (Bogner. g i (η ) = − ηi − η +ηi η 2 + η 3 . of the form shown in Fig.56) 1 1 2 + 3ξ i ξ − ξ i ξ 3 .4.1966). when we examine the derivatives of these products we find that the twist ∂ 2 w ∂ξ ∂η is zero at all four corners and that there is no constant component to this second derivative. The most accurate values are at the Gauss points of a (2 × 2) numerical integration scheme.55) where [ B ] is defined in (10. ⎪ − a g (ξ ) f (η ) ⎪ i i ⎩ ⎭ (10.η )⎦ where T ⎧ f i (ξ ) f i (η ) ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ = ⎨ b f i (ξ ) g i (η ) ⎬ .

59) of the first six terms in (10. PLATE BENDING 239 1 { q } = ⎣w e T ′ θ x1 θ y1 w′x y1 L w4 θ x 4 θ y 4 ′ w′x y 4 ⎦ . The element stiffness matrix and consistent vector of nodal forces are given by (10. For a thick plate-bending element.53) where the matrix ⎣N ⎦ is defined by (10. Hence.21).3.and ydirections. The transverse displacement and tangential slope are continuous between elements but the normal slope is not. ⎪ − a g i (ξ ) f i (η ) ⎪ ⎪ ab g i (ξ ) g i (η ) ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ (10. This is overcome in the WB element (Wilson. the shear deformations become important and a Reissner-Mindlin plate model is adopted.3 HTK thick rectangular element When the thickness is greater than about a tenth of the plate width. w .58) ′ where w′x y ≡ ∂ 2 w ∂x ∂y and ⎣N i (ξ . . 2a 1 θ x3 − θ x 4 .33).η )⎦ T ⎧ f i (ξ ) f i (η ) ⎫ ⎪ b f (ξ ) g (η ) ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ i i =⎨ ⎬.5). the strain energy expression is (10. 10. 2b ( ) ′ w′x y 2 = ′ w′x y 4 = 1 θ x 2 − θ x1 .59). 10.10. (10. 2a ( ) ( ) ( ) Applying the above constraints to the BFS element makes it a nonconforming one. Brebbia – 1971) by introducing the approximations ′ w′x y1 = ′ w′x y 3 = 1 θ y1 − θ y 4 . it is difficult to use in conjunction with other types of elements in built-up structures due to the presence of the degree of freedom ∂ 2 w ∂x ∂y . for convergence. with { χ } and {γ } given by (10.43) and (10. θ x and θ y are the only degrees of freedom required at the nodal points (Fig.59) It can be shown that this element can perform rigid body movements without deformation and can describe pure bending behaviour in the x.30) and the potential of the external load is (10. 2b 1 θ y 2 − θ y3 . Although the BFS element is more accurate than the ACM element. θ x and θ y appearing in these expressions is the first. The highest derivative of w .24) and (10.26).49) and (10. This is ensured by the presence in the functions (10.

e B S (10.65) .61) These functions ensure that w .24). Taylor and Kanoknukulcha . without having to infer it as the derivative of the bending moment. θ x and θ y are continuous between elements. e T e e (10. θ x = ∑ Ni θ x i . ⎥ N4 ⎥ ⎦ (10. In matrix form. θ y = ∑ Ni θ y i . It represents the shear deformation directly.65) In (10.60) where the functions N i are defined by (9. (10.1977) expands separately w .44) and ⎡ N1 [ N ]= ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎣ N1 0 0 L N1 L (10.3).26) and (10.240 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The four-node HTK element (Hughes.30) gives Ue = 1 2 { q } [ k ] { q }. that is Ni = 1 1 + ξ i ξ 1 + η iη .64) where the element stiffness matrix k e can be written as the sum of the matrices due to bending and shear [ ] [ k ] = [ k ] + [ k ]. ⎪ ⎭ { } (10. expressions (10.62) { q } = ⎣w e T 1 θ x1 θ y1 L w4 θ x 4 θ y 4 ⎦ . 0 0 L N4 0 0 0 N4 0 0 ⎤ 0 ⎥. The displacement functions are of the form w = ∑ Ni w i .62) into (10. i =1 i =1 i =1 4 4 4 (10.60) can be written ⎧w ⎪ ⎨ θx ⎪θ ⎩ y where ⎫ ⎪ e ⎬=[N] q . 4 ( )( ) (10.63) Substituting (10. θ x and θ y in terms of their nodal values.

61) into (10.69) (10.66) A and [ k ] = ∫ κ h [ B ] [ D ][ B ] d A .72) into (10.68) where [ ] BiB The strain-displacement matrix B S is of the form S S 1 S 2 S 3 S 4 [ ] [ B ]= [ [ B ] [ B ] [ B ] [ B ] ] ∂N [ B ] = ⎡⎢ ∂ N S i i i 0 − ∂ Ni ∂ x ⎤ ⎡0 ⎥.71) gives [ ] BiB ⎡0 − ξ i 1 + η iη 4a ⎤ 0 ⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ 0 1 + ξ i ξ η i 4b 0 ⎥ ⎢ 0 ξ i 1 + η i η 4 a − 1 + ξ i ξ η i 4b ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ( ( ) ( ) ) ( ) (10.66) gives the element stiffness matrix due to bending . ⎢ 0 ∂N ∂ y 0 =⎢ i ⎥ ⎢ 0 ∂ Ni ∂ x − ∂ Ni ∂ y ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ (10.(10.69) and (10.72) and ( ηη a 0 [ B ] = ⎡⎢ ξ1 +1ξ+ ξ )η ) 4b − (1 + ξ ξ )(1 + η η ) 4 (1 + ξ ξ )(01 + η η ) 4 ⎤⎥ .70) where ⎣ ∂x 0 ∂ y − Ni Ni ⎤ .68) and the resulting matrices into (10.71) Substituting (10.10.73) 4 ⎣( ⎦ S i i i i i i i i i Substituting (10.67) (10. The strain-displacement matrix [ B ] is of the form [ B ]= [ [ B ] [ B ] [ B ] [ B ] ] S S T A B B B 1 B 2 B 3 B 4 (10. 0 ⎥ ⎦ (10. PLATE BENDING 241 h [ k ] = ∫ 12 [ B ] B 3 B T [ D ] [BB ] d A S S (10.

− (1 +ν )a b ⎥ 2 ⎥ 4⎧ 2 1 ⎫ β + ( 1 −ν )⎬ a 2 ⎥ ⎨ 3⎩ 2 ⎭ ⎥ ⎦ 0 [k ] B 11 [k ] B 12 ⎡0 ⎢ ⎢ = ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎢ ⎣ ⎡0 ⎢ ⎢ = ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢0 ⎢ ⎣ 0 2 α 2 − ( 1 −ν ) b 2 3 1 − ( 3ν − 1 ) a b 2 0 { } ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ 1 ( 3ν − 1) a b ⎥ .242 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS [k ]= B 48 1 − ν 2 ( E h3 ) ⎡ kB ⎢ 11 ⎢ ⎢ ab ⎢ ⎢ ⎢SYM ⎣ [ ] [ k ] [ k ] [ k ] ⎤⎥ [ k ] [ k ] [ k ] ⎥⎥ [ k ] [ k ] ⎥⎥ [ k ] ⎥⎦ B B B 12 13 14 B B B 22 23 24 B 33 B 34 B 44 (10. b β= b . 2 ⎥ 1 2 2⎥ − 4 β + ( 1 −ν ) a ⎥ 3 ⎦ 0 { } [k ] B 13 2⎧ ⎫ 2 2 1 ⎨ − α − ( 1 −ν ) ⎬ b 3⎩ 2 ⎭ 1 (1 +ν )a b 2 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ 1 ⎥. ( 1 +ν )a b ⎥ 2 ⎥ 2⎧ 1 ⎫ − β 2 − ( 1 −ν ) ⎬ a 2 ⎥ ⎨ 3⎩ 2 ⎭ ⎥ ⎦ 0 [k ] B 14 ⎡0 0 ⎢ ⎢ 1 = ⎢0 − 4α 2 + ( 1 − ν ) b 2 3 ⎢ 1 ⎢0 ( 3ν − 1 ) a b ⎢ 2 ⎣ { } ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ 1 − ( 3ν − 1) a b ⎥ . a .74) where the submatrices are ⎡0 ⎢ ⎢ = ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢0 ⎢ ⎣ 0 4 3 ⎧ 2 1 ⎫ 2 ⎨α + ( 1 −ν )⎬ b 2 ⎩ ⎭ 1 − (1 +ν )a b 2 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ 1 ⎥. 2 ⎥ 2 2 2⎥ β − ( 1 −ν ) a ⎥ 3 ⎦ 0 { } and α= a .

97) and [k ] S 11 ⎡1 + α 2 α 2b ⎢ = ⎢ α 2b α 2 b 2 ⎢ −a 0 ⎣ ⎡ − 1 − α 2 α 2b ⎢ = ⎢ − α 2b α 2 b 2 ⎢ a 0 ⎣ − a⎤ ⎥ 0 ⎥. [ k ] [ k ] ⎥⎥ [ k ] ⎥⎦ S S S 12 13 14 S S S 22 23 24 S 33 S 34 S 44 (10.76) and integrating gives { } ∫ e T⎪ { f }= p a b ⎣ 1 e z 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0⎦ T (10.63) and (10.61) into (10. The vector of equivalent nodal forces is ⎧ pz ⎫ ⎪ f = ⎣N ⎦ ⎨ 0 ⎬ d A (10.75) where γ S = E h 3 12κ G b 2 is a shear parameter similar to (5.73) into (10.71) and the resulting matrices into (10. a2 ⎥ ⎦ [k ] S 13 [k ] S 14 The remaining submatrices of (10. a2 ⎥ ⎦ − a⎤ ⎥ 0 ⎥. a2 ⎥ ⎦ [k ] S 12 ⎡ − 1 + α 2 α 2b ⎢ = ⎢ α 2b α 2 b2 ⎢ a 0 ⎣ ⎡1 − α 2 α 2b ⎢ = ⎢ − α 2b α 2 b 2 ⎢ −a 0 ⎣ − a⎤ ⎥ 0 ⎥. PLATE BENDING 243 The remaining submatrices of (10.74) are given by relationships corresponding to (10. a2 ⎥ ⎦ − a⎤ ⎥ 0 ⎥.52).76) ⎪ 0 ⎪ A ⎩ ⎭ For pz = constant.75) are given by relationships corresponding to (10.77) which means that one quarter of the total force is concentrated at each node.67) gives the element stiffness matrix due to shear [k ] S ⎡ kS ⎢ 11 ⎢ E h3 ⎢ = 48 γ S a b ⎢ ⎢ ⎢SYM ⎣ [ ] [ k ] [ k ] [ k ] ⎤⎥ [ k ] [ k ] [ k ] ⎥⎥ . Substituting (10.52).10. substituting the shape functions from (10. The bending and twisting moments per unit length are given by . The above expressions are presented in reference [87].

the standard (2 × 2) integration is reported to give good results for width-to-thickness ratios up to 50. Obviously. S S e (10.244 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎧ Mx ⎪ ⎨ My ⎪M ⎩ xy ⎫ ⎪ h3 = − [ I3 ] [ D ] B B ⎬ 12 ⎪ ⎭ [ ]{q }. Benchmark problems have shown that the HTK element yields accurate solutions for simply supported or clamped plates. The most accurate values are at the Gauss points of a (2 × 2) numerical integration scheme.53). In very thin plates.. considering rather difficult to generate a displacement function valid over the entire rectangular element. The bending strains in the 8-node version are recovered accurately if sampled at the reduced (2 × 2) Gauss points. However. large errors can occur in the case of cantilever plates. suggest to subdivide the element into regions (e. into four triangles) and work with different displacement functions over each region.g. The above analysis can be easily extended to 8-node or higher-order plate elements. There are different formulations using mixtures of corner and mid-side freedoms in order to achieve near complete polynomials.4 Triangular plate bending elements In this section we outline the development of some plate-bending triangular elements.78) where [ I 3 ] is defined by (10.26) thus imply a dependent relationship between w . The shear forces per unit length are ⎧ Qx ⎫ ⎨ ⎬=κ h ⎩ Qy ⎭ [ D ][ B ]{q }. However. the shear strains become very small and near-zero values in (10. lowering the integration order for the stiffness matrix due to shear. θ x and θ y which is not true for thick plates. Alternative methods. . There is no perfect rectangular plate-bending element. the individual functions must be continuous (up to the first derivatives) across the interior boundaries as well as the exterior boundaries. 10. e (10. This is avoided by selective integration.79) The most accurate values are at the centre of the element.

81) (10. PLATE BENDING 245 10.80) is incomplete.81) gives . The local x-axis lies along the side 1-2 and the local y-axis is perpendicular to it.6 The expression (10. In order to maintain symmetry. Nodes 1. 2 and 3 have coordinates (0. ( ) (10. There are three degrees of freedom at each ∂w node. the transverse displacement w . Fig.81.1 Thin triangular element (non-conforming) Figure 10. (10. (x2 .0) and (x3 .1962). 10.82) Differentiating (10. and the two rotations θ x = and ∂y θy = − ∂w with respect to the local axes.0) . that is w = α1 + α 2 x + α 3 y + α 4 x 2 + α 5 x y + α 6 y 2 + + α 7 x3 + α8 x 2 y + x y 2 + α 9 y 3 . the displacement function can be represented by a polynomial having nine terms. ∂x Since the element has 9 degrees of freedom.4. where {α }T = ⎣ α1 α 2 α3 L α9 ⎦ .80) can be written in the following matrix form w= 1 x ⎣ y x2 xy y2 x3 (x 2 y + x y2 ) y3 ⎦ {α } .80) Note that a complete cubic has ten terms so that the polynomial (10. y3 ) . namely. the coefficients of x 2 y and x y 2 are taken to be equal. a) w = ⎣P ( x . y )⎦ {α } . (10.6 shows the T element (Tocher .10.

(10. gives . 0 0 0 0 x2 0 x3 y3 x3 − y3 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 y3 2 y3 0 0 0 0 3 x2 0 2 3 x2 3 x3 (10. of equation y = 0 .86) ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ Solving (10. cannot be inverted. therefore.89) and.84) for {α } gives {α } = [ Ae ] −1 {q } .83) at the nodal points gives { q } = [ A ] {α } . the matrix [ A ] is singular whenever w = ⎣P (x . e e (10.81.83) along the side 1-2.87) into (10.85) and the matrix ⎡1 0 0 ⎢0 0 1 ⎢ ⎢ 0 −1 0 ⎢ ⎢ 1 x2 0 =⎢0 0 1 ⎢ ⎢ 0 −1 0 ⎢1 x y3 3 ⎢ ⎢0 0 1 ⎢ ⎣ 0 −1 0 0 0 0 2 x2 0 − 2 x2 2 x3 0 0 0 0 2 x2 0 2 2 x3 y3 + x3 y3 2 x3 + 2 x3 y3 2 − 2 x3 y3 − y3 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 y3 2 3 y3 0 [A ] e 0 − 2 x3 0 2 − 3x3 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ .87) Substituting (10. If this occurs. (10. the locations of the nodes should be altered to avoid this condition. y )⎦ Ae e e (10. Unfortunately. Evaluating (10.84) where { q } = ⎣w e T 1 θ x1 θ y1 L w3 θ x 3 θ y 3 ⎦ . a) yields [ ] { q }.246 ⎧w ⎪ ⎨ θx ⎪θ ⎩ y ⎫ ⎡ 1 x y x2 x y y2 x3 ⎪ ⎢ 0 0 x 2y ⎬=⎢0 0 1 ⎪ ⎢ 0 − 1 0 − 2 x − y 0 − 3x 2 ⎭ ⎣ FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS x2 y + x y2 x2 + 2x y − 2x y − y2 y3 3y2 0 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ {α }. This element is non-conforming.83) ⎥ ⎦ Evaluating (10.88) x2 − 2 x3 − y3 = 0 (10. e −1 (10.

in some plate-bending elements a linear variation of the tangential component of rotation is adopted.80) is not invariant with respect to the choice of coordinate axes.91) where the element stiffness matrix in the local coordinate system is h [ k ] = [ A ] ∫ 12 [ B ] e e −T 3 A T [ D ] [ B ]d A [A ] e −1 (10.93) ∫x A m n y dA . Therefore the normal slope is not continuous between elements. The transverse displacement w and the normal component θ y are continuous between elements. To alleviate this. while the tangential component θ x is not. These cannot be determined using the values of θ x at nodes 1 and 2 only.4) and (10. Moreover.88) into (10.90) The rotation θ x is a quadratic function having coefficients α 3 . Substituting (10. In this case θ x is a tangential component and θ y is a normal component of rotation.94) Note that nodal coordinates are usually given in global axes. ⎥ ⎢ 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 4 (x + y ) 0 ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ A typical element of the integrand in (10. 0⎥ ⎦ ⎧w ⎪ ⎨ θx ⎪θ ⎩ y ⎡ 1 x 0 x2 0 0 ⎫ x3 ⎢ ⎪ 0 x 0 0 ⎬ =⎢0 0 1 ⎪ ⎢ 0 − 1 0 − 2 x 0 0 − 3x 2 ⎭1− 2 ⎣ (10.92) is of the form which can be evaluated analytically.10. The vector of consistent nodal forces is given by (10. due to the x 2 y and x y 2 terms. Calculation of the element stiffness matrix referred to local axes requires the local coordinates of .92) and the strain-displacement matrix is 2y 0 ⎤ ⎡ 0 0 0 2 0 0 6x ⎢0 0 0 0 0 2 0 [B ]= ⎢ 2x 6y ⎥ .8) gives Ue = 1 2 { q } [ k ]{ q } e T e e (10. { f }= [ A ] ∫ e e −T A T ⎣P ⎦ p z d A . (10. the assumed function (10. The edge 1-2 was taken along the x-axis. PLATE BENDING 247 0 x2 0 0⎤ ⎥ 0 ⎥ {α } . α 5 and α 8 .

1969) referred to a global coordinate system.98) Functions expressed in area coordinates can be differentiated with respect to Cartesian coordinates using .248 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS nodes 2 and 3. These can be obtained from their global coordinates using the corresponding transformation matrix. (10.35). (10. 10. and the two rotations θ X and θY with respect to the global axes. θ X and θY are continuous between elements.2 Thick triangular element (conforming) Consider a thick triangular element (THT element – Henschel. the transverse displacement w . In order to assemble the global stiffness matrix. expressions (10.97) and ⎡ ζ1 0 0 ζ 2 0 0 ζ 3 0 0 ⎤ [ N ] = ⎢ 0 ζ1 0 0 ζ 2 0 0 ζ 3 0 ⎥ . In matrix form. Nodes 1. They ensure that w . θ X = ∑ ζ i θ X i . the element matrices have to be first transformed from local to global axes through a matrix triple product which is one of the more time-consuming procedures in finite element analysis. θY = ∑ ζ i θY i . θ X i and θY i are the degrees of freedom at node i.96) where the vector of nodal displacements is { q } = ⎣w e T 1 θ X 1 θ Y 1 L w3 θ X 3 θ Y 3 ⎦ . 2 and 3 have area coordinates ζ 1 . namely.95) are written ⎧ w ⎪ ⎨θX ⎪θ ⎩ Y ⎫ ⎪ ⎬=[N ⎪ ⎭ ]{ q e }. There are three independent degrees of freedom at each node. ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ 0 0 ζ1 0 0 ζ 2 0 0 ζ 3 ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ (10. The displacement functions are assumed to be w = ∑ ζ i wi . Tocher. ζ 2 and ζ 3 (8.95) where wi . i =1 i =1 i =1 3 3 3 (10.4.

103) gives the stiffness matrix due to shear ⎡ kS ⎢ 11 = κG h ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ SYM ⎣ [k ] S [ ] [ k ] [ k ] ⎤⎥ [ k ] [ k ] ⎥⎥ .101) Substituting (10.104) S 33 where . [ k ] ⎥⎦ S S 12 13 S S 22 23 (10.67) and integrating using the formula ∫ζ A m n p 1 ζ2 ζ3 dA = m ! n!p ! 2A (m + n + p + 2)! (10.96) into (10.99) gives the straindisplacement matrix due to bending [B ] B ⎡ 0 0 − β1 0 0 1 ⎢ = 0 γ1 0 0 γ2 2A ⎢ ⎢ 0 β 1 − γ1 0 β 2 ⎣ −β2 0 −γ2 0 0 0 γ3 0 β3 −β3 ⎤ ⎥ 0 ⎥. ∂ x 2 A i =1 i where β i and γ i are defined in (8. PLATE BENDING 249 ∂ 1 3 ∂ = ∑ β i ∂ζ .99) Substituting (10.10.24) and using (10.102) into (10. (10.24) and using (10. ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎦ (10. −γ3 ⎥ ⎦ (10. the stiffness matrix due to bending is h [ k ] = 12 A [ B ] B 3 B T [ D ] [ B B ]. ∂ 1 3 ∂ = ∑ γ i ∂ζ .8). ∂ y 2 A i =1 i (10.100) As this matrix is constant.99) shows that the straindisplacement matrix due to shear is [B ] S ⎡ ⎢ =⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ β1 2A 0 − ζ1 ζ1 0 β2 2A 0 −ζ2 ζ2 0 β3 2A 0 −ζ3 ζ3 ⎥ ⎤ γ1 γ2 γ3 2A 2A 2A ⎥.96) into (10.102) Substituting (10.

Dhatt1967). ⎥ A⎥ 6 ⎥ ⎦ The complete element stiffness matrix is the sum (10.4.98) into (10. ⎥ A⎥ 12 ⎥ ⎦ β1 ⎤ [k ] S 13 ⎡ β3 β 1 + γ 3 γ 1 ⎢ 4A ⎢ γ3 ⎢ =⎢ − 6 ⎢ β3 ⎢ ⎢ 6 ⎣ − γ1 6 A 12 0 ⎥ 6⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥. ⎥ A⎥ 6⎥ ⎦ [k ] S 12 ⎡ β2 β 1 + γ 2 γ1 ⎢ 4A ⎢ γ2 ⎢ =⎢ − 6 ⎢ β2 ⎢ ⎢ 6 ⎣ 2 ⎡β 2 +γ2 2 ⎢ ⎢ 4A γ2 ⎢ =⎢ − 6 ⎢ β 2 ⎢ ⎢ 6 ⎣ − γ1 6 A 12 0 ⎥ 6⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥.-1969.3 Discrete Kirchhoff triangles (DKT) The difficulties to formulate simple (minimum degrees of freedom) and high-performing elements based on the Kirchhoff theory at the continuum level (which requires a C1 continuity for w ) led to the development of the so-called Discrete Kirchhoff (DK) technique (Wempner-1969. 10.65). . For pz = constant.76) and integrating gives the vector of equivalent nodal forces { f }= p e z A T ⎣1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0⎦ 3 (10. Stricklin et al.105) which shows that one third of the total force is concentrated at each node. ⎥ A⎥ 12 ⎥ ⎦ β1 ⎤ − γ2 6 A 6 0 β2 ⎤ [k ] S 22 ⎥ 6 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥. ⎥ A⎥ 12 ⎥ ⎦ [k ] S 33 2 ⎡β 2 +γ3 3 ⎢ ⎢ 4A γ3 ⎢ =⎢ − 6 ⎢ β 3 ⎢ ⎢ 6 ⎣ − γ3 6 A 6 0 β3 ⎤ ⎥ 6 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥. substituting the shape functions from (10.250 2 2 ⎡ β 1 + γ1 ⎢ ⎢ 4A γ1 ⎢ =⎢ − 6 ⎢ β 1 ⎢ ⎢ 6 ⎣ FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS − γ1 6 A 6 0 β1 ⎤ [k ] S 11 ⎥ 6⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥. The above relationships are presented in reference [87]. ⎥ A⎥ 6 ⎥ ⎦ [k ] S 23 ⎡ β3 β 2 + γ 3 γ 2 ⎢ 4A ⎢ γ3 ⎢ =⎢ − 6 ⎢ β3 ⎢ ⎢ 6 ⎣ − γ2 β2 ⎤ 6 A 12 0 ⎥ 6 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥.

To remedy this. in terms of the first derivatives of the rotations (10. For instance. as in the ReissnerMindlin plate theory.1 can be called a ‘continuous’ Kirchhoff triangle. The aim is to preserve the C 0 continuity of the tangential components of rotations (normal slopes). The latter condition means that the transverse displacement w can vary cubically.4. a).106) . the rotations vary quadratically and their tangential component (normal slope) is not continuous between elements.10. are defined in terms of the components along the coordinate axes by ⎧ θ s k ⎫ ⎡ ck ⎨θ ⎬ = ⎢ ⎩ n k ⎭ ⎣ − sk where sk ⎤ ⎧ θ x k ⎫ ⎨ ⎬ ck ⎥ ⎩ θ y k ⎭ ⎦ (10. along a side. In this case only C 0 approximations of these rotations can be considered. The tangential component θ s is assumed to vary linearly along each edge. 10. only the bending strain energy is considered.7 b For a side i − j . the tangential and normal components of rotations θ s k and θ n k at the mid-side node k.7. The Kirchhoff constraints are imposed in a discrete manner on the element or/and on the sides. in which the curvatures are expressed. while the normal component θ n varies quadratically (Fig. Constant curvature patch-tests are needed to check the validity of the elements. a Fig. The shear strain energy is neglected. It was shown that. the transverse shear strains are either taken equal to zero at the mid-side points (collocation on sides) or their integral along each edge is taken equal to zero.24). PLATE BENDING 251 In the formulation of various DK plate elements. of length l k . 10. in the discrete Kirchhoff triangles the two components of rotations are assumed independent of one another. The T element presented in section 10.

a). it is assumed that it has six nodes (Fig. ( ) (10. ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (10. ( ) sk = y j − y i l k . One kind of ‘discrete’ Kirchhoff constraint is formulated in integral form as j j ∫ i γ s z ds = ∫ i ⎛ ∂w ⎞ ⎜ ⎜ ∂s + θn ⎟ ds = 0 .252 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ck = x j − x i l k .8. The rotation θ n varies parabolically (Fig.7. This is done requiring the shear strains γ s z to vanish along each side.107) Consider a discrete Kirchhoff triangle (DKT) with three nodes and three degrees of freedom per node (sometimes called DKT9). 10. α 6 must be expressed in terms of the degrees of freedom at the corner nodes. At the mid-side node k 1 θ ni + θ n j + α k . the degrees of freedom at mid-side nodes are eliminated. 10. Then. Initially. 10. 2 θnk = ( ) where the first term in the right hand side is expressed in terms of the rotations at the corner nodes.108) . Its expression in terms of the dimensionless coordinate can be written as s′ = s l k θ n = ( 1 − s′ )θ ni + s′θ n j + 4s′ ( 1 − s′ )α k . Fig. b). The rotation θ s is assumed to vary linearly (Fig. α 5 . The parameter α k has to be eliminated.8. b) θ s = ( 1 − s′ )θ s i + s′θ s j . the three parameters α 4 .8 In order to eliminate the degrees of freedom at mid-side nodes. 10.

{θ x } = ⎣θ x1 θ x 2 θ x3 ⎦T . {θ y }= ⎣θ y1 α5 α6 ⎦ T . ⎣Py ⎦ = ⎣ P4c4 P5c5 P6 c6 ⎦ .111) {α } = ⎣ α 4 ⎣Px ⎦ = ⎣ − P4 s4 − P5 s5 − P6 s6 ⎦ .109) The equation (10.110) we obtain the explicit expressions of . (w j − wi ) + l k ∫ [ ( 1 − s′ )θ ni + s′θ n j + 4s′ ( 1 − s′ )α k ] d s′ = 0 .108) can be written ∫ dw + ∫ θ i 0 1 0 j lk n ds = 0 . in terms of the degrees of freedom of the corner points αk = 3 3 wi − w j − − s k θ x i + c k θ y i − s k θ x j + c k θ y j . The rotations θ x and θ y can be expressed as θ x = ⎣N ⎦ {θ x } + ⎣Px ⎦ {α }. because w is cubical and θ n is quadratic. Then. wherefrom we obtain αk = 3 3 wi − w j − θ n i + θ n j . the condition γ s z = 0 will be ∂s satisfied at all points along the contour.109) can also be obtained by adopting a Hermitian cubic polynomial for w (s ) and using the discrete Kirchhoff collocation constraint (zero ∂w shear strain) γ s z = + θ n = 0 at points i. θ y = ⎣N ⎦ {θ y }+ ⎣Py ⎦ {α }.109) into (10. 2l k 4 ( ) ( ) or. θ y 2 θ y 3 ⎦T . θ x and θ y in terms of the corner nodal variables Substituting (10. 2l k 4 ( ) ( ) (10. j.10. where (10. k. PLATE BENDING 253 Equation (10.110) ⎣N ⎦ = ⎣ N1 N 2 N3 ⎦ = ⎣1 − ξ − η ξ η ⎦ . (10. ⎣ P4 P5 P6 ⎦ = ⎣ 4ξ ( 1 − ξ − η ) 4ξη 4η ( 1 − ξ − η ) ⎦ .

254 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎧ θx ⎫ ⎨ ⎬=[N ⎩θy ⎭ where ] {q e }.116) 3 3 2 2 Pk ck − Pm cm . (10.115). as shown in Table 10. the shape functions have the following expressions 3 3 Pk sk + Pm sm . 4 4 3 3 Pk ck − Pm cm .114) ⎣N1x ⎦ = ⎣N ix1 N ix = − 1 N ix2 N ix .115) In (10. ⎠i ⎝ ⎛∂w⎞ θ yi = − ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ∂x ⎟ .1 Corner point. 2l k 2l m (10. the nodal rotations θ x i and θ y i have the expressions used in Kirchhoff’s theory θ xi = ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ∂y ⎟ . 2l k 2l m 3 3 2 2 Pk sk − Pm sm .113) [ N ]= ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣N 2x ⎦ ⎣N3x ⎦ ⎤ . 3 2 3 3 Pk sk ck + Pm sm cm . 4 4 N iy = N i − 3 In the above expressions the indices k and m relate to the two edges having the common corner point i. ⎥ y y y ⎥ ⎢ ⎣N1 ⎦ ⎣N 2 ⎦ ⎣N 3 ⎦ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ Nx 1 (10. 3 ) allowing the introduction of Kirchhoff-type boundary conditions. 2. ⎠i ⎝ ⎛∂w⎞ ( i = 1.112) { q } = ⎣w e T 1 θ x1 θ y1 L w3 θ x 3 θ y 3 ⎦ . Taking into account the hypotheses adopted in formulating the DKT. 4 4 N ix2 = N i − N ix = 3 N iy = N ix . 3 ⎦ (10. (10. i 1 2 3 Side k ( i − j ) 5 (2−3 ) 6 (3 −1 ) 4 (1− 2 ) Side m ( i − j ) 4 (1− 2 ) 6 (3 −1 ) 5 (2−3 ) . 3 ⎦ ⎣N1y ⎦ = ⎣Niy1 N iy = 1 N iy 2 N iy . Table 10.1.

In the following.112) can be split as θ x = ⎣G ⎦ q e .10.120) ⎧ β 2 ⎣G ⎦ + β 3 ⎣G ⎦ ⎫ 2 3 ⎪ ⎪ { X } = ⎨ 2β 2 ⎣G ⎦ 4 + β 3 ⎣G ⎦ 5 ⎬ . ⎪ β G + 2β G ⎪ 3 ⎣ ⎦6 ⎭ ⎩ 2 ⎣ ⎦5 ⎧ γ 2 ⎣H ⎦ + γ 3 ⎣H ⎦ ⎫ 2 3 ⎪ ⎪ {Y } = ⎨ 2γ 2 ⎣H ⎦ 4 + γ 3 ⎣H ⎦ 5 ⎬ .120) χ12 = { } where A is the area of the triangle with vertices (x1 . { } θ y = ⎣H ⎦ q e . y2 ) and (x3 . presented explicitly in terms of the local oblique coordinates ξ and η . y1 ) . (10.118) The curvature vector (10. (x2 . The stiffness matrix of the DKT element can be expressed in explicit form. 2A 1 e ⎣1 ξ η ⎦ { Z } q .117) The shape function row vectors ⎣G ⎦ and ⎣H ⎦ . In (10. { } (10. PLATE BENDING 255 Because the parameters α k are eliminated using an expression which is a function of the nodal variables of the side k only. in a local coordinate system [18]. y3 ) . the continuity C 0 of θ n is maintained.24) is written for convenience as ∂θ x ∂y ∂θ x ∂θ y ⎥ − ⎥ ∂x ∂y ⎦ T = ⎣ χ1 χ2 χ12 ⎦ T . 2A { } (10. 1 e ⎣1 ξ η ⎦ {Y } q .119) The elements of the curvature vector can be expressed in terms of the rows of the ( 6 × 9 ) matrices [ G ] and [ H ] as follows χ1 = χ2 = 1 ⎣1 ξ η ⎦ { X 2A }{ q e }. Equation (10. can be rewritten as ⎣G ⎦ = ⎣1 ⎣H ⎦ = ⎣1 ⎢ ∂θ {χ }= ⎢ − y ⎣ ∂x ξ η ξ 2 ξη η 2 ⎦ [ G ] . (10. using a Hammer integration rule. ξ η ξ 2 ξη η 2 ⎦ [ H ] . ⎪ γ H + 2γ H ⎪ 3 ⎣ ⎦6 ⎭ ⎩ 2 ⎣ ⎦5 . it will be derived in global coordinates as in [68].

256

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

⎧ γ 2 ⎣G ⎦ + γ 3 ⎣G ⎦ + β 2 ⎣H ⎦ + β 3 ⎣H ⎦ ⎫ 2 3 2 3 ⎪ ⎪ { Z } = ⎨ 2γ 2 ⎣G ⎦ 4 + γ 3 ⎣G ⎦ 5 + 2β 2 ⎣H ⎦ 4 + β 3 ⎣H ⎦ 5 ⎬ , ⎪ γ G + 2γ G + β H + 2 β H ⎪ 3 ⎣ ⎦6 2 ⎣ ⎦5 3 ⎣ ⎦6 ⎭ ⎩ 2 ⎣ ⎦5

(10.121)

where ⎣G ⎦ i and ⎣H ⎦ i represent the ith row of [ G ] and [ H ] , respectively, and

β i = y j − yk and γ i = xk − x j as in (8.8), with i, j, k taking values 1, 2, 3
cyclically. Substituting for the curvature terms into the bending strain energy expression 1 { χ }T [ D ] { χ }d x d y , Ue = (10.122) 2


A

where the material matrix [ D
Ue =

]
1 2

has the form (10.13), U e can be written as

{ q } [ K ]{ q },
e T e e

where K e is the element stiffness matrix in global coordinates, given by

[ ]

[K ]
e

⎡ [ X ]⎤ 1 ⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ [Y ] ⎥ 2A ⎢ [Z ]⎥ ⎣ ⎦

T

⎡ D11 [ R ] D12 [ R ] D16 [ R ]⎤ ⎡ [ X ] ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ D22 [ R ] D26 [ R ]⎥ ⎢ [ Y ] ⎥ , ⎢ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ SYM D66 [ R ]⎥ ⎢ [ Z ] ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦

(10.123)

with ⎡ 12 4 4 ⎤ 1 ⎢ [ R ]= ⎢ 4 2 1 ⎥ . ⎥ 24 ⎢ 4 1 2⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (10.124)

The matrix K e is of rank 6, so there are 3 deformation modes with zero strain energy. The integrations in (10.122) have the form

[ ]

∫∫
0 0

ξ 1−ξ

ξ mη n dξ dη ==

m ! n! . (m + n + 2)!

The presented procedure avoids the matrix triple products needed when the element stiffness matrix is given in the local coordinate system.

References
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187 Coordinate transformation 19. 238. 98 Deep beam 117 Direct method 26 Direct stiffness method 17 Discrete Kirchhoff constraints 252 Discrete Kirchhoff triangle 250 Displacement method 9 Effective shear area 118 Eight-node quad 208 Eight-node rectangle 178 Energy methods 131 Equation of equilibrium 199 Equivalent nodal forces.Index ACM plate-bending element Admissible functions 144 Area coordinates 180 Aspect ratio 178 Assembly of global matrices Axial effects 97 232 8-node quad 214 ACM plate-bending element 237 T plate-bending element 247 THT plate-bending element 249 Expanded stiffness matrix 29 External potential energy 140 Force transformation 20 Four-node rectangle 176 Frame element 97 Gauss points 200 Gauss quadrature 200 − one-dimensional 200 − two-dimensional 203 Gravity loading 217 Grids 111 Hermitian polynomials 85 HTK plate-bending element 239 Initial strain effects 59 Internal forces 35 Inverse of Jacobian matrix 196 Isoparametric elements 191 Jacobian matrix 195 Jacobian positiveness 223 Joint force equilibrium equations Kinematic equivalent forces 47 Kirchhoff’s hypotheses 225 Lagrange polynomials 220 Linear elasticity 123 Linear strain triangle 182 Master element 192 Natural coordinates 192 Nine-node quad 219 Nodal approximation 155 Nodal forces 55 Node numbering 37 Non-conforming elements 232. 248 Consistent nodal forces 214 Consistent vector of nodal forces 89 Constant strain triangle 153 Continuity 132 Convergence 97. 151 − − − − Band storage 38 Bars 47 Bar element 47 Beams 79 Beam element 83 − stiffness matrix 87 − vector of nodal forces 89 Bernoulli-Euler beam theory 79 BFS plate-bending element 238 Compatibility 28. 150. 245 Numerical integration 200 100. 95 − frame 98 − constant strain triangle 160 − linear quad 199 31 . 187 Conforming elements 150. vector of − beam 90.

53 − shaft 62 − beam 85. 52 − shaft 61 − beam 87. 120 − constant strain triangle 157 − four-node rectangle 177 − eight-node rectangle 179 − linear strain triangle 182 − quadratic strain triangle 186 − linear quadrilateral 193 − eight-node quad 209 − nine-node quad 221 − six-node triangle 221 − ACM plate-bending element 234 − BFS plate-bending element 238 − HTK plate-bending element 240 − THT plate-bending element 248 Shear correction factor 118. 236 − relations 121 Strain energy 124 .266 Object of FEA 1 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Skyline storage 39 Stiffness matrix 17 − bars 17. 22.139 − bending 231 − shear 232 Stress averaging 161 Stress-strain relations 122 Subparametric elements 191 T plate-bending element 245 Temperature effects 124 Thick plate theory 229 Thermal loads 36 Thin plate theory 225 Total potential energy 140 Transformation of − differential operators 195 − infinitesimal area 197 Triangle area 156 − quadratic strain triangle 185 Triangular membrane element 180 − linear strain triangle 182 − quadratic strain triangle 185 − six-node 221 Triangular thin plate element 245 − thick plate element 248 Two-dimensional elements 153 Two-point formula 202 Unreduced global stiffness matrix Virtual displacements 131 − work of external loads 133 − work of internal forces 193 WB plate-bending element 239 30 Pascal’s triangle 220 Patch test 190 Plate bending elements 225 − rectangular 232 − triangular 244 Polynomial approximation 154 Principle of − minimum total potential energy − virtual displacements 134 − virtual work 131 Quadratic strain triangle 185 − triangle 222 Quadrilateral membrane element − eight-node 208 − linear 191 − nine-node 219 139 191 Rayleigh-Ritz method 143 Reactions 35 Rectangular membrane element 176 − thin plate element 232 − thick plate elements 239 Reduced global stiffness matrix 33 − integration 205 Reference element 192 Reissner-Mindlin plate theory 229 Serendipity elements 209 Shaft elements 60 Shape functions − bars 50. 107. 94. 122 − constant strain triangle 159 − frame 98 − grid 113 − linear strain triangle 183 − linear quadrilateral 199 − eight-node quad 211 − T plate-bending element 247 − ACM plate-bending element 236 − HTK plate-bending element 242 − THT plate-bending element 249 Strain-displacement matrix 158. 230 Six-node triangle 221 ..

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