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Preface

This textbook represents the Finite Element Analysis lecture course given to students in the third year at the Department of Engineering Sciences (now F.I.L.S.), English Stream, University Politehnica of Bucharest, since 1992. It grew in time along with a course taught in Romanian to students in the Faculty of Transports, helped by the emergence of microcomputer networks and integration of the object into mechanical engineering curricula. The syllabus of the 28-hour course, supplemented by 28-hour tutorial and lab. classes, was structured along the NAFEMS recommendations published in the October 1988 issue of BENCHmark. The course represents only an introduction to the finite element analysis, for which we wrote simple stand-alone single-element programs to assist students in solving problems as homework. It is followed by an advanced course in the fourth year at F.I.L.S., called Computational Structural Mechanics, where students are supposed to use commercial programs. In designing the course, our aim was to produce students capable of: (a) understanding the theoretical background, (b) appreciating the structure of finite element programs for potential amendment and development, (c) running packages and assessing their limitations, (d) taking a detached view in checking output, and (e) understanding failure messages and finding ways of rectifying the errors. The course syllabus was restricted to 2D linear elastic structural problems. It has been found advantageous to divide the finite element analysis into two parts. Firstly, the assembly process without any approximations (illustrated by frameworks) followed by the true finite element process which involves approximations. This is achieved starting with trusses, then with beams and plane frames, and progressively dealing with membrane and plate-bending elements. Solid elements and shells are not treated. Our objective was to ensure that students have achieved: (a) a familiarity in working with matrix methods and developing stiffness matrices, (b) an understanding of global versus local coordinate systems, (c) the abilty to use the minimum potential energy theorem and virtual work equations, (d) the mapping from isoparametric space to real geometrics and the need for numerical integration, (e) an insight in numerical techniques for linear equation solving (Gauss elimination, frontal solvers etc), and (f) the use of equilibrium, compatibility, stress/strain relations and boundary conditions. As a course taught for non-native speakers, it has been considered useful to reproduce as language patterns some sentences from English texts. November 2006 Mircea Radeş

Prefaţă

Lucrarea reprezintă cursul Analiza cu elemente finite predat studenţilor anului III al Facultăţii de Inginerie în Limbi Străine, Filiera Engleză, la Universitatea Politehnica Bucureşti, începând cu anul 1992. Conţinutul cursului s-a lărgit în timp, fiind predat din 1992 şi studenţilor de la facultatea de Transporturi, favorizat de apariţia reţelelor de calculatoare şi de includerea sa în planul de învăţământ al facultăţilor cu profil mecanic. Programa cursului, care prevede 28 ore de curs şi 28 ore de seminar/laborator, a fost structurată în conformiatate cu recomandările NAFEMS publicate în numărul din Octombrie 1988 al revistei BENCHmark. Cursul reprezintă doar o introducere în analiza cu elemente finite, pentru care am scris programe simple, cu un singur tip de element finit, care să fie utilizate de studenţi la rezolvarea unor teme de casă. Nu se tratează învelişuri şi elemente tridimensionale. În anul IV, planul de învăţământ de la F.I.L.S. conţine cursul Computational Structural Mechanics, la care studenţii aprofundează modelarea cu elemente finite şi utilizează un program de firmă. La structurarea cursului am avut în vedere necesitatea formării unor studenţi capabili: (a) să înţeleagă baza teoretică, (b) să desluşească structura programelor cu elemente finite pentru eventuale corecţii şi dezvoltări, (c) să ruleze programe şi să recunoască limitele acestora, (d) să poată verifica rezultatele şi (e) să înţeleagă mesajele de eroare şi să găsească modalităţi de corectare a erorilor. Programa cursului a fost limitată la structuri elastice liniare bidimensionale. S-a considerat potrivit să se prezinte analiza cu elemente finite în două etape: întâi procesul de asamblare fără nici o aproximare (aplicat la grinzi cu zăbrele), apoi modelarea cu elemente finite, care presupune aproximarea câmpului de deplasări, de la triunghiul cu deformaţii specifice constante la elemente patrulatere izoparametrice, incluzând integrarea numerică. S-a urmărit ca studenţii să dobândească: (a) familiaritate cu metodele matriciale şi calculul matricelor de rigiditate; (b) înţelegerea utilităţii coordonatelor locale şi globale; (c) abilitatea folosirii principiului energiei potenţiale minime şi a principiului lucrului mecanic virtual; (d) trecerea de la coordonate naturale la coordonate fizice şi necesitatea integrării numerice; (e) o vedere de ansamblu asupra rezolvării sistemelor algebrice liniare (eliminarea Gauss, metoda frontală etc.) şi (f) utilizarea celor patru tipuri de ecuaţii – echilibru, compatibilitate, constitutive şi condiţii la limită. Fiind un curs predat unor studenţi a căror limbă maternă nu este limba engleză, au fost reproduse expresii şi fraze din cărţi scrise de vorbitori nativi ai acestei limbi. Noiembrie 2006 Mircea Radeş

Contents

Preface Contents 1. Introduction

1.1 Object of FEA 1.2 Finite element displacement method 1.3 Historical view 1.4 Stages of FEA

i iii 1

1 3 4 5

2. Displacement Method

2.1 Equilibrium equations 2.2 Conditions for geometric compatibility 2.3 Force/elongation relations 2.4 Boundary conditions 2.5 Solving for displacements 2.6 Comparison of the force method and displacement method

9

9 10 11 12 12 13

**3. Direct Stiffness Method
**

3.1 Stiffness matrix for a bar element 3.2 Transformation from local to global coordinates

3.2.1 Coordinate transformation 3.2.2 Force transformation 3.2.3 Element stiffness matrix in global coordinates 3.2.4 Properties of the element stiffness matrix

17

17 19

19 20 21 22

3.3 Link’s truss 3.4 Direct method 3.5 Compatibility of nodal displacements 3.6 Expanded element stiffness matrix 3.7 Unreduced global stiffness matrix

25 26 28 29 30

iv

3.8 Joint force equilibrium equations 3.9 Reduced global stiffness matrix 3.10 Reactions and internal forces 3.11 Thermal loads and stresses 3.12 Node numbering Exercises

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 31 33 35 36 37 41

**4. Bars and shafts
**

4.1 Plane bar elements

4.1.1 Differential equation of equilibrium 4.1.2 Coordinates and shape functions 4.1.3 Bar not loaded between ends 4.1.4 Element stiffness matrix in local coordinates 4.1.5 Bar loaded between ends 4.1.6 Vector of element nodal forces 4.1.7 Assembly of the global stiffness matrix and load vector 4.1.8 Initial strain effects

47

47

47 48 49 51 52 55 56 59

4.2 Plane shaft elements Exercises

60 63

**5. Beams, frames and grids
**

5.1 Finite element discretization 5.2 Static analysis of a uniform beam 5.3 Uniform beam not loaded between ends

5.3.1 Shape functions 5.3.2 Stiffness matrix 5.3.3 Physical significance of the stiffness matrix

79

79 81 83

84 86 88

**5.4 Uniform beam loaded between ends
**

5.4.1 Consistent vector of nodal forces 5.4.2 Higher degree interpolation functions 5.4.3 Bending moment and shear force

89

89 92 95

**5.5 Basic convergence requirements 5.6 Frame element
**

5.6.1 Axial effects 5.6.2 Stiffness matrix and load vector in local coordinates

96 97

97 98

4 Principle of virtual displacements 7.4.7 Assembly of the global stiffness matrix 5.2.2 Discretization 7.3 Virtual work of internal forces 7. stresses and strain 6.2 Equations of equilibrium inside V 6.6.1.4 FEM – a localized version of the Rayleigh-Ritz method 7.9 Deep beam bending element 5.3 Principle of virtual displacements 143 148 148 149 149 .3 The Rayleigh-Ritz method 7.8 Grids 5.2 Principle of minimum total potential energy 7.3 Coordinate transformation 5.9.2.4 Strain-displacement relations 6.1 Virtual displacements 7.3 Stiffness matrix 100 111 116 117 118 121 6.1 Principle of virtual work 7.1.2.5 Stress-strain relations 6.4.3 Equations of equilibrium on the surface Sσ 6.6.2 External potential energy 7.1 Strain energy 7.1.2 Virtual work of external forces 7. Linear elasticity 6.1.CONTENTS 5.4 Stiffness matrix and load vector in global coordinates 98 100 v 5.1 FEM in Structural Mechanics 7.1 Static analysis of a uniform beam 5.9.1. Energy methods 7.4.9.3 Total potential energy 139 139 140 140 7.2 Shape functions 5.6 Temperature effects 6.7 Strain energy 123 123 125 126 127 128 130 130 7.5 Proof that PDV is equivalent to equilibrium equations 131 131 131 133 133 134 137 7.1 Matrix notation for loads.

2 Linear strain triangle (LST) 8.6 Element load vectors 191 191 192 193 194 195 198 199 9.4 Equilibrium.1 Linear quadrilateral element 9.4.3. Discretization of structure 8.8 Solution and back-substitution 8 Two-dimensional elements 8.4 Approximating functions for the element FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 149 150 151 151 152 7.1.2 Numerical integration 9.1.1.4. convergence and compatibility 8.3 Quadratic strain triangle 180 180 182 185 8.4.4.4 Mapping from natural to Cartesian coordinates 9.1.5 Element stiffness matrix 9.1.1 Natural coordinates 9.7 Assembly of the global stiffness matrix and load vector 7.1.1.4.4.4.1. compatibility 8.2 The eight-node rectangle (quadratic) 176 176 178 8.vi 7.2 Shape functions 9.2 Convergence and compatibility 187 187 188 9 Isoparametric elements 9.3.1.3 Nodal approximation of the displacement field 8.2 Rectangular elements 8.6 Remarks 153 153 153 154 155 158 159 160 8.1 The four-node rectangle (linear) 8.2 Polynomial approximation of the displacement field 8.1.1 The plane constant-strain triangle (CST) 8.1 Equilibrium vs.2.1 Area coordinates 8.1.5 Element stiffness matrix and load vector 8.1 One dimensional Gauss quadrature 200 200 .1.5 Compatibility between strains and nodal displacements 7.3.3 The displacement field 9.4 The matrix [ B ] 8.2.6 Element stiffness matrix and load vector 7.2.1.3 Triangular elements 8.

2.3 Eight-node quadrilateral 9.4 Nine-node quadrilateral 9.3 Discrete Kirchhoff triangles (DKT) 244 245 248 250 References Index 257 265 .3.3.4 Triangular plate-bending elements 10.6 Jacobian positiveness 219 221 223 10 Plate bending 10.2 Shape function derivatives 9.1 Shape functions 9.3.6 Consistent nodal forces 208 209 210 211 211 213 214 9.2.2 Two dimensional Gauss quadrature 9.CONTENTS 9.3 Stiffness integration 9.4 Stress calculations 203 204 207 vii 9.3.4 Element stiffness matrix 9.1 ACM element (non-conforming) 10.2 Thick triangular element (conforming) 10.2 Thick plate theory (Reissner-Mindlin) 10.4.2.4.3.5 Six-node triangle 9.1 Thin triangular element (non-conforming) 10.3.2 BFS element (conforming) 10.3.1 Thin plate theory (Kirchhoff) 10.3 HTK thick rectangular element 225 225 229 232 232 238 239 10.3 Determinant of the Jacobian matrix 9.3.3.5 Stress calculation 9.3 Rectangular plate-bending elements 10.4.

The primary difference between the FEA and other approximate methods for the solution of boundary-value problems (finite-difference. 1. and defining the unknown state variable approximately. With the individually defined functions matching each other at certain points called nodes. involving approximation methods. dealing with the development and maintenance of large computer codes. etc. The subdomains are called finite elements. eigenproblems. FEA is used to solve large-scale analytical problems. This requires a matrix notation. etc. . within each element. weighted-residual. the set of finite elements is known as the mesh and the trial functions are referred to as interpolation functions. and (3) Applied Computer Science. strength of materials. INTRODUCTION Finite Element Analysis (FEA) as applied to structures is a multidisciplinary technique. by means of a linear combination of trial functions. The aim is finding an approximate solution to a boundary. plasticity. The procedure is a discretized approach: the geometric shape or the internal stressstrain-displacement field are described by a series of discrete quantities (like coordinates) distributed through the structure. (2) Numerical Analysis. the unknown function is approximated over the entire domain.1 Object of FEA The object of FEA is to replace the infinite degree of freedom system in continuum applications by a finite system exhibiting the same basis as discrete analysis. based on knowledge from three fields: (1) Structural Mechanics. The tools are the computers. solving linear sets of equations. Its task is to model and describe the mechanical behaviour of geometrically complex structures.1. able to store long lists of numbers and manipulate them. dynamics. encompassing elasticity.and initialvalue problem by dividing the domain of the system into a set of interconnected finite-sized subdomains of different size and shape.

Instead of finding an admissible function satisfying the boundary conditions for the entire domain. by making decisions concerning the finite element mesh and the assembly of stiffness matrices. In FEA. difficult to handle on a routine basis. the FEA can change not only the size of the finite elements but also their shape. so were increasingly powerful digital computers. Perhaps more important is the fact that the finite element method can accommodate systems with complicated geometries and parameter distributions. In turn. coupled with the development of powerful computer codes based on the method. some of them made available as open source free software. solving [ A ] { x } = { b } is equivalent to 1 minimizing P (x ) = { x }T [ A ]{ x } − { x }T { b }. the evaluation of such a function will require the solution of simultaneous equations. This was possible only at the time the computers became available. defined over small subdomains of the structure. or to handle parameter non-uniformities. which tend to have complicated expressions. in the FEA an approximate solution is constructed using local admissible functions. should be easier. which led to automation. the equations of equilibrium are obtained from variational principles implying the stationarity of the functional defined by the total potential energy. which is often difficult. The outstanding success of the finite element method can be attributed to a large extent to timing. even approximately. Indeed. integrating known polynomial functions. . has made the FEA the method of choice for the analysis of structures. but also to carry out such diverse tasks as the formulation of equations. This extreme versatility. FEA is a localized version of the Rayleigh-Ritz method. Since the entire domain is divided into numerous elements and the function is approximated in terms of its values at the element nodes. While the finite element method was being developed.2 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Rayleigh-Ritz. The wide use of the classical Rayleigh-Ritz method has been limited by the inability to generate suitable admissible functions for a large number of practical problems. in the FEA the admissible functions (called shape functions) are defined over element domains with simple geometry and pay no attention to complications at the boundaries. This is the heart of the FEA when 2 applied to structures. Galerkin) is that in the FEA the approximation is confined to relatively small subdomains. The computer is not only able to solve the discretized equations of equilibrium. In order to match a given irregular boundary. Mathematically. While solving differential equations with complicated boundary conditions may be difficult. systems with complex boundary conditions or complex geometry cannot be described easily by global admissible functions.

1. by just assembling predetermined element matrices. hence larger computer storage space and running time. but may be trigonometric functions as well. and the prescribed boundary conditions are satisfied. Among the reasons why the FEA has gained such universal acceptance are: (1) the routine choice of shape functions. (4) assemble the element properties. leaving only the magnitude to be found. The second part of the process is the assembly of the elements and the solution of the complete structural equations. Mesh refinements (and automatic mesh generation) do not bring necessarily increased accuracy. the internal stresses are in equilibrium with the applied loads. (2) the discretization of the domain (cutting the corners. (2) select interpolation functions. FEA has evolved into a technique that can be applied . the governing discrete equations are generated by a variational approach. Finally.2 Finite element displacement method In the finite element modeling. (2) the easiness of producing stiffness matrices (and load vectors). and (3) the versatility. (5) solve the system of equations. All individual elements are assembled together in such a way that the displacements are continuous in some fashion across element interfaces. understanding the pedigree of elements and spotting wrong answers due to the use of inadequate elements. a larger number of equations to be solved. Developed originally as a method for analyzing stresses in complex aircraft structures. Finite elements are so small that the shape of the displacement field can be approximated without too much error. Finer mesh yields also larger stiffness matrices. Displacements at the nodes are taken as the primary discrete variables. making curved lines straight. a structure is discretized (hypothetically) into finite elements and points named nodes are selected on the inter-element boundaries or in the interior of the elements. The first part of the finite element modeling process involves choosing the correct and appropriate types of elements. and curved elements flat). Modeling the joints and the contact between structural parts as well as the damping in dynamic problems are the most difficult tasks. and (3) the solution algorithms. (3) find the element properties. and (6) make additional computations if desired. Displacements within the elements are expressed in terms of these nodal displacements using interpolation functions referred to as shape functions. The three main sources of approximation are: (1) the definition of the domain (physically or geometrically). This involves recognizing error messages when this process breaks down or when it simply becomes inefficient because the structure has been modeled inconveniently. The “shapes” are polynomials. INTRODUCTION 3 1. The six basic steps of FEA are the following: (1) discretize the continuum.

The formal presentation of the finite element method is attributed to Turner. The first energy theorems have been established by Maxwell (1864) and Castigliano (1875). In the early 1940s. . and Topp (1956).4 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS to a large variety of linear and nonlinear. 1955). But that geometry was inadequate to model delta wings. who during 1952-1953 succeeded to directly derive the stiffness of a triangular panel at Boeing. 1. the Force Method (Flexibility Method) was sustained by Levy (1947) and Garvey (1951) and the matrix Displacement Method (Stiffness Method) was used by Levy (1953) in the sweptback wing analysis. so that the method was not practical then. The use of piecewise continuous functions defined over a subdomain to approximate the unknown function dates back to Courant (1943). The development of delta wing structures revived the interest in stiffness methods. the idea found application in aircraft structural analysis. contains the derivation of the stiffness matrix of a flat rectangular panel using bilinear displacement interpolation. The development of the Force Method ended in 1969. The theoretical background of FEA laids on the energy approach of Structural Mechanics and on the approximation techniques. where wings and fuselages are treated as assemblages of stringers. panels. After the Second World War. Ostenfeld (1926) is credited with the first book on the deformation method. the article series by Argyris in four issues of Aircraft Engineering (1954. Clough. stability and dynamic engineering problems. Ancient mathematicians estimated the value of π approximating the circumference of a circle by the perimeter of a polygon inscribed in the circle. The term “finite element” was first used by Clough (1960). stiffeners and spars. The approximation methods have been developed by Ritz (1908) and Galerkin (1915). computers capable of solving large sets of equations of equilibrium did not exist. static. After a first attempt by Levy (1953) with triangular elements. Modeling delta wings required two-dimensional panel elements of arbitrary geometry. Turner formulated and perfected the Direct Stiffness Method at Boeing (1959). collected later in a book by Argyris and Kelsey (1960). ribs. In modern times.3 Historical view The idea of representing a given domain as a collection of discrete elements is not novel with the finite element method. Martin. who used an assemblage of small triangular elements and the principle of minimum potential energy to study Saint Venant’s torsion problem. The reason why Courant’s paper did not attract more attention can be attributed to poor timing.

who systematized the variational derivation of stiffness matrices and recognized that FEA is a Rayleigh-Ritz method applied on small size elements (1963). static and dynamic stability. at Washington University. Preprocessing involves the input and preparation of data. 1. PATRAN. Irons. Influential papers have been written by Argyris (1965). (1985).by Hibbitt. Bathe at M. IDEAS-MS.T. STRUDL . Major contributions are due to B. frontal solvers and the patch test (1964-1980). (1975). 1970). MacNeal Schwendler. and (3) postprocessing. and thermal loading. Other known finite element codes are ANSYS.4 Stages of FEA FEA involves three stages of activity: (1) preprocessing. Melosh. developed the static condensation algorithm (1974) and three SAP computer programs (the first open source FEA software). STARDYNE by Mechanics Research Inc. fluids. and at Swansea University. Since 1963. L. Bathe to develop the finite element codes SAP4 (1973).I. finite element computer programs were freely disseminated into the nonaerospace community. COSMOS-M – by Structural Research & Analysis Corp. 1966. SAP5 and NONSAP. Archer. M.by the Civil Engineering Department at Massachusetts Institute of Technology and McDonnell Douglas Automation Company (1967). General purpose programs have capabilities of linear dynamic response. Wilson. crashworthiness. under Martin. Karlsson @ Sorensen. completed in 1968 and first revised in 1972. SAMCEF . SESAM – by Det Norske Veritas. MARC – by Marc Analysis Research Corporation. Starting with 1965 the NASTRAN finite element system was developed by COSMIC.1. boundary conditions. Research developed in the Civil Engineering Department at Berkeley. lead by Zienkiewicz. (1978). ALGOR etc. Martin Baltimore and Bell Aero Systems under contract to NASA. developed by Swanson Analysis Systems (1970).-J. S. R. such as nodal coordinates. J. J. who introduced the consistent mass matrix concept (1963). and E. After 1967 the FEA has been applied to non-structural field problems (thermal. He was joined later by K. ADINA – developed by K. electromagnetics etc).by SAMTECH (1965). including computation of natural frequencies. material properties and . Fraeijs de Veubeke (1964) and Irons and coworkers (1964. NISA – by Engineering Mechanics Research Corporation. (2) processing. element connectivity. the inventor of isoparametric models. ABAQUS . directed by Clough. nonlinear static and dynamic response.-J. shape functions. INTRODUCTION 5 The first book devoted to FEA was written by Zienkiewicz and Cheung (1967). followed by books by Przemieniecki (1968) and Gallagher (1964). who studied the sparse matrix assembly and solution techniques (1963). Inc.

1. or C.2 . Fig. 1. as well as element connectivity data.A.6 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS loading. are presented for a connecting rod (Fig. 1. Fig. Alternatively. represented with hidden line removal.E.I. Italia. Mesh plotting is a convenient and useful way of checking the input data.A.2).1) and a car engine piston (Fig. or reading from a data file. as obtained using the program SIMPAT developed by I.D. Data input can be carried out either in an interactive way.T. 1. through a userfriendly interface. Badly placed nodes or improper blocking of boundary nodes can be easily traced. some input data can be imported from other F. Automatic mesh generation can be used to produce nodal coordinate data and optimal node numbering. programs.1 Three-dimensional finite element meshes.

4 In dynamic analyses.3. processing involves solving an eigenproblem or determining the transient response by incremental techniques. the cost of the solution of the linear set of equations increases linearly with the problem size. and element quantities such as stresses and gradients (backcalculation).3 In the processing stage. . INTRODUCTION 7 The finite element model of a vehicle cabin frame obtained with MSC/NASTRAN is shown in Fig. 1. The cost in terms of computer resource increases with the cube of the problem size. Fig. Often this contains much more detail than the dynamic analysis requires. In static analyses. the finite element program processes the input data and calculates the nodal variable quantities such as displacements and temperatures (equation solving). 1. It would be obviously convenient to use in dynamic analyses the same finite element model that was built for the static analysis. 1.1. Fig. so that condensation and dynamic substructuring are used to reduce the size of the dynamic problem before the processing stage.

1. Fig. with 1174 triangular 6-node elements. containing only 814 elements and a four times reduced global discretization error. as in Fig. Early programs used tabular presentations.6. a shows the two-dimensional initial mesh for the analysis of a gear tooth. 1. Most programs produce displays of the deformed configuration.6 b Fig.5 Scalar nodal variables such as temperatures or pressures are presented in the form of contour plots of isotherms or isobars. as obtained using ALGOR SUPERSAP. Fig. vibration mode shapes and stress distributions.8 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Postprocessing deals with the presentation of results. . a Fig. 1. 1. More recent finite element programs show animated displays of the deformed configuration. 1.4 shows the initial mesh and the deformed shape of a cooling tower under the wind action. Fig. 1.6.5 for a crankshaft. b shows the optimized mesh obtained with the postprocessor ESTEREF.

Fig. It works whether the structure is statically determinate or not. F2 . Once the displacements are determined. geometric compatibility conditions. there are four types of equations that should be used: equilibrium equations. F4 . 2. a relatively simple pin-jointed framework will be used. 2.1 Equilibrium equations Consider the truss shown in Fig. T2 . DISPLACEMENT METHOD In solving any structural problem. and hence strains. they are back-substituted into the compatibility equations to obtain bar extensions. F5 are the reaction forces at the supports.1 [74]. constitutive relationships and boundary conditions. In order to illustrate the usual longhand analytical procedure. T3 are the tensions in members and F1 . displacements of the bar ends and bar extensions (elongations).2. T1 .1 . If forces and elongations are eliminated and the displacements are the variables which are solved first. 2. assume that all members are in tension and write the equilibrium of each node in turn. then stresses from the constitutive relationship. the procedure is referred to as the displacement method. Variables include reaction forces at the supports and internal forces.

a).1) to (2. 2. 2. At Node 3 (Fig.2) (2. The displacements in the local coordinate frame xOy can be expressed in terms of the displacements in the global coordinate frame as u 1 = U 1 cos θ + V 1 sin θ . T2 2 / 2 + F2 = 0.3. u 2 = U 2 cos θ + V 2 sin θ .2. equilibrium gives 6 F − T1 − T3 2 /2 = 0.2 Conditions for geometric compatibility The compatibility equations relate a bar extension Δl to the displacements of the ends of the bar. At Node 2 (Fig.2. 2. The system is statically indeterminate.3) have seven unknowns. inclined an angle θ with respect to the X axis of the global coordinate system. a b Fig.2 c 2. Fig. T3 2 / 2 + F4 = 0. and consideration must be given to the geometry of deformation. 9 F − T2 2 / 2 − T3 2 /2 = 0. The solution is not possible by using only equilibrium.3) The six equations (2.2. b). Consider a typical pin-jointed element 1-2 of a frame. (2. 2. c) T3 2 /2 + F5 − T2 2 /2 = 0.1) (2. resolving forces horizontally and vertically leads to T1 + T2 2 2 + F1 = 0.4) .10 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS At Node 1 (Fig. 2. The change in length of the member is (2.

U1 . (2. six displacements and three elongations.6) (2.2. Δl13 = (U 3 − U1 ) 2 2 + (V3 − V1 ) . Starting from the Hooke’s law for uniaxial stress-strain conditions. the force/elongation relations can be written Δl12 or T l = 1 .5) to each member in turn leads to Δl12 = U 2 . ( ) ( ) (2.5) Fig. 2 2 2 ⎠ 2 . DISPLACEMENT METHOD 11 Δl = u 2 − u1 = U 2 − U1 cosθ + V 2 − V1 sin θ . EA Δl 13 = T2 2 l 2 . Δl13 = 2 .8) have nine unknowns.3 Force/elongation relations Truss members are in either simple tension or compression. 2 (2. 2. Δl12 = .8) ⎛ 2⎞ ⎟ + (V3 − V2 ) Δl 23 = (U 3 − U 2 ) ⎜ − ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ The three equations (2.6) to (2.9) EA 2E A 2E A Three more equations have been added and so there are now 12 equations for 16 unknowns. 2E A Δl 23 = T3 2 l 2 2E A T l T1 l T l . Δl 23 = 3 . 2.7) (2.3 Applying equation (2.

Δl 12 = l l 2E A EA T2 = Δl 13 = 2 ( U 3 − U1 + V3 − V1 ) .8) to force/displacement equations as follows T1 = EA EA ( U 2 − U1 ) .5 Solving for displacements Equations (2.4 Boundary conditions The discrepancy of 4 equations is made up by adding the boundary conditions U1 = V1 = V2 = U 3 = 0 which complete the set of 22 linear algebraic equations. l l Substitution of the expressions for T1 to T3 into the equilibrium equations (2.6)(2. EA 6F l . EA − U1 − V1 − U 2 + V2 + 2 U 3 = − U1 − V1 + U 2 − V2 + 2 V3 = F5 l . EA Taking into account the boundary conditions (2. (2.9) can be used to convert the compatibility equations (2.10) 2. l l 2E A EA T3 = Δl 23 = 2 ( − U 3 + U 2 + V3 − V2 ) . EA 9 Fl . EA − U1 + 2 U 2 − V2 − U 3 + V3 = − U 2 + V2 + U 3 − V3 = F4 l . this set of six equations can be written in matrix form as . EA F1 l .3) yields 6 equations 2 U1 + V1 − U 2 − U 3 − V3 = U1 + V1 − U 3 − V3 = F2 l .10).(2.12 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 2.1) .

. 2. Consider the 7-bar pin-jointed framework shown in Figure 2.1)-(2. the equilibrium equations of joint 8 can be written Fx − Fy − ∑ Ti cosθi = 0. F5 = − F ..13) Substituting these forces into the equilibrium equations (2. EA (2.4. The joint 8 is subjected to a force of components Fx and Fy . Divided by the corresponding area they give the stresses.. EA V3 = 4 Fl .11) 1 − 1⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ F4 ⎥ 2 0 ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ F5 ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 0 2 ⎥ ⎢ V3 ⎥ ⎢ 9 F ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ The third and the sixth equation can be decoupled EA l and solved to give U2 = Fl . F2 = −4 F .3) yields the tensions in the members.2. Force Method Denoting Ti ( i = 1. F4 = −5 F .14) .6 Comparison of the force method and displacement method Navier’s Problem. (2.. Determine the internal bar forces and the displacement of joint 8.12) ⎡2 1 ⎤ ⎡U 2 ⎤ ⎧6 F ⎫ ⎢1 2⎥ ⋅ ⎢ V ⎥ = ⎨9 F ⎬ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ 3⎦ ⎩ ⎭ Substituting U 2 and V3 into the remaining equations yields the reaction forces F1 = −5F .7 ) the forces applied by each bar to the end nodes. which are equal and opposite to the forces acting on the joints. DISPLACEMENT METHOD 13 ⎡2 ⎢1 ⎢ EA ⎢ − 1 ⎢ l ⎢0 ⎢− 1 ⎢ ⎢− 1 ⎣ 1 1 0 0 −1 −1 −1 0 2 −1 −1 1 0 0 −1 1 1 −1 − 1 − 1⎤ ⎡ 0 ⎤ ⎡ F1 ⎤ − 1 − 1⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ F2 ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ − 1 1 ⎥ ⎢U 2 ⎥ ⎢ 6 F ⎥ ⎥ ⋅ ⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ ⎥ . ∑ Ti sinθi = 0. (2. i =1 i =1 7 7 (2.

. ∂Fy (2..14 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS This is a set of two equations with seven unknowns. the five deformation conditions can be written ∂U = 0..5 ) (2. X 2 = T4 .4 The strain energy is U= 5 ⎞ 1 ⎛ 2 ⎜ T1 l 1 + T22l 2 + X i2l i ⎟ ⎟ 2 EA ⎜ i =1 ⎝ ⎠ ∑ (2. ∂X i ∂X i ( i = 1.. so the framework is statically indeterminate. and X 5 = T7 as redundant forces.. We choose X1 = T3 .16) since we are assuming no support movement.14). Using Menabrea’s theorem. X 4 = T6 .. according to (2. X 3 = T5 .15) where T1 and T2 are functions of X 1 to X 5 .17) This is a set of five linear equations wherefrom the five redundant forces X 1 to X 5 are determined.18) .5 ) (2. 2. Fig. ∂Fx v8 = ∂U . They are of the form l1 T1 ∂T1 ∂T + l 2 T2 2 + l i X i = 0 ... ∂X i ( i = 1. The components of the displacement of joint 8 are given by Castigliano’s second theorem u8 = ∂U .

.19) into the force-elongation equations Ti = EA Δl i li . In matrix form they can be written ⎧ Fx ⎫ ⎡ K11 ⎨ ⎬=⎢ ⎩ Fy ⎭ ⎣ K 21 K12 ⎤ ⎧ u8 ⎫ ⎨ ⎬ K 22 ⎥ ⎩ v 8 ⎭ ⎦ (2....7 ) (2. the larger the number of statically indeterminate forces. a ( ) ( i = 1. only two equations are obtained for the two joint displacements.7 ) (2...22) Inserting (2. ( i = 1.7 ) (2. Displacement Method The elongation-displacement (compatibility) equations (2.23) sin θ i = 0 .5) are Δl i = u 8 cosθi + v 8 sin θi . (2..16).. sinθ i ( i = 1.. Regardless the number of concurrent bars..19) ( i = 1.7 ) (2..22) into the equilibrium equations (2.20) Substituting (2.. hence the number of equations (2.. the larger the number of bars.2... DISPLACEMENT METHOD 15 In the force method. 3 a Fy − u8 EA ∑ i =1 cosθ i sin θ i − v 8 ∑ i =1 which is solved for u8 and v 8 .. The bar length is li = a .24) where the stiffness coefficients are .21) gives the force-displacement relations Ti = EA u 8 cos θ i + v 8 sin θ i sin θ i .14) of joint 8 yields a Fx − u8 EA ∑ i =1 7 7 cos 2θ i sinθ i − v 8 2 ∑ i =1 7 7 sin 2θ i cosθ i = 0 .

a Solving (2.409 i =1 7 EA . a (2.567 EA . EA v 8 = 0.7097 Fx a .24) gives u 8 = 0. .26) The approach used in the displacement method is the same whether the structure is statically determinate or not.16 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS K11 = EA a ∑ cos2θi sinθi = 1.219 Fy a EA . i =1 7 ∑ i =1 sin 3θ i = 4. (2.25) K12 = K 21 = K 22 = EA a 7 EA a ∑ cosθi sin 2θi = 0.

It has length l e . 3. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD The Finite Element Method (FEM) started as an extension of the stiffness method or displacement method. axially loaded (no bending) and with no forces between ends. Consider a two-noded pin-jointed element in the own local coordinate system (Fig. Starting with simple planar frameworks it is possible to explain the assembly process and to make an introduction into the matrix stiffness method. respectively.3. In the following. As elements are added to the structure. It is acted upon by the nodal forces f1 . Assembly and solution for displacements are of main concern. Generally. the elements of the actual structure are connected together at discrete joints.1 Stiffness matrix for a bar element In the FEM. the names “joint” and “member” are replaced by node and element. q 2 . If the members are pin-ended bars they are real distinct elements requiring no approximation. f 2 .1). pinconnected at the ends. We may imagine that the structure is built by adding elements one by one. .) . the basic steps of the Direct Stiffness Method (DSM) are shown using a pin-jointed plane truss. Nodes are conveniently numbered 1 and 2. They are natural finite elements. bar elements are assumed to be uniform (EAe = const. contributions are made to the structure load carrying capacity. 3. In the stiffness method for skeletal structures. hence to the structure stiffness matrix. which relates all joint displacements to all joint forces. linearly elastic. The nodal displacements are q 1 . with each element being placed in a preassigned location. cross section area Ae and Young’s modulus Ee . The relationship between the end forces and end displacements of each member is represented by an element stiffness matrix.

which incorporate compatibility and stress/strain relations. then for q 1 = 0 . q 1 = 1 e and Ee Ae f1 = − f 2 = Ee Ae q1 . if end 2 is now fixed but end 1 allowed to move. ⎣ ⎦ (3.5) where the element stiffness matrix in local coordinates is [ k ] = El A e e e e ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎢− 1 1 ⎥ . the force/elongation relations are used.3) Combining equations (3.6) .4) or { f }= [ k ] { q } e e e (3.3).1 Both the nodal displacements q 1 . q 2 and the nodal forces f1 . q 2 = 2 e and Ee Ae E A f1 = − f 2 = − e e q 2 . (3. f l q 2 = 0 . f 2 are positive in the positive x direction. If end 1 is fixed and end 2 is allowed to f l move. The equilibrium equation for the bar element is f1 + f 2 = 0. the complete stiffness relationship is obtained as ⎧ f1 ⎫ Ee Ae ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ = 1⎥ le ⎢ ⎪ f 2 ⎪e ⎣ ⎦ ⎩ 23 144− 1443 ⎭ 2 1 nodal forces element stiffness matrix nodal displacements ⎧q1 ⎫ ⎨q ⎬ 2 ⎩ 2⎭e 1 3 (3. 3.2) le Similarly. (3.2) and (3. le (3.18 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Fig.1) Next.

so that nodal forces and nodal displacements can be arranged into 4-element column vectors related by a 4 × 4 stiffness matrix. q 2 = Q x 2 cos θ e + Q y 2 sin θ e .2. the angle θ e is the angle between the positive X-axis and the positive direction of the beam (defined as 1 to 2).4) q 1 = Q x1 cos θ e + Q y1 sin θ e . DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 19 3. 3. Displacements in the local coordinate frame xOy can be expressed in terms of the displacements in the global coordinate frame as (2. In matrix form (3. Fig.1 Coordinate transformation A typical bar element 1-2 is shown in Figure 3.7) .2 Let the bar be inclined an angle θ e with respect to the X-axis of the global coordinate system.2 Transformation from local to global coordinates Bar elements in a truss have different orientations in space and it is necessary to define their stiffness properties with respect to a single global coordinate system attached to the whole structure.2. where both the local coordinate system xOy and the global coordinate system XOY are drawn. Nodal displacements are denoted by lower case letters in the local coordinate system and by upper case letters in the global coordinate system. 3. In fact. End forces and displacements have two components at each node.3.

From nodal coordinate data. Fig.Y1 ) and ( X 2 . denoting X 2 − X1 le ( X 1 . e e e (3.2 Force transformation Consider the pin-jointed member (Fig. 3.10) is a coordinate transformation matrix. 3.Y 2 ) the coordinates of nodes 1 and 2. respectively. The entries in the matrix (3.9) 0 ⎤ sinθ e ⎥ ⎦ where [T ] = ⎡⎢ cosθ 0 e e ⎣ sinθ e 0 0 cosθ e (3. sin θ e = Y 2 − Y1 le . le = (X 2 − X 1 ) 2 + (Y 2 − Y1 ) 2 .3) subjected to forces f1 and f2 applied at the ends 1 and 2.8) global displacements or { q }= [T ] { Q }.2. 3.20 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎧ Qx1 ⎫ ⎪Q ⎪ ⎪ y1 ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ ⎪ Qx 2 ⎪ ⎪ Qy2 ⎪ ⎩4 4e ⎭ 123 local displacements ⎧ q1 ⎫ 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ cosθ e sinθ e ⎪ ⎪ = ⎢ ⎨q ⎬ 0 0 cosθ e sinθ e ⎥ ⎪ 2⎪ ⎣ ⎦ ⎩ ⎭ e 123 4 4 1444444 2444444 3 4 4 transformation matrix (3.10) are calculated based on the above equations. we obtain cos θ e = .3 The force components in the global coordinate system are .

13) can be directly obtained from consideration of mechanical work. e e T e (3.2.15) (3.3.5) into (3. having the same value regardless the coordinate system { f } { q }= {F } { Q } .9) into the resulting matrix product. . e e T e e .9) for the local displacements.16) [ K ] = [T ] [ k ] [T ]. Fy1 = f1 sinθ e .12) or { F } = [ T ] { f }. 3.13).13). e e T e hence { f } [T ] = { F } e T e e T which by transposition becomes (3. then equation (3. =⎢ ⎨F ⎬ ⎢ 0 cosθ e ⎥ ⎩ f 2 ⎭ e ⎪ x2 ⎪ ⎢ ⎥ ⎪Fy ⎪ sinθ e ⎦ 2 ⎭e ⎩ 23 ⎣ 0 1 4 4 144 244 3 1 3 4 4 2 transformation matrix local forces (3. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 21 Fx1 = f1 cosθ e .3 Element stiffness matrix in global coordinates Inserting equation (3. and comparing with (3. (3. e T e e T e e T e e T e (3.11) global force components ⎧ Fx1 ⎫ 0 ⎤ ⎡cosθ e ⎪F ⎪ ⎢ sinθ 0 ⎥ ⎧ f1 ⎫ ⎪ y1 ⎪ e ⎥ ⎨ ⎬ . Fy 2 = f 2 sinθ e .13) Equation (3. equation (3.14) becomes { f } { q } = { f } [T ] { Q } = {F } { Q } . Work is a scalar quantity.13) {F }= [T ] { f }= [T ] [ k ] { q }= [14]4[2444] { Q } T k ][ T 4 3 e e T e e T e e e T e e e we find where {F } = [ K ] { Q } e e e (3. In matrix form Fx 2 = f 2 cosθ e .14) Substituting (3.

a) 3.17) where c = cosθ e and s = sin θ e .18) According to Maxwell’s reciprocity theorem. Expressing displacements in terms of forces gives { Q }= [ K ] { F }= [ δ ] { F } e e −1 e e e so that the inverse of the stiffness matrix is the flexibility matrix [K ] e −1 = δe .2. rank 1) and each column (row) sums to zero. [ ] (3. ⎢ c2 c s ⎥ ⎪Q x 2 ⎪ ⎢ ⎥ s 2 ⎥ ⎪Q y 2 ⎪e ⎢SYM ⎭ ⎣ ⎦ ⎩ (3. l e ⎢− c − cs c2 cs ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 2 cs s2 ⎥ ⎢− c s − s ⎣ ⎦ (3. singular (order 4. the flexibility matrix δ e must be symmetrical about the leading diagonal. 3.4. with positive diagonal elements. Remember that the element stiffness matrix is a proportionality factor between the components of forces applied by the nodes to the element and the components of nodal displacements in global coordinates ⎧ Fx1 ⎫ ⎪F ⎪ Ee Ae ⎪ y1 ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ = Fx 2 ⎪ le ⎪ ⎪ Fy 2 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭e ⎡ c2 c s − c 2 − c s ⎤ ⎧ Qx1 ⎫ ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ s 2 − c s − s 2 ⎥ ⎪ Qy1 ⎪ ⎢ ⋅⎨ ⎬ . And so must be its inverse.4 Properties of the element stiffness matrix The element stiffness matrix is symmetric. [ ] . the stiffness matrix.10) we find the element stiffness matrix in global coordinates [K ] e ⎡ c2 cs − c2 − cs⎤ ⎢ ⎥ E A cs s2 − cs − s2 ⎥ = e e⎢ 2 .22 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Carrying out the matrix multiplications and using (3.17.1 Symmetric matrix Stiffness matrices are symmetrical [ K ]= [K ] e e T .2.

2. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 23 The same result can be obtained following strain energy arguments.15) into (3. a) so that which defines the symmetry.3 Positive diagonal elements Each diagonal entry of the matrix K e is positive. 3. A single ungrounded bar can be moved in space as a rigid body without straining it and hence with zero strain energy.2. The rank deficiency is 3 and this corresponds to the three possible and independent forms of rigid body motion in plane for the unsupported bar: two translations and one rotation.19) 2 In the absence of dynamic effects. One can verify that the determinants of the 3× 3 and 2 × 2 reduced sets are still zero. which is [ ] . For linear structures.3. this work is absorbed by the structure as strain energy.19) we obtain the strain energy which is a scalar T 1 Ue = Qe K e Qe . This means that there exist a set of rigid body displacements e e e { } [ K ] { Q }= 0 wherefrom [ K ] { Q } = { 0 } . (3. The matrix [ K ] is said to be singular. the total work done by these forces is T 1 Qe Fe . so that the stiffness matrix has rank 1 (or its rank deficiency is 3). (3. The rigid body modes are defined {Q } e for which 2U e = Q e T e e e by the eigenvectors corresponding to its zero eigenvalues. The rank of a matrix is the size of the largest sub-matrix with a non-zero determinant.20. Substituting (3. [ K ]= [K ] e e T .2 Singular matrix The element stiffness matrix is of order 4 and rank 1. If this were not so.4. The zero determinant implies that there are linear relationships between its columns (rows).4. displacements are proportional to the applied loads. a force and its corresponding displacement would be oppositely directed. This can only be true if the determinant of [ K ] vanishes.20) 2 We = { }{ } { } [ ]{ } e T e T It is equal to its transpose Ue = 1 2 { Q } [K ] { Q } e (3. As forces are increased from zero to their final values. 3.

Moreover. . That is. ( ( ) ) Fig. the matrix K e is positive semidefinite. 3. whose components must le be equilibrated by the external forces k11 . .21) Fx1 = k11 .24 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS physically unsound. . k 21 . . .⎤ ⎧ Qx1 = 1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ .⎥ ⎪Qx 2 = 0 ⎪ ⎥ . Equilibrium of horizontal and vertical forces yields k11 + k31 = 0 . .22) This shows that the first column of the stiffness matrix represents the forces that must be applied to the element to preserve static equilibrium when Qx1 = 1 and all other displacements are zero. . the quadratic form that represents strain energy (3. E A which corresponds to a compressive force e e cosθ e . Q y1 = 0 as in Fig. 3.2. k31 and k 41 . Fy1 = k21 . a) can be written ⎧ Fx1 ⎫ ⎡ k11 ⎪F ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ y1 ⎪ ⎢k 21 ⎨ ⎬= ⎪ Fx 2 ⎪ ⎢ k31 ⎪ Fy 2 ⎪ ⎢k 41 ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ which yields .20) is either positive or zero.4. 3.⎥ ⎪ Q y1 = 0 ⎪ ⎥⋅⎨ ⎬ .4 Each column (row) sums to zero [ ] Consider a bar element with end 2 fixed Qx 2 = Q y 2 = 0 and end 1 having a unit displacement along the global X-axis Qx1 = 1. (3. Fx 2 = k31 .⎦ ⎪Q y 2 = 0⎪ ⎩ ⎭ (3. . Fy 2 = k 41 . The displacement Qx1 = 1 produces an axial shortening Qx1 cosθ e = cosθ e . . k21 + k41 = 0 .4.4 Equation (3.17.

Fig. each column represents an equilibrium set of nodal forces produced by a unit displacement of one nodal degree of freedom. a b .3. 3. firmly located in 1. 3. A node whose global index is i has associated with it the global displacements and forces (2 i − 1) and 2 i . The global displacements and nodal forces are shown in Fig. 3. Fig.3 Link’s truss In order to illustrate the assembly of the global stiffness matrix from the elemental stiffness matrices. 2. already analyzed in Chapter 2. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 25 so that the first column sums to zero. consider Link’s truss [74] shown in Fig.1. 3. and acted upon by forces 6F and 9F.5. In the element stiffness matrix. It is simply supported in 2 and 3.6.5 The truss comprises 3 elements and 3 nodes. The same applies for the other columns.

1.e.26 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Fig. their localization within the structure.1 Member Nodes θe 0 cosθ e 1 2 2 2 2 sinθ e 0 2 2 2 2 c2 1 s2 0 1 2 1 2 cs 0 i 1 1 j 2 le EAe EAe le l 2 l 2 EA EA l EA l EA l 2 1 3 45 1 2 1 2 1 2 − 1 2 2 EA 2 3 2 3 135 − 2 l 2 2 EA 2 3.4 Direct method Using the data from Table 3. Table 3. 3.17) are calculates as 1 2 3 4 ⎡• • • • K ⎢• • • • K ⎢ ⎢• • • • K ⎢ ⎢• • • • K ⎢K K K K K ⎢ ⎢K K K K K ⎣ K⎤ K⎥ ⎥ K⎥ ⎥. Element numbering can be arbitrary. ⎢K K K K K K⎥ ⎢• • K K • •⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢• • K K • •⎥ ⎣ ⎦ . The first three columns define the element connectivities. the element stiffness matrices (3. K⎥ K⎥ ⎥ K⎥ ⎦ [K ] 1 ⎡ 1 ⎢ EA ⎢ 0 = l ⎢− 1 ⎢ ⎣ 0 0 − 1 0⎤ 1 0 0 0⎥ 2 ⎥ 0 1 0⎥ 3 ⎥ 0 0 0⎦ 4 T 1 2 5 6 [ ] ⎡ 1 1 − 1 − 1⎤ 1 ⎢ ⎥ E A ⎢ 1 1 − 1 − 1⎥ 2 T K2 = 1⎥ 5 l ⎢− 1 − 1 1 ⎢ ⎥ 1⎦ 6 ⎣− 1 − 1 1 ⎡• • K K • •⎤ ⎢• • K K • •⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢K K K K K K⎥ ⎢ ⎥.6 Element data are given in Table 3. i.1 together with information useful for the computation.

In the global matrix. Table 3.3. according to Table 3. For instance. and those for the node j = 3 are numbered 2 j − 1 = 5 and 2 j = 6 . locating each coefficient of the element stiffness matrices into the appropriate place in the global 6 × 6 matrix (for this example). each member will contribute with a force component to maintain equilibrium under an arbitrary set of nodal displacements.28) is done systematically. eventually adding it to the coefficients already accumulated at that location. so that if a node is common to several elements. element 2 is located in the truss between the left end node i = 1 and the right end node j = 3 (nodal labels i and j may be assigned arbitrarily). DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 27 and 3 4 5 6 ⎡ 1 − 1 − 1 1⎤ 3 ⎢ 1 − 1⎥ 4 T E A ⎢− 1 1 ⎥ K3 = 1 − 1⎥ 5 l ⎢− 1 1 ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 1 − 1 − 1 1⎦ 6 ⎡K ⎢K ⎢ ⎢K ⎢ ⎢K ⎢K ⎢ ⎢K ⎣ K K K K K⎤ K K K K K⎥ ⎥ K • • • •⎥ ⎥. the numbering of coordinates in the global stiffness matrix is shown. the two displacement and force components (along X and Y) for node i = 1 are numbered 2 i − 1 = 1 and 2 i = 2 . The simple addition of different stiffness coefficients in a location is based on the fact that finite element equations are in fact nodal equilibrium equations. This is referred to as the direct matrix method. K • • • •⎥ K • • • •⎥ ⎥ K • • • •⎥ ⎦ [ ] At the top and on the right of the element stiffness matrices. as indicated by dots above. An alternative algebraic explanation of the assembly of system stiffness matrices is presented in the following.2 Node Element 1 2 3 2 Direction X Y X Y Local nodal coordinate 1 2 3 4 Global nodal coordinate 1 2 3 4 1 2 5 6 3 4 5 6 1 The assembly of the unreduced global stiffness matrix (3. .2.

{ } ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎡1 ⎪Q ⎪ ⎢0 ⎪ ⎪ 2 Q = ⎨ 2⎬ = ⎢ ⎪Q5 ⎪ ⎢0 ⎪Q6 ⎪ ⎢0 ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ 0⎤ ⎪Q2 ⎪ ⎥ ⎪Q ⎪ 0⎥ ⎪ 3 ⎪ ~ ⋅⎨ ⎬ = T 2 0⎥ ⎪Q4 ⎪ ⎥ 1⎦ ⎪Q5 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪Q6 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ 0⎤ ⎪Q2 ⎪ 0⎥ ⎪Q3 ⎪ ~ ⎥⋅⎪ ⎪ = T 3 ⎨ ⎬ 0⎥ ⎪Q4 ⎪ ⎥ 1⎦ ⎪Q5 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩Q6 ⎭ [ ] [ Q ]. { } ⎧Q3 ⎫ ⎡0 ⎪Q ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ 0 Q3 = ⎨ 4 ⎬ = ⎢ ⎪Q5 ⎪ ⎢0 ⎪Q6 ⎪ ⎢0 ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 [ ] [ Q ]. containing ones at the nodal displacements of element nodes and zeros elsewhere. {Q } is the ~ displacement vector of the truss structure and [T ] is referred to as a e For the truss from Fig. can be expressed by equations of the form ~ (3. with the nodal displacements at the whole truss structure level. equation (3. . { Q } is the element displacement vector in global coordinates.28 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 3. 3.5 Compatibility of nodal displacements The compatibility of nodal displacements at element level.5.23) applied to the three elements yields ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎡1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪Q ⎪ 0 = ⎨ 2⎬ = ⎢ ⎪Q3 ⎪ ⎢0 ⎪Q4 ⎪ ⎢0 ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ 0⎤ ⎪Q2 ⎪ 0⎥ ⎪Q3 ⎪ ~ ⎥⋅⎪ ⎪ = T1 ⎨ ⎬ 0⎥ ⎪Q4 ⎪ ⎥ 0⎦ ⎪Q5 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪Q6 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ {Q } 1 [ ] [Q ] .23) Q e = T e { Q }. { } [ ] where e full connectivity or localization matrix.

20.3.24) yields ⎡1 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 =⎢ ⎢0 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎣ 0 0 0⎤ 1 0 0⎥ ⎡ 1 ⎥ ⎥ EA ⎢ 0 0 1 0 ⎢ ⎥ 0 0 1⎥ l ⎢− 1 ⎢ 0 0 0⎥ ⎣ 0 ⎥ 0 0 0⎥ ⎦ ~ [K ] = [T~ ] [ K ][T~ ] 1 1 T 1 1 0 − 1 0 ⎤ ⎡1 0 0 0⎥ ⎢0 ⎥⋅⎢ 0 1 0⎥ ⎢0 ⎥ ⎢ 0 0 0⎦ ⎣0 0 0 0 0 0⎤ ⎥ 1 0 0 0 0⎥ . 0 1 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0 1⎦ .23) into (3. 0 0 0 0 0⎥ 0 0 0 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0 0 0 0⎥ ⎦ 0 0 0⎤ 1 0 0⎥ 1 − 1 − 1⎤ ⎡1 0 0 ⎡ 1 ⎥ ⎢ 1 0 0 0⎥ EA ⎢ 1 − 1 − 1⎥ ⎢0 1 0 ⎥⋅⎢ ⎥ 0 0 0⎥ l ⎢ − 1 − 1 1 1 ⎥ ⎢0 0 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ 0 1 0⎥ 1 ⎦ ⎣0 0 0 ⎣− 1 − 1 1 ⎥ 0 0 1⎥ ⎦ [ ] ~ [K ] = [T~ ] [K ][T~ ] 2 2 T 2 2 0 0 0⎤ 0 0 0⎥ ⎥. substituting (3.5. a) Ue = 1 2 ~ ~ { Q }T [T e ] T [ K e ][T e ]{ Q } Ue = 1 2 or ~ { Q }T [ K e ]{ Q }. 3. 0 1 0 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0 1 0 0⎦ or ⎡ 1 ⎢ 0 ⎢ ~ 1 EA ⎢− 1 K = ⎢ l ⎢ 0 ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎣ ⎡1 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 =⎢ ⎢0 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎣ 0 − 1 0 0 0⎤ 0 0 0 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 1 0 0 0⎥ ⎥. equation (3.24) has the size of the system matrix. where the expanded element stiffness matrix ~ ~ ~ [ K ] = [T ] [ K ] [T ] e e T e e (3. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 29 3. For the truss from Fig.6 Expanded element stiffness matrix The element strain energy in global coordinates can be written in terms of the global displacement vector.

25) U= 1 1 ~ ~ ∑U = ∑ 2 { Q } [ K ]{ Q } = 2 { Q } ∑ [ K ] { Q }.30 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS or ~ [K ] 2 1 ⎡ 1 ⎢ 1 1 ⎢ 0 EA ⎢ 0 = ⎢ 0 l ⎢ 0 ⎢− 1 − 1 ⎢ ⎢− 1 − 1 ⎣ ⎡0 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢1 =⎢ ⎢0 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎣ 0 0 − 1 − 1⎤ 0 0 − 1 − 1⎥ ⎥ 0 0 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0 0 0⎥ 0 0 1 1⎥ ⎥ 0 0 1 1⎥ ⎦ and ~ [K ] = [T~ ] [ K ][T~ ] 3 3 T 3 3 0 0 0⎤ 0 0 0⎥ ⎡ 1 − 1 − 1 1 ⎤ ⎡0 ⎥ 0 0 0⎥ EA ⎢− 1 1 1 − 1⎥ ⎢0 ⎥⋅⎢ ⎢ ⎥ 1 0 0⎥ l ⎢− 1 1 1 − 1⎥ ⎢0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ 0 1 0⎥ ⎣ 1 − 1 − 1 1 ⎦ ⎣0 ⎥ 0 0 1⎥ ⎦ 0 0 0⎤ 0⎥ ⎥ 0 1 −1 − 1 1⎥ ⎥. . 0 0 0 1 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0 0 0 1⎦ or ~ [K ] 3 ⎡0 ⎢0 ⎢ EA ⎢0 = ⎢ l ⎢0 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎣ 3.26) we get ~ [ K ]= ∑[K e ] e . 0 −1 1 1 − 1⎥ 0 −1 1 1 − 1⎥ ⎥ 0 1 −1 − 1 1⎥ ⎦ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0⎤ ⎥ 0 0 1 0 0⎥ . (3.26) Comparing (3. T e T e e e e e (3.27) The global stiffness matrix is equal to the sum of the expanded element stiffness matrices.25) and (3. 2 can be calculated by simply adding the element strain energies U= (3.7 Unreduced global stiffness matrix The strain energy for the complete truss structure 1 { Q }T [ K ]{ Q }.

The joint equilibrium equations.24) is never formed.8 Joint force equilibrium equations The assembly of the global stiffness matrix has been based on strain energy considerations.3.1) used so far involved only forces applied by nodes to the elements. For the truss from Fig.28) The expanded element stiffness matrices have been used above only to show algebraically how to assemble a global stiffness matrix. An alternative presentation is given below. involving forces applied by elements to nodes. we obtain 6 equilibrium equations . Equal forces are labelled only once for clarity. the deficiency is 3). this matrix is condensed using the boundary conditions. The expensive product (3. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 31 The unreduced stiffness matrix K is symmetric. 3. nodes are acted upon by forces equal and in opposite direction to those applied to elements. Resolving nodal forces horizontally and vertically. 3. The effect of elastic supports modelled as lumped springs can be accounted for by adding their stiffnesses along the main diagonal at the appropriate locations in the stiffness matrix. has positive elements along the main diagonal and each column (row) sums to zero. Note that element equilibrium equations (3. are used in the following. It corresponds to the free-free system.7. The global stiffness assembly is a simple book-keeping exercise and is done by directly placing the nonzero coefficients of element stiffness matrices in the right locations of the global stiffness matrix based on element connectivity. Apart from external forces and support reactions. 3. ⎢ 0 − 1 1 1 − 1⎥ l ⎢ 0 ⎢− 1 − 1 − 1 1 2 0⎥ ⎥ ⎢ 2⎥ ⎢− 1 − 1 1 − 1 0 ⎦ ⎣ [ ] ~ ~ ~ [ K ] = [ K 1 ]+ [ K 2 ]+ [ K 3 ] (3. equation (3. An exploded layout of the truss is shown in Fig. 3. singular (for a plane truss. using for convenience the truss from Fig. based on joint equilibrium equations.5. they are never used in practice.27) yields ⎡ 2 1 − 1 0 − 1 − 1⎤ ⎢ 1 1 0 0 − 1 − 1⎥ ⎥ ⎢ 2 − 1 − 1 1⎥ EA ⎢− 1 0 = ⎥.5. For a grounded system.

3. 1 1 3 F4 = Fy 2 + Fy1 .29) . e (3. FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS F5 = Fx22 + Fx32 . 3 F6 = Fy22 + Fy 2 . 1 1 F2 = Fy1 + Fy2 .7 In matrix form 1 ⎧ Fx1 ⎫ ⎪ 1 ⎪ ⎪ Fy1 ⎪ ⎪ 1 ⎪ ⎪ Fx 2 ⎪ 1 ⎪ Fy 2 ⎪ ⎪−−− ⎪ 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0⎤ ⎪ ⎪ 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 ⎥ ⎪ Fx2 ⎪ 1 ⎥ 2 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 ⎥ ⎪ Fy1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎥⋅⎨ 2 ⎬ 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 ⎥ ⎪ Fx 2 ⎪ 2 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 ⎥ ⎪ Fy 2 ⎪ ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 ⎥ ⎪−−− ⎪ ⎦ 14 244 14 244 4 3 4 3 F3 ⎪ x1 ⎪ ~2 T ~3 T T T ⎪F3 ⎪ ⎪ y1 ⎪ 3 ⎪ Fx 2 ⎪ ⎪ 3 ⎪ ⎪ Fy 2 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎧ F1 ⎫ ⎡ 1 0 0 0 ⎪F ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ 2⎪ ⎢ 0 1 0 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ F3 ⎪ ⎢ 0 0 1 0 ⎨ ⎬=⎢ ⎪ F4 ⎪ ⎢ 0 0 0 1 ⎪ F5 ⎪ ⎢ 0 0 0 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ F6 ⎪ ⎢ 0 0 0 0 ⎣ 4 ⎩ ⎭ 14 244 3 [ T~ ] 1 T [ ] [ ] whose partitioned form can be written in scalar product form as ~ ~ ~ { F } = [ T 1 ] T {F 1 }+ [ T 2 ] T {F 2 }+ [ T 3 ] T {F 3 } or generally ~ { F } = ∑ [ T e ] T {F e }.32 1 F1 = Fx1 + Fx2 . 1 1 F3 = Fx 2 + Fx3 . Fig.

using equations (3. Q1 = a1 . e (3. Most often the support nodal displacements are zero.15) and (3. A general type of boundary conditions include specified displacements of the support nodes.29) becomes ~ { F } = ∑ [ T e ] T [ K e ]{Q e }= ∑ e e ~ [1~4]44K 444] {Q }. Another type are the multipoint constraints.3. equation (3. encountered in inclined roller supports and rigid connections.31) The unreduced global stiffness matrix K relates the unreduced vector of nodal forces { F } to the unreduced vector of nodal displacements { Q }.27). where bi . [ 2 ][ T 3 T e T e e (3.32) . Qi = 0 .30) then. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 33 Substituting (3. the finite element equations (3. of the type Qi = ai ( i = 1 to ns ).23). For an N-degree-of-freedom structure. b j and b0 are known constants. it can be written ~ { F } = ∑ [ K e ] {Q } = [ K ] {Q } . where ns is the number of supports.31) are of the form ⎡ K11 K12 L K1N ⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎧ F1 ⎫ ⎢K ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 21 K 22 L K 2 N ⎥ ⋅ ⎪ Q2 ⎪ = ⎪ F2 ⎪ . Boundary conditions eliminate the possibility of the structure to move as a rigid body. [ ] 3.24) and (3. As Q1 is known. the finite element equations in the remaining N − 1 unknowns are ⎡ K 22 ⎢K ⎢ 32 ⎢ L ⎢ ⎣K N 2 K 23 K 33 L KN3 L K 2 N ⎤ ⎧ Q2 ⎫ ⎧ F2 − K 21 a1 ⎫ L K 3 N ⎥ ⎪ Q3 ⎪ ⎪ F3 − K 31 a1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎥⋅⎪ ⎪ = ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬. L L ⎥ ⎪L⎪ ⎪ L ⎪ ⎥ L K NN ⎦ ⎪QN ⎪ ⎪ FN − K N 1 a1 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ (3.9 Reduced global stiffness matrix The global truss should be supported adequately and there should be no internal mechanism. of the type bi Qi + b j Q j = b0 . ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬ ⎢L L L L ⎥ ⎪ L ⎪ ⎪L⎪ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ K N 1 K N 2 L K NN ⎦ ⎪QN ⎪ ⎪ FN ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ Consider a single boundary condition.

33) can be solved for the displacement vector { Q } using Gauss elimination.35) The first two equations can be written EA ⎡2 1 ⎤ ⎡Q3 ⎤ ⎧6 F ⎫ ⋅⎢ ⎥ = ⎨ ⎬ l ⎢1 2⎥ ⎣Q6 ⎦ ⎩9 F ⎭ ⎣ ⎦ .5. the reduced global stiffness matrix is obtained deleting as many rows and columns as the number of specified displacements. 3. Having assembled the unreduced global stiffness matrix. Equation (3. after substitution of the boundary conditions Q1 = Q2 = Q4 = Q5 = 0 and the values of the applied forces F3 = 6 F and F6 = 9 F . Equations (3. { Q } and { F } are the reduced vectors of global displacements and forces.34) can be rearranged as follows ⎡ 2 1 ⎢ 2 ⎢ 1 ⎢ EA ⎢− 1 − 1 l ⎢ 0 −1 ⎢ ⎢− 1 − 1 ⎢ ⎣− 1 0 0 − 1 − 1 ⎤ ⎡Q3 ⎤ ⎡6 F ⎤ ⎥ − 1 − 1 − 1 0 ⎥ ⎢Q6 ⎥ ⎢9 F ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ 2 1 0 − 1⎥ ⋅ ⎢ 0 ⎥ = ⎢ F1 ⎥ . The final equations (3. the nodal displacements are unknown. (3. obtained by eliminating the row and column corresponding to the specified or “support” degrees of freedom. the nodal forces are unknown. respectively. The matrix [ K ] is not singular. the following set of linear equations is obtained 1 −1 0 − 1 − 1⎤ ⎡ 0 ⎤ ⎡ F1 ⎤ ⎡ 2 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 1 1 0 0 − 1 − 1⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ F2 ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ 0 2 −1 −1 1 ⎥ ⎢Q3 ⎥ ⎢6 F ⎥ EA ⎢ − 1 ⎢ ⎥ ⋅⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ ⎥ . It is instructive now to consider the truss from Fig. 0 −1 1 1 − 1⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ F4 ⎥ l ⎢ 0 ⎢− 1 − 1 − 1 1 2 0⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ F5 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 0 2⎥ ⎢Q6 ⎥ ⎢9 F ⎥ ⎢− 1 − 1 1 − 1 ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ (3.33) where [K ] is a reduced stiffness matrix. For a truss supported on many supports.32) may be written in condensed form [ K ] { Q } = { F }. ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 1 1 0 − 1⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ F2 ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 0 0 1 1⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ F4 ⎥ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ −1 −1 1 2⎦ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ F5 ⎥ −1 (3. and where the forces are specified.34) It can be seen that where the displacements are specified.34 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The ( N − 1 ) × (N − 1) stiffness matrix above is obtained simply by deleting or eliminating the first row and column from the original ( N × N ) stiffness matrix.

40) which can be computed when all displacements have been determined. 3.3. so that ⎧ F1 ⎫ ⎧− 5F ⎫ ⎡ − 1 − 1⎤ ⎪F ⎪ ⎢ 0 − 1⎥ Q ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 2 ⎪ EA ⎢ ⎥ ⋅ ⎧ 3 ⎫ = ⎪− 4 F ⎪ . T { Fa } is the vector of known forces. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 35 and solved to give Fl Fl Q6 = 4 . which in this case are the external reactions. . are given by { Fb } = [ K ab ] T { Qa }+ [ K bb ] { Qb } . = ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬ l ⎢ − 1 − 1⎥ ⎩Q6 ⎭ ⎪ − 5 F ⎪ ⎪ F4 ⎪ ⎥ ⎢ ⎪ F5 ⎪ ⎪−F ⎪ ⎣− 1 0 ⎦ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ The elongation of an element (2.38) (3. (3. { Qa } = [ K aa ] −1 ( { Fa } − [ K ab ] { Qb } ) . The axial force in a truss element is .5. { Qb } The first set of equations can be written { Fa } = [ K aa ] { Qa }+ [ K ab ] { Qb } .5) is Δl e = q2 − q1 = ( Qx 2 − Qx1 ) cosθ e + ( Q y 2 − Q y1 ) sinθ e (3. [ K bb ]⎥ ⎨ { Qb }⎬ ⎨ { Fb }⎬ ⎦ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ (3.36) is the vector of known where displacements and [ K ba ] = [ K ab ] .39) For the truss from Fig. 3.37) then multiplied to the left by [ K aa ] −1 to yield the unknown displacements The unknown forces.10 Reactions and internal forces (3. the support displacements are zero. equations (3. EA EA In general.33) can be written in partitioned form Q3 = ⎡ [ K aa ] ⎢[K ] ⎣ ba [ K ab ]⎤ ⎧ { Qa }⎫ ⎧ { Fa }⎫ ⋅ = . for non-zero boundary conditions.

Q3 ⎪ l l ⎪ ⎪ Q4 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎪Q ⎪ 2 EA 2 ⎪ 2⎪ T2 = b − 1 − 1 1 1c ⎨ ⎬= l 2 ⎪ Q5 ⎪ ⎪ Q6 ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ ⎧ Q3 ⎫ ⎪Q ⎪ 2 EA 2 ⎪ 4⎪ T3 = b1 1 − 1 1 c ⎨ ⎬= l 2 ⎪ Q5 ⎪ ⎪ Q6 ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ (3. Suppose the node displacements are completely restrained (blocked). where α is the coefficient of thermal expansion and T is the amount of uniform heating (temperature difference). le le ⎪Q x 2 ⎪ ⎪Q y 2 ⎪ ⎭e ⎩ For the truss from Fig. 3. Duhamel (1838).11 Thermal loads and stresses Thermal stresses are calculated using the “restraining method” suggested by J. the member forces are ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎪Q ⎪ EA ⎪ ⎪ EA T1 = b−1 0 1 0c ⎨ 2 ⎬ = Q3 = F .36 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎧ Qx1 ⎫ ⎪Q ⎪ E A E A ⎪ y1 ⎪ Te = e e Δl e = e e b − c − s c s c ⎨ ⎬ . 3. This produces thermal strains ε T = −α T . where E is Young’s modulus.5. The restrained state is equivalent to a pre-stressing with compressive stresses σ T = −α ET .42) . the element acts upon its nodes with equal and opposite forces { FT } = α EAT b − c − s c s cT . l 2 EA ( Q3 + Q6 ) = 5 2 F . where A is the cross-section area. C. (3.41) 2 EA Q6 = 4 2 F . l Stresses can be determined dividing these forces by the element crosssection areas. Accordingly. M. Restraining produces a compressive axial force α EAT in the element.

This is obvious for one-directional structures and can be achieved by rational node numbering in other structures. (3. a.e. i. adding to the stresses produced by the thermal (and external) loads.e. It is as if unrestraining forces are applied at the ends of the element to free it from the initial restraining. Consider the 12 × 12 unreduced global stiffness matrix of the truss from Fig.44) Because of symmetry. the element elongations are determined from (3. Even so. ⎜ l ⎟ ⎝ e ⎠ i. due to the sparseness. The half-bandwidth is denoted B.12 Node numbering Stiffness matrices are symmetric and sparse.8. if the case). ×⎥ ⎥ ×⎥ ⎥ ×⎥ ×⎥ ⎥ ×⎥ ×⎥ ⎦ [ ] ⎡× × × × ⎢ × × × ⎢ ⎢ × × ⎢ × ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ K =⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢s y m m ⎣ × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × e t r i c (3. there are many zero elements in the upper triangle. only the diagonal elements and those from one side of the main diagonal are retained. 3. After determining the displacements produced by these forces. a) These forces should be included in the vector of nodal forces (added to the external forces. in local coordinates. with the nonzero elements clustered in a band along the main diagonal. the initial stresses produced by restraining. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 37 or. They are also banded. { fT } = α EAT b − 1 1cT .42.3. 3.37) and the stresses are calculated as ⎛ Δl ⎞ (3. .43) σ e = Ee ⎜ e − α T ⎟ . with nonzero elements in the upper triangle identified by the symbol X ← B → × × × × × × × × × × × × 0 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥.

e. a small bandwidth can be obtained by numbering nodes along the shorter dimension of a structure. The efficiency of band-storage increases with the order of the matrix. then progressing along the longer dimension.8 b For plane trusses.8. .8. ⎥ ×⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ [ Kb ] The first column contains the diagonal elements of the full matrix (3.38 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Since only nonzero elements need to be stored. B = 12 . 3. The number of columns in the banded-form storage is equal to B . B = 6 . i. B is equal to 2 plus twice the maximum node number difference in an element. 3. The second column contains the elements from the second diagonal. equal to the size of the original matrix. 3. the information in the above matrix can be compactly stored in the 12× 6 matrix below 1 2 ↓ ↓ ⎡× ⎢ ⎢× ⎢× ⎢ ⎢× ⎢× ⎢ ⎢× =⎢ × ⎢ ⎢× ⎢ ⎢× ⎢× ⎢ ⎢× ⎢× ⎣ × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × B ↓ ×⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ×⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ×⎥ ⎥. In general. for the numbering from Fig. For the numbering scheme of Fig. a . b. a Fig.44). However.the half-bandwidth of the original matrix. As a general rule. the mth diagonal of the original matrix is stored as the mth column.

only the elements between the diagonal term and the first nonzero term need be stored. The line separating the top zeroes from the first nonzero element is called the skyline. If there are zeros at the top of a column. Consider the following matrix Column height → 1 2 2 0 k 23 k33 4 k14 k 24 k34 k 44 3 0 0 k35 0 k55 1 0 0 0 0 0 k 66 4 0 0 0 k 47 0 k67 k77 5 0 ⎤ ⎥ 0 ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ k 48 ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ k 78 ⎥ ⎥ k88 ⎥ ⎦ ⎡k11 k12 ⎢ k 22 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ Skyline The active columns are stored in the column vector { K s } and a diagonal pointer vector { ID } is built up with the indices of diagonal elements in { K s } ⎧ k11 ⎫ ⎪ k ⎪←1 ⎪ 12 ⎪ ⎪ k22 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪←3 ⎪ k23 ⎪ ⎪ k33 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪←5 ⎪ k14 ⎪ {Ks } = ⎨ ⎬ ⎪ k24 ⎪ ⎪ k34 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ k44 ⎪ ⎪ L ⎪←9 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪L⎪ ⎪k ⎪ ⎩ 88 ⎭ ⎧1⎫ ⎪3⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪5⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 9 { ID } = ⎪ ⎪ . Apart from storage savings. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 39 The half-bandwidth is automatically determined within the finite element program from the node numbering. For large sparse stiffness matrices. In this case.3. the columns of the matrix upper triangle are stored serially and concatenated in a column vector { K s } . Gaussian elimination algorithms are used for symmetric banded matrices which enable also the reduction of computer time. ⎨ ⎬ ⎪12 ⎪ ⎪13 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪17 ⎪ ⎪22⎪ ⎩ ⎭ . efficient reduction of both storage and computing time can be achieved using the skyline storage and a skyline equation solver.

A generic flow chart of the Matrix Displacement Method is given in the following.40 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The height of the jth column is given by ID ( j ) − ID ( j − 1) . Matrix Displacement Method Input Data Geometric data of truss (Nodal coordinates) Material properties + Cross-section area of members Connectivity table of elements Boundary conditions ↓ 1 Element stiffness matrix in local coordinates Transformation to global coordinates ↓ 2 Assembly of the global stiffness matrix ↓ 3 Introduction of boundary conditions ↓ 4 Solving the linear set of equations ↓ 5 Back-calculation External reactions Member forces (and stresses) 6 . Gaussian elimination can be applied using a skyline solver program. For the solution of the finite element equations.

8 7. and c) the support reactions.8 -343.16 -10.3 128 127. 7 6. Fig. 4 3. 8 Axial stress 12 -4.7 -339. 7 5. Taking l = 1 . 6 4. 7 6. 2 1. E = 1 and F = 1 .9 224 Displ Y 0 -361.1.83 8 Element nr 8 9 10 11 12 13 Nodes 4.83 0 12 -15 .1. 3 2. determine: a) the maximum nodal displacement and its location b) the maximum stress and its location. a) The finite element model consists of 8 nodes and 13 elements.6 176 62. we obtain the following: Nodal data Node nr 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Restr X 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Restr Y 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Coord X 0 4 4 8 8 12 12 16 Coord Y 0 0 3 0 6 0 3 0 Displ X 0 64 208. E3. Plot the deformed shape. 5 Axial stress 16 -10 0 16 -9. a Answer. 3 2. E3. For the truss in Fig. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 41 Exercises E3.7 0 Element data Element nr 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Nodes 1.3.16 -10. 6 4. 4 3.1 -361. A = 1 .7 -339.1.1 -391. a.

E3.787 EA element 7 is N 7 = −6 F A .2. Fig. b E3. b. The finite element model consists of 7 nodes and 11 elements. a) Fl . and R3 = 9 .1. R2 = 6 .4 F . a. Determine: a) the maximum nodal displacement. Plot the deformed shape. The deformed shape is shown in Fig. c) The support reactions are R1 = − R3 = 5. a Answer. E3.2. b) The axial stress in The vertical displacement of point 7 is v7 = −219.2. b. Fig. E3.2. b) the maximum stress. E3. and c) the support reactions. .42 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The support reactions are R1 = −8 . and R2 = 6 F . E3. The deformed shape is presented in Fig.1. Consider the pin-jointed framework shown in Fig.

Plot the deformed shape. . Calculate c) the support reactions. Determine the location and the value of: a) the maximum nodal displacement.3. E3. E3. E3.4 F and R3 = 2. Fig. b. The finite element model consists of 6 nodes and 9 elements. b) The axial stress in The vertical displacement of point 3 is v3 = −137.3. The deformed shape is presented in Fig.3. E3. c) The support reactions are R1 = 0 .25 F A . Consider the truss shown in Fig. R2 = 3.2. a Answer.3. a) Fl .83 EA element 1 is N1 = −7.3.6 F . a. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 43 Fig. b) the maximum stress. b E3.

b E3. Determine: a) the maximum nodal displacement. a Answer.3. Taking l = 1 .3294 2.0896 . A = 1 .44 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Fig. Fig. Consider the truss shown in Fig. b) the maximum stress.4. a.4. E = 1 and F = 1 . E3. we obtain the following: Nodal data Node nr 1 2 3 4 Restr X 1 1 0 0 Restr Y 1 1 0 0 Coord X 0 0 1 2 Coord Y 0 1 0 1 Displ X 0 0 -1.6705 Displ Y 0 0 -3. and c) the support reactions. E3. Plot the deformed shape. E3.2095 -9. The finite element model consists of 4 nodes and 5 elements.4.

E3.0.1. a .335 F A .3. Consider the pin-jointed framework shown in Fig. R2 = 0.5.4. E3. b E3.335 . 4 Axial stress .5.5. The deformed shape is presented in Fig.940 .09 F l E A . E3. Fig. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 45 Element data Element nr 1 2 3 4 5 Nodes 3. c) The support reactions are R1 = − R3 = 2 F . E3. 4 1.940 1.335F and R4 = 0. b.665F .0. Plot the deformed shape. b) The axial stress in element 4 is N 4 = 1. Determine the location and the value of: a) the maximum nodal displacement. b) the maximum stress. 3 2. Fig. 4 1. 3 2. a where point 6 is displaced v6 = −5 .749 a) The vertical displacement of point 4 is v4 = −9.4.329 0.

b . b. The deformed shape is presented in Fig.5. A = 1 and E = 1 . Taking l = 1 . E3. Fig.538 .46 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Answer.5.366 . and the axial stress in element 15 is N15 = 0. the vertical displacements of points 7 and 8 are v7 = v8 = −4. The finite element model consists of 14 nodes and 25 elements. E3.

Displacements must be continuous across the element boundary. The dimensions of p are force/length. They are modeled by elements having one-degree-of-freedom per node.4. having one degree of freedom per node. For bars with distributed loads. there are axial displacements u = u (x ) due to axial loads p(x ) . This implies replacement of the distributed loads by equivalent forces applied to nodes. Their longitudinal dimension is much larger than the transverse dimensions.1 Plane bar elements Bars are structural elements used to model truss elements. However. true displacements are described by higher order polynomials. It is shown that their use is tantamount to adding internal nodes. the corresponding element stiffness matrix and load vectors will be derived. Bars are loaded only by axial forces. The displacement within the element is expressed in terms of the nodal displacements using shape functions.1. chains and ropes. . 4. The compatibility of adjacent elements requires only C 0 continuity. 4. BARS AND SHAFTS This chapter deals with simple one-dimensional structural elements.1 Differential equation of equilibrium In a thin uniform rod of cross-section area A and Young’s modulus E. In this section. it is common practice to use linear shape functions and two-node elements without loads between ends. cables. For a bar without loads between ends the linear interpolation is exact. These kinematically equivalent forces are determined using the appropriate shape functions from the condition to perform the same mechanical work as the actual loading. The unknown displacement field within an element is usually interpolated by a linear distribution. The displacement at x + d x will be u + du . This approximation becomes increasingly accurate as more elements are considered in the model.

1 The internal axial force N is du . 4. a).1.2 Coordinates and shape functions Consider a two-node pin-jointed element in the own or local coordinate system.5) so that r = −1 at node 1 and r = +1 at node 2 (Fig. 4.4) 4. .2. using (4.2. dx or. Nodes are conveniently numbered 1 and 2.1) is d N + p d x = 0 .1) σ x = E du d x .2) Fig. EA d2 u = − p (x ) .3) dx The equation of equilibrium of an infinitesimal element of length dx of the rod (Fig. (4. b). their coordinates in the physical (Cartesian) reference system being x 1 and x 2 respectively (Fig. We define a natural or intrinsic reference system which permits the specification of a point within the element by a dimensionless number r= x + x2 ⎞ 2 ⎛ ⎜x− 1 ⎟ x 2 − x1 ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (4. 4.48 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The axial strain is given by the strain-displacement relation ε x = du d x . (4. The normal stresses result from Hooke’s law (4. 4.3). N = Aσ x = E A dN + p (x ) = 0 . d x2 (4.

3. where N1 (r ) = (4. BARS AND SHAFTS 49 Fig. Fig. They have a unit value at the node of the same index and zero at the other node. 4.3 4. . d u d x = const . a. The graphs of these functions are shown in Figs.4.2 Expressing the physical coordinate in terms of the natural coordinate yields x = N1 (r ) x 1 + N 2 (r ) x 2 .7) 2 2 can be considered as geometric interpolation functions. 4.3 Bar not loaded between ends For a prismatic bar not loaded between ends.1. d 2u d x 2 = 0 . p = 0 . so that the displacement field within the element may be expressed as a linear polynomial . 4.b.6) 1 ( 1 − r ) and N 2 (r ) = 1 ( 1 + r ) (4.

The nodal expansion (4.9) Equation (4. With q1 = a + b x1 at node 1 and q2 = a + b x2 at node 2. u= The displacement of an arbitrary point within the element can be expressed in terms of the nodal displacements q 1 and q 2 as u = N1 (r ) q1 + N 2 (r ) q2 . a and b.8) becomes u= q2 − q1 q x − q2 x1 x+ 1 2 . ⎣N ⎦ In (4. using (4. (4.12) Thus.6) is simpler. e i i i =1 2 (4.9) can also be written u= or. In matrix form u= where ∑ N q = ⎣N ⎦ { q }.10) 1 ( 1 − r ) and N 2 (r ) = 1 ( 1 + r ) are the shape functions of the 2 2 The polynomial form (4.5). equation (4. q e is the column vector of element nodal displacements and is the row vector of displacement interpolation functions also named shape { } .50 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS u (x ) = a + b x . 2 2 (4. but the integration constants. x2 − x1 x2 − x1 1− r 1+ r q1 + q2 . (4. q 1 and q 2 . the displacement at any point within an element can be found by multiplying the matrix of shape functions by the vector of nodal displacements. (4.10) is more complicated. x2 − x1 x2 − x1 x − x1 − x + x2 q1 + q2 . but the integration constants.11) ⎣N ⎦ = ⎣N1 N 2 ⎦ and {q }= { q e 1 q2 }T .11). are the nodal displacements. where N1 (r ) = element. have no simple physical meaning.8) The two integration constants above may be determined from the nodal displacements and the geometry of the element.

10) show that both the element geometry and the displacement field are interpolated using the same shape functions. which is referred to as the isoparametric formulation. (4. e T e e (4.1. It is easy to check that u = q 1 at node 1 and u = q 2 at node 2. c). It gives the strain at any point due to unit nodal displacement. generally called the element strain-displacement matrix.18) where the element stiffness matrix k e is given by [ ] . BARS AND SHAFTS 51 functions. The transformation from x to r in equation (4.4 Element stiffness matrix in local coordinates Strains can be expressed in terms of the shape functions as εx = where du d e e = ⎣N ⎦ q = ⎣B ⎦ q dx dx { } { } (4.13) in (4. e (4. Equations (4.15) where − 1 ≤ r ≤ +1 and the length of the element is l e = x 2 − x 1 .16) Substituting (4. and that u varies linearly (Fig.14) is the row vector of the derivatives of shape functions.16) we obtain Ue = 1 2 { q } ∫ ⎣B ⎦ e T Ve T Ee ⎣B ⎦ dV { q }.6) and (4.4.13) ⎣B ⎦ = d x ⎣N ⎦ d (4. 4.17) 144 2444 4 3 The above equation is of the form Ue = 1 2 { q } [ k ] { q }. 4. The element strain energy U e is Ue = 1 2 ∫σ e x εx dV = 1 2 ∫E ε e e 2 x dV .3. 2 (4.5) yields dx = x 2 − x1 2 dr = le dr .

b and c. 1⎥ ⎦ ⎧− 1 2 ⎫ ⎢ 1 1⎥ dr 2⎥ ⎦ or [ k ] = El A ⎡⎢−11 e e e e ⎣ (4.19) This form guarantees that k e will be a symmetric matrix.21) yields dr 2 dr 2 [k ] e 2E A = e e le +1 −1 ∫ ⎨ 1 2 ⎬ ⎢⎣− 2 ⎩ ⎭ − 1⎤ . so that the displacement field within the element may be expressed as a quadratic polynomial u (x ) = a + b x + c x 2 . d 2u d x 2 = const . This can be done if we use a three-node onedimensional element.1. 4. .5 Bar loaded between ends For a prismatic bar acted upon by a uniformly distributed axial load.6). In terms of the shape functions [ ] e Ve [k ]= E A ∫ e e le ⎢dN ⎥ ⎢dN ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ dx . (4.20) Because dN dN d r 2 dN = = . ⎣ dx ⎦ ⎣ dx ⎦ T (4. a). a. equation (4. p = const. .4.23) The three integration constants.22) which is the same as equation (3. . ⎣ dr ⎦ ⎣ dr ⎦ T (4.52 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS [ k ] = ∫ ⎣B⎦ e T Ee ⎣B ⎦ dV . we can write dx dr d x l e dr [ ke ] = 2 Ee Ae le Substituting +1 −1 ∫ ⎢dN ⎥ ⎢dN ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ dr . 4. An internal node is added at the midpoint to comply with the requirement of a quadratic fit (Fig. have to be determined from three boundary conditions. (4.21) d N2 1 d N1 1 = − and = + .

4. BARS AND SHAFTS

53

For a linearly distributed axial load (as in a bar rotating at constant angular speed around an end, acted upon by a distributed centrifugal load proportional to the distance to the rotation centre), the true displacement field is given by a cubic polynomial, involving four integration constants (see Example 4.8). For an exact solution, this implies using a four-node element (adding two internal nodes). The usual practice is to assume an approximate lower order linear displacement field, i.e. a two-node element and to replace the actual linearly distributed load by equivalent nodal forces, having thus an element not loaded between ends describable by linear shape functions.

Fig. 4.4 Consider the three-node quadratic element from Fig. 4.4, a, with node 3 at the midpoint. Nodal coordinates are x1 , x2 , x3 , and the vector of element nodal displacements is q e = { q1 q2 q3 }T . The x-coordinate system is mapped onto an intrinsic r-coordinate system, given by the transformation

T

{ }

2 ( x − x3 ) . x2 − x1 It comes out that r = −1 , 0, and + 1 at nodes 1, 3, and 2 (Fig. 4.4, b). r=

(4.24)

The displacements within the element can be written in terms of the three nodal displacements q 1 , q2 , and q 3 as

u = N1 (r ) q 1 + N 2 (r ) q 2 + N 3 (r ) q 3 ,

where the quadratic shape functions N i N1 (r ) = −

(4.25)

( i = 1, 2, 3 ) are

(4.26)

1 1 r ( 1 − r ) , N 2 (r ) = r ( 1 + r ) , 2 2 N 3 (r ) = ( 1 + r )( 1 − r ) .

The graphs of the shape functions (4.26) are shown in Fig. 4.5. They have a unit value at the node with the same index and zero at the other nodes. This is a general property of the shape functions.

54

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

The expressions for these shape functions can be written down by inspection. For example, since N1 = 0 at r = 0 and r = 1 , we know that N1 has to contain the product r ( 1 − r ) , i. e. the left hand part of the equations of the vertical lines passing through nodes 3 and 2. That is, N1 is of the form N1 = C r ( 1 − r ) . The constant C is obtained from the condition N1 = 1 at r = −1 , which yields C = −1 2 , resulting in the expression given in (4.26).

Fig. 4.5 The displacement field within the element is written in matrix form as u= where

∑ N q = ⎣N ⎦ { q } ,

e i i i =1

3

(4.27)

⎣N ⎦ = ⎣N1 N 2 N3 ⎦ and

{ q }= { q

e

1

q2

q3

}T .

(4.28)

At any point within an element the axial displacement can be found by multiplying the matrix of shape functions by the vector of nodal displacements, as in (4.27). It is easy to check that u = q 1 at node 1, because N1 = 1 and

**N 2 = N3 = 0 . Similarly, u = q 2 at node 2, and u = q 3 at node 3. Thus, u is a
**

quadratic polynomial passing through q1 , q2 , and q3 (Fig. 4.6). It is obtained by interpolation, using quadratic shape functions.

4. BARS AND SHAFTS

55

**The element strain-displacement row vector ⎣B ⎦ in (4.14) is given by
**

⎢ ⎣B ⎦ = d x ⎣N ⎦ = d r ⎣N ⎦ d x = l ⎢− 2 e ⎣ d d dr 2 1− 2r 1+ 2r 2 ⎥ − 2 r⎥ . ⎦

(4.29)

Fig. 4.6 The element stiffness matrix (4.19) is

[k ]

e

+1

Al = e e 2

∫⎣⎦

B

−1

T

Ee ⎣B ⎦ d r

or, substituting (4.29),

[k ]

e

1 − 8⎤ ⎡7 Ee Ae ⎢ = 7 − 8⎥ . ⎥ ⎢1 3l e ⎢− 8 − 8 16 ⎥ ⎦ ⎣

(4.30)

**4.1.6 Vector of element nodal forces
**

Consider an axial load p (x ) , having the units of force per unit length, distributed along the bar element. The mechanical work of such a force is

W=

le

∫ u p dx = ∫ u

le

T

p dx .

(4.31)

**Substituting (4.11), equation (4.31) becomes
**

W = qe It has the form

{ } ∫ ⎣N ⎦

T le

T

p dx .

(4.32)

56

W = qe

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

{ } {f }

T e

(4.33)

+1

where the element equivalent load vector is

{ f }= ∫ ⎣N ⎦

e

T

p dx =

le

le 2

∫1 ⎣N ⎦ −

T

p dr .

(4.34)

For the linear two-node element, if the axial force is uniformly distributed, p = const . , then

{f }

e

+1

l = e p 2

∫

T ⎣N ⎦ d r

(4.35)

−1

or, substituting (4.7),

{ f }= p2l

e

e

⎧ 1⎫ ⎨ ⎬. ⎩ 1⎭

(4.36)

A force

p le , equal to half the total force on the element, is applied at each node. 2

For the quadratic three-node element, if p = const. , substituting the shape functions (4.26) into (4.35), gives

{ f }= p l

e

e

T ⎣1 6 1 6 2 3 ⎦ .

(4.37)

**4.1.7 Assembly of the global stiffness matrix and load vector
**

Assembly of the system stiffness matrix for one-dimensional structures modelled as bars is carried out as shown in sections 3.4 to 3.7 for trusses. Consider the five-node finite element model in Fig. 4.7, a. Each node has only one degree of freedom in the x-direction. The nodal displacements are Q1 , Q2 ,…, Q5 (Fig. 4.7, b). The global vector of nodal displacements is denoted by

{Q } = ⎣ Q1

{ F } = ⎣ F1

Q2

Q3

Q4

Q5 ⎦ T .

**The nodal forces are F1 , F2 ,…, F5 . The global load vector is denoted by
**

F2 F3 F4 F5 ⎦ T .

The unreduced global stiffness matrix [ K ] proportionality factor between the two global vectors

plays the role of a

4. BARS AND SHAFTS

57

{ F } = [ K ] {Q }.

Fig. 4.7 The assembly of [ K ] from the element stiffness matrices can be explained by an energy approach. Consider the strain energy in, say, element 3. We have

U3 = 1 2

{ q } [k ] { q }

3 T 3 3

or U3 = EA ⎡ 1 − 1 ⎤ ⎧ Q3 ⎫ 1 ⎣ Q3 Q4 ⎦ l 3 ⎢ − 1 1⎥ ⎨ Q ⎬ . 2 ⎦ ⎩ 4⎭ 3 ⎣

We can write U 3 as

U3 =

1 ⎣ Q1 Q2 2

Q3 Q4

⎡0 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 Q5 ⎦ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎣

0 0

0 0 EA3 0 l3 EA 0 − 3 l3 0 0

0 0 EA − 3 l3 EA3 l3 0

0⎤ 0⎥ ⎥ ⎥ 0⎥ ⎥ 0⎥ ⎥ 0⎥ ⎦

⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩

Q1 ⎫ Q2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ Q3 ⎬ Q4 ⎪ ⎪ Q5 ⎪ ⎭

or

U3 = 1 2 ~ { Q }T [ K 3 ] { Q },

This is based on the simple addition of element strain energies. ⎣ ⎦ 4 5 ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ 4 . according to the connectivity Table 4.58 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ~ where K 3 is the expanded stiffness matrix of element 3. the numbering of coordinates in the global stiffness matrix is shown. 1⎥ 2 ⎦ 4 2 3 ⎣ [ k ] = ElA 2 2 2 ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ 2 ⎢ − 1 1⎥ 3 . ⎢− 1 1⎥ 5 ⎣ ⎦ 3 [ k ] = ElA 3 3 3 ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ 3 . Table 4. ⎢− 1 1⎥ 4 ⎣ ⎦ [ k ] = ElA 4 4 4 At the top and on the right of the element stiffness matrices. based on element connectivity. The element matrices can be written This is a convenient algebraic explanation of the assembly process. The entries of the element matrices k e are placed in [ ] 1 1 [ k ] = ElA ⎡⎢− 1 1 1 1 2 − 1⎤ 1 . as in (3. but the elements of the matrix k 3 occupy the third and [ ] The strain energy of the entire structure is equal to the sum of the element strain energies U= 1 1 ~ T ~ T ∑ U e = ∑ 2 { Q } [ K e ]{ Q } = 2 { Q } ∑ [ K e ] { Q } e e e so that. Overlapping elements are simply added as already shown in section 3. which is never done in practice. global stiffness matrix.1 Element 1 2 3 4 Node i 1 2 3 4 j 2 3 4 5 . It has the size of the [ ] fourth rows and columns of the [ K ] matrix.27).4 for truss elements.1. ∑[ e ] the appropriate locations of the global [ K ] matrix by the so-called direct method. the global stiffness matrix is equal to the sum of the expanded element stiffness matrices ~ [ K ]= K e .

39) becomes . due to fabrication errors.41). The stress-strain law in the presence of ε 0 is of the form σ = E ( ε − ε0 ) . and the reduced load vector .38) The mechanical work of external nodal forces applied to suppress the initial prestressing due to ε 0 is W= Ve ∫σε 0 dV = Ve ∫σ T ε 0 dV = ε 0 Ee Ae le ∫ε T dx .1. the expression (4. ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥.4.5. 4. It may arise from thermal action or by forcing members into place that are either too short or too long. Stresses are then calculated from the axial forces obtained using equation (3.8 Initial strain effects Let an initial strain ε 0 be induced in a bar element. (4. using the boundary condition. In fact.by deleting the first element. BARS AND SHAFTS 59 The result is the following unreduced global stiffness matrix ⎡ A1 ⎢ l ⎢ 1 ⎢− A1 ⎢ l1 ⎢ [ K ]= E ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎣ A1 l1 A1 A2 + l1 l 2 A − 2 l2 − 0 0 0 A2 l2 A2 A3 + l2 l3 A − 3 l3 − 0 0 0 A3 l3 A3 A4 + l3 l4 A − 4 l4 − 0 0 F5 ⎦ T . this information is stored for the subsequent calculation of the reaction R 1 .13). Q 1 = 0 . as shown in section 3. The reduced (non-singular) stiffness matrix is obtained deleting the first row and column of the unreduced matrix.39) Substituting (4. (4. ⎥ A4 ⎥ − ⎥ l4 ⎥ A4 ⎥ l4 ⎥ ⎦ The global load vector is assembled as {F }= ⎣ − R1 F2 The final finite element equations are obtained.

⎩ 1 ⎭ −1 ∫ ⎧− 1⎫ ⎨ ⎬ dr . (4. The shaft torsional stiffness is then GIp M K= t = . of length l and torsional rigidity G I p . ⎩1⎭ hence { f }= ε e 0 Ee (4. where the element load vector due to initial straining is { f }= ε e 0 Ee Ae le ∫ ⎣B ⎦ T l dx = ε 0 Ee Ae e 2 T +1 −1 ∫ ⎣B⎦ +1 T dr (4. ε0 = αT .2 Plane shaft elements From Mechanics of Materials it is known that a uniform shaft of diameter d and length l .60 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS W = qe { }ε T 0 Ee Ae le ∫ ⎣B⎦ T dx . 4.8. le (4. stresses are computed as σ e = Ee q2 − q1 + ( − Ee ε 0 ) .44) where α is the coefficient of thermal expansion and T is the average change in temperature within the element. (4. The nodal torques M 1 and M 2 can be related to the nodal rotation angles θ 1 and θ 2 using the equilibrium and the torque/rotation equations .42) After solving for nodal displacements. θ l A two-node shaft finite element.33).40) It has the form (4.41) or { f }= ε e +1 0 Ee Ae −1 ∫ ⎢dN ⎥ le ⎢ ⎥ d r = ε 0 Ee Ae 2 ⎣ dr ⎦ ⎧ − 1⎫ Ae ⎨ ⎬ . from a material with shear modulus of elasticity G.43) In the case of thermal loading. 4. where I p = is the polar second GIp 32 moment of area of the shaft cross section. is shown in Fig. acted upon by a torque M t will twist an angle θ = πd4 Mt l .

Similarity between these two derivations occurs because the differential equations for both problems have the same mathematical form.47) is the stiffness matrix of the shaft element.49) dx E A The rotation angle of an arbitrary section within the shaft element can be expressed in terms of the nodal rotations θ 1 and θ 2 as θ = N1 (r ) θ1 + N 2 (r ) θ 2 .4.50) . Fig.3) du N = . The differential equation for torsional displacement is Mt dθ . (4.48) = dx GI p while for the axial displacement is (4.46) { M }= [ k ] { θ }. M 1 = − M 2 = − K θ 2 when (4. e e e where [ k ] = GlI e p ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎢− 1 1⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (4.45) Equations (4. (4. BARS AND SHAFTS 61 M1 = − M 2 = K θ 1 when θ 2 = 0. 4.8 The derivation of the shaft stiffness matrix is essentially identical to the derivation of the stiffness matrix for an axially loaded bar element.45) may be written in matrix form as ⎧ M1 ⎫ ⎡ K ⎨ ⎬=⎢ ⎩ M 2 ⎭ ⎣− K or in shorthand form − K⎤ ⎧ θ1 ⎫ ⎨ ⎬ K ⎥ ⎩θ 2 ⎭ ⎦ (4. (4. θ 1 = 0.

and c) the support reactions. For non-axially-symmetric cross sections.51) are the shape functions of the shaft element. the same as for the axially loaded bar element. Example 4. E = 200 GPa .22) is used to account for axial effects in inclined beam finite elements. the polar second moment of area I p is replaced by the torsional constant I t .20).1 Solution.62 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS where N1 (r ) = 1 ( 1 − r ) and N 2 (r ) = 1 ( 1 + r ) 2 2 (4. E4.1 with d = 5 mm . a) The bar is divided into three bar finite elements. Fig.1 Consider the bar in Fig. loaded by an axial load F = 2 kN .2 m . as equation (4. b) the stresses in bar. Determine: a) the displacement of point 2. l = 0.54) Equation (4. the stiffness matrix for the shaft element can be calculated from [ k ] = G I ∫ ⎢⎢ ddN ⎥⎥ ⎣ x⎦ e e pe le T ⎢dN ⎥ ⎢ dx ⎥ dx ⎣ ⎦ T (4. E4. .53) [ k ] = G lI e ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎢− 1 1⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (4.54) is also used to account for torsional effects in grid finite elements.52) or [ ke ] = which yields e 2 Ge I p e le e pe +1 −1 ∫ ⎢dN ⎥ ⎢dN ⎥ ⎢ dr ⎥ ⎢ dr ⎥ dr ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ (4. Analogous to equation (4.

⎢− 1 1⎥ mm ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ N .28 − 38.81 ⎢− 9. the finite element equations can be written − 9. ⎢− 1 1⎥ mm ⎣ ⎦ ⋅ 38 [ k ] = [ k ] = 2 ⋅10200 .62 mm 2 .47 38.47 ⎦ ⎣ 0 Including the boundary conditions (degrees of freedom 1 and 4 are fixed). The element stiffness matrices are ⋅ 19 [ k ] = 2 ⋅10400 .47 76.81 ⎢− 9.21 mm .47 38.81 0 0 ⎤⎧ 0 ⎡ 9.8 N .81 ⋅ 103 1⎥ ⎦ ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ N .94 − 38.47 76. R4 = 38.2 N .81 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ 9. A2 = A3 = π ( 1.81 ⋅ 103 ⋅ 34.4.28 − 38.47 ⎥ ⎪ Q3 ⎥ ⎢ − 38.81 48.47 mm 2 .47 ⎤ ⎧ Q2 ⎫ ⎧ 0 ⎫ 103 ⎢ ⎬=⎨ ⎥⎨ 3 ⎬ ⎣− 38.47 ⎦ ⎪ 0 0 ⎩ ⎣ 0 ⎫ ⎧ − R1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬=⎨ ⎬. Q3 = 43.47 Q3 = 38.81 9.47 − 38.47 0 ⎥ ⎪ Q2 ⎥⎪ 103 ⎢ ⎨ ⎢ 0 − 38. c) Stresses are .47 ⋅103 ⋅ 43. BARS AND SHAFTS 63 The areas of the cross sections are A1 = π d2 4 = 19.47 + 38.47 38.62 ⎡⎢− 1 1 1 5 ⎣ − 1⎤ = 9.42 = 337.94 ⎦ ⎩ Q3 ⎭ ⎩ 2 ⋅ 10 ⎭ with solutions Q2 = 34. b) The reactions are obtained from the first and fourth equation R1 = 9. 2 ⋅ 103 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ − R4 ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ Retaining only the second and third equation yields ⎡ 48.47 ⎡⎢− 1 1 2 3 5 ⎣ − 1⎤ = 38.47 ⋅ 103 1⎥ ⎦ The global unreduced stiffness matrix is − 9.81 Q2 = 9.47 0 ⎥ 3 ⎢ ⎥.47 − 38.42 mm .81 + 38.4 d 4 )2 = 38.21 = 1662 .47 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 0 − 38. [ K ] = 10 ⎢ 0 − 38.

64

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

σ 12 = E ε12 = E σ 23 = E ε 23 = E

σ 34 = E ε 34 = E

**Q2 − Q1 Q 34.42 N = E 2 = 2 ⋅ 105 = 17.2 , l1 2l 400 mm 2 Q3 − Q2 Q − Q2 8.79 N =E 3 = 2 ⋅105 = 8.79 , 200 l2 l mm 2
**

Q4 − Q3 Q 43.21 N = − E 3 = −2 ⋅ 105 = − 43.2 . l3 l 200 mm 2

Example 4.2

A support, consisting of a steel bar 1 fitted inside a cast iron tube 2, is loaded by a 60 kN axial force, as in Fig. E4.2. Consider A1 = 200 mm 2 ,

A2 = 800 mm 2 , E1 = 210 GPa , E2 = 120 GPa , l = 0.2 m . Determine: a) the elongation of the assembly, b) the stress in each material, and c) the internal forces in bar and tube.

Fig. E4.2 Solution. a) Using a two-node two-element finite element model, the element stiffness matrices are

**[ k ] = 2.1⋅10 ⋅ 200 ⎡⎢− 1 1 200
**

1 5

⎣

− 1⎤ = 2.1 ⋅ 105 1⎥ ⎦

⎡ 1 − 1⎤ N , ⎢− 1 1⎥ mm ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ N . ⎢− 1 1⎥ mm ⎣ ⎦

**1 [ k ] = 1.2 ⋅10 ⋅ 800 ⎡⎢− 1 200
**

2 5

⎣

− 1⎤ = 4.8 ⋅ 105 1⎥ ⎦

The global unreduced stiffness matrix is 48 [ K ] = 105 ⎡− 2.1 + 4..8 ⎢ 2.1 − ⎣ − 2.1 − 4.8⎤ 5 ⎥ = 6.9 ⋅ 10 2.1 + 4.8⎦ ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ N . ⎢− 1 1⎥ mm ⎣ ⎦

4. BARS AND SHAFTS

65

**If point 1 is fixed, the finite element equations are
**

⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎧ R1 ⎫ 6.9 ⋅105 ⎢ ⎬=⎨ ⎥⎨ 4 ⎬, ⎣− 1 1 ⎦ ⎩ Q2 ⎭ ⎩ − 6 ⋅10 ⎭

Q2 = − 0.087 mm ,

which is equal to the beam shortening. b) Stresses are

Q2 − Q1 Q − 0.087 N = E1 2 = 2.1 ⋅105 = −91.3 , 200 l l mm 2 Q2 − Q1 Q − 0.087 N = E2 2 = 1.2 ⋅ 105 = −52.14 . l l 200 mm 2

σ 1 = E1 ε 1 = E1

σ 2 = E2 ε 2 = E2

**c) Internal forces are
**

N1 = σ 1 A1 = − 91.3 ⋅ 200 = − 18.26 kN ,

N 2 = σ 2 A2 = − 52.14 ⋅ 800 = − 41.74 kN .

Example 4.3

The temperature of the bar in Fig. E4.3 is raised 800 C . If E = 130 GPa and α = 17 ⋅10−6 , determine the thermal stresses.

Fig. E4.3 Solution. We should first determine whether contact occurs between the bar and the wall. If the wall does not exist, the displacement of point 2 is

**Δl = lα T = 1800 ⋅ 17 ⋅ 10 −6 ⋅ 80 = 2.448 mm > 2 mm
**

so that the contact does occur. Denoting by A the cross section area, the temperature forces (4.42) are

66

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

{ fT } = α T E A ⎧ ⎨

− 1⎫ ⎧ − 1⎫ ⎧ − 1⎫ −6 5 ⎬ = 17 ⋅ 10 ⋅ 80 ⋅ 1.3 ⋅ 10 ⋅ A ⎨ ⎬ = 176.8 ⋅ A⎨ ⎬ N . ⎩ 1⎭ ⎩ 1 ⎭ ⎩ 1⎭

The stiffness matrix is

[ k ] = 1.3 ⋅10

⋅ A ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ N . 1⎥ mm 1800 ⎢ − 1 ⎣ ⎦

5

**As point 1 is fixed, the finite element equations are
**

1.3 ⋅ 105 ⋅ A ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎧ R 1 − 176.8 A ⎫ ⎢− 1 1 ⎥ ⎨ 2 ⎬ = ⎨ R + 176.8 A ⎬ 1800 ⎣ ⎦⎩ ⎭ ⎩ 2 ⎭

wherefrom we get the reactions

R 1 = 176.8 A − 144.4 A = 32.4 A ,

so that the normal stress is

R 2 = − 32.4 A ,

σ=

R2 N . = − 32.4 A mm 2

Example 4.4

A prismatic bar is made of two different materials, as shown in Fig. E4.4. The temperature of the central part is raised T 0C . Determine the axial stress in the bar.

Fig. E4.4 Solution. The bar is divided into three linear finite elements. The element stiffness matrices are 1 [ k ] = [ k ] = El A ⎡⎢− 1

1 3 2

⎣

− 1⎤ , 1⎥ ⎦

1 [ k ] = E2lA ⎡⎢− 1

2 1

⎣

− 1⎤ . 1⎥ ⎦

For element 2, the vector of nodal thermal forces is

{ f }= α T E A ⎣ − 1

2 1

1⎦T .

4. BARS AND SHAFTS

67

Using the boundary conditions Q1 = Q4 = 0 , the finite element equations can be written

⎡ E2 ⎢ A ⎢ − E2 ⎢ l ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎣

− E2 E E2 + 1 2 E1 − 2 0

0 E − 1 2 E1 + E2 2 − E2

0 ⎤ ⎥⎧ 0 0 ⎥ ⎪Q ⎪ 2 ⎥⎨ − E2 ⎥ ⎪ Q3 ⎥⎪ 0 E2 ⎥ ⎩ ⎦

R1 ⎫ ⎫ ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ −α T E A ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 1 ⎪ ⎬. ⎬=⎨ ⎪ ⎪ α T E1 A ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ R4 ⎭ ⎩ ⎭

**The second and third equation yield
**

E1 ⎡ ⎢ E2 + 2 ⎢ E ⎢ − 1 2 ⎣ E1 ⎤ 2 ⎥ ⎧ Q2 ⎫ = α T E A ⎧ − 1 ⎫ ⎬ ⎬ 1 ⎨ E ⎥⎨ ⎩ 1 ⎭ E2 + 1 ⎥ ⎩ Q3 ⎭ 2⎦ −

A l

with solutions Q2 = − α T l E1 , E1 + E2 Q3 = α T l E1 . E1 + E2

Q3 − Q2 E1 . =αT 2l E1 + E2

The strains in elements are

ε1 = ε 3 =

Q2 Q E1 , = − 4 = −α T l l E1 + E2

ε2 =

Stresses are

σ 1 = σ 3 = E2 ε 1 = −α T

1 , 1 1 + E1 E2

σ 2 = E1 ε 2 − E1α T = −α T

1 = σ1. 1 1 + E1 E2

Example 4.5

A steel bolt of active length l = 100 mm and diameter δ = 10 mm is single threaded with a 1.6 mm pitch. It is mounted inside a copper tube with diameters d = 12 mm and D = 18 mm (Fig. E4.5, a). After the nut has been fitted smugly, it is tightened one-quarter of a full turn. Determine stresses in bolt and tube, if for steel E1 = 208 GPa and for copper E2 = 100 GPa . Solution. The assembly is modeled by two bar finite elements as in Fig. E4.5, b. Both elements have fixed ends at points 1 and 4 so that Q1 = Q4 = 0 . The problem has a multipoint constraint

68

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

Q3 − Q2 = 0.4 mm .

Such conditions are programmed using a so-called penalty approach. Herein a simpler straightforward solution is given.

**Fig. E4.5 The cross section areas are
**

A1 =

π δ2

4

= 78.54 mm 2 , A2 =

π D2 − d 2

4

(

) = 141.37 mm

2

.

The element stiffness matrices are

**[ k ] = 2.08 ⋅10 ⋅ 78.54 ⎡⎢− 1 1 100
**

1 5

⎣

− 1⎤ 5 ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ N , ⎥ = 1.63 ⋅ 10 ⎢ − 1 1⎥ mm 1⎦ ⎦ ⎣

[ k ] = 10

2

5

⋅ 141.37 ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ 5 ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ N . ⎢ − 1 1⎥ = 1.41 ⋅ 10 ⎢ − 1 1⎥ mm 100 ⎦ ⎦ ⎣ ⎣ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬. ⎪ ⎪ ⎭

The finite element equations are 0 0 ⎤ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎧ R1 ⎡ 1.63 − 1.63 ⎢− 1.63 1.63 0 0 ⎥ ⎪ Q2 ⎪ ⎪ − F ⎪ ⎪ ⎥⎪ 105 ⎢ ⎨ ⎬=⎨ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎪ − Q3 ⎪ ⎪ − F 0 1.41 − 1.41 ⎢ ⎥ − 1.41 1.41 ⎦ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ R4 0 ⎣ 0 ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ Retaining only the second and third equation yields

⎡1.63 0 ⎤ ⎧ Q2 ⎫ ⎧ − F ⎫ 105 ⎢ ⎬=⎨ ⎬ ⎥⎨ ⎣ 0 1.41⎦ ⎩ − Q3 ⎭ ⎩ − F ⎭

with solutions

σ1 = F 30316 N = = 386 .63 ⋅ 10 5 Q2 = − .6 Solution.4. =− = −214.4 . E4. Q3 = F 1. with linearly variable cross-section x ⎞ ⎛ A ( x ) = A0 ⎜1 + ⎟ .6. Substituting in the multipoint constraint condition gives 1 1 ⎛ ⎞ F⎜ + = 0.6 For the bar of Fig. using two tapered bar finite elements. E4. divided into two equal length tapered elements. For the bar of Fig. Fig. 5 5⎟ ⎝ 1. find the displacement at the free end under the action of force ⎝ 2l ⎠ F. the element stiffness matrices are . The stiffness matrix for a bar element with variable cross section is [ k ] = lE e 2 e ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎢− 1 1⎥ ⎣ ⎦ le ∫ A dx . A1 78.41 ⋅ 105 . BARS AND SHAFTS 69 F 1.41 ⋅ 10 ⎠ or Stresses are given by F = 30314 N . E4.6.37 mm 2 σ2 = − Example 4.5 A2 141.63 ⋅ 10 1.54 mm 2 F 30316 N .

a) Consider the bar divided into two linear elements. Comment the results.7 Solution. 35 E A0 ⎡ 12 − 7 ⎤ ⎧ Q2 ⎫ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎢− 7 7 ⎥ ⎨ Q ⎬ = ⎨ F ⎬ . hence a stepwise variation of stresses along the bar. ⎢− 1 1⎥ ⎣ ⎦ [k ] ∫ l With Q1 = 0 .7. E4. 5 E A0 Q3 = 48 F l . Example 4. The element stiffness matrices are . ⎜ 1 + ⎟ dx = 4l ⎢− 1 1⎥ ⎝ 2l ⎠ ⎣ ⎦ 7 E A0 x ⎞ ⎛ ⎜ 1 + ⎟ dx = 4l ⎝ 2l ⎠ ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ .70 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS [k ] 1 2 E ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ = 2⎢ ⎥ A0 l ⎣− 1 1⎦ E ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ A0 = 2⎢ 1⎥ l ⎣− 1 ⎦ ∫ 0 2l l 5 E A0 ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ x ⎞ ⎛ . the finite element equations can be written ⎡ 5 − 5 0 ⎤ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎧ R1 ⎫ EA0 ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎥⎪ ⎢ − 5 12 − 7 ⎥ ⎨ Q2 ⎬ = ⎨ 0 ⎬ . 4l ⎢ 0 − 7 7 ⎥ ⎪ Q3 ⎪ ⎪ F ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ ⎦⎩ From the second and third equation EA0 4l wherefrom Q2 = 4 Fl . ⎣ ⎦⎩ 3⎭ ⎩ ⎭ The approximate assumed linear variation of the displacement field yields constant strain elements. E4.7 Write the stiffness matrix of the bar shown in Fig. Model the bar by: a) two two-node linear elements. condensing Q3 from condition F3 = 0 . Fig. b) a three-node quadratic element.

1⎥ ⎦ The unreduced global stiffness matrix is ⎡ 1 −1 0 ⎤ 2 EA ⎢ [ K ] = l ⎢ −1 2 −1 ⎥ . The first two equations give 2 EA l ⎧ F1 ⎫ ⎡ 1 0 ⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ 2 EA ⎧ − 1 ⎫ ⎢ 0 1 ⎥ ⎨ Q ⎬ + l ⎨ − 1 ⎬ Q3 = ⎨ F ⎬ ⎣ ⎦⎩ 2⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ 2⎭ and upon substitution of Q3 2 EA l which can be written EA l ⎡ 1 − 1 ⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎧ F1 ⎫ ⎢ − 1 1 ⎥ ⎨ Q ⎬ = ⎨F ⎬ ⎣ ⎦ ⎩ 2 ⎭ ⎩ 2⎭ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎧ F1 ⎫ ⎡ 1 0 ⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ 2 EA ⎧ − 1 ⎫ ⎢ 0 1 ⎥ ⎨ Q ⎬ + l ⎨ − 1 ⎬ ⎣ 1 2 1 2 ⎦ ⎨ Q ⎬ = ⎨F ⎬ ⎣ ⎦⎩ 2⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ 2 ⎭ ⎩ 2⎭ where the left hand side contains the (2 × 2) stiffness matrix of the two-node linear element. b) Consider the bar modeled by a 3-node quadratic bar element.4. ⎥ ⎢ 0 −1 1 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ The finite element equations can be written ⎡ 1 0 − 1 ⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎧ F1 2 EA ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ ⎥⎪ ⎢ 0 1 − 1 ⎥ ⎨ Q2 ⎬ = ⎨ F2 l ⎢ − 1 − 1 2 ⎥ ⎪ Q3 ⎪ ⎪ F3 ⎭ ⎩ ⎣ ⎦⎩ For F3 = 0 . ⎪ ⎭ which assumes a linear displacement field within the bar. BARS AND SHAFTS 71 1 [ k ] = [ k ] = 2EA ⎡⎢− 1 l 1 2 ⎣ − 1⎤ . The finite element equations can be written . the last equation yields Q3 = ⎧Q ⎫ Q1 + Q2 =⎣ 1 2 1 2 ⎦⎨ 1 ⎬ 2 ⎩ Q2 ⎭ ⎫ ⎪ ⎬.

⎭ 1 U e = ⎣ Q1 Q2 2 ⎦ ⎡1 0 1 ⎢0 1 1 ⎣ . 2 ⎩ Q2 ⎭ The first two equations give ⎧ F1 ⎫ EA ⎡ 7 1 ⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ EA ⎧ − 8 ⎫ ⎢ 1 7 ⎥ ⎨ Q ⎬ + 3l ⎨ − 8 ⎬ Q3 = ⎨ F ⎬ 3l ⎣ ⎦⎩ 2⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ 2⎭ and upon substitution of Q3 ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎧ F1 ⎫ EA ⎡ 7 1 ⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ EA ⎧ − 8 ⎫ ⎢ 1 7 ⎥ ⎨ Q ⎬ + 3l ⎨ − 8 ⎬ ⎣ 1 2 1 2 ⎦ ⎨ Q ⎬ = ⎨ F ⎬ 3l ⎣ ⎦⎩ 2⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ 2 ⎭ ⎩ 2⎭ which can be written again EA ⎡ 1 − 1 ⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎧ F1 ⎫ ⎨ ⎬ = ⎨ ⎬. c) Comments.18) gives 1 U e = ⎣Q1 Q2 2 1 − 8 ⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎡ 7 EA ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ 1 7 − 8 ⎥ ⎨ Q2 ⎬ .72 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 1 − 8 ⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎧ F1 ⎡ 7 EA ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 7 − 8 ⎥ ⎨ Q2 ⎬ = ⎨ F2 ⎢ 1 ⎥ 3l ⎢ − 8 − 8 16 ⎥ ⎪ Q3 ⎪ ⎪ F3 ⎭ ⎩ ⎣ ⎦⎩ Condensing Q3 from condition F3 = 0 yields Q3 = ⎫ ⎪ ⎬. l ⎢ − 1 1 ⎥ ⎩ Q2 ⎭ ⎩ F2 ⎭ ⎣ ⎦ where the matrix in the left hand can be recognized as the conventional bar matrix developed from linear polynomials. Q3 ⎦ ⎥ 3l ⎢ ⎢ − 8 − 8 16 ⎥ ⎪ Q3 ⎪ ⎭ ⎣ ⎦⎩ 0 ⎤ 1 −8 ⎤ ⎡ 1 ⎡ 7 2⎤ EA ⎢ ⎧Q ⎥ ⎢ 0 1 ⎥⎨ 1 7 −8 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 3l ⎢ 1 ⎥ Q 2⎦ ⎢ − 8 − 8 16 ⎥ ⎢ 1 2 1 2 ⎥ ⎩ 2 ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎫ ⎬. Substituting ⎧ Q1 ⎪ ⎨ Q2 ⎪Q ⎩ 3 0 ⎤ ⎫ ⎡ 1 ⎧Q ⎫ ⎪ ⎢ 1 ⎥⎨ 1⎬ ⎬=⎢ 0 ⎥ Q ⎪ ⎢1 2 1 2 ⎥ ⎩ 2 ⎭ ⎭ ⎣ ⎦ into the expression of the strain energy (4. ⎪ ⎭ ⎧Q ⎫ Q1 + Q2 =⎣ 1 2 1 2 ⎦⎨ 1 ⎬.

23) does not bring about a change in the conventional stiffness matrix and load vector. a).4. ⎩⎭ ⎧1⎫ pl We may conclude that the introduction of the quadratic term in equation (4. The exactness of the stiffness matrix and load vector also implies that the computed nodal displacements will also be exact. For the case p = const.4). the variable Q3 must be computed from the exact nodal displacements (computed for the conventional linear element). the developed stiffness matrix and the equivalent load vector will be exact. The conventional formulation based on a linear polynomial will yield exact displacements within the elements only when p = 0 .25). This is because. However. The parameters in the particular part of the solution are prescribed and do not take part in the process of minimization. only the homogeneous part of the solution contains the free parameters with respect to which the total potential energy is minimized. ⎣ ⎦ ⎩ 2⎭ ⎫ ⎪ ⎬ = ⎣Q1 Q2 ⎪ ⎭ ⎧1 6 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ 1 6 ⎬ pl e . Solution. displacements within elements depend upon the general (homogeneous plus the particular) solution. Determine the axial stress distribution due to the centrifugal force in the rod using: a) two quadratic elements. . rotating at constant angular velocity . The beam is acted upon by a centrifugal linearly distributed load Consider a prismatic robot arm. obtained by a minimization of the total potential energy with respect to Q3 at element level. via a constraint equation between Q3 and the remaining nodal variables. and b) three linear elements. the work of nodal forces is W = ⎣Q1 Q2 e Q3 ⎦ ⎧ F1 ⎪ ⎨ F2 ⎪F ⎩ 3 Q3 ⎦ W = ⎣Q1 Q2 e ⎦ ⎧1 6 ⎫ ⎡1 0 1 2 ⎤ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢0 1 1 2⎥ ⎨ 1 6 ⎬ pl e = ⎣Q1 Q2 ⎣ ⎦ ⎪2 3⎪ ⎭ ⎩ ⎦ ⎨1⎬ 2 e . Example 4. . as it is shown in a next chapter. form the complete homogeneous solution of the differential equation of equilibrium (4. before using equation (4.25).8 ω = 30 rad sec (Fig.8. BARS AND SHAFTS 73 1 ⎣ Q1 Q2 2 Ue = ⎦ l ⎢− 1 1 ⎥ ⎨ Q ⎬ . However. Whenever the assumed functions. ⎪2 3⎪ ⎭ ⎩ EA ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ For p = const . E4. exact displacements within the elements may be obtained from equation (4. used to describe the displacement field.

E4.8 . l FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS where p0 = ρ Al ω 2 . Fig.74 p ( x ) = p0 x .

⎪ 4 ξ (1 −ξ ) ⎪ ⎪1 3⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ interval [0. equivalent to a linearly distributed load. The model has five degrees of freedom.37). 1] . the finite element equations can be written R1 0 0 ⎤⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎧ ⎫ ⎡ 7 −8 1 ⎪ ⎢ − 8 16 − 8 0 ⎥⎪Q ⎪ ⎪ p0l 12 0 ⎥⎪ 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 2 EA ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 1 − 8 14 − 8 1 ⎥ ⎨ Q3 ⎬ = ⎨ p0l 24 + p0l 24 ⎬ .8. BARS AND SHAFTS 75 a) A finite element model with two quadratic elements is shown in Fig. The nodal forces. 3l ⎢ 1 −8 7 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ [k ]= [k ] 1 2 The unreduced global stiffness matrix is 1 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ 7 −8 ⎢ − 8 16 − 8 0 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ EA [ K ] = 23l ⎢ 1 − 8 7 + 7 − 8 1 ⎥ .8. b. c. The element stiffness matrices are ⎡ 7 −8 1 ⎤ 2 EA ⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ − 8 16 − 8 ⎥ . d. 3l ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ 3 p0l 12 0 − 8 16 − 8 ⎥ ⎪ Q4 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 0 ⎪ p0l 12 0 1 − 8 7 ⎥ ⎪ Q5 ⎪ ⎪ ⎣ ⎦⎩ ⎭ ⎭ ⎩ .4.26) are defined for convenience over an The distributed loads from Fig.8.34) { f }= ∫ ⎣N ⎦ e le T p dx = p0 l e ∫ 0 1 ⎧(1 − 2ξ )(1 − ξ )⎫ ⎧0⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ − ξ (1 − 2ξ ) ⎬ ξ dξ = p0 l e ⎨1 6⎬ . ⎢ ⎥ − 8 16 − 8 ⎥ 0 ⎢ 0 ⎢ 0 −8 7 ⎥ 0 1 ⎣ ⎦ The axial load acting on the two elements can be decomposed as in Fig. Using the boundary condition Q1 = 0 . { f }= p l ⎣ 1 2 12 2 0 3 1⎦T . E4. E4. c are replaced by the kinematically equivalent nodal forces shown in Fig. where ξ = x l e and the shape functions (4. E4. E4.8. The element nodal load vectors are { f }= p l ⎣ 0 12 1 0 1 1 2 ⎦T . are given by equation (4. For a uniformly distributed load they are given by equation (4.

76 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Deleting the first row and column. Q3 = . Q5 = . 384 E A 384 E A 384 E A 384 E A The nodal displacements can be compared with the exact solution. ε5 = . the displacements within the elements are approximate because the exact cubic distribution (a) has been replaced by a quadratic law. ⎜ l 3l 3 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (a) 2 2 2 1 p0 l 2 ⎛ l ⎞ 47 p0 l ⎛ l ⎞ 11 p0 l ⎛ 3l ⎞ 117 p0 l u⎜ ⎟ = . 48 A 48 A 48 A 48 A 48 A The stresses can be compared with the exact solution . ε3 = . 48 EA l 2 ′ ′ (N1′ Q3 + N 2 Q5 + N 3 Q4 ) = p0l ( 19 − 18ξ ) . given by u( x ) = We obtain p0 l 2 2E A ⎛ x x3 ⎞ ⎜ − ⎟. The element strain-displacement row vector ⎣B ⎦ in (4. ε2 = . The strains are calculated as 2 ′ ′ (N 2 Q3 + N 3 Q2 ) = p0l ( 25 − 6ξ ) . σ3 = .29) is given by ⎣B ⎦ = d x ⎣N ⎦ = l ⎣− 3 + 4ξ − 1 + 4ξ 4 − 8 ξ ⎦ . Q4 = . we obtain the reduced global stiffness matrix and reduced global load vector which yield Q2 = 47 p0 l 2 88 p0 l 2 117 p0 l 2 128 p0 l 2 . 3 2E A ⎝ 4 ⎠ 384 2 E A ⎝ 2 ⎠ 48 2 E A ⎝ 4 ⎠ 384 2 E A The finite element values of the nodal displacements are exact. l 48 EA d 1 ε1 = ε2 = which yields the following nodal values ε1 = 25 p0l 22 p0 l 19 p0 l 10 p0 l 1 p0 l . While the nodal displacements are exact. u (l ) = . σ2 = . u⎜ ⎟ = . u⎜ ⎟ = . σ5 = . σ4 = . 48 EA 48 EA 48 EA 48 EA 48 EA The corresponding axial stresses are σ1 = 25 p0l 22 p0 l 19 p0 l 10 p0 l 1 p0 l . ε4 = . This is due to the nodal equivalence of forces.

5 p0 l . 48 A ⎝ 4 ⎠ 48 A A graph of the stress distribution is shown in Fig. The element stiffness matrices are 1 [ k ] = [ k ] = [ k ] = 3EA ⎡⎢− 1 l 1 2 3 ⎣ − 1⎤ . h. The nodal forces. The distributed loads from Fig. 1 ] . E4. g are replaced by the kinematically equivalent nodal forces shown in Fig. The element nodal load vectors are { f }= p l ⎣1 54 1 0 2⎦ T .26) are defined for convenience over an interval [ 0. σ (l ) = 0 . are given by equation (4. the finite element equations can be written . For p1 = p2 = p .8. The model has four degrees of freedom. 1⎥ ⎦ The axial load acting on the three elements can be decomposed as in Fig. Using the boundary condition Q 1 = 0 . respectively. equivalent to a load per unit length. { f }= p l ⎣4 54 2 0 5⎦ T . ⎜ l2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (b) which yields the following nodal values σ (0) = σ⎜ ⎟= ⎛l⎞ ⎝2⎠ 24 p0 l ⎛ l ⎞ 22. BARS AND SHAFTS 77 σ ( x )= p0 l 2A 2⎞ ⎛ ⎜ 1− x ⎟ . f. If p1 and p2 are the intensities of a linearly distributed load at nodes 1 and 2. E4. b) A finite element model comprised of three linear elements is shown in Fig. σ⎜ ⎟= . { f }= ∫ ⎣ N ⎦ e le T p dx = l e ∫ 0 1 ⎧1 − ξ ⎫ l e ⎧ 2 p1 + p2 ⎨ ⎬ [ p1 + ( p2 − p1 ) ξ ] dξ = ⎨ 6 ⎩ p1 + 2 p2 ⎩ ξ ⎭ ⎫ ⎬. E4.8.5 p0 l .36). ⎭ where ξ = x l e and the shape functions (4. g.8. the nodal forces are given by equation (4. E4. { f }= p l ⎣7 54 3 0 8⎦ T . e. 48 A ⎝ 4 ⎠ 48 A 18 p0 l ⎛ 3l ⎞ 10. p ( ξ ) = p1 + ( p2 − p1 )ξ .34).8.8.4. E4. σ⎜ ⎟= .

9 Show that the shape functions of the four-node cubic bar element. 27 A 10 p0 l . ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ 13 p0 l 2 23 p0 l 2 27 p0 l 2 1 p0 l 2 = . ε 3 = ( Q4 − Q3 ) = . Example 4. ⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟ 16 ⎝3 ⎠⎝3 ⎠ 27 (1 + r ) (1 − r ) ⎛ 1 − r ⎞ . are the following 9 (1 − r ) ⎛ 1 + r ⎞ ⎛ 1 − r ⎞ . l 27 EA 27 EA l 27 EA and are constant within each element. 16 ⎝ 3 ⎠⎝3 ⎠ N 3 (r ) = . Q3 = . i they are compared to those given by equation (b). N 2 (r ) = ⎜ ⎟ 16 ⎝3 ⎠ N1 (r ) = − 27 (1 + r ) (1 − r ) ⎛ 1 + r ⎞ . 81 E A 81 E A 81 E A 3 E A The element strain-displacement row vector ⎣B ⎦ in (4. The corresponding axial stresses are 13 p0l . in local natural coordinates.8. Q4 = . 27 A 4 p0 l . ⎜ ⎟ 16 ⎝3 ⎠ 9 ⎛1 ⎞⎛1 ⎞ N 4 (r ) = − ⎜ + r ⎟ ⎜ − r ⎟ (1 + r ) .29) is given by ⎣B ⎦ = d x ⎣N ⎦ = l ⎣− 1 1⎦ . e d 1 The strains are calculated as ε 1 = Q2 = 3 l 13 p0 l 3 4 p0 l 3 10 p0 l . 27 A σ1 = σ2 = σ3 = In Fig. E4. ε 2 = ( Q3 − Q2 ) = .78 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎡ 1 −1 0 0 ⎤ ⎧ 0 ⎢ ⎥⎪ 3EA ⎢ − 1 2 − 1 0 ⎥ ⎪ Q2 ⎨ l ⎢ 0 − 1 2 − 1 ⎥ ⎪ Q3 ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 0 0 − 1 1 ⎦ ⎪ Q4 ⎩ The last three equations yield Q2 = 54 R1 ⎧ ⎫ ⎪1+ p l ⎪ 0 ⎪ p0 l ⎪ ⎪ 6 = ⎬ ⎨ ⎪ 54 ⎪ 12 ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎪ 8 ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬.

we first present the finite element formulation for plane Bernoulli-Euler beams. respectively. FRAMES AND GRIDS Frames are structures with rigidly connected members called beams. as shown in Fig. that neglects transverse shear deformations. and for grids. Beam behaviour is described by fourth order differential equations and require C1 continuity. that incorporates a first order correction for transverse shear effects. They are connected by rigid joints that have determinate rotations and. The Timoshenko beam model pertains to the class of C 0 elements.5.1 Finite element discretization A plane frame is divided into elements. Q3 i −1 and Q3 i . the displacement along the Y axis and the rotation about the Z axis. An inclined beam element will be referred to as a frame element. between adjacent beam elements.1. which is constant over the element. defined as the displacement along the X axis. This requires that both transverse displacements and slopes must be continuous over the entire member and. One-dimensional mathematical models of structural beams are constructed on two beam theories: the Bernoulli-Euler beam theory. In this section. 5. two linear displacements and a rotation. in particular. It is based on the assumption that plane sections remain plane but not necessarily normal to the deformed neutral surface. and the Timoshenko beam theory. Typically. then extend it to plane frames. the degrees of freedom of node i are Q3 i − 2 . apart from forces. . Grids are planar frames subjected to loads applied normally to their plane. Beams are slender members used to support transverse loading. Each node has three degrees of freedom. This leads to the introduction of a mean shear distortion. transmit bending moments from member to member. 5. BEAMS.

Fig. then simply added to get the global uncondensed stiffness matrix. Fig. Their properties are the bending rigidity E I and the length l . the reduced stiffness matrix and load vector are calculated and used in the static analysis.80 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Nodes are located by their coordinates in the global reference frame XOY and element connectivity is defined by the indices of the end nodes. Elements are modelled as uniform beams without shear deformations and not loaded between ends. 5. then in the global coordinate system. then the element stiffness matrix is calculated first in the local coordinate system.1 In the following. Imposing the boundary conditions. the shape functions are established for the plane Bernoulli-Euler beam element. 5.2 . The latter are expanded to the structure size.

5. q 6 describe the element bending (Fig.5. is approximated by dv u = −ϕ y = − y. q 3 . is inclined an angle θ with respect to the global X axis. f 4 . the x axis. q 5 . 5. as illustrated in Fig.3) dx .2) Forces f 2. In a local physical coordinate system. (5.3 The axial displacement of any point on the section. (5. a. Alternatively. Their action is decoupled so that the respective stiffness matrices can be calculated separately. axial forces are ignored.3). 5. FRAMES AND GRIDS 81 Consider an inclined beam element. 5. f 3.2.2. an intrinsic (natural) coordinate system can be used.2. 5.1) and the corresponding vector of element nodal forces can be written { f }= ⎣ f 1 f2 f3 f4 f5 f6 ⎦ T . Only transverse loads act upon the beam. b) while axial forces f 1 . Transverse shear deformations are neglected. The vector of nodal displacements in the local coordinate system is { q }= ⎣ q e e 1 q2 q3 q4 q5 q6 ⎦ T (5. where the nodal displacements are also shown. and axial displacements q 1 . 5. f 5. f 6 and the corresponding displacements q 2 . Fig. at a distance y from the neutral axis. oriented along the beam. c). q 4 . BEAMS. as in the Bernoulli-Euler classical beam theory. describe the element stretching (Fig.2 Static analysis of a uniform beam Beams with cross sections that are symmetric with respect to the plane of loading are considered herein (Fig.

two at each end. The shear force is given by T (x ) = − dM d3 v = −E I z = − E I z v III .82 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS where v is the deflection of the centroidal axis at x and ϕ = v′ is the cross section rotation (or slope) at x . involving the transverse displacement and slope. They can be geometric or kinematic boundary conditions. Normal stresses on the cross section are given by Hooke’s law d2 v y. dx dx4 (5. dx4 (5. dx2 where E is Young’s modulus of the material. and physical boundary conditions. involving the shear and bending moment.6) A where I z is the second moment of area of the section with respect to the neutral axis z. dx dx 3 (5. σ x = E ε x = −E (5. The product E I z is called the bending rigidity of the beam.7) The transverse load per unit length is p (x ) = − dT d4 v = EIz = E I z v IV . .4) where χ ≈ v′′ denotes the deformed beam axis curvature.5) The bending moment is the resultant of the stress distribution on the cross section M (x ) = − σ x y dA = E I z ∫ d2 v dx2 = EIz χ (5. The negative sign above is introduced because M is considered positive if it compresses the upper portion of the beam cross section.8) The differential equation of equilibrium is EIz d4 v = p (x ) .9) This is a fourth order differential equation and consequently four boundary conditions are required. dx dx (5. Axial strains are εx = du d2 v = − 2 y = −χ y .

v = v1 = q2 . at x = x 2 .10) can be determined from the geometric boundary conditions at each end (Fig. 5. (5. so that the beam deflection can be expressed in terms of the nodal displacements.4): (5.3. the four integration constants a 1 . BEAMS. and d v d x = ϕ1 = q3 .4 This gives ⎧ v1 ⎪ϕ ⎪ 1 ⎨ ⎪ v2 ⎪ ϕ2 ⎩ 3 ⎫ ⎡ x1 ⎪ ⎢ 2 ⎪ ⎢ 3 x1 ⎬=⎢ 3 ⎪ ⎢ x2 ⎪ ⎢ 3x2 ⎭ ⎣ 2 2 x1 2 x1 2 x2 2 x2 x1 1 x2 1 1 ⎤ ⎧ a1 ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎥ ⎪ a2 ⋅⎨ 1 ⎥ ⎪ a3 ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎪ a4 ⎦ ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬.9) yields d 4 v d x 4 = 0 . p = 0 and equation (5.5. a 4 can be expressed in terms of the nodal displacements v1 . and d v d x = ϕ 2 = q6 . 5.1 Shape functions The transverse displacement v can be expressed in terms of the nodal displacements as . 5.11. the integration constants a 1 . ϕ1 . a 2 . ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ On inversion. Integrating four times. v2 . we obtain the deflection v described by a third order polynomial v (x ) = a 1 x 3 + a 2 x 2 + a 3 x + a 4 . a 3 .3 Uniform beam not loaded between ends For a uniform beam not loaded between ends. (5. v = v2 = q5 . ϕ 2 . a 3 . b) Fig.11. a 2 . a) at x = x1 . FRAMES AND GRIDS 83 5.10) For a free-free beam element. a 4 in (5.

{ } (5.17) (5. called Hermitian cubic polynomials.19) In (5. 2 (5.13) Using natural coordinates. dx = le dr . r= x + x2 ⎞ 2 ⎛ ⎟ ⎜x− 1 ⎜ 2 ⎟ x 2 − x1 ⎝ ⎠ (5.84 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS v (x ) = ⎣N ⎦ q e . ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠1 ⎝ ⎠2 (5. 2 2 (5.12) the row vector of shape functions is ⎣N ⎦ = ⎢ N1 ⎣ ⎢ le N2 2 N3 le ⎥ N4 ⎥ 2 ⎦ . and { q }= ⎣ v e 1 ϕ1 v2 ϕ 2 ⎦ T .20) . (5.12) where ⎣N ⎦ is a row vector containing the shape functions.16) Using the differentiation chain rule d v le d v = .14) the beam transverse displacement can be written ⎛dv⎞ ⎛dv⎞ v (r ) = N1 (r ) v 1 + N 2 (r ) ⎜ ⎜ d r ⎟ + N 3 (r ) v 2 + N 4 (r ) ⎜ d r ⎟ .14) x= x1 + x 2 2 + x 2 − x1 2 r and since l e = x 2 − x 1 is the length of the element. with r = −1 at node 1 and r = +1 at node 2.18) or v (r ) = N1 ⋅ q2 + le l N 2 ⋅ q3 + N 3 ⋅ q5 + e N 4 ⋅ q6 .15) Because the coordinates transform by the relationship (5. (5. dr 2 dx equation (5.15) becomes v (r ) = N1 (r ) v 1 + N 2 (r ) le 2 ⎛dv⎞ le ⎜ ⎜ d x ⎟ + N 3 (r ) v 2 + N 4 (r ) 2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠1 ⎛dv⎞ ⎜ ⎜dx⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠2 (5.

5.1. graphically shown in Fig. 4 4 1 ( 1 − r ) 2 ( 1 + r ) = 1 1 −r − r 2 + r 3 .5 N 1(r ) = N 2 (r ) = 1 ( 1 − r ) 2 ( 2 + r ) = 1 2 − 3r + r 3 . where primes indicate differentiation with respect to r. 5. we obtain the expressions of the beam element shape functions in terms of r. 4 4 ( ) ( ) (5.1 N1 r = −1 r = +1 1 0 N′ 1 0 0 N2 0 0 N ′2 1 0 N3 0 1 N ′3 0 0 N4 0 0 N ′4 0 1 Imposing the above conditions to cubic polynomials with four arbitrary constants. BEAMS. Table 5. FRAMES AND GRIDS 85 The Hermitian shape functions are cubic polynomials which should satisfy the boundary conditions given in Table 5. 4 4 ( ) N 4 (r ) = − ( ) Fig. 5. 4 4 1 ( 1 + r ) 2 ( 1 − r ) = − 1 1 + r −r 2 − r 3 .21) N 3(r ) = 1 ( 1 + r ) 2 ( 2 − r ) = 1 2 + 3r − r 3 .5 .

17) yields ∫ e ⎛ d 2v ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ dx .86 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS It is easy to check that at node 1. dr 2 d v le = q 3 . d x2 l2 d r 2 e 2 (5. ⎜ d x2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ d 2v 4 d 2 v = .22) dv 2 d v = d x le d r Substituting (5.3. v = q 2 and v = q 5 and d v le = q6 . 4 ⎣ r⎦ ⎣ r⎦ le { } (5.22) we get the element strain energy 1 Ue = 2 which has the form {q } e T 8E I e l3 e +1 −1 ∫ e ′ T ′ ⎣N r′ ⎦ ⎣N r′ ⎦ d r { q } (5.23) The square of the above quantity is calculated as ⎛ 2 ⎞ ⎛ d 2v ⎞ ⎟ =⎜d v⎟ ⎜ ⎜ d x2 ⎟ ⎜ d x2 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ which can also be written 2 T ⎛ d 2v ⎞ ⎟ = qe ⎜ ⎜ d x2 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ { } T 16 l4 e ⎢d 2 N ⎥ ⎢ 2⎥ ⎢ dr ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ T ⎢d 2 N ⎥ e ⎢ 2 ⎥ q .24) On substituting (5.2 Stiffness matrix The strain energy U e of a beam element is E Ie Ue = 2 Equation (5.12) we obtain and d 2v dx 2 = 4 ⎢d 2 N ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ l2 ⎢ d r 2 ⎥ e ⎣ ⎦ { q }. ⎢ dr ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ { } ⎛ d 2v ⎞ ⎟ = qe ⎜ ⎜ d x2 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ 2 { } T 16 N ′′ T N ′′ q e . e (5. while at node 2. dr 2 5.16) and (5.25) .24) into (5.

26) we obtain the element stiffness matrix due to bending EI [ k ] = 8l ∫ e B e 3 e +1 ′ T ′ ⎣N r′ ⎦ ⎣N r′ ⎦ d r (5.5.21) and performing the integration yields the stiffness matrix due to bending in local coordinates [k ] e B 6l − 12 6l ⎤ ⎡ 12 ⎢ 6l 4l 2 − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ EI ⎥ .26) Comparing (5. = 3e ⎢ l e ⎢− 12 − 6l 12 − 6l ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ 2 − 6l 4l 2 ⎦ e ⎣ 6l 2l (5.27) −1 or EI [ k ] = 8l ∫ e B e 3 e +1 −1 ⎡ (N1′)2 N1′N 2 ′ ′ ′′ ⎢ ′′ ′ ′′ 2 ⎢ N 2 N1′ (N 2 ) ⎢ N ′′N ′′ N ′′N ′′ 3 2 ⎢ 3 1 ′′ ′ ′′ ′′ N 4 N1′ N 4 N 2 ⎢ ⎣ ′ ′ N1′N 3′ ′′ ′ N 2 N 3′ ′ (N 3′ )2 ′′ ′ N 4 N 3′ ′ ′′ N1′N 4 ⎤ ⎥ ′′ ′′ N2 N4 ⎥ dr .30) The curvature χ (5.29). .29) An alternative way of deriving the matrix (5. ′ ′′ N 3′N 4 ⎥ ⎥ ′ ⎦ (N 4′ )2 ⎥ (5.32) Substituting (5.29) is based on the general formula (4.25) with (5. BEAMS. (5.28) Substituting the shape functions (5. e T e B e (5. e ⎣ e e ⎦ 1 ⎢ r r ⎥ (5.31) where the curvature-displacement row vector ⎣B ⎦ is ⎣B ⎦ = l ⎢6 l 3r − 1 − 6 l 3r + 1⎥ . FRAMES AND GRIDS 87 Ue = 1 2 { q } [ k ] { q }.32) and d V = Ae d x into (5.23) can be expressed in terms of the nodal displacements as χ= d 2v dx 2 = 4 ⎢d 2 N ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ l2 ⎢ d r 2 ⎥ e ⎣ ⎦ { q }= ⎣B⎦ { q }. e e (5.30) gives the matrix (5.19) [ k ] = ∫ ⎣B⎦ e Ve T Ee ⎣B ⎦ dV .

⎦ ⎪q6 = 0⎪ ⎩ ⎭ f 6 = k 41 .6. . .29) relates the vector of nodal forces to the vector of nodal displacements ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ f2 ⎫ f3 ⎪ EI e ⎪ ⎬ = 3 f5 ⎪ le f 6 ⎪e ⎭ 6l − 12 6l ⎤ ⎧ q2 ⎡ 12 ⎢ 6l 4l 2 − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ ⎪ q ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ 3 ⎨ ⎢− 12 − 6l 12 − 6l ⎥ ⎪ q5 ⎢ ⎥ 2 − 6l 4l 2 ⎦ e ⎪ q6 ⎣ 6l 2 l ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ . ⎥ . ⎪ ⎪ ⎭e (5. as in Fig.88 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 5. . (5. 5. k 21 + k 41 + k31 l = 0 .33) can be written ⎧ f 2 ⎫ ⎡ k11 ⎪ f ⎪ ⎢k ⎪ 3 ⎪ ⎢ 21 ⎨ ⎬= ⎪ f 5 ⎪ ⎢ k31 ⎪ f 6 ⎪ ⎢k 41 ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ which gives f 2 = k11 . . . q3 = 0) and zero rotation.3 Physical significance of the stiffness matrix The element stiffness matrix (5. (5.3. 5.33) Consider a beam element with end 2 fixed ( q5 = q6 = 0 ) and end 1 having a unit displacement along the global X-axis ( q2 = 1. . (5.36) . .⎤ ⎧ q2 = 1⎫ . . . f 3 = k 21 .34) f 5 = k31 .⎥ ⎪q3 = 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎥⋅⎪ ⎨ ⎬ ⎥ ⎪q5 = 0 ⎪ .35) This shows that the first column of the stiffness matrix represents the forces and moments that must be applied to the beam element to preserve static equilibrium when q2 = 1 and all other displacements are zero. Fig.6 Equation (5. For equilibrium k11 + k31 = 0 .

introducing its nodal displacement as the fifth nodal coordinate. They can be determined. BEAMS.4 Uniform beam loaded between ends For a uniform beam loaded between ends. An internal node added at the centre of element will solve the problem. The mechanical work of such a force is W= le ∫ v p dx = ∫ v le T T T p dx . However. (5. .12). distributed along the beam element.4. the computed nodal displacements are exact. v (x ) will be a quintic with six arbitrary constants. the general solution of equation (5. adding the transverse displacement and slope at the element midpoint to the element nodal coordinates. the current practice is to use lower order approximate assumed shape functions that ensure the minimal convergence requirements. Within the elements. As already shown in Chapter 4. it is the homogeneous solution of the differential equation. 5. the solution is to replace the actual distributed load by equivalent nodal forces. However. When the transverse load is uniformly distributed. For a linearly distributed transverse load. rising the power of the function describing the displacement within a beam element is tantamount to introducing additional internal nodes. the displacements. moments and shear forces are in error.9) and the beam deflected shape is no more a cubic polynomial. (5.9) is a quartic polynomial.1 Consistent vector of nodal forces Consider a transverse load p (x ) . For beams with transverse forces. d 4 v d x 4 ≠ 0 in equation (5.5. Using cubic polynomials as admissible functions. p = const .39) . as shown in the following. The corresponding five constants have to be determined from five boundary conditions. p ≠ 0 . FRAMES AND GRIDS 89 5. having the units of force per unit length. equation (5. But they can be used only if the element has uniform rigidity E I z and is not loaded between nodes. The cubic shape functions do the job.37) becomes W = qe It has the form { } ∫ ⎣N ⎦ le p dx .37) Substituting (5.38) W = qe where the element load vector is { } {f } T e (5.

12 ⎥ ⎦ T (5.41) or. b) would be incorrect since the beam element has the ends rigidly jointed. a it is seen that f 2e is a shear force and f 3e is a moment.42) In Fig. if applied in the opposite direction as constraints. 5. {f } e p l2 e 12 p le 2 p l2 ⎥ e − ⎥ . .90 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS { f } = ∫ ⎣N ⎦ e le T l p ( x ) dx = e 2 +1 −1 ∫ ⎣N ⎦ dr T p (r ) d r . 5. (5.40) For the Hermitian two-node element. by statically equivalent forces (Fig. To replace p = const . if the transverse force is uniformly distributed.7.7 d The kinematically equivalent loads are those which. a b c Fig. would keep all nodal displacements zero in the presence of the true loading. substituting (5. p = const .18). the vector of element consistent nodal forces is {f } e l = e p 2 ⎢ pl =⎢ e ⎢ 2 ⎣ +1 −1 ∫ ⎣N ⎦ T (5. 5. .6. They are called “kinematically equivalent” nodal forces since they replace a distributed load p (r ) weighted with the shape functions N i (r ) so that the correct work is simulated.

Even if these functions are built up to satisfy the geometric boundary conditions at the ends.e. as shown in Example 5. Kinematically equivalent loads yield displacements which do not coincide with those produced by actual loading. not only shear forces.1 Calculate the transverse displacement at the centre of the simply supported beam shown in Fig. i. BEAMS. Assuming approximate deflected shapes instead of the true ones may be imagined as the result of application of a fake loading. forcing the beam to maintain the approximate deflection. Assuming cubic displacement functions implies linearly varying bending moments (and hence stresses) in uniform beams.1 . Fig. Example 5. A correct solution will approach the true value with monotonically increasing values of displacements. stiffening it. even if it is known that. This applies only to the strain energy and not to the displacement or stress at a point. so we would expect to increase the accuracy by increasing the number of elements modeling the same structure. This is equivalent to applying additional constraints to the beam.6. In order to ensure the C1 continuity across elements.e. for instance. Local stresses may be higher than the true ones. E5.1. for uniform loading. The finite element solution is therefore referred to as a lower bound.1. they have a quadratic distribution. 5. E5. the equilibrium within the elements is broken.5. the smaller the error. or refining the mesh. The source of error comes from the arbitrary selection of the shape functions. c and d. The smaller the element. Equivalent nodal forces for linearly distributed loads are given in Figs. it is rigidly built in the adjacent beam elements. nodal forces must include moments. due to the difference between the applied load p (x ) and the resistance E I z v IV which gives rise to a sort of unbalanced residual force. FRAMES AND GRIDS 91 i. The deflections of this over-stiff finite element model are smaller “in the mean” than the true deflections of the actual structure.

⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬ 3 ⎢ − 12 − 6l 12 − 6l ⎥ ⎪ q5 = 0 ⎪ ⎪ pl ⎪ l ⎥ ⎢ 2 − 6l 4l 2 ⎦ ⎪ q6 ⎪ ⎪ 2 2 ⎪ ⎣ 6l 2l ⎩ ⎭ ⎪ pl ⎪ ⎪− ⎪ ⎩ 12 ⎭ The set of equations in the unknown displacements is 2 EI ( 4q3 + 2q6 ) = pl . as expected. Using the boundary conditions and the equivalent nodal loads. 96 E I ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ The true solution is v true = 5 pl 4 384 E I so that the approximate finite element solution is. smaller ⎛l⎞ 4 v ⎜ ⎟ = vtrue .2 Higher-degree interpolation functions Let explore the possibility of approximating the displacements of a fourth order system by a quadratic function of the form . 24 E I pl 4 ⎛l⎞ ⎛l⎞ ⎛l⎞ v ⎜ ⎟ = N 2 ⎜ ⎟ q3 + N 4 ⎜ ⎟ q6 = . 12 l with solutions q6 = − q3 = − The displacement at the middle is pl3 . ⎝ 2⎠ 5 5.4.92 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Solution. the distributed load is replaced by two concentrated moments at the ends. the equations of equilibrium can be written ⎧ pl ⎫ ⎪ 2 ⎪ ⎪ 6l − 12 6l ⎤ ⎧ q2 = 0 ⎫ ⎪ ⎡ 12 pl 2 ⎪ ⎢ 6l 4l 2 − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ ⎪ q ⎪ ⎪ EIz ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ 3 ⎪ = ⎪ 12 ⎪ . 12 l 2 EI ( 2q3 + 4q6 ) = − pl . Using a single beam element.

(5. at x = x3 . a 2 . BEAMS. ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ v (x ) = ⎣N ⎦ q e = ⎣N1 { } N2 N3 N4 (5.12) ⎧ v1 ⎪ϕ ⎪ 1 ⎪ N 5 ⎦ ⎨ v2 ⎪ϕ ⎪ 2 ⎪ v3 ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬. v = v1 . v = v3 . v = v2 . This gives the nodal coordinates in terms of the polynomial coefficients ⎧ v1 ⎪ϕ ⎪ 1 ⎪ ⎨ v2 ⎪ϕ ⎪ 2 ⎪ v3 ⎩ On inversion ⎡ 1 ⎢ ⎧ a5 ⎫ ⎢ 0 ⎪ a ⎪ ⎢ 11 ⎪ 4⎪ ⎢ − ⎪ ⎪ 2 ⎨ a3 ⎬ = ⎢ l ⎪ a ⎪ ⎢ 18 ⎪ 2 ⎪ ⎢ l3 ⎪ a1 ⎪ ⎢ 8 ⎩ ⎭ ⎢− ⎢ l4 ⎣ 0 1 − 4 l 5 l2 2 0 0 5 − 2 l 14 − 4 l l3 8 0 0 1 l 3 0 ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎧ v1 ⎫ ⎥ 16 ⎥ ⎪ ϕ1 ⎪ ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ l 2 ⎥ ⋅ ⎪ v2 ⎪ .45) where the quartic shape functions are . ⎨ ⎬ 32 ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ − 3 ϕ2 l ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ ⎥ ⎪ v3 ⎪ 16 ⎩ ⎭ ⎥ l4 ⎥ ⎦ and and d v d x = ϕ1 . (5.44) ⎡1 ⎫ ⎢ ⎪ ⎢0 ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ 1 ⎬=⎢ ⎪ ⎢0 ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ ⎢1 ⎭ ⎣ 0 1 l 1 l 2 0 0 l2 2l l2 4 0 0 l3 3l 2 l3 8 0 ⎤ ⎧ a5 ⎫ 0 ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ ⎥ a4 ⎪ ⎪ l4 ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ ⎥ ⋅ ⎨ a3 ⎬ .43) can be determined from the end displacements and slopes. FRAMES AND GRIDS 93 v (x ) = a 1 x 4 + a 2 x 3 + a 3 x 2 + a 4 x + a5 .5. a 4 . 4l 3 ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ a2 l4 ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ ⎥ ⎪ a1 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ 16 ⎦ − 3 l − 2 l 2 l3 The beam deflection is given by an expression of the form (5. a 3 . d v d x = ϕ2 . 5.43) The five integration constants a 1 . at x = x 2 . and the displacement of the internal node at the centre of the element (Fig. a5 in (5.8): at x = x1 .

4 1 N 2 ( r ) = − ( 1 −r ) 2 r ( 1 + r )l . . N 5 is called a “bubble function”.41) is .94 1 ( 1 − r ) 2 r ( 3 + 2r ) .47) For p = const . we obtain the element stiffness matrix ⎡ 316 94l e 196 − 34l e ⎢ 36l 2 34l e − 6l 2 e e EI e ⎢ = 3⎢ 316 − 94l e 5l e ⎢ 36l 2 e ⎢SYM ⎣ − 512 ⎤ − 128l e ⎥ ⎥ − 512 ⎥ . 4 1 N 4 (r ) = − (1 − r ) r (1 + r ) 2 l .46) into equation (5.8 Substituting the shape functions (5. the element consistent load vector (5.46). Fig. 5. 128l e ⎥ 1024 ⎥ ⎦ [k ] e B (5. 8 1 N 3 ( r ) = ( 3 − 2r ) r ( 1 + r ) 2 .27) and performing the integration. having zero displacements and slopes at the ends.46) N 5 (r ) = (1 − r ) 2 (1 + r ) 2 . 8 N 1( r ) = − FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS (5. In equations (5.

51) ⎨ ⎬ = 3 ⎢ ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬ R5 ⎪ ⎢− 12 − 6l 12 − 6l ⎥ ⎪ q5 ⎪ ⎪ p l e ⎪ le ⎪ − ⎢ ⎥ 2 ⎪ R6 ⎪ − 6l 4l 2 ⎦ e ⎪ q6 ⎪e ⎪ 2 ⎪ ⎣ 6l 2l ⎩ ⎭ ⎪ ⎩ ⎭e pl 2 ⎪ e ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ 12 ⎭ e The first term on the right is k B elements that are called fixed-end reactions. BEAMS. the end equilibrium loads are given by ⎧ pl e ⎫ ⎪− 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎧ R2 ⎫ 6l − 12 6l ⎤ ⎧ q2 ⎫ ⎪ ⎡ 12 pl2 ⎪R ⎪ ⎢ 6l 4l 2 − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ ⎪ q ⎪ ⎪− e ⎪ EI e ⎪ 3⎪ ⎥ ⎪ 3 ⎪ + ⎪ 12 ⎪ . + 12 2 2 2 4 .50). FRAMES AND GRIDS 95 {f } e ⎢7 ple =⎢ ⎢ 30 ⎣ p l2 e 60 7 p le 30 p l2 e − 60 8 p le ⎥ ⎥ . they are obtained substituting r = −1 and r = +1 in (5. For p = 0 .7) T = −E I z T= d3 v 8 d3 v 8 = −E I z 3 = − E I z 3 ⎣N ′′′⎦ q e . When p = const . e [ ]{ q }.5.49) and (5. . the exact moment and shear force within the element are Mp =M − 2 pl 2 pl e l e e ( r + 1) + p l e ( r + 1) 2 .12) we get M = EIz M= d2 v 4 d2 v 4 = EIz 2 = E I z 2 ⎣N ′′⎦ q e .3 Bending moment and shear force Using the bending moment expression (5. 2 2 dx l e dr le { } EIz ⎣6 r l2 e (3r − 1) l e − 6r (3r + 1) l e ⎦ { q e }.6) and equation (5. 15 ⎥ ⎦ T (5. { } 6E I z ⎣− 2 − l e l3 e { } (5.49) The shear force is given by equation (5.4. The second term consists of The shear forces at the two ends of the beam element are T1 = − R2 and T2 = R5 . (5. The end bending moments are M 1 = − R3 and M 2 = R 6 .48) 5.50) For elements with uniformly distributed load. 3 3 dx l e dr le 2 − l e ⎦ qe . (5.

96 Tp = T − pl e r. If the nodes are given unit rotations. 5. If the nodes are given unit vertical displacements (Fig. 1⎪ 4 4 ⎪ 0⎭ ( ) ( ) which shows that the element has indeed a vertical displacement as a rigid body. equation (5. valid for p = 0 . because the structure as a whole should be in equilibrium. with node 1 fixed and node 2 having a vertical displacement l e (Fig. b). . Rotation. 5. An element should describe rigid body modes exactly. equation (5.5 Basic convergence requirements As element sizes are reduced.49) and (5. the element must exhibit zero strain and therefore zero nodal forces. Although equilibrium is not satisfied exactly at every interior point or across interfaces. When nodal displacements are given values corresponding to a state of rigid body motion.12) gives ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ v (x ) = ⎣N ⎦ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ 0⎫ 1 ⎪ le l l ⎪ N 2 + l e N 3 + e N 4 = e ( 1 + r ) = linear . Vertical translation. a).9. respectively. the sequence of solutions to a problem is expected to converge to the correct result if the assumed element displacement fields satisfy the following criteria: 1. 2 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS where M and T are the expressions (5. a.9. ⎬= l⎪ 2 2 2 1⎪ ⎭ which shows that the element has indeed an anticlockwise rotation as a rigid body.12) gives ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ v (x ) = ⎣N ⎦ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ 1⎫ 0⎪ 1 1 ⎪ 3 3 ⎬ = N1 + N 3 = 2 − 3 r + r + 2 + 3 r − r = 1 = const . b. and the interior points should correspond to the assumed rigid body displacement. 5. an element as a whole should be in equilibrium.50).

In the case of beams. An element should simulate constant strain states. FRAMES AND GRIDS 97 a b Fig.l 2 = const . Because there is no coupling between the bending and stretching displacements.5.9 c 2.6.9. 1⎥ ⎦ (5. 5. BEAMS. 5. Assuming zero nodal vertical displacements and unit rotations in opposite directions (Fig.22) is [ ] e (5. an inclined beam element should include longitudinal displacements since.1 Axial effects The axial nodal forces are related to the nodal displacements by equation ⎧ f1 ⎫ e ⎧ q1 ⎫ ⎨ ⎬ = kS ⎨ ⎬ ⎩ f4 ⎭ ⎩ q4 ⎭ where the stiffness matrix for stretching (4. 5. it is acted upon by axial forces.2. c) ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎪ 1 ⎪ l l ⎪ ⎪ le v (x ) = ⎣N ⎦ ⎨ N2 − e N4 = e 1 − r 2 . they must have at least constant curvature.52) [ k ]= ElA ⎡⎢−11 e S e ⎣ − 1⎤ . apart from moments and shear forces. 5. when element sizes shrink to zero.6 Frame element As shown in Fig.53) . the two stiffness matrices can be added taking into account the proper location of their elements. ⎬= 2 4 ⎪ 0 ⎪ 2 ⎪ −1 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ so that the second derivative (curvature) is constant ( ) v′′ = . 5.

⎧ q1 ⎫ ⎡ c ⎨q ⎬=⎢ ⎩ 2 ⎭ ⎣− s s ⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎨ ⎬ c⎥ ⎩ Q 2 ⎭ ⎦ . and arranging the elements in proper locations we get the element stiffness matrix given by ⎡ EA ⎢ l ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ 0 =⎢ ⎢− E A ⎢ l ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎣ 0 12 E I l3 6E I l2 0 − 12 E I l3 6E I l2 − 0 6E I l2 4E I l 0 6E I l2 2E I l − EA l 0 0 EA l 0 0 0 − 12 E I l3 6E I − 2 l 0 12 E I l3 6E I − 2 l ⎤ ⎥ 6E I ⎥ ⎥ l2 ⎥ 2E I ⎥ l ⎥ . 5.55) 5. If there is a uniformly distributed load on a member. this ratio may be as small as 1 20 or 1 50 . the local linear displacements q 1 and q 2 are related to the global linear displacements Q 1 and Q 2 by the equations q 1 = Q 1 cos θ + Q 2 sin θ . combining equations (5.98 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 5. where ‘i’ is the relevant radius of gyration.6.53) and (5. so the stiffness matrix may possibly be numerically ill-conditioned.54) ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ 6E I ⎥ − 2 ⎥ l 4E I ⎥ ⎥ l ⎥e ⎦ 0 [k ] e .6. 12 ⎥ ⎦ T (5. For slender beams.56) Equations (5.57) . q 2 = −Q 1 sin θ + Q 2 cos θ .10 both in the initial and deformed state. For node 1.29). (5.54) is of order 2 { f } = ⎢0 ⎢ e ⎢ ⎣ p le 2 p l2 e 12 0 p le 2 − p l2 ⎥ e ⎥ .56) can be written in matrix form as (5.3 Coordinate transformation A frame element is shown in Fig. the vector of consistent nodal forces is (i l ) The ratio of the bending terms to the stretching terms in (5.2 Stiffness matrix and load vector in local coordinates For the frame element. (5.

60) In (5. 5. { q } is the beam element displacement vector in the local coordinate system. BEAMS.58) Fig.10 Adding the similar relationships for node 2 ⎧ q4 ⎫ ⎡ c ⎨q ⎬=⎢ ⎩ 5 ⎭ ⎣− s we obtain e s ⎤ ⎧ Q4 ⎫ ⎨ ⎬. FRAMES AND GRIDS 99 where c = cos θ and s = sin θ .61) is the local-to-global coordinate transformation matrix for plane frames. (5.5. { Q } is the beam element displacement vector in the global e e coordinate system and [T ] e ⎡c ⎢− s ⎢ ⎢0 =⎢ ⎢0 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎣ s 0 c 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0⎤ 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0 0⎥ ⎥ c s 0⎥ − s c 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0 1⎥ ⎦ 0 0 (5. (5. . (5.60). c⎥ ⎩ Q 5 ⎭ ⎦ e e q6 = Q6 .59) { q } = [ T ] { Q }. The angular displacements (rotations) are the same in both coordinate systems q 3 = Q3 .

64) [ ] The global stiffness matrix.66) The equations of equilibrium can be regarded as having been derived as soon as the reduced stiffness matrix and load vector have been calculated using the boundary conditions. (5.7. (5.4 Stiffness matrix and load vector in global coordinates Using the same procedure as in section 3. {F }= [T ] { f } e e T e (5.65) ∑[ ] e where ~ ~ ~ [ K ] = [T ] [ K ][T ] .67) . Having solved [ K ] { Q } = { F } it is routine to backtrack and recover the eth element strains. using equations (5. e (5. [ ] { } [ ] The global uncondensed stiffness matrix is equal to the sum of the expanded element stiffness matrices ~ [K ] = K e .62) The nodal loads due to a uniformly distributed load p are given by The values of F e { } are added to the global load vector.60) ε e = − y v′′ = − y ⎣N ′′⎦ q e = − y ⎣N ′′⎦ T e { } [ ] { Q }. e e T e e (5.12) and (5.63) 5. [K ]. by equations of the form ~ Q e = T e { Q }.4). the stiffness matrix of the frame element in global coordinates is obtained as [ K ]= [T ] [ k ][T ] . (5. e e T e e (5.6.100 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 5. that relate the nodal displacements at element level with the nodal displacements at the entire structure level.7 Assembly of the global stiffness matrix is assembled from element matrices ~ K e using element connectivity matrices T e .

Strains are derivatives of an approximate displacement (in beams . Example 5. FRAMES AND GRIDS 101 Strains. are not accurate. E5. = 3 ⎢ ⎢− 12 − 6l 12 − 6l ⎥ l ⎢ ⎥ 2 − 6l 4l 2 ⎦ ⎣ 6l 2l 0 ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥ − 12 6l ⎥ ⎥. The element stiffness matrices are [k ] 1 6l − 12 6l ⎤ ⎡ 12 ⎢ 6l 4l 2 − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ 2E I ⎥ .second derivatives) and differentiation inevitably decreases accuracy.2 Solution. and omitting the first two rows and columns.2. Fig. Consider the beam divided into two cubic Hermitian elements. − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ 12 − 6l ⎥ ⎥ − 6l 4l 2 ⎥ ⎦ 0 0 The unreduced global stiffness matrix is 12l − 24 12l ⎡ 24 ⎢ 12l 8l 2 − 12l 4l 2 ⎢ − 6l E I ⎢− 24 − 12l 36 K ]= 3 ⎢ 2 − 6l 12l 2 l ⎢ 12l 4l ⎢ 0 0 − 12 − 6l ⎢ 0 6l 2l 2 ⎢ 0 ⎣ [ Using the boundary conditions at the fixed end Q1 = Q2 = 0 . BEAMS.5. we obtain the finite element equations . = 3 ⎢ ⎢− 12 − 6l 12 − 6l ⎥ l ⎢ ⎥ 2 − 6l 4l 2 ⎦ ⎣ 6l 2l [k ] 2 6l − 12 6l ⎤ ⎡ 12 ⎢ 6l 4l 2 − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ EI ⎥ .2 Calculate the transverse displacement at the free end of the cantilever stepped beam shown in Fig. E5. and hence stresses.

EI v3 = Q5 = −1. the unreduced global stiffness matrix is obtained as 6l − 12 6l 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ 12 ⎢ 6l 4l 2 − 6l 2l 2 0 0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ 0 − 12 6l ⎥ E I ⎢− 12 − 6l 24 [ K ] = 3 ⎢ 6l 2l 2 0 8l 2 − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ . ⎢ 9l 216 l ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ − 21l − 27 99 ⎥ ⎪ 6l ⎪ ⎩ 180 ⎭ ⎦⎩ ⎭ ⎣ By substitution into the equation with non-zero right hand side EI (− 12 Q3 − 6l Q4 + 12 Q5 − 6l Q6 ) = − F l3 the transverse displacement in 3 is obtained as F l3 .29).3. l ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0 0 − 12 − 6l 12 − 6l ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ 0 6l 2l 2 − 6l 4l 2 ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎦ ⎣ .102 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎡ 36 − 6l ⎢ 2 EI ⎢ − 6l 12l l 3 ⎢ − 12 − 6l ⎢ 2l 2 ⎣ 6l ⎡ 36 − 6l ⎢ − 6l 12l 2 ⎢ ⎢ 6l 2l 2 ⎣ or ⎧ Q3 ⎪ ⎨ Q4 ⎪Q ⎩ 6 ⎫ 1 ⎪ ⎬= 2 ⎪ 216l ⎭ − 12 6l ⎤ ⎧ Q3 − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ ⎪ Q4 ⎥⎪ ⎨ 12 − 6l ⎥ ⎪ Q5 ⎥ − 6l 4l 2 ⎦ ⎪ Q6 ⎩ ⎤ ⎧ Q3 ⎥ ⎪Q ⎥⎨ 4 ⎥ ⎪ Q6 ⎦⎩ ⎫ ⎧ 0 ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎬=⎨ ⎪ ⎪−F ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎭ ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬. Consider the beam modeled by two Bernoulli-Euler beam elements. E5.3 Calculate the transverse displacement at 2 and the support reactions for the beam shown in Fig. Solution. ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ The three equations with zero right hand side can be written 6l 2l 2 4l 2 ⎫ ⎧ 12 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ = ⎨ 6l ⎬ Q5 .5 Example 5. Assembling the element stiffness matrices (5. ⎪ ⎪ 6l ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎡ 11l 2 9l − 21l ⎤ ⎧ 12 ⎫ ⎧ 60l ⎫ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 1 ⎪ ⎪ 27 − 27 ⎥ ⎨ 6l ⎬ Q5 = ⎨ 108 ⎬ Q5 .

BEAMS. Omitting the corresponding rows and columns. 3 ⎢ ⎥ l ⎢ 6l 2l 2 4l 2 ⎥ ⎪ Q6 ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎭ ⎣ ⎦⎩ ⎭ ⎩ The last two equations give ⎡ 8l 2 ⎢ 2 ⎢ 2l ⎣ or Q4 = 3 Q3 .3 Substitution of Q4 and Q6 into the first equation gives ⎧ 3 7l ⎫ F l3 24 Q3 + ⎣ 0 6l ⎦ ⎨ ⎬ Q3 = − EI ⎩ − 12 7l ⎭ or 7 F l3 . at the simply supported end Q5 = 0 . E5. we obtain the finite element equations 6l ⎤ ⎧ Q3 ⎫ ⎧ − F ⎫ ⎡ 24 0 EI ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 2 0 8l 2l 2 ⎥ ⎨ Q4 ⎬ = ⎨ 0 ⎬ .5. 96 E I v2 = Q3 = − The rotations are ϕ 2 = Q4 = − 3 F l2 . 96 E I The support reactions are given by . 7l Q6 = − 12 Q3 . 7l ⎧0 ⎫ 2l 2 ⎤ ⎧ Q4 ⎫ ⎥⎨ ⎬ = − ⎨ ⎬ Q3 4l 2 ⎥ ⎩ Q6 ⎭ ⎩ 6l ⎭ ⎦ Fig. 96 E I ϕ3 = Q6 = 12 F l 2 . FRAMES AND GRIDS 103 At the fixed end Q1 = Q2 = 0 .

2 2 2 ⎥⎨ 3 ⎢ 6l − 4. the finite element equations can be written − 12 6l 6l 0 0 ⎤ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎧ V1 ⎫ ⎡ 12 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 6l 4l 2 2 − 6l 2l 0 0 ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ M1 ⎪ ⎢ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ E I ⎢− 12 − 6l 13.5l 1.4 Solution.5 − 1.5l ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ V3 ⎪ 0 ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ 2 − 1.5l 6l − 1.104 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 0 ⎤ ⎧ Q3 ⎡ − 12 6l EI ⎢ ⎪ 2 0 ⎥ ⎨ Q4 − 6l 2l 3 ⎢ ⎥ l ⎢ − 12 − 6l − 6l ⎥ ⎪ Q6 ⎣ ⎦⎩ which yield V1 = ⎫ ⎧ V1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ = ⎨ M1 ⎬ ⎪ ⎪V ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ 3 ⎭ 11 F.5l 6l ⎦ ⎩ Q4 ⎭ ⎩ 0 ⎭ with solutions v2 = Q3 = − 8 F l3 . 16 3 M1 = − F l . E5.5l − 1.5 − 4.5l 2l 2 ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ M 3 ⎪ 0 1.5 1. Fig. 8 V3 = 5 F.5l ⎥ ⎪Q3 ⎪ ⎪− F ⎪ ⎬=⎨ ⎬. Using the boundary conditions Q1 = Q2 = Q5 = Q6 = 0 .5l l ⎢ 0 ⎦⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎣ ⎭ From the third and fourth rows we obtain E I ⎡ 13. 81 E I ϕ 2 = Q4 = − 2 F l2 . 16 Example 5.5 − 4.4.5l ⎤ ⎧ Q3 ⎫ ⎧ − F ⎫ ⎬=⎨ ⎬ ⎢ 2 ⎥⎨ l 3 ⎣ − 4.5 − 1. E5.5l 2l l ⎥ ⎪Q4 ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎪ l ⎢ ⎢ 0 − 1.4 Find the transverse displacement at 2 and the support reactions for the beam with fixed ends shown in Fig. Consider the beam modeled by two Bernoulli-Euler beam elements. 27 E I .

27 9 27 9 Example 5. V3 = F . The continuous beam is modeled by two Bernoulli-Euler beam elements. we obtain ⎡ 4l 2 ⎢ 2 ⎢ 2l ⎢ 0 ⎣ 0 ⎤ ⎧ Q2 ⎥⎪ 2l 2 ⎥ ⎨ Q4 4l 2 ⎥ ⎪ Q6 ⎦⎩ EI l3 2l 2 8l 2 2l 2 0 ⎫ ⎧ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 2 ⎬ = ⎨ − p l 12 ⎬ . the finite element equations can be written 6l − 12 6l 0 0 ⎤ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎧ V1 ⎫ ⎡ 12 ⎢ 6l 4l 2 − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ ⎪Q ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 0 0 0 ⎥ ⎪ 2⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ − 12 6l ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪V2 − p l 2⎪ 0 E I ⎢− 12 − 6l 24 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎥⎨ ⎬=⎨ ⎬. M3 = − Fl .5 − 1.5.5 where the right span carries a uniformly distributed load. 3 ⎢ 6l 0 8l 2 − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ ⎪Q4 ⎪ ⎪ − p l 2 12 ⎪ 2l 2 l ⎢ ⎢ 0 0 − 12 − 6l 12 − 6l ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪V3 − p l 2 ⎪ ⎢ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 0 6l 2l 2 − 6l 4l 2 ⎥ ⎪Q6 ⎪ ⎪ p l 2 12 ⎪ ⎢ 0 ⎣ ⎦⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ Omitting the first.5l ⎥ ⎪ − 2 ⎪ E I ⎪ V3 ⎪ ⎢ ⎥ ⎪M 3 ⎪ l 2 ⎦ ⎩ 27 ⎭ ⎣ 1. ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬ l 3 ⎢− 1.5 Calculate the rotations at supports and the reaction forces for the two-span beam shown in Fig. M 1 = F l . Fig. ⎪ ⎪ p l 2 12 ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ .5l ⎩ ⎭ The support reactions are V1 = 20 4 7 2 F . Using the boundary conditions Q1 = Q3 = Q5 = 0 . FRAMES AND GRIDS 105 Substituting the displacements into the other four equations yields 6l ⎤ ⎧ V1 ⎫ ⎡ − 12 8 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ ⎧− l ⎫ 2 EI ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ 81 ⎪ F l = ⎪ M 1 ⎪ . E5. third and fifth rows and columns. BEAMS. E5.5 Solution.

96 E I The reaction forces are calculated from ϕ1 = Q2 = 6l 0 ⎤ ⎧ Q2 ⎡ 6l EI ⎢ ⎪ − 6l 0 6l ⎥ ⎨ Q4 3 ⎢ ⎥ l ⎢ 0 − 6l − 6l ⎥ ⎪ Q6 ⎣ ⎦⎩ obtaining V1 ⎫ ⎧ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ = ⎨ V2 − p l 2 ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ V − pl 2 ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ 3 ⎭ V1 = − pl . 32 E I (b) Substituting the rotations (b) in (a) we obtain pl3 .6 . 8 V3 = 7 pl . substituted into the second and third equation EI l3 gives ⎛ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ ⎧ 2l 2 ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ 0 ⎩ ⎫ ⎡ 8l 2 ⎪ ⎬ Q2 + ⎢ 2 ⎪ ⎢ 2l ⎭ ⎣ 2l 2 ⎤ ⎧ Q4 ⎫ ⎞ p l 2 ⎧− 1⎫ ⎥⎨ ⎬⎟= ⎨ ⎬. 4l 2 ⎥ ⎩ Q6 ⎭ ⎟ 12 ⎩ 1 ⎭ ⎦ ⎠ ϕ 2 = Q4 = − pl3 . E5. 16 V2 = 5 pl . E5. 48 E I ϕ3 = Q6 = pl3 . 16 Example 5.6. Fig.106 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The first equation above yields ⎧Q ⎫ Q2 = ⎣ − 1 2 0 ⎦ ⎨ 4 ⎬ ⎩ Q6 ⎭ (a) which.6 Find the transverse displacement and the angle of rotation at 2 for the beam shown in Fig.

5l 13.5l ⎡ 1.3 p0l ⎫ ⎡ 13.7 Find the shape functions for the 3-node beam element shown in Fig. the finite element equations can be written 1.1333 p l 2 ⎬ .5l 0 0 ⎤ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎧ V1 − 0. ⎟ 0 ⎭ ⎦⎩ 4⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ ⎠ ⎩ v2 = Q3 = −0. N 1( r ) = 1 2 r 4 − 5r − 2r 2 + 3r 3 .0518 p0 l 3 .5. E5.5l 6l ⎤ ⎧ Q3 EI ⎢ ⎪ 4. Two Bernoulli-Euler beam elements are used to model the system.5 − 1.2 p0 l 2 ⎪ − 1.5l ⎤ ⎧ Q3 ⎫ ⎧ 6l ⎫ ⎢ 4.1333 p0 l ⎪ l ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎪ 0 V3 − 12 − 6l 12 − 6l ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 0 6l 2l 2 − 6l 4l 2 ⎥ ⎪Q6 ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎢ 0 ⎣ ⎦⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ Deleting the first. Answer. second and fifth rows and columns we obtain ⎡ 13.3 p 0 l ⎪ ⎪ 2 ⎬ = ⎨ 0. substituted into the first two equations EI l3 gives ⎛ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ ⎞ ⎧ − 0. 4 ( ) N 2 (r ) = 1 2 r 1 −r − r 2 + r 3 .5 4.5 1.5l l ⎪ ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ E I ⎢− 1. EI Example 5.5l l 4.5 4.5l 6l 2 2l 2 ⎥ ⎨ Q4 3 ⎢ ⎥ l ⎢ 6l 2l 2 4l 2 ⎥ ⎪ Q6 ⎣ ⎦⎩ The last equation yields ⎫ ⎧ − 0 .084 p0 l 4 . FRAMES AND GRIDS 107 Solution.7. EI ϕ 2 = Q4 = 0. 4 ( ) . Using the boundary conditions Q1 = Q2 = Q5 = 0 .5 4. 3 ⎢ 1.5l 6l 2 ⎥ ⎨ Q ⎬ + ⎨ 2l 2 ⎬ Q6 ⎟ = ⎨0.5l 2 2 2l 0 0 ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪M 1 − 0.5 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 1.3 p0 l ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬=⎨ 2 2 2⎥⎨ 2 ⎬.7 p0 l ⎫ − 1.5l 6l − 6l 2l ⎥ ⎪Q4 ⎪ ⎪ 0.5l − 12 6l ⎥ ⎪Q3 ⎪ ⎪ − 0. BEAMS. ⎪ ⎭ Q6 = − 3 1 Q3 − Q4 2l 2 which.1333 p0l ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎭ ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎬.

7. E5. a Fig. N 4 (r ) = r 1− r 2 ( ). 4 ( ) N 6 (r ) = 1 2 r −1− r +r 2 + r3 . 2 1 2 r 4 + 5r − 2r 2 − 3r 3 .108 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS N 3(r ) = 1 − r 2 N 5 (r ) = ( ) 2 . 4 ( ) Fig. b . E5.7.

plot the deformed shape and the diagrams of axial force. E5. Determine the nodal displacements. E5. E5.8 . c.5 1. The frame is modeled with 6 elements and 7 nodes.8.889e-3 -1.232e-2 -5.4 2 2 Coord Y 0 1 2 2 2 2 1 Displ X 0 0.0696e-2 0 Displ Y 0 8. BEAMS. Answer. The diagrams of the axial force N . shear and bending moment. E5.8. b.8. d.500e-7 1.260e-2 The deformed shape is shown in Fig. It has E = 2 ⋅ 1011 N m 2 .309e-3 2. a has pinned ends and is loaded in 2 by a force 5 4 F = 1000 N .010 1.0699e-2 1.8 The planar frame shown in Fig.260e-3 -6. Nodal data Node nr 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Restr X 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 Restr Y 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 Restr Z 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Coord X 0 0 0 0.321e-3 -8. e.0697e-2 1. FRAMES AND GRIDS 109 Example 5.0698e-2 1.500e-7 0 Rotation Z -1. a b c d e Fig.353e-3 2. shear T and bending moment M are shown in Figs.531e-3 2. A = 1600 mm 2 and I = 2 ⋅ 10 mm .700e-6 1.592e-3 -1.5.

v 6 = −0.9. E5.9.110 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Example 5. ϕ 6 = −0.00623 rad . Fig. 10. b . I = 2 ⋅104 mm 4 .9 The planar frame shown in Fig.9673 mm . 5. For E = 2 ⋅105 N mm 2 . b. E5. a has fixed ends in 1. E5.9. The deformed shape is presented in Fig. It is loaded by a couple M 3 = 2 ⋅ 106 N mm and two point loads F6 = −2 ⋅ 10 4 N and F12 = −10 4 N . The frame is modeled with 12 elements and 13 nodes. Fig. l1− 2 = 100 mm and l 9 −10 = l 9 −11 = 200 mm .9. A = 400 mm 2 . find the displacements in 6 and plot the deformed shape. Answer. a The displacements in 6 are h 6 = 0. E5.2476 mm . 13.

the torsional rigidity G I t and the length l . a.1 Finite element discretization The grid is divided into finite elements.8. describing bending and torsional effects. FRAMES AND GRIDS 111 5. the degrees of freedom of node i are Q3 i − 2 . two rotations and a linear displacement. . a translation and two rotations.5. They are special cases of tree-dimensional frames in which each joint has only three nodal displacements. Each node has three degrees of freedom. Typically. where the nodal displacements are also shown. defined as the rotation about the X axis.8.12.11 5. Elements are modelled as uniform rods with bending and torsional flexibility. Only cross sections whose shear centre coincides with the centroid are considered. as illustrated in Fig. the rotation about the Y axis and the displacement along the Z axis. 5. 5. Q3 i −1 and Q3 i .2 Element stiffness matrix in local coordinates Consider an inclined grid element. as shown in Fig. Fig. Their properties are the flexural rigidity E I . Nodes are located by their coordinates in the global reference frame XOY and element connectivity is defined by the indices of the end nodes. 5. respectively. without shear deformations and not loaded between ends.8 Grids Grids or grillages are planar structural systems subjected to loads applied normally to their plane. BEAMS. 5.11.

112

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

In a local physical coordinate system, the x axis, oriented along the beam, is inclined an angle α with respect to the global X axis. The z axis for the local coordinate system is collinear with the Z axis for the global system. Alternatively, an intrinsic (natural) coordinate system can be used.

Fig. 5.12 The vector of element nodal displacements is

{ q }= ⎣ q

e e

1

q2

q3

q4

q5

q6

⎦T ⎦T .

(5.68)

and the corresponding vector of element nodal forces can be written

{ f }= ⎣ f

In (5.69)

f 3 and

1

f2

f3

f4

f5

f6

(5.69)

f 5 are

f 6 are transverse forces, while f 2 and

couples producing bending (Fig. 5.12, b). The corresponding displacements q 3 , q 6 are translations, while q 2 , q 5 are rotations. Their column vectors are related by the flexural stiffness matrix. Rearranging the matrix (5.29) we obtain

⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩

f2 f3 f5

⎡ 4l 2 6l 2l 2 − 6l ⎤ ⎧q 2 ⎫ ⎫ ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 12 6l − 12 ⎥ ⎪q 3 ⎪ ⎪ EI e ⎢ 6l ⎨ ⎬. ⎬= 3 ⎢ 2 6l 4l 2 − 6l ⎥ ⎪q 5 ⎪ ⎪ l e ⎢ 2l ⎥ f6 ⎪ ⎢− 6l − 12 − 6l 12 ⎥ e ⎪q 6 ⎪ ⎭ ⎣ ⎦ ⎩ ⎭

(5.70)

The axial nodal forces f 1 , f 4 are torques and the nodal displacements q 1 , q 4 are twist angles. They describe torsional effects so that their action is decoupled from bending. The respective stiffness matrix can be calculated

5. BEAMS, FRAMES AND GRIDS

113

separately. The derivation of this matrix is essentially identical to the derivation of the stiffness matrix for axial effects in a frame element or in a truss element. The twist angle can be expressed in terms of the shape functions (4.51) as

θ (r ) = N1 (r ) q 1 + N 2 (r ) q 4 ,

which substituted into the strain energy

Ue = G It e 2

(5.71)

∫

e

⎛ ∂θ ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ dx ⎜ ∂x ⎟ ⎝ ⎠

+1

2

(5.72)

yields, after the change of coordinates, the element stiffness matrix

[ ]=

kte

2 G It e

le

−1

∫ ⎣N ′ ⎦

r

T

′ ⎣N r ⎦ d r .

(5.73)

As a consequence of this analogy, the nodal forces are related to the nodal displacements by equation ⎧ f1 ⎫ e ⎧ q1 ⎫ (5.74) ⎨ ⎬ = kt ⎨ ⎬ ⎩ f4 ⎭ ⎩ q4 ⎭

[ ]

te

where the stiffness matrix for torsional effects is

[ k ] = GlI

e t

e

⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎢− 1 1 ⎥ . ⎣ ⎦

(5.75)

In (5.75), G is the shear modulus of elasticity and I t e is the torsional constant of the cross section. For axially symmetrical cross sections the latter is the polar second moment of area. For the grid element, combining the stiffness matrices from equations (5.70) and (5.75), we get the stiffness matrix in local coordinates relating the nodal forces (5.69) and the nodal displacements (5.68) −a 0 0 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ a ⎢ 0 4l 2 6l 2 − 6l ⎥ 0 2l ⎥ ⎢ 6l 12 0 6l − 12 ⎥ EI e ⎢ 0 = 3 ⎢ ⎥ a 0 0 0 0 ⎥ l e ⎢− a ⎢ 0 2l 2 6l 0 4l 2 − 6l ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ 0 − 6l − 12 0 − 6l 12 ⎥ e ⎦ ⎣

[k ]

e

(5.76)

where a = G I t e l 2 E I e . e

114

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

5.8.3 Coordinate transformation

It is necessary to transform the matrix (5.76) from the local to the global system of coordinates before its assemblage in the stiffness matrix for the complete grid. As has been indicated, the z direction for local axes coincides with the Z direction for the global axes, so that only the rotational components of displacements should be converted. The transformation of coordinates is defined by equation

where q e system,

{ } is the element displacement vector (5.68) in the local coordinate

{ q } = [ T ] { Q },

e e e

(5.77)

{ Q } = ⎣Q

e

1

Q2

Q3

Q4

Q5

Q6 ⎦ T

is the element displacement vector in the global coordinate system (Fig. 5.12) and ⎡c ⎢− s ⎢ ⎢0 =⎢ ⎢0 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎣ s 0 c 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0⎤ 0 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0 0⎥ ⎥, c s 0⎥ − s c 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0 1⎥ ⎦ 0

[T ]

e

(5.78)

where c = cos α and s = sin α , is the local-to-global coordinate transformation matrix. The same transformation matrix (5.78) serves to transform the nodal forces from local to global coordinates.

**5.8.4 Element stiffness matrix in global coordinates
**

Using the same procedure as for frame elements, we obtain the stiffness matrix of the grid element in global coordinates as

[ K ]= [T ] [ k ][T ] .

e e T e e

(5.79)

It is used to assemble the unreduced global stiffness matrix [ K ] using ~ element connectivity matrices T e that relate the nodal displacements at element level with the nodal displacements at the complete structure level, by equations of the form (5.64).

[ ]

5. BEAMS, FRAMES AND GRIDS

115

For grounded systems the unreduced matrix [ K ] is then condensed using the boundary conditions. The effect of lumped springs can be accounted for by adding their values along the main diagonal at the appropriate locations in the global stiffness matrix.

Example 5.10

The grid shown in Fig. E5.10 is fixed at points 1 and 2, has E = 210 GPa , G = 81 GPa , l = 1 m and diameter d = 20 mm . Find the vertical displacement of point 7 when the grid is loaded by forces F7 = F8 = −500 N and draw the spatial deflected shape.

a Fig. E5.10

b

Answer. The grid is modeled with 14 elements and 8 nodes, having 18 dof’s. The deflected shape is presented in Fig. E5.10, b. The deflection is w7 = − 0.436 m .

Example 5.11

The grid shown in Fig. E5.11, a is fixed at points 1 and 2, and has l = 1 m , I = 0.785 ⋅ 10 −8 m 4 , I t = 1.57 ⋅ 10 −8 m 4 , E = 210 GPa and G = 81 GPa . Find the vertical displacement of point 5 when the grid is loaded by a force F5 = −103 N . Draw the deflected shape and the diagrams of the bending moment and torque.

116

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

a

b

c Fig. E5.11

d

Answer. The grid is modeled with 5 elements and 5 nodes, having 9 dof’s. The largest displacement is w5 = − 0.4 m . The deflected shape is presented in Fig. E5.11, b. The bending moment and torque diagrams are shown in Figs. E5.11, c, d.

**5.9 Deep beam bending element
**

Shear deformation becomes important when analyzing deep beams, for which Bernoulli’s hypothesis is no more valid. The nonlinear distribution of shear stresses produces the warping of the cross section. A simplifying hypothesis (Poncelet, 1825) considers an average shear strain, constant over the cross section. This way, planar cross sections remain undistorted and plane (warping neglected) but no more perpendicular to the centroidal axis. The assumption is adopted in the formulation of the Timoshenko beam element used in vibration studies.

5.5. σ x = E ε x = −E (5.13. at a distance y from the neutral axis.13 The axial displacement of any point on the section. where ϕ is the cross section rotation at position x . Note that the slope v′ is no more equal to the rotation ϕ . Normal stresses on the cross section are given by Hooke’s law dϕ y. a).82) γ xy = dv ∂u ∂ v + = −ϕ + = −ϕ + v′ .9. is approximated by u (x. as in the Bernoulli-Euler theory.80) εx = du dϕ = −y = − yϕ ′ .1 Static analysis of a uniform beam Beams with cross sections that are symmetric with respect to the plane of loading are considered herein (Fig. dx where E is Young’s modulus of the material. The strain components ε x and γ xy are given by (5. y ) = − y ϕ (x ) . FRAMES AND GRIDS 117 5. axial forces are ignored.81) (5. dx ∂ y ∂x where v′ is the slope of the deformed beam axis. dx dx (5. Only transverse loads act upon the beam. BEAMS. 5. Fig.83) The bending moment is the resultant of the normal stress distribution on the cross section .

(5.86) The average shear strain is γ xy = T T = G As κ AG (5.2 Shape functions Consider a prismatic beam element (Fig. κ is a shear factor and As is the ‘effective shear area’ calculated as As [ ∫τ dA ] = ∫τ 2 2 dA .9. elimination of M and T gives the differential equations of equilibrium G As v′′ − G Asϕ ′ = 0 . dx (5.13. The shear force is given by T (x ) = − dM . dx (5.118 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS M (x ) = − σ x y dA = E I z A ∫ dϕ = E I zϕ′ dx (5.14) of length l (the index e is omitted) not loaded between ends ( p = 0 ) . 5.85) The transverse load per unit length is p (x ) = − dT .91) G As v′ + E I z ϕ ′′ − G Asϕ = 0 . The sign convention used here (Fig.89) For a uniform beam not loaded between ends ( p = 0 ) . 5. (5.87) where G is the shear modulus of elasticity. (5.82) and (5. Using natural coordinates. . r = 2 x l .90) (5. 5. b) is that positive internal forces and moments act in positive (negative) coordinate directions on beam cross sections with a positive (negative) outward normal.88) Equations (5.87) give T = G As ( v′ − ϕ ) .84) where I z is the second moment of area of the cross section.

5.95) into (5.94) (5. d x3 (5.90) and (5.92) Changing to the r coordinate yields d4v =0.95) ϕ (r ) = b 3 r 2 + b 2 r + b 1 . BEAMS.91) gives d4v =0. 5. becomes 2 dv d 2ϕ +β −ϕ = 0.96) where β= 4E I z . (5.96) gives b3 = 6 a4 . l b1 = 2 12 a2 + β a 4 .97) Substituting (5. l dr d r2 (5. d r3 (5. l b2 = 4 a3 . l l (5.94) and (5.93) The general solutions of these equations are v (r ) = a 4 r 3 + a 3 r 2 + a 2 r + a 1 . G As l 2 (5.91) which. FRAMES AND GRIDS 119 Fig. d r4 and d 3ϕ = 0.94) and (5.14 Eliminating ϕ and v in turn in (5. in the new variable r. The seven constants of integration are not independent since the above solutions must also satisfy equation (5. d x4 and d 3ϕ = 0. The resulting displacement functions are .95) at r = ± 1 .98) This leaves only four independent constants which can be determined by evaluating (5.

103) It is useful to introduce a third set of shape functions which are used in the derivation of the element stiffness matrix. e e (5. 4 ) .. (5. and defined by . e e (5.102) 2 ~ N 2 (r ) = ~ N3 ( r ) = 1 4 ( 1 + 3β 1 4 ( 1 + 3β ) ) ) [ − 1 −2r + 3r ( 3 − 3r ).21) and the last four functions satisfy the relationship 2 ∂ Ni ~ N i (r ) = l ∂r ( i = 1.100) { q }= ⎣v The shape functions are N 1( r ) = 1 ϕ 1 v2 ϕ 2 ⎦ T . 3 ( )] [ 2 + 3r − r + 6β ( 1 + r ) . (5..102) become the third degree Hermitic polynomials (5. ] N 4 (r ) = ~ N1 ( r ) = 4 ( 1 + 3β ) 1 4 ( 1 + 3β 1 [ − 1 −r + r 2 2 + r 3 + 3β − 1 + r 2 . ] For β = 0 . ] N 2 (r ) = N 3(r ) = 1 4 ( 1 + 3β 1 4 ( 1 + 3β [1 −r − r ) ) + r 3 + 3β 1 − r 2 . 2 + 6β ( 1 − r ) . (5.. the first four functions (5. ( )] ) ( − 3 + 3r ) .99) ϕ = ⎢ N1 N 2 where ~ ~ ⎥ N4 ⎥ ⎦ ~ { q } = ⎣N ⎦ { q }. ] ~ N 4 (r ) = 1 4 ( 1 + 3β [ − 1 +2r + 3r 2 + 6β ( 1 + r ) .120 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎢ v = ⎢ N1 ⎣ ⎢2 ~ ⎣l l N2 2 N3 2 ~ N3 l e l ⎥ N4 ⎥ 2 ⎦ { q } = ⎣N ⎦ { q }..101) 1 4 ( 1 + 3β ) [ 2 − 3r + r 2 3 + 6β ( 1 − r ) .

100) and (5.111) On substituting (5.109) we get . l e B T z −1 +1 (5.108) and the contribution due to shear is G As l S Ue = 2 2 +1 ∫ −1 ⎛ 2 dv ⎞ ⎟ dr .108) we get B Ue 1 = 2 {q } +1 e T 2 EIz l −1 ∫ ⎣N ′⎦ ⎣N ′⎦ dr { q } ~ T ~ e (5. ⎜ϕ − ⎜ l dr⎟ ⎠ ⎝ 2 (5.107) the contribution due to bending is B Ue E Iz 2 = 2 l −1 ∫ ⎛dϕ ⎞ ⎜ ⎜ d r ⎟ dr . BEAMS.104) They are 3β 1 ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ N1 (r ) = N 2 (r ) = − N 3 (r ) = N 4 (r ) = .3 Stiffness matrix The strain energy for a beam element with shear effects included is E Iz Ue = 2 As l2 −l 2 ∫ ⎛dϕ ⎞ G As ⎜ ⎜ d x ⎟ dx + 2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 2 l 2 −l 2 ∫ ⎛ dv ⎞ ⎜ϕ − ⎟ dx .100) into (5. 1 + 3β l (5. ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 2 (5.110) wherefrom we obtain the element stiffness matrix due to bending ~ ~ [ k ] = E I 2 ∫ ⎣N ′⎦ ⎣N ′⎦ dr .106) dϕ 2 d ϕ = dx l dr +1 and dx = (5. ⎜ dx⎟ ⎝ ⎠ l dr .109) On substituting (5.5.99) into (5. ⎣ dr ⎦ ~ ˆ ⎣ N ⎦= ⎣ N ⎦ − l (5. 2 2 (5.9.105) 5. FRAMES AND GRIDS 121 2 ⎢ dN ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ .

122 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS S Ue 1 = 2 {q } +1 e T l G As 2 −1 ˆ ∫ ⎣N ⎦ T ˆ ⎣N ⎦ d r { q e } (5. ⎥ 2⎥ (4 + 3β ) l ⎦ − 6l (2 − 3β ) l 6l 2⎥ ⎤ (5.112) wherefrom we obtain the element stiffness matrix due to shear l ˆ ˆ [ k ] = G A 2 ∫ ⎣N ⎦ ⎣N ⎦ dr . e S T s −1 +1 (5.102) and (5.42) derived for a slender beam.105) and performing the integration yields the stiffness matrix [k ] e ⎡ 12 ⎢ 1 EI z ⎢ 6l = 1 + 3β l 3 ⎢− 12 ⎢ ⎣ 6l (4 + 3β ) l − 6l 6l − 12 2 − 6l 12 − 6l (2 − 3β ) l 2 ⎥.113) Substituting the shape functions (5.114) The vector of consistent nodal forces is identical to the corresponding vector (5. .

Points in the body are located by x. 6. (b) surface forces. the portion of the boundary on which displacements are prescribed. z coordinates. (c) stress/strain relations or Hooke’s law. 6.1 Matrix notation for loads. (b) equations of compatibility or strain/displacement relations. is shown in Fig. with emphasis on two-dimensional problems. pv y .6. and (c) concentrated forces. LINEAR ELASTICITY In this chapter the fundamental concepts from the linear theory of elasticity are recalled. the portion on which surface forces are prescribed. (6. In general there may be three sets of applied forces: (a) internal body forces. ∂n ∂y . Their the magnitude per unit volume is denoted by components pv x . pv z . Any point on the surface has a local outward-pointing normal n whose orientation is usually described by its three direction cosines ∂n ∂x . ∂n ∂z .1. It is convenient to write these components as a single body force vector { pv } = ⎣ pv x pv y pv z ⎦ T .1) . and (d) boundary conditions. y. in equilibrium under the action of external loads and the reactions in supports. like centrifugal or gravity forces. Internal body forces Internal body forces inside the volume V can be inertial forces. stresses and strains An arbitrarily shaped tree-dimensional body of volume V. The total surface S of the body has two distinct parts: S u . The four main groups of equations are written in the matrix notation used in FEA: (a) equations of equilibrium. and S σ .

(6.3) Any system of loads has to fall into categories (6.4) where u . It is convenient to represent both stress and strain components as single column matrices. (6.τ zx .1 Displacements It is natural to form the single displacement vector { u} = ⎣u v w⎦ T . Stresses and strains The stresses inside V will have two types of component.τ yz . (6. the direct stress components σ x . Fig. (6. defined by the magnitude per unit surface area. Thus {σ } = ⎣σ x σ y σ z τ xy τ yz τ zx ⎦T . also having three components { ps } = ⎣ ps x Concentrated loads ps y ps z ⎦T . 6. σ y . w are the displacement components inside the body or on the surface Sσ with unprescribed displacements.3). v .124 Surface tractions FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Likewise there could be surface forces (not necessarily normal pressures) on the surface Sσ .σ z and the shear stresses τ xy .5) .1) to (6.2) Concentrated loads are defined by their three components { Fi } = ⎣ Fi x Fi y Fi z ⎦T .

(6.7) can be written . a) Strains are represented in vector form as ε y ε z γ xy γ yz γ zx (6. 6.6. ∂x ∂y (6. where τ xy = τ yx ∂σ x ∂τ yx + pv x = 0. LINEAR ELASTICITY 125 In two-dimensional problems {σ } = ⎣ σ x {ε } = ⎣ε x σ y τ xy ⎦T . + ∂y ∂x ∂τ xy ∂σ y + + p v y = 0.6) In two-dimensional problems {ε } = ⎣ε x ε y γ xy ⎦T . (6.2 In matrix form.5. a) 6. equations (6. The small linear increments in stresses are equilibrated by the applied body forces yielding the following equilibrium equations.6.2 Equations of equilibrium inside V Figure 6.7) Fig. ⎦T .2 shows stresses acting on an infinitesimal element in the plane xOy.

6.11) Fig.2 Equations of equilibrium on the surface Let now consider an element near the loaded boundary Sσ .126 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎡ ∂ ⎢ ∂x ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎣ 0 ∂ ∂y ∂ ∂y ∂ ∂x ⎤ ⎧σ ⎥⎪ x ⎥ ⎨σy ⎥⎪ ⎥ ⎩ τ xy ⎦ ⎫ ⎧ p vx ⎫ ⎪ ⎬ ⎬ = −⎨ ⎩ pvy ⎭ ⎪ ⎭ (6.1) ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ∂ ⎥ .11) the direction cosines for the outward normal n are .3 In (6.8) or. (6. τ xy l + σ y m = ps y .10) 6. Sσ (6. denoting the matrix of differential operators ⎡ ∂ ⎢ ⎢ ∂x [∂ ]= ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ∂ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ ∂y and using (6.9) [ ∂ ]T {σ } + { pv } = { 0 } . The equilibrium along the two axes directions yields σ x l + τ yx m = ps x . ∂y ⎥ ∂ ⎥ ⎥ ∂x ⎦ ⎥ (6.

6. ∂x ∂v . LINEAR ELASTICITY 127 l = cos (n .15) where ∂T n implies that the operators in [ ∂ ] T are acting upon n. x ) = ∂n = nx .18) . (6. ⎪ ⎩ sy ⎭ ⎭ (6. y ) = = ny . equations (6.16) In matrix form ⎡ ∂ ⎢ ⎧ εx ⎫ ⎢ ∂x ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎨ εy ⎬ = ⎢ 0 ⎪γ ⎪ ⎢ ⎩ xy ⎭ ∂ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ ∂y and can be summarized as ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ∂ ⎥⎧u⎫ ⎨ ⎬. sometimes written (6.14) [ ∂ n ] {σ } = { p T s }.3 Strain-displacement relations Figure 6. ∂x ∂ y εx = εy = γ xy = (6. The equations of compatibility have the familiar form ∂u . (6.6.17) {ε } = [ ∂ ] { u } . ∂y ∂ v ∂u + . ∂x ∂n m = cos (n .11) can be written ⎧σ ⎡ nx 0 n y ⎤ ⎪ x ⎢ 0 n n ⎥ ⎨σy y x ⎦⎪ ⎣ ⎩ τ xy ⎫ ⎪ ⎧ ps x ⎫ ⎬ =⎨ p ⎬ .13) or in condensed form [ n ] T {σ } = { p s } .4 gives the deformation of the dx − dy face for small deformations. ∂y ⎥⎩ v ⎭ ∂ ⎥ ⎥ ∂x ⎥ ⎦ (6.12) In matrix form. ∂y (6.

where the material elastic compliance matrix is (6. the stress-strain relations come from the generalized Hooke’s law {ε } = [ C ] {σ } .21) . 0 ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ 2 ( 1 + ν )⎥ ⎦ 0 0 (6.20) {σ } = [ C ] −1{ε } = [ D ] {ε } .19) −ν ⎡1 − ν ⎢ 1 −ν ⎢ ⎢ 1 [C ]= 1 ⎢ E ⎢ ⎢ SYM ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ The inverse relation is 0 0 0 2 (1 +ν 0 0 ) 0 0 2 (1 +ν ) ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥.4 Stress-strain relations For linear isotropic elastic materials. 6.4 6.128 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Fig. The inverse of [ C ] is the material stiffness matrix (6.

and γ yz are set as zero. discarding rows and columns 3.22) ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ 1 −ν ⎥ 2 ⎦ A thin planar body subjected to in-plane loading on its edge surface is said to be in plane stress. and τ yz are set as zero. If stresses σ z . a small thickness in the loaded area can be treated as subjected to plane strain. τ xz . γ xz . we obtain ⎧σx ⎪ ⎨σy ⎪τ ⎩ xy ⎡ ⎫ ν ⎢ 1 −ν ⎪ E ⎢ ν 1 −ν ⎬= (1 + ν )(1 − 2ν ) ⎢ ⎪ 0 ⎢ 0 ⎭ ⎣ ⎤⎧ ⎥ ⎪ εx ⎥ ⎨ εy ⎥⎪ ⎥ ⎩ γ xy ⎦ 0 0 1 −ν 2 ⎫ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎭ (6.21) and discarding rows and columns 3.(6. 5 and 6 in (6. from (6. Plane strain If a long body of uniform cross section is subjected to transverse loading along its length. the Hooke’s law can be written ⎧ εx ⎪ ⎨ εy ⎪γ ⎩ xy ⎫ ⎡ 1 ⎪ 1 ⎢ ⎬ = ⎢ −ν ⎪ E⎢ 0 ⎣ ⎭ −ν 1 0 ⎤ ⎧σx ⎪ 0 ⎥ ⎨σy ⎥ 2 (1 + ν ) ⎥ ⎪ τ xy ⎦⎩ 0 ⎤⎧ ⎥ ⎪ εx ⎥ ⎨ εy ⎥⎪ ⎥ ⎩ γ xy ⎦ ⎫ ⎪ ⎬.25) .6. If strains ε z . LINEAR ELASTICITY 129 ⎡1 − ν ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ E ⎢ [D] = (1 + ν )(1 − 2ν ) ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ Plane stress ν 1 −ν ν ν 1 −ν 0 0 0 1 −ν 2 0 0 0 0 1 −ν 2 SYM 0 ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ .22). ⎪ ⎭ (6.24) which is used as {σ } = [ D ] {ε }. 5 and 6 in (6.20).23) The inverse relations are given by ⎧σx ⎪ ⎨σy ⎪τ ⎩ xy ⎫ ⎪ E ⎬= 2 ⎪ 1 −ν ⎭ ⎡ 0 ⎢1 ν ⎢ν 1 0 ⎢ 1 −ν ⎢0 0 2 ⎣ ⎫ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎭ (6.

24).28) {ε 0 } = (1 + ν ) ⎣α T αT 0⎦ T . (6. 6.26) where T is the temperature rise and α is the coefficient of linear expansion of the material. 2 (6. the strain energy per unit volume in the body is U0 = 1 {σ 2 }T {ε } = 1 {ε }T {σ }. The stress-strain relations become {σ } = [ D ] ( {ε } − {ε 0 } ) .1.32) . T (6. (6.130 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS which is also used as {σ } = [ D ] { ε } but here [ D ] has a different expression as in (6. 6. the total strain energy is given by U= 1 2 V ∫ {ε } {σ } dV . In plane stress (6.31) Substituting (6. (6.21) we obtain the strain energy in terms of strains U= 1 2 V ∫ {ε } [ D ] {ε } dV .6 Strain energy For linear elastic materials.30) For the elastic body shown in Fig. T (6.29) 6.5 Temperature effects The temperature strains are represented as initial strains {ε 0 } = ⎣ α T αT αT 0 0 0 ⎦ T .27) {ε 0 } = ⎣α T In plane strain αT 0 ⎦ T .

Variational methods put less strict conditions on the functions approximating the displacement field than the analytical methods based on differential equations. systems with complex geometry or complex boundary conditions cannot be accomodated easily by global admissible functions. Unfortunately. defined over small subdomains of the structure. In the following. the form known as the principle of virtual displacements (PVD) will be used. In the finite element method. as applied to elastic bodies.1. 7. virtual).7.1 Virtual displacements By definition. Good approximations can be realized with low-degree polynomials. The classical Rayleigh-Ritz technique represents a variational approach whereby a distributed system is approximated by a discrete one by assuming a solution of the differential eigenvalue problem as a finite series of admissible functions. . 7. the approximate solution is constructed using local admissible functions. Displacements are calculated by methods based on the principle of virtual work and/or the principle of minimum total potential energy. b) infinitesimal (follow the rules of differential calculus). Instead of solving differential equations with complicated boundary conditions. virtual displacements are: a) arbitrary (fictitious.1 Principle of virtual work (PVW) PVW is basically a statement of the static equilibrium of a mechanical system. ENERGY METHODS The finite element method can be considered a Rayleigh-Ritz method. the finite element method evaluates integrals of relatively simple polynomial functions.

where [ B ] is the strain-displacement matrix. A virtual displacement will be denoted by ‘ δ ’ in front of a letter. the displacement vector (6. Remember that a function of several variables is said to be of class C m in a domain V if all its partial derivatives. Exceptions do exist. the admissible functions must have continuity C n −1 . i.e. (7. plates and shells.1). m = 2 and the assumed functions must have continuity C 0 . If the differential equation of the problem is of order m = 2n . the vector of virtual displacements is {δu } = ⎣ δu δv δw ⎦ T . d) continuous in the interior and on the surface of the body.132 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS c) not related to either the actual displacements or to the forces producing them. i. the geometrical boundary conditions must be satisfied to the (n − 1)th derivative.g. The symbol ‘ δ ’ was introduced by Lagrange to emphasize the virtual character of the variations. For beams m = 4 and the approximating functions must have continuity C . the functional is said to have a “weak form”. as opposed to the symbol d which designates actual differentials of position coordinates. e. while a continuity C1 is imposed for beams. 6. up to the mth order inclusive. consistent with the system kinematic boundary conditions (geometric constraints). e) kinematically admissible. δu .e. A continuity C 0 is generally required for bars and elasticity problems. Denoting by 1 { u} = ⎣u v w⎦ T . (7. Because the continuity required is reduced from C 2 in the governing differential equation to C1 in the variational equation. For bars.1) The vector of the corresponding virtual strains will be { δε } = [ B ] { δu } .2) . exist and are continuous in the domain V.4) inside the body or on the surface Sσ with unprescribed displacements (Fig.

In the general case of loading by conservative body forces (6.7. 7. because the external loads remain constant during the action along the virtual displacements. a b Fig. .1.1 c Note also the absence of the factor 1 2 which occurs in the expression of the work of elastic forces. 7. 7. hence independent of the force.1. i T T T Sσ (7. surface tractions (6.5) as shown in Fig.2) and point forces (6.2 for the uniaxial case.2 Virtual work of external loads For a bar in tension (Fig.1. 7. c). T (7.1.4) Note that the scalar product under the first integral is { δu }T { pv } = δu ⋅ pv x + δ v ⋅ pv y + δ w ⋅ pv z . the virtual work of the external force F is δWE = F ⋅ δu . because the force is constant along the virtual displacement.1). Note that it is simply (force × displacement).3) It has the same value whether the bar material is linear elastic (Fig.3 Virtual work of internal forces For a three-dimensional continuum. 7. a). (7. 7.1. the virtual work of internal stresses is δ WI = V ∫ { δε } {σ }dV .3). the latter being arbitrary. ENERGY METHODS 133 7. the virtual work of external loads is δ WE = V ∫ { δu } { pv }dV + ∫ { δu } { ps }d A + ∑ { δui } { Fi } . b) or nonlinear elastic (Fig.

4 Principle of virtual displacements For elastic bodies.2 Again. a) In (7. i T T T T V Sσ (7. The nodal displacements do not permit the fully equilibrating position to be reached. Note that the virtual work of reaction forces at supports is zero.1.134 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Fig. then equilibrium relations can be obtained and the displacement parameters determined. the virtual work of applied loads equals the virtual work of internal forces δWE = δWI . stresses remain constant during the action on virtual strains. Since the principle of virtual displacements is an equilibrium requirement.6) δWE is the work of external loads on the virtual displacements { δu } which are independent of loading and kinematically admissible. V ∫ { δε } {σ }dV − ∫ { δu } { pv }dV − ∫ { δu } { ps }d A − ∑ { δui } { Fi } = 0 . 7. it is independent of material behaviour. then during an arbitrary small displacement from the equilibrium position. the principle of virtual displacements states that: If a system is in equilibrium. whether the material is elastic or inelastic. (7.e. so that the PVD will ensure approximate equilibrium.6. 7. If stresses are expressed in terms of a set of parameters defining completely the displacement pattern – the nodal displacements.6) Also: A body is in equilibrium if the internal virtual work equals the external virtual work for every kinematically admissible displacement field. It applies only . i.

7. which produce virtual elongations in bars δΔ1 . loaded by a force F. δΔ3 (Fig. Δ2 . δΔ2 . which do not change direction during the action on the virtual displacements. b). e). Example 7. 3. in which the joint 4 is given a virtual displacement of components δu1 and δu2 (Fig.3. the applied forces remaining constant. δΔ3 satisfy the compatibility equations (2. of components u1 and u2 (Fig.19) . 7. 7. a). produces a displacement of the joint 4. F2 and by internal forces T1 . in which the external force F. T2 . Fig. 7.7. 7.3 Solution. δΔ 2 .4. c). Consider three states of the analyzed system: 1.1 For the three-bar pin-jointed framework shown in Fig. producing the elongations Δ1 . 7.4. The final state of static equilibrium. The external work is independent of the path taken. The initial state.4. 2. f). The joint reacts with forces equal in magnitude but of opposite sign.4. d). in which bars are not loaded by external forces and are not prestressed (Fig. of components F1 = F sinα and F2 = F cosα . ENERGY METHODS 135 for loading by conservative forces. find the internal bar forces and the displacement of point 4. The virtual displacements δu1 and δu2 and the virtual bar extensions δΔ 1 .4. 7. An imaginary state. T3 (Fig. Δ3 (Fig. 7.4. The joint 4 is acted upon by the external forces F1 .

6) using the products of real forces and virtual displacements we obtain T1 δ Δ 1+ T2 δ Δ 2 + T3 δ Δ 3 = F1 δu1 + F2 δu2 . δΔ3 = −δu1 sinθ + δu 2 cosθ . δΔ2 = δu 2 .21) can be written (7. 7.136 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS δΔ1 = δu1 sinθ + δu 2 cosθ .8) Fig.7) into (7.9) and collecting coefficients of δu1 and δu2 . the force-elongation equations (2.4 Equating internal work to external work (7. gives (7.7) Δ 1= T1 l . EA Δ 2= T2 l cosθ . EA (7.9) Substituting (7. EA Δ 3= T3 l . For the three bars.

6. we could put either to zero.10) Since δu1 and δu2 are unrelated to each other. cosθ ⎠ l ⎝ (7. Substituting (7. ∂x dV = Sσ ∫ σ x d(δu ) l d A = ∫ σ x δu l d A − ∫ Sσ V V ∫ σ y δε y dV = Sσ ∫ σ y δv m d A − ∫ δv V ∂σ y ∂y dV . This can only be true if their coefficients vanish T1 sinθ − T3 sinθ = F1 . the components of the displacement of point 4 can be determined from the following equations 2 EA 2 sin θ ⋅ u 1 = F1 . (7.7). V ∫ τ xy δγ xy dV = ∫ τ xy (δ v ⋅ l + δu ⋅ m)d A − ∫ Sσ V ∂τ xy ⎞ ⎛ ∂τ xy ⎜ ⎜ ∂ x δ v + ∂ y δu ⎟ dV .5 Proof that PDV is equivalent to equilibrium equations Consider a form of equation (7.12) 7.1. (7. It is confirmed that the principle of virtual work is an equivalent statement of statical equilibrium.11) These are indeed the equations of equilibrium. l EA ⎛ 1 ⎞ 2 ⎜ 2 cos θ + ⎟ u 2 = F2 . then in (7. Equation (7. ENERGY METHODS 137 δu1 (T1 sin θ − T3 sin θ − F1 ) + δu2 (T1 cos θ + T2 + T3 cos θ − F2 ) = 0 .11).8) in the finite form of (7. a) without point forces V ∫ { δε } {σ }dV = ∫ { δu } { pv }dV + ∫ { δu } { ps }d A .7. T T T V Sσ (7.10) must be zero whatever the values of δu1 and δu2 . ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ . b) Convert { δε } to { δu } using the integration by parts V ⎜ ⎟ ∫ σ x δε x dV = ∫ σ x δ ⎜ ∂ x ⎟ d x dy dz = ∫ ⎝ ⎠ V ⎛ ∂u ⎞ σx Sσ ∂ (δu ) d x l d A = ∂x δu ∂σ x dx dy dz .6. T1 cosθ + T2 + T3 cosθ = F2 .

b) T T T T ∫ { δu } ( [ ∂ ] {σ } + { pv }) dV − ∫ { δu } ( [ n ] {σ } − { ps }) d A = 0 . Sσ V V which is true provided [ ∂ ] T {σ } and {ε } are finite in V. that is the stress and displacement fields are continuous. but only in the mean. It is conventional to remove the unknown reactions by choosing the virtual displacements { δu } to be zero over Sσ . . This applies only within a single element and up to its surface. ⎟ ⎠⎥ ⎦ In matrix form (Gauss’ theorem) T T T T T ∫ { δε } {σ }dV = ∫ { δu } [ n ] {σ }d A − ∫ { δu } [ ∂ ] {σ }dV . when using approximate functions for { u }. its coefficients must vanish.138 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS where l and m are direction cosines of the outward normal at the surface. The componets of stresses at element interfaces may not balance at a point. i.e. So. it is not necessary to worry about the equilibrium boundary conditions. On substituting in (7. Part of the surface.6. Adding together V ∫ ( δε x σ x + δε y σ y + δγ xy τ xy )dV = ∫ [ δu (σ x l + τ xy m)+ δ v (τ xy l + σ y m) ] d A − Sσ − V ∫ ⎡ ⎛ ∂σ x ∂τ xy + ⎢δ u ⎜ ⎜ ∂y ⎢ ⎝ ∂x ⎣ ∂σ y ⎞ ⎛ ∂τ ⎟ + δ v ⎜ xy + ⎟ ⎜ ∂x ∂y ⎠ ⎝ ⎞⎤ ⎟⎥ dV . The equations of equilibrium emerge from the brackets [ ∂ ]T {σ } + { pv } = { 0 } in V. Sσ V Because { δu } are arbitrary. Most finite elements in use today do not achieve continuous stresses across interfaces. [ n ]T {σ } − { ps } = { 0 } on Sσ . Sσ . is supported in some way and there the tractions { ps } will be unknown reactions and not specified loads. The PVD supplies equilibrium conditions both within and on the surface of the body.

4). the virtual variation of the strain energy is equal to the virtual work of the internal stresses on virtual strains. ENERGY METHODS 139 7. substituting σ = E ε and ε = du . the virtual increase of strain energy is δU = Because 1 2 V ∫ {ε } T T [ D ] { ε } dV . For a bar in tension. substituting ε = − y δU = ∫ l ⎛ ⎞ ∂ 2δv ∂ 2 v ⎜ 2 ⎟ E y dA ⎟ dx = ⎜ ⎟ ∂ x2 ∂ x2 ⎜ ⎝A ⎠ ∫ ∫ l d 2δv d2v EI dx .1 Strain energy Consider the strain energy (6.16) The above expressions can be obtained directly from the strain energies . ∫ { δε } V T [ D ] {ε } dV = ∫ { δε }T {σ } dV = δWI . 2 V T ({ δε } δU = T [ D ] {ε } ) = { ε } T [ D ] { δε } . d x2 d x2 (7.7. gives d x2 (7.32) U= 1 2 For a virtual strain { δε } .2 Principle of minimum total potential energy The total potential energy Π of an elastic body is defined as the sum of the strain energy U and the work potential of external loads WP Π = U + WP .2. yields dx δU = V ∫ δε σ dV = ∫ δε Eε A d x = ∫ l l d δu du EA dx .14) For an elastic body. V δ U = δWI . V ∫ { δε } [ D ] {ε } dV + 1 ∫ { ε }T [ D ] { δε } dV . dx dx d2v (5. (7. (7.15) For a beam in bending.13) 7.

⎜ d x2 ⎟ d ⎝ ⎠ 2 (7. because this potential arises from the magnitude of force and its ⎝ 2 ⎠ capacity to do work when it moves. i T T T Sσ (7.19) The negative sign appears because the external loads lose some of their capacity for doing work when displaced in the direction they act. For a three-dimensional continuum WP = − V ∫ {u } { pv }dV − ∫ {u } { ps }d A − ∑ {ui } { Fi } .13. (7.3 Total potential energy The total potential energy (7. being independent of the linear properties of the body on which it acts. (7. a) Its variation is . An external point load F j has potential energy − F j u j ( ) instead of ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎜ − F j u j ⎟ .20) For virtual displacements {δu } δWP = − δWE .21) 7.2.13) can be written Π = ∫ { δε }T {σ } dV − ∫ { u }T { pv }dV − V V Sσ ∫ {u } { ps }d A − ∑ { ui } { Fi } .2. i T T (7.18) 7.17) for a beam U= ∫ l EI 2 ⎛ d2v ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ x. 2 ⎜ dx ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 2 (7. a gravitational force F = m g acts in the opposite direction to a vertical displacement h and the potential becomes m g h .140 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS for a bar U= ∫ l E A ⎛ du ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ dx . For example.2 External potential energy The work potential of external loads WP is equal to the negative product of external forces by the corresponding displacement WP = − WE .

The principle of minimum total potential energy states that: If a deformable body is in equilibrium under the action of external loads and reaction forces. i i i Expressing the elongations in terms of displacements.3. any kinematically admissible displacement field which minimizes the total potential energy represents a stable equilibrium configuration. Reciprocally.22. a) is a condition that establishes or defines the equilibrium. the one satisfying equilibrium corresponds to a minimum value of the total potential energy. the strain energy for a bar is 1 1 E Ai 2 Δi . Example 7.22. Based on equation (7. the total potential energy has a stationary value. if under the action of external loads and reaction forces the total potential energy of a deformable body is a minimum. a) hence. then it is in a stable equilibrium state. according to the compatibility relations. then the total potential energy has a minimum value. the total potential energy can be written . If δ 2 Π > 0 . Thus. Reciprocally.6) it follows that (7. U i = Ti Δ i = 2 2 li and the external potential energy is WP = − ∑F u . it can be considered that (7. (7.22) δΠ = 0 . the equilibrium is stable. at equilibrium. ENERGY METHODS 141 δΠ = δU + δWP = δWI − δWE .7. the stationary value is a minimum.2 For the truss shown in Fig. of all possible kinematically admissible displacement fields. rather than a result of the equilibrium. An equivalent statement is: For conservative systems. 7.

Fig.3 Apply the principle of minimum total potential energy to a beam in bending. Example 7. l l l At equilibrium.11). Cancelling the derivatives of Π with respect to each independent variable ∂Π = 0. ∂ u2 we obtain the equilibrium equations (7. 7. Π is stationary. δΠ = 0 or ∫ E I v′′ δ(v′′)d x − ∫ p δv dx + M l l 0 ′ δ v0 − M l δ v′ − T0 δ v0 + Tl δ vl = 0 . Show that PMTPE is equivalent to the equilibrium conditions inside and at the ends of the beam. For a beam segment loaded as shown. 7. subjected to a distributed load and to the end bending moments and shear forces as shown in Fig.5.5 Solution. l (a) Integrating by parts the first term gives .142 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Π = + EA ( u1 sinθ + u2 cosθ 2l EA (− u1 sinθ + u2 cosθ 2l )2 + EA 2 u2 + 2 l cosθ )2 − F1 u1 − F2 u2 . the total potential energy is Π = 1 2 ∫ E I (v′′) d x − ∫ p v dx + M 2 0 v′ 0 − M l v′ − T0 v0 + Tl vl . ∂ u1 ∂Π =0.

l l 0 ″ Equation (a ) becomes l E I v′′ δ v′ 0 − (E I v′′)′ δ v + ∫ (E I v′′) δv dx − ∫ p δv dx − M δv′ l l l 0 ″ + T δv l 0 =0 or ″ ′ ∫ ((E I v′′) − p ) δv dx + ( E I v′′ .3 The Rayleigh-Ritz method The Rayleigh-Ritz method involves the construction of an assumed displacement field.M ) δv′ − (( E I v′′ ) − T )δv l l 0 =0. or δ vl = 0 .7. For a beam. 7. which are the boundary conditions. or δ v0 = 0 . and l ( E I v′′)l′ = Tl . the other terms deliver the equilibrium conditions at the beam ends ( E I v′′) 0 = M 0 . or δ v′ = 0 . the transverse displacement v (x ) is approximated by a finite series . or δ v′ = 0 . As δ v is arbitrary. The coefficient of δ v in the integrand gives the equation of equilibrium (E I v′′)″ = p (x ) . ( E I v′′) l = M l . ENERGY METHODS 143 ∫ l E I v′′ δ(v′′) d x = l ∫ l E I v′′ d ⎛ dv ⎞ ⎜ δ ⎟ dx = dx ⎜ dx ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ∫ E I v′′ d (δv′) = l l 0 = E I v′′ δ v′ 0 − ∫ d x (E I v′′) dx δv′ = E I v′′ δv′ − ∫ (E I v′′) δv′ dx. 0 ( E I v′′)0′ = T0 . l l d ′ Integrating by parts the last term gives ∫ (E I v′′) δv′ dx = ∫ (E I v′′) d x (δv)dx = ∫ (E I v′′) d (δv)= l l l ′ ′ d ′ = (E I v′′)′ δ v l 0 − ∫ l l 0 d (E I v′′)′ dx δ v = (E I v′′)′ δ v dx l 0 − ∫ (E I v′′) δv dx.

Example 7.. I = 1600 mm4 . ∂aj ( j = 1. b) The functions must individually satisfy the geometric boundary conditions. l = 3 m .4 For the beam shown in Fig. i.6 find the vertical displacement of point 2.23) which represents an approximate deflected shape. The total potential energy is . n ) . and ϕ j ( x ) are prescribed functions of x . that satisfy the kinematic (geometric) boundary conditions and are continuous within the definition interval. c) The sequence of functions must be complete. If the functions are not selected from the domain space of the operator of the equation being solved (completeness property) the resulting solution could be either zero or wrong. which is more accurate the more terms are selected in the respective series. 7. F = 100 N and q = 200 N m . Consider: E = 210 MPa .e. called admissible functions. whose values are determined from the stationarity conditions δΠ = ∑ ∂a j ∂Π j δa j = 0 . The solutions are back-substituted into (7. The necessary requirements for the convergence of the Rayleigh-Ritz method are the following: a) The approximating functions must be continuous to one order less the highest derivative in the integrand. the latter becomes a function of the parameters a j . Substituting the displacements (7. (7. Solution.23) where a j are undetermined constants called generalized coordinates.144 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS v (x ) ≅ ∑ a ϕ (x ) j j j =1 n (7.24) which is a linear algebraic set of equations in the constants a j .. Because δa j are arbitrary.. to be admissible functions. ∂Π =0..23) into the expression of the total potential energy Π .

2 0 l l −F [ a1 ϕ1(l 2) + a2 ϕ2 (l 2) ].28) satisfy all geometrical boundary conditions (7.26) In the following. v′ (0) = 0 . for simplicity. l 2l 3 Requiring Π to be stationary with respect to a1 and a 2 . the transverse displacements are approximated by a series consisting of only two terms v ( x ) = a1 ϕ1 (x ) + a2 ϕ 2 (x ) .26). where the functions (7. (7. leads to two equations relating the generalized coordinates ∂Π = EI ∂ a1 ∫ ( a1 ϕ1′′ + a2 ϕ2′′ ) ϕ1′′ d x − ∫ q ϕ1 d x − F ϕ1(l 2) = 0 .25) The geometric boundary conditions are v (0) = 0 .7. ENERGY METHODS 145 1 Π = EI 2 ∫ 0 l ⎛ d2v ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ d x − q v (x )d x − F v ⎛ l ⎞ . ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ d x2 ⎟ ⎝2⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 2l 3 2 ∫ l (7. 0 2l 3 l .27) into (7. ⎝ 3 ⎠ v (l ) = 0 . ⎛ 2l ⎞ v ⎜ ⎟=0. 7. (7.6 Substituting (7.27) ϕ1 (x ) = x 2 (3 x − 2 l )( x − l ) l4 . ϕ 2 (x ) = x 3 (3 x − 2 l )( x − l ) l5 .25) we obtain the functional 1 Π = EI 2 ′ ∫ ( a1 ϕ1′′ + a2 ϕ2′ ) dx − ∫ q ( a1 ϕ1 + a2 ϕ2 ) dx − . Fig.

the displacement is v (l 2 ) = a1 ϕ1 (l 2) + a2 ϕ 2 (l 2) = = 1 1 q l4 = 2. b) is 1 2 ku − Fu . EI a2 = −0.30) For a small virtual displacement δu . a1 + a2 = 4. a) subjected to a load F.28). the variation of the total potential energy is δ Π = k u δu − F δ u = ( k u − F ) δ u . 2 Π = (7.7. 3 1 3 2 7 l 46656 l For example. the equations are linear in aj .9 ⋅10− 5 16 32 E Iy Example 7. for F = q l 6 . the coefficient of a1 in the first equation is EI ∫ ( ϕ ′′ ) 1 0 l 2 dx = EI 1 ∫ l ( 36 x 8 0 l 2 − 30 l x + 4 l 2 ) 2 dx = 56 E I . E I (7. Substituting the functions (7. The total potential energy (Fig.48 mm.29) In 2.7. Answer. 5 l3 The solutions are a1 = 0. . Because Π is of second order in ϕ and ϕ ′ .146 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ∂Π = EI ∂ a2 ∫ ( a ϕ ′′ + a ϕ ′′ ) ϕ ′′ d x − ∫ q ϕ 1 1 2 2 2 0 2l 3 l l 2 d x − F ϕ 2 (l 2 ) = 0 .5 Consider a linear spring of stiffness k (Fig.00207 q l4 .00257 q l4 . 7. 7. we obtain 56 E I 11 EI a 1 + 10 3 a2 = − ql. Comment on the approximations of the Rayleigh-Ritz method. 3 5 l 4320 l 10 72 E I 269 EI a + a =− ql.

7. The total potential energy of the equilibrium configuration is 1 1 1 F2 . 7.33) U eq = 1 2 1 F2 = −Π eq .32) k =− The strain energy is (7.7. the potential energy for an approximate displacement which satisfies the kinematic boundary conditions is greater than the true value Π app > Π eq .34) If F is prescribed and the resulting u has been approximated by a RayleighRitz solution uapp ≠ ueq . ENERGY METHODS 147 The equilibrium equation is obtained by requiring δΠ to be zero ( Π be stationary) for arbitrary δu .7. . F ueq − F ueq = − F ueq = − 2 2 2 k 1 F2 1 F2 .34) and Fig.31) As seen in Fig. k ueq = 2 2 k (7.7. b indicate that a) Because Π eq is a minimum. equations (7. the exact solution corresponds to an absolute minimum value of Π . In magnitude Π app < Π eq .32) – (7.7 For δΠ =0 we obtain k ueq − F = 0 . = 2 Π eq 2 Π eq Π eq = The stiffness is (7. Fig. b. 7. (7.

c) Procedure.M. For this a matrix notation is used. Admissible functions are defined over small size finite elements. The geometric shape and the internal displacement field are described by a series of discrete quantities (like nodal coordinates and nodal displacements) distributed through the structure. find the displacement field { u } within V and on the surface Sσ (Fig. b) The approximate stiffness is overestimated k ↑= 1 F2 . k↑ (7.1). . 6. { Fi } . .4 F. Computers are used to store long lists of separate numbers and to manipulate them. in Structural Mechanics a) Problem.36) An approximate compatible displacement field corresponds to a structure which is stiffer than the actual structure and therefore will give a lower bound on displcement. the unknown function is approximated piecewise over the entire domain (continuity at global level). d) Tools. 7. 7. to present output data in an engineering format. reaction forces. internal forces. taking advantage of graphical and animation facilities.35) c) The approximate displacement is underestimated u ↓= F . Given a geometrically complex structure (including the boundary conditions) and the external loads { pv } . etc. with simple geometry and well identified structural behaviour.1 F. Then determine stresses.a localized version of the Rayleigh-Ritz method Instead of finding an admissible function satisfying the boundary conditions for the entire domain. 2 Π eq ↓ (7.4. which is often difficult.E.E. Use PVD or PMTPE as an approximate method for solving the boundary-value problem. in the FEM the admissible functions are defined over small size subdomains. { ps } . With these individually defined functions matching each other at certain points (nodes) at the element interfaces.M. b) Solution approach.148 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS the approximate total potential energy is underestimated.

3 Principle of virtual displacements For the entire structure. Fig.4.8 7.4. PVD yields δΠ = ∑ δΠ e e = ∑ ∫ e ⎛ ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ T T ⎜ { δε } {σ }dV − { δu } { ps }d A ⎟ = 0 .37) As a summation of virtual works on all elements.7. The aim is the calculation of the element stiffness matrix and load vector. 7. ENERGY METHODS 149 7.6. 7.8) that define the mesh. a) can be written (considering only surface tractions) δΠ = V ∫ { δε } {σ }dV − ∫ { δu } { ps }d A = 0 .2 Discretization The structure is divided into finite elements (Fig. equation (7. the trial function is expressed as a finite expansion .4. Elements are defined by their nodal coordinates and some physical parameters.38) In the following. only δ Π e will be considered. 7.4 Approximating functions for the element In the Rayleigh-Ritz method. T T Sσ (7. ⎜ Ve ⎟ Sσ e ⎝ ⎠ ∫ (7.

defined by Q e remains to be found. where [ N ] is the matrix of shape functions (interpolation functions).4. where [ B ] is the matrix of differentiated shape functions.18) {ε } = [ ∂ ] { u } = [ ∂ ][ N ] {Q e }= [ B ] {Q e }. . The reason is that elements are small enough so that the shape of the displacement field can be approximated without too much error and only the magnitude. ∑ n The basic idea of FEM is to choose the constants . 7.39) u (x ) ≅ a j ϕ j (x ) = ⎣ϕ1 ϕ 2 L ϕ n ⎦ ⎨ 2 ⎬ = ⎣ϕ ⎦ { a } L⎪ ⎪ j =1 ⎪ an ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ where the undetermined constants a j have no direct evident signification.the displacement unknowns at the nodes { a } = Q e and to prescribe admissible functions denoted ⎣ϕ ⎦ = ⎣N ⎦ so that { } 0 ⎧ u ⎫ ⎡ ⎣N u ⎦ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎨ v ⎬=⎢ 0 ⎪w⎪ ⎢ 0 ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ ⎣N v ⎦ 0 e ⎤ ⎧ Qu ⎪ e 0 ⎥ ⎨ Qv ⎥ e ⎣N w ⎦ ⎥ ⎪ Qw ⎦⎩ 0 { }⎫ { }⎪ ⎬ { }⎪ ⎭ (7.40) or { u } = [ N ] {Q e }. { } The proper selection of shape functions ensure the continuity of the displacement field at global level. The strain virtual variation is (7.150 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎧ a1 ⎫ ⎪a ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ (7. A finite element described by admissible shape functions (integrable in the interior and with equal values of generalized coordinates at element interfaces) is referred to as co-deformable or conforming.5 Compatibility between strains and nodal displacements From the compatibility relationship (6.41) { δε } = [ B ] {δQ e }.

7. (7. {Q } is the vector of the ~ global displacements of the structure and T e is a connectivity matrix.4.45) where Q e is the vector of nodal element displacements. all individual elements are assembled together so that the displacements are continuous across element interfaces and the boundary conditions are satisfied. (7. ENERGY METHODS 151 7. the virtual work for an Ve T T e T e e T ∫ {δ Q } [ B ] [ D ][ B ]{Q }dV − ∫ { δQ } [ N ] { ps }d A = 0 Ae ⎜ = { δQ } ⎜ ∫ [ B ] ⎜ e T ⎛ T [ D ][ B ] dV ⎝ Ve {Q }− ∫ [ N ] e Ae T { ps }d A ⎟ = 0 .6 Element stiffness matrix and load vector Using the constitutive equation element is δΠ e = or δΠ e {σ } = [ D ] {ε } .43) and the vector of consistent nodal forces is {F }= ∫ [ N ] Ae T { ps }d A . e e e (7.42) where the element stiffness matrix is [ K ]= ∫ [ B ] e Ve e T [ D ][ B ] dV (7.44) 7.7 Assembly of the global stiffness matrix and load vector In the next step. { } { } [ ] [ ] The variation of element displacements is . cancelation of the bracket yields the element equilibrium equation { } [ K ] {Q }= {F }. The kinematic connectivity is expressed by the relationship between element and global displacements ~ Q e = T e { Q }. ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ ⎞ As δQ e are arbitrary and non-zero.4. containing ones at the nodal displacements of element nodes and zeros elsewhere.

the unreduced global equilibrium equations are [ K ] {Q } = { F } . It has been used only to show algebraically how to assemble a global stiffness matrix.46) The PVD equation for the entire structure is ∑ {δQ } [ K ] {Q }= ∑ {δQ } {F }. e (7. . the condensed equilibrium equations are [ K ] {Q } = { F } .50) The above procedure is never used in practice.152 ~ { δQ }= [ T ] { δQ }. The assembly is done by directly placing the nonzero entries of element stiffness matrices in the right locations of the global stiffness matrix based on element connectivity.25). 7. e T e e e T e e e or using (7. (7. e T (7.49) Applying the boundary conditions.50).47) where the global stiffness matrix is [ K ]= ∑ e ~ ~ [ T ] [ K ][ T ] e e (7.48) and the global load vector is ~ { F } = ∑ [ T e ] T {Q e }. e e FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS (7.45) and (7.4. In the back-substitution phase.24) or (6. element stresses are evaluated as ~ {σ } = [ D ] {ε } = [ D ][ B ] Q e = [ D ][ B ] T e { Q } { } [ ] where [ D ] is given by (6. e T e e T e T e e As { δ Q } are arbitrary and non-zero.46) {δQ }T ∑ e ~ ~ ~ [ T ] [ K ][ T ] {Q } = {δQ } ∑ [ T ] {Q }.8 Solution and back-substitution Nodal displacements are determined by solving the linear equations (7.

1. This unfilled region exists for curved boundaries and it can be reduced by choosing smaller elements. designed to be primarily loaded in their plane and to resist loads by membrane action rather than bending. Only transversely homogeneous plates will be analyzed herein. composite and sandwich plates being studied in other courses. In-plane displacement. 8. without the need for numerical integration. the CST was one of the most widely used elements and is still available in systems today. This chapter presents the element stiffness matrices and consistent force vectors for triangular and rectangular elements. .1 Discretization of structure The plate is divided into a number of straight-sided triangles (Fig. so that the corners of adjacent elements have common displacements. discussed in the next chapter. joined together at their corners (nodes). It is a much more adaptable shape than the rectangle and it allows the user to tailor the element mesh to suit any structural geometry. the three-noded triangle with constant strain field.1. strain and stress components are uniform through the plate thickness. The elements fill the entire region except of a small region at the boundary. a). A large number of small elements can be densely packed into a region of expected high stress gradients. The very first approximate finite element developed in 1956 to model delta wing skin panels. that allow closed form derivations. and uniformly stressed regions can be left with a small number of larger triangles. 8.8. 8.1 The plane constant-strain triangle (CST) Before the advent of arbitrarily shaped isoparametric elements. TWO-DIMENSIONAL ELEMENTS Many engineering structures can be modeled as two-dimensional flat plates. is treated separately. which is considered constant.

2 and 3. Because for two displacements there are six boundary conditions. b are numbered locally as 1. The corresponding nodal coordinates are designated as ( x1 .1) 8. The vector of element nodal displacements is defined as { q }= ⎣ u e 1 v1 u2 v2 u3 v3 T ⎦ .1. The numbering is in anticlockwise direction to avoid calculating a negative area. a Fig.1 b Each node is permitted to displace in the two directions x and y. each node has two degrees of freedom. v ( x . y ) = a4 + a5 x + a6 y with six arbitrary parameters.1. 8. y2 ) and ( x3 .154 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The three nodes of the isolated element from Fig. y3 ) . (8. the assumed displacement field is linear u (x . ( x2 . y ) = a1 + a2 x + a3 y .2 Polynomial approximation of the displacement field The displacements u and v of a point within the triangle are expressed in terms of the nodal displacements. The displacement components of a local node j are denoted as u j in the x direction and v j in the y direction. 8.2) . y1 ) . Thus. (8.

. 8.2) the constants ai have no physical meaning. in which the constants are the nodal displacements and the displacement field is obtained by interpolation based on values of corner displacements.3 Nodal approximation of the displacement field In the polynomial approximation (8. ∂x εy = ∂v = a6 = const .8. Since the functions for u and v are of the same form.16) are εx = ∂u = a2 = const .6) where . A nodal approximation is preferred. only one need be considered in detail. . .3) Evaluating the expression for u at the three nodes gives the nodal displacements in terms of the polynomial coefficients ⎧ u1 ⎪ ⎨ u2 ⎪u ⎩ 3 or e ⎫ ⎡ 1 x1 ⎪ ⎢ ⎬ = ⎢ 1 x2 ⎪ ⎢1 x 3 ⎭ ⎣ y1 y2 y3 ⎤ ⎧ a1 ⎥ ⎪a ⎥⎨ 2 ⎥ ⎪ a3 ⎦⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎬ . a) where (8. ∂ y ∂x hence the name “constant strain triangle”. (8. ⎡ 1 x1 [A ] = ⎢ 1 x2 ⎢ ⎢ 1 x3 ⎣ By inversion y1 ⎤ y2 ⎥ . (8.4. We can write u = ⎣1 x ⎧ a1 ⎪ y ⎦ ⎨ a2 ⎪a ⎩ 3 ⎫ ⎪ ⎬ = ⎣1 x ⎪ ⎭ y⎦ { a } .4) { u }= [ A ] { a } .1. ⎪ ⎭ (8. ⎥ y3 ⎥ ⎦ (8. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 155 The strains (6. ∂y γ xy = ∂u ∂ v + = a3 + a5 = const .5) { a } = [ A ] −1 { u e }.

2A ( i = 1. 2.8) and the subscripts i . y3 y1 (8. 2. ⎧ N1 ⎪ ⎨ N2 ⎪N ⎩ 3 or Ni = ⎫ ⎡ α1 ⎪ 1 ⎢ ⎬= ⎢α 2 ⎪ 2 A ⎢α ⎭ ⎣ 3 β1 γ 1 ⎤ ⎧ 1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ β2 γ 2 ⎥ ⎨ x ⎬ ⎥ β3 γ 3 ⎥ ⎪ y ⎪ ⎦⎩ ⎭ (8.6) into (8.12. (8. k permute in a natural order.13) . { } (8.10) where the row vector of shape functions −1 ⎣N ⎦ = ⎣N1 N 2 N 3 ⎦ = ⎣ 1 x y ⎦ [ A ] .12) 1 ( α i + βi x + γ i y ) . Substituting (8. 3 ) (8.156 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS [A ] in which −1 ⎡α1 α 2 α 3 ⎤ 1 ⎢ β1 β 2 β 3 ⎥ . j . The area of the triangle A is equal to one half the magnitude of the determinant of [ A ] 1 x1 2 A = 1 x2 1 x3 y2 = (x2 y3 − x3 y2 ) + ( x3 y1 − x1 y3 ) + (x1 y2 − x2 y1 ) . a) Similarly v = ⎣N ⎦ v e . β i = y j − yk .9) The determinant is positive if nodes 1.11) By transposition T −T T ⎣N ⎦ = [A ] ⎣1 x y ⎦ . γ i = xk − x j (8.7) α i = x j yk − xk y j . 3 are labeled anticlockwise around the element. = ⎥ 2A ⎢ ⎢γ 1 γ 2 γ 3 ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ (8.3) gives u = ⎣N ⎦ {u } e (8.

15) Combining (8.2 The shape functions N i vary linearly.12. y ) = 1 [ x2 y3 − x3 y2 + ( y2 − y3 ) x + (x3 − x2 ) y ] . 3 (8. have a unit value at node i and zero values at the other two nodes.14) yields .14) ∑ Ni = 1 .10) and (8. yi ) = δ i j . y ) = N 3 (x . 3 ) (8. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 157 The shape functions (8. as illustrated in Fig. b) Fig. y ) = N 2 (x . 8. and i =1 ( i . 2A 1 [ x1 y2 − x2 y1 + ( y1 − y2 ) x + (x2 − x1 ) y ] . 2A 1 [ x3 y1 − x1 y3 + ( y3 − y1 ) x + (x1 − x3 ) y ] . j = 1.12.2: N i ( xi .8. a) can also be written N1 (x . 2A (8. 2. 8.

(8. u2 and u3 .1. as shown in Fig.3 The displacement u (x.158 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎧ u ⎫ ⎡ N1 ⎨ ⎬=⎢ ⎩v⎭ ⎣ 0 0 N1 N2 0 0 N2 N3 0 ⎧ u1 ⎪v ⎪ 1 0 ⎤ ⎪ u2 ⎪ ⎨ N 3 ⎥ ⎪ v2 ⎦ ⎪ u3 ⎪ ⎪ v3 ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ (8.16.3.y ) =u1 N1 (x.4 The matrix [B ] Strains are expressed in terms of displacements as ⎡ ∂ ⎢ ⎢ ∂x = [ ∂ ] { u }= ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ∂ ⎢ ⎢ ∂y ⎣ ⎤ ⎡ ∂ 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ∂x ⎧u⎫ ⎢ ∂ ⎥ ⎨ ⎬= 0 ∂y ⎥ ⎩ v ⎭ ⎢ ⎢ ∂ ∂ ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ∂x ⎦ ⎥ ⎢ ∂y ⎣ ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ∂ ⎥ [N ∂y ⎥ ∂ ⎥ ⎥ ∂x ⎦ ⎥ {ε } e ] { q e }= [ B ] { q e }. 8. 8.y ) determines a plane surface passing through u1 . a) Fig. 8. .16) or ⎧u⎫ ⎨ ⎬=[N ⎩v⎭ ] { q e }.y ) + u3 N 3 (x.y ) + u2 N 2 (x.

Sometimes it is 0 x32 y23 y31 ⎡ y23 1 ⎢ [ B ]= ⎢ 0 2A ⎢ x32 ⎣ 0 x13 y31 y12 0 x13 0 x21 0 ⎤ x21 ⎥ ⎥ y12 ⎥ ⎦ (8. a) where the notation is obvious.1. (8.24) for plane stress and by (6. Along an edge 1-2. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 159 The matrix of the derivatives of shape functions is ⎡ ∂ N1 ⎢ ⎢ ∂x [ B ]= ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ∂N 1 ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ ∂y 0 ∂ N1 ∂y ∂ N1 ∂x ∂ N2 ∂x 0 ∂ N2 ∂y 0 ∂ N2 ∂y ∂ N2 ∂x ∂ N3 ∂x 0 ∂ N3 ∂y ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ∂ N3 ⎥ . The consistent nodal forces due to traction loads acting on a portion of the boundary are calculated as for a linear two-node element.43) is [k ]= ∫ [ B ] e Ve T [ D ][ B ] dV = [ B ]T [ D ][ B ] t e A.17) The matrix written simply [B] is constant for a given CST element. ⎥ y1 − y2 ⎥ ⎦ 0 x3 − x2 y 2 − y3 y1 − y2 x2 − x1 0 0 x1 − x3 (8. satisfying N1 + N 2 = 1 . ⎥ β3 ⎥ ⎦ 0 ⎤ x2 − x1 ⎥ . A is the element area and [ D ] is the material stiffness matrix given by (6.5 Element stiffness matrix and load vector The element stiffness matrix (7.18) where t e is the element thickness.17. 8. ∂y ⎥ ∂ N3 ⎥ ⎥ ∂x ⎦ ⎥ ⎡ β1 1 ⎢ [ B ]= ⎢ 0 2A ⎢ γ1 ⎣ ⎡ y2 − y3 1 ⎢ [ B ]= ⎢ 0 2A ⎢ x3 − x2 ⎣ 0 β2 0 β3 γ1 0 β1 γ 2 y3 − y1 γ2 0 β2 γ 3 0 x1 − x3 y3 − y1 0 ⎤ γ3 ⎥ . When the surface load distribution (per unit .8. the shape function N 3 is zero while N1 and N 2 are similar to the shape functions in one dimension.25) for plane strain conditions.

varying from p1 at node 1 to p2 at node 2 (Fig. 8. even in a fine mesh. are much inferior to higher order elements in a coarse mesh.19) where t e is the thickness of the element. 8.1.4 The nodal forces associated with the weight of an element are equally distributed at the nodes. the nodal forces are f1e = lte ( 2 p1 + p2 ) .5. 8. b which however produces a larger bandwidth.5 . 8. Fig.6 Remarks A mesh like in Fig. 8. 8. a is clearly a directionally sensitive assembly. 6 f 2e = lte ( p1 + 2 p2 6 ) (8.160 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS area) is linear. Benchmark tests using triangular elements have shown that CST elements.4). and this could be corrected by using the “union jack” pattern of Fig. Because of linearity they coincide with the static resultants. Fig.5.

8.6 . where they should be continuous. The simplest form of averaging consists of simply connecting the centroids of two adjacent triangles and to assign the mean stress value to the crossing point of this line with the common edge. 8.6 for a square plate with a circular hole. A simple example of stress averaging is shown in Fig. only one quarter of the plate is considered.8. This means that along an edge which is common to two elements the stresses are different across the edge. The diagram compares the theoretical stress distribution along the marked line with the averaged values calculated using CSTs. Fig. Taking advantage of symmetry. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 161 A drawback of the displacement form of the finite element method is that equilibrium is only satisfied in the mean or over the element. Most programs contain facilities for averaging the stresses.

1 A square plate of thickness t and Young’s modulus E is pin-jointed at three corners and subjected to a force F at the free corner (Fig. Let ν = 0 .24) is ⎡1 0 0 ⎤ [ D ]= E ⎢ 0 1 0 ⎥ .18) is . E8. y3 = l .1 Solution. ⎢ ⎥ ⎢0 0 1 2⎥ ⎣ ⎦ b (a) With the origin of coordinate axes at the plate centre. E8. a Fig.1. x2 = l .3 Example 8. ⎥ l ⎢ −1 −1 0 1 1 0 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (b) The element stiffness matrix (8. The area is A = l 2 2 and the matrix (8. b) stresses in elements. The material stiffness matrix (6. and c) the support reactions. a). Divide the plate into four CST elements and find: a) the nodal displacements. the nodal coordinates of element 1 are x1 = y1 = 0 .17) is [B ] 1 ⎡ −1 0 1 0 0 0 ⎤ 1⎢ = ⎢ 0 −1 0 0 0 1 ⎥ . x3 = 0 .162 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The procedure will be used in Example E8. y2 = 0 .

12 12 0 ⎥ 2 ⎢ ⎢ SYM 12 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 1 ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ ⎦ (d) Element 2 can be obtained by rotating 900 anticlockwise element 1. (c) [K ] 1 ⎡ 3 2 1 2 −1 −1 2 −1 2 0 ⎤ ⎢ 32 0 −1 2 −1 2 −1 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 1 0 0 0 ⎥ Et ⎢ = ⎢ ⎥. In general. . The stiffness matrix of the rotated element is [ K ] = [T ] [ k ] [T ]. the transformation matrix for a rotation with an angle θ is ⎡ c ⎢−s ⎢ ⎢ 0 =⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎣ s c 0 0 0 0 0 c 0 0 0 0 s 0 0 0⎤ 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0⎥ c s⎥ ⎥ −s c⎥ ⎦ 0 [T ] e 0 −s c (e) where c = cos θ and s = sin θ . .8. 2 2 T 1 2 . TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 163 1 T [ K ]= [k ]= [ B ] 1 1 [ D ] [ B1 ] t A . e e T e e (f) For θ = 900 we obtain ⎡ 0 ⎢ −1 ⎢ ⎢ 0 =⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎣ 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0⎤ 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0⎥ 0 1⎥ ⎥ −1 0 ⎥ ⎦ 0 [T ] 2 0 −1 0 (g) The stiffness matrix of element 2 is [ K ] = [T ] [ k ] [T ].

the finite element equations can be written 0 0 − 1 1 2 ⎤ ⎧ u1 ⎫ ⎧ 0 ⎫ −1 −1 2 −1 ⎡ 3 ⎢ 0 3 0 −1 2 0 − 2 0 − 1 2 ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ V1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ −1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 ⎥ ⎪ u2 ⎪ ⎪ F 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 12 0 0 0 ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ V2 ⎪ Et ⎢ − 1 2 −1 2 0 1 2 ⎨ ⎬=⎨ ⎬. only the upper half of the plate can be considered (Fig. E8. 0 0 12 1 0 0 −1 2 ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ H3 ⎪ 2 ⎢ −1 ⎢ ⎥ 0 0 0 2 0 0 ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ V3 ⎪ −2 ⎢ 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ∗ ⎪ ⎢ −1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ H4 ⎪ ⎢ ⎥ 0 0 1 2 ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ V4 ⎪ −1 2 0 ⎢ 1 2 −1 2 0 ⎣ ⎦⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ Solving E t ⎡ 3 − 1⎤ ⎧ u1 ⎫ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎨ ⎬=⎨ ⎬ 2 ⎢ − 1 1 ⎥ ⎩ u2 ⎭ ⎩ F 2 ⎭ ⎣ ⎦ we obtain the nodal displacements u1 = F . Due to symmetry. . y2 = 1 . 2E t The reaction forces for half the plate are obtained as H3 = − F 4 . y3 = 0 in (8.18). x3 = −1 . Using the appropriate boundary conditions.1. H5 = − F 4 . 1 0 0 ⎥ 2 ⎢ ⎢ SYM 1 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 12 ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ ⎦ (h) The same matrix is obtained by substituting the nodal coordinates x1 = y1 = 0 . ∗ H4 = − F 4 . 2E t u2 = 3F .17) and performing the product (8. x2 = 0 .164 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS [K ] 2 ⎡ 3 2 −1 2 −1 2 0 −1 1 2 ⎤ ⎢ 32 1 2 −1 0 −1 2 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 12 0 0 −1 2 ⎥ Et ⎢ = ⎢ ⎥. b). so that for the entire plate H4 = − F 2 .

8. The units are coherent. = ⎢ 0 −1 0 1 0 0 ⎥ ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬ l ⎪ 0 ⎪ 2l E t ⎪− 1⎪ ⎢ −1 1 0 0 1 −1 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎪0⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪0⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎧ σx ⎫ ⎡1 0 0 ⎤ ⎧ 1 ⎫ ⎧1⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢0 1 0 ⎥ F ⎪ 0 ⎪= F ⎪ 0 ⎪. and c) the support reactions. b) stresses in elements. = ⎢ 0 0⎥ ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬ u l 2l E t ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ − 1 0⎥ ⎩ 2 ⎭ ⎩− 1⎭ ⎣ ⎦ ⎫ ⎪ 1 ⎬ =[D ] ε = E ⎪ ⎭1 ⎡1 0 0 ⎤ ⎧ 2 ⎫ ⎧2⎫ ⎢0 1 0 ⎥ F ⎪ 0 ⎪= F ⎪ 0 ⎪. E8.2 A thin triangular plate is fixed along the edge 5-4 and loaded by forces F1 = −1 and F2 = −2 along the upper edge in its plane (Fig. . Assume the cantilever to have unit thickness t = 1 and be in plane stress. ⎬ ⎢ ⎥ 2l E t ⎨ ⎬ 2 l t ⎨ ⎪− 1 2 ⎪ ⎪− 1⎪ ⎢0 0 1 2⎥ ⎭ ⎩ ⎣ ⎦ ⎩ ⎭ ⎧ σx ⎪ ⎨ σy ⎪τ ⎩ xy { } { ε }= [ B ] { q } 2 2 2 ⎧u1 ⎫ ⎪0⎪ 0 0 0 −1 0 ⎤ ⎪ ⎪ ⎡ 1 ⎧1⎫ ⎪ ⎪ 1⎢ ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ = F ⎪ 0 ⎪. 2 ⎬ ⎨ σy ⎬ =[D ] ε = E ⎢ ⎥ 2l E t ⎨ ⎬ 2 l t ⎨ ⎪− 1 2 ⎪ ⎪ τ ⎪ ⎪− 1⎪ ⎢0 0 1 2⎥ ⎭ ⎩ ⎣ ⎦ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ xy ⎭2 { } Example 8.2). with Young’s modulus E = 1 and Poisson’s ratio ν = 0.3 . TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 165 Strains and stresses in elements are ⎧ u1 ⎪ 0 ⎡ −1 0 1 0 0 0 ⎤ ⎪ ⎪u 1 ⎪ = ⎢ 0 −1 0 0 0 1 ⎥ ⎨ 2 ⎥ 0 l⎢ ⎢ −1 −1 0 1 1 0 ⎥ ⎪ ⎣ ⎦⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬. ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ { ε }= [ B ]{ q } 1 1 1 {ε } 1 ⎧2⎫ ⎡− 1 1⎤ 1⎢ ⎥ ⎧ u1 ⎫ = F ⎪ 0 ⎪ . Divide the plate into three CST elements and find: a) the nodal displacements.

and the matrix [ D ] is given by (6.24).166 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Fig.18). where the matrix [ B ] is obtained from (8.17).2 Solution. . based on the nodal coordinates. The input data are given below For each element. E8. the stiffness matrix is calculated longhand from equation (8.

192 1.903 0 2. u3 = −2.165 ⎤ ⎧ u1 ⎡ 0. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 167 The element stiffness matrices are the following: The condensed global stiffness matrix is The condensed finite element equations can be written 0 0 − 0.111 − 0.165 − 0.192 0 ⎥ ⎪ v1 ⎢ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎢ − 0. .8. u2 = 6.111 0.712 .165 ⎣ ⎦⎩ The solution to these equations gives ⎫ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ −1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎬=⎨ ⎬.823 .582 . v2 = −15.111 ⎢ 0 − 0. ⎪ ⎪−2⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎭ ⎭ ⎩ u1 = 7.165 − 0.666 0 1.542 . v1 = −40.317 0.317 0.301 0 0 ⎥ ⎪ u2 − 0.125 0 − 1.686 . v3 = −13.666 ⎢ ⎥⎨ 0 2.317 ⎢ 0 0.835 .125 ⎥ ⎪ v3 ⎢ − 0.192 − 0.192 − 0.301 0 ⎥ ⎪ u3 ⎢ ⎥⎪ 0 0 − 1.903 ⎥ ⎪ v2 ⎢ 0.

which is wrong. b) the location and magnitude of the maximum von Mises stress in the plate.6. Taking advantage of the symmetry of geometry and symmetry of loading. . thickness t = 5 mm . to allow longhand calculation. we can analyze only one-quarter of the plate (upper right). being a constant strain element. width b = 40 mm . a more realistic stress distribution along the edge 4-5 is obtained. Example 8.3.3 . is subjected to loads that produce uniform tensile stresses σ 0 = 5 MPa at its ends (Fig. a distribution of bending stresses from compressive at 4 to tensile at 5 is expected. a). and this leads to misleading results. Along the edge 4-5. containing a circular hole of radius a = 10 mm . gives only one value of σ x . c) the distribution of σ x stresses in the midsection. Note that the adopted discretization is very crude. Compare the stress values at the periphery of the hole obtained by FEM and from the theory of elasticity.3 A thin rectangular plate.1.168 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The output data are presented below: The reaction forces at nodes 4 and 5 are obtained from the ‘unused’ unreduced equations. element 3. E8. Normally. However. Ascribing stress values to the element centroids and averaging them as shown in section 8. Determine: a) the deformed shape of the hole. E = 210 GPa and ν = 0. Solution. the plate should be modeled by many more elements. The plate has length l = 60 mm .

3. The centroids of the elements near the midsection are marked.8. b The applied nodal forces are shown. The points along the x axis are constrained in the y direction. . 81-element mesh is created as shown in Fig.3. E8. The deformed shape is shown in Fig. E8. E8. and points along the y axis are constrained along the x direction. and the crossing points of the lines connecting the centroids with the common sides (where stresses are averaged). Let x and y represent the axes of symmetry. c.3. Fig. a A 55-node. The hole is elongated in the direction of the loading axis. but the element numbering is omitted for clarity. b. E8. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 169 Fig. are denoted a to f.3.

using five intervals with limits shown in the legend. c The calculation of stresses is summarized in Fig. d.6 MPa and occurs in element 1.3. Fig. d The maximum von Mises stress is 19.3. Elements are hatched according to the value of von Mises stresses. .3.3. E8.170 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Fig. E8. Stress values in elements near the midsection are given in Table E8. E8.

5693 5. thickness 5 mm . MPa The theoretical distribution of stresses σ x in the midsection of a plate containing a small circular hole and subjected to uniaxial tension is approximated by ⎛ a2 3 a4 ⎞ σ x = σ0 ⎜ 1+ 2 + 4 ⎟ . TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 171 Table E8.6221 0.4 An axially loaded thin plate with a circular fillet (Fig. a).3.6155 10. width of the reduced portion 40 mm .68 f 4. The normal stress at a point far to the right of the fillet has a uniformly distributed value . averaged at points a to f. ⎜ 2r 2r ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ where r is the distance from the x axis (Fig.815 1.0178 11.8. is σ xa = 15.85 e 6.69 d 7.4577 11.25 .6667 0.5786 7.9433 7. have the following values: Point a 15. The maximum stress occurs at the periphery of the hole (r = a ) and is σ xmax = 3σ 0 = 15 MPa .4.7073 3. E8.5706 -0.0752 σy 0.6445 5.3275 8.39 c 9.5768 0. E8. width of the extended portion 80 mm . The averaged value of elements 1 and 2. E = 2 ⋅ 105 MPa and ν = 0.8845 1.7162 4. a) has length 150 mm . fillet radius 20 mm .3 Element 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 σx 20.927 0.1651 0.068 7.763 τ xy -0. which is surprisingly accurate for the rough mesh used in the exercise.9228 0.3595 σ eq 19.8037 Stresses σ x .2632 0. in point a. Example 8.89 σ x .0595 0.78 MPa .174 0.78 b 11.6821 10.

c for five stress intervals given in the legend.4. Fig. The resulting five nodal forces. The right edge has four elements. and 11000 N at the three middle nodes. The nodal loads for each element are 440 × 25 / 2 = 5500 N . each with a surface of 25 mm 2 .19). Points along the left edge are constrained in the horizontal direction. subjected to a normal stress of 440 N mm 2 . The distribution of von Mises stresses is shown in Fig. only half of the plate is considered.172 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS of 440 MPa . Find the location and magnitude of the maximum von Mises stress in the plate. b The nodal loads are calculated from equation (8. E8. have magnitudes of 5500 N at the upper and lower node. Fig.4. for the quarter plate.4. E8. b. The largest equivalent stress is 604. E8.4. . Determine the stress concentration factor for the circular fillet.7 MPa . The points along the symmetry axis are constrained in the vertical direction. Taking advantage of the symmetry. a Answer. A model comprising 95 nodes and 144 CST elements is constructed as shown in Fig. E8.

Calculate the element stresses.63e − 3 . The stress concentration factor relative to the value 440 MPa is 1. b are given below: x60 = 92.415. x64 = 95 . y64 = 18 . E8.11224 .3757 0 0.2982 − 0. v60 = −3.2982 ⎢ [ B ]= ⎢ 0 0.4.35 .42 given by Singer (1962). The triangle area is A96 = 4.0596 0 − 0. u64 = 0.3160 ⎥ . = 0.52 .3757 − 0. E8. v64 = −3.4198 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ .12367 .0596 − 0. Example 8. y60 = 21.1216 0 0.4198 0 ⎤ ⎡ − 0.25 .1925 mm 2 . v65 = −4.17) 0 − 0.5 . u65 u60 = 0. c Values of the principal stress σ 1 around the fillet are presented in the upper part. ⎥ ⎢ 0.7 MPa . TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 173 Fig.5 . Solution.5 The nodal coordinates and the nodal displacements of element 96 in Fig.8. E = 2 ⋅ 105 MPa and ν = 0.97e − 3 . y65 = 20. The largest principal stress σ 1 is 622.4.12247 .92e − 3 .3160 0.1216 0. x65 = 95. The matrix [ B ] is (8. This value is reasonably close to the theoretical true value of 1.

1333 0 ⎥ .24) ⎡ 2.1) is { q } = ⎣ 0.58 − 120. to concentrate only on the influence of fillet geometry.1333 0.8 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 5 The vector of nodal displacements (8. a. a .63e − 3 0.6.6 Find the deformed shape and the stress distribution in the loaded gear tooth shown in Fig.6. E8. {σ } = ⎣σ x Example 8.12247 − 4.11224 − 3. The load is not applied at the tooth tip. but is distributed over a larger area than for the mating contact of two teeth. ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0 0 0 .92e − 3 ⎦ T .174 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The matrix [ D ] is (6.5333 2.08⎦ T .5333 0 ⎤ [ D ] = 10 ⎢ 0. E8.97e − 3 0.12367 − 3. Fig. Element stresses are given by {σ } = [ D ][ B ] { q }.72 63. σ y τ xy ⎦ T = ⎣596.

c . b. where the equivalent von Mises stresses are indicated.8.6. The adopted finite element mesh has 126 nodes and 212 CST elements. E8.6. c. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 175 Answer. Fig. Note the restraints which model the tooth built-in end. E8.6.6. The deformed shape is presented in Fig. E8. E8. Fig. Note the stress concentration at both fillet areas. b The stress distribution is shown in Fig.

Fig. and has a unit value at the node with the same index N1 ( x1 . built up beams and boxes. a b N4 ( x. 8.7.1 The four-node rectangle (linear) Consider the 4-node element in Fig. y ) = c1 ( a − x ) ( b − y ) . y ) = x a y ⎞ ⎛ ⎜ 1− ⎟ . ( ) (8. N1 is identically zero on lines x = a and y = b . y ) = y b x⎞ ⎛ ⎜ 1− ⎟ . For example. y ) = ⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟ ab a ⎠⎝ b ⎠ ⎝ Likewise. N1 ( x . a⎠ ⎝ It is convenient to transform to dimensionless central coordinates . the remaining three shape functions are N2 ( x.0 ) = 1 we get c1 = 1 .7 We have to find two-dimensional shape functions which have unit values at one selected node.20) They can be generated using the equations of the sides. b ⎠ ⎝ N3 ( x. hence ab 1 ( a − x ) ( b − y ) = ⎛ 1− x ⎞ ⎛ 1− y ⎞ . y1 ) = N1 ( 0. but zero at all other nodes on the element N i x j . y1 ) = 1 . 8. y ) = x y .176 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 8.2. From condition N1 ( x1 . y j = δ ij .2 Rectangular elements Rectangular elements are the easiest to discuss and are used to model stiffened thinwalled panel structures. hence it must be of the form N1 ( x . 8.

y ) = a 1 + a2 x + a3 y + a4 x y .23) has one drawback – they are not complete. The displacements u and v of a point within the rectangle can be expressed in terms of the nodal displacements by a polynomial approximation. The required shape functions are 1 (1 − r ) (1 − s ) . N4 ⎥ ⎦ u4 v4 ⎦ . v ( x . The 4-noded rectangular element is exploited in non-linear problems like elasto-plastic behaviour. Thus the variation of strain does not have the same order in all directions. there are eight boundary conditions.23) The displacements inside the element can be expressed in terms of the nodal displacements as ⎧ u ⎫ ⎡ N1 ⎨ ⎬=⎢ ⎩v⎭ ⎣ 0 0 N1 N2 0 0 N2 N3 0 0 N3 N4 0 0 ⎤ e q .22) (8. 4 4 N1 = (8. 1 ± s = 0 . N 4 = ( 1 − r ) ( 1 + s ) . Because.8. In this case x y is present but x 2 and y 2 are not. the assumed displacement field is u (x . That is. Many users prefer to use higher order elements rather than use a larger number of small 4-noded rectangles. Some improvement can be gained by diminishing the shear variation through the use of reduced integration on the shear contribution in the element stiffness matrix. b r= 2x −1.26) The direct strain ε x = a2 + a4 y is constant in the x direction whereas the shear strain γ xy = a3 + a4 x + b2 + b4 y varies linearly with x and y . N2 = 1 (1 + r ) (1 − s ) . TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 177 s= 2y −1. (8.…. where the stiffness has to be reevaluated as the load increments are applied and plasticity spreads.24) where {q } e T = ⎣u1 v1 u2 v2 u3 v3 (8. all like powers in x and y are not present. a (8. . { } (8. 4 4 1 1 N3 = ( 1 + r ) ( 1 + s ) .21) The equations of element sides become 1 ± r = 0 .25) The use of the shape functions (8. for two displacements. y ) = b1 + b 2 x + b 3 y + b4 x y .

where [ B ] = [ ∂ ][ N ] .2. Generally. . The 4-node element has flat sides. The ratio spurious shears a = = aspect ratio .8. In comparison. Fig.178 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The element stiffness matrix (7.2 The eight-node rectangle (quadratic) The higher order 8-node rectangular element is shown in Fig. bending strains b This explains the poor results obtained with high aspect ratio elements which have also badly conditioned stiffness matrices.39) is [k ]= ∫ [ B ] e Ve T [ D ][ B ] dV .8 Figure 8. 8. The stress discontinuities at element interfaces can be comparable with the mean values and the free edge stresses are not zero. stresses are lower than the true values. (≥ 3) 8. Adding four nodes means adding four supplementary boundary conditions (or nodal displacements) so that in the polynomial approximation we can add four more (higher order) terms. The poor performance of the 4-noded element is shown below. b shows the expected circular deformed shape free of shear deformations.9. Fig.8. 8. in an example where it is expected to behave like a slender beam in which bending stresses are dominant. 8. because the strain energy is underestimated. At the element ends the shear strain is γ xy = d b and only the centre has no shear deformation. The direct strains are ε x = d a on the upper and lower surface. a shows the deformed shape of a single element in pure bending.

The 16 constants can be expressed (interpolated) in terms of the 16 nodal displacements and the nodal coordinates.29) 1 1 N5 = ( 1 − r ) ( 1 + r ) ( 1 − s ) . the old ones are presented in Fig. Note that choosing the last terms in x 3 and y 3 would make the element more anisotropic. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 179 The assumed displacement field is cubic u (x .8.28) where the shape functions N i can be easily built up based on the equations of the lines passing through the nodes (serendipity approach). (8. the shape functions have the following expressions 1 ( 1 − r ) ( 1 − s ) (1 + r + s ) . Using the nodal approximation. N 8 = ( 1 − r ) ( 1 − s ) ( 1 + s ). v = N1 v1 + N 2 v2 + N 3 v3 + .9 only the lines through the new nodes are shown for clarity. N 2 = − 1 ( 1 + r ) ( 1 − s ) (1 − r + s ) . 4 4 (8. 8. + N8 u8 . y ) = b1 + b2 x + b3 y + b4 x 2 + b5 x y + b6 y 2 + b7 x 2 y + b8 x y 2 . + N8 v8 . N6 = ( 1 + r ) ( 1 − s ) ( 1 + s ) . Fig. In the natural system of coordinates r and s.9 In Fig.. (8.. the displacement field is expressed as u = N1 u1 + N 2 u2 + N 3 u3 + . 8. v ( x ... 4 4 1 1 N 3 = − ( 1 + r ) ( 1 + s ) ( 1 − r − s ). 2 4 N1 = − . 8. y ) = a 1 + a2 x + a3 y + a4 x 2 + a5 x y + a6 y 2 + a7 x 2 y + a8 x y 2 . N 4 = − ( 1 − r ) ( 1 + s ) (1 + r − s ) .7. 2 2 1 1 N 7 = ( 1 − r ) ( 1 + r ) (1 + s ) .27) so that the strains are quadratic.

31) follow and the element stiffness matrix k e can be evaluated using [ D ] .180 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The interpolation function N1 should be zero at nodes 2. as h1 h2 h3 . 1 + r + s = 0 . h3 from the three sides (Fig. h2 . by division to the triangle heights. 3.−1) = 1 . ζ3 = . the functions [ B ] = [ ∂ ][ N [ ] ] 8.. ζ2 = . which gives the expression of N1 in (8.29). quadratic or higher-order strain expansions. The position of any point M in the triangle is identified by the perpendicular distances h1 . i. N1 should vanish on the sides defined by the equations of lines passing through nodes 2 to 8: 1 − s = 0 . one has to use a large number of elements. 8.e. elements having linear. 1 − r = 0 . { } (8..1 Area coordinates For a triangle it is possible to define a completely symmetrical coordinate system known as area coordinates. c1 = −1 4 .10. N8 ⎥ ⎦ v8 ⎦ T .30) { q }= ⎣u e 1 v1 u2 v 2 L L u8 (8.3 Triangular elements In order to obtain accurate results for stresses with a constant strain discretization. i. 8. Therefore N1 is of the form N1 = c1 ( 1 − r ) ( 1 − s ) (1 + r + s ) . Equivalently. ζ1 = H1 H2 H3 . The displacements inside the element can be expressed in terms of the nodal displacements as ⎧ u ⎫ ⎡ N1 ⎨ ⎬=⎢ ⎩v⎭ ⎣ 0 where 0 N1 N2 0 0 L L N8 N2 L L 0 0 ⎤ e q .. Considerable effort has been devoted to develop ‘refined’ elements. a). Having generated the shape functions [ N ] ..e. 8 and have a value of unity at node 1.3. and nondimensionalized. where c1 is a constant which is determined so as to yield N1 (− 1.

10 The physical coordinates of point M can be expressed in terms of the nodal coordinates as x = ζ 1 x1 + ζ 2 x 2 + ζ 3 x3 . y = ζ 1 y1 + ζ 2 y2 + ζ 3 y3 .34) By inversion. or in matrix form ⎧1 ⎫ ⎡1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎨ x ⎬ = ⎢ x1 ⎪ y ⎪ ⎢y ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ 1 ⎧ ζ1 ⎪ ⎨ ζ2 ⎪ζ ⎩ 3 or 1 x2 y2 1 ⎤ ⎧ ζ1 ⎪ x3 ⎥ ⎨ ζ 2 ⎥ y3 ⎥ ⎪ ζ 3 ⎦⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎬. 8. ζ3 = A3 A .33) so the three coordinates are not independent and they behave like the shape functions.12) ⎫ ⎡α1 ⎪ 1 ⎢ ⎬= ⎢α 2 ⎪ 2 A ⎢α ⎭ ⎣ 3 β1 γ 1 ⎤ ⎧ 1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ β2 γ 2 ⎥ ⎨ x ⎬ ⎥ β3 γ 3 ⎥ ⎪ y ⎪ ⎦⎩ ⎭ .10. one obtains ζ1 + ζ 2 + ζ 3 = 1 . (8. (8. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 181 or ζ1 = A1 A . ⎪ ⎭ (8. ζ2 = A2 A . b). 8. Fig. we obtain equation (8.8.32) As A1 + A2 + A3 = A (Fig.

In Fig.2 Linear strain triangle (LST) The linear strain triangle is a six-noded element. 2⎠ 2⎠ ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ N 5 = 4 ζ 2 ζ 3 . N 2 = 2 ⎜ ζ 2 − ⎟ ζ 2 . γ i = xk − x j . 2.37) where { q }= ⎣u e v1 u2 v 2 L L u6 (8. the equations of the three sides and the lines through the mid-side nodes are shown using area coordinates.36) The displacements in terms of the nodal displacements are ⎧ u ⎫ ⎡ N1 ⎨ ⎬=⎢ ⎩v⎭ ⎣ 0 0 N1 1 N2 0 0 L L N6 N2 L L 0 0 ⎤ e q . obtained adding three mid-side nodes to the CST.9) and the expressions (8. 1⎞ 1⎞ ⎞ ⎛ ⎛ ⎟ ζ1 . 8. β i = y j − yk . N6 ⎥ ⎦ v6 ⎦ T .11.182 ζi = 1 ( α i + βi x + γ i y ) . N 6 = 4 ζ 3 ζ1 .8) are α i = x j yk − xk y j . Fig.35) where A is given by (8. { } (8. N 3 = 2 ⎜ ζ 3 − ⎟ ζ 3 . 8. (8. 2A FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ( i = 1. 3 ) (8. 8.38) .3.11 The shape functions are readily seen to be 1 ⎛ N1 = 2 ⎜ ζ1 − 2 ⎝ N 4 = 4 ζ1 ζ 2 .

⎪ ⎪ ⎭ (8. 6 (8. 3 ∫ζ ζ i A j dA = A . TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 183 To form [ B ] = [ ∂ ][ N ] we need to find the derivatives of shape functions with respect to the physical coordinates.33) we can eliminate ζ1 in (8.41) where A is the triangle area (8. y = ( y2 − y1 ) ζ 2 + ( y3 − y1 ) ζ 3 + y1 .42) where d A = l 3 dζ 2 l 2 dζ 3 sinθ = 2 A dζ 2 dζ 3 .8.9) and β i . The element stiffness matrix is [k ]= ∫ [ B ] e A T [ D ][ B ] t e d A . (8.and second-degree terms are ∫ζ A i dA = A .44) . The inverse relationship is ⎧ ∂ ⎪ ∂x ⎪ ⎨ ∂ ⎪ ⎪∂y ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬=[J ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎧ ∂ ⎪ ζ ] −1 ⎪ ∂∂ 2 ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ∂ ζ3 ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ 1 ⎡ β2 ⎪ ⎬= ⎢ ⎪ 2A ⎣ γ 2 ⎪ ⎭ ⎧ ∂ β3 ⎤ ⎪ ∂ ζ 2 ⎪ ⎥⎨ ∂ γ3 ⎦ ⎪ ⎪ ∂ ζ3 ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬. ζ 2 . However. ζ 3 . ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ (8. Using (8. (2 + a + b ) ! (8.40) where [ J ] is the Jacobian of the transformation.8).39) Using the chain rule for partial derivatives ⎧ ∂ ⎪ ∂ζ ⎪ 2 ⎨ ∂ ⎪ ⎪ ∂ ζ3 ⎩ ⎫ ⎡ ∂x ⎪ ⎢ ∂ζ ⎪ 2 ⎬ = ⎢ ∂x ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ∂ ζ3 ⎭ ⎣ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬=[J ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬. it can be solved explicitly in terms of a. ∂y ∂ ζ2 ∂y ∂ ζ3 ⎤⎧ ∂ ⎥⎪ ∂x ⎪ ⎥⎨ ⎥⎪ ∂ ⎥⎪∂y ⎦⎩ ⎧ ∂ ⎪ ] ⎪ ∂∂x ⎨ ⎪ ⎪∂y ⎩ (8. The integration is frequently performed numerically. γ i are defined by (8. y to ζ1 . so we must transform from x .43) The results for first. 12 ∫ζ A 2 i dA = A .34) obtaining x = (x 2 − x1 ) ζ 2 + (x3 − x1 ) ζ 3 + x1 . b and [ D ] using the integration formula for monomials ∫ζ A a b i ζj dA = 2 A a! b! .

N2 = r . There are twelve nodal displacements.47) Fig. The physical coordinates of a point within the triangle are x = ( 1 − r − s ) x1 + r x 2 + s x3 . the nodal approximation (8.12). Solving for the constants in terms of the nodal displacements. 2 (8.37) is obtained.48) . so the element is truly isotropic. y = ( 1 − r − s ) y1 + r y2 + s y3 . 8. the displacement expansion on a boundary must involve only the nodal quantities for that boundary. (8. ζ1 = 1 − ζ 2 − ζ 3 = 1 − r − s (8. without recourse to computationally inefficient internal nodes.12 The coefficients of the nodal coordinates are genuine geometric interpolation functions N1 = 1 − r − s . containing all possible products. (8. ζ 3 = s.45) The displacement field is complete. N3 = s . In order to satisfy inter-element displacement compatibility. 8. six for each component.184 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The LST element is based on expanding the displacements in a complete second-degree polynomial in ζ 2 and ζ 3 2 u = a1 + a2 ζ 2 + a3 ζ 3 + a4 ζ 2 + a5 ζ 2 ζ 3 + a6 ζ 3 . Denoting ζ 2 = r.46) we can introduce oblique triangular coordinates (Fig. It is convenient to locate these interior nodes at the mid-points of the sides. 2 2 v = b1 + b2 ζ 2 + b3 ζ 3 + b4 ζ 2 + b5 ζ 2 ζ 3 + b6 ζ 3 . There are three constants for this case (the function is quadratic) and an additional interior node is required for each boundary.

8. 8. the displacement function for a side must depend only on the nodal displacement quantities for the side. (8.13 The displacements are expressed as complete cubic polynomials.50) where .3. i =1 9 (8. v = ( 1 − r − s ) v1 + r v2 + s v3 . taking as nodal quantities the displacement components. The side nodes are located at the third points. 8. An additional interior node is needed to maintain completeness of the polynomial since. One possibility is to work with corner point nodes and two interior nodes per side. four nodal quantities are required to define the distribution on a side. Since the function is cubic. Fig. 8. if the polynomial is not complete. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 185 The nodal displacements for the 3-node triangle can also be written u = ( 1 − r − s ) u1 + r u2 + s u3 . The displacement nodal expansion has the form u = ∑ N i ui + N c u c . a. i =1 9 v = ∑ N i vi + N c v c . In order to satisfy inter-element displacement compatibility. This element is shown in Fig. treated in the next chapter. the stiffness will have preferred direction which is not desirable. This is the basic idea behind the isoparametric formulation. It is convenient to take the interior node at the centroid.49) so that the same functions can be used as interpolation functions.13.3 Quadratic strain triangle A triangular element with a quadratic displacement field can be built up in two ways.

51) Another possibility is to work only with corner nodes. 2 N 5 = ζ 2 ( γ 1 ζ 3 − γ 3 ζ1 ) + ( γ 3 − γ 1 ) ζ 1 ζ 2 ζ 3 . The solution is to include displacement ∂ u ∂ u ∂v ∂v derivatives . Two additional displacement quantities not associated with the boundaries are required for completeness. expressed in terms of triangular coordinates. 2 2 1 = ζ3 ( 3 ζ3 − 1 ) ( 3 ζ3 − 2 ) .13. a total of 18 parameters (Fig. 2 N 2 = ζ1 ( γ 3 ζ 2 − γ 2 ζ 3 ) + ( γ 2 − γ 3 ) ζ1 ζ 2 ζ 3 . there are six . N 9 = ζ 3 ζ 1 ( 3 ζ 1 − 1 ) . 2 2 9 9 = ζ 3 ζ1 ( 3 ζ 3 − 1 ) . 2 N 6 = ζ 2 ( β 3 ζ1 − β1 ζ 3 ) + ( β1 − β 3 ) ζ1 ζ 2 ζ 3 . 2 9 9 = ζ1 ζ 2 ( 3 ζ1 − 1 ) . 2 2 9 9 = ζ 2 ζ 3 ( 3 ζ 2 − 1 ). N 4 = ζ 2 ( ζ 2 + 3 ζ 3 + 3 ζ1 ) − 7 ζ1 ζ 2 ζ 3 . At each corner. 2 N 9 = ζ 3 ( β1 ζ 2 − β 2 ζ1 ) + ( β 2 − β1 ) ζ1 ζ 2 ζ 3 . . in order to reduce the bandwidth of the stiffness matrix. 2 N8 = ζ 3 ( γ 2 ζ1 − γ 1 ζ 2 ) + ( γ 1 − γ 2 ) ζ1 ζ 2 ζ 3 . N 7 = ζ 2 ζ 3 ( 3 ζ 3 − 1 ). 8. ∂x ∂ y ∂x ∂ y nodal variables. b). The nodal expansion for u has the form u = N1 u1 + N 2 u′ 1 + N 3 u′y1 + N 4 u2 + N 5 u′ 2 + . (8. vc ) as the remaining parameters.52) In (8. 2 2 N 7 = ζ 3 ( ζ 3 + 3 ζ1 + 3 ζ 2 ) − 7 ζ1 ζ 2 ζ 3 . N 2 = ζ 2 ( 3 ζ 2 − 1 ) ( 3 ζ 2 − 2 ) . as nodal quantities.. x x (8.186 N1 = N3 N4 N6 N8 Nc FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 1 1 ζ1 ( 3 ζ1 − 1 ) ( 3 ζ1 − 2 ) . It is convenient to take the displacement components of the centroid (uc .53) N c = 27 ζ1 ζ 2 ζ 3 . N 5 = ζ1 ζ 2 ( 3 ζ 2 − 1 ).52) the interpolation polynomials. are 2 N1 = ζ1 ( ζ1 + 3 ζ 2 + 3 ζ 3 ) − 7 ζ1 ζ 2 ζ 3 . two displacements and four first derivatives.. . 2 N 3 = ζ1 ( β 2 ζ 3 − β 3 ζ 2 ) + ( β 3 − β 2 ) ζ1 ζ 2 ζ 3 . (8. + + N 9 u′y 3 + N cuc . 2 2 = 27 ζ1 ζ 2 ζ 3 .

56) .26) (8.55) Equations (8. v ( x . convergence and compatibility It is useful to make some general comments on the fulfilment of the equilibrium and compatibility conditions in a finite element solution based on assumed displacement fields [33]. For example.8. 2 ∂x ∂y equations (6. but equilibrium is usually not satisfied.4 Equilibrium. one can say that: a) Within elements. + 2 = − 2 ⎜ ∂ y 2 ∂ x ∂y ⎟ ∂ x2 ∂ y ⎝ ⎠ ∂ 2 v ∂ 2 v 1 + ν ⎛ ∂ 2 v ∂ 2u ⎞ ⎜ ⎟. pv x Let write the equilibrium equations in terms of displacements for the case = pv y = 0 . ∂x 2 ∂y 1− ν ∂ ∂ γ xy + ε y + ν ε x = 0.54) Substituting the strain-displacement relations (6.24) into the equilibrium ∂ 1− ν ∂ ε x +ν ε y + γ xy = 0. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 187 where γ i . β i are defined by (8. compatibility is satisfied if the assumed element displacement field is continuous. y ) = b1 + b2 x + b3 y + b4 x y .54) gives ∂ 2u ∂ 2u 1 + ν ⎛ ∂ 2u ∂ 2v ⎞ ⎜ ⎟. 8. The same interpolation functions are valid for v .55) are not satisfied by the assumed displacement field (8.8) and the subscript c refers to the centroid. y ) = a1 + a2 x + a3 y + a4 x y .16) in (8.7) we obtain ( ) ( ) (8.1 Equilibrium vs. 8. Substituting the stress-strain relations (6.4. compatibility In a FEM solution based on assumed displacement fields. (8. + = − 2 ⎜ ∂ x 2 ∂ x ∂y ⎟ ∂ x2 ∂ y 2 ⎝ ⎠ u ( x . of the rectangular element.

for any nodal displacement. the edges remain straight. The rectangle would satisfy equilibrium if a4 = b4 = 0 . the finite element solution gives an upper bound on the total potential energy. the solution will converge monotonically to the true solution. Happily. the sequence of solutions to a problem is expected to converge to the correct result if the assumed element displacement fields satisfy the following criteria: . = a3 + a4 x . the elements fit together. Moreover. compatibility may or may not be satisfied. So. However. and equilibrium of nodal forces and moments is satisfied. for both the 3-node triangle and the 4-node rectangle. compatibility is enforced by joining elements at these locations.188 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ∂u ∂u ∂ 2v ∂ 2u ∂ 2u = a2 + a4 y . inter-element stress continuity may exist. the direct strain ε x is linear in the y direction whereas the shear strain γ xy varies linearly with x and y . and adjacent elements do not overlap or separate. where stresses are constant within the element but differ from one element to another. so the first equation (8. but this is the case only in a field of constant strain. b) Between elements. c) At nodes. the convergence of displacements with the mesh refinement must be monotonic from below. and equilibrium is usually not satisfied.4. One cannot conclude from this that. in a ‘proper’ finite element solution. in general. However.2 Convergence and compatibility As the mesh of elements is refined.55) is not satisfied. as in the case of uniform beams loaded only at nodes. Inter-element equilibrium is obviously violated in the CST. 8. and ∂x ∂y ∂ x ∂y ∂ x2 ∂ y which is not zero. u and v are linear in x (or y ) along element edges. For example. the rectangle is inferior to the triangle. The finite element equations are a set of equilibrium equations and the solution is such that resultant forces and moments acting on each node are zero. provided that the new mesh contains all the nodes of the previous meshes. equilibrium is satisfied within the CST because of its extreme simplicity. any violations of equilibrium and compatibility tend to vanish as more and more elements are used in the mesh. In some cases it can give better results. = b4 = 2 = 0 . When inter-element compatibility is satisfied. But as already shown. As the discretization is refined.

The model consists of an assembly of several elements arranged so that at least one node is completely surrounded by elements. the displacement field must produce the constant strain state throughout the element. the element must exhibit zero strain and therefore zero nodal forces. noncompatible elements do not provide a bound on the potential energy. and stresses within elements should be consistent with the constant strain state. The computed displacements. If this requirement is violated. If not. we will not be able to reproduce the displacement patterns corresponding to the n − 1 previous discretizations. c) Rigid body modes must be represented. as each element approaches a state of constant strain. extraneous nodal forces appear. It is achieved even when based on incomplete polynomials. if there is a ‘balanced’ representation of terms in the polynomial expansion.8. This is normally ensured by the selection of shape functions. it is not possible to construct a minimizing sequence with non-compatible elements. strains. This requirement is violated by many successful non-conforming elements. Invariance exists if complete polynomials are used for element displacement fields. Also. the element type is invalid or at least suspect (it may happen that an element is valid in certain configurations only). The check is done using the so called “patch test”. we do not know whether the potential energy corresponding to a particular non-conforming element is higher or lower than the true value. Elements should be invariant with respect to the orientation of the load system. plate and shell elements. This means that by suitably specializing the nodal displacements for the nth discretization. The boundary nodes are then given either displacements or forces consistent with a constant strain state. i. Such elements do satisfy inter-element compatibility in the limit of mesh refinement. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 189 a) The displacement field within an element must be continuous.e. the slope must be continuous across interelement boundaries. Elements must not overlap or separate. In the case of beam. When nodal degrees of freedom are given values corresponding to a state of rigid body motion. However. . and the equations of nodal equilibrium are altered. Internal nodes are to be neither loaded nor restrained. To satisfy the requirements on both rigid body modes and constant strain rates. d) Compatibility must exist between elements. the expansion must be at least a complete polynomial of order equal to the highest derivative occurring in the strain-displacement relations. e) The element should have no preferred directions. b) When the nodal degrees of freedom are given values corresponding to a state of constant strain.

If these are the boundary conditions imposed to the model. a simple patch test is carried out as follows. ⎩v5 ⎭ u5 = v5 = 1. . v3 = 4 . v4 = 1 . The condensed set of finite element equations has the form [K ] ⎧ ⎨ where [K ] depends on the material properties and {F } depends on both the material properties and the prescribed nodal displacements.25 and the strains at any point must be {ε } = ⎣1 1 2⎦ T . Fig. E8.7 Assume a displacement field u=v= x+ y for which the strains are {ε } = ⎣1 1 2⎦ T .7 For the assembly of four triangular elements shown in Fig. Its solution must be u5 ⎫ ⎬ = {F } .6. E8. v2 = 1 . u3 = 4 .190 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Example 8. The resulting nodal displacements are u1 = 0 . u4 = 1 . the internal node must behave accordingly. u2 = 1 . v1 = 0 .

The displacement components of a local node i are denoted as ui in the x direction and vi in the y direction. The constant strain triangle is an isoparametric element though it was not treated like that. the shapes of the interpolation functions and not the parameters are the same. we obtain a subparametric element. yi ) .1) . Elements with curved sides provide a better fit to curved edges of an actual structure. When it is mapped into a quadrilateral with parabolically curved sides. they are subparametric elements. the same interpolation functions are used to define the element shape as are used to define the displacement field within the element. The construction of shape functions and evaluation of stiffness matrices for quadrilateral and higher-order elements with curved sides faces difficulties which are overcome by the use of isoparametric elements and numerical integration. 9. 2. because only the displacement expansion is refined whereas the geometry definition remains the same. The local nodes 1.1. The coordinates of node i are ( xi . 9. Each node has two degrees of freedom. For isoparametric elements. ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS Simple triangular and rectangular elements allow closed form derivations of stiffness matrices and load vectors. the result is an isoparametric element. If we develop higher order triangular elements while keeping straight sides. 3 and 4 are labelled counterclockwise. (9. When the eight node rectangle is transformed into a quadrilateral with straight sides. a.1 Linear quadrilateral element Consider the general quadrilateral element shown in Fig. The vector of element nodal displacements is defined as { q }= ⎣ u e 1 v1 u2 v2 u3 v3 u4 v4 ⎦ T . It is possible to construct subparametric elements whose geometry is determined by a lower order model than the displacements.9. In fact.

2. 1 ] . 9. taking the value zero over the quadrilateral medians. s } in the reference plane and the cartesian coordinates { x .1 Natural coordinates A natural coordinate system can be attached to a quadrilateral element as illustrated in Fig. 1 ] . a Fig. The coordinates r and s vary from − 1 on one side to + 1 at the other. 9.2 b . quadrilateral elements become a square of side 2 (Fig. 9.192 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 9. y } is called the isoparametric mapping. This is called the reference plane. s } plane. which extends over r ∈ [ − 1. The transformation between the natural coordinates { r .1. a Fig. a). They are called quadrilateral coordinates. s ∈ [ − 1.1.1 b In the development of isoparametric elements it is useful to visualize the quadrilateral coordinates plotted as cartesian coordinates in the { r . called the reference element (or master element). 9. b. In the reference plane.

N 2 = ( 1 + r ) ( 1 − s ) . N 4 = ( 1 − r ) ( 1 + s ) . x3 ⎪ x4 ⎪ ⎭ (9. s } plane (Fig.4.3) where ( ri . The drawback is that the mapping is a change of coordinates which implies complications in the evaluation of the integral in the element stiffness matrix.23) developed for the rectangle are directly applicable 1 1 N1 = ( 1 − r ) ( 1 − s ) . The advantage is that the interpolation functions defined for the reference element are the same for all actual elements and have simple expressions. y } is generated by the ‘parent’ or ‘reference’ element from the { r . 4 4 The following compact representation is useful for the implementation in a computer program Ni ( r . 4 (9.2. ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 193 Each quadrilateral ‘child’ in the { x . 9.2 Shape functions The interpolation functions (8. i =1 i =1 4 4 (9. The coordinates of a point within the element are expressed in terms of the nodal coordinates as x = N1 x1 + N 2 x 2 + N 3 x3 + N 4 x 4 = ∑ N i x i .1. b). s ) = 1 ( 1 + r ri )( 1 + s si ) . ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ (9. b) .4) In matrix form x = ⎣N ⎦ x e = ⎣N1 { } N2 N3 ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ N4 ⎦ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ x1 ⎫ x2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎬. 9. y = N1 y1 + N 2 y2 + N 3 y3 + N 4 y4 = ∑ N i y i .4. a) y = ⎣N ⎦ y e = ⎣N1 { } N2 N3 ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ N4 ⎦ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ y1 y2 y3 y4 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬.2) 1 1 N3 = ( 1 + r ) ( 1 + s ) . si ) are the coordinates of node i . 4 4 (9.9.

overlaps or discontinuities . s ) = a1 + a2 r + a3 s + a4 r s . = 1− s 1+ s u2 + u3 . If the u displacement is approximated as u ( r . along each side the approximation is linear. because r (or s) is constant.7) As the shape functions in natural coordinates (9. As mentioned in Chapter 8.2. If u and v are the displacement components of a point located at ( r .e. N4 ⎥ ⎦ (9. the same shape functions are used to express the displacements within the element in terms of the nodal values as are used to define the element shape. then u = N1 u 1 + N 2 u 2 + N 3 u 3 + N 4 u 4 = ∑ N i u i . v = N1 v1 + N 2 v2 + N 3 v3 + N 4 v4 = ∑ N i v i . i =1 i =1 4 4 (9. 9. For example. s ) . i. This ensures interelement compatibility.1. there are no openings. where (9.2) fulfil continuity of geometry and displacements both within the element and between adjacent elements. polynomial models are inherently continuous within the element.8) = a1 + a2 + ( a3 + a4 ) s . along the side 2-3 (Fig. the compatibility requirement is satisfied in cartesian coordinates too.3 The displacement field In the isoparametric formulation.194 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 9. r = 1 and u u r =1 (9. 2 2 r =1 The four-node quadrilateral is termed a “linear” (sometimes bi-linear) element because its sides remain straight during deformation.5) which can be written in matrix form { u } = [ N ] { q e }. a). Then it is easy to show that the displacements along a side of the element depend only upon the displacements of the nodes occurring on that side.6) [ N ]= ⎡ ⎢ N1 0 N1 N2 0 0 N2 N3 0 0 N3 N4 0 ⎣ 0 0 ⎤ .

the conditions of both rigid body displacements and constant strain states are satisfied in cartesian coordinates too. it can also be expressed as .10) and (9. On the contrary.9) is non-conforming.9) For example. y } coordinates in terms of its derivatives in { r . (9. This is done considering the function f = f ( x . because the interpolation displacement model provides rigid body displacements in the natural coordinate system. ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ (9. s ) ] . The approximation (9. s } coordinates.1. a) has the form y = m x + c . Using (9.10) where [ J ]= ⎡ ⎢ J11 ⎣ J 21 J12 ⎤ J 22 ⎥ ⎦ (9. the equation of the side 2-3 (Fig. we have ⎧ ∂ ⎪ ∂r ⎪ ⎨ ∂ ⎪ ⎪ ∂s ⎩ ⎫ ⎡ ∂x ⎪ ⎢ ∂r ⎪ ⎬ = ⎢ ∂x ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ ⎢ ∂s ⎭ ⎣ ∂y ∂r ∂y ∂s ⎤⎧ ∂ ⎥⎪ ∂x ⎪ ⎥⎨ ⎥⎪ ∂ ⎥⎪∂y ⎦⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬=[J ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎧ ∂ ⎪ ] ⎪ ∂∂x ⎨ ⎪ ⎪∂y ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬. where m is the slope of 2-3. 9. y ) to be an implicit function of r and s as f = f [ x (r . the 4-node quadrilateral is a non-conforming element.4 Mapping from natural to cartesian coordinates Subsequently.11) is the Jacobian matrix. Along 2-3. we need to express the derivatives of a function in { x . If the u displacement is approximated as u ( x .1.4). y ) = b1 + b2 x + b3 y + b4 x y . ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 195 between the elements. so that u ( x) 2 −3 = b1 + cb3 + ( b2 + m b3 + c b4 ) x + m b4 x 2 . Transformation of differential operators Using the chain rule of differentiation. along each side the approximation is quadratic. The 4-node isoparametric quadrilateral is a conforming element. y (r . 9. u ( x ) varies quadratically and cannot be uniquely defined as a function of u 2 and u 3 .9. Also. s ) .

16) [ ( y4 − y2 )( x3 − x1 ) − ( y3 − y1 )( x4 − x2 ) ] . ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ (9. a) Analogously. ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ∂s ⎪ ⎭ ⎭ ⎩ (9.13) ⎡ − x1 + x 2 + x3 − x 4 + ⎢ 1 ⎢ + s (x1 − x 2 + x3 − x 4 ) [ J ]= ⎢ 4 − x1 − x 2 + x3 + x 4 + ⎢ ⎢ + r (x1 − x 2 + x3 − x 4 ) ⎣ ⎧ ∂ ⎪ ∂x ⎪ ⎨ ∂ ⎪ ⎪∂y ⎩ ⎫ ⎡ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ ⎬=⎢ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ ⎢ ⎭ ⎣ ∂r ∂x ∂r ∂y ∂s ∂x ∂s ∂y ⎤⎧ ∂ ⎥ ⎪ ∂r ⎪ ⎥⎨ ⎥⎪ ∂ ⎥ ⎪ ∂s ⎦⎩ − y1 + y2 + y3 − y4 + ⎤ ⎥ + s ( y1 − y2 + y3 − y4 ) ⎥ ⎥. . ⎥= j22 ⎦ det [J ] ⎢ − J 21 J11 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (9.14) where [ j ] = [ J ] −1 is the inverse of the Jacobian matrix [ j ]= ⎡ ⎢ j11 ⎣ j21 j12 ⎤ 1 ⎡ J 22 − J12 ⎤ . For the four-node quadrilateral element [ J ]= 1 ⎡ ⎢ − (1 − s ) (1 − s ) 4 ⎣ − (1 − r ) − (1 + r ) (1 + s ) (1 + r ) ⎡ x1 − (1 + s ) ⎤ ⎢ x 2 ⎢ (1 − r ) ⎥ ⎢ x3 ⎦ ⎢ ⎣ x4 y1 y2 y3 y4 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥.196 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎧ ∂ ⎪ [ J ] = ⎪ ∂∂r ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ∂s ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎣x ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎧ ∂ ⎪ ∂r ⎪ y⎦ = ⎨ ∂ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ∂s ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎣ ⎣N ⎦ { x e } ⎣N ⎦ { y e }⎦ = (9.15) For the four-node quadrilateral element det [ J ] = A0 + A1 r + A2 s . the inverse relationship is (9. − y1 − y2 + y3 + y4 + ⎥ + r ( y1 − y2 + y3 − y4 ) ⎥ ⎦ ⎫ ⎧ ∂ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ∂r ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ = [ j ]⎨ ∂ ⎬ .13. where A0 = 1 8 (9.12) ⎫ ⎧ ∂ ⎪ ∂ r ⎣N ⎦ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ =⎨ ⎬ ∂ ⎪ N⎦ ⎪ ⎣ ⎪ ⎪ ∂s ⎭ ⎩ ⎣{ x e } { y e }⎦ .

we need [ j ]. ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 197 A1 = A2 = 1 8 1 8 [ ( y3 − y4 )( x2 − x1 ) − ( y2 − y1 )( x3 − x4 ) ]. y }. Transformation of an infinitesimal area An additional result that will be needed is the relation dx dy = det [ J ] dr ds . contours respectively.9. It is equal to the area of the elemental parallelogram enclosed by the two vectors d r and d s directed tangentially to the r = const . In a curvilinear system { r . and s = const . In cartesian coordinates { x . By equating the moduli of the cross products d x ×d y = d x d y ⋅ k . s } . ∂f ∂f . Because r = r ( x . The above expressions will be used in the derivation of the element stiffness matrix. s = s ( x . and i . [ ( y4 − y1 )( x3 − x2 ) − ( y3 − y2 )( x4 − x1 ) ] .17) It is needed because. in terms of ∂x ∂y Usually [ j] is used because we want to express ∂f ∂f . (9. . the integration on the real element is replaced by the simpler integration over the reference element. ∂r ∂r d s = ( J 21 i + J 22 j ) d s . y ) ∂r ∂s are not explicitly known. the elementary area dA is given by the modulus of the cross product d x ×d y . y ) . determined on the reference element. where d x = d x ⋅ i . j are base vectors. The components of these vectors in a cartesian coordinate system are dr = ∂x ∂y d r ⋅ i + d r ⋅ j = ( J11 i + J12 j ) d r . the elementary area dA is given by the modulus of the cross product d r ×d s . for the evaluation of the element stiffness matrix. . d y = d y ⋅ j .

(9. where (9.21) ⎡ j11 [ B1 ] = ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ j21 ⎣ j12 0 j22 0 j21 j11 0 j22 j12 ⎤ ⎥.1.198 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS i d r ×d s = J11 J 21 we obtain equation (9.5 Element stiffness matrix The element stiffness matrix (7.18) where [ D ] is the material stiffness matrix and t e is the element thickness.41) gives the strain-displacement matrix ⎡ ∂ ⎢ ⎢ ∂x [ B ]= [∂ ] [ N ]= ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ∂ ⎢ ⎢ ∂y ⎣ ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ∂ ⎥ [ N ]. ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ (9. ∂y ⎥ ∂ ⎥ ⎥ ∂x ⎥ ⎦ (9. j J12 J 22 k 0 d r d s = det [J ] d r d s ⋅ k 0 9. The matrix of differentiated shape functions [ B ] is (7.22) .9) and shape functions (9.19) [ N ] is the matrix of Substituting (6.14) we obtain [ B ] = [ B1 ][ B2 ] . (9.9) into (7.17).7).43) is [k ]= t ∫ [ B ] e e A T [ D ][ B ] d A .20) Using the transformation (9. where [ ∂ ] is the matrix of differential operators (6.41) [ B ] = [ ∂ ][ N ] .

− (1 + s )⎥ (1 − r ) ⎥ ⎦ 0 Using equation (9. (9.24) Because [ B ] and det [ J ] are involved functions of r and s. as shown in the following. 9.6 Element load vectors Because the displacements along a side of the quadrilateral isoparametric element are linear. the element stiffness matrix can be written [k ]= t ∫ ∫ [ B ] e e −1 −1 +1 +1 T [ D ][ B ] det [ J ] dr ds . ∂ ⎥ ⎥ ∂r ⎥ ∂ ⎥ ∂s ⎥ ⎦ (9. 9. . ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 199 and ⎡ ∂ ⎢ ∂r ⎢ ⎢ ∂ [ B2 ] = ⎢ ∂ s ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎣ ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ [ N ].1. the above integration has to be performed numerically. the consistent nodal forces applied along that side are calculated as for a linear two-node element. then the equivalent nodal force vector is { f }= 1 l ⎣ 0 2 e 2−3 0 px py px py (9.23) or 0 0 (1 − s ) ⎡ − (1 − s ) ⎢ − (1 − r ) 0 − (1 + r ) 0 [ B2 ] = 1 ⎢ (1 − s ) 0 − (1 − s ) 0 4⎢ ⎢ 0 − (1 − r ) 0 − (1 + r ) ⎣ (1 + s ) (1 + r ) 0 0 0 0 (1 + s ) (1 + r ) − (1 + s ) (1 − r ) 0 0 ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥. If there is a distributed load having components ( px . along side 2-3 in Fig. p y ) per unit length 0 0 ⎦T .9.25) if p x and p y are constants and l 2 −3 is the length of the side 2-3.1.17).

The isoparametric mapping introduces det [ J ] in the integrand so that closed form evaluation of stiffness integrals becomes impossible. 9. + a2 n r 2 n −1 ... It is more efficient than other methods. as for example the NewtonCotes integration. A polynomial of order (2n − 1) can be ‘fitted’ to f ( r ) by imposing n weights wi and n sampling points in such a way that the summation +1 −1 ∫ f (r ) d r = ∑ wi f ( r i ) i =1 n (9.27) .200 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 9. whose heights are equal to the function values at the sampling points. As the order of the displacement field increases.2 Numerical integration The numerical evaluation of stiffness integrals is usually done by Gaussian quadrature. the differentiated shape functions in the matrix [ B ] grow algebraically more cumbersome. The actual area represented by the integral is replaced by a series of rectangles of unequal widths.. + wi f (ri ) + . The 2n coefficients are determined from the condition that the above equation is satisfied for a polynomial of order 2n − 1 of the form f ( r ) = a1 + a2 r + a3 r 2 + . the integral of a polynomial function is replaced by a linear combination of its values at the integration points ri : +1 −1 ∫ f ( r )d r = w1 f (r1 ) + w2 f (r 2 ) + . (9. They turn out to be the roots of Legendre polynomials and so the method is referred to as a Gauss-Legendre integration.. 1 ] by a polynomial which can be integrated exactly. In other words.1 One dimensional Gauss quadrature The one-dimensional version of the Gauss method relies on the concept that any function f ( r ) can be represented approximately over the interval r ∈ [ − 1. the stiffness integrals become progressively more complicated..2..26) is exact up to the chosen order. For higher order elements. because it involves only a half of the sample values of the integrand required by the latter. The particular positions of these sampling points are known as Gauss Points. + wn f (r n ) .

+ wn r n ... + a2 n w1 r12 n −1 + w2 r 2 2 n −1 + .. i =1 n +1 −1 ∫ r α d r = ∑ wi riα ...9. 9. 2 . linear in wi and nonlinear in r i ... This is a set of 2 n equations.... i =1 n Generally +1 0 ⎧ ⎪ rα dr = ⎨ 2 ⎪ α +1 ⎩ −1 ∫ if i is odd if i is even (9.... n ... + wn r n . ( −1 ∫ d r + a2 ∫ r d r + ... i =1 n +1 −1 ∫ r d r = ∑ wi r i . 3 (9.30) L L L L L L 2 2 2 0 = w1 r1 n −1 + w2 r 2 n −1 + .29) so that 2 = w1 + w2 + . + wn ) + ) ( ) (9. + wn . + wn r n n −1 . + wn r n 2 n −1 . 0 = w1 r1 + w2 r 2 + .28) Identifying the terms +1 −1 ∫ d r = ∑ wi .. − 1 < r i < +1 ⎬ ⎭ One-point formula For n = 1 we have the midpoint rule (Fig.. + wn r n + . 2 2 2 2 = w1 r1 + w2 r 2 + . + a2 n −1 +1 +1 −1 ∫r 2 n −1 d r = a1 ( w1 + w2 + . The 2 n parameters are determined from conditions wi > 0 ⎫ i = 1... a) +1 −1 ∫ f ( r )d r ≈ w1 f (r1 ) .3.. ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 201 On substitution above we get +1 a1 + a2 w1 r1 + w2 r 2 + .

57735 ) . 9. 0 = w1 r1 + w2 r 2 . However. b) +1 −1 r1 = − r 2 = 1 = 0.g. e. to separate shear from extension effects.5773502691 3 ∫ f ( r )d r = 1 ⋅ f ( 0. (9. 2 2 2 = w1 r1 + w2 r 2 . 3 3 3 0 = w1 r1 + w2 r 2 . 9. so that (Fig.3. Two-point formula For a two-point integration +1 −1 ∫ f ( r )d r = w1 f (r1 ) + w2 f (r 2 ) .202 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS which is exact only when f (r ) is a polynomial of order 1. The solution to this set of equations is w1 = w2 = 1 .3 .30) give 2 = w1 + w2 . avoiding the so-called shear locking by using reduced integration for shearing. Fig. it is employed in some selective integration schemes.31) For a polynomial of order 2n − 1 = 2 ⋅ 2 − 1 = 3 .57735 ) + 1 ⋅ f ( − 0. equations (9.

1: I= +1 +1 −1 −1 ∫ ∫ f ( r . r1 = s 1 = − 0. Table 9.888 ⋅ f ( 0 ) + 0. ri 0 wi 2.3.2 Two dimensional Gauss quadrature The one dimensional version of Gaussian quadrature is readily extended to two dimensions if we use the rectangles or isoparametric quadrilaterals of section 9.555 ⋅ f ( − 0.57735 .774) + 0.774596 ± 0. so that I = f ( r1 . s ) d r d s = ∑ ∑ wi w j f ri .339981 ± 0. 9.347854 1 2 3 4 1 3 5 7 ± 0. i =1 j =1 n n ( ) (9. s2 ) + f ( r2 . Gauss quadrature formulae for quadrilateral elements are shown in Table.1 for the first four orders. r 2 = s 2 = 0.555 ⋅ f ( 0. c) ∑ wi f (ri ) = 0.8888 0. s j . s j ⎥ ds = ∑ wi ∑ w j f ri .774 ) .1 Number of Gauss points Order of polynomial integrated exactly Gauss Points.5555 0.652145 0. 3 i =1 Gauss points and weights are given in Table 9.2.57735 ± 0.0 0.32) w1 = w2 = 1 . s1 ) + f ( r1 . 9. s1 ) + f ( r2 . ∫ ⎥ i =1 j =1 −1 ⎢ j =1 ⎣ ⎦ ( ) ( ) I= For n = 2 ∫ ∫ f ( r .9. s )d r d s ≅ +1 +1 −1 −1 +1 n n ⎡ n ⎤ ⎢ ∑ w j f r . ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 203 Three-point formula For a three-point integration (Fig.0 1. s j .2. s2 ) . Weights. .57735 .861136 0 9.

24) is [k ]= t ∫ ∫ [ B ] e e 1 1 −1 −1 T [ D ][ B ] det [ J ] dr ds which means that the integral above actually consists of the integral of each element (below or above the main diagonal) in an ( 8 × 8 ) matrix. 4 81 ⎝ 9 9 ⎠ 64 ⎛ 8 8 ⎞ ⎜ = × ⎟ at points 1.2 n Number of Gauss points n×n Gauss Points. The elements of [ B ] are obtained by dividing a bilinear function of r and s by a linear function. 4 81 ⎝ 9 9 ⎠ 3 9 (3 × 3) 40 ⎛ 5 8 ⎞ ⎜ = × ⎟ at points 1.204 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Table 9. 2. wi . 2.3 Stiffness integration The element stiffness matrix (9. the elements of . 2. For a rectangle or parallelogram it is a constant. w j 1 (1×1) 1 4 (= 2 × 2) at centre 2 4 (2 × 2) 1 (= 1 × 1) at points 1. det [ J ] is a linear function of r and s . 3. ri . 3. 4 81 ⎝ 9 9 ⎠ 9. s j Weights. 3. In general. 3.2. Therefore. 2 . 4 25 ⎛ 5 5 ⎞ ⎜ = × ⎟ at points 1.

This will be the case if one of these modes gives zero strain at the integration point.4). 9. From practical considerations. the state of constant strain is reached within an element.33).4 However.33) represents the volume of the element. it is best to use as few integration points as is possible without causing numerical difficulties. A lower limit on the number of integration points can be obtained by observing that as the mesh is refined. in the present case. with the aim of decreasing the stiffness and so compensating for the overstiff finite element model. to be constant and noting that det [ J ] is linear. indicates that the volume can be evaluated exactly using one integration point. These are modes of deformation which give rise to zero strain energy. In this case. This is cheaper as well.24) becomes [ ] [k ]≈ [ B ] e T [ D ][ B ] ∫ +1 +1 −1 −1 ∫ t det [ J ] dr ds . we can write . An alternative is to use reduced integration at fewer points than necessary. the minimum number of integration points. t e . e (9.33) The integral in (9.9. Experience has shown that the best order of integration for the 4-node quadrilateral element is a ( 2 × 2 ) array of points. 9. This means that k e cannot be evaluated exactly using numerical integration. Therefore. The existence of these modes is indicated by the stiffness matrix having more zero eigenvalues than rigid body modes. is the number required to evaluate exactly the volume of the element. ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 205 [ B ]T [ D ][ B ] det [ J ] are bi-quadratic functions divided by a linear function. one integration point is unacceptable since it gives rise to zero-energy deformation modes (Fig. Fig. the stiffness matrix equation (9. Using the 2 × 2 rule (9. Taking the thickness.

s 1 ) ]+ +t e T (9. s2 ) ] . s 1 ) ]T [ [ D ] det [ J ( r2 . consider approximately the Gauss Points at r i . s )] ] [ B ( r . s ) ] [ [ D ] det [J ( r . s 1 )] ] [ B ( r2 .5 instead of r i . d) Calculation of [k ] e using the 2 × 2 rule (9. s2 )] ] [ B ( r2 . 9.34).206 e e 1 1 T 1 1 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS [ k ] ≅ t [ B ( r . s2 )] ] [ B ( r1 . 30 ⎥ ⎥ 25 ⎦ det [ J ] and [ B ] calculated at GP1.1 with the following nodal coordinates ⎡ x1 ⎢x ⎢ 2 ⎢ x3 ⎢ ⎣ x4 y1 y2 y3 y4 ⎤ ⎡ 10 ⎥ ⎢ 20 ⎥ =⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 25 ⎥ ⎢ ⎦ ⎣ 8 10 ⎤ 15 ⎥ ⎥. Example 9. b) Calculation of the inverse [ j ] = [ J ] −1 at the Gauss points. The calculation consists of four basic steps: a) Calculation of [ J ] at the Gauss points (9. s2 ) ] T [ [ D ] det [ J ( r2 . s2 ) ]+ + t e [ B ( r2 . For the first term in (9. s2 ) ] [ [ D ] det [J ( r1 . s j = ± 0.57735 . ( ) c) Calculation of the [ B ] matrix (9.34) we need .1 Consider the quadrilateral element from Fig.34) + t e [ B ( r2 . s ) ]+ 1 1 [ B ( r1 . For convenience. s j = ± 0.11) [ J ( ri .21) ⎡ j11 [B ]= 1 ⎢ 0 4⎢ ⎢ j 21 ⎣ j12 0 j 22 0 j 21 j11 0 ⎤ ⎥ j 22 ⎥ j12 ⎥ ⎦ 0 ⎡− 1 − s j ⎢ 0 − (1 − ri ) ⎢ ⎢ 0 − 1− s j ⎢ 0 − (1 − ri ) ⎢ ⎣ ( ) ( ) 1− s j 0 1+ s j 0 1 + ri − (1 + ri ) 0 1− s j 0 0 0 − (1 + ri ) 0 0 1+ s j 1 + ri − 1+ s j 1 − ri 0 0 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ − 1+ s j ⎥ ⎥ 1 − ri ⎥ ⎦ ( 0 0 ) .s j ) ] = 1 ⎡ −( 1 − s j ) ( 1 − s j ) ( 1 + s j ) − ( 1 + s j ) ⎢ 4 ⎢ − ( 1 − ri ) ⎣ − ( 1 + ri ) ( 1 + ri ) ( 1 − ri ) ⎡ x1 ⎤ ⎢ x2 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ x3 ⎦ ⎢ ⎣ x4 y1 ⎤ y2 ⎥ ⎥ y3 ⎥ ⎥ y4 ⎦ and its determinant.

5 ⎥ ⎢ 25 ⎣ ⎦ ⎢ ⎣ 8 Its determinant and inverse are 10 ⎤ 15 ⎥ 1 ⎥= 30 ⎥ 8 ⎥ 25 ⎦ ⎡ 61 20 ⎤ ⎢ 13 60 ⎥ . 5 1. In order not to miss these peak stresses.11) is ⎡ 10 −0.5 0 0 0 0 0. − 1. ⎥ 850 ⎢− 12 10 − 49 30 36 30 25 − 50⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 9.5⎤ ⎢ 20 ⎢ [ J ]= 1 ⎡ 4 ⎢− 0. ⎣ ⎦ det [ J ]= 53. 5 ⎣ 0.5 ⎦ 0 30 0 30 0 − 50 0 ⎤ ⎡− 10 1 ⎢ [ B ] = ⎢ 0 − 12 0 − 49 0 36 0 25 ⎥ .21) 0 ⎤ ⎡ 60 − 20 0 [ B ] = 1 ⎢ 0 0 − 13 61 ⎥ ⎥ 1700 ⎢ ⎢− 13 61 60 − 20⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 0 ⎡− 0. 5 1.5 − 1. 5 ⎥ ⎥ 0.2. where they are found to be accurate (Barlow.5 − 1. [ j ] = [ J ] −1 = 1 ⎡ 60 − 20 ⎤ . (9. the Jacobian matrix (9. stresses are evaluated at the Gauss points. Some programs which use Gauss point stresses extrapolate to the element nodes and then output the mean value if several elements meet at a node.5 1. Gauss point values are ideal for constructing internal stress contours. the matrix [ B ] is given by (9.35) In practice.5 1.5 0.5 1. However.4 Stress calculations In the quadrilateral element. a refined mesh should be used in these regions. 1976). 425 ⎢ − 13 61 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ At GP1.5 0 0 0 0 1. 5 0.5 − 1.125 . . Maximum stresses usually occur at edges of plates or at other discontinuities at the element boundaries. ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 207 At GP1.5 − 1.5 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 − 0. stresses {σ } = [ D ] [ B ] {q e } vary within the element.5 ⎢− 0.5 0 0 0 ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥.5 ⎢ 0 − 0.5 0.9.5 − 1.

It would seem necessary to use a 4 × 4 Gauss quadrature for exact stiffness integration.3 Eight-node quadrilateral This element is the isoparametric version of the eight-node rectangle presented in section 8. v = b1 + b2 r + b3 s + b4 r 2 + b5 r s + b6 s 2 + b7 r 2 s + b8 r s 2 .5. 9. In practice.36) The element has three nodes along one edge. large groups of elements will not suffer from such mechanisms.27) are u = a1 + a2 r + a3 s + a4 r 2 + a5 r s + a6 s 2 + a7 r 2 s + a8 r s 2 .5 The displacement functions in simple polynomial form (8. The eight-node quadrilateral employs displacement fields quadratic in r and s . so that the displacement variation should be parabolic (three constants) to satisfy compatibility. 9. 9. a) and the master element is a square (Fig. b). (9.2. The product [ B ] T [ D ][ B ] is therefore fourth order and det [ J ] is cubic. For a single 8-node rectangular element. as are the stresses. The difference is that in cartesian coordinates it has curved sides (Fig. using a 2 × 2 integration scheme would result in a singular stiffness matrix. The optimal sampling points for this element are the Gauss points for the 2 × 2 scheme . even if it is supported conventionally.2. Fig.208 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 9. and 2 × 2 integration is normally used for this popular element.5.

better displacements are obtained using a 3 × 3 Gauss point mesh. 4 ∂ N i ri ( 1 + s si ) (2r ri + s si ) . 4 N5 = ( ( ) ( ) ( ) ) As they are constructed based on the equations of the lines passing through the nodal points. ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 209 and not those for the higher order 3 × 3 scheme.38) ___________ *) After the extraordinary discoveries of the princes of Serendip from the horror novels by Horace Walpole (1717-1797). so the advantages of reduced integration are compounded. si ) are the natural coordinates of node i: for corner nodes 1 ( 1 + r ri ) ( 1 + s si ) (r ri + s si − 1) . .37) 2 1 N8 = ( 1 − r ) 1 − s 2 . Care is needed because the accuracy declines with excessive shape distortion. For the 8-node quadratic element.29) have the following expressions 1 ( 1 − r ) ( 1 − s ) (1 + r + s ) . 9. (9. it is sufficient to examine the Jacobian determinant. they belong to the serendipity *) family of elements.9. = ∂r ∂s 4 4 Ni = (9. 2 1 N6 = (1 + r ) 1 − s 2 . 4 1 N 4 = − ( 1 − r ) ( 1 + s ) (1 + r − s ) . ∂ N i = si ( 1 + r ri ) (2s si + r ri ) . For ease in programming. due to reduced integration. det [ J ] is of third order hence the minimum number of integration points is 4 (2 × 2) .3. 4 1 N3 = − ( 1 + r ) ( 1 + s ) ( 1 − r − s ). It was shown that. For an 8-node quadrilateral element.1 Shape functions The shape functions (8. 2 1 N 7 = 1 − r 2 ( 1 + s ) . one can also use the following equivalent formulae in which ( ri . 4 N1 = − 1 1 − r 2 (1 − s ) . The eight-node curved ‘quad’ is ideal for nonlinear problems and can be easily adapted to model cracks by moving the midside nodes. in order to evaluate the minimum order of the numerical integration. 4 1 N 2 = − ( 1 + r ) ( 1 − s ) (1 − r + s ) .

3. (9.2 Shape function derivatives Use of the isoparametric formulation x = ∑ N i (r . ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ ] is ∂ N2 L 0 ∂y ∂ N2 ∂ N8 L ∂x ∂y (9.42) ⎢ 0 N 0 N 2 L L 0 N8 ⎥ 1 ⎣ ⎦ { } { q }= ⎣u e 1 v1 u2 v 2 L L u8 v8 ⎦ T . (9. (9. when si = 0 1 1 − s 2 ( 1 + r ri ) .41) ⎨ ⎬ =[N ] q . v⎭ ⎩ where N 0 N 2 0 L L N8 0 ⎤ [ N ]= ⎡ 1 . 2 ∂ Ni ∂ Ni 1 = − r ( 1 + s si ) . s ) x i . = si 1 − r 2 .210 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS for mid-side nodes.43) Having generated the shape functions [ N ] . s ) y i i =1 8 (9.40) The displacements inside the element can be expressed in terms of the nodal displacements as ⎧u⎫ e (9. i =1 8 y = ∑ N i (r . when ri = 0 1 1 − r 2 ( 1 + s si ) . 2 ∂ Ni 1 ∂ Ni = ri 1 − s 2 .45) leads to . the matrix [ B ] = [ ∂ ][ N ⎡ ∂ N1 ⎢ ⎢ ∂x [ B ]= ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢∂N ⎢ 1 ⎢ ∂y ⎣ 0 ∂ N1 ∂y ∂ N1 ∂x ∂ N2 ∂x 0 ∂ N2 ∂y 0 L ∂ N8 ∂x 0 ∂ N8 ∂y ∂ N8 ∂x ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥. = − s ( 1 + r ri ∂r ∂s 2 Ni = ( ) ( ) ).44) 9. ∂r ∂s 2 Ni = ( ) ( ) (9.39) for mid-side nodes.

s ) yi . ∂s 9. ∂r ∂x = ∂s ∂y = ∂s ∑ ∂ N∂(sr .50) where t is the thickness of the plate and the material stiffness matrix [ D ] has the form ⎡ D1 D 2 0 ⎤ (9.4 Element stiffness matrix The element stiffness matrix is +1 +1 [k ]= t ∫ ∫ [ B ] e e −1 −1 T [ D ][ B ] det [ J ] d r d s (9. ∂r ∂ N i (r . ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ (9. (9.51) [ D ] = ⎢D 2 D 4 0 ⎥ .3.46) where ∂x = ∂r ∂y = ∂r ∑ ∑ i =1 i =1 8 ∂ N i (r . s ) yi . ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎧ ∂ Ni ⎪ ∂x ⎪ ⎨ ∂N i ⎪ ⎪ ∂y ⎩ ⎫ ⎧ ∂ Ni ⎫ ⎡ ∂y ⎪ ⎪ ∂r ⎪ 1 ⎢ ∂s ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎬ = [ j ]⎨ ∂N ⎬ = i ⎪ det [ J ] ⎢ ∂ x ⎪ ⎪ − ⎢ ∂s ⎪ ⎪ ∂s ⎪ ⎣ ⎭ ⎭ ⎩ 8 (9.49) 9.47) ∑ i =1 i =1 8 ∂ N i (r .3 Determinant of the Jacobian matrix The Jacobian matrix is ⎡ ∂x ⎢ r [ J ]= ⎢ ∂x ⎢∂ ⎢ ∂s ⎣ ∂y ∂r ∂y ∂s ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ . − ∂r ∂s ∂s ∂r (9. ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0 0 D5⎥ ⎣ ⎦ e . s ) x i 8 i .48) and its determinant is det [ J ] = ∂x ∂ y ∂x ∂ y .9. ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 211 − ∂y ∂r ∂x ∂r ⎤ ⎧ ∂ Ni ⎥ ⎪ ∂r ⎪ ⎥⎨ ⎥ ⎪ ∂ Ni ⎥ ⎪ ∂s ⎦⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬.3. s ) xi .

44).53. (9. = ∑∑ w ⎜ D 2 + D5 ⎜ ∂x ∂ y ∂ y ∂x ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ ∂ Ni ∂ N j ∂ Ni ∂ N j ⎞ ⎟. evaluated by numerical integration.52) The (16 × 16) element stiffness matrix contains submatrices [ k ] i j which. have the form ⎡ ∂ Ni ⎢ ∂x w p wq ⎢ ⎢ 0 q =1 ⎢ ⎣ n [k ] i j = t e ∑∑ p =1 n 0 ∂ Ni ∂y ∂ Ni ∂y ∂ Ni ∂x ⎡ ∂N j ⎢ ⎤ ⎢ ∂x ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ [D]⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ∂N j ⎦ ⎢ ∂y ⎣ ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ∂N j ⎥ det [ J ] .53. k 1 i j = ∑∑ w ⎜ D 1 + D5 ⎜ ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ k2 k3 ij ⎛ ∂ Ni ∂ N j ∂ Ni ∂ N j ⎞ ⎟. (9. the stiffness matrix (9.212 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Substituting (9. = ∑∑ w ⎜ D 2 + D5 ⎜ ∂ y ∂x ∂x ∂ y ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (9.50) can be written ⎡ ∂ N1 ⎢ ∂x ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ∂ N2 +1 +1 ⎢ ∂x ⎢ ⎡ ke ⎤ = te ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎢ −1 −1 ⎢ ⎢ L ⎢∂N ⎢ 8 ⎢ ∂x ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎣ 0 ∂ N1 ∂y ∫∫ 0 ∂ N2 ∂y L 0 ∂ N8 ∂y ∂ N1 ⎤ ∂y ⎥ ⎥ ∂ N1 ⎥ ∂x ⎥ ⎥ ∂ N2 ⎥ ∂y ⎥ ⎥ ∂ N2 ⎥ ∂x ⎥ ⎥ L ⎥ ∂ N8 ⎥ ⎥ ∂y ⎥ ∂ N8 ⎥ ⎥ ∂x ⎦ ⎥ T ⎡ ∂ N1 ⎢ ⎢ ∂x [D ] ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ∂ N1 ⎢ ∂y ⎣ 0 ∂ N1 ∂y ∂ N1 ∂x ∂ N2 ∂x 0 ∂ N2 ∂y ∂ N2 ∂x L L ∂ N8 ∂x 0 ∂ N8 ∂y ∂ N8 ∂x 0 ∂ N2 ∂y 0 ∂ N8 L ∂y ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ det [ J ] d r d s ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ .55) ij . a) w = t e w p wq det [ J ] . ij (9.53) ∂y ⎥ ⎥ ∂N j ⎥ ∂x ⎥ ⎦ or Denoting [ k ] i j = ⎢k 1 ⎣ ⎡k 3 k 2⎤ k 4⎥ ⎦ . (9. a) can be determined as ⎛ ∂ Ni ∂ N j ∂ Ni ∂ N j ⎞ ⎟.54) the elements of the matrix (9.

such that ⎡ ⎢∑∑ w =⎢ ⎢ ⎢∑∑ w ⎣ ∂ Ni ∂x ∂ Ni ∂y ∂N j ∂x ∂N j ∂x ∂ Ni ∂x ∂N ∑∑ w ∂ yi ∂N j ⎤ ⎥ ∂y ⎥ ∂N j ⎥ ∂y ⎥ ⎦ [ S ]i j ∑∑ w (9. A close inspection of equations (9.3. 1972) reduces the computing time by a factor of nine over the full matrix multiplication method. ∂x i =1 ∂ y . providing that the material properties are constant throughout the element.9. ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 213 ⎛ ∂ Ni ∂ N j ∂ Ni ∂ N j ⎞ ⎟. Mohraz.56) and then to work out equations (9.57) for the quadratic 8-node element is ⎧σx ⎪ ⎨σy ⎪τ ⎩ xy ⎫ ⎡ D1 ⎪ ⎢ ⎬ = ⎢D 2 ⎪ ⎢ 0 ⎭ ⎣ ⎡ ∂ N1 ⎢ 0 ⎤ ⎢ ∂x ⎥ 0 ⎥⎢ 0 ⎢ D5⎥ ⎢∂N ⎦ ⎢ 1 ⎢ ∂y ⎣ 8 D2 D4 0 L ∂ N2 L 0 ∂y ∂ N2 ∂ N8 L ∂x ∂y ⎤ ⎧u 1 ⎫ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎥ ⎪v1 ⎪ ⎥ ⎪u ⎪ ⎥ ⎨ 2⎬ ⎥ ⎪L ⎪ ⎥ ⎪v ⎪ ⎥ ⎪ 8⎪ ⎦⎩ ⎭ wherefrom σ x = D1 ∑ i =1 8 ∂ Ni ∂ Ni ui + D2 ∑ vi .5 Stress calculation The vector of element stresses is {σ } = [ D ][ B ]{ q e }. 0 ∂ N1 ∂y ∂ N1 ∂x ∂ N2 ∂x 0 ∂ N2 ∂y 0 ∂ N8 ∂x 0 ∂ N8 ∂y ∂ N8 ∂x (9. Gupta & B. This method (K.55) by incorporating the relevant material constants.55) shows that all the terms are of the form (cons tan t ) × (material property) × ( product of shape function derivatives ) . 9. k 4 i j = ∑∑ w ⎜ D 4 + D5 ⎜ ∂y ∂y ∂x ∂x ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ When i = j . it is useful to store separately in an array [ S ] i j the sum of the products of the shape function derivatives multiplied by w . A. Therefore.57) The explicit form of equation (9. k 2 = k 3 .

ui + D4 ∑ ∂x i =1 ∂ y (9. All intermediate values can be calculated using the shape functions. element by element. specified in force per unit length. in which superior accuracy is obtained and averaging is not necessary. Edge pressure When coding the load vectors in a computer program.3. into the global load vector which represents the right hand side of the linear set of equations to be solved for displacements.214 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS σ y = D2 ∑ 8 8 i =1 8 ∂ Ni ∂ Ni vi . This is due to the fact that the element stiffness is calculated by sampling at the Gauss points.6 Consistent nodal forces Unlike the triangular element. The components of the force p d r acting upon an elemental length d r are . since the nodal positions are readily located and it is convenient to output the displacements and stresses at the same points. ui + ⎟ ∂x ⎠ i =1 ⎝ ∂ y In some programs the stresses are determined at nodes. (9. if the stresses of all elements meeting at a node are averaged. Consider a distributed load p . in which all loads can be reduced to nodes intuitively or by statics. the actual pressure distribution along an element edge is replaced by a parabolic distribution defined by the pressure values at each of the three nodes along that edge. acting along the s = +1 edge of an element. However. 9. and it is therefore reasonable to expect the most accurate stresses and strains occurring at the same points. so that there is no need to sort out the appropriate shape functions for the three nodes with given pressure values.44) { f }= ∫ [ N ] e Ve T { p }d V . for a quadratic isoparametric element the nodal forces due to distributed loads must be computed in accordance with equation (7. closer results to the true values are obtained.58) τ xy = D 5 ∑ ⎜ ⎜ ⎛ ∂ Ni ∂ Ni ⎞ vi ⎟.59) The equivalent nodal forces are added. It has been found that nodal stresses from an 8-node quadratic element are usually incorrect. A better alternative is to calculate stresses at the Gauss points. It is usual to use all the nodes of the element in the computation.

since a positive pressure is assumed to act towards the centre of e If the same pressure acts on the edge s = −1 . A more general equation applicable to the two edges s = ±1 is ⎧ ∂y ⎫ ⎞ ⎪ ∂r ⎪ ⎛ 8 ⎪ ⎪ f e = ∑ wi ws [N ]T ⎜ ∑ N k p k ⎟ ⎨ ⎟ ⎜ ∂x ⎬ i =1 ⎠⎪− ⎝ k =1 ⎪ ⎪ ∂ r ⎪i ⎩ ⎭ where w s takes up the value of the s coordinate for the loaded edge. ⎪ ⎪i ⎭ (9. the sign of the force vector { } n (9.42).59) in which the volume integral has been reduced to a line integral { f }= ∫ e +1 −1 where [ N ] is given by (9.65) .60) The consistent load for p is given by a modified form of equation (9. ⎧ ∂y ⎪ ∂r ⎪ p [ N ]T ⎨ ∂x ⎪− ⎪ ∂r ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ dr ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ (9.64) A similar expression for pressure loads on the r = ±1 edges is { f }= ∑ e n i =1 ⎧ ∂y − ⎞ ⎪ ∂s ⎛ 8 ⎪ T⎜ wi wr [N ] ⎜ ∑ N k p k ⎟ ⎨ ⎟ ∂x ⎠⎪ ⎝ k =1 ⎪ ∂s ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ .61) The above vector is usually integrated numerically and is written as ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ (9.s ) p k k =1 8 k . py ⎭ ⎩ ⎪− ⎪ ⎪ ∂r ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ (9. ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 215 ⎧ ∂y ⎫ ⎪ ∂r ⎪ ⎧ px ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ = p ⎨ ∂ x ⎬ dr . (9.62) wi [ N ] T fe = ⎬ ⎪ i =1 ⎪i ⎭ where pi is the pressure at the Gauss point i along the s = +1 edge and is computed by equation { } ∑ n ⎧ ∂y ⎪ ∂r ⎪ pi ⎨ ∂x ⎪− ⎪ ∂r ⎩ p= ∑ N (r . { f } is reversed.9.63) the element.

2 Consider the element of Fig. E9.2 Solution. we can write f y3 = − f y7 = − P 2 P 2 +1 −1 +1 −1 1 ∫ 4 ( 1 + r ri ) ( 1 + s si ) ( r ri + s si − 1) d r .216 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS For a rectangular isoparametric element with edges parallel to the x . For the rectangular element ∂y ∂x = 0 and = a . y axes. ⎪ ⎭ (9. For the edge s = +1 we have N1 = N 5 = N 2 = N 6 = N8 = 0 . Find the equivalent nodal forces. Equation (9. Example 9. 1 2 ∫ 4 ( 1 + s si ) ( 1 − r ) d r .61) gives ∂r ∂r {f } e ⎧ f y3 ⎪ = ⎨ f y7 ⎪f ⎩ y4 ⎫ +1 ⎪ ⎬= p ⎪ −1 ⎭ ∫ ⎧ N3 ⎪ ⎨ N7 ⎪N ⎩ 4 ⎫ ⎪ ⎬ (− a ) d r . Fig. .66) Denoting the total pressure load P = 2 p a . a with a uniform pressure load along the top edge. it is possible to integrate the equations for the equivalent nodal forces explicitly.2. E9.

2. The same result could have been obtained noticing that the integrands in the above equations are the shape functions of the three-node isoparametric onedimensional element (4. ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS P 2 +1 −1 217 f y4 = − ∫ 1 (1 + r ri 4 ) (1 + s si ) ( r ri + s si − 1) d r .26).59) is { f }= ∫ m [ N ] e T ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎨ ⎬d x d y = ⎩− g ⎭ +1 +1 −1 −1 ∫ ∫ m [N ] T ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎨ ⎬ det [ J ] d r d s ⎩− g ⎭ (9. E9.67) takes the form { f }= ∑∑ w w e n n i i =1 j =1 j ⎧ 0 ⎫ m [ N ] T ⎨ ⎬ det [ J ] .9. 4 6 ∫ ( ) ∫ Hence a uniform load acting along an edge is not distributed in the intuitive ratio of 1 4 : 1 2 : 1 4 .67) where m is the mass per unit area and g the acceleration in the y direction. Find the equivalent nodal forces. Gravity loading For gravity loading (downwards negative) the vector of equivalent nodal forces (9.3. substituting r i = 1 and s i = 1 for node 3. and r i = −1 and s i = 1 for node 4. . ⎩− g ⎭ (9. In the above expressions. 4 6 1 ( 2 ) 1 − r 2 dr = − 2P . yields f y3 = − f y7 = − f y4 = − +1 −1 +1 −1 +1 −1 P 2 P 2 P 2 ∫ 1 (1 + r )( 2)( r + 1 − 1) d r = − P . a with gravity loading. Solution. 4 3 1 (1 − r )(2)(− r + 1 − 1) d r = − P .3 Consider the rectangular element of Fig. Because all the equivalent nodal forces act in the y direction. The integration is carried out numerically and equation (9.68) Example 9. but in the ratio 1 6 : 2 3 : 1 6 (Fig. b). E9. r i = 0 and s i = 1 for node 7.

77) −1 −1 . and I3 = − −1 −1 ∫ ∫ (1 + r ri ) (1 + s si ) d r d s = − 4 . the integral is f yi = − 1 W 2 ∫ ∫ m g 2 (1 − r ) (1 + s si ) det [ J ] d r d s = − 3 .218 ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ f y1 ⎫ f y2 ⎪ ⎪ = L ⎬ ⎪ f y8 ⎪ ⎭ +1 +1 −1 −1 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎧ N1 ⎫ ⎪N ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ m g ⎨ 2 ⎬ det [ J ] d r d s . ⎜ ⎟ 16 16 ⎝ 3 3 ⎠ 12 (9.76) −1 −1 For a midside node i with si = 0 . W ( I1 + I 2 + I 3 ) .71) 4 where +1 +1 I1 = −1 −1 ∫ ∫ (1 + r ri ) (1 + s si ) r ri d r d s = 3 +1 +1 (9. W ( I1 + I 2 + I 3 ) = − W ⎛ 4 + 4 − 4 ⎞ = W . L⎪ ⎪ ⎪ N8 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ∫ ∫ (9.70) Denoting the total weight of the element W = m g ⋅ 2a ⋅ 2b . (9.72) since ri = ±1 for all corner nodes.74) Therefore. 1 1 (9. the integral is f yi = − 1 W 2 ∫ ∫ m g 2 (1 − s ) (1 + r ri ) det [ J ] d r d s = − 3 . 16 1 (9. +1 +1 For a corner node i the integral becomes f yi = − −1 −1 ∫ ∫ m g 4 (1 + r ri ) (1 + s si ) ( r ri + s si − 1) det [ J ] d r d s .75) For a midside node i with ri = 0 . the force (9.70) can be written f yi = − (9. I2 = −1 −1 ∫ ∫ (1 + r ri ) (1 + s si ) s si d r d s = 3 +1 +1 4 (9. the equivalent nodal forces for gravity loading at a corner node i are given by f yi = − +1 +1 (9.69) For a rectangular element det [ J ] = ab .73) since si = ±1 for all corner nodes.

4 Nine-node quadrilateral This element belongs to the Lagrange family of elements. 9. 9. 9. b. b. E9. E9. a.6 . it contains an internal node. which would have been assigned intuitively to the corner and midside nodes respectively.6.9.3. The local node numbers for this element are shown in Fig. Apart from the eight nodes located on the boundary.6. Fig.3 Hence for gravity loading the equivalent nodal forces are as shown in Fig. Again. 9. they are different from the values of − W 12 and − W 6 . ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 219 Fig. The master element is presented in Fig.

In general.7 Since a linear quadrilateral element has four nodes. b.78) Along the sides of the element. The polynomial is incomplete. It contains the complete polynomial of the second degree (6 terms) plus other three terms which have to be located symmetrically: the third degree terms r 2 s and r s 2 and also an r 2 s 2 term. which contains the terms of polynomials of various degrees in the two variables r and s . v = b1 + b2 r + b3 s + b4 r 2 + b5 r s + b6 s 2 + b7 r 2 s + b8 r s 2 + b9 r 2 s 2 . for three points. as shown in Fig. and rs . which. 2 L 2 (r ) = ( 1 + r )( 1 − r ) .as can be seen setting s = 0 in u ). r. the polynomial is quadratic (with three terms . 9.220 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The associated displacement functions in polynomial form are u = a1 + a2 r + a3 s + a4 r 2 + a5 r s + a6 s 2 + a7 r 2 s + a8 r s 2 + a9 r 2 s 2 . 9. s.. have the expressions .) . we can define generic shape functions L1 .6. and is determined by its values at the three nodes on that side. the polynomial should have the first four terms 1. 2 (9. The quadratic quadrilateral element has 9 nodes. The shape functions are defined as follows. 9.1. L2 and L3 having unit value at the node with the same index and zero at the other two nodes L1 (r ) = − r (1 − r ) ..7.79) They turn out to be Lagrange polynomials. . (9. as shown at the bottom of Fig. Fig. L 3 (r ) = r (1 + r ) . a pth-order Lagrange rectangular element has ( p + 1) 2 nodes ( p = 0. Considering the r axis alone. Higher-order rectangular elements can be systematically developed with the help of the so-called Pascal’s triangle.

N 4 = 4 ζ1 ζ 2 .9.82) . b.9. By referring to the master element in Fig.6. N5 = 4 ζ 2 ζ 3 . which can be expressed in terms of the nodal values of the variable being interpolated. a) is an element of order 2 (i. with the constant term and the first and last terms of a given row being the vertices of the triangle.81) It should be cautioned that the subscripts of N i refer to the node numbering used in Fig..6. The polynomial involves six constants. 9. a. they can be condensed out at the element level to reduce the size of the element matrices. (9.e. One can view the position of the terms as the nodes of the triangle. Similarly. the shape functions can be expressed in terms of area coordinates as for the linear strain triangle (8. N 2 = ζ 2 ( 2 ζ 2 − 1 ) . 9. as shown at the right of Fig. as can be seen from the top three rows of Pascal’s triangle. N 3 = ζ 3 ( 2 ζ 3 − 1 ) . L 2 (r ) = ( r − r1 ) ( r − r 3 ) ( r 2 − r1 ) ( r 2 − r 3 ) . ⎥ N 3 ⎥ ⎪ L 3 (r ) ⎪ ⎦ ⎩ ⎭ (9. the degree of the polynomial is 2). L 3 (s ) = s (1 + s ) . generic shape functions can be defined along the s axis.5 Six-node triangle Higher-order triangular elements can be developed using Pascal’s triangle (Fig.9. 9. 9. Since the internal nodes of the higher-order elements of the Lagrange family do not contribute to the inter-element connectivity. 9. N 6 = 4 ζ 3 ζ1 .8).80) The shape functions N i can be constructed as products of the above onedimensional functions ⎡ N1 ⎢N ⎢ 5 ⎢ N2 ⎣ N8 N9 N6 N 4 ⎤ ⎧ L 1 (r ) ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ N 7 ⎥ = ⎨ L 2 (r ) ⎬ ⎣ L 1 (s ) L 2 (s ) L 3 (s ) ⎦ . 2 (9.36) N1 = ζ1 ( 2 ζ1 − 1 ) . 9. 2 L 2 (s ) = ( 1 + s ) ( 1 − s ) . The six node triangle (Fig. but their shape functions cannot be obtained using products of one-dimensional interpolation functions. ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS L 1 (r ) = 221 ( r − r 2 ) ( r − r3 ) ( r1 − r 2 ) ( r1 − r3 ) . L 3 (r ) = ( r − r1 ) ( r − r 2 ) ( r 3 − r1 ) ( r 3 − r 2 ) . Alternatively. b L1 (s ) = − s (1 − s ) . one can use the serendipity elements.

83) where { q }= ⎣u e 1 v 2 L L u6 6 v6 ⎦ T . 9. 9. this element is also called a quadratic triangle. Because of terms ζ 2 .8 The isoparametric representation is (8. Fig. i =1 (9.9 . i =1 y = ∑ Ni y i .37) ⎧ u ⎫ ⎡ N1 ⎨ ⎬=⎢ ⎩v⎭ ⎣ 0 0 N1 v1 u2 6 N2 0 0 N2 L L N6 L L 0 0 ⎤ e q .84) Fig.222 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 2 2 where ζ 1 = 1 − ζ 2 − ζ 3 . N6 ⎥ ⎦ { } (9. and x = ∑ Ni x i . ζ 3 in the shape functions.

This inverse exists if there is no excessive distortion of the element such that lines of constant r or s intersect inside or on the element boundaries or there are re-entrant angles. This gives ∂ ∂ ∂ = − . The row vector of shape functions is ⎢ ⎥ ⎣N ⎦ = ⎣N1 N 2 N 3 ⎦ = ⎢ 2 r ( r − 1) ( 1 + r )( 1 − r ) 2 r ( r + 1) ⎥ . it is more likely to be negative at corners. If the determinant det [ J ] → 0 . The midside node should be as near as possible to the centre of the side. The Gauss quadrature formulas for a triangle differ from those considered earlier for the rectangle. and. ⎦ ⎣ 1 1 . A similar situation occurs when two adjacent corner nodes are made coincident to produce a triangular element.6 Jacobian positiveness In the higher-order isoparametric elements discussed above. particularly at that corner. s ) coordinates are defined by (8. It must be placed inside the middle third of a side. Note that while the Jacobian is always computed at Gauss points. The sign of det [ J ] should be checked.46). a warning message will be signaled indicating the nonuniqueness of mapping. 4. where stresses may be computed. can be evaluated using (9. as an internal angle approaches 1800 there is a loss of accuracy in the element stress. we note the presence of ‘midside’ nodes. ∂ s ∂ N 3 ∂ N1 (9.13) to shape functions is that [ J ] can be inverted. any internal angle of each corner node of the element should be less than 1800 . ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 223 The element stiffness matrix.9.24) if the (r . [∂ ] will The above statements are illustrated for the one-dimensional quadratic isoparametric element shown in Fig.85) Details on numerical integration schemes for triangles are given in [18. Therefore to ensure that [ J ] can be inverted. A necessary requirement for applying equation (9. then [ j ] and the operators in increase without limit and consequently produce infinite strains. 9. When the element is degenerated into a triangle by increasing an internal angle to 1800 then [ J ] is singular at that corner. ∂ r ∂ N 2 ∂ N1 ∂ ∂ ∂ = − . If the Jacobian becomes negative at any location. This condition ensures that det [ J ] does not attain a value of zero in the element.4. 39]. which has to be integrated numerically.

0 . l 3l < x 2 < . For any x2 this determinant vanishes at the point r0 = 0.10) if − 1 ≤ r 0 ≤ 1 . This explains 4 4 why it is recommended to place precautiously the ‘midside’ node inside the middle third of a side. 9.5 l ≤1.224 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The Jacobian matrix is [ J ] = J11 = ⎢ ∂N1 ⎢ ⎣ ∂r ∂N 2 ∂r ⎧ x1 ∂N 3 ⎥ ⎪ ⎥ ⎨ x2 ∂r ⎦ ⎪ ⎩ x3 ⎫ ⎪ ⎢ 2r − 1 − 2r ⎬=⎢ ⎪ ⎣ 2 ⎭ ⎧ 0 2r + 1 ⎥ ⎪ ⎨ x2 2 ⎥⎪ ⎦ ⎩ l ⎫ ⎪ ⎬. i. 2x2 −l Fig.10 This point lies within the element (Fig.5 ) l − 2 r x2 .e. 9. ⎪ ⎭ The determinant of the Jacobian matrix is det [ J ] = J11 = ( r + 0.5 l . 2x2 −l If . if −1 ≤ where 0 ≤ x 2 ≤ l . then det [ J ] does not vanish on the element.

For this case. . rectangular or quadrilateral in shape. These elements may be either triangular. that is the thickness-to-span is h l ≤ 0. 10. Thin plates with transverse shear neglected are analyzed based on Kirchhoff’s classical theory. which is the plane midway between the faces of the plate. and c) the direct stress in the transverse direction can be disregarded.1 . it can be assumed that the plate deformation may be expressed by the deformation state at the middle surface.1 Thin plate theory (Kirchhoff) A plate is described as a structure in which the thickness is very small compared with the other dimensions. such as the floors of buildings and aircraft. Plates with a constant shear deformation through the plate thickness are treated in the Reissner-Mindlin plate theory. The plate has constant thickness h and is subject to distributed surface loads. PLATE BENDING Flat plate structures. 10. Such structures can be analyzed by dividing the plate into an assemblage of twodimensional finite elements called plate bending elements. enclosures surrounding machinery and bridge decks are subject to loads normal to their plane. For thick or composite plates some higher-order shear deformation plate theories are available. Kirchhoff’s hypotheses are adopted: a) there is no deformation (stretching) in the middle plane of the plate. The x-y plane is taken to coincide with the middle surface of the plate (Fig. In this chapter. finite element displacement models for the flat plate bending problem are discussed. in which on the faces of plate the shear strains are equal to zero. For thin plates. b) normals to the middle plane of the undeformed plate remain straight and normal to the middle surface of the plate during deformation.10.1) and the positive z-direction is upwards.

ε y = = −z 2 . a). = −z 2 .1 The components of the strain are given as follows: εx = ∂2w ∂u ∂v ∂u ∂2w ∂v ∂2w . Fig. ∂y (10. z ) = − z ∂w . y.226 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The displacements parallel to the undeformed middle surface are given by u ( x. 10. 10. y.2. ∂x v ( x. γ x y = = −2 z + ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂ y ∂ y ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂v ∂w + =0. ∂x ∂z (10. ∂z ∂ y γ yz = γ zx = ∂w ∂u + = 0.2 The strain vector can be written in the form b {ε } = ⎣ ε x where the curvature vector ε y γ x y ⎦ T = − z { χ }. y ) denotes the displacement of the middle surface in the z-direction (Fig. 10.3) . z ) = − z ∂w .2) a Fig. (10.1) where w ( x.

7) The strain energy in the plate can be written as U= 1 2 V ∫ {σ }T {ε }dV = 1 2 ∫ A h3 { χ }T [ D ] { χ }d A .10) . 12 (10.3. Their definig equations are h2 ⎣M x My Mxy ⎦= −h 2 ∫ z ⎣σ h2 x σ y τ xy ⎦ dz . where (10. (10. d12 d 22 d 26 d16 d 26 d 66 ⎤ ⎥.3 The positive sense of internal bending and twisting moments (per unit length) is shown in Fig. ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ ⎡ d11 [ D ] = ⎢ d12 ⎢ ⎢ d16 ⎣ (10.4) Since σ z = 0 .10. PLATE BENDING 227 ⎢ 2 {χ }= ⎢ ∂ w 2 ⎢ ∂x ⎣ ∂2w ∂ y2 ∂2w ⎥ 2 ⎥ ∂x ∂ y ⎥ ⎦ T .6) {σ } = ⎣σ x and σ y τ x y ⎦T .8) Fig.5) (10. the stress-strain relations take the form {σ } = [ D ] {ε } = − z [ D ] { χ } . 10. 10. (10.9) Denoting Di j = −h 2 ∫d ij z2 d z (10.

∂x ∂y ∂ Qx ∂ Q y + + pz = 0 . + ∂y ∂x ∂M x y ∂M y + − Qy = 0 . Q y are the shear Qx = − D ∂ ⎛ ∂2w ∂2w ⎜ + ∂ x ⎜ ∂ x2 ∂ y2 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟. The equilibrium equations are ∂M x ∂M y x − Qx = 0 . ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ (10.13) D= 12 1 − ν ( E h3 2 ) . ∂x ∂y forces (per unit length). From (10.228 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS the moment .12) ⎡ 0 ⎢1 ν [ D ] = D ⎢ν 1 0 ⎢ 1 −ν ⎢0 0 2 ⎣ where ⎤ ⎥ ⎥. (10.11) or { M } = − [ D ]{ χ } For isotropic materials . (10. ⎟ ⎠ (10.curvature equations can be expressed as follows ⎧ ∂2w ⎪ ∂ x2 D16 ⎤ ⎪ 2 ⎪ ⎥⎪ ∂ w D26 ⎥ ⎨ ∂ y2 D66 ⎥ ⎪ 2 ⎦⎪ ∂ w ⎪ ⎪ ∂x∂ y ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎧ Mx ⎪ ⎨ My ⎪M ⎩ xy ⎫ ⎡ D11 ⎪ ⎢ ⎬ = ⎢ D12 ⎪ ⎢D ⎭ ⎣ 16 D12 D22 D26 (10.16) . ⎟ ⎠ Qy = − D ∂ ⎛ ∂2w ∂2w ⎜ + ∂ y ⎜ ∂ x2 ∂ y2 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟.11) and (10.15) where p z is the lateral distributed load (per unit surface) and Qx .15) it can be shown that (10.14) E is Young’s modulus and ν is the Poisson’s ratio.

The transverse normal stress is disregarded as in the Kirchhoff’s theory.10. (10.19) The strain energy (10. the thickness-to-span ratio is not small enough to neglect transverse shear deformations and Kirchhoff’s assumption is no longer valid.20) The potential of the external load is W P = − p z w dx dy . A ∫ (10.2 Thick plate theory (Reissner-Mindlin) For moderately thick plates. Reissner proposed to introduce the rotations of the normal to the plate midsurface in the xOz and yOz plane as independent variables. the classical hypothesis of zero transverse shear strain is relaxed. First.15).16) into the last equation (10.2. PLATE BENDING 229 By substituting (10. the differential equilibrium equation for isotropic materials can be obtained as ∂4w p ∂4w ∂4w +2 2 2 + 4 = z . 10.18) and the shear stresses by 2 ⎛ ⎜ 1 − 4z ⎜ h2 ⎝ where a parabolic distribution is assumed. the displacements parallel to the middle surface can be expressed as . b). ⎣τ z x τ yz ⎦= 3 2h ⎞ ⎟ ⎣ Qx ⎟ ⎠ Qy ⎦. D ∂y ∂x ∂ y ∂ x4 The bending and torsion stresses are given by (10. Then.17) ⎣σ x σ y τxy ⎦= 12 z ⎣M x h3 My Mxy ⎦ (10. To overcome this problem.9) (10. Mindlin simplified Reissner’s assumption considering that normals to the plate midsurface before deformation remain straight but not necessarily normal to the plate after deformation. − 2 ∂ x ∂ y2 ⎟ ⎥ ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ ∂x ∂ y ⎟ ⎠ ⎠⎥ ⎝ ⎦ (10. The displacements of the middle surface are independent of the rotations of the normal (Fig.8) can be expressed as D U= 2 ∫ A 2 ⎡⎛ 2 2 ⎢ ⎜ ∂ w + ∂ w ⎞ + 2 (1 − ν ⎟ ⎢ ⎜ ∂ x2 ∂ y 2 ⎟ ⎠ ⎢⎝ ⎣ ⎞⎤ ⎛ ⎛ 2 ⎞2 ∂2w ∂ 2w ⎟ ⎥ ⎜⎜ ∂ w ⎟ )⎜ ⎜ dx dy .21) 10. According to Reissner-Mindlin assumptions.

27) where κ is a shear correction factor and [ D ] = ⎡⎢ G 0 S ⎣ ⎡1 0⎤ ⎤ E ⎥ = 2 (1 +ν ) ⎢ 0 1 ⎥ . γ z x = 0 . y .26) gives θ x = θy = − ∂w . ∂z ∂ y ∂θ x ∂y ∂θ x ∂θ y ⎥ − ⎥ ∂x ∂y ⎦ T .29) V . ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ (10. θ y are the rotations about the Ox and Oy axes of lines originally normal The in-plane strains are now given by { ε } = − z { χ }. + ∂x ∂z (10. ⎣ ⎦ ⎦ (10. (10.24) The transverse shear strains are γ yz = γ zx = ∂w ∂u .25) Substituting for the displacements from (10.28) The strain energy in the plate can be written as the sum of the energies due to bending and shear deformation U= 1 2 V ∫ {σ } {ε }dV + 2 ∫ T 1 {τ }T {γ }dV . ∂x The average shear stresses are given by {τ } = ⎨ ⎧τ yz ⎫ = κ DS τzx ⎬ ⎩ ⎭ 0 G [ ]{ γ } . z ) = − zθ x (x . ∂y Note that when γ y z = 0 . y . equation (10. v (x . z ) = z θ y (x . (10. y ) .4). (10.22) gives ∂w ⎧ −θ + ⎧γ yz ⎫ ⎪ x ∂ y {γ } = ⎨ ⎬ = ⎪ ⎨ ∂w ⎩ γ zx ⎭ ⎪ θy + ⎪ ∂x ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬. to the middle plane before deformation.230 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS u (x . where the curvature vector is (10. y ) .22) where θ x . (10.23) ⎢ ∂θ {χ }= ⎢ − y ⎣ ∂x ∂v ∂w + .26) ∂w . and equation (10.24) reduces to (10.

20). As the thickness of the plate becomes extremely thin. This assumption is equivalent to the introduction of ‘parasitic’ shear stresses that force the normal to remain a straight line. the shear strain energy predicted by the finite element analysis can be magnified unreasonably and a ‘shear locking’ occurs for large span-to-thickness ratios. ∂y ∂x The main drawback of this theory is the arbitrary averaging of the shear strains.30) can be expressed as U= 1 2 1 2 ∫ A ⎡ ⎛ ∂θ y ⎢M x ⎜ − ⎜ ∂x ⎢ ⎝ ⎣ ∂θ ⎞ ⎛ ∂θ ⎟ + Mxy ⎜ x − y ⎟ ⎜ ∂x ∂y ⎠ ⎝ ⎛ ⎞ ∂w ⎟ + Qy ⎜ − θ x + ⎜ ⎟ ∂y ⎝ ⎠ ⎞ ∂θ ⎤ ⎟ + M y x ⎥ dx dy + ⎟ ∂y ⎥ ⎠ ⎦ ⎞⎤ ⎟⎥ dx dy . T S A (10. The transverse shear constitutive equation is ∂w ⎫ ⎧ ⎪ −θx + ∂ y ⎪ ⎧ Qy ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ . the above expression reduces to (10. ⎬=κG ⎨ ⎨ ∂w ⎬ ⎩ Qx ⎭ ⎪ ⎪ θy + ⎪ ∂x ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ (10. If θ x = . which is not true.31) or (10. integrating through the thickness U= 1 2 ∫ A h3 { χ }T [ D ] { χ }d A + 1 12 2 ∫ κ h {γ } [ D ]{γ }d A . If a constant shear strain is considered through the plate thickness.11) becomes ⎡ ⎫ 0 ⎢1 ν ⎪ ⎢ν 1 0 ⎬=D ⎢ 1 −ν ⎪ ⎢0 0 ⎭ 2 ⎣ ⎧ ∂θ y − ⎤⎪ ∂x ⎥⎪ ∂θ x ⎪ ⎥⎨ ∂y ⎥⎪ ⎥ ⎪ ∂θ ∂θ y x ⎦ ⎪ ∂x − ∂ y ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎧ Mx ⎪ ⎨ My ⎪M ⎩ xy (10. where { χ } is given by (10. ⎟ ⎠⎦ + ∫ A ⎡ ⎛ ∂w ⎢Qx ⎜ θ y + ⎜ ∂x ⎣ ⎝ ∂w ∂w and θ y = − .32) The strain energy (10. on the faces of plate the shear strains are not zero.30) For isotropic materials. equation (10.24).12). PLATE BENDING 231 or.10.

10.3. Also. the strain energy is given by (10.20) and the potential of the external load by (10.3 Rectangular plate bending elements For a thin plate bending element. 10. one at each corner.1 ACM element (non-conforming) Figure 10. Melosh . In terms of the ∂y ∂x dimensionless coordinates ξ and η . taken as degrees of freedom at each node.21). Clough. Hence. having four node points. complete polynomials of at least degree two should be used.4 The dimensionless coordinates ξ = x a and η = y b will be used in the following with the origin at the plate centre. (10. therefore. Fig. There are three degrees of freedom at each node.4 shows a thin rectangular element of thickness h. 1963). and the two rotations θ x = and θ y = − . These three quantities are. The assumed form of the displacement function. The highest derivative appearing in these expressions is the second. it will be necessary to ∂w ∂w and are continuous between ensure that w and its first derivatives ∂x ∂y elements. namely.1961.33) Figure 10. the transverse ∂w ∂w displacement w . according to the convergence criteria of the Rayleigh-Ritz method. for convergence. irrespective of the element shape. these become .5 shows the ACM element (Adini.232 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 10. is w = a1 + a2 x + a3 y + a4 x 2 + a5 x y + a6 y 2 + higher degree terms.

36) (10. . that is w = α1 + α 2 ξ + α 3η + α 4 ξ 2 + α 5 ξ η + α 6η 2 + + α 7 ξ 3 + α 8 ξ 2η + α 9 ξη 2 + α10η 3 + α11ξ 3η + α12 ξη 3 .5 The expression (10. a) w = ⎣P ( ξ .35) can be written in the following matrix form w = 1 ξ η ξ 2 ξ η η 2 ξ 3 ξ 2η ξ η 2 η 3 ξ 3η ξη 3 ⎣ ⎦ {α }. (10.37) Differentiating (10. This ensures that the element is geometrically invariant. a ∂ξ (10.39) ∂w = 0 0 1 0 ξ ∂η ⎦ {α }. 2η 0 ξ2 2ξη 3η 2 ξ 3 3ξη 2 (10.η )⎦ {α } . the displacement function can be represented by a polynomial having twelve terms.38) (10.35) Note that this function is a complete cubic to which two quartic terms ξ 3η and ξη 3 have been added. (10. which are symetrically located in Pascal’s triangle.10.34) Since the element has 12 degrees of freedom. 10. Fig. where {α }T = ⎣ α1 ∂w = 0 1 0 2ξ ∂ξ α 2 α 3 L α12 ⎦ . (10. b ∂η θy = − 1 ∂w .36) gives ⎣ ⎣ η 0 3ξ 2 2ξη η 2 0 3ξ 2η η 3 ⎦ {α } .36. PLATE BENDING 233 θx = 1 ∂w .

43) where the vector of nodal displacements is { q } = ⎣w e T 1 θ x1 θ y1 L w4 θ x 4 θ y 4 ⎦ . η = ±1 gives { q }= [ A ]{α }.42) Substituting (10.36).η )⎦ q e = ⎣ ⎣N1 ⎦ −1 {q } . (10. ⎪0⎪ ⎩ ⎭ .42) into (10. ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ The element is non-conforming.40) for {α } gives {α } = [ Ae ] w = ⎣N (ξ . evaluating (10. (10. (10. for conciseness.36.234 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Evaluating (10.η )⎦ T ⎧1 2 2 ⎪ 8 ( 1 + ξ i ξ ) 1 + η jη 2 + ξ i ξ + ηi η − ξ − η ⎪ b ⎪ ( 1 + ξi ξ )( ηi + η ) η 2 − 1 =⎨ 8 ⎪ a ⎪ ( ξi + ξ ) ξ 2 − 1 ( 1 + ηi η ) ⎪ 8 ⎩ ( )( ( ) )⎫ ⎪ ( ) ⎪ ⎪ ⎬. a) yields { } (10.39) at ξ = ±1 .38) and (10. ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ = ⎨ 0 ⎬ .44) and the shape functions are defined as ⎣N i (ξ .40) where { q } = ⎣w bθ aθ L w bθ aθ ⎦ {α }.ηi ) are the coordinates of node i. Indeed.41) and the matrix [ A ] is given in [87] but not reproduced here. e e ⎣N 2 ⎦ ⎣N 3 ⎦ ⎣N 4 ⎦ ⎦ {q }.45) on the side 2-3 (for ξ = +1 ) gives ⎣N 1 ⎦ T ⎣N 2 ⎦ T ⎧ (1 4 )( 1 − η ) 2 − η − η 2 ⎪ = ⎨ (b 4 )( − 1 + η ) η 2 − 1 ⎪ 0 ⎩ ( ( )⎫ ) ⎪. ⎬ ⎪ ⎭ ⎣N 3 ⎦ T ⎧ (1 4 )( 1 + η ) 2 + η − η 2 ⎪ = ⎨ (b 4 )( 1 + η ) η 2 − 1 ⎪ 0 ⎩ ( ( ) )⎫ ⎪ ⎬. (10.45) where ( ξi . e e (10. e T 1 x1 y1 4 x4 y4 e Solving (10. ⎪ ⎭ ⎣N 4 ⎦ T ⎧0⎫ ⎪ ⎪ = ⎨ 0 ⎬. ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ (10.

46) Substituting (10.10. ⎪ ⎭ −η ( 1 − η ) ⎧ ∂ ⎣N 4 ⎦ T ⎪ = ⎨ − (b 8) ( 1 + η ) η 2 − 1 ∂ξ ⎪ 0 ⎩ ( ) The above expressions indicate that θ y is determined by the values of w and θ x at nodes 1. e T e e (10. The rotation θ y is not continuous across the side 2-3 and the element is non-conforming. Substituting (10. ⎪ ⎭ η (− 1 − η ) ⎧ ∂ ⎣N 3 ⎦ T ⎪ = ⎨ (b 8) ( 1 + η ) η 2 − 1 ∂ξ ⎪ − (a 2 ) ( 1 + η ) ⎩ ( ) ⎫ ⎪ ⎬.48) where the element stiffness matrix is h [ k ] = ∫ 12 [ B ] e 3 T [ D ] [ B ]dA (10.46) gives ∂ ⎣N i (ξ .34) θy = − ∂ ⎣N 4 ⎦ ⎥ e 1 ∂w 1⎢∂ N = − ⎢ ⎣ 1⎦ L ⎥ q . PLATE BENDING 235 This indicates that the displacement w . 3. If the element is attached to another rectangular element at nodes 2 and 3.47) along ξ = +1 gives −η ( − 1 − η ) ⎧ ∂ ⎣N1 ⎦ T ⎪ = ⎨− (b 8) ( − 1 + η ) η 2 − 1 ∂ξ ⎪ 0 ⎩ ( ) η (− 1 − η ) ⎫ ⎧ ⎪ ∂ ⎣N 2 ⎦ T ⎪ = ⎨ (b 8) ( − 1 + η ) η 2 − 1 ⎬. ⎪ ⎭ ⎫ ⎪ ⎬.45) into (10. this is not the case with the rotation θ y .η )⎦ T ∂ξ ⎫ ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ξ i η ( ηi − η ) ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ b ξ i ( ηi + η ) η 2 − 1 ⎬ .43) into (10.4) and (10. 2. are uniquely determined by their values at nodes 2 and 3. The rotation θ y is given by (10. and hence the rotation θ x . =⎨ ⎪ ⎪ 8 ⎪ − a ( 2 + 2ξ ) ( 1 + η η ) ⎪ i i ⎪ ⎪ 8 ⎭ ⎩ ( ) (10. Unfortunately.49) A and the strain-displacement matrix is . ∂ξ ⎦ a ∂ξ a ⎣ ∂ξ { } (10. ∂ξ ⎪ ⎪ − (a 2 ) ( 1 − η ) ⎭ ⎩ ( ) ⎫ ⎪ ⎬.47) Evaluating (10. then w and θ x will be continuous along the common side. and 4 as well as by θ y at nodes 2 and 3.8) gives Ue = 1 2 { q } [k ] { q }.

−ν a b ⎥ ⎥ 4 2 4 ⎧ ⎫ 2 ⎨ β + ( 1 − ν )⎬ a ⎥ 15 ⎩3 ⎭ ⎥ ⎦ 1 ⎧ ⎫ ⎤ − ⎨2β 2 + (1 − ν )⎬ a ⎥ 5 ⎩ ⎭ ⎥ ⎥.50) Substituting the shape functions from (10. 0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎧2 2 1 ⎫ 2 ⎨ β − (1 − ν )⎬ a ⎥ 15 ⎩3 ⎭ ⎥ ⎦ ⎧ 2 1 ⎫ ⎤ ⎨− β + ( 1 − ν )⎬ a ⎥ 5 ⎩ ⎭ ⎥ ⎥. 0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎧1 2 1 ⎫ 2 ⎨ β + ( 1 − ν )⎬ a ⎥ 15 ⎩3 ⎭ ⎥ ⎦ ⎡ ⎧ 2 ⎧ 2 1 ⎫ ⎫ 2 2 ⎨α − (1 + 4ν )⎬ b ⎢− ⎨2 2 β − α + 5 (7 − 2ν )⎬ 5 ⎩ ⎭ ⎭ ⎢ ⎩ ⎧2 2 4 ⎫ 2 ⎧ 2 1 ⎫ ⎢ [ k12 ] = ⎢ ⎨ α − (1 − ν )⎬ b ⎨α − (1 + 4ν )⎬ b 5 15 ⎩3 ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎢ ⎧ 2 1 ⎫ ⎢ 0 ⎨ 2 β + (1 − ν )⎬ a ⎢ 5 ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ ⎡ ⎧ 2 ⎧ 2 1 ⎫ ⎫ 2 2 ⎨α − ( 1 − ν )⎬ b ⎢− ⎨2 β + α + 5 (7 − 2ν )⎬ 5 ⎩ ⎭ ⎭ ⎢ ⎩ ⎧1 2 1 ⎫ 2 ⎧ 2 1 ⎫ ⎢ [ k13 ] = ⎢ ⎨− α + ( 1 − ν )⎬ b ⎨ α + ( 1 − ν )⎬ b 5 15 ⎩3 ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎢ ⎧ 2 1 ⎫ ⎢ 0 ⎨ β − ( 1 − ν )⎬ a ⎢ 5 ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ ( ) ( ) .45) and integrating gives the element stiffness matrix [k ] e ⎡ [ k11 ] ⎢ Eh ⎢ = 2 48 1 −ν a b ⎢ ⎢ ⎣SYM 3 ( ) [ k12 ] [ k13 ] [ k14 ]⎤ [ k22 ] [ k23 ] [ k24 ]⎥ ⎥ [ k33 ] [ k34 ]⎥ [ k44 ]⎥ ⎦ (10.236 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎧ ∂2 ⎪ 2 ⎪ ∂x 2 ⎪ [ B ]= ⎪ ∂ 2 ⎨ ⎪ ∂y ⎪ ∂2 ⎪2 ⎪ ∂x∂ y ⎩ ⎫ ⎧ 1 ∂2 ⎪ ⎪ 2 2 ⎪ ⎪ a ∂ξ ⎪ ⎪ 1 ∂2 ⎪ ⎪ N⎦ = ⎨ 2 ⎬⎣ 2 ⎪ ⎪ b ∂η ⎪ ⎪ 2 ∂2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ab ∂ξ ∂η ⎭ ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎣N (ξ . ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ (10.η )⎦ .51) where the submatrices have the following expressions ⎡ 2 ⎧ 2 1 ⎫ 2 2 ⎢4 β + α + 5 (7 − 2ν ) ⎨2α + 5 (1 + 4ν )⎬ b ⎩ ⎭ ⎢ ⎧4 2 4 ⎫ 2 ⎢ [ k11 ] = ⎢ ⎨ α + (1 − ν )⎬ b 15 ⎩3 ⎭ ⎢ ⎢ SYM ⎢ ⎣ ( ) ⎧ ⎫ ⎤ 2 1 ⎨− 2β − (1 + 4ν )⎬ a ⎥ 5 ⎩ ⎭ ⎥ ⎥.

[ k34 ] = [ I1 ]T [ k12 ][ I1 ] . [ k44 ] = [ I 2 ]T [ k11 ][ I 2 ] .52) where ⎡ − 1 0 0⎤ [ I1 ] = ⎢ 0 1 0⎥ . In terms of the nodal displacements they can be expressed as e z { f }= p .53) The above relationships are presented in reference [87]. it is simpler to use the expression (10. b β= b . [ k33 ] = [ I1 ]T [ k11 ][ I1 ] . In deriving this result.54) and integrating. a The remaining submatrices of (10. [ k23 ] = [ I 3 ]T [ k14 ][ I 3 ] . the vector of equivalent nodal forces is obtained as ab T ⎣ 3 b − a 3 b a 3 − b a 3 − b − a⎦ . ⎢ ⎥ ⎢0 0 1 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡1 0 0 ⎤ [ I 3 ] = ⎢0 1 0 ⎥ . ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0 0 1⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡1 0 0⎤ [ I 2 ] = ⎢0 − 1 0 ⎥ .5). A typical integration is then of the form +1 +1 −1 −1 ∫∫ ξ mη n dξ dη = ⎨ ⎧ ⎪ 0 4 ⎪ (m + 1)(n + 1) ⎩ m or n odd m and n even For p z = constant .51) are [ k22 ] = [ I 3 ]T [ k11 ][ I 3 ] . substituting the shape functions into { f } = ∫ ⎣N ⎦ e A T pz d A (10. [ k24 ] = [ I 3 ]T [ k23 ][ I 3 ] .36) for w and substitute for {α } after performing the integration. PLATE BENDING ⎡ 2 ⎧ 2 1 ⎫ 2 2 ⎢2 β − 2α − 5 (7 − 2ν ) ⎨ 2α + 5 (1 − ν )⎬ b ⎩ ⎭ ⎢ ⎧2 2 1 ⎫ 2 ⎢ ⎧− 2α 2 − 1 (1 − ν )⎫ b [ k 41 ] = ⎢ ⎨ ⎨ α − (1 − ν )⎬ b ⎬ 5 15 ⎩3 ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎢ 1 ⎧ ⎫ ⎢ ⎨− β 2 + (1 + 4ν )⎬ a 0 ⎢ ⎩ 5 ⎭ ⎣ 237 ( ) ⎧ ⎫ ⎤ 2 1 ⎨− β + (1 + 4ν )⎬ a ⎥ 5 ⎩ ⎭ ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎧2 2 4 ⎫ 2 ⎨ β − (1 − ν )⎬ a ⎥ 15 ⎩3 ⎭ ⎥ ⎦ and α= a .10. (10. 3 Stresses at any point in the plate are given by (10. ⎢ ⎥ ⎢0 0 − 1⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (10.

when we examine the derivatives of these products we find that the twist ∂ 2 w ∂ξ ∂η is zero at all four corners and that there is no constant component to this second derivative. However. (10. Fox and Schmit .1966). 4 4 f i (ξ ) = ( ( ) ) ( ( ) ) (10. The solution used for the BFS element is the introduction of ∂ 2 w ∂ξ ∂η as an additional degree of freedom at each node.ηi ) are the coordinates of node i.43) but with 16 terms .21) as for uniform slender beams.238 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS {σ } = − z [ D ][ B ]{q e }. as the mesh is refined and the element size is decreased.50).56) 1 1 2 + 3ξ i ξ − ξ i ξ 3 .2). the displacement function is of the form (10. can be obtained using products of separate one-dimensional Hermitian shape functions (5.4.43) with ⎣N i (ξ . the plate will tend towards a zero twist condition. g i (η ) = − ηi − η +ηi η 2 + η 3 . of the form shown in Fig. In the limit. g i (ξ ) = − ξ i − ξ +ξ i ξ 2 + ξ 3 . 10.2 BFS element (conforming) A conforming rectangular element. In this case.3. 10. The nodal expansion of the displacement function has the form (10. ⎪ − a g (ξ ) f (η ) ⎪ i i ⎩ ⎭ (10. this violates the fundamental requirement that the element can represent all constant strain states. This element does have constant strain but is non-conforming. commonly referred to as the BFS element (Bogner. Unfortunately. The most accurate values are at the Gauss points of a (2 × 2) numerical integration scheme.55) where [ B ] is defined in (10. the results are convergent.57) in which ( ξi . A compromise is to use the cubic Hermitian polynomials for the deflection shape functions but reduce the order to linear for the rotation shape functions. As this controls the shear strain in equation (10. as an increasing number of elements is used. and discontinuities in slope occur at interfaces. It is a four-node thin plate bending element. 4 4 1 1 f i (η ) = 2 + 3ηi η − ηi η 3 .η )⎦ where T ⎧ f i (ξ ) f i (η ) ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ = ⎨ b f i (ξ ) g i (η ) ⎬ .

PLATE BENDING 239 1 { q } = ⎣w e T ′ θ x1 θ y1 w′x y1 L w4 θ x 4 θ y 4 ′ w′x y 4 ⎦ . the strain energy expression is (10. This is overcome in the WB element (Wilson. for convergence.26). θ x and θ y appearing in these expressions is the first. 10. w . 2b ( ) ′ w′x y 2 = ′ w′x y 4 = 1 θ x 2 − θ x1 .3. Brebbia – 1971) by introducing the approximations ′ w′x y1 = ′ w′x y 3 = 1 θ y1 − θ y 4 . (10. with { χ } and {γ } given by (10.58) ′ where w′x y ≡ ∂ 2 w ∂x ∂y and ⎣N i (ξ .59) It can be shown that this element can perform rigid body movements without deformation and can describe pure bending behaviour in the x. The highest derivative of w .33).49) and (10. This is ensured by the presence in the functions (10. 2a 1 θ x3 − θ x 4 .59). Hence.59) of the first six terms in (10.5). The element stiffness matrix and consistent vector of nodal forces are given by (10.η )⎦ T ⎧ f i (ξ ) f i (η ) ⎫ ⎪ b f (ξ ) g (η ) ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ i i =⎨ ⎬.10.21). .and ydirections.53) where the matrix ⎣N ⎦ is defined by (10. θ x and θ y are the only degrees of freedom required at the nodal points (Fig.24) and (10. The transverse displacement and tangential slope are continuous between elements but the normal slope is not.30) and the potential of the external load is (10.43) and (10. it is difficult to use in conjunction with other types of elements in built-up structures due to the presence of the degree of freedom ∂ 2 w ∂x ∂y . 10. the shear deformations become important and a Reissner-Mindlin plate model is adopted. 2a ( ) ( ) ( ) Applying the above constraints to the BFS element makes it a nonconforming one.3 HTK thick rectangular element When the thickness is greater than about a tenth of the plate width. ⎪ − a g i (ξ ) f i (η ) ⎪ ⎪ ab g i (ξ ) g i (η ) ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ (10. Although the BFS element is more accurate than the ACM element. 2b 1 θ y 2 − θ y3 . For a thick plate-bending element.

65) In (10. ⎥ N4 ⎥ ⎦ (10. without having to infer it as the derivative of the bending moment. θ x = ∑ Ni θ x i . (10.62) { q } = ⎣w e T 1 θ x1 θ y1 L w4 θ x 4 θ y 4 ⎦ . Taylor and Kanoknukulcha .63) Substituting (10. expressions (10. i =1 i =1 i =1 4 4 4 (10.44) and ⎡ N1 [ N ]= ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎣ N1 0 0 L N1 L (10. e T e e (10. The displacement functions are of the form w = ∑ Ni w i .3).24).30) gives Ue = 1 2 { q } [ k ] { q }. that is Ni = 1 1 + ξ i ξ 1 + η iη . e B S (10. ⎪ ⎭ { } (10. θ x and θ y in terms of their nodal values.62) into (10.60) can be written ⎧w ⎪ ⎨ θx ⎪θ ⎩ y where ⎫ ⎪ e ⎬=[N] q . θ y = ∑ Ni θ y i .61) These functions ensure that w . 4 ( )( ) (10. It represents the shear deformation directly.64) where the element stiffness matrix k e can be written as the sum of the matrices due to bending and shear [ ] [ k ] = [ k ] + [ k ].65) . θ x and θ y are continuous between elements.1977) expands separately w . 0 0 L N4 0 0 0 N4 0 0 ⎤ 0 ⎥.60) where the functions N i are defined by (9. In matrix form.240 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The four-node HTK element (Hughes.26) and (10.

0 ⎥ ⎦ (10.68) and the resulting matrices into (10.71) Substituting (10. The strain-displacement matrix [ B ] is of the form [ B ]= [ [ B ] [ B ] [ B ] [ B ] ] S S T A B B B 1 B 2 B 3 B 4 (10.(10.73) 4 ⎣( ⎦ S i i i i i i i i i Substituting (10.67) (10.71) gives [ ] BiB ⎡0 − ξ i 1 + η iη 4a ⎤ 0 ⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ 0 1 + ξ i ξ η i 4b 0 ⎥ ⎢ 0 ξ i 1 + η i η 4 a − 1 + ξ i ξ η i 4b ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ( ( ) ( ) ) ( ) (10. PLATE BENDING 241 h [ k ] = ∫ 12 [ B ] B 3 B T [ D ] [BB ] d A S S (10.70) where ⎣ ∂x 0 ∂ y − Ni Ni ⎤ .68) where [ ] BiB The strain-displacement matrix B S is of the form S S 1 S 2 S 3 S 4 [ ] [ B ]= [ [ B ] [ B ] [ B ] [ B ] ] ∂N [ B ] = ⎡⎢ ∂ N S i i i 0 − ∂ Ni ∂ x ⎤ ⎡0 ⎥. ⎢ 0 ∂N ∂ y 0 =⎢ i ⎥ ⎢ 0 ∂ Ni ∂ x − ∂ Ni ∂ y ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ (10.61) into (10.69) and (10.10.72) into (10.66) gives the element stiffness matrix due to bending .69) (10.66) A and [ k ] = ∫ κ h [ B ] [ D ][ B ] d A .72) and ( ηη a 0 [ B ] = ⎡⎢ ξ1 +1ξ+ ξ )η ) 4b − (1 + ξ ξ )(1 + η η ) 4 (1 + ξ ξ )(01 + η η ) 4 ⎤⎥ .

b β= b . − (1 +ν )a b ⎥ 2 ⎥ 4⎧ 2 1 ⎫ β + ( 1 −ν )⎬ a 2 ⎥ ⎨ 3⎩ 2 ⎭ ⎥ ⎦ 0 [k ] B 11 [k ] B 12 ⎡0 ⎢ ⎢ = ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎢ ⎣ ⎡0 ⎢ ⎢ = ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢0 ⎢ ⎣ 0 2 α 2 − ( 1 −ν ) b 2 3 1 − ( 3ν − 1 ) a b 2 0 { } ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ 1 ( 3ν − 1) a b ⎥ . a . 2 ⎥ 2 2 2⎥ β − ( 1 −ν ) a ⎥ 3 ⎦ 0 { } and α= a .242 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS [k ]= B 48 1 − ν 2 ( E h3 ) ⎡ kB ⎢ 11 ⎢ ⎢ ab ⎢ ⎢ ⎢SYM ⎣ [ ] [ k ] [ k ] [ k ] ⎤⎥ [ k ] [ k ] [ k ] ⎥⎥ [ k ] [ k ] ⎥⎥ [ k ] ⎥⎦ B B B 12 13 14 B B B 22 23 24 B 33 B 34 B 44 (10. 2 ⎥ 1 2 2⎥ − 4 β + ( 1 −ν ) a ⎥ 3 ⎦ 0 { } [k ] B 13 2⎧ ⎫ 2 2 1 ⎨ − α − ( 1 −ν ) ⎬ b 3⎩ 2 ⎭ 1 (1 +ν )a b 2 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ 1 ⎥. ( 1 +ν )a b ⎥ 2 ⎥ 2⎧ 1 ⎫ − β 2 − ( 1 −ν ) ⎬ a 2 ⎥ ⎨ 3⎩ 2 ⎭ ⎥ ⎦ 0 [k ] B 14 ⎡0 0 ⎢ ⎢ 1 = ⎢0 − 4α 2 + ( 1 − ν ) b 2 3 ⎢ 1 ⎢0 ( 3ν − 1 ) a b ⎢ 2 ⎣ { } ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ 1 − ( 3ν − 1) a b ⎥ .74) where the submatrices are ⎡0 ⎢ ⎢ = ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢0 ⎢ ⎣ 0 4 3 ⎧ 2 1 ⎫ 2 ⎨α + ( 1 −ν )⎬ b 2 ⎩ ⎭ 1 − (1 +ν )a b 2 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ 1 ⎥.

76) ⎪ 0 ⎪ A ⎩ ⎭ For pz = constant. The above expressions are presented in reference [87].61) into (10. The vector of equivalent nodal forces is ⎧ pz ⎫ ⎪ f = ⎣N ⎦ ⎨ 0 ⎬ d A (10. substituting the shape functions from (10.10. [ k ] [ k ] ⎥⎥ [ k ] ⎥⎦ S S S 12 13 14 S S S 22 23 24 S 33 S 34 S 44 (10.77) which means that one quarter of the total force is concentrated at each node.75) are given by relationships corresponding to (10.74) are given by relationships corresponding to (10.73) into (10.52). a2 ⎥ ⎦ − a⎤ ⎥ 0 ⎥. PLATE BENDING 243 The remaining submatrices of (10.97) and [k ] S 11 ⎡1 + α 2 α 2b ⎢ = ⎢ α 2b α 2 b 2 ⎢ −a 0 ⎣ ⎡ − 1 − α 2 α 2b ⎢ = ⎢ − α 2b α 2 b 2 ⎢ a 0 ⎣ − a⎤ ⎥ 0 ⎥. a2 ⎥ ⎦ [k ] S 13 [k ] S 14 The remaining submatrices of (10.75) where γ S = E h 3 12κ G b 2 is a shear parameter similar to (5. a2 ⎥ ⎦ − a⎤ ⎥ 0 ⎥.71) and the resulting matrices into (10.76) and integrating gives { } ∫ e T⎪ { f }= p a b ⎣ 1 e z 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0⎦ T (10.67) gives the element stiffness matrix due to shear [k ] S ⎡ kS ⎢ 11 ⎢ E h3 ⎢ = 48 γ S a b ⎢ ⎢ ⎢SYM ⎣ [ ] [ k ] [ k ] [ k ] ⎤⎥ [ k ] [ k ] [ k ] ⎥⎥ . Substituting (10.63) and (10. a2 ⎥ ⎦ [k ] S 12 ⎡ − 1 + α 2 α 2b ⎢ = ⎢ α 2b α 2 b2 ⎢ a 0 ⎣ ⎡1 − α 2 α 2b ⎢ = ⎢ − α 2b α 2 b 2 ⎢ −a 0 ⎣ − a⎤ ⎥ 0 ⎥.52). The bending and twisting moments per unit length are given by .

However.53). e (10. the standard (2 × 2) integration is reported to give good results for width-to-thickness ratios up to 50. S S e (10. lowering the integration order for the stiffness matrix due to shear.78) where [ I 3 ] is defined by (10.g.4 Triangular plate bending elements In this section we outline the development of some plate-bending triangular elements.79) The most accurate values are at the centre of the element. However. θ x and θ y which is not true for thick plates. The bending strains in the 8-node version are recovered accurately if sampled at the reduced (2 × 2) Gauss points. There is no perfect rectangular plate-bending element. The shear forces per unit length are ⎧ Qx ⎫ ⎨ ⎬=κ h ⎩ Qy ⎭ [ D ][ B ]{q }. . suggest to subdivide the element into regions (e. into four triangles) and work with different displacement functions over each region. considering rather difficult to generate a displacement function valid over the entire rectangular element. The above analysis can be easily extended to 8-node or higher-order plate elements.. There are different formulations using mixtures of corner and mid-side freedoms in order to achieve near complete polynomials. Alternative methods. large errors can occur in the case of cantilever plates. Benchmark problems have shown that the HTK element yields accurate solutions for simply supported or clamped plates. This is avoided by selective integration. Obviously. the individual functions must be continuous (up to the first derivatives) across the interior boundaries as well as the exterior boundaries. the shear strains become very small and near-zero values in (10.244 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎧ Mx ⎪ ⎨ My ⎪M ⎩ xy ⎫ ⎪ h3 = − [ I3 ] [ D ] B B ⎬ 12 ⎪ ⎭ [ ]{q }. In very thin plates. The most accurate values are at the Gauss points of a (2 × 2) numerical integration scheme. 10.26) thus imply a dependent relationship between w .

6 shows the T element (Tocher . the transverse displacement w .0) and (x3 .80) is incomplete.10. namely. y )⎦ {α } .81. ( ) (10. where {α }T = ⎣ α1 α 2 α3 L α9 ⎦ .6 The expression (10.82) Differentiating (10. In order to maintain symmetry.80) can be written in the following matrix form w= 1 x ⎣ y x2 xy y2 x3 (x 2 y + x y2 ) y3 ⎦ {α } . 2 and 3 have coordinates (0. PLATE BENDING 245 10. y3 ) . Nodes 1. a) w = ⎣P ( x .0) .1962).1 Thin triangular element (non-conforming) Figure 10. 10. (10. and the two rotations θ x = and ∂y θy = − ∂w with respect to the local axes. that is w = α1 + α 2 x + α 3 y + α 4 x 2 + α 5 x y + α 6 y 2 + + α 7 x3 + α8 x 2 y + x y 2 + α 9 y 3 .81) (10. the displacement function can be represented by a polynomial having nine terms.4. the coefficients of x 2 y and x y 2 are taken to be equal. (x2 . There are three degrees of freedom at each ∂w node.81) gives .80) Note that a complete cubic has ten terms so that the polynomial (10. (10. The local x-axis lies along the side 1-2 and the local y-axis is perpendicular to it. Fig. ∂x Since the element has 9 degrees of freedom.

84) for {α } gives {α } = [ Ae ] −1 {q } . This element is non-conforming. 0 0 0 0 x2 0 x3 y3 x3 − y3 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 y3 2 y3 0 0 0 0 3 x2 0 2 3 x2 3 x3 (10.88) x2 − 2 x3 − y3 = 0 (10. therefore.87) Substituting (10.86) ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ Solving (10.81. Evaluating (10. the locations of the nodes should be altered to avoid this condition. the matrix [ A ] is singular whenever w = ⎣P (x .89) and.246 ⎧w ⎪ ⎨ θx ⎪θ ⎩ y ⎫ ⎡ 1 x y x2 x y y2 x3 ⎪ ⎢ 0 0 x 2y ⎬=⎢0 0 1 ⎪ ⎢ 0 − 1 0 − 2 x − y 0 − 3x 2 ⎭ ⎣ FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS x2 y + x y2 x2 + 2x y − 2x y − y2 y3 3y2 0 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ {α }. Unfortunately.84) where { q } = ⎣w e T 1 θ x1 θ y1 L w3 θ x 3 θ y 3 ⎦ . e e (10.83) at the nodal points gives { q } = [ A ] {α } .85) and the matrix ⎡1 0 0 ⎢0 0 1 ⎢ ⎢ 0 −1 0 ⎢ ⎢ 1 x2 0 =⎢0 0 1 ⎢ ⎢ 0 −1 0 ⎢1 x y3 3 ⎢ ⎢0 0 1 ⎢ ⎣ 0 −1 0 0 0 0 2 x2 0 − 2 x2 2 x3 0 0 0 0 2 x2 0 2 2 x3 y3 + x3 y3 2 x3 + 2 x3 y3 2 − 2 x3 y3 − y3 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 y3 2 3 y3 0 [A ] e 0 − 2 x3 0 2 − 3x3 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ . e −1 (10. (10.83) ⎥ ⎦ Evaluating (10. of equation y = 0 . If this occurs. cannot be inverted. (10.87) into (10. y )⎦ Ae e e (10.83) along the side 1-2. gives . a) yields [ ] { q }.

In this case θ x is a tangential component and θ y is a normal component of rotation. the assumed function (10. The edge 1-2 was taken along the x-axis.80) is not invariant with respect to the choice of coordinate axes. (10. due to the x 2 y and x y 2 terms.88) into (10.8) gives Ue = 1 2 { q } [ k ]{ q } e T e e (10. Therefore the normal slope is not continuous between elements. PLATE BENDING 247 0 x2 0 0⎤ ⎥ 0 ⎥ {α } .92) is of the form which can be evaluated analytically.91) where the element stiffness matrix in the local coordinate system is h [ k ] = [ A ] ∫ 12 [ B ] e e −T 3 A T [ D ] [ B ]d A [A ] e −1 (10. { f }= [ A ] ∫ e e −T A T ⎣P ⎦ p z d A . Moreover. Calculation of the element stiffness matrix referred to local axes requires the local coordinates of . in some plate-bending elements a linear variation of the tangential component of rotation is adopted.10. To alleviate this. Substituting (10. The transverse displacement w and the normal component θ y are continuous between elements. α 5 and α 8 .93) ∫x A m n y dA .92) and the strain-displacement matrix is 2y 0 ⎤ ⎡ 0 0 0 2 0 0 6x ⎢0 0 0 0 0 2 0 [B ]= ⎢ 2x 6y ⎥ .4) and (10. ⎥ ⎢ 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 4 (x + y ) 0 ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ A typical element of the integrand in (10. while the tangential component θ x is not.94) Note that nodal coordinates are usually given in global axes.90) The rotation θ x is a quadratic function having coefficients α 3 . The vector of consistent nodal forces is given by (10. 0⎥ ⎦ ⎧w ⎪ ⎨ θx ⎪θ ⎩ y ⎡ 1 x 0 x2 0 0 ⎫ x3 ⎢ ⎪ 0 x 0 0 ⎬ =⎢0 0 1 ⎪ ⎢ 0 − 1 0 − 2 x 0 0 − 3x 2 ⎭1− 2 ⎣ (10. These cannot be determined using the values of θ x at nodes 1 and 2 only.

4.98) Functions expressed in area coordinates can be differentiated with respect to Cartesian coordinates using . θY = ∑ ζ i θY i . Nodes 1.96) where the vector of nodal displacements is { q } = ⎣w e T 1 θ X 1 θ Y 1 L w3 θ X 3 θ Y 3 ⎦ .95) where wi . θ X = ∑ ζ i θ X i . (10.97) and ⎡ ζ1 0 0 ζ 2 0 0 ζ 3 0 0 ⎤ [ N ] = ⎢ 0 ζ1 0 0 ζ 2 0 0 ζ 3 0 ⎥ . 2 and 3 have area coordinates ζ 1 . These can be obtained from their global coordinates using the corresponding transformation matrix. In order to assemble the global stiffness matrix.35). θ X i and θY i are the degrees of freedom at node i. Tocher. 10. and the two rotations θ X and θY with respect to the global axes. expressions (10. ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ 0 0 ζ1 0 0 ζ 2 0 0 ζ 3 ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ (10.248 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS nodes 2 and 3.2 Thick triangular element (conforming) Consider a thick triangular element (THT element – Henschel. The displacement functions are assumed to be w = ∑ ζ i wi . (10. i =1 i =1 i =1 3 3 3 (10. ζ 2 and ζ 3 (8. In matrix form. the element matrices have to be first transformed from local to global axes through a matrix triple product which is one of the more time-consuming procedures in finite element analysis. 1969) referred to a global coordinate system. the transverse displacement w . namely. θ X and θY are continuous between elements. There are three independent degrees of freedom at each node. They ensure that w .95) are written ⎧ w ⎪ ⎨θX ⎪θ ⎩ Y ⎫ ⎪ ⎬=[N ⎪ ⎭ ]{ q e }.

96) into (10. −γ3 ⎥ ⎦ (10.103) gives the stiffness matrix due to shear ⎡ kS ⎢ 11 = κG h ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ SYM ⎣ [k ] S [ ] [ k ] [ k ] ⎤⎥ [ k ] [ k ] ⎥⎥ . the stiffness matrix due to bending is h [ k ] = 12 A [ B ] B 3 B T [ D ] [ B B ].8). ∂ 1 3 ∂ = ∑ γ i ∂ζ .67) and integrating using the formula ∫ζ A m n p 1 ζ2 ζ3 dA = m ! n!p ! 2A (m + n + p + 2)! (10.99) Substituting (10. [ k ] ⎥⎦ S S 12 13 S S 22 23 (10.100) As this matrix is constant. ∂ x 2 A i =1 i where β i and γ i are defined in (8. PLATE BENDING 249 ∂ 1 3 ∂ = ∑ β i ∂ζ .101) Substituting (10.24) and using (10.99) shows that the straindisplacement matrix due to shear is [B ] S ⎡ ⎢ =⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ β1 2A 0 − ζ1 ζ1 0 β2 2A 0 −ζ2 ζ2 0 β3 2A 0 −ζ3 ζ3 ⎥ ⎤ γ1 γ2 γ3 2A 2A 2A ⎥.104) S 33 where .24) and using (10.102) into (10.10. ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎦ (10.99) gives the straindisplacement matrix due to bending [B ] B ⎡ 0 0 − β1 0 0 1 ⎢ = 0 γ1 0 0 γ2 2A ⎢ ⎢ 0 β 1 − γ1 0 β 2 ⎣ −β2 0 −γ2 0 0 0 γ3 0 β3 −β3 ⎤ ⎥ 0 ⎥.102) Substituting (10.96) into (10. ∂ y 2 A i =1 i (10. (10.

Stricklin et al.76) and integrating gives the vector of equivalent nodal forces { f }= p e z A T ⎣1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0⎦ 3 (10. ⎥ A⎥ 12 ⎥ ⎦ β1 ⎤ − γ2 6 A 6 0 β2 ⎤ [k ] S 22 ⎥ 6 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥.65). For pz = constant. ⎥ A⎥ 12 ⎥ ⎦ β1 ⎤ [k ] S 13 ⎡ β3 β 1 + γ 3 γ 1 ⎢ 4A ⎢ γ3 ⎢ =⎢ − 6 ⎢ β3 ⎢ ⎢ 6 ⎣ − γ1 6 A 12 0 ⎥ 6⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥. .3 Discrete Kirchhoff triangles (DKT) The difficulties to formulate simple (minimum degrees of freedom) and high-performing elements based on the Kirchhoff theory at the continuum level (which requires a C1 continuity for w ) led to the development of the so-called Discrete Kirchhoff (DK) technique (Wempner-1969. ⎥ A⎥ 6 ⎥ ⎦ The complete element stiffness matrix is the sum (10.105) which shows that one third of the total force is concentrated at each node.4. substituting the shape functions from (10. ⎥ A⎥ 12 ⎥ ⎦ [k ] S 33 2 ⎡β 2 +γ3 3 ⎢ ⎢ 4A γ3 ⎢ =⎢ − 6 ⎢ β 3 ⎢ ⎢ 6 ⎣ − γ3 6 A 6 0 β3 ⎤ ⎥ 6 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥.98) into (10. Dhatt1967). ⎥ A⎥ 6⎥ ⎦ [k ] S 12 ⎡ β2 β 1 + γ 2 γ1 ⎢ 4A ⎢ γ2 ⎢ =⎢ − 6 ⎢ β2 ⎢ ⎢ 6 ⎣ 2 ⎡β 2 +γ2 2 ⎢ ⎢ 4A γ2 ⎢ =⎢ − 6 ⎢ β 2 ⎢ ⎢ 6 ⎣ − γ1 6 A 12 0 ⎥ 6⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥.-1969. ⎥ A⎥ 6 ⎥ ⎦ [k ] S 23 ⎡ β3 β 2 + γ 3 γ 2 ⎢ 4A ⎢ γ3 ⎢ =⎢ − 6 ⎢ β3 ⎢ ⎢ 6 ⎣ − γ2 β2 ⎤ 6 A 12 0 ⎥ 6 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥. The above relationships are presented in reference [87]. 10.250 2 2 ⎡ β 1 + γ1 ⎢ ⎢ 4A γ1 ⎢ =⎢ − 6 ⎢ β 1 ⎢ ⎢ 6 ⎣ FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS − γ1 6 A 6 0 β1 ⎤ [k ] S 11 ⎥ 6⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥.

The Kirchhoff constraints are imposed in a discrete manner on the element or/and on the sides. Constant curvature patch-tests are needed to check the validity of the elements. PLATE BENDING 251 In the formulation of various DK plate elements. as in the ReissnerMindlin plate theory. the transverse shear strains are either taken equal to zero at the mid-side points (collocation on sides) or their integral along each edge is taken equal to zero. while the normal component θ n varies quadratically (Fig. a Fig. are defined in terms of the components along the coordinate axes by ⎧ θ s k ⎫ ⎡ ck ⎨θ ⎬ = ⎢ ⎩ n k ⎭ ⎣ − sk where sk ⎤ ⎧ θ x k ⎫ ⎨ ⎬ ck ⎥ ⎩ θ y k ⎭ ⎦ (10. For instance.1 can be called a ‘continuous’ Kirchhoff triangle. the tangential and normal components of rotations θ s k and θ n k at the mid-side node k. the rotations vary quadratically and their tangential component (normal slope) is not continuous between elements. in which the curvatures are expressed. The latter condition means that the transverse displacement w can vary cubically. 10. In this case only C 0 approximations of these rotations can be considered. The shear strain energy is neglected.4. in the discrete Kirchhoff triangles the two components of rotations are assumed independent of one another. of length l k . in terms of the first derivatives of the rotations (10. 10. It was shown that. The T element presented in section 10. To remedy this.10. The tangential component θ s is assumed to vary linearly along each edge.7. The aim is to preserve the C 0 continuity of the tangential components of rotations (normal slopes).24). along a side.106) .7 b For a side i − j . a). only the bending strain energy is considered.

7. 10.8.8. b) θ s = ( 1 − s′ )θ s i + s′θ s j . the three parameters α 4 . Its expression in terms of the dimensionless coordinate can be written as s′ = s l k θ n = ( 1 − s′ )θ ni + s′θ n j + 4s′ ( 1 − s′ )α k . Fig.252 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ck = x j − x i l k .107) Consider a discrete Kirchhoff triangle (DKT) with three nodes and three degrees of freedom per node (sometimes called DKT9). This is done requiring the shear strains γ s z to vanish along each side. it is assumed that it has six nodes (Fig. ( ) (10. ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (10. At the mid-side node k 1 θ ni + θ n j + α k .108) . α 6 must be expressed in terms of the degrees of freedom at the corner nodes. the degrees of freedom at mid-side nodes are eliminated. ( ) sk = y j − y i l k .8 In order to eliminate the degrees of freedom at mid-side nodes. One kind of ‘discrete’ Kirchhoff constraint is formulated in integral form as j j ∫ i γ s z ds = ∫ i ⎛ ∂w ⎞ ⎜ ⎜ ∂s + θn ⎟ ds = 0 . The parameter α k has to be eliminated. b). The rotation θ n varies parabolically (Fig. α 5 . 2 θnk = ( ) where the first term in the right hand side is expressed in terms of the rotations at the corner nodes. 10. Then. Initially. 10. The rotation θ s is assumed to vary linearly (Fig. 10. a).

{θ x } = ⎣θ x1 θ x 2 θ x3 ⎦T .109) into (10. (10. 2l k 4 ( ) ( ) or. ⎣ P4 P5 P6 ⎦ = ⎣ 4ξ ( 1 − ξ − η ) 4ξη 4η ( 1 − ξ − η ) ⎦ .109) The equation (10. wherefrom we obtain αk = 3 3 wi − w j − θ n i + θ n j .111) {α } = ⎣ α 4 ⎣Px ⎦ = ⎣ − P4 s4 − P5 s5 − P6 s6 ⎦ . because w is cubical and θ n is quadratic. The rotations θ x and θ y can be expressed as θ x = ⎣N ⎦ {θ x } + ⎣Px ⎦ {α }.110) we obtain the explicit expressions of . θ y = ⎣N ⎦ {θ y }+ ⎣Py ⎦ {α }. k. PLATE BENDING 253 Equation (10.10. Then. in terms of the degrees of freedom of the corner points αk = 3 3 wi − w j − − s k θ x i + c k θ y i − s k θ x j + c k θ y j . θ x and θ y in terms of the corner nodal variables Substituting (10. ⎣Py ⎦ = ⎣ P4c4 P5c5 P6 c6 ⎦ . {θ y }= ⎣θ y1 α5 α6 ⎦ T . where (10. 2l k 4 ( ) ( ) (10.108) can be written ∫ dw + ∫ θ i 0 1 0 j lk n ds = 0 .110) ⎣N ⎦ = ⎣ N1 N 2 N3 ⎦ = ⎣1 − ξ − η ξ η ⎦ . θ y 2 θ y 3 ⎦T .109) can also be obtained by adopting a Hermitian cubic polynomial for w (s ) and using the discrete Kirchhoff collocation constraint (zero ∂w shear strain) γ s z = + θ n = 0 at points i. (w j − wi ) + l k ∫ [ ( 1 − s′ )θ ni + s′θ n j + 4s′ ( 1 − s′ )α k ] d s′ = 0 . the condition γ s z = 0 will be ∂s satisfied at all points along the contour. j.

Taking into account the hypotheses adopted in formulating the DKT. (10.116) 3 3 2 2 Pk ck − Pm cm . ⎥ y y y ⎥ ⎢ ⎣N1 ⎦ ⎣N 2 ⎦ ⎣N 3 ⎦ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ Nx 1 (10. 3 ⎦ (10.114) ⎣N1x ⎦ = ⎣N ix1 N ix = − 1 N ix2 N ix . i 1 2 3 Side k ( i − j ) 5 (2−3 ) 6 (3 −1 ) 4 (1− 2 ) Side m ( i − j ) 4 (1− 2 ) 6 (3 −1 ) 5 (2−3 ) . 3 ) allowing the introduction of Kirchhoff-type boundary conditions.1 Corner point.1. 2.112) { q } = ⎣w e T 1 θ x1 θ y1 L w3 θ x 3 θ y 3 ⎦ . ⎠i ⎝ ⎛∂w⎞ θ yi = − ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ∂x ⎟ .113) [ N ]= ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣N 2x ⎦ ⎣N3x ⎦ ⎤ . (10. the nodal rotations θ x i and θ y i have the expressions used in Kirchhoff’s theory θ xi = ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ∂y ⎟ .115) In (10. 4 4 N ix2 = N i − N ix = 3 N iy = N ix . ⎠i ⎝ ⎛∂w⎞ ( i = 1.115). Table 10. 4 4 N iy = N i − 3 In the above expressions the indices k and m relate to the two edges having the common corner point i. 3 2 3 3 Pk sk ck + Pm sm cm . 2l k 2l m 3 3 2 2 Pk sk − Pm sm . as shown in Table 10. 4 4 3 3 Pk ck − Pm cm . the shape functions have the following expressions 3 3 Pk sk + Pm sm . 2l k 2l m (10. 3 ⎦ ⎣N1y ⎦ = ⎣Niy1 N iy = 1 N iy 2 N iy .254 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎧ θx ⎫ ⎨ ⎬=[N ⎩θy ⎭ where ] {q e }.

it will be derived in global coordinates as in [68]. y3 ) . { } θ y = ⎣H ⎦ q e . using a Hammer integration rule. the continuity C 0 of θ n is maintained. 2A { } (10. In the following.120) χ12 = { } where A is the area of the triangle with vertices (x1 . y1 ) . (10. in a local coordinate system [18]. (x2 . 2A 1 e ⎣1 ξ η ⎦ { Z } q .118) The curvature vector (10. y2 ) and (x3 . presented explicitly in terms of the local oblique coordinates ξ and η .119) The elements of the curvature vector can be expressed in terms of the rows of the ( 6 × 9 ) matrices [ G ] and [ H ] as follows χ1 = χ2 = 1 ⎣1 ξ η ⎦ { X 2A }{ q e }. can be rewritten as ⎣G ⎦ = ⎣1 ⎣H ⎦ = ⎣1 ⎢ ∂θ {χ }= ⎢ − y ⎣ ∂x ξ η ξ 2 ξη η 2 ⎦ [ G ] . (10.112) can be split as θ x = ⎣G ⎦ q e .120) ⎧ β 2 ⎣G ⎦ + β 3 ⎣G ⎦ ⎫ 2 3 ⎪ ⎪ { X } = ⎨ 2β 2 ⎣G ⎦ 4 + β 3 ⎣G ⎦ 5 ⎬ . The stiffness matrix of the DKT element can be expressed in explicit form. ⎪ γ H + 2γ H ⎪ 3 ⎣ ⎦6 ⎭ ⎩ 2 ⎣ ⎦5 . { } (10. PLATE BENDING 255 Because the parameters α k are eliminated using an expression which is a function of the nodal variables of the side k only. In (10. ⎪ β G + 2β G ⎪ 3 ⎣ ⎦6 ⎭ ⎩ 2 ⎣ ⎦5 ⎧ γ 2 ⎣H ⎦ + γ 3 ⎣H ⎦ ⎫ 2 3 ⎪ ⎪ {Y } = ⎨ 2γ 2 ⎣H ⎦ 4 + γ 3 ⎣H ⎦ 5 ⎬ .10. ξ η ξ 2 ξη η 2 ⎦ [ H ] .117) The shape function row vectors ⎣G ⎦ and ⎣H ⎦ . Equation (10.24) is written for convenience as ∂θ x ∂y ∂θ x ∂θ y ⎥ − ⎥ ∂x ∂y ⎦ T = ⎣ χ1 χ2 χ12 ⎦ T . 1 e ⎣1 ξ η ⎦ {Y } q .

256

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

⎧ γ 2 ⎣G ⎦ + γ 3 ⎣G ⎦ + β 2 ⎣H ⎦ + β 3 ⎣H ⎦ ⎫ 2 3 2 3 ⎪ ⎪ { Z } = ⎨ 2γ 2 ⎣G ⎦ 4 + γ 3 ⎣G ⎦ 5 + 2β 2 ⎣H ⎦ 4 + β 3 ⎣H ⎦ 5 ⎬ , ⎪ γ G + 2γ G + β H + 2 β H ⎪ 3 ⎣ ⎦6 2 ⎣ ⎦5 3 ⎣ ⎦6 ⎭ ⎩ 2 ⎣ ⎦5

(10.121)

where ⎣G ⎦ i and ⎣H ⎦ i represent the ith row of [ G ] and [ H ] , respectively, and

**β i = y j − yk and γ i = xk − x j as in (8.8), with i, j, k taking values 1, 2, 3
**

cyclically. Substituting for the curvature terms into the bending strain energy expression 1 { χ }T [ D ] { χ }d x d y , Ue = (10.122) 2

∫

A

**where the material matrix [ D
**

Ue =

]

1 2

has the form (10.13), U e can be written as

{ q } [ K ]{ q },

e T e e

where K e is the element stiffness matrix in global coordinates, given by

[ ]

[K ]

e

⎡ [ X ]⎤ 1 ⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ [Y ] ⎥ 2A ⎢ [Z ]⎥ ⎣ ⎦

T

⎡ D11 [ R ] D12 [ R ] D16 [ R ]⎤ ⎡ [ X ] ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ D22 [ R ] D26 [ R ]⎥ ⎢ [ Y ] ⎥ , ⎢ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ SYM D66 [ R ]⎥ ⎢ [ Z ] ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦

(10.123)

with ⎡ 12 4 4 ⎤ 1 ⎢ [ R ]= ⎢ 4 2 1 ⎥ . ⎥ 24 ⎢ 4 1 2⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (10.124)

The matrix K e is of rank 6, so there are 3 deformation modes with zero strain energy. The integrations in (10.122) have the form

[ ]

∫∫

0 0

ξ 1−ξ

ξ mη n dξ dη ==

m ! n! . (m + n + 2)!

The presented procedure avoids the matrix triple products needed when the element stiffness matrix is given in the local coordinate system.

References

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Index ACM plate-bending element Admissible functions 144 Area coordinates 180 Aspect ratio 178 Assembly of global matrices Axial effects 97 232 8-node quad 214 ACM plate-bending element 237 T plate-bending element 247 THT plate-bending element 249 Expanded stiffness matrix 29 External potential energy 140 Force transformation 20 Four-node rectangle 176 Frame element 97 Gauss points 200 Gauss quadrature 200 − one-dimensional 200 − two-dimensional 203 Gravity loading 217 Grids 111 Hermitian polynomials 85 HTK plate-bending element 239 Initial strain effects 59 Internal forces 35 Inverse of Jacobian matrix 196 Isoparametric elements 191 Jacobian matrix 195 Jacobian positiveness 223 Joint force equilibrium equations Kinematic equivalent forces 47 Kirchhoff’s hypotheses 225 Lagrange polynomials 220 Linear elasticity 123 Linear strain triangle 182 Master element 192 Natural coordinates 192 Nine-node quad 219 Nodal approximation 155 Nodal forces 55 Node numbering 37 Non-conforming elements 232. 187 Coordinate transformation 19. 98 Deep beam 117 Direct method 26 Direct stiffness method 17 Discrete Kirchhoff constraints 252 Discrete Kirchhoff triangle 250 Displacement method 9 Effective shear area 118 Eight-node quad 208 Eight-node rectangle 178 Energy methods 131 Equation of equilibrium 199 Equivalent nodal forces. 150. 187 Conforming elements 150. vector of − beam 90. 238. 95 − frame 98 − constant strain triangle 160 − linear quad 199 31 . 248 Consistent nodal forces 214 Consistent vector of nodal forces 89 Constant strain triangle 153 Continuity 132 Convergence 97. 151 − − − − Band storage 38 Bars 47 Bar element 47 Beams 79 Beam element 83 − stiffness matrix 87 − vector of nodal forces 89 Bernoulli-Euler beam theory 79 BFS plate-bending element 238 Compatibility 28. 245 Numerical integration 200 100.

120 − constant strain triangle 157 − four-node rectangle 177 − eight-node rectangle 179 − linear strain triangle 182 − quadratic strain triangle 186 − linear quadrilateral 193 − eight-node quad 209 − nine-node quad 221 − six-node triangle 221 − ACM plate-bending element 234 − BFS plate-bending element 238 − HTK plate-bending element 240 − THT plate-bending element 248 Shear correction factor 118. 107. 52 − shaft 61 − beam 87.. 236 − relations 121 Strain energy 124 . 94. 230 Six-node triangle 221 . 53 − shaft 62 − beam 85.139 − bending 231 − shear 232 Stress averaging 161 Stress-strain relations 122 Subparametric elements 191 T plate-bending element 245 Temperature effects 124 Thick plate theory 229 Thermal loads 36 Thin plate theory 225 Total potential energy 140 Transformation of − differential operators 195 − infinitesimal area 197 Triangle area 156 − quadratic strain triangle 185 Triangular membrane element 180 − linear strain triangle 182 − quadratic strain triangle 185 − six-node 221 Triangular thin plate element 245 − thick plate element 248 Two-dimensional elements 153 Two-point formula 202 Unreduced global stiffness matrix Virtual displacements 131 − work of external loads 133 − work of internal forces 193 WB plate-bending element 239 30 Pascal’s triangle 220 Patch test 190 Plate bending elements 225 − rectangular 232 − triangular 244 Polynomial approximation 154 Principle of − minimum total potential energy − virtual displacements 134 − virtual work 131 Quadratic strain triangle 185 − triangle 222 Quadrilateral membrane element − eight-node 208 − linear 191 − nine-node 219 139 191 Rayleigh-Ritz method 143 Reactions 35 Rectangular membrane element 176 − thin plate element 232 − thick plate elements 239 Reduced global stiffness matrix 33 − integration 205 Reference element 192 Reissner-Mindlin plate theory 229 Serendipity elements 209 Shaft elements 60 Shape functions − bars 50. 122 − constant strain triangle 159 − frame 98 − grid 113 − linear strain triangle 183 − linear quadrilateral 199 − eight-node quad 211 − T plate-bending element 247 − ACM plate-bending element 236 − HTK plate-bending element 242 − THT plate-bending element 249 Strain-displacement matrix 158. 22.266 Object of FEA 1 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Skyline storage 39 Stiffness matrix 17 − bars 17.

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