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Preface

This textbook represents the Finite Element Analysis lecture course given to students in the third year at the Department of Engineering Sciences (now F.I.L.S.), English Stream, University Politehnica of Bucharest, since 1992. It grew in time along with a course taught in Romanian to students in the Faculty of Transports, helped by the emergence of microcomputer networks and integration of the object into mechanical engineering curricula. The syllabus of the 28-hour course, supplemented by 28-hour tutorial and lab. classes, was structured along the NAFEMS recommendations published in the October 1988 issue of BENCHmark. The course represents only an introduction to the finite element analysis, for which we wrote simple stand-alone single-element programs to assist students in solving problems as homework. It is followed by an advanced course in the fourth year at F.I.L.S., called Computational Structural Mechanics, where students are supposed to use commercial programs. In designing the course, our aim was to produce students capable of: (a) understanding the theoretical background, (b) appreciating the structure of finite element programs for potential amendment and development, (c) running packages and assessing their limitations, (d) taking a detached view in checking output, and (e) understanding failure messages and finding ways of rectifying the errors. The course syllabus was restricted to 2D linear elastic structural problems. It has been found advantageous to divide the finite element analysis into two parts. Firstly, the assembly process without any approximations (illustrated by frameworks) followed by the true finite element process which involves approximations. This is achieved starting with trusses, then with beams and plane frames, and progressively dealing with membrane and plate-bending elements. Solid elements and shells are not treated. Our objective was to ensure that students have achieved: (a) a familiarity in working with matrix methods and developing stiffness matrices, (b) an understanding of global versus local coordinate systems, (c) the abilty to use the minimum potential energy theorem and virtual work equations, (d) the mapping from isoparametric space to real geometrics and the need for numerical integration, (e) an insight in numerical techniques for linear equation solving (Gauss elimination, frontal solvers etc), and (f) the use of equilibrium, compatibility, stress/strain relations and boundary conditions. As a course taught for non-native speakers, it has been considered useful to reproduce as language patterns some sentences from English texts. November 2006 Mircea Radeş

Prefaţă

Lucrarea reprezintă cursul Analiza cu elemente finite predat studenţilor anului III al Facultăţii de Inginerie în Limbi Străine, Filiera Engleză, la Universitatea Politehnica Bucureşti, începând cu anul 1992. Conţinutul cursului s-a lărgit în timp, fiind predat din 1992 şi studenţilor de la facultatea de Transporturi, favorizat de apariţia reţelelor de calculatoare şi de includerea sa în planul de învăţământ al facultăţilor cu profil mecanic. Programa cursului, care prevede 28 ore de curs şi 28 ore de seminar/laborator, a fost structurată în conformiatate cu recomandările NAFEMS publicate în numărul din Octombrie 1988 al revistei BENCHmark. Cursul reprezintă doar o introducere în analiza cu elemente finite, pentru care am scris programe simple, cu un singur tip de element finit, care să fie utilizate de studenţi la rezolvarea unor teme de casă. Nu se tratează învelişuri şi elemente tridimensionale. În anul IV, planul de învăţământ de la F.I.L.S. conţine cursul Computational Structural Mechanics, la care studenţii aprofundează modelarea cu elemente finite şi utilizează un program de firmă. La structurarea cursului am avut în vedere necesitatea formării unor studenţi capabili: (a) să înţeleagă baza teoretică, (b) să desluşească structura programelor cu elemente finite pentru eventuale corecţii şi dezvoltări, (c) să ruleze programe şi să recunoască limitele acestora, (d) să poată verifica rezultatele şi (e) să înţeleagă mesajele de eroare şi să găsească modalităţi de corectare a erorilor. Programa cursului a fost limitată la structuri elastice liniare bidimensionale. S-a considerat potrivit să se prezinte analiza cu elemente finite în două etape: întâi procesul de asamblare fără nici o aproximare (aplicat la grinzi cu zăbrele), apoi modelarea cu elemente finite, care presupune aproximarea câmpului de deplasări, de la triunghiul cu deformaţii specifice constante la elemente patrulatere izoparametrice, incluzând integrarea numerică. S-a urmărit ca studenţii să dobândească: (a) familiaritate cu metodele matriciale şi calculul matricelor de rigiditate; (b) înţelegerea utilităţii coordonatelor locale şi globale; (c) abilitatea folosirii principiului energiei potenţiale minime şi a principiului lucrului mecanic virtual; (d) trecerea de la coordonate naturale la coordonate fizice şi necesitatea integrării numerice; (e) o vedere de ansamblu asupra rezolvării sistemelor algebrice liniare (eliminarea Gauss, metoda frontală etc.) şi (f) utilizarea celor patru tipuri de ecuaţii – echilibru, compatibilitate, constitutive şi condiţii la limită. Fiind un curs predat unor studenţi a căror limbă maternă nu este limba engleză, au fost reproduse expresii şi fraze din cărţi scrise de vorbitori nativi ai acestei limbi. Noiembrie 2006 Mircea Radeş

Contents

Preface Contents 1. Introduction

1.1 Object of FEA 1.2 Finite element displacement method 1.3 Historical view 1.4 Stages of FEA

i iii 1

1 3 4 5

2. Displacement Method

2.1 Equilibrium equations 2.2 Conditions for geometric compatibility 2.3 Force/elongation relations 2.4 Boundary conditions 2.5 Solving for displacements 2.6 Comparison of the force method and displacement method

9

9 10 11 12 12 13

**3. Direct Stiffness Method
**

3.1 Stiffness matrix for a bar element 3.2 Transformation from local to global coordinates

3.2.1 Coordinate transformation 3.2.2 Force transformation 3.2.3 Element stiffness matrix in global coordinates 3.2.4 Properties of the element stiffness matrix

17

17 19

19 20 21 22

3.3 Link’s truss 3.4 Direct method 3.5 Compatibility of nodal displacements 3.6 Expanded element stiffness matrix 3.7 Unreduced global stiffness matrix

25 26 28 29 30

iv

3.8 Joint force equilibrium equations 3.9 Reduced global stiffness matrix 3.10 Reactions and internal forces 3.11 Thermal loads and stresses 3.12 Node numbering Exercises

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 31 33 35 36 37 41

**4. Bars and shafts
**

4.1 Plane bar elements

4.1.1 Differential equation of equilibrium 4.1.2 Coordinates and shape functions 4.1.3 Bar not loaded between ends 4.1.4 Element stiffness matrix in local coordinates 4.1.5 Bar loaded between ends 4.1.6 Vector of element nodal forces 4.1.7 Assembly of the global stiffness matrix and load vector 4.1.8 Initial strain effects

47

47

47 48 49 51 52 55 56 59

4.2 Plane shaft elements Exercises

60 63

**5. Beams, frames and grids
**

5.1 Finite element discretization 5.2 Static analysis of a uniform beam 5.3 Uniform beam not loaded between ends

5.3.1 Shape functions 5.3.2 Stiffness matrix 5.3.3 Physical significance of the stiffness matrix

79

79 81 83

84 86 88

**5.4 Uniform beam loaded between ends
**

5.4.1 Consistent vector of nodal forces 5.4.2 Higher degree interpolation functions 5.4.3 Bending moment and shear force

89

89 92 95

**5.5 Basic convergence requirements 5.6 Frame element
**

5.6.1 Axial effects 5.6.2 Stiffness matrix and load vector in local coordinates

96 97

97 98

2 Equations of equilibrium inside V 6.8 Grids 5.2.4 Stiffness matrix and load vector in global coordinates 98 100 v 5.1.7 Strain energy 123 123 125 126 127 128 130 130 7.6.1 FEM in Structural Mechanics 7. stresses and strain 6.4.4 Strain-displacement relations 6.3 Principle of virtual displacements 143 148 148 149 149 .3 Virtual work of internal forces 7.3 Stiffness matrix 100 111 116 117 118 121 6.4. Linear elasticity 6.2 External potential energy 7.4 Principle of virtual displacements 7.2 Shape functions 5.4 FEM – a localized version of the Rayleigh-Ritz method 7.5 Stress-strain relations 6.9.6 Temperature effects 6. Energy methods 7.1 Virtual displacements 7.3 The Rayleigh-Ritz method 7.1 Strain energy 7.2.CONTENTS 5.3 Coordinate transformation 5.5 Proof that PDV is equivalent to equilibrium equations 131 131 131 133 133 134 137 7.2 Discretization 7.1 Static analysis of a uniform beam 5.9.1 Matrix notation for loads.1.9 Deep beam bending element 5.1 Principle of virtual work 7.1.3 Equations of equilibrium on the surface Sσ 6.9.1.3 Total potential energy 139 139 140 140 7.2.2 Principle of minimum total potential energy 7.6.7 Assembly of the global stiffness matrix 5.1.2 Virtual work of external forces 7.4.

vi 7. Discretization of structure 8.4.3.7 Assembly of the global stiffness matrix and load vector 7.4 The matrix [ B ] 8.1 Area coordinates 8.3.3 Quadratic strain triangle 180 180 182 185 8.1.6 Remarks 153 153 153 154 155 158 159 160 8.1.1.3.3 Triangular elements 8.4.4 Approximating functions for the element FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 149 150 151 151 152 7.1.4.1.2 The eight-node rectangle (quadratic) 176 176 178 8.1.1 One dimensional Gauss quadrature 200 200 .2 Rectangular elements 8.5 Element stiffness matrix and load vector 8.2.1.4.6 Element stiffness matrix and load vector 7.1 The plane constant-strain triangle (CST) 8.4.1.2 Linear strain triangle (LST) 8.2 Convergence and compatibility 187 187 188 9 Isoparametric elements 9.4 Mapping from natural to Cartesian coordinates 9.1.3 Nodal approximation of the displacement field 8.3 The displacement field 9.5 Compatibility between strains and nodal displacements 7.2 Shape functions 9.4.1.1 Linear quadrilateral element 9.2.2.8 Solution and back-substitution 8 Two-dimensional elements 8.5 Element stiffness matrix 9.6 Element load vectors 191 191 192 193 194 195 198 199 9.4 Equilibrium.1 The four-node rectangle (linear) 8.1 Equilibrium vs.2 Numerical integration 9.1 Natural coordinates 9.4.1.1. compatibility 8.1.2 Polynomial approximation of the displacement field 8. convergence and compatibility 8.

1 Thin plate theory (Kirchhoff) 10.2.4 Element stiffness matrix 9.3 Eight-node quadrilateral 9.2 Shape function derivatives 9.1 Shape functions 9.4 Triangular plate-bending elements 10.4 Nine-node quadrilateral 9.3 Stiffness integration 9.2 Two dimensional Gauss quadrature 9.3.3 Determinant of the Jacobian matrix 9.3.3.6 Jacobian positiveness 219 221 223 10 Plate bending 10.1 ACM element (non-conforming) 10.3.4.3.5 Stress calculation 9.4 Stress calculations 203 204 207 vii 9.5 Six-node triangle 9.1 Thin triangular element (non-conforming) 10.6 Consistent nodal forces 208 209 210 211 211 213 214 9.2 BFS element (conforming) 10.4.2.3.3.3 Discrete Kirchhoff triangles (DKT) 244 245 248 250 References Index 257 265 .3.2.CONTENTS 9.3 Rectangular plate-bending elements 10.2 Thick plate theory (Reissner-Mindlin) 10.2 Thick triangular element (conforming) 10.4.3.3 HTK thick rectangular element 225 225 229 232 232 238 239 10.

Its task is to model and describe the mechanical behaviour of geometrically complex structures. solving linear sets of equations. FEA is used to solve large-scale analytical problems. The procedure is a discretized approach: the geometric shape or the internal stressstrain-displacement field are described by a series of discrete quantities (like coordinates) distributed through the structure. involving approximation methods. and (3) Applied Computer Science. dealing with the development and maintenance of large computer codes. . the unknown function is approximated over the entire domain. based on knowledge from three fields: (1) Structural Mechanics. The subdomains are called finite elements.1. The primary difference between the FEA and other approximate methods for the solution of boundary-value problems (finite-difference. dynamics. The tools are the computers. etc.1 Object of FEA The object of FEA is to replace the infinite degree of freedom system in continuum applications by a finite system exhibiting the same basis as discrete analysis. within each element. plasticity. encompassing elasticity. etc. weighted-residual. the set of finite elements is known as the mesh and the trial functions are referred to as interpolation functions. eigenproblems. (2) Numerical Analysis. With the individually defined functions matching each other at certain points called nodes. strength of materials.and initialvalue problem by dividing the domain of the system into a set of interconnected finite-sized subdomains of different size and shape. The aim is finding an approximate solution to a boundary. able to store long lists of numbers and manipulate them. This requires a matrix notation. and defining the unknown state variable approximately. INTRODUCTION Finite Element Analysis (FEA) as applied to structures is a multidisciplinary technique. 1. by means of a linear combination of trial functions.

in the FEA an approximate solution is constructed using local admissible functions. Galerkin) is that in the FEA the approximation is confined to relatively small subdomains. In order to match a given irregular boundary. Since the entire domain is divided into numerous elements and the function is approximated in terms of its values at the element nodes. even approximately. some of them made available as open source free software. systems with complex boundary conditions or complex geometry cannot be described easily by global admissible functions. the FEA can change not only the size of the finite elements but also their shape. Instead of finding an admissible function satisfying the boundary conditions for the entire domain. coupled with the development of powerful computer codes based on the method. While the finite element method was being developed. In turn. The wide use of the classical Rayleigh-Ritz method has been limited by the inability to generate suitable admissible functions for a large number of practical problems. has made the FEA the method of choice for the analysis of structures. This extreme versatility. Perhaps more important is the fact that the finite element method can accommodate systems with complicated geometries and parameter distributions. in the FEA the admissible functions (called shape functions) are defined over element domains with simple geometry and pay no attention to complications at the boundaries. which led to automation. so were increasingly powerful digital computers. difficult to handle on a routine basis. integrating known polynomial functions. should be easier. While solving differential equations with complicated boundary conditions may be difficult. solving [ A ] { x } = { b } is equivalent to 1 minimizing P (x ) = { x }T [ A ]{ x } − { x }T { b }. Mathematically. which is often difficult. which tend to have complicated expressions. FEA is a localized version of the Rayleigh-Ritz method. or to handle parameter non-uniformities. The computer is not only able to solve the discretized equations of equilibrium. the equations of equilibrium are obtained from variational principles implying the stationarity of the functional defined by the total potential energy. Indeed. This is the heart of the FEA when 2 applied to structures. but also to carry out such diverse tasks as the formulation of equations. defined over small subdomains of the structure. The outstanding success of the finite element method can be attributed to a large extent to timing. by making decisions concerning the finite element mesh and the assembly of stiffness matrices.2 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Rayleigh-Ritz. . the evaluation of such a function will require the solution of simultaneous equations. This was possible only at the time the computers became available. In FEA.

and (3) the solution algorithms. but may be trigonometric functions as well. Finer mesh yields also larger stiffness matrices. This involves recognizing error messages when this process breaks down or when it simply becomes inefficient because the structure has been modeled inconveniently. (4) assemble the element properties. The six basic steps of FEA are the following: (1) discretize the continuum. and (3) the versatility. Displacements within the elements are expressed in terms of these nodal displacements using interpolation functions referred to as shape functions. the internal stresses are in equilibrium with the applied loads. The second part of the process is the assembly of the elements and the solution of the complete structural equations. (2) the discretization of the domain (cutting the corners. and curved elements flat). (2) the easiness of producing stiffness matrices (and load vectors). The first part of the finite element modeling process involves choosing the correct and appropriate types of elements. by just assembling predetermined element matrices. All individual elements are assembled together in such a way that the displacements are continuous in some fashion across element interfaces. and the prescribed boundary conditions are satisfied. a larger number of equations to be solved. (5) solve the system of equations. The “shapes” are polynomials. Modeling the joints and the contact between structural parts as well as the damping in dynamic problems are the most difficult tasks. INTRODUCTION 3 1. (2) select interpolation functions. FEA has evolved into a technique that can be applied .1. leaving only the magnitude to be found. and (6) make additional computations if desired. The three main sources of approximation are: (1) the definition of the domain (physically or geometrically). (3) find the element properties. making curved lines straight. Finally. understanding the pedigree of elements and spotting wrong answers due to the use of inadequate elements. Finite elements are so small that the shape of the displacement field can be approximated without too much error. a structure is discretized (hypothetically) into finite elements and points named nodes are selected on the inter-element boundaries or in the interior of the elements. Mesh refinements (and automatic mesh generation) do not bring necessarily increased accuracy. the governing discrete equations are generated by a variational approach. Developed originally as a method for analyzing stresses in complex aircraft structures.2 Finite element displacement method In the finite element modeling. hence larger computer storage space and running time. Among the reasons why the FEA has gained such universal acceptance are: (1) the routine choice of shape functions. Displacements at the nodes are taken as the primary discrete variables.

collected later in a book by Argyris and Kelsey (1960). Martin. ribs. and Topp (1956). The approximation methods have been developed by Ritz (1908) and Galerkin (1915). The development of delta wing structures revived the interest in stiffness methods. who used an assemblage of small triangular elements and the principle of minimum potential energy to study Saint Venant’s torsion problem. so that the method was not practical then.4 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS to a large variety of linear and nonlinear. In modern times. static. After the Second World War. 1. The first energy theorems have been established by Maxwell (1864) and Castigliano (1875). The term “finite element” was first used by Clough (1960). Ancient mathematicians estimated the value of π approximating the circumference of a circle by the perimeter of a polygon inscribed in the circle. Modeling delta wings required two-dimensional panel elements of arbitrary geometry. the idea found application in aircraft structural analysis. . Clough. computers capable of solving large sets of equations of equilibrium did not exist. But that geometry was inadequate to model delta wings. the article series by Argyris in four issues of Aircraft Engineering (1954. The reason why Courant’s paper did not attract more attention can be attributed to poor timing. 1955). contains the derivation of the stiffness matrix of a flat rectangular panel using bilinear displacement interpolation. the Force Method (Flexibility Method) was sustained by Levy (1947) and Garvey (1951) and the matrix Displacement Method (Stiffness Method) was used by Levy (1953) in the sweptback wing analysis. stiffeners and spars. Turner formulated and perfected the Direct Stiffness Method at Boeing (1959).3 Historical view The idea of representing a given domain as a collection of discrete elements is not novel with the finite element method. After a first attempt by Levy (1953) with triangular elements. who during 1952-1953 succeeded to directly derive the stiffness of a triangular panel at Boeing. The formal presentation of the finite element method is attributed to Turner. In the early 1940s. panels. The use of piecewise continuous functions defined over a subdomain to approximate the unknown function dates back to Courant (1943). The development of the Force Method ended in 1969. stability and dynamic engineering problems. Ostenfeld (1926) is credited with the first book on the deformation method. where wings and fuselages are treated as assemblages of stringers. The theoretical background of FEA laids on the energy approach of Structural Mechanics and on the approximation techniques.

ALGOR etc. STRUDL . electromagnetics etc). M. Wilson. followed by books by Przemieniecki (1968) and Gallagher (1964). who introduced the consistent mass matrix concept (1963). the inventor of isoparametric models. crashworthiness. directed by Clough. and E. STARDYNE by Mechanics Research Inc. Fraeijs de Veubeke (1964) and Irons and coworkers (1964. Bathe to develop the finite element codes SAP4 (1973). Karlsson @ Sorensen. SESAM – by Det Norske Veritas. MARC – by Marc Analysis Research Corporation. S. 1970). General purpose programs have capabilities of linear dynamic response. developed by Swanson Analysis Systems (1970). developed the static condensation algorithm (1974) and three SAP computer programs (the first open source FEA software). (2) processing. Archer. NISA – by Engineering Mechanics Research Corporation. J. Melosh. Martin Baltimore and Bell Aero Systems under contract to NASA. frontal solvers and the patch test (1964-1980). Preprocessing involves the input and preparation of data.-J.I. nonlinear static and dynamic response. including computation of natural frequencies.by Hibbitt. Research developed in the Civil Engineering Department at Berkeley. lead by Zienkiewicz.-J. and (3) postprocessing. element connectivity. 1966. Major contributions are due to B.1. who studied the sparse matrix assembly and solution techniques (1963). J. shape functions. fluids. Starting with 1965 the NASTRAN finite element system was developed by COSMIC. Irons.by the Civil Engineering Department at Massachusetts Institute of Technology and McDonnell Douglas Automation Company (1967). at Washington University. Inc. PATRAN. Influential papers have been written by Argyris (1965). R. and thermal loading. Bathe at M. SAMCEF . Other known finite element codes are ANSYS. After 1967 the FEA has been applied to non-structural field problems (thermal. SAP5 and NONSAP.T. material properties and . finite element computer programs were freely disseminated into the nonaerospace community. completed in 1968 and first revised in 1972. static and dynamic stability. such as nodal coordinates. under Martin. He was joined later by K.4 Stages of FEA FEA involves three stages of activity: (1) preprocessing. boundary conditions. INTRODUCTION 5 The first book devoted to FEA was written by Zienkiewicz and Cheung (1967). (1978).by SAMTECH (1965). Since 1963. (1985). MacNeal Schwendler. IDEAS-MS. 1. and at Swansea University. who systematized the variational derivation of stiffness matrices and recognized that FEA is a Rayleigh-Ritz method applied on small size elements (1963). ADINA – developed by K. ABAQUS . COSMOS-M – by Structural Research & Analysis Corp. L. (1975).

programs. or C.1 Three-dimensional finite element meshes. Mesh plotting is a convenient and useful way of checking the input data. as well as element connectivity data.2 .I. through a userfriendly interface.6 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS loading.T. 1.1) and a car engine piston (Fig. 1. Automatic mesh generation can be used to produce nodal coordinate data and optimal node numbering. or reading from a data file. Fig. as obtained using the program SIMPAT developed by I. represented with hidden line removal. Italia.D.E. Alternatively.A.A. Badly placed nodes or improper blocking of boundary nodes can be easily traced. Data input can be carried out either in an interactive way. 1. 1.2). are presented for a connecting rod (Fig. Fig. some input data can be imported from other F.

. the finite element program processes the input data and calculates the nodal variable quantities such as displacements and temperatures (equation solving).3. the cost of the solution of the linear set of equations increases linearly with the problem size.4 In dynamic analyses. It would be obviously convenient to use in dynamic analyses the same finite element model that was built for the static analysis. Often this contains much more detail than the dynamic analysis requires.3 In the processing stage. and element quantities such as stresses and gradients (backcalculation). Fig.1. Fig. In static analyses. The cost in terms of computer resource increases with the cube of the problem size. so that condensation and dynamic substructuring are used to reduce the size of the dynamic problem before the processing stage. processing involves solving an eigenproblem or determining the transient response by incremental techniques. 1. INTRODUCTION 7 The finite element model of a vehicle cabin frame obtained with MSC/NASTRAN is shown in Fig. 1. 1.

. as in Fig.6.5 Scalar nodal variables such as temperatures or pressures are presented in the form of contour plots of isotherms or isobars. vibration mode shapes and stress distributions.6. 1. Fig. as obtained using ALGOR SUPERSAP. Fig. containing only 814 elements and a four times reduced global discretization error. More recent finite element programs show animated displays of the deformed configuration. Most programs produce displays of the deformed configuration. Fig. 1. 1. b shows the optimized mesh obtained with the postprocessor ESTEREF.8 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Postprocessing deals with the presentation of results.4 shows the initial mesh and the deformed shape of a cooling tower under the wind action. a shows the two-dimensional initial mesh for the analysis of a gear tooth. 1. Early programs used tabular presentations. 1. with 1174 triangular 6-node elements.6 b Fig. a Fig. 1.5 for a crankshaft.

DISPLACEMENT METHOD In solving any structural problem. and hence strains. In order to illustrate the usual longhand analytical procedure.1 [74]. F5 are the reaction forces at the supports. It works whether the structure is statically determinate or not. then stresses from the constitutive relationship. Variables include reaction forces at the supports and internal forces. If forces and elongations are eliminated and the displacements are the variables which are solved first. 2. T2 . Fig. assume that all members are in tension and write the equilibrium of each node in turn. there are four types of equations that should be used: equilibrium equations. F2 . 2. displacements of the bar ends and bar extensions (elongations). Once the displacements are determined. constitutive relationships and boundary conditions. geometric compatibility conditions. T1 .2. a relatively simple pin-jointed framework will be used.1 .1 Equilibrium equations Consider the truss shown in Fig. T3 are the tensions in members and F1 . the procedure is referred to as the displacement method. 2. F4 . they are back-substituted into the compatibility equations to obtain bar extensions.

u 2 = U 2 cos θ + V 2 sin θ . 2. At Node 3 (Fig. and consideration must be given to the geometry of deformation. Consider a typical pin-jointed element 1-2 of a frame.2. 2.3) have seven unknowns. The system is statically indeterminate. The change in length of the member is (2. a b Fig.10 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS At Node 1 (Fig.3. b). The displacements in the local coordinate frame xOy can be expressed in terms of the displacements in the global coordinate frame as u 1 = U 1 cos θ + V 1 sin θ . 2. The solution is not possible by using only equilibrium. (2. T3 2 / 2 + F4 = 0.2.2 Conditions for geometric compatibility The compatibility equations relate a bar extension Δl to the displacements of the ends of the bar. 2. equilibrium gives 6 F − T1 − T3 2 /2 = 0. resolving forces horizontally and vertically leads to T1 + T2 2 2 + F1 = 0.2) (2. Fig. c) T3 2 /2 + F5 − T2 2 /2 = 0. 9 F − T2 2 / 2 − T3 2 /2 = 0.1) (2.4) . a). At Node 2 (Fig.1) to (2.3) The six equations (2. inclined an angle θ with respect to the X axis of the global coordinate system. T2 2 / 2 + F2 = 0.2 c 2.2. 2.

2.9) EA 2E A 2E A Three more equations have been added and so there are now 12 equations for 16 unknowns.5) Fig. (2.6) (2. EA Δl 13 = T2 2 l 2 .2. the force/elongation relations can be written Δl12 or T l = 1 . 2E A Δl 23 = T3 2 l 2 2E A T l T1 l T l . Δl13 = (U 3 − U1 ) 2 2 + (V3 − V1 ) .8) have nine unknowns.3 Applying equation (2. six displacements and three elongations. DISPLACEMENT METHOD 11 Δl = u 2 − u1 = U 2 − U1 cosθ + V 2 − V1 sin θ .7) (2. 2.6) to (2. ( ) ( ) (2. Δl 23 = 3 .8) ⎛ 2⎞ ⎟ + (V3 − V2 ) Δl 23 = (U 3 − U 2 ) ⎜ − ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ The three equations (2.3 Force/elongation relations Truss members are in either simple tension or compression. Δl12 = . Δl13 = 2 . Starting from the Hooke’s law for uniaxial stress-strain conditions.U1 . 2 (2. 2 2 2 ⎠ 2 .5) to each member in turn leads to Δl12 = U 2 .

12 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 2.4 Boundary conditions The discrepancy of 4 equations is made up by adding the boundary conditions U1 = V1 = V2 = U 3 = 0 which complete the set of 22 linear algebraic equations. Δl 12 = l l 2E A EA T2 = Δl 13 = 2 ( U 3 − U1 + V3 − V1 ) .1) .8) to force/displacement equations as follows T1 = EA EA ( U 2 − U1 ) . this set of six equations can be written in matrix form as . EA Taking into account the boundary conditions (2. l l 2E A EA T3 = Δl 23 = 2 ( − U 3 + U 2 + V3 − V2 ) .5 Solving for displacements Equations (2. EA 9 Fl .3) yields 6 equations 2 U1 + V1 − U 2 − U 3 − V3 = U1 + V1 − U 3 − V3 = F2 l .10). (2. l l Substitution of the expressions for T1 to T3 into the equilibrium equations (2.(2.6)(2. EA − U1 + 2 U 2 − V2 − U 3 + V3 = − U 2 + V2 + U 3 − V3 = F4 l . EA 6F l .9) can be used to convert the compatibility equations (2. EA − U1 − V1 − U 2 + V2 + 2 U 3 = − U1 − V1 + U 2 − V2 + 2 V3 = F5 l . EA F1 l .10) 2.

4.7 ) the forces applied by each bar to the end nodes.12) ⎡2 1 ⎤ ⎡U 2 ⎤ ⎧6 F ⎫ ⎢1 2⎥ ⋅ ⎢ V ⎥ = ⎨9 F ⎬ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ 3⎦ ⎩ ⎭ Substituting U 2 and V3 into the remaining equations yields the reaction forces F1 = −5F . i =1 i =1 7 7 (2. DISPLACEMENT METHOD 13 ⎡2 ⎢1 ⎢ EA ⎢ − 1 ⎢ l ⎢0 ⎢− 1 ⎢ ⎢− 1 ⎣ 1 1 0 0 −1 −1 −1 0 2 −1 −1 1 0 0 −1 1 1 −1 − 1 − 1⎤ ⎡ 0 ⎤ ⎡ F1 ⎤ − 1 − 1⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ F2 ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ − 1 1 ⎥ ⎢U 2 ⎥ ⎢ 6 F ⎥ ⎥ ⋅ ⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ ⎥ .11) 1 − 1⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ F4 ⎥ 2 0 ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ F5 ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 0 2 ⎥ ⎢ V3 ⎥ ⎢ 9 F ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ The third and the sixth equation can be decoupled EA l and solved to give U2 = Fl . ∑ Ti sinθi = 0. which are equal and opposite to the forces acting on the joints. F5 = − F .3) yields the tensions in the members. F2 = −4 F . Consider the 7-bar pin-jointed framework shown in Figure 2. Divided by the corresponding area they give the stresses.2.. the equilibrium equations of joint 8 can be written Fx − Fy − ∑ Ti cosθi = 0. The joint 8 is subjected to a force of components Fx and Fy .13) Substituting these forces into the equilibrium equations (2. Determine the internal bar forces and the displacement of joint 8. (2.. EA (2.. EA V3 = 4 Fl .. F4 = −5 F . Force Method Denoting Ti ( i = 1. (2.1)-(2.14) . 2.6 Comparison of the force method and displacement method Navier’s Problem.

We choose X1 = T3 . X 4 = T6 . ∂Fy (2.. 2.5 ) (2...4 The strain energy is U= 5 ⎞ 1 ⎛ 2 ⎜ T1 l 1 + T22l 2 + X i2l i ⎟ ⎟ 2 EA ⎜ i =1 ⎝ ⎠ ∑ (2... ∂X i ∂X i ( i = 1. They are of the form l1 T1 ∂T1 ∂T + l 2 T2 2 + l i X i = 0 .14).. Using Menabrea’s theorem. so the framework is statically indeterminate.. X 3 = T5 .16) since we are assuming no support movement.14 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS This is a set of two equations with seven unknowns.18) . the five deformation conditions can be written ∂U = 0.15) where T1 and T2 are functions of X 1 to X 5 . Fig. ∂X i ( i = 1. ∂Fx v8 = ∂U .. X 2 = T4 . according to (2. and X 5 = T7 as redundant forces.5 ) (2. The components of the displacement of joint 8 are given by Castigliano’s second theorem u8 = ∂U .17) This is a set of five linear equations wherefrom the five redundant forces X 1 to X 5 are determined.

7 ) (2. the larger the number of statically indeterminate forces.... sinθ i ( i = 1.5) are Δl i = u 8 cosθi + v 8 sin θi .7 ) (2. 3 a Fy − u8 EA ∑ i =1 cosθ i sin θ i − v 8 ∑ i =1 which is solved for u8 and v 8 . DISPLACEMENT METHOD 15 In the force method.. In matrix form they can be written ⎧ Fx ⎫ ⎡ K11 ⎨ ⎬=⎢ ⎩ Fy ⎭ ⎣ K 21 K12 ⎤ ⎧ u8 ⎫ ⎨ ⎬ K 22 ⎥ ⎩ v 8 ⎭ ⎦ (2. (2.....23) sin θ i = 0 .20) Substituting (2..7 ) (2. The bar length is li = a . a ( ) ( i = 1.2.7 ) (2..16).24) where the stiffness coefficients are .22) Inserting (2.. only two equations are obtained for the two joint displacements. the larger the number of bars. ( i = 1. hence the number of equations (2.19) into the force-elongation equations Ti = EA Δl i li .21) gives the force-displacement relations Ti = EA u 8 cos θ i + v 8 sin θ i sin θ i ..19) ( i = 1. Regardless the number of concurrent bars.... Displacement Method The elongation-displacement (compatibility) equations (2..22) into the equilibrium equations (2.14) of joint 8 yields a Fx − u8 EA ∑ i =1 7 7 cos 2θ i sinθ i − v 8 2 ∑ i =1 7 7 sin 2θ i cosθ i = 0 .

25) K12 = K 21 = K 22 = EA a 7 EA a ∑ cosθi sin 2θi = 0.24) gives u 8 = 0. EA v 8 = 0.219 Fy a EA .7097 Fx a .409 i =1 7 EA .567 EA . a Solving (2.26) The approach used in the displacement method is the same whether the structure is statically determinate or not. i =1 7 ∑ i =1 sin 3θ i = 4. (2.16 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS K11 = EA a ∑ cos2θi sinθi = 1. . a (2.

They are natural finite elements. It has length l e . Assembly and solution for displacements are of main concern. which relates all joint displacements to all joint forces. We may imagine that the structure is built by adding elements one by one. pinconnected at the ends. hence to the structure stiffness matrix. In the following.3. the names “joint” and “member” are replaced by node and element. contributions are made to the structure load carrying capacity. The relationship between the end forces and end displacements of each member is represented by an element stiffness matrix. f 2 . The nodal displacements are q 1 . DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD The Finite Element Method (FEM) started as an extension of the stiffness method or displacement method. cross section area Ae and Young’s modulus Ee . Consider a two-noded pin-jointed element in the own local coordinate system (Fig. . As elements are added to the structure. 3. Generally.) . axially loaded (no bending) and with no forces between ends. Starting with simple planar frameworks it is possible to explain the assembly process and to make an introduction into the matrix stiffness method. the basic steps of the Direct Stiffness Method (DSM) are shown using a pin-jointed plane truss. Nodes are conveniently numbered 1 and 2.1). If the members are pin-ended bars they are real distinct elements requiring no approximation. with each element being placed in a preassigned location. q 2 . linearly elastic. respectively. bar elements are assumed to be uniform (EAe = const. In the stiffness method for skeletal structures. 3. It is acted upon by the nodal forces f1 . the elements of the actual structure are connected together at discrete joints.1 Stiffness matrix for a bar element In the FEM.

4) or { f }= [ k ] { q } e e e (3. the complete stiffness relationship is obtained as ⎧ f1 ⎫ Ee Ae ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ = 1⎥ le ⎢ ⎪ f 2 ⎪e ⎣ ⎦ ⎩ 23 144− 1443 ⎭ 2 1 nodal forces element stiffness matrix nodal displacements ⎧q1 ⎫ ⎨q ⎬ 2 ⎩ 2⎭e 1 3 (3. the force/elongation relations are used.2) and (3. q 2 and the nodal forces f1 . f l q 2 = 0 .3). ⎣ ⎦ (3. q 1 = 1 e and Ee Ae f1 = − f 2 = Ee Ae q1 . 3.5) where the element stiffness matrix in local coordinates is [ k ] = El A e e e e ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎢− 1 1 ⎥ . (3.1 Both the nodal displacements q 1 . which incorporate compatibility and stress/strain relations. if end 2 is now fixed but end 1 allowed to move. If end 1 is fixed and end 2 is allowed to f l move.6) . (3. f 2 are positive in the positive x direction.18 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Fig. The equilibrium equation for the bar element is f1 + f 2 = 0.3) Combining equations (3. q 2 = 2 e and Ee Ae E A f1 = − f 2 = − e e q 2 . then for q 1 = 0 .2) le Similarly. le (3.1) Next.

3. so that nodal forces and nodal displacements can be arranged into 4-element column vectors related by a 4 × 4 stiffness matrix. In fact. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 19 3.2. End forces and displacements have two components at each node.2 Transformation from local to global coordinates Bar elements in a truss have different orientations in space and it is necessary to define their stiffness properties with respect to a single global coordinate system attached to the whole structure. Fig.2 Let the bar be inclined an angle θ e with respect to the X-axis of the global coordinate system. In matrix form (3.1 Coordinate transformation A typical bar element 1-2 is shown in Figure 3. q 2 = Q x 2 cos θ e + Q y 2 sin θ e . Displacements in the local coordinate frame xOy can be expressed in terms of the displacements in the global coordinate frame as (2.4) q 1 = Q x1 cos θ e + Q y1 sin θ e . 3. 3. the angle θ e is the angle between the positive X-axis and the positive direction of the beam (defined as 1 to 2). Nodal displacements are denoted by lower case letters in the local coordinate system and by upper case letters in the global coordinate system. where both the local coordinate system xOy and the global coordinate system XOY are drawn.7) .2.

Y 2 ) the coordinates of nodes 1 and 2.9) 0 ⎤ sinθ e ⎥ ⎦ where [T ] = ⎡⎢ cosθ 0 e e ⎣ sinθ e 0 0 cosθ e (3. sin θ e = Y 2 − Y1 le . 3. Fig.2.2 Force transformation Consider the pin-jointed member (Fig.3 The force components in the global coordinate system are . denoting X 2 − X1 le ( X 1 .20 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎧ Qx1 ⎫ ⎪Q ⎪ ⎪ y1 ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ ⎪ Qx 2 ⎪ ⎪ Qy2 ⎪ ⎩4 4e ⎭ 123 local displacements ⎧ q1 ⎫ 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ cosθ e sinθ e ⎪ ⎪ = ⎢ ⎨q ⎬ 0 0 cosθ e sinθ e ⎥ ⎪ 2⎪ ⎣ ⎦ ⎩ ⎭ e 123 4 4 1444444 2444444 3 4 4 transformation matrix (3. we obtain cos θ e = . respectively. e e e (3. 3. The entries in the matrix (3. le = (X 2 − X 1 ) 2 + (Y 2 − Y1 ) 2 . From nodal coordinate data.10) are calculated based on the above equations.10) is a coordinate transformation matrix.3) subjected to forces f1 and f2 applied at the ends 1 and 2.8) global displacements or { q }= [T ] { Q }.Y1 ) and ( X 2 . 3.

DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 21 Fx1 = f1 cosθ e . e e T e (3. having the same value regardless the coordinate system { f } { q }= {F } { Q } .12) or { F } = [ T ] { f }.9) into the resulting matrix product. In matrix form Fx 2 = f 2 cosθ e .13).3 Element stiffness matrix in global coordinates Inserting equation (3.16) [ K ] = [T ] [ k ] [T ].14) Substituting (3. Fy1 = f1 sinθ e .14) becomes { f } { q } = { f } [T ] { Q } = {F } { Q } . e e T e e .13) Equation (3. =⎢ ⎨F ⎬ ⎢ 0 cosθ e ⎥ ⎩ f 2 ⎭ e ⎪ x2 ⎪ ⎢ ⎥ ⎪Fy ⎪ sinθ e ⎦ 2 ⎭e ⎩ 23 ⎣ 0 1 4 4 144 244 3 1 3 4 4 2 transformation matrix local forces (3. then equation (3.13). Fy 2 = f 2 sinθ e .5) into (3.3.13) {F }= [T ] { f }= [T ] [ k ] { q }= [14]4[2444] { Q } T k ][ T 4 3 e e T e e T e e e T e e e we find where {F } = [ K ] { Q } e e e (3. Work is a scalar quantity. 3. (3. e e T e hence { f } [T ] = { F } e T e e T which by transposition becomes (3.11) global force components ⎧ Fx1 ⎫ 0 ⎤ ⎡cosθ e ⎪F ⎪ ⎢ sinθ 0 ⎥ ⎧ f1 ⎫ ⎪ y1 ⎪ e ⎥ ⎨ ⎬ .15) (3. .2.9) for the local displacements.13) can be directly obtained from consideration of mechanical work. equation (3. and comparing with (3. e T e e T e e T e e T e (3.

⎢ c2 c s ⎥ ⎪Q x 2 ⎪ ⎢ ⎥ s 2 ⎥ ⎪Q y 2 ⎪e ⎢SYM ⎭ ⎣ ⎦ ⎩ (3.1 Symmetric matrix Stiffness matrices are symmetrical [ K ]= [K ] e e T .18) According to Maxwell’s reciprocity theorem. [ ] (3.22 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Carrying out the matrix multiplications and using (3. rank 1) and each column (row) sums to zero.4. singular (order 4.4 Properties of the element stiffness matrix The element stiffness matrix is symmetric. 3.2.17) where c = cosθ e and s = sin θ e . the flexibility matrix δ e must be symmetrical about the leading diagonal.2. l e ⎢− c − cs c2 cs ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 2 cs s2 ⎥ ⎢− c s − s ⎣ ⎦ (3.10) we find the element stiffness matrix in global coordinates [K ] e ⎡ c2 cs − c2 − cs⎤ ⎢ ⎥ E A cs s2 − cs − s2 ⎥ = e e⎢ 2 . a) 3. Remember that the element stiffness matrix is a proportionality factor between the components of forces applied by the nodes to the element and the components of nodal displacements in global coordinates ⎧ Fx1 ⎫ ⎪F ⎪ Ee Ae ⎪ y1 ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ = Fx 2 ⎪ le ⎪ ⎪ Fy 2 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭e ⎡ c2 c s − c 2 − c s ⎤ ⎧ Qx1 ⎫ ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ s 2 − c s − s 2 ⎥ ⎪ Qy1 ⎪ ⎢ ⋅⎨ ⎬ . Expressing displacements in terms of forces gives { Q }= [ K ] { F }= [ δ ] { F } e e −1 e e e so that the inverse of the stiffness matrix is the flexibility matrix [K ] e −1 = δe . the stiffness matrix. And so must be its inverse. [ ] . with positive diagonal elements.17.

The matrix [ K ] is said to be singular.2 Singular matrix The element stiffness matrix is of order 4 and rank 1.19) we obtain the strain energy which is a scalar T 1 Ue = Qe K e Qe . The rank deficiency is 3 and this corresponds to the three possible and independent forms of rigid body motion in plane for the unsupported bar: two translations and one rotation. The rank of a matrix is the size of the largest sub-matrix with a non-zero determinant. As forces are increased from zero to their final values. a) so that which defines the symmetry. [ K ]= [K ] e e T .19) 2 In the absence of dynamic effects. This can only be true if the determinant of [ K ] vanishes. the total work done by these forces is T 1 Qe Fe . Substituting (3. displacements are proportional to the applied loads.4. A single ungrounded bar can be moved in space as a rigid body without straining it and hence with zero strain energy. 3.15) into (3. If this were not so.20) 2 We = { }{ } { } [ ]{ } e T e T It is equal to its transpose Ue = 1 2 { Q } [K ] { Q } e (3.3 Positive diagonal elements Each diagonal entry of the matrix K e is positive. a force and its corresponding displacement would be oppositely directed. One can verify that the determinants of the 3× 3 and 2 × 2 reduced sets are still zero. which is [ ] . so that the stiffness matrix has rank 1 (or its rank deficiency is 3). 3. This means that there exist a set of rigid body displacements e e e { } [ K ] { Q }= 0 wherefrom [ K ] { Q } = { 0 } . this work is absorbed by the structure as strain energy. The zero determinant implies that there are linear relationships between its columns (rows). (3.4. (3. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 23 The same result can be obtained following strain energy arguments.2.20.2. The rigid body modes are defined {Q } e for which 2U e = Q e T e e e by the eigenvectors corresponding to its zero eigenvalues.3. For linear structures.

. 3. The displacement Qx1 = 1 produces an axial shortening Qx1 cosθ e = cosθ e . . Fy1 = k21 . k21 + k41 = 0 . k31 and k 41 . That is.4 Each column (row) sums to zero [ ] Consider a bar element with end 2 fixed Qx 2 = Q y 2 = 0 and end 1 having a unit displacement along the global X-axis Qx1 = 1. .4. . the quadratic form that represents strain energy (3.20) is either positive or zero.17.4. . the matrix K e is positive semidefinite.⎦ ⎪Q y 2 = 0⎪ ⎩ ⎭ (3. 3. k 21 . Q y1 = 0 as in Fig. . E A which corresponds to a compressive force e e cosθ e . a) can be written ⎧ Fx1 ⎫ ⎡ k11 ⎪F ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ y1 ⎪ ⎢k 21 ⎨ ⎬= ⎪ Fx 2 ⎪ ⎢ k31 ⎪ Fy 2 ⎪ ⎢k 41 ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ which yields .⎥ ⎪Qx 2 = 0 ⎪ ⎥ . Fx 2 = k31 . . Fy 2 = k 41 . ( ( ) ) Fig. Moreover.21) Fx1 = k11 . .22) This shows that the first column of the stiffness matrix represents the forces that must be applied to the element to preserve static equilibrium when Qx1 = 1 and all other displacements are zero. . whose components must le be equilibrated by the external forces k11 . Equilibrium of horizontal and vertical forces yields k11 + k31 = 0 .24 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS physically unsound.2. (3.4 Equation (3.⎥ ⎪ Q y1 = 0 ⎪ ⎥⋅⎨ ⎬ .⎤ ⎧ Qx1 = 1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ . 3.

3. consider Link’s truss [74] shown in Fig.5 The truss comprises 3 elements and 3 nodes. In the element stiffness matrix.6. It is simply supported in 2 and 3. 2.5. a b . Fig. each column represents an equilibrium set of nodal forces produced by a unit displacement of one nodal degree of freedom.1. 3.3 Link’s truss In order to illustrate the assembly of the global stiffness matrix from the elemental stiffness matrices. A node whose global index is i has associated with it the global displacements and forces (2 i − 1) and 2 i . 3. firmly located in 1. already analyzed in Chapter 2. The same applies for the other columns.3. 3. Fig. The global displacements and nodal forces are shown in Fig. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 25 so that the first column sums to zero. and acted upon by forces 6F and 9F.

6 Element data are given in Table 3.17) are calculates as 1 2 3 4 ⎡• • • • K ⎢• • • • K ⎢ ⎢• • • • K ⎢ ⎢• • • • K ⎢K K K K K ⎢ ⎢K K K K K ⎣ K⎤ K⎥ ⎥ K⎥ ⎥.1 together with information useful for the computation.1 Member Nodes θe 0 cosθ e 1 2 2 2 2 sinθ e 0 2 2 2 2 c2 1 s2 0 1 2 1 2 cs 0 i 1 1 j 2 le EAe EAe le l 2 l 2 EA EA l EA l EA l 2 1 3 45 1 2 1 2 1 2 − 1 2 2 EA 2 3 2 3 135 − 2 l 2 2 EA 2 3.1. The first three columns define the element connectivities. K⎥ K⎥ ⎥ K⎥ ⎦ [K ] 1 ⎡ 1 ⎢ EA ⎢ 0 = l ⎢− 1 ⎢ ⎣ 0 0 − 1 0⎤ 1 0 0 0⎥ 2 ⎥ 0 1 0⎥ 3 ⎥ 0 0 0⎦ 4 T 1 2 5 6 [ ] ⎡ 1 1 − 1 − 1⎤ 1 ⎢ ⎥ E A ⎢ 1 1 − 1 − 1⎥ 2 T K2 = 1⎥ 5 l ⎢− 1 − 1 1 ⎢ ⎥ 1⎦ 6 ⎣− 1 − 1 1 ⎡• • K K • •⎤ ⎢• • K K • •⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢K K K K K K⎥ ⎢ ⎥.26 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Fig. Table 3. their localization within the structure.e. i. Element numbering can be arbitrary.4 Direct method Using the data from Table 3. ⎢K K K K K K⎥ ⎢• • K K • •⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢• • K K • •⎥ ⎣ ⎦ . the element stiffness matrices (3. 3.

This is referred to as the direct matrix method. K • • • •⎥ K • • • •⎥ ⎥ K • • • •⎥ ⎦ [ ] At the top and on the right of the element stiffness matrices. the two displacement and force components (along X and Y) for node i = 1 are numbered 2 i − 1 = 1 and 2 i = 2 . element 2 is located in the truss between the left end node i = 1 and the right end node j = 3 (nodal labels i and j may be assigned arbitrarily). each member will contribute with a force component to maintain equilibrium under an arbitrary set of nodal displacements. according to Table 3. the numbering of coordinates in the global stiffness matrix is shown.2 Node Element 1 2 3 2 Direction X Y X Y Local nodal coordinate 1 2 3 4 Global nodal coordinate 1 2 3 4 1 2 5 6 3 4 5 6 1 The assembly of the unreduced global stiffness matrix (3. The simple addition of different stiffness coefficients in a location is based on the fact that finite element equations are in fact nodal equilibrium equations. as indicated by dots above. . For instance. In the global matrix. so that if a node is common to several elements. and those for the node j = 3 are numbered 2 j − 1 = 5 and 2 j = 6 . eventually adding it to the coefficients already accumulated at that location.3. locating each coefficient of the element stiffness matrices into the appropriate place in the global 6 × 6 matrix (for this example).2.28) is done systematically. An alternative algebraic explanation of the assembly of system stiffness matrices is presented in the following. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 27 and 3 4 5 6 ⎡ 1 − 1 − 1 1⎤ 3 ⎢ 1 − 1⎥ 4 T E A ⎢− 1 1 ⎥ K3 = 1 − 1⎥ 5 l ⎢− 1 1 ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 1 − 1 − 1 1⎦ 6 ⎡K ⎢K ⎢ ⎢K ⎢ ⎢K ⎢K ⎢ ⎢K ⎣ K K K K K⎤ K K K K K⎥ ⎥ K • • • •⎥ ⎥. Table 3.

. can be expressed by equations of the form ~ (3.5. with the nodal displacements at the whole truss structure level. { } ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎡1 ⎪Q ⎪ ⎢0 ⎪ ⎪ 2 Q = ⎨ 2⎬ = ⎢ ⎪Q5 ⎪ ⎢0 ⎪Q6 ⎪ ⎢0 ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ 0⎤ ⎪Q2 ⎪ ⎥ ⎪Q ⎪ 0⎥ ⎪ 3 ⎪ ~ ⋅⎨ ⎬ = T 2 0⎥ ⎪Q4 ⎪ ⎥ 1⎦ ⎪Q5 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪Q6 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ 0⎤ ⎪Q2 ⎪ 0⎥ ⎪Q3 ⎪ ~ ⎥⋅⎪ ⎪ = T 3 ⎨ ⎬ 0⎥ ⎪Q4 ⎪ ⎥ 1⎦ ⎪Q5 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩Q6 ⎭ [ ] [ Q ].23) applied to the three elements yields ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎡1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪Q ⎪ 0 = ⎨ 2⎬ = ⎢ ⎪Q3 ⎪ ⎢0 ⎪Q4 ⎪ ⎢0 ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ 0⎤ ⎪Q2 ⎪ 0⎥ ⎪Q3 ⎪ ~ ⎥⋅⎪ ⎪ = T1 ⎨ ⎬ 0⎥ ⎪Q4 ⎪ ⎥ 0⎦ ⎪Q5 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪Q6 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ {Q } 1 [ ] [Q ] .28 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 3.5 Compatibility of nodal displacements The compatibility of nodal displacements at element level. { } [ ] where e full connectivity or localization matrix. { } ⎧Q3 ⎫ ⎡0 ⎪Q ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ 0 Q3 = ⎨ 4 ⎬ = ⎢ ⎪Q5 ⎪ ⎢0 ⎪Q6 ⎪ ⎢0 ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 [ ] [ Q ].23) Q e = T e { Q }. containing ones at the nodal displacements of element nodes and zeros elsewhere. { Q } is the element displacement vector in global coordinates. 3. {Q } is the ~ displacement vector of the truss structure and [T ] is referred to as a e For the truss from Fig. equation (3.

DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 29 3.5. where the expanded element stiffness matrix ~ ~ ~ [ K ] = [T ] [ K ] [T ] e e T e e (3. 0 0 0 0 0⎥ 0 0 0 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0 0 0 0⎥ ⎦ 0 0 0⎤ 1 0 0⎥ 1 − 1 − 1⎤ ⎡1 0 0 ⎡ 1 ⎥ ⎢ 1 0 0 0⎥ EA ⎢ 1 − 1 − 1⎥ ⎢0 1 0 ⎥⋅⎢ ⎥ 0 0 0⎥ l ⎢ − 1 − 1 1 1 ⎥ ⎢0 0 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ 0 1 0⎥ 1 ⎦ ⎣0 0 0 ⎣− 1 − 1 1 ⎥ 0 0 1⎥ ⎦ [ ] ~ [K ] = [T~ ] [K ][T~ ] 2 2 T 2 2 0 0 0⎤ 0 0 0⎥ ⎥. 0 1 0 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0 1 0 0⎦ or ⎡ 1 ⎢ 0 ⎢ ~ 1 EA ⎢− 1 K = ⎢ l ⎢ 0 ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎣ ⎡1 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 =⎢ ⎢0 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎣ 0 − 1 0 0 0⎤ 0 0 0 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 1 0 0 0⎥ ⎥. a) Ue = 1 2 ~ ~ { Q }T [T e ] T [ K e ][T e ]{ Q } Ue = 1 2 or ~ { Q }T [ K e ]{ Q }.24) yields ⎡1 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 =⎢ ⎢0 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎣ 0 0 0⎤ 1 0 0⎥ ⎡ 1 ⎥ ⎥ EA ⎢ 0 0 1 0 ⎢ ⎥ 0 0 1⎥ l ⎢− 1 ⎢ 0 0 0⎥ ⎣ 0 ⎥ 0 0 0⎥ ⎦ ~ [K ] = [T~ ] [ K ][T~ ] 1 1 T 1 1 0 − 1 0 ⎤ ⎡1 0 0 0⎥ ⎢0 ⎥⋅⎢ 0 1 0⎥ ⎢0 ⎥ ⎢ 0 0 0⎦ ⎣0 0 0 0 0 0⎤ ⎥ 1 0 0 0 0⎥ .6 Expanded element stiffness matrix The element strain energy in global coordinates can be written in terms of the global displacement vector. For the truss from Fig.24) has the size of the system matrix. 0 1 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0 1⎦ . 3. substituting (3.20. equation (3.23) into (3.3.

. 0 0 0 1 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0 0 0 1⎦ or ~ [K ] 3 ⎡0 ⎢0 ⎢ EA ⎢0 = ⎢ l ⎢0 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎣ 3.27) The global stiffness matrix is equal to the sum of the expanded element stiffness matrices.26) we get ~ [ K ]= ∑[K e ] e . 0 −1 1 1 − 1⎥ 0 −1 1 1 − 1⎥ ⎥ 0 1 −1 − 1 1⎥ ⎦ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0⎤ ⎥ 0 0 1 0 0⎥ .25) and (3. T e T e e e e e (3. (3.26) Comparing (3. 2 can be calculated by simply adding the element strain energies U= (3.30 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS or ~ [K ] 2 1 ⎡ 1 ⎢ 1 1 ⎢ 0 EA ⎢ 0 = ⎢ 0 l ⎢ 0 ⎢− 1 − 1 ⎢ ⎢− 1 − 1 ⎣ ⎡0 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢1 =⎢ ⎢0 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎣ 0 0 − 1 − 1⎤ 0 0 − 1 − 1⎥ ⎥ 0 0 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0 0 0⎥ 0 0 1 1⎥ ⎥ 0 0 1 1⎥ ⎦ and ~ [K ] = [T~ ] [ K ][T~ ] 3 3 T 3 3 0 0 0⎤ 0 0 0⎥ ⎡ 1 − 1 − 1 1 ⎤ ⎡0 ⎥ 0 0 0⎥ EA ⎢− 1 1 1 − 1⎥ ⎢0 ⎥⋅⎢ ⎢ ⎥ 1 0 0⎥ l ⎢− 1 1 1 − 1⎥ ⎢0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ 0 1 0⎥ ⎣ 1 − 1 − 1 1 ⎦ ⎣0 ⎥ 0 0 1⎥ ⎦ 0 0 0⎤ 0⎥ ⎥ 0 1 −1 − 1 1⎥ ⎥.25) U= 1 1 ~ ~ ∑U = ∑ 2 { Q } [ K ]{ Q } = 2 { Q } ∑ [ K ] { Q }.7 Unreduced global stiffness matrix The strain energy for the complete truss structure 1 { Q }T [ K ]{ Q }.

3.7. nodes are acted upon by forces equal and in opposite direction to those applied to elements. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 31 The unreduced stiffness matrix K is symmetric. are used in the following. For the truss from Fig.24) is never formed. based on joint equilibrium equations. has positive elements along the main diagonal and each column (row) sums to zero. The joint equilibrium equations. 3.8 Joint force equilibrium equations The assembly of the global stiffness matrix has been based on strain energy considerations. we obtain 6 equilibrium equations . they are never used in practice.5. An exploded layout of the truss is shown in Fig. Note that element equilibrium equations (3.1) used so far involved only forces applied by nodes to the elements. using for convenience the truss from Fig. the deficiency is 3). Apart from external forces and support reactions.3. 3. this matrix is condensed using the boundary conditions. Equal forces are labelled only once for clarity. involving forces applied by elements to nodes. It corresponds to the free-free system. singular (for a plane truss. The expensive product (3.5. For a grounded system. An alternative presentation is given below. ⎢ 0 − 1 1 1 − 1⎥ l ⎢ 0 ⎢− 1 − 1 − 1 1 2 0⎥ ⎥ ⎢ 2⎥ ⎢− 1 − 1 1 − 1 0 ⎦ ⎣ [ ] ~ ~ ~ [ K ] = [ K 1 ]+ [ K 2 ]+ [ K 3 ] (3.28) The expanded element stiffness matrices have been used above only to show algebraically how to assemble a global stiffness matrix. The effect of elastic supports modelled as lumped springs can be accounted for by adding their stiffnesses along the main diagonal at the appropriate locations in the stiffness matrix. 3. The global stiffness assembly is a simple book-keeping exercise and is done by directly placing the nonzero coefficients of element stiffness matrices in the right locations of the global stiffness matrix based on element connectivity.27) yields ⎡ 2 1 − 1 0 − 1 − 1⎤ ⎢ 1 1 0 0 − 1 − 1⎥ ⎥ ⎢ 2 − 1 − 1 1⎥ EA ⎢− 1 0 = ⎥. Resolving nodal forces horizontally and vertically. equation (3.

3 F6 = Fy22 + Fy 2 .29) . FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS F5 = Fx22 + Fx32 .7 In matrix form 1 ⎧ Fx1 ⎫ ⎪ 1 ⎪ ⎪ Fy1 ⎪ ⎪ 1 ⎪ ⎪ Fx 2 ⎪ 1 ⎪ Fy 2 ⎪ ⎪−−− ⎪ 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0⎤ ⎪ ⎪ 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 ⎥ ⎪ Fx2 ⎪ 1 ⎥ 2 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 ⎥ ⎪ Fy1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎥⋅⎨ 2 ⎬ 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 ⎥ ⎪ Fx 2 ⎪ 2 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 ⎥ ⎪ Fy 2 ⎪ ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 ⎥ ⎪−−− ⎪ ⎦ 14 244 14 244 4 3 4 3 F3 ⎪ x1 ⎪ ~2 T ~3 T T T ⎪F3 ⎪ ⎪ y1 ⎪ 3 ⎪ Fx 2 ⎪ ⎪ 3 ⎪ ⎪ Fy 2 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎧ F1 ⎫ ⎡ 1 0 0 0 ⎪F ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ 2⎪ ⎢ 0 1 0 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ F3 ⎪ ⎢ 0 0 1 0 ⎨ ⎬=⎢ ⎪ F4 ⎪ ⎢ 0 0 0 1 ⎪ F5 ⎪ ⎢ 0 0 0 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ F6 ⎪ ⎢ 0 0 0 0 ⎣ 4 ⎩ ⎭ 14 244 3 [ T~ ] 1 T [ ] [ ] whose partitioned form can be written in scalar product form as ~ ~ ~ { F } = [ T 1 ] T {F 1 }+ [ T 2 ] T {F 2 }+ [ T 3 ] T {F 3 } or generally ~ { F } = ∑ [ T e ] T {F e }. 3. 1 1 F3 = Fx 2 + Fx3 .32 1 F1 = Fx1 + Fx2 . 1 1 3 F4 = Fy 2 + Fy1 . e (3. 1 1 F2 = Fy1 + Fy2 . Fig.

e (3. the finite element equations in the remaining N − 1 unknowns are ⎡ K 22 ⎢K ⎢ 32 ⎢ L ⎢ ⎣K N 2 K 23 K 33 L KN3 L K 2 N ⎤ ⎧ Q2 ⎫ ⎧ F2 − K 21 a1 ⎫ L K 3 N ⎥ ⎪ Q3 ⎪ ⎪ F3 − K 31 a1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎥⋅⎪ ⎪ = ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬. A general type of boundary conditions include specified displacements of the support nodes.15) and (3.24) and (3. ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬ ⎢L L L L ⎥ ⎪ L ⎪ ⎪L⎪ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ K N 1 K N 2 L K NN ⎦ ⎪QN ⎪ ⎪ FN ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ Consider a single boundary condition.29) becomes ~ { F } = ∑ [ T e ] T [ K e ]{Q e }= ∑ e e ~ [1~4]44K 444] {Q }. Q1 = a1 . As Q1 is known. For an N-degree-of-freedom structure. using equations (3. b j and b0 are known constants.32) . encountered in inclined roller supports and rigid connections.31) The unreduced global stiffness matrix K relates the unreduced vector of nodal forces { F } to the unreduced vector of nodal displacements { Q }. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 33 Substituting (3. of the type bi Qi + b j Q j = b0 . [ ] 3. the finite element equations (3. it can be written ~ { F } = ∑ [ K e ] {Q } = [ K ] {Q } .31) are of the form ⎡ K11 K12 L K1N ⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎧ F1 ⎫ ⎢K ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 21 K 22 L K 2 N ⎥ ⋅ ⎪ Q2 ⎪ = ⎪ F2 ⎪ . [ 2 ][ T 3 T e T e e (3. where ns is the number of supports.23). L L ⎥ ⎪L⎪ ⎪ L ⎪ ⎥ L K NN ⎦ ⎪QN ⎪ ⎪ FN − K N 1 a1 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ (3. Boundary conditions eliminate the possibility of the structure to move as a rigid body. Qi = 0 . Most often the support nodal displacements are zero. of the type Qi = ai ( i = 1 to ns ).30) then. Another type are the multipoint constraints.9 Reduced global stiffness matrix The global truss should be supported adequately and there should be no internal mechanism. where bi .27).3. equation (3.

the reduced global stiffness matrix is obtained deleting as many rows and columns as the number of specified displacements.34) It can be seen that where the displacements are specified. respectively. ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 1 1 0 − 1⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ F2 ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 0 0 1 1⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ F4 ⎥ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ −1 −1 1 2⎦ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ F5 ⎥ −1 (3. (3. { Q } and { F } are the reduced vectors of global displacements and forces. It is instructive now to consider the truss from Fig.35) The first two equations can be written EA ⎡2 1 ⎤ ⎡Q3 ⎤ ⎧6 F ⎫ ⋅⎢ ⎥ = ⎨ ⎬ l ⎢1 2⎥ ⎣Q6 ⎦ ⎩9 F ⎭ ⎣ ⎦ .33) where [K ] is a reduced stiffness matrix. The matrix [ K ] is not singular. after substitution of the boundary conditions Q1 = Q2 = Q4 = Q5 = 0 and the values of the applied forces F3 = 6 F and F6 = 9 F . obtained by eliminating the row and column corresponding to the specified or “support” degrees of freedom. the nodal forces are unknown.32) may be written in condensed form [ K ] { Q } = { F }. the nodal displacements are unknown.33) can be solved for the displacement vector { Q } using Gauss elimination. The final equations (3. Equations (3. 3. Equation (3.34 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The ( N − 1 ) × (N − 1) stiffness matrix above is obtained simply by deleting or eliminating the first row and column from the original ( N × N ) stiffness matrix. and where the forces are specified. 0 −1 1 1 − 1⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ F4 ⎥ l ⎢ 0 ⎢− 1 − 1 − 1 1 2 0⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ F5 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 0 2⎥ ⎢Q6 ⎥ ⎢9 F ⎥ ⎢− 1 − 1 1 − 1 ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ (3. Having assembled the unreduced global stiffness matrix.34) can be rearranged as follows ⎡ 2 1 ⎢ 2 ⎢ 1 ⎢ EA ⎢− 1 − 1 l ⎢ 0 −1 ⎢ ⎢− 1 − 1 ⎢ ⎣− 1 0 0 − 1 − 1 ⎤ ⎡Q3 ⎤ ⎡6 F ⎤ ⎥ − 1 − 1 − 1 0 ⎥ ⎢Q6 ⎥ ⎢9 F ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ 2 1 0 − 1⎥ ⋅ ⎢ 0 ⎥ = ⎢ F1 ⎥ . the following set of linear equations is obtained 1 −1 0 − 1 − 1⎤ ⎡ 0 ⎤ ⎡ F1 ⎤ ⎡ 2 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 1 1 0 0 − 1 − 1⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ F2 ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ 0 2 −1 −1 1 ⎥ ⎢Q3 ⎥ ⎢6 F ⎥ EA ⎢ − 1 ⎢ ⎥ ⋅⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ ⎥ .5. For a truss supported on many supports.

equations (3. The axial force in a truss element is .39) For the truss from Fig. . { Qa } = [ K aa ] −1 ( { Fa } − [ K ab ] { Qb } ) . [ K bb ]⎥ ⎨ { Qb }⎬ ⎨ { Fb }⎬ ⎦ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ (3. 3.36) is the vector of known where displacements and [ K ba ] = [ K ab ] .5) is Δl e = q2 − q1 = ( Qx 2 − Qx1 ) cosθ e + ( Q y 2 − Q y1 ) sinθ e (3. EA EA In general.3. = ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬ l ⎢ − 1 − 1⎥ ⎩Q6 ⎭ ⎪ − 5 F ⎪ ⎪ F4 ⎪ ⎥ ⎢ ⎪ F5 ⎪ ⎪−F ⎪ ⎣− 1 0 ⎦ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ The elongation of an element (2. T { Fa } is the vector of known forces.10 Reactions and internal forces (3. the support displacements are zero. for non-zero boundary conditions.38) (3. { Qb } The first set of equations can be written { Fa } = [ K aa ] { Qa }+ [ K ab ] { Qb } .5.37) then multiplied to the left by [ K aa ] −1 to yield the unknown displacements The unknown forces.40) which can be computed when all displacements have been determined. which in this case are the external reactions. 3. so that ⎧ F1 ⎫ ⎧− 5F ⎫ ⎡ − 1 − 1⎤ ⎪F ⎪ ⎢ 0 − 1⎥ Q ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 2 ⎪ EA ⎢ ⎥ ⋅ ⎧ 3 ⎫ = ⎪− 4 F ⎪ . are given by { Fb } = [ K ab ] T { Qa }+ [ K bb ] { Qb } . DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 35 and solved to give Fl Fl Q6 = 4 . (3.33) can be written in partitioned form Q3 = ⎡ [ K aa ] ⎢[K ] ⎣ ba [ K ab ]⎤ ⎧ { Qa }⎫ ⎧ { Fa }⎫ ⋅ = .

3.36 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎧ Qx1 ⎫ ⎪Q ⎪ E A E A ⎪ y1 ⎪ Te = e e Δl e = e e b − c − s c s c ⎨ ⎬ . l 2 EA ( Q3 + Q6 ) = 5 2 F . Q3 ⎪ l l ⎪ ⎪ Q4 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎪Q ⎪ 2 EA 2 ⎪ 2⎪ T2 = b − 1 − 1 1 1c ⎨ ⎬= l 2 ⎪ Q5 ⎪ ⎪ Q6 ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ ⎧ Q3 ⎫ ⎪Q ⎪ 2 EA 2 ⎪ 4⎪ T3 = b1 1 − 1 1 c ⎨ ⎬= l 2 ⎪ Q5 ⎪ ⎪ Q6 ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ (3. le le ⎪Q x 2 ⎪ ⎪Q y 2 ⎪ ⎭e ⎩ For the truss from Fig. l Stresses can be determined dividing these forces by the element crosssection areas.5. Duhamel (1838). where E is Young’s modulus. the member forces are ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎪Q ⎪ EA ⎪ ⎪ EA T1 = b−1 0 1 0c ⎨ 2 ⎬ = Q3 = F . M. Restraining produces a compressive axial force α EAT in the element. 3. C.11 Thermal loads and stresses Thermal stresses are calculated using the “restraining method” suggested by J. (3. the element acts upon its nodes with equal and opposite forces { FT } = α EAT b − c − s c s cT . This produces thermal strains ε T = −α T .42) . where α is the coefficient of thermal expansion and T is the amount of uniform heating (temperature difference). Suppose the node displacements are completely restrained (blocked).41) 2 EA Q6 = 4 2 F . The restrained state is equivalent to a pre-stressing with compressive stresses σ T = −α ET . Accordingly. where A is the cross-section area.

there are many zero elements in the upper triangle.42. { fT } = α EAT b − 1 1cT . Even so. adding to the stresses produced by the thermal (and external) loads.44) Because of symmetry.43) σ e = Ee ⎜ e − α T ⎟ . They are also banded. Consider the 12 × 12 unreduced global stiffness matrix of the truss from Fig. . with nonzero elements in the upper triangle identified by the symbol X ← B → × × × × × × × × × × × × 0 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥. It is as if unrestraining forces are applied at the ends of the element to free it from the initial restraining. ⎜ l ⎟ ⎝ e ⎠ i. 3. 3. the initial stresses produced by restraining. the element elongations are determined from (3. This is obvious for one-directional structures and can be achieved by rational node numbering in other structures. in local coordinates. only the diagonal elements and those from one side of the main diagonal are retained.e.12 Node numbering Stiffness matrices are symmetric and sparse. i. with the nonzero elements clustered in a band along the main diagonal.8. due to the sparseness. ×⎥ ⎥ ×⎥ ⎥ ×⎥ ×⎥ ⎥ ×⎥ ×⎥ ⎦ [ ] ⎡× × × × ⎢ × × × ⎢ ⎢ × × ⎢ × ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ K =⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢s y m m ⎣ × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × e t r i c (3. a) These forces should be included in the vector of nodal forces (added to the external forces.3. The half-bandwidth is denoted B. a. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 37 or. After determining the displacements produced by these forces.e.37) and the stresses are calculated as ⎛ Δl ⎞ (3. if the case). (3.

The number of columns in the banded-form storage is equal to B . B = 6 . 3. i.8.38 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Since only nonzero elements need to be stored.e. . The efficiency of band-storage increases with the order of the matrix. For the numbering scheme of Fig. equal to the size of the original matrix. 3. ⎥ ×⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ [ Kb ] The first column contains the diagonal elements of the full matrix (3. a . As a general rule.8. a Fig. The second column contains the elements from the second diagonal. However. the information in the above matrix can be compactly stored in the 12× 6 matrix below 1 2 ↓ ↓ ⎡× ⎢ ⎢× ⎢× ⎢ ⎢× ⎢× ⎢ ⎢× =⎢ × ⎢ ⎢× ⎢ ⎢× ⎢× ⎢ ⎢× ⎢× ⎣ × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × B ↓ ×⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ×⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ×⎥ ⎥. b.8 b For plane trusses. for the numbering from Fig. B = 12 . the mth diagonal of the original matrix is stored as the mth column.44). then progressing along the longer dimension. In general.the half-bandwidth of the original matrix. 3. a small bandwidth can be obtained by numbering nodes along the shorter dimension of a structure. B is equal to 2 plus twice the maximum node number difference in an element.

If there are zeros at the top of a column. In this case. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 39 The half-bandwidth is automatically determined within the finite element program from the node numbering. the columns of the matrix upper triangle are stored serially and concatenated in a column vector { K s } . ⎨ ⎬ ⎪12 ⎪ ⎪13 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪17 ⎪ ⎪22⎪ ⎩ ⎭ . only the elements between the diagonal term and the first nonzero term need be stored. Consider the following matrix Column height → 1 2 2 0 k 23 k33 4 k14 k 24 k34 k 44 3 0 0 k35 0 k55 1 0 0 0 0 0 k 66 4 0 0 0 k 47 0 k67 k77 5 0 ⎤ ⎥ 0 ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ k 48 ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ k 78 ⎥ ⎥ k88 ⎥ ⎦ ⎡k11 k12 ⎢ k 22 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ Skyline The active columns are stored in the column vector { K s } and a diagonal pointer vector { ID } is built up with the indices of diagonal elements in { K s } ⎧ k11 ⎫ ⎪ k ⎪←1 ⎪ 12 ⎪ ⎪ k22 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪←3 ⎪ k23 ⎪ ⎪ k33 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪←5 ⎪ k14 ⎪ {Ks } = ⎨ ⎬ ⎪ k24 ⎪ ⎪ k34 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ k44 ⎪ ⎪ L ⎪←9 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪L⎪ ⎪k ⎪ ⎩ 88 ⎭ ⎧1⎫ ⎪3⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪5⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 9 { ID } = ⎪ ⎪ . Gaussian elimination algorithms are used for symmetric banded matrices which enable also the reduction of computer time. efficient reduction of both storage and computing time can be achieved using the skyline storage and a skyline equation solver. For large sparse stiffness matrices. Apart from storage savings.3. The line separating the top zeroes from the first nonzero element is called the skyline.

For the solution of the finite element equations. Matrix Displacement Method Input Data Geometric data of truss (Nodal coordinates) Material properties + Cross-section area of members Connectivity table of elements Boundary conditions ↓ 1 Element stiffness matrix in local coordinates Transformation to global coordinates ↓ 2 Assembly of the global stiffness matrix ↓ 3 Introduction of boundary conditions ↓ 4 Solving the linear set of equations ↓ 5 Back-calculation External reactions Member forces (and stresses) 6 . A generic flow chart of the Matrix Displacement Method is given in the following.40 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The height of the jth column is given by ID ( j ) − ID ( j − 1) . Gaussian elimination can be applied using a skyline solver program.

1. 6 4. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 41 Exercises E3. For the truss in Fig. 8 7. 5 Axial stress 16 -10 0 16 -9. a Answer.7 -339.9 224 Displ Y 0 -361.83 0 12 -15 . Fig. 7 6.7 0 Element data Element nr 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Nodes 1.1 -391.16 -10. E3. 7 6.8 -343. 8 Axial stress 12 -4. a. 3 2.16 -10. a) The finite element model consists of 8 nodes and 13 elements. 6 4.83 8 Element nr 8 9 10 11 12 13 Nodes 4. Taking l = 1 .7 -339. Plot the deformed shape. 4 3. 2 1. 7 5. 3 2.1 -361.1.3. E = 1 and F = 1 . we obtain the following: Nodal data Node nr 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Restr X 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Restr Y 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Coord X 0 4 4 8 8 12 12 16 Coord Y 0 0 3 0 6 0 3 0 Displ X 0 64 208.1. 4 3. and c) the support reactions. A = 1 .6 176 62. E3. determine: a) the maximum nodal displacement and its location b) the maximum stress and its location.3 128 127.

The deformed shape is shown in Fig. E3. E3.1.1. Determine: a) the maximum nodal displacement. a. Fig. a) Fl .42 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The support reactions are R1 = −8 . E3. R2 = 6 . b.2. Consider the pin-jointed framework shown in Fig.2. E3. a Answer. and c) the support reactions. The finite element model consists of 7 nodes and 11 elements. b) the maximum stress. and R3 = 9 . Plot the deformed shape. E3.2. and R2 = 6 F . b) The axial stress in The vertical displacement of point 7 is v7 = −219.787 EA element 7 is N 7 = −6 F A . b E3. . b. c) The support reactions are R1 = − R3 = 5.4 F . The deformed shape is presented in Fig.2. Fig.

The deformed shape is presented in Fig. b E3. Determine the location and the value of: a) the maximum nodal displacement. Consider the truss shown in Fig. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 43 Fig. a) Fl .83 EA element 1 is N1 = −7. b) the maximum stress. .3. The finite element model consists of 6 nodes and 9 elements.25 F A . E3. R2 = 3. b) The axial stress in The vertical displacement of point 3 is v3 = −137.3.4 F and R3 = 2. c) The support reactions are R1 = 0 . a. Calculate c) the support reactions. a Answer. Plot the deformed shape.3.3. E3. E3. b. E3. Fig.3.2.6 F .

b) the maximum stress. E3.0896 . a Answer.3. E3. A = 1 .44 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Fig.3294 2. Fig. b E3.4.4.4.2095 -9. E = 1 and F = 1 . a.6705 Displ Y 0 0 -3. we obtain the following: Nodal data Node nr 1 2 3 4 Restr X 1 1 0 0 Restr Y 1 1 0 0 Coord X 0 0 1 2 Coord Y 0 1 0 1 Displ X 0 0 -1. and c) the support reactions. The finite element model consists of 4 nodes and 5 elements. Plot the deformed shape. E3. Consider the truss shown in Fig. Taking l = 1 . Determine: a) the maximum nodal displacement.

3 2.749 a) The vertical displacement of point 4 is v4 = −9. E3. Consider the pin-jointed framework shown in Fig. E3.0. 4 1. E3. Plot the deformed shape.5.4.335 . b) The axial stress in element 4 is N 4 = 1. Fig.09 F l E A . b.5.335F and R4 = 0. 4 1. b E3. b) the maximum stress. a where point 6 is displaced v6 = −5 . DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 45 Element data Element nr 1 2 3 4 5 Nodes 3.335 F A . c) The support reactions are R1 = − R3 = 2 F . The deformed shape is presented in Fig. R2 = 0. a .940 . Fig.0.4.1. Determine the location and the value of: a) the maximum nodal displacement.3. E3. 4 Axial stress . 3 2.940 1.329 0.665F .5.

5. Taking l = 1 . b . E3. Fig. E3.366 . The finite element model consists of 14 nodes and 25 elements. and the axial stress in element 15 is N15 = 0. The deformed shape is presented in Fig. A = 1 and E = 1 .5.538 . the vertical displacements of points 7 and 8 are v7 = v8 = −4. b.46 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Answer.

The displacement within the element is expressed in terms of the nodal displacements using shape functions. true displacements are described by higher order polynomials. 4. 4. The compatibility of adjacent elements requires only C 0 continuity. Bars are loaded only by axial forces. For a bar without loads between ends the linear interpolation is exact. For bars with distributed loads. The dimensions of p are force/length. They are modeled by elements having one-degree-of-freedom per node. This approximation becomes increasingly accurate as more elements are considered in the model. However. These kinematically equivalent forces are determined using the appropriate shape functions from the condition to perform the same mechanical work as the actual loading. chains and ropes.1. It is shown that their use is tantamount to adding internal nodes. the corresponding element stiffness matrix and load vectors will be derived. The unknown displacement field within an element is usually interpolated by a linear distribution. BARS AND SHAFTS This chapter deals with simple one-dimensional structural elements. Their longitudinal dimension is much larger than the transverse dimensions. . The displacement at x + d x will be u + du . having one degree of freedom per node.1 Plane bar elements Bars are structural elements used to model truss elements. Displacements must be continuous across the element boundary.1 Differential equation of equilibrium In a thin uniform rod of cross-section area A and Young’s modulus E. it is common practice to use linear shape functions and two-node elements without loads between ends. there are axial displacements u = u (x ) due to axial loads p(x ) . This implies replacement of the distributed loads by equivalent forces applied to nodes. In this section.4. cables.

dx or. using (4. 4. b).2 Coordinates and shape functions Consider a two-node pin-jointed element in the own or local coordinate system. d x2 (4. We define a natural or intrinsic reference system which permits the specification of a point within the element by a dimensionless number r= x + x2 ⎞ 2 ⎛ ⎜x− 1 ⎟ x 2 − x1 ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (4.1 The internal axial force N is du .5) so that r = −1 at node 1 and r = +1 at node 2 (Fig.1) σ x = E du d x .4) 4.48 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The axial strain is given by the strain-displacement relation ε x = du d x . a). Nodes are conveniently numbered 1 and 2. EA d2 u = − p (x ) .2. (4. 4.2) Fig.1.2. .3). The normal stresses result from Hooke’s law (4. (4. their coordinates in the physical (Cartesian) reference system being x 1 and x 2 respectively (Fig. N = Aσ x = E A dN + p (x ) = 0 .3) dx The equation of equilibrium of an infinitesimal element of length dx of the rod (Fig. 4. 4.1) is d N + p d x = 0 .

4. where N1 (r ) = (4.3 4. BARS AND SHAFTS 49 Fig. d u d x = const . 4. Fig.3.7) 2 2 can be considered as geometric interpolation functions. a. so that the displacement field within the element may be expressed as a linear polynomial . They have a unit value at the node of the same index and zero at the other node.1.6) 1 ( 1 − r ) and N 2 (r ) = 1 ( 1 + r ) (4.2 Expressing the physical coordinate in terms of the natural coordinate yields x = N1 (r ) x 1 + N 2 (r ) x 2 . d 2u d x 2 = 0 .b.3 Bar not loaded between ends For a prismatic bar not loaded between ends. 4. The graphs of these functions are shown in Figs. .4. p = 0 .

x2 − x1 x2 − x1 1− r 1+ r q1 + q2 . ⎣N ⎦ In (4.11). but the integration constants. With q1 = a + b x1 at node 1 and q2 = a + b x2 at node 2. (4.11) ⎣N ⎦ = ⎣N1 N 2 ⎦ and {q }= { q e 1 q2 }T . are the nodal displacements. The nodal expansion (4.6) is simpler.50 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS u (x ) = a + b x .9) can also be written u= or. e i i i =1 2 (4. have no simple physical meaning. 2 2 (4.8) becomes u= q2 − q1 q x − q2 x1 x+ 1 2 .12) Thus.10) 1 ( 1 − r ) and N 2 (r ) = 1 ( 1 + r ) are the shape functions of the 2 2 The polynomial form (4. u= The displacement of an arbitrary point within the element can be expressed in terms of the nodal displacements q 1 and q 2 as u = N1 (r ) q1 + N 2 (r ) q2 . q e is the column vector of element nodal displacements and is the row vector of displacement interpolation functions also named shape { } . the displacement at any point within an element can be found by multiplying the matrix of shape functions by the vector of nodal displacements. a and b. In matrix form u= where ∑ N q = ⎣N ⎦ { q }. where N1 (r ) = element.8) The two integration constants above may be determined from the nodal displacements and the geometry of the element. x2 − x1 x2 − x1 x − x1 − x + x2 q1 + q2 . (4. using (4. equation (4. but the integration constants.10) is more complicated.9) Equation (4.5). q 1 and q 2 . (4.

c).13) ⎣B ⎦ = d x ⎣N ⎦ d (4.15) where − 1 ≤ r ≤ +1 and the length of the element is l e = x 2 − x 1 .18) where the element stiffness matrix k e is given by [ ] . and that u varies linearly (Fig. e T e e (4.1. Equations (4. The transformation from x to r in equation (4.4 Element stiffness matrix in local coordinates Strains can be expressed in terms of the shape functions as εx = where du d e e = ⎣N ⎦ q = ⎣B ⎦ q dx dx { } { } (4.10) show that both the element geometry and the displacement field are interpolated using the same shape functions.14) is the row vector of the derivatives of shape functions. (4.13) in (4.16) we obtain Ue = 1 2 { q } ∫ ⎣B ⎦ e T Ve T Ee ⎣B ⎦ dV { q }. 4. 4. e (4.4. 2 (4. It is easy to check that u = q 1 at node 1 and u = q 2 at node 2. generally called the element strain-displacement matrix. which is referred to as the isoparametric formulation.5) yields dx = x 2 − x1 2 dr = le dr . It gives the strain at any point due to unit nodal displacement.16) Substituting (4.17) 144 2444 4 3 The above equation is of the form Ue = 1 2 { q } [ k ] { q }.3.6) and (4. BARS AND SHAFTS 51 functions. The element strain energy U e is Ue = 1 2 ∫σ e x εx dV = 1 2 ∫E ε e e 2 x dV .

a.1. In terms of the shape functions [ ] e Ve [k ]= E A ∫ e e le ⎢dN ⎥ ⎢dN ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ dx .21) d N2 1 d N1 1 = − and = + .52 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS [ k ] = ∫ ⎣B⎦ e T Ee ⎣B ⎦ dV . . (4. so that the displacement field within the element may be expressed as a quadratic polynomial u (x ) = a + b x + c x 2 .23) The three integration constants. This can be done if we use a three-node onedimensional element. ⎣ dx ⎦ ⎣ dx ⎦ T (4.6). d 2u d x 2 = const . p = const. . An internal node is added at the midpoint to comply with the requirement of a quadratic fit (Fig. 4. (4.22) which is the same as equation (3. equation (4. a). .4. have to be determined from three boundary conditions.20) Because dN dN d r 2 dN = = .19) This form guarantees that k e will be a symmetric matrix.21) yields dr 2 dr 2 [k ] e 2E A = e e le +1 −1 ∫ ⎨ 1 2 ⎬ ⎢⎣− 2 ⎩ ⎭ − 1⎤ .5 Bar loaded between ends For a prismatic bar acted upon by a uniformly distributed axial load. we can write dx dr d x l e dr [ ke ] = 2 Ee Ae le Substituting +1 −1 ∫ ⎢dN ⎥ ⎢dN ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ dr . 4. 1⎥ ⎦ ⎧− 1 2 ⎫ ⎢ 1 1⎥ dr 2⎥ ⎦ or [ k ] = El A ⎡⎢−11 e e e e ⎣ (4. b and c. ⎣ dr ⎦ ⎣ dr ⎦ T (4.

4. BARS AND SHAFTS

53

For a linearly distributed axial load (as in a bar rotating at constant angular speed around an end, acted upon by a distributed centrifugal load proportional to the distance to the rotation centre), the true displacement field is given by a cubic polynomial, involving four integration constants (see Example 4.8). For an exact solution, this implies using a four-node element (adding two internal nodes). The usual practice is to assume an approximate lower order linear displacement field, i.e. a two-node element and to replace the actual linearly distributed load by equivalent nodal forces, having thus an element not loaded between ends describable by linear shape functions.

Fig. 4.4 Consider the three-node quadratic element from Fig. 4.4, a, with node 3 at the midpoint. Nodal coordinates are x1 , x2 , x3 , and the vector of element nodal displacements is q e = { q1 q2 q3 }T . The x-coordinate system is mapped onto an intrinsic r-coordinate system, given by the transformation

T

{ }

2 ( x − x3 ) . x2 − x1 It comes out that r = −1 , 0, and + 1 at nodes 1, 3, and 2 (Fig. 4.4, b). r=

(4.24)

The displacements within the element can be written in terms of the three nodal displacements q 1 , q2 , and q 3 as

u = N1 (r ) q 1 + N 2 (r ) q 2 + N 3 (r ) q 3 ,

where the quadratic shape functions N i N1 (r ) = −

(4.25)

( i = 1, 2, 3 ) are

(4.26)

1 1 r ( 1 − r ) , N 2 (r ) = r ( 1 + r ) , 2 2 N 3 (r ) = ( 1 + r )( 1 − r ) .

The graphs of the shape functions (4.26) are shown in Fig. 4.5. They have a unit value at the node with the same index and zero at the other nodes. This is a general property of the shape functions.

54

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

The expressions for these shape functions can be written down by inspection. For example, since N1 = 0 at r = 0 and r = 1 , we know that N1 has to contain the product r ( 1 − r ) , i. e. the left hand part of the equations of the vertical lines passing through nodes 3 and 2. That is, N1 is of the form N1 = C r ( 1 − r ) . The constant C is obtained from the condition N1 = 1 at r = −1 , which yields C = −1 2 , resulting in the expression given in (4.26).

Fig. 4.5 The displacement field within the element is written in matrix form as u= where

∑ N q = ⎣N ⎦ { q } ,

e i i i =1

3

(4.27)

⎣N ⎦ = ⎣N1 N 2 N3 ⎦ and

{ q }= { q

e

1

q2

q3

}T .

(4.28)

At any point within an element the axial displacement can be found by multiplying the matrix of shape functions by the vector of nodal displacements, as in (4.27). It is easy to check that u = q 1 at node 1, because N1 = 1 and

**N 2 = N3 = 0 . Similarly, u = q 2 at node 2, and u = q 3 at node 3. Thus, u is a
**

quadratic polynomial passing through q1 , q2 , and q3 (Fig. 4.6). It is obtained by interpolation, using quadratic shape functions.

4. BARS AND SHAFTS

55

**The element strain-displacement row vector ⎣B ⎦ in (4.14) is given by
**

⎢ ⎣B ⎦ = d x ⎣N ⎦ = d r ⎣N ⎦ d x = l ⎢− 2 e ⎣ d d dr 2 1− 2r 1+ 2r 2 ⎥ − 2 r⎥ . ⎦

(4.29)

Fig. 4.6 The element stiffness matrix (4.19) is

[k ]

e

+1

Al = e e 2

∫⎣⎦

B

−1

T

Ee ⎣B ⎦ d r

or, substituting (4.29),

[k ]

e

1 − 8⎤ ⎡7 Ee Ae ⎢ = 7 − 8⎥ . ⎥ ⎢1 3l e ⎢− 8 − 8 16 ⎥ ⎦ ⎣

(4.30)

**4.1.6 Vector of element nodal forces
**

Consider an axial load p (x ) , having the units of force per unit length, distributed along the bar element. The mechanical work of such a force is

W=

le

∫ u p dx = ∫ u

le

T

p dx .

(4.31)

**Substituting (4.11), equation (4.31) becomes
**

W = qe It has the form

{ } ∫ ⎣N ⎦

T le

T

p dx .

(4.32)

56

W = qe

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

{ } {f }

T e

(4.33)

+1

where the element equivalent load vector is

{ f }= ∫ ⎣N ⎦

e

T

p dx =

le

le 2

∫1 ⎣N ⎦ −

T

p dr .

(4.34)

For the linear two-node element, if the axial force is uniformly distributed, p = const . , then

{f }

e

+1

l = e p 2

∫

T ⎣N ⎦ d r

(4.35)

−1

or, substituting (4.7),

{ f }= p2l

e

e

⎧ 1⎫ ⎨ ⎬. ⎩ 1⎭

(4.36)

A force

p le , equal to half the total force on the element, is applied at each node. 2

For the quadratic three-node element, if p = const. , substituting the shape functions (4.26) into (4.35), gives

{ f }= p l

e

e

T ⎣1 6 1 6 2 3 ⎦ .

(4.37)

**4.1.7 Assembly of the global stiffness matrix and load vector
**

Assembly of the system stiffness matrix for one-dimensional structures modelled as bars is carried out as shown in sections 3.4 to 3.7 for trusses. Consider the five-node finite element model in Fig. 4.7, a. Each node has only one degree of freedom in the x-direction. The nodal displacements are Q1 , Q2 ,…, Q5 (Fig. 4.7, b). The global vector of nodal displacements is denoted by

{Q } = ⎣ Q1

{ F } = ⎣ F1

Q2

Q3

Q4

Q5 ⎦ T .

**The nodal forces are F1 , F2 ,…, F5 . The global load vector is denoted by
**

F2 F3 F4 F5 ⎦ T .

The unreduced global stiffness matrix [ K ] proportionality factor between the two global vectors

plays the role of a

4. BARS AND SHAFTS

57

{ F } = [ K ] {Q }.

Fig. 4.7 The assembly of [ K ] from the element stiffness matrices can be explained by an energy approach. Consider the strain energy in, say, element 3. We have

U3 = 1 2

{ q } [k ] { q }

3 T 3 3

or U3 = EA ⎡ 1 − 1 ⎤ ⎧ Q3 ⎫ 1 ⎣ Q3 Q4 ⎦ l 3 ⎢ − 1 1⎥ ⎨ Q ⎬ . 2 ⎦ ⎩ 4⎭ 3 ⎣

We can write U 3 as

U3 =

1 ⎣ Q1 Q2 2

Q3 Q4

⎡0 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 Q5 ⎦ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎣

0 0

0 0 EA3 0 l3 EA 0 − 3 l3 0 0

0 0 EA − 3 l3 EA3 l3 0

0⎤ 0⎥ ⎥ ⎥ 0⎥ ⎥ 0⎥ ⎥ 0⎥ ⎦

⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩

Q1 ⎫ Q2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ Q3 ⎬ Q4 ⎪ ⎪ Q5 ⎪ ⎭

or

U3 = 1 2 ~ { Q }T [ K 3 ] { Q },

It has the size of the [ ] fourth rows and columns of the [ K ] matrix. according to the connectivity Table 4. Overlapping elements are simply added as already shown in section 3. ⎢− 1 1⎥ 5 ⎣ ⎦ 3 [ k ] = ElA 3 3 3 ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ 3 .1 Element 1 2 3 4 Node i 1 2 3 4 j 2 3 4 5 . global stiffness matrix. 1⎥ 2 ⎦ 4 2 3 ⎣ [ k ] = ElA 2 2 2 ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ 2 ⎢ − 1 1⎥ 3 . Table 4.58 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ~ where K 3 is the expanded stiffness matrix of element 3. but the elements of the matrix k 3 occupy the third and [ ] The strain energy of the entire structure is equal to the sum of the element strain energies U= 1 1 ~ T ~ T ∑ U e = ∑ 2 { Q } [ K e ]{ Q } = 2 { Q } ∑ [ K e ] { Q } e e e so that.27). This is based on the simple addition of element strain energies. based on element connectivity.1. The entries of the element matrices k e are placed in [ ] 1 1 [ k ] = ElA ⎡⎢− 1 1 1 1 2 − 1⎤ 1 . ∑[ e ] the appropriate locations of the global [ K ] matrix by the so-called direct method. which is never done in practice. the global stiffness matrix is equal to the sum of the expanded element stiffness matrices ~ [ K ]= K e . ⎣ ⎦ 4 5 ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ 4 . the numbering of coordinates in the global stiffness matrix is shown.4 for truss elements. as in (3. The element matrices can be written This is a convenient algebraic explanation of the assembly process. ⎢− 1 1⎥ 4 ⎣ ⎦ [ k ] = ElA 4 4 4 At the top and on the right of the element stiffness matrices.

1. The stress-strain law in the presence of ε 0 is of the form σ = E ( ε − ε0 ) .13). ⎥ A4 ⎥ − ⎥ l4 ⎥ A4 ⎥ l4 ⎥ ⎦ The global load vector is assembled as {F }= ⎣ − R1 F2 The final finite element equations are obtained.by deleting the first element.41).4. It may arise from thermal action or by forcing members into place that are either too short or too long.8 Initial strain effects Let an initial strain ε 0 be induced in a bar element. (4.39) Substituting (4. as shown in section 3. Stresses are then calculated from the axial forces obtained using equation (3. due to fabrication errors. Q 1 = 0 . this information is stored for the subsequent calculation of the reaction R 1 . ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥. using the boundary condition. The reduced (non-singular) stiffness matrix is obtained deleting the first row and column of the unreduced matrix.39) becomes . and the reduced load vector . BARS AND SHAFTS 59 The result is the following unreduced global stiffness matrix ⎡ A1 ⎢ l ⎢ 1 ⎢− A1 ⎢ l1 ⎢ [ K ]= E ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎣ A1 l1 A1 A2 + l1 l 2 A − 2 l2 − 0 0 0 A2 l2 A2 A3 + l2 l3 A − 3 l3 − 0 0 0 A3 l3 A3 A4 + l3 l4 A − 4 l4 − 0 0 F5 ⎦ T .5. (4.38) The mechanical work of external nodal forces applied to suppress the initial prestressing due to ε 0 is W= Ve ∫σε 0 dV = Ve ∫σ T ε 0 dV = ε 0 Ee Ae le ∫ε T dx . In fact. 4. the expression (4.

4.41) or { f }= ε e +1 0 Ee Ae −1 ∫ ⎢dN ⎥ le ⎢ ⎥ d r = ε 0 Ee Ae 2 ⎣ dr ⎦ ⎧ − 1⎫ Ae ⎨ ⎬ . ⎩1⎭ hence { f }= ε e 0 Ee (4.42) After solving for nodal displacements. stresses are computed as σ e = Ee q2 − q1 + ( − Ee ε 0 ) .2 Plane shaft elements From Mechanics of Materials it is known that a uniform shaft of diameter d and length l . ε0 = αT . le (4.8. where the element load vector due to initial straining is { f }= ε e 0 Ee Ae le ∫ ⎣B ⎦ T l dx = ε 0 Ee Ae e 2 T +1 −1 ∫ ⎣B⎦ +1 T dr (4. (4. ⎩ 1 ⎭ −1 ∫ ⎧− 1⎫ ⎨ ⎬ dr . 4. where I p = is the polar second GIp 32 moment of area of the shaft cross section.60 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS W = qe { }ε T 0 Ee Ae le ∫ ⎣B⎦ T dx . of length l and torsional rigidity G I p .40) It has the form (4. The shaft torsional stiffness is then GIp M K= t = .44) where α is the coefficient of thermal expansion and T is the average change in temperature within the element.33). θ l A two-node shaft finite element.43) In the case of thermal loading. The nodal torques M 1 and M 2 can be related to the nodal rotation angles θ 1 and θ 2 using the equilibrium and the torque/rotation equations . from a material with shear modulus of elasticity G. is shown in Fig. (4. acted upon by a torque M t will twist an angle θ = πd4 Mt l .

(4.47) is the stiffness matrix of the shaft element.8 The derivation of the shaft stiffness matrix is essentially identical to the derivation of the stiffness matrix for an axially loaded bar element. e e e where [ k ] = GlI e p ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎢− 1 1⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (4.3) du N = . (4.45) may be written in matrix form as ⎧ M1 ⎫ ⎡ K ⎨ ⎬=⎢ ⎩ M 2 ⎭ ⎣− K or in shorthand form − K⎤ ⎧ θ1 ⎫ ⎨ ⎬ K ⎥ ⎩θ 2 ⎭ ⎦ (4. Similarity between these two derivations occurs because the differential equations for both problems have the same mathematical form.45) Equations (4.49) dx E A The rotation angle of an arbitrary section within the shaft element can be expressed in terms of the nodal rotations θ 1 and θ 2 as θ = N1 (r ) θ1 + N 2 (r ) θ 2 . (4. The differential equation for torsional displacement is Mt dθ . BARS AND SHAFTS 61 M1 = − M 2 = K θ 1 when θ 2 = 0.46) { M }= [ k ] { θ }. M 1 = − M 2 = − K θ 2 when (4. Fig.4. θ 1 = 0.50) .48) = dx GI p while for the axial displacement is (4. 4.

1 with d = 5 mm .52) or [ ke ] = which yields e 2 Ge I p e le e pe +1 −1 ∫ ⎢dN ⎥ ⎢dN ⎥ ⎢ dr ⎥ ⎢ dr ⎥ dr ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ (4.62 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS where N1 (r ) = 1 ( 1 − r ) and N 2 (r ) = 1 ( 1 + r ) 2 2 (4.51) are the shape functions of the shaft element. Example 4. Fig. the stiffness matrix for the shaft element can be calculated from [ k ] = G I ∫ ⎢⎢ ddN ⎥⎥ ⎣ x⎦ e e pe le T ⎢dN ⎥ ⎢ dx ⎥ dx ⎣ ⎦ T (4. the polar second moment of area I p is replaced by the torsional constant I t .1 Consider the bar in Fig. loaded by an axial load F = 2 kN .54) Equation (4. b) the stresses in bar. Analogous to equation (4.53) [ k ] = G lI e ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎢− 1 1⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (4. E4. .2 m . as equation (4.54) is also used to account for torsional effects in grid finite elements. E4. E = 200 GPa .20). l = 0. a) The bar is divided into three bar finite elements. Determine: a) the displacement of point 2. the same as for the axially loaded bar element.22) is used to account for axial effects in inclined beam finite elements. For non-axially-symmetric cross sections. and c) the support reactions.1 Solution.

47 ⎤ ⎧ Q2 ⎫ ⎧ 0 ⎫ 103 ⎢ ⎬=⎨ ⎥⎨ 3 ⎬ ⎣− 38.47 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 0 − 38.81 + 38.2 N .81 Q2 = 9. The element stiffness matrices are ⋅ 19 [ k ] = 2 ⋅10400 .81 ⎢− 9.28 − 38.81 ⋅ 103 1⎥ ⎦ ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ N .47 Q3 = 38.81 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ 9.47 0 ⎥ 3 ⎢ ⎥.4 d 4 )2 = 38.28 − 38.81 9.42 mm . ⎢− 1 1⎥ mm ⎣ ⎦ ⋅ 38 [ k ] = [ k ] = 2 ⋅10200 .94 − 38.47 ⋅ 103 1⎥ ⎦ The global unreduced stiffness matrix is − 9.47 38.47 − 38.47 38.47 ⎡⎢− 1 1 2 3 5 ⎣ − 1⎤ = 38. c) Stresses are .47 + 38. the finite element equations can be written − 9.47 − 38.81 48. Q3 = 43.21 mm .47 mm 2 . BARS AND SHAFTS 63 The areas of the cross sections are A1 = π d2 4 = 19.47 ⎦ ⎣ 0 Including the boundary conditions (degrees of freedom 1 and 4 are fixed).42 = 337.81 0 0 ⎤⎧ 0 ⎡ 9.47 ⋅103 ⋅ 43. A2 = A3 = π ( 1.47 76. [ K ] = 10 ⎢ 0 − 38.94 ⎦ ⎩ Q3 ⎭ ⎩ 2 ⋅ 10 ⎭ with solutions Q2 = 34.47 ⎦ ⎪ 0 0 ⎩ ⎣ 0 ⎫ ⎧ − R1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬=⎨ ⎬.62 mm 2 .47 76.21 = 1662 .8 N . 2 ⋅ 103 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ − R4 ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ Retaining only the second and third equation yields ⎡ 48. R4 = 38.81 ⎢− 9.47 ⎥ ⎪ Q3 ⎥ ⎢ − 38.4. ⎢− 1 1⎥ mm ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ N .47 38.81 ⋅ 103 ⋅ 34. b) The reactions are obtained from the first and fourth equation R1 = 9.62 ⎡⎢− 1 1 1 5 ⎣ − 1⎤ = 9.47 0 ⎥ ⎪ Q2 ⎥⎪ 103 ⎢ ⎨ ⎢ 0 − 38.

64

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

σ 12 = E ε12 = E σ 23 = E ε 23 = E

σ 34 = E ε 34 = E

**Q2 − Q1 Q 34.42 N = E 2 = 2 ⋅ 105 = 17.2 , l1 2l 400 mm 2 Q3 − Q2 Q − Q2 8.79 N =E 3 = 2 ⋅105 = 8.79 , 200 l2 l mm 2
**

Q4 − Q3 Q 43.21 N = − E 3 = −2 ⋅ 105 = − 43.2 . l3 l 200 mm 2

Example 4.2

A support, consisting of a steel bar 1 fitted inside a cast iron tube 2, is loaded by a 60 kN axial force, as in Fig. E4.2. Consider A1 = 200 mm 2 ,

A2 = 800 mm 2 , E1 = 210 GPa , E2 = 120 GPa , l = 0.2 m . Determine: a) the elongation of the assembly, b) the stress in each material, and c) the internal forces in bar and tube.

Fig. E4.2 Solution. a) Using a two-node two-element finite element model, the element stiffness matrices are

**[ k ] = 2.1⋅10 ⋅ 200 ⎡⎢− 1 1 200
**

1 5

⎣

− 1⎤ = 2.1 ⋅ 105 1⎥ ⎦

⎡ 1 − 1⎤ N , ⎢− 1 1⎥ mm ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ N . ⎢− 1 1⎥ mm ⎣ ⎦

**1 [ k ] = 1.2 ⋅10 ⋅ 800 ⎡⎢− 1 200
**

2 5

⎣

− 1⎤ = 4.8 ⋅ 105 1⎥ ⎦

The global unreduced stiffness matrix is 48 [ K ] = 105 ⎡− 2.1 + 4..8 ⎢ 2.1 − ⎣ − 2.1 − 4.8⎤ 5 ⎥ = 6.9 ⋅ 10 2.1 + 4.8⎦ ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ N . ⎢− 1 1⎥ mm ⎣ ⎦

4. BARS AND SHAFTS

65

**If point 1 is fixed, the finite element equations are
**

⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎧ R1 ⎫ 6.9 ⋅105 ⎢ ⎬=⎨ ⎥⎨ 4 ⎬, ⎣− 1 1 ⎦ ⎩ Q2 ⎭ ⎩ − 6 ⋅10 ⎭

Q2 = − 0.087 mm ,

which is equal to the beam shortening. b) Stresses are

Q2 − Q1 Q − 0.087 N = E1 2 = 2.1 ⋅105 = −91.3 , 200 l l mm 2 Q2 − Q1 Q − 0.087 N = E2 2 = 1.2 ⋅ 105 = −52.14 . l l 200 mm 2

σ 1 = E1 ε 1 = E1

σ 2 = E2 ε 2 = E2

**c) Internal forces are
**

N1 = σ 1 A1 = − 91.3 ⋅ 200 = − 18.26 kN ,

N 2 = σ 2 A2 = − 52.14 ⋅ 800 = − 41.74 kN .

Example 4.3

The temperature of the bar in Fig. E4.3 is raised 800 C . If E = 130 GPa and α = 17 ⋅10−6 , determine the thermal stresses.

Fig. E4.3 Solution. We should first determine whether contact occurs between the bar and the wall. If the wall does not exist, the displacement of point 2 is

**Δl = lα T = 1800 ⋅ 17 ⋅ 10 −6 ⋅ 80 = 2.448 mm > 2 mm
**

so that the contact does occur. Denoting by A the cross section area, the temperature forces (4.42) are

66

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

{ fT } = α T E A ⎧ ⎨

− 1⎫ ⎧ − 1⎫ ⎧ − 1⎫ −6 5 ⎬ = 17 ⋅ 10 ⋅ 80 ⋅ 1.3 ⋅ 10 ⋅ A ⎨ ⎬ = 176.8 ⋅ A⎨ ⎬ N . ⎩ 1⎭ ⎩ 1 ⎭ ⎩ 1⎭

The stiffness matrix is

[ k ] = 1.3 ⋅10

⋅ A ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ N . 1⎥ mm 1800 ⎢ − 1 ⎣ ⎦

5

**As point 1 is fixed, the finite element equations are
**

1.3 ⋅ 105 ⋅ A ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎧ R 1 − 176.8 A ⎫ ⎢− 1 1 ⎥ ⎨ 2 ⎬ = ⎨ R + 176.8 A ⎬ 1800 ⎣ ⎦⎩ ⎭ ⎩ 2 ⎭

wherefrom we get the reactions

R 1 = 176.8 A − 144.4 A = 32.4 A ,

so that the normal stress is

R 2 = − 32.4 A ,

σ=

R2 N . = − 32.4 A mm 2

Example 4.4

A prismatic bar is made of two different materials, as shown in Fig. E4.4. The temperature of the central part is raised T 0C . Determine the axial stress in the bar.

Fig. E4.4 Solution. The bar is divided into three linear finite elements. The element stiffness matrices are 1 [ k ] = [ k ] = El A ⎡⎢− 1

1 3 2

⎣

− 1⎤ , 1⎥ ⎦

1 [ k ] = E2lA ⎡⎢− 1

2 1

⎣

− 1⎤ . 1⎥ ⎦

For element 2, the vector of nodal thermal forces is

{ f }= α T E A ⎣ − 1

2 1

1⎦T .

4. BARS AND SHAFTS

67

Using the boundary conditions Q1 = Q4 = 0 , the finite element equations can be written

⎡ E2 ⎢ A ⎢ − E2 ⎢ l ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎣

− E2 E E2 + 1 2 E1 − 2 0

0 E − 1 2 E1 + E2 2 − E2

0 ⎤ ⎥⎧ 0 0 ⎥ ⎪Q ⎪ 2 ⎥⎨ − E2 ⎥ ⎪ Q3 ⎥⎪ 0 E2 ⎥ ⎩ ⎦

R1 ⎫ ⎫ ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ −α T E A ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 1 ⎪ ⎬. ⎬=⎨ ⎪ ⎪ α T E1 A ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ R4 ⎭ ⎩ ⎭

**The second and third equation yield
**

E1 ⎡ ⎢ E2 + 2 ⎢ E ⎢ − 1 2 ⎣ E1 ⎤ 2 ⎥ ⎧ Q2 ⎫ = α T E A ⎧ − 1 ⎫ ⎬ ⎬ 1 ⎨ E ⎥⎨ ⎩ 1 ⎭ E2 + 1 ⎥ ⎩ Q3 ⎭ 2⎦ −

A l

with solutions Q2 = − α T l E1 , E1 + E2 Q3 = α T l E1 . E1 + E2

Q3 − Q2 E1 . =αT 2l E1 + E2

The strains in elements are

ε1 = ε 3 =

Q2 Q E1 , = − 4 = −α T l l E1 + E2

ε2 =

Stresses are

σ 1 = σ 3 = E2 ε 1 = −α T

1 , 1 1 + E1 E2

σ 2 = E1 ε 2 − E1α T = −α T

1 = σ1. 1 1 + E1 E2

Example 4.5

A steel bolt of active length l = 100 mm and diameter δ = 10 mm is single threaded with a 1.6 mm pitch. It is mounted inside a copper tube with diameters d = 12 mm and D = 18 mm (Fig. E4.5, a). After the nut has been fitted smugly, it is tightened one-quarter of a full turn. Determine stresses in bolt and tube, if for steel E1 = 208 GPa and for copper E2 = 100 GPa . Solution. The assembly is modeled by two bar finite elements as in Fig. E4.5, b. Both elements have fixed ends at points 1 and 4 so that Q1 = Q4 = 0 . The problem has a multipoint constraint

68

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

Q3 − Q2 = 0.4 mm .

Such conditions are programmed using a so-called penalty approach. Herein a simpler straightforward solution is given.

**Fig. E4.5 The cross section areas are
**

A1 =

π δ2

4

= 78.54 mm 2 , A2 =

π D2 − d 2

4

(

) = 141.37 mm

2

.

The element stiffness matrices are

**[ k ] = 2.08 ⋅10 ⋅ 78.54 ⎡⎢− 1 1 100
**

1 5

⎣

− 1⎤ 5 ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ N , ⎥ = 1.63 ⋅ 10 ⎢ − 1 1⎥ mm 1⎦ ⎦ ⎣

[ k ] = 10

2

5

⋅ 141.37 ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ 5 ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ N . ⎢ − 1 1⎥ = 1.41 ⋅ 10 ⎢ − 1 1⎥ mm 100 ⎦ ⎦ ⎣ ⎣ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬. ⎪ ⎪ ⎭

The finite element equations are 0 0 ⎤ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎧ R1 ⎡ 1.63 − 1.63 ⎢− 1.63 1.63 0 0 ⎥ ⎪ Q2 ⎪ ⎪ − F ⎪ ⎪ ⎥⎪ 105 ⎢ ⎨ ⎬=⎨ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎪ − Q3 ⎪ ⎪ − F 0 1.41 − 1.41 ⎢ ⎥ − 1.41 1.41 ⎦ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ R4 0 ⎣ 0 ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ Retaining only the second and third equation yields

⎡1.63 0 ⎤ ⎧ Q2 ⎫ ⎧ − F ⎫ 105 ⎢ ⎬=⎨ ⎬ ⎥⎨ ⎣ 0 1.41⎦ ⎩ − Q3 ⎭ ⎩ − F ⎭

with solutions

The stiffness matrix for a bar element with variable cross section is [ k ] = lE e 2 e ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎢− 1 1⎥ ⎣ ⎦ le ∫ A dx . with linearly variable cross-section x ⎞ ⎛ A ( x ) = A0 ⎜1 + ⎟ . divided into two equal length tapered elements. E4.63 ⋅ 10 1. A1 78.54 mm 2 F 30316 N .63 ⋅ 10 5 Q2 = − . σ1 = F 30316 N = = 386 . BARS AND SHAFTS 69 F 1.6 Solution.5 A2 141. E4. Substituting in the multipoint constraint condition gives 1 1 ⎛ ⎞ F⎜ + = 0. E4.37 mm 2 σ2 = − Example 4.6. =− = −214.41 ⋅ 105 . For the bar of Fig. Q3 = F 1. using two tapered bar finite elements. 5 5⎟ ⎝ 1. find the displacement at the free end under the action of force ⎝ 2l ⎠ F. Fig.41 ⋅ 10 ⎠ or Stresses are given by F = 30314 N . the element stiffness matrices are .4.4 .6 For the bar of Fig.6.

b) a three-node quadratic element.70 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS [k ] 1 2 E ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ = 2⎢ ⎥ A0 l ⎣− 1 1⎦ E ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ A0 = 2⎢ 1⎥ l ⎣− 1 ⎦ ∫ 0 2l l 5 E A0 ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ x ⎞ ⎛ . ⎣ ⎦⎩ 3⎭ ⎩ ⎭ The approximate assumed linear variation of the displacement field yields constant strain elements. Model the bar by: a) two two-node linear elements. a) Consider the bar divided into two linear elements. the finite element equations can be written ⎡ 5 − 5 0 ⎤ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎧ R1 ⎫ EA0 ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎥⎪ ⎢ − 5 12 − 7 ⎥ ⎨ Q2 ⎬ = ⎨ 0 ⎬ . ⎜ 1 + ⎟ dx = 4l ⎢− 1 1⎥ ⎝ 2l ⎠ ⎣ ⎦ 7 E A0 x ⎞ ⎛ ⎜ 1 + ⎟ dx = 4l ⎝ 2l ⎠ ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ . 5 E A0 Q3 = 48 F l .7 Solution. Comment the results. hence a stepwise variation of stresses along the bar. E4. condensing Q3 from condition F3 = 0 . 35 E A0 ⎡ 12 − 7 ⎤ ⎧ Q2 ⎫ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎢− 7 7 ⎥ ⎨ Q ⎬ = ⎨ F ⎬ . E4. Fig. ⎢− 1 1⎥ ⎣ ⎦ [k ] ∫ l With Q1 = 0 .7.7 Write the stiffness matrix of the bar shown in Fig. Example 4. The element stiffness matrices are . 4l ⎢ 0 − 7 7 ⎥ ⎪ Q3 ⎪ ⎪ F ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ ⎦⎩ From the second and third equation EA0 4l wherefrom Q2 = 4 Fl .

BARS AND SHAFTS 71 1 [ k ] = [ k ] = 2EA ⎡⎢− 1 l 1 2 ⎣ − 1⎤ . The finite element equations can be written . ⎥ ⎢ 0 −1 1 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ The finite element equations can be written ⎡ 1 0 − 1 ⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎧ F1 2 EA ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ ⎥⎪ ⎢ 0 1 − 1 ⎥ ⎨ Q2 ⎬ = ⎨ F2 l ⎢ − 1 − 1 2 ⎥ ⎪ Q3 ⎪ ⎪ F3 ⎭ ⎩ ⎣ ⎦⎩ For F3 = 0 . ⎪ ⎭ which assumes a linear displacement field within the bar. b) Consider the bar modeled by a 3-node quadratic bar element. the last equation yields Q3 = ⎧Q ⎫ Q1 + Q2 =⎣ 1 2 1 2 ⎦⎨ 1 ⎬ 2 ⎩ Q2 ⎭ ⎫ ⎪ ⎬. The first two equations give 2 EA l ⎧ F1 ⎫ ⎡ 1 0 ⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ 2 EA ⎧ − 1 ⎫ ⎢ 0 1 ⎥ ⎨ Q ⎬ + l ⎨ − 1 ⎬ Q3 = ⎨ F ⎬ ⎣ ⎦⎩ 2⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ 2⎭ and upon substitution of Q3 2 EA l which can be written EA l ⎡ 1 − 1 ⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎧ F1 ⎫ ⎢ − 1 1 ⎥ ⎨ Q ⎬ = ⎨F ⎬ ⎣ ⎦ ⎩ 2 ⎭ ⎩ 2⎭ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎧ F1 ⎫ ⎡ 1 0 ⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ 2 EA ⎧ − 1 ⎫ ⎢ 0 1 ⎥ ⎨ Q ⎬ + l ⎨ − 1 ⎬ ⎣ 1 2 1 2 ⎦ ⎨ Q ⎬ = ⎨F ⎬ ⎣ ⎦⎩ 2⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ 2 ⎭ ⎩ 2⎭ where the left hand side contains the (2 × 2) stiffness matrix of the two-node linear element. 1⎥ ⎦ The unreduced global stiffness matrix is ⎡ 1 −1 0 ⎤ 2 EA ⎢ [ K ] = l ⎢ −1 2 −1 ⎥ .4.

⎪ ⎭ ⎧Q ⎫ Q1 + Q2 =⎣ 1 2 1 2 ⎦⎨ 1 ⎬. 2 ⎩ Q2 ⎭ The first two equations give ⎧ F1 ⎫ EA ⎡ 7 1 ⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ EA ⎧ − 8 ⎫ ⎢ 1 7 ⎥ ⎨ Q ⎬ + 3l ⎨ − 8 ⎬ Q3 = ⎨ F ⎬ 3l ⎣ ⎦⎩ 2⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ 2⎭ and upon substitution of Q3 ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎧ F1 ⎫ EA ⎡ 7 1 ⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ EA ⎧ − 8 ⎫ ⎢ 1 7 ⎥ ⎨ Q ⎬ + 3l ⎨ − 8 ⎬ ⎣ 1 2 1 2 ⎦ ⎨ Q ⎬ = ⎨ F ⎬ 3l ⎣ ⎦⎩ 2⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ 2 ⎭ ⎩ 2⎭ which can be written again EA ⎡ 1 − 1 ⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎧ F1 ⎫ ⎨ ⎬ = ⎨ ⎬. ⎭ 1 U e = ⎣ Q1 Q2 2 ⎦ ⎡1 0 1 ⎢0 1 1 ⎣ . Substituting ⎧ Q1 ⎪ ⎨ Q2 ⎪Q ⎩ 3 0 ⎤ ⎫ ⎡ 1 ⎧Q ⎫ ⎪ ⎢ 1 ⎥⎨ 1⎬ ⎬=⎢ 0 ⎥ Q ⎪ ⎢1 2 1 2 ⎥ ⎩ 2 ⎭ ⎭ ⎣ ⎦ into the expression of the strain energy (4.18) gives 1 U e = ⎣Q1 Q2 2 1 − 8 ⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎡ 7 EA ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ 1 7 − 8 ⎥ ⎨ Q2 ⎬ .72 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 1 − 8 ⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎧ F1 ⎡ 7 EA ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 7 − 8 ⎥ ⎨ Q2 ⎬ = ⎨ F2 ⎢ 1 ⎥ 3l ⎢ − 8 − 8 16 ⎥ ⎪ Q3 ⎪ ⎪ F3 ⎭ ⎩ ⎣ ⎦⎩ Condensing Q3 from condition F3 = 0 yields Q3 = ⎫ ⎪ ⎬. Q3 ⎦ ⎥ 3l ⎢ ⎢ − 8 − 8 16 ⎥ ⎪ Q3 ⎪ ⎭ ⎣ ⎦⎩ 0 ⎤ 1 −8 ⎤ ⎡ 1 ⎡ 7 2⎤ EA ⎢ ⎧Q ⎥ ⎢ 0 1 ⎥⎨ 1 7 −8 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 3l ⎢ 1 ⎥ Q 2⎦ ⎢ − 8 − 8 16 ⎥ ⎢ 1 2 1 2 ⎥ ⎩ 2 ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎫ ⎬. l ⎢ − 1 1 ⎥ ⎩ Q2 ⎭ ⎩ F2 ⎭ ⎣ ⎦ where the matrix in the left hand can be recognized as the conventional bar matrix developed from linear polynomials. c) Comments.

displacements within elements depend upon the general (homogeneous plus the particular) solution. the work of nodal forces is W = ⎣Q1 Q2 e Q3 ⎦ ⎧ F1 ⎪ ⎨ F2 ⎪F ⎩ 3 Q3 ⎦ W = ⎣Q1 Q2 e ⎦ ⎧1 6 ⎫ ⎡1 0 1 2 ⎤ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢0 1 1 2⎥ ⎨ 1 6 ⎬ pl e = ⎣Q1 Q2 ⎣ ⎦ ⎪2 3⎪ ⎭ ⎩ ⎦ ⎨1⎬ 2 e . E4. The conventional formulation based on a linear polynomial will yield exact displacements within the elements only when p = 0 . Example 4. exact displacements within the elements may be obtained from equation (4.4. the variable Q3 must be computed from the exact nodal displacements (computed for the conventional linear element). and b) three linear elements. Determine the axial stress distribution due to the centrifugal force in the rod using: a) two quadratic elements. However.8 ω = 30 rad sec (Fig. BARS AND SHAFTS 73 1 ⎣ Q1 Q2 2 Ue = ⎦ l ⎢− 1 1 ⎥ ⎨ Q ⎬ .23) does not bring about a change in the conventional stiffness matrix and load vector. The parameters in the particular part of the solution are prescribed and do not take part in the process of minimization.25). ⎪2 3⎪ ⎭ ⎩ EA ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ For p = const . as it is shown in a next chapter. The beam is acted upon by a centrifugal linearly distributed load Consider a prismatic robot arm. For the case p = const. ⎩⎭ ⎧1⎫ pl We may conclude that the introduction of the quadratic term in equation (4. only the homogeneous part of the solution contains the free parameters with respect to which the total potential energy is minimized. before using equation (4. form the complete homogeneous solution of the differential equation of equilibrium (4. However. . Solution. used to describe the displacement field. Whenever the assumed functions.8. This is because.25). The exactness of the stiffness matrix and load vector also implies that the computed nodal displacements will also be exact. via a constraint equation between Q3 and the remaining nodal variables. obtained by a minimization of the total potential energy with respect to Q3 at element level.4). a). . rotating at constant angular velocity . ⎣ ⎦ ⎩ 2⎭ ⎫ ⎪ ⎬ = ⎣Q1 Q2 ⎪ ⎭ ⎧1 6 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ 1 6 ⎬ pl e . the developed stiffness matrix and the equivalent load vector will be exact.

l FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS where p0 = ρ Al ω 2 .74 p ( x ) = p0 x . E4.8 . Fig.

8. E4. The model has five degrees of freedom.4. where ξ = x l e and the shape functions (4.34) { f }= ∫ ⎣N ⎦ e le T p dx = p0 l e ∫ 0 1 ⎧(1 − 2ξ )(1 − ξ )⎫ ⎧0⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ − ξ (1 − 2ξ ) ⎬ ξ dξ = p0 l e ⎨1 6⎬ . E4. 1] . The nodal forces. The element stiffness matrices are ⎡ 7 −8 1 ⎤ 2 EA ⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ − 8 16 − 8 ⎥ . b. c are replaced by the kinematically equivalent nodal forces shown in Fig.8. For a uniformly distributed load they are given by equation (4. 3l ⎢ 1 −8 7 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ [k ]= [k ] 1 2 The unreduced global stiffness matrix is 1 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ 7 −8 ⎢ − 8 16 − 8 0 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ EA [ K ] = 23l ⎢ 1 − 8 7 + 7 − 8 1 ⎥ . BARS AND SHAFTS 75 a) A finite element model with two quadratic elements is shown in Fig. 3l ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ 3 p0l 12 0 − 8 16 − 8 ⎥ ⎪ Q4 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 0 ⎪ p0l 12 0 1 − 8 7 ⎥ ⎪ Q5 ⎪ ⎪ ⎣ ⎦⎩ ⎭ ⎭ ⎩ . equivalent to a linearly distributed load.8. are given by equation (4.8. Using the boundary condition Q1 = 0 . E4. ⎪ 4 ξ (1 −ξ ) ⎪ ⎪1 3⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ interval [0. { f }= p l ⎣ 1 2 12 2 0 3 1⎦T .37). ⎢ ⎥ − 8 16 − 8 ⎥ 0 ⎢ 0 ⎢ 0 −8 7 ⎥ 0 1 ⎣ ⎦ The axial load acting on the two elements can be decomposed as in Fig. The element nodal load vectors are { f }= p l ⎣ 0 12 1 0 1 1 2 ⎦T .26) are defined for convenience over an The distributed loads from Fig. E4. the finite element equations can be written R1 0 0 ⎤⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎧ ⎫ ⎡ 7 −8 1 ⎪ ⎢ − 8 16 − 8 0 ⎥⎪Q ⎪ ⎪ p0l 12 0 ⎥⎪ 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 2 EA ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 1 − 8 14 − 8 1 ⎥ ⎨ Q3 ⎬ = ⎨ p0l 24 + p0l 24 ⎬ . c. d.

u⎜ ⎟ = .76 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Deleting the first row and column. ε4 = . ⎜ l 3l 3 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (a) 2 2 2 1 p0 l 2 ⎛ l ⎞ 47 p0 l ⎛ l ⎞ 11 p0 l ⎛ 3l ⎞ 117 p0 l u⎜ ⎟ = .29) is given by ⎣B ⎦ = d x ⎣N ⎦ = l ⎣− 3 + 4ξ − 1 + 4ξ 4 − 8 ξ ⎦ . Q5 = . σ4 = . 384 E A 384 E A 384 E A 384 E A The nodal displacements can be compared with the exact solution. the displacements within the elements are approximate because the exact cubic distribution (a) has been replaced by a quadratic law. ε5 = . 48 EA l 2 ′ ′ (N1′ Q3 + N 2 Q5 + N 3 Q4 ) = p0l ( 19 − 18ξ ) . 48 EA 48 EA 48 EA 48 EA 48 EA The corresponding axial stresses are σ1 = 25 p0l 22 p0 l 19 p0 l 10 p0 l 1 p0 l . ε3 = . 48 A 48 A 48 A 48 A 48 A The stresses can be compared with the exact solution . l 48 EA d 1 ε1 = ε2 = which yields the following nodal values ε1 = 25 p0l 22 p0 l 19 p0 l 10 p0 l 1 p0 l . 3 2E A ⎝ 4 ⎠ 384 2 E A ⎝ 2 ⎠ 48 2 E A ⎝ 4 ⎠ 384 2 E A The finite element values of the nodal displacements are exact. σ5 = . Q3 = . given by u( x ) = We obtain p0 l 2 2E A ⎛ x x3 ⎞ ⎜ − ⎟. σ2 = . The element strain-displacement row vector ⎣B ⎦ in (4. While the nodal displacements are exact. u⎜ ⎟ = . we obtain the reduced global stiffness matrix and reduced global load vector which yield Q2 = 47 p0 l 2 88 p0 l 2 117 p0 l 2 128 p0 l 2 . Q4 = . ε2 = . σ3 = . The strains are calculated as 2 ′ ′ (N 2 Q3 + N 3 Q2 ) = p0l ( 25 − 6ξ ) . This is due to the nodal equivalence of forces. u (l ) = .

26) are defined for convenience over an interval [ 0. 48 A ⎝ 4 ⎠ 48 A A graph of the stress distribution is shown in Fig. σ⎜ ⎟= . The element nodal load vectors are { f }= p l ⎣1 54 1 0 2⎦ T . respectively. { f }= p l ⎣7 54 3 0 8⎦ T .8. The distributed loads from Fig.8. BARS AND SHAFTS 77 σ ( x )= p0 l 2A 2⎞ ⎛ ⎜ 1− x ⎟ .5 p0 l .8. σ⎜ ⎟= . f. the finite element equations can be written . E4. 48 A ⎝ 4 ⎠ 48 A 18 p0 l ⎛ 3l ⎞ 10. The model has four degrees of freedom. g. E4. h. σ (l ) = 0 . E4.34). 1⎥ ⎦ The axial load acting on the three elements can be decomposed as in Fig. E4. Using the boundary condition Q 1 = 0 . e. ⎭ where ξ = x l e and the shape functions (4.8.4. { f }= ∫ ⎣ N ⎦ e le T p dx = l e ∫ 0 1 ⎧1 − ξ ⎫ l e ⎧ 2 p1 + p2 ⎨ ⎬ [ p1 + ( p2 − p1 ) ξ ] dξ = ⎨ 6 ⎩ p1 + 2 p2 ⎩ ξ ⎭ ⎫ ⎬. the nodal forces are given by equation (4. g are replaced by the kinematically equivalent nodal forces shown in Fig. ⎜ l2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (b) which yields the following nodal values σ (0) = σ⎜ ⎟= ⎛l⎞ ⎝2⎠ 24 p0 l ⎛ l ⎞ 22.5 p0 l . b) A finite element model comprised of three linear elements is shown in Fig. 1 ] . E4. For p1 = p2 = p . p ( ξ ) = p1 + ( p2 − p1 )ξ .36).8. are given by equation (4. The element stiffness matrices are 1 [ k ] = [ k ] = [ k ] = 3EA ⎡⎢− 1 l 1 2 3 ⎣ − 1⎤ . If p1 and p2 are the intensities of a linearly distributed load at nodes 1 and 2. The nodal forces. equivalent to a load per unit length. { f }= p l ⎣4 54 2 0 5⎦ T .

The corresponding axial stresses are 13 p0l .29) is given by ⎣B ⎦ = d x ⎣N ⎦ = l ⎣− 1 1⎦ . 16 ⎝ 3 ⎠⎝3 ⎠ N 3 (r ) = . i they are compared to those given by equation (b). 27 A 4 p0 l . N 2 (r ) = ⎜ ⎟ 16 ⎝3 ⎠ N1 (r ) = − 27 (1 + r ) (1 − r ) ⎛ 1 + r ⎞ . Q4 = . e d 1 The strains are calculated as ε 1 = Q2 = 3 l 13 p0 l 3 4 p0 l 3 10 p0 l . ⎜ ⎟ 16 ⎝3 ⎠ 9 ⎛1 ⎞⎛1 ⎞ N 4 (r ) = − ⎜ + r ⎟ ⎜ − r ⎟ (1 + r ) . Q3 = . ε 3 = ( Q4 − Q3 ) = .8. 81 E A 81 E A 81 E A 3 E A The element strain-displacement row vector ⎣B ⎦ in (4. are the following 9 (1 − r ) ⎛ 1 + r ⎞ ⎛ 1 − r ⎞ . ⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟ 16 ⎝3 ⎠⎝3 ⎠ 27 (1 + r ) (1 − r ) ⎛ 1 − r ⎞ . 27 A σ1 = σ2 = σ3 = In Fig. l 27 EA 27 EA l 27 EA and are constant within each element. E4. Example 4. ε 2 = ( Q3 − Q2 ) = .9 Show that the shape functions of the four-node cubic bar element. 27 A 10 p0 l .78 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎡ 1 −1 0 0 ⎤ ⎧ 0 ⎢ ⎥⎪ 3EA ⎢ − 1 2 − 1 0 ⎥ ⎪ Q2 ⎨ l ⎢ 0 − 1 2 − 1 ⎥ ⎪ Q3 ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 0 0 − 1 1 ⎦ ⎪ Q4 ⎩ The last three equations yield Q2 = 54 R1 ⎧ ⎫ ⎪1+ p l ⎪ 0 ⎪ p0 l ⎪ ⎪ 6 = ⎬ ⎨ ⎪ 54 ⎪ 12 ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎪ 8 ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬. in local natural coordinates. ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ 13 p0 l 2 23 p0 l 2 27 p0 l 2 1 p0 l 2 = .

Grids are planar frames subjected to loads applied normally to their plane. 5.5.1 Finite element discretization A plane frame is divided into elements. 5. Q3 i −1 and Q3 i . The Timoshenko beam model pertains to the class of C 0 elements. then extend it to plane frames. They are connected by rigid joints that have determinate rotations and. the degrees of freedom of node i are Q3 i − 2 . Beam behaviour is described by fourth order differential equations and require C1 continuity. two linear displacements and a rotation. Beams are slender members used to support transverse loading. FRAMES AND GRIDS Frames are structures with rigidly connected members called beams. One-dimensional mathematical models of structural beams are constructed on two beam theories: the Bernoulli-Euler beam theory. Each node has three degrees of freedom. Typically.1. defined as the displacement along the X axis. which is constant over the element. It is based on the assumption that plane sections remain plane but not necessarily normal to the deformed neutral surface. This requires that both transverse displacements and slopes must be continuous over the entire member and. respectively. and the Timoshenko beam theory. and for grids. we first present the finite element formulation for plane Bernoulli-Euler beams. as shown in Fig. This leads to the introduction of a mean shear distortion. between adjacent beam elements. BEAMS. the displacement along the Y axis and the rotation about the Z axis. that neglects transverse shear deformations. that incorporates a first order correction for transverse shear effects. In this section. . apart from forces. An inclined beam element will be referred to as a frame element. transmit bending moments from member to member. in particular.

2 . The latter are expanded to the structure size. Imposing the boundary conditions. the shape functions are established for the plane Bernoulli-Euler beam element. 5. then the element stiffness matrix is calculated first in the local coordinate system. 5. then simply added to get the global uncondensed stiffness matrix. Their properties are the bending rigidity E I and the length l . Elements are modelled as uniform beams without shear deformations and not loaded between ends. then in the global coordinate system. the reduced stiffness matrix and load vector are calculated and used in the static analysis. Fig. Fig.80 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Nodes are located by their coordinates in the global reference frame XOY and element connectivity is defined by the indices of the end nodes.1 In the following.

an intrinsic (natural) coordinate system can be used.2 Static analysis of a uniform beam Beams with cross sections that are symmetric with respect to the plane of loading are considered herein (Fig. 5. at a distance y from the neutral axis. f 5. is approximated by dv u = −ϕ y = − y.2) Forces f 2. BEAMS. 5. as illustrated in Fig.3). q 5 . b) while axial forces f 1 . a. Alternatively. FRAMES AND GRIDS 81 Consider an inclined beam element.5. the x axis. q 3 . Fig. 5. is inclined an angle θ with respect to the global X axis. and axial displacements q 1 .1) and the corresponding vector of element nodal forces can be written { f }= ⎣ f 1 f2 f3 f4 f5 f6 ⎦ T . 5. 5. In a local physical coordinate system. (5. f 3. f 4 .2. axial forces are ignored.2.3) dx . c). as in the Bernoulli-Euler classical beam theory. where the nodal displacements are also shown. f 6 and the corresponding displacements q 2 . Only transverse loads act upon the beam. describe the element stretching (Fig. oriented along the beam. Their action is decoupled so that the respective stiffness matrices can be calculated separately. 5.3 The axial displacement of any point on the section. q 4 . Transverse shear deformations are neglected. (5. The vector of nodal displacements in the local coordinate system is { q }= ⎣ q e e 1 q2 q3 q4 q5 q6 ⎦ T (5.2. q 6 describe the element bending (Fig.

6) A where I z is the second moment of area of the section with respect to the neutral axis z.5) The bending moment is the resultant of the stress distribution on the cross section M (x ) = − σ x y dA = E I z ∫ d2 v dx2 = EIz χ (5.4) where χ ≈ v′′ denotes the deformed beam axis curvature. two at each end. dx dx 3 (5.82 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS where v is the deflection of the centroidal axis at x and ϕ = v′ is the cross section rotation (or slope) at x .8) The differential equation of equilibrium is EIz d4 v = p (x ) . involving the transverse displacement and slope. .7) The transverse load per unit length is p (x ) = − dT d4 v = EIz = E I z v IV . σ x = E ε x = −E (5. and physical boundary conditions. The product E I z is called the bending rigidity of the beam. dx4 (5.9) This is a fourth order differential equation and consequently four boundary conditions are required. The shear force is given by T (x ) = − dM d3 v = −E I z = − E I z v III . Normal stresses on the cross section are given by Hooke’s law d2 v y. involving the shear and bending moment. dx dx (5. dx dx4 (5. They can be geometric or kinematic boundary conditions. dx2 where E is Young’s modulus of the material. The negative sign above is introduced because M is considered positive if it compresses the upper portion of the beam cross section. Axial strains are εx = du d2 v = − 2 y = −χ y .

the four integration constants a 1 . b) Fig.5.3 Uniform beam not loaded between ends For a uniform beam not loaded between ends.11. (5. at x = x 2 .4 This gives ⎧ v1 ⎪ϕ ⎪ 1 ⎨ ⎪ v2 ⎪ ϕ2 ⎩ 3 ⎫ ⎡ x1 ⎪ ⎢ 2 ⎪ ⎢ 3 x1 ⎬=⎢ 3 ⎪ ⎢ x2 ⎪ ⎢ 3x2 ⎭ ⎣ 2 2 x1 2 x1 2 x2 2 x2 x1 1 x2 1 1 ⎤ ⎧ a1 ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎥ ⎪ a2 ⋅⎨ 1 ⎥ ⎪ a3 ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎪ a4 ⎦ ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬. v = v1 = q2 . BEAMS. a 2 . v = v2 = q5 . a 3 .1 Shape functions The transverse displacement v can be expressed in terms of the nodal displacements as . ϕ1 . a 4 in (5. a) at x = x1 . 5. a 4 can be expressed in terms of the nodal displacements v1 . 5. Integrating four times. ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ On inversion. we obtain the deflection v described by a third order polynomial v (x ) = a 1 x 3 + a 2 x 2 + a 3 x + a 4 .10) For a free-free beam element. so that the beam deflection can be expressed in terms of the nodal displacements. v2 . ϕ 2 .11.9) yields d 4 v d x 4 = 0 . the integration constants a 1 . a 2 . and d v d x = ϕ1 = q3 . (5. p = 0 and equation (5.10) can be determined from the geometric boundary conditions at each end (Fig. 5.3.4): (5. FRAMES AND GRIDS 83 5. a 3 . and d v d x = ϕ 2 = q6 .

18) or v (r ) = N1 ⋅ q2 + le l N 2 ⋅ q3 + N 3 ⋅ q5 + e N 4 ⋅ q6 .15) Because the coordinates transform by the relationship (5.84 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS v (x ) = ⎣N ⎦ q e . ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠1 ⎝ ⎠2 (5.13) Using natural coordinates.14) the beam transverse displacement can be written ⎛dv⎞ ⎛dv⎞ v (r ) = N1 (r ) v 1 + N 2 (r ) ⎜ ⎜ d r ⎟ + N 3 (r ) v 2 + N 4 (r ) ⎜ d r ⎟ .14) x= x1 + x 2 2 + x 2 − x1 2 r and since l e = x 2 − x 1 is the length of the element.12) where ⎣N ⎦ is a row vector containing the shape functions.17) (5.12) the row vector of shape functions is ⎣N ⎦ = ⎢ N1 ⎣ ⎢ le N2 2 N3 le ⎥ N4 ⎥ 2 ⎦ .16) Using the differentiation chain rule d v le d v = . 2 (5.19) In (5. and { q }= ⎣ v e 1 ϕ1 v2 ϕ 2 ⎦ T . { } (5. r= x + x2 ⎞ 2 ⎛ ⎟ ⎜x− 1 ⎜ 2 ⎟ x 2 − x1 ⎝ ⎠ (5. 2 2 (5. (5. with r = −1 at node 1 and r = +1 at node 2.15) becomes v (r ) = N1 (r ) v 1 + N 2 (r ) le 2 ⎛dv⎞ le ⎜ ⎜ d x ⎟ + N 3 (r ) v 2 + N 4 (r ) 2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠1 ⎛dv⎞ ⎜ ⎜dx⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠2 (5. dr 2 dx equation (5. called Hermitian cubic polynomials. dx = le dr . (5.20) .

5. FRAMES AND GRIDS 85 The Hermitian shape functions are cubic polynomials which should satisfy the boundary conditions given in Table 5.21) N 3(r ) = 1 ( 1 + r ) 2 ( 2 − r ) = 1 2 + 3r − r 3 . 5.5.5 N 1(r ) = N 2 (r ) = 1 ( 1 − r ) 2 ( 2 + r ) = 1 2 − 3r + r 3 .1. 4 4 1 ( 1 + r ) 2 ( 1 − r ) = − 1 1 + r −r 2 − r 3 . BEAMS. 4 4 ( ) N 4 (r ) = − ( ) Fig. where primes indicate differentiation with respect to r. we obtain the expressions of the beam element shape functions in terms of r.1 N1 r = −1 r = +1 1 0 N′ 1 0 0 N2 0 0 N ′2 1 0 N3 0 1 N ′3 0 0 N4 0 0 N ′4 0 1 Imposing the above conditions to cubic polynomials with four arbitrary constants.5 . Table 5. 4 4 ( ) ( ) (5. graphically shown in Fig. 4 4 1 ( 1 − r ) 2 ( 1 + r ) = 1 1 −r − r 2 + r 3 .

16) and (5.86 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS It is easy to check that at node 1. dr 2 d v le = q 3 .22) we get the element strain energy 1 Ue = 2 which has the form {q } e T 8E I e l3 e +1 −1 ∫ e ′ T ′ ⎣N r′ ⎦ ⎣N r′ ⎦ d r { q } (5. v = q 2 and v = q 5 and d v le = q6 .25) .17) yields ∫ e ⎛ d 2v ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ dx . dr 2 5. 4 ⎣ r⎦ ⎣ r⎦ le { } (5.12) we obtain and d 2v dx 2 = 4 ⎢d 2 N ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ l2 ⎢ d r 2 ⎥ e ⎣ ⎦ { q }.2 Stiffness matrix The strain energy U e of a beam element is E Ie Ue = 2 Equation (5.22) dv 2 d v = d x le d r Substituting (5. ⎢ dr ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ { } ⎛ d 2v ⎞ ⎟ = qe ⎜ ⎜ d x2 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ 2 { } T 16 N ′′ T N ′′ q e . e (5. ⎜ d x2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ d 2v 4 d 2 v = . d x2 l2 d r 2 e 2 (5.24) On substituting (5.24) into (5.3.23) The square of the above quantity is calculated as ⎛ 2 ⎞ ⎛ d 2v ⎞ ⎟ =⎜d v⎟ ⎜ ⎜ d x2 ⎟ ⎜ d x2 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ which can also be written 2 T ⎛ d 2v ⎞ ⎟ = qe ⎜ ⎜ d x2 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ { } T 16 l4 e ⎢d 2 N ⎥ ⎢ 2⎥ ⎢ dr ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ T ⎢d 2 N ⎥ e ⎢ 2 ⎥ q . while at node 2.

23) can be expressed in terms of the nodal displacements as χ= d 2v dx 2 = 4 ⎢d 2 N ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ l2 ⎢ d r 2 ⎥ e ⎣ ⎦ { q }= ⎣B⎦ { q }. e ⎣ e e ⎦ 1 ⎢ r r ⎥ (5.30) The curvature χ (5.21) and performing the integration yields the stiffness matrix due to bending in local coordinates [k ] e B 6l − 12 6l ⎤ ⎡ 12 ⎢ 6l 4l 2 − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ EI ⎥ . FRAMES AND GRIDS 87 Ue = 1 2 { q } [ k ] { q }.25) with (5.27) −1 or EI [ k ] = 8l ∫ e B e 3 e +1 −1 ⎡ (N1′)2 N1′N 2 ′ ′ ′′ ⎢ ′′ ′ ′′ 2 ⎢ N 2 N1′ (N 2 ) ⎢ N ′′N ′′ N ′′N ′′ 3 2 ⎢ 3 1 ′′ ′ ′′ ′′ N 4 N1′ N 4 N 2 ⎢ ⎣ ′ ′ N1′N 3′ ′′ ′ N 2 N 3′ ′ (N 3′ )2 ′′ ′ N 4 N 3′ ′ ′′ N1′N 4 ⎤ ⎥ ′′ ′′ N2 N4 ⎥ dr .29) is based on the general formula (4.32) and d V = Ae d x into (5.28) Substituting the shape functions (5. (5. BEAMS.31) where the curvature-displacement row vector ⎣B ⎦ is ⎣B ⎦ = l ⎢6 l 3r − 1 − 6 l 3r + 1⎥ . e T e B e (5.26) we obtain the element stiffness matrix due to bending EI [ k ] = 8l ∫ e B e 3 e +1 ′ T ′ ⎣N r′ ⎦ ⎣N r′ ⎦ d r (5.29) An alternative way of deriving the matrix (5. ′ ′′ N 3′N 4 ⎥ ⎥ ′ ⎦ (N 4′ )2 ⎥ (5.19) [ k ] = ∫ ⎣B⎦ e Ve T Ee ⎣B ⎦ dV . e e (5.5. = 3e ⎢ l e ⎢− 12 − 6l 12 − 6l ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ 2 − 6l 4l 2 ⎦ e ⎣ 6l 2l (5.26) Comparing (5.29). .30) gives the matrix (5.32) Substituting (5.

36) . . q3 = 0) and zero rotation.88 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 5.6 Equation (5.33) Consider a beam element with end 2 fixed ( q5 = q6 = 0 ) and end 1 having a unit displacement along the global X-axis ( q2 = 1.33) can be written ⎧ f 2 ⎫ ⎡ k11 ⎪ f ⎪ ⎢k ⎪ 3 ⎪ ⎢ 21 ⎨ ⎬= ⎪ f 5 ⎪ ⎢ k31 ⎪ f 6 ⎪ ⎢k 41 ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ which gives f 2 = k11 . (5.3 Physical significance of the stiffness matrix The element stiffness matrix (5. For equilibrium k11 + k31 = 0 . 5. f 3 = k 21 . ⎪ ⎪ ⎭e (5. ⎥ . as in Fig. . . (5. .35) This shows that the first column of the stiffness matrix represents the forces and moments that must be applied to the beam element to preserve static equilibrium when q2 = 1 and all other displacements are zero. (5.⎦ ⎪q6 = 0⎪ ⎩ ⎭ f 6 = k 41 . . . . k 21 + k 41 + k31 l = 0 .29) relates the vector of nodal forces to the vector of nodal displacements ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ f2 ⎫ f3 ⎪ EI e ⎪ ⎬ = 3 f5 ⎪ le f 6 ⎪e ⎭ 6l − 12 6l ⎤ ⎧ q2 ⎡ 12 ⎢ 6l 4l 2 − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ ⎪ q ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ 3 ⎨ ⎢− 12 − 6l 12 − 6l ⎥ ⎪ q5 ⎢ ⎥ 2 − 6l 4l 2 ⎦ e ⎪ q6 ⎣ 6l 2 l ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ .⎤ ⎧ q2 = 1⎫ .3. 5.⎥ ⎪q3 = 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎥⋅⎪ ⎨ ⎬ ⎥ ⎪q5 = 0 ⎪ .34) f 5 = k31 . . . Fig.6.

the general solution of equation (5. the solution is to replace the actual distributed load by equivalent nodal forces.4. An internal node added at the centre of element will solve the problem.9) and the beam deflected shape is no more a cubic polynomial. BEAMS. The corresponding five constants have to be determined from five boundary conditions. the computed nodal displacements are exact. distributed along the beam element. p ≠ 0 . However. 5. For beams with transverse forces. Within the elements. But they can be used only if the element has uniform rigidity E I z and is not loaded between nodes. (5. The cubic shape functions do the job. Using cubic polynomials as admissible functions. They can be determined. introducing its nodal displacement as the fifth nodal coordinate.4 Uniform beam loaded between ends For a uniform beam loaded between ends. FRAMES AND GRIDS 89 5. For a linearly distributed transverse load. adding the transverse displacement and slope at the element midpoint to the element nodal coordinates. v (x ) will be a quintic with six arbitrary constants.39) . rising the power of the function describing the displacement within a beam element is tantamount to introducing additional internal nodes. p = const . When the transverse load is uniformly distributed.37) becomes W = qe It has the form { } ∫ ⎣N ⎦ le p dx .37) Substituting (5. As already shown in Chapter 4. it is the homogeneous solution of the differential equation. moments and shear forces are in error. equation (5. However. the current practice is to use lower order approximate assumed shape functions that ensure the minimal convergence requirements.1 Consistent vector of nodal forces Consider a transverse load p (x ) .12). The mechanical work of such a force is W= le ∫ v p dx = ∫ v le T T T p dx . as shown in the following. having the units of force per unit length.38) W = qe where the element load vector is { } {f } T e (5. the displacements.5. .9) is a quartic polynomial. (5. d 4 v d x 4 ≠ 0 in equation (5.

would keep all nodal displacements zero in the presence of the true loading. 12 ⎥ ⎦ T (5.18). To replace p = const . if applied in the opposite direction as constraints. . They are called “kinematically equivalent” nodal forces since they replace a distributed load p (r ) weighted with the shape functions N i (r ) so that the correct work is simulated.90 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS { f } = ∫ ⎣N ⎦ e le T l p ( x ) dx = e 2 +1 −1 ∫ ⎣N ⎦ dr T p (r ) d r . 5. 5.7. (5.41) or.40) For the Hermitian two-node element. by statically equivalent forces (Fig. the vector of element consistent nodal forces is {f } e l = e p 2 ⎢ pl =⎢ e ⎢ 2 ⎣ +1 −1 ∫ ⎣N ⎦ T (5. 5. a b c Fig. a it is seen that f 2e is a shear force and f 3e is a moment. if the transverse force is uniformly distributed. p = const . b) would be incorrect since the beam element has the ends rigidly jointed. {f } e p l2 e 12 p le 2 p l2 ⎥ e − ⎥ .6. substituting (5.7 d The kinematically equivalent loads are those which. .42) In Fig.

for instance.1. The source of error comes from the arbitrary selection of the shape functions. Even if these functions are built up to satisfy the geometric boundary conditions at the ends. E5. Fig. Assuming cubic displacement functions implies linearly varying bending moments (and hence stresses) in uniform beams.1 Calculate the transverse displacement at the centre of the simply supported beam shown in Fig. Kinematically equivalent loads yield displacements which do not coincide with those produced by actual loading.e. not only shear forces. The deflections of this over-stiff finite element model are smaller “in the mean” than the true deflections of the actual structure. This is equivalent to applying additional constraints to the beam. even if it is known that. Example 5. The smaller the element. as shown in Example 5. forcing the beam to maintain the approximate deflection. they have a quadratic distribution.6. In order to ensure the C1 continuity across elements. This applies only to the strain energy and not to the displacement or stress at a point.1. or refining the mesh. due to the difference between the applied load p (x ) and the resistance E I z v IV which gives rise to a sort of unbalanced residual force. nodal forces must include moments. BEAMS. so we would expect to increase the accuracy by increasing the number of elements modeling the same structure.e. i. the equilibrium within the elements is broken.5. 5. FRAMES AND GRIDS 91 i. for uniform loading. Equivalent nodal forces for linearly distributed loads are given in Figs. c and d. Local stresses may be higher than the true ones. it is rigidly built in the adjacent beam elements. stiffening it. Assuming approximate deflected shapes instead of the true ones may be imagined as the result of application of a fake loading.1 . E5. The finite element solution is therefore referred to as a lower bound. the smaller the error. A correct solution will approach the true value with monotonically increasing values of displacements.

96 E I ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ The true solution is v true = 5 pl 4 384 E I so that the approximate finite element solution is. ⎝ 2⎠ 5 5. 12 l with solutions q6 = − q3 = − The displacement at the middle is pl3 .4. Using the boundary conditions and the equivalent nodal loads.2 Higher-degree interpolation functions Let explore the possibility of approximating the displacements of a fourth order system by a quadratic function of the form . Using a single beam element. the distributed load is replaced by two concentrated moments at the ends. 24 E I pl 4 ⎛l⎞ ⎛l⎞ ⎛l⎞ v ⎜ ⎟ = N 2 ⎜ ⎟ q3 + N 4 ⎜ ⎟ q6 = . ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬ 3 ⎢ − 12 − 6l 12 − 6l ⎥ ⎪ q5 = 0 ⎪ ⎪ pl ⎪ l ⎥ ⎢ 2 − 6l 4l 2 ⎦ ⎪ q6 ⎪ ⎪ 2 2 ⎪ ⎣ 6l 2l ⎩ ⎭ ⎪ pl ⎪ ⎪− ⎪ ⎩ 12 ⎭ The set of equations in the unknown displacements is 2 EI ( 4q3 + 2q6 ) = pl .92 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Solution. 12 l 2 EI ( 2q3 + 4q6 ) = − pl . the equations of equilibrium can be written ⎧ pl ⎫ ⎪ 2 ⎪ ⎪ 6l − 12 6l ⎤ ⎧ q2 = 0 ⎫ ⎪ ⎡ 12 pl 2 ⎪ ⎢ 6l 4l 2 − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ ⎪ q ⎪ ⎪ EIz ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ 3 ⎪ = ⎪ 12 ⎪ . as expected. smaller ⎛l⎞ 4 v ⎜ ⎟ = vtrue .

a 4 . v = v1 . FRAMES AND GRIDS 93 v (x ) = a 1 x 4 + a 2 x 3 + a 3 x 2 + a 4 x + a5 .5. a 3 . ⎨ ⎬ 32 ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ − 3 ϕ2 l ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ ⎥ ⎪ v3 ⎪ 16 ⎩ ⎭ ⎥ l4 ⎥ ⎦ and and d v d x = ϕ1 . (5. 4l 3 ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ a2 l4 ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ ⎥ ⎪ a1 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ 16 ⎦ − 3 l − 2 l 2 l3 The beam deflection is given by an expression of the form (5. at x = x 2 . v = v2 .43) can be determined from the end displacements and slopes. 5. and the displacement of the internal node at the centre of the element (Fig. at x = x3 . ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ v (x ) = ⎣N ⎦ q e = ⎣N1 { } N2 N3 N4 (5. BEAMS. This gives the nodal coordinates in terms of the polynomial coefficients ⎧ v1 ⎪ϕ ⎪ 1 ⎪ ⎨ v2 ⎪ϕ ⎪ 2 ⎪ v3 ⎩ On inversion ⎡ 1 ⎢ ⎧ a5 ⎫ ⎢ 0 ⎪ a ⎪ ⎢ 11 ⎪ 4⎪ ⎢ − ⎪ ⎪ 2 ⎨ a3 ⎬ = ⎢ l ⎪ a ⎪ ⎢ 18 ⎪ 2 ⎪ ⎢ l3 ⎪ a1 ⎪ ⎢ 8 ⎩ ⎭ ⎢− ⎢ l4 ⎣ 0 1 − 4 l 5 l2 2 0 0 5 − 2 l 14 − 4 l l3 8 0 0 1 l 3 0 ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎧ v1 ⎫ ⎥ 16 ⎥ ⎪ ϕ1 ⎪ ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ l 2 ⎥ ⋅ ⎪ v2 ⎪ .12) ⎧ v1 ⎪ϕ ⎪ 1 ⎪ N 5 ⎦ ⎨ v2 ⎪ϕ ⎪ 2 ⎪ v3 ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬. v = v3 . a 2 .44) ⎡1 ⎫ ⎢ ⎪ ⎢0 ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ 1 ⎬=⎢ ⎪ ⎢0 ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ ⎢1 ⎭ ⎣ 0 1 l 1 l 2 0 0 l2 2l l2 4 0 0 l3 3l 2 l3 8 0 ⎤ ⎧ a5 ⎫ 0 ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ ⎥ a4 ⎪ ⎪ l4 ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ ⎥ ⋅ ⎨ a3 ⎬ . (5. a5 in (5.8): at x = x1 .43) The five integration constants a 1 .45) where the quartic shape functions are . d v d x = ϕ2 .

8 1 N 3 ( r ) = ( 3 − 2r ) r ( 1 + r ) 2 .47) For p = const . 8 N 1( r ) = − FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS (5. 4 1 N 4 (r ) = − (1 − r ) r (1 + r ) 2 l . 128l e ⎥ 1024 ⎥ ⎦ [k ] e B (5. In equations (5. .94 1 ( 1 − r ) 2 r ( 3 + 2r ) . the element consistent load vector (5.41) is . Fig.8 Substituting the shape functions (5. 5. N 5 is called a “bubble function”.27) and performing the integration.46) into equation (5. having zero displacements and slopes at the ends. 4 1 N 2 ( r ) = − ( 1 −r ) 2 r ( 1 + r )l .46) N 5 (r ) = (1 − r ) 2 (1 + r ) 2 . we obtain the element stiffness matrix ⎡ 316 94l e 196 − 34l e ⎢ 36l 2 34l e − 6l 2 e e EI e ⎢ = 3⎢ 316 − 94l e 5l e ⎢ 36l 2 e ⎢SYM ⎣ − 512 ⎤ − 128l e ⎥ ⎥ − 512 ⎥ .46).

When p = const .49) The shear force is given by equation (5. the exact moment and shear force within the element are Mp =M − 2 pl 2 pl e l e e ( r + 1) + p l e ( r + 1) 2 .51) ⎨ ⎬ = 3 ⎢ ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬ R5 ⎪ ⎢− 12 − 6l 12 − 6l ⎥ ⎪ q5 ⎪ ⎪ p l e ⎪ le ⎪ − ⎢ ⎥ 2 ⎪ R6 ⎪ − 6l 4l 2 ⎦ e ⎪ q6 ⎪e ⎪ 2 ⎪ ⎣ 6l 2l ⎩ ⎭ ⎪ ⎩ ⎭e pl 2 ⎪ e ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ 12 ⎭ e The first term on the right is k B elements that are called fixed-end reactions. 2 2 dx l e dr le { } EIz ⎣6 r l2 e (3r − 1) l e − 6r (3r + 1) l e ⎦ { q e }. e [ ]{ q }. The end bending moments are M 1 = − R3 and M 2 = R 6 . . FRAMES AND GRIDS 95 {f } e ⎢7 ple =⎢ ⎢ 30 ⎣ p l2 e 60 7 p le 30 p l2 e − 60 8 p le ⎥ ⎥ .49) and (5. For p = 0 .3 Bending moment and shear force Using the bending moment expression (5. the end equilibrium loads are given by ⎧ pl e ⎫ ⎪− 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎧ R2 ⎫ 6l − 12 6l ⎤ ⎧ q2 ⎫ ⎪ ⎡ 12 pl2 ⎪R ⎪ ⎢ 6l 4l 2 − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ ⎪ q ⎪ ⎪− e ⎪ EI e ⎪ 3⎪ ⎥ ⎪ 3 ⎪ + ⎪ 12 ⎪ . { } 6E I z ⎣− 2 − l e l3 e { } (5. + 12 2 2 2 4 . (5.50). The second term consists of The shear forces at the two ends of the beam element are T1 = − R2 and T2 = R5 .6) and equation (5. 3 3 dx l e dr le 2 − l e ⎦ qe .12) we get M = EIz M= d2 v 4 d2 v 4 = EIz 2 = E I z 2 ⎣N ′′⎦ q e .48) 5. BEAMS.4. they are obtained substituting r = −1 and r = +1 in (5. 15 ⎥ ⎦ T (5.50) For elements with uniformly distributed load.7) T = −E I z T= d3 v 8 d3 v 8 = −E I z 3 = − E I z 3 ⎣N ′′′⎦ q e .5. (5.

equation (5. . a). a. Rotation. respectively. the element must exhibit zero strain and therefore zero nodal forces. Vertical translation. 5. and the interior points should correspond to the assumed rigid body displacement.12) gives ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ v (x ) = ⎣N ⎦ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ 0⎫ 1 ⎪ le l l ⎪ N 2 + l e N 3 + e N 4 = e ( 1 + r ) = linear .9.12) gives ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ v (x ) = ⎣N ⎦ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ 1⎫ 0⎪ 1 1 ⎪ 3 3 ⎬ = N1 + N 3 = 2 − 3 r + r + 2 + 3 r − r = 1 = const . Although equilibrium is not satisfied exactly at every interior point or across interfaces.5 Basic convergence requirements As element sizes are reduced. 5. equation (5. ⎬= l⎪ 2 2 2 1⎪ ⎭ which shows that the element has indeed an anticlockwise rotation as a rigid body. valid for p = 0 . with node 1 fixed and node 2 having a vertical displacement l e (Fig. b). 1⎪ 4 4 ⎪ 0⎭ ( ) ( ) which shows that the element has indeed a vertical displacement as a rigid body.96 Tp = T − pl e r. If the nodes are given unit vertical displacements (Fig.49) and (5.50). 2 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS where M and T are the expressions (5. b.9. If the nodes are given unit rotations. because the structure as a whole should be in equilibrium. an element as a whole should be in equilibrium. the sequence of solutions to a problem is expected to converge to the correct result if the assumed element displacement fields satisfy the following criteria: 1. When nodal displacements are given values corresponding to a state of rigid body motion. 5. An element should describe rigid body modes exactly.

In the case of beams. the two stiffness matrices can be added taking into account the proper location of their elements. 5.2.6 Frame element As shown in Fig. apart from moments and shear forces. Because there is no coupling between the bending and stretching displacements. when element sizes shrink to zero.l 2 = const . FRAMES AND GRIDS 97 a b Fig.1 Axial effects The axial nodal forces are related to the nodal displacements by equation ⎧ f1 ⎫ e ⎧ q1 ⎫ ⎨ ⎬ = kS ⎨ ⎬ ⎩ f4 ⎭ ⎩ q4 ⎭ where the stiffness matrix for stretching (4. 1⎥ ⎦ (5. it is acted upon by axial forces. 5. an inclined beam element should include longitudinal displacements since.9. c) ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎪ 1 ⎪ l l ⎪ ⎪ le v (x ) = ⎣N ⎦ ⎨ N2 − e N4 = e 1 − r 2 .5. An element should simulate constant strain states.22) is [ ] e (5. Assuming zero nodal vertical displacements and unit rotations in opposite directions (Fig.52) [ k ]= ElA ⎡⎢−11 e S e ⎣ − 1⎤ . 5. they must have at least constant curvature. BEAMS.53) . 5.9 c 2. 5.6. ⎬= 2 4 ⎪ 0 ⎪ 2 ⎪ −1 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ so that the second derivative (curvature) is constant ( ) v′′ = .

10 both in the initial and deformed state.57) . (5.55) 5. the local linear displacements q 1 and q 2 are related to the global linear displacements Q 1 and Q 2 by the equations q 1 = Q 1 cos θ + Q 2 sin θ . (5.54) is of order 2 { f } = ⎢0 ⎢ e ⎢ ⎣ p le 2 p l2 e 12 0 p le 2 − p l2 ⎥ e ⎥ .53) and (5. 12 ⎥ ⎦ T (5.2 Stiffness matrix and load vector in local coordinates For the frame element. For slender beams.29).54) ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ 6E I ⎥ − 2 ⎥ l 4E I ⎥ ⎥ l ⎥e ⎦ 0 [k ] e . the vector of consistent nodal forces is (i l ) The ratio of the bending terms to the stretching terms in (5.6. ⎧ q1 ⎫ ⎡ c ⎨q ⎬=⎢ ⎩ 2 ⎭ ⎣− s s ⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎨ ⎬ c⎥ ⎩ Q 2 ⎭ ⎦ . If there is a uniformly distributed load on a member.98 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 5. and arranging the elements in proper locations we get the element stiffness matrix given by ⎡ EA ⎢ l ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ 0 =⎢ ⎢− E A ⎢ l ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎣ 0 12 E I l3 6E I l2 0 − 12 E I l3 6E I l2 − 0 6E I l2 4E I l 0 6E I l2 2E I l − EA l 0 0 EA l 0 0 0 − 12 E I l3 6E I − 2 l 0 12 E I l3 6E I − 2 l ⎤ ⎥ 6E I ⎥ ⎥ l2 ⎥ 2E I ⎥ l ⎥ .56) Equations (5.6. this ratio may be as small as 1 20 or 1 50 . so the stiffness matrix may possibly be numerically ill-conditioned.56) can be written in matrix form as (5. combining equations (5.3 Coordinate transformation A frame element is shown in Fig. where ‘i’ is the relevant radius of gyration. q 2 = −Q 1 sin θ + Q 2 cos θ . 5. For node 1.

61) is the local-to-global coordinate transformation matrix for plane frames.60). (5. { Q } is the beam element displacement vector in the global e e coordinate system and [T ] e ⎡c ⎢− s ⎢ ⎢0 =⎢ ⎢0 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎣ s 0 c 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0⎤ 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0 0⎥ ⎥ c s 0⎥ − s c 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0 1⎥ ⎦ 0 0 (5. (5. . The angular displacements (rotations) are the same in both coordinate systems q 3 = Q3 .58) Fig. c⎥ ⎩ Q 5 ⎭ ⎦ e e q6 = Q6 . BEAMS. 5. (5.10 Adding the similar relationships for node 2 ⎧ q4 ⎫ ⎡ c ⎨q ⎬=⎢ ⎩ 5 ⎭ ⎣− s we obtain e s ⎤ ⎧ Q4 ⎫ ⎨ ⎬.60) In (5. { q } is the beam element displacement vector in the local coordinate system.59) { q } = [ T ] { Q }.5. FRAMES AND GRIDS 99 where c = cos θ and s = sin θ .

e e T e e (5.66) The equations of equilibrium can be regarded as having been derived as soon as the reduced stiffness matrix and load vector have been calculated using the boundary conditions. e e T e e (5.67) .63) 5. the stiffness matrix of the frame element in global coordinates is obtained as [ K ]= [T ] [ k ][T ] . (5. [K ]. (5. (5.60) ε e = − y v′′ = − y ⎣N ′′⎦ q e = − y ⎣N ′′⎦ T e { } [ ] { Q }.7 Assembly of the global stiffness matrix is assembled from element matrices ~ K e using element connectivity matrices T e .6. [ ] { } [ ] The global uncondensed stiffness matrix is equal to the sum of the expanded element stiffness matrices ~ [K ] = K e .12) and (5. {F }= [T ] { f } e e T e (5.7.100 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 5.64) [ ] The global stiffness matrix.4 Stiffness matrix and load vector in global coordinates Using the same procedure as in section 3. by equations of the form ~ Q e = T e { Q }.4). using equations (5. e (5. Having solved [ K ] { Q } = { F } it is routine to backtrack and recover the eth element strains.65) ∑[ ] e where ~ ~ ~ [ K ] = [T ] [ K ][T ] . that relate the nodal displacements at element level with the nodal displacements at the entire structure level.62) The nodal loads due to a uniformly distributed load p are given by The values of F e { } are added to the global load vector.

Example 5.2. E5. Consider the beam divided into two cubic Hermitian elements. = 3 ⎢ ⎢− 12 − 6l 12 − 6l ⎥ l ⎢ ⎥ 2 − 6l 4l 2 ⎦ ⎣ 6l 2l [k ] 2 6l − 12 6l ⎤ ⎡ 12 ⎢ 6l 4l 2 − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ EI ⎥ . Strains are derivatives of an approximate displacement (in beams . = 3 ⎢ ⎢− 12 − 6l 12 − 6l ⎥ l ⎢ ⎥ 2 − 6l 4l 2 ⎦ ⎣ 6l 2l 0 ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥ − 12 6l ⎥ ⎥. The element stiffness matrices are [k ] 1 6l − 12 6l ⎤ ⎡ 12 ⎢ 6l 4l 2 − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ 2E I ⎥ . E5.second derivatives) and differentiation inevitably decreases accuracy. BEAMS. and omitting the first two rows and columns. and hence stresses.5. we obtain the finite element equations . − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ 12 − 6l ⎥ ⎥ − 6l 4l 2 ⎥ ⎦ 0 0 The unreduced global stiffness matrix is 12l − 24 12l ⎡ 24 ⎢ 12l 8l 2 − 12l 4l 2 ⎢ − 6l E I ⎢− 24 − 12l 36 K ]= 3 ⎢ 2 − 6l 12l 2 l ⎢ 12l 4l ⎢ 0 0 − 12 − 6l ⎢ 0 6l 2l 2 ⎢ 0 ⎣ [ Using the boundary conditions at the fixed end Q1 = Q2 = 0 . Fig. FRAMES AND GRIDS 101 Strains. are not accurate.2 Solution.2 Calculate the transverse displacement at the free end of the cantilever stepped beam shown in Fig.

Assembling the element stiffness matrices (5. Consider the beam modeled by two Bernoulli-Euler beam elements. ⎪ ⎪ 6l ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎡ 11l 2 9l − 21l ⎤ ⎧ 12 ⎫ ⎧ 60l ⎫ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 1 ⎪ ⎪ 27 − 27 ⎥ ⎨ 6l ⎬ Q5 = ⎨ 108 ⎬ Q5 .29). l ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0 0 − 12 − 6l 12 − 6l ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ 0 6l 2l 2 − 6l 4l 2 ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎦ ⎣ .5 Example 5. EI v3 = Q5 = −1.102 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎡ 36 − 6l ⎢ 2 EI ⎢ − 6l 12l l 3 ⎢ − 12 − 6l ⎢ 2l 2 ⎣ 6l ⎡ 36 − 6l ⎢ − 6l 12l 2 ⎢ ⎢ 6l 2l 2 ⎣ or ⎧ Q3 ⎪ ⎨ Q4 ⎪Q ⎩ 6 ⎫ 1 ⎪ ⎬= 2 ⎪ 216l ⎭ − 12 6l ⎤ ⎧ Q3 − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ ⎪ Q4 ⎥⎪ ⎨ 12 − 6l ⎥ ⎪ Q5 ⎥ − 6l 4l 2 ⎦ ⎪ Q6 ⎩ ⎤ ⎧ Q3 ⎥ ⎪Q ⎥⎨ 4 ⎥ ⎪ Q6 ⎦⎩ ⎫ ⎧ 0 ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎬=⎨ ⎪ ⎪−F ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎭ ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬. ⎢ 9l 216 l ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ − 21l − 27 99 ⎥ ⎪ 6l ⎪ ⎩ 180 ⎭ ⎦⎩ ⎭ ⎣ By substitution into the equation with non-zero right hand side EI (− 12 Q3 − 6l Q4 + 12 Q5 − 6l Q6 ) = − F l3 the transverse displacement in 3 is obtained as F l3 .3. ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ The three equations with zero right hand side can be written 6l 2l 2 4l 2 ⎫ ⎧ 12 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ = ⎨ 6l ⎬ Q5 .3 Calculate the transverse displacement at 2 and the support reactions for the beam shown in Fig. the unreduced global stiffness matrix is obtained as 6l − 12 6l 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ 12 ⎢ 6l 4l 2 − 6l 2l 2 0 0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ 0 − 12 6l ⎥ E I ⎢− 12 − 6l 24 [ K ] = 3 ⎢ 6l 2l 2 0 8l 2 − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ . Solution. E5.

96 E I ϕ3 = Q6 = 12 F l 2 . 96 E I The support reactions are given by . Omitting the corresponding rows and columns. E5. we obtain the finite element equations 6l ⎤ ⎧ Q3 ⎫ ⎧ − F ⎫ ⎡ 24 0 EI ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 2 0 8l 2l 2 ⎥ ⎨ Q4 ⎬ = ⎨ 0 ⎬ . FRAMES AND GRIDS 103 At the fixed end Q1 = Q2 = 0 . 3 ⎢ ⎥ l ⎢ 6l 2l 2 4l 2 ⎥ ⎪ Q6 ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎭ ⎣ ⎦⎩ ⎭ ⎩ The last two equations give ⎡ 8l 2 ⎢ 2 ⎢ 2l ⎣ or Q4 = 3 Q3 . 96 E I v2 = Q3 = − The rotations are ϕ 2 = Q4 = − 3 F l2 . BEAMS. 7l Q6 = − 12 Q3 . at the simply supported end Q5 = 0 . 7l ⎧0 ⎫ 2l 2 ⎤ ⎧ Q4 ⎫ ⎥⎨ ⎬ = − ⎨ ⎬ Q3 4l 2 ⎥ ⎩ Q6 ⎭ ⎩ 6l ⎭ ⎦ Fig.5.3 Substitution of Q4 and Q6 into the first equation gives ⎧ 3 7l ⎫ F l3 24 Q3 + ⎣ 0 6l ⎦ ⎨ ⎬ Q3 = − EI ⎩ − 12 7l ⎭ or 7 F l3 .

5l ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ V3 ⎪ 0 ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ 2 − 1. the finite element equations can be written − 12 6l 6l 0 0 ⎤ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎧ V1 ⎫ ⎡ 12 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 6l 4l 2 2 − 6l 2l 0 0 ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ M1 ⎪ ⎢ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ E I ⎢− 12 − 6l 13. E5.5l ⎥ ⎪Q3 ⎪ ⎪− F ⎪ ⎬=⎨ ⎬. 2 2 2 ⎥⎨ 3 ⎢ 6l − 4.5 1.5l 6l − 1. 8 V3 = 5 F.5l 1.4 Find the transverse displacement at 2 and the support reactions for the beam with fixed ends shown in Fig.5l 6l ⎦ ⎩ Q4 ⎭ ⎩ 0 ⎭ with solutions v2 = Q3 = − 8 F l3 . 81 E I ϕ 2 = Q4 = − 2 F l2 .5l 2l 2 ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ M 3 ⎪ 0 1. E5.5 − 1.5 − 4. Using the boundary conditions Q1 = Q2 = Q5 = Q6 = 0 . Consider the beam modeled by two Bernoulli-Euler beam elements. 16 3 M1 = − F l . 27 E I .4.5l 2l l ⎥ ⎪Q4 ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎪ l ⎢ ⎢ 0 − 1. 16 Example 5.5 − 1.5l ⎤ ⎧ Q3 ⎫ ⎧ − F ⎫ ⎬=⎨ ⎬ ⎢ 2 ⎥⎨ l 3 ⎣ − 4.5l − 1.104 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 0 ⎤ ⎧ Q3 ⎡ − 12 6l EI ⎢ ⎪ 2 0 ⎥ ⎨ Q4 − 6l 2l 3 ⎢ ⎥ l ⎢ − 12 − 6l − 6l ⎥ ⎪ Q6 ⎣ ⎦⎩ which yield V1 = ⎫ ⎧ V1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ = ⎨ M1 ⎬ ⎪ ⎪V ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ 3 ⎭ 11 F.5 − 4. Fig.5l l ⎢ 0 ⎦⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎣ ⎭ From the third and fourth rows we obtain E I ⎡ 13.4 Solution.

5 − 1. 3 ⎢ 6l 0 8l 2 − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ ⎪Q4 ⎪ ⎪ − p l 2 12 ⎪ 2l 2 l ⎢ ⎢ 0 0 − 12 − 6l 12 − 6l ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪V3 − p l 2 ⎪ ⎢ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 0 6l 2l 2 − 6l 4l 2 ⎥ ⎪Q6 ⎪ ⎪ p l 2 12 ⎪ ⎢ 0 ⎣ ⎦⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ Omitting the first.5 Calculate the rotations at supports and the reaction forces for the two-span beam shown in Fig. the finite element equations can be written 6l − 12 6l 0 0 ⎤ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎧ V1 ⎫ ⎡ 12 ⎢ 6l 4l 2 − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ ⎪Q ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 0 0 0 ⎥ ⎪ 2⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ − 12 6l ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪V2 − p l 2⎪ 0 E I ⎢− 12 − 6l 24 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎥⎨ ⎬=⎨ ⎬. ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬ l 3 ⎢− 1.5l ⎩ ⎭ The support reactions are V1 = 20 4 7 2 F . we obtain ⎡ 4l 2 ⎢ 2 ⎢ 2l ⎢ 0 ⎣ 0 ⎤ ⎧ Q2 ⎥⎪ 2l 2 ⎥ ⎨ Q4 4l 2 ⎥ ⎪ Q6 ⎦⎩ EI l3 2l 2 8l 2 2l 2 0 ⎫ ⎧ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 2 ⎬ = ⎨ − p l 12 ⎬ . V3 = F . The continuous beam is modeled by two Bernoulli-Euler beam elements.5l ⎥ ⎪ − 2 ⎪ E I ⎪ V3 ⎪ ⎢ ⎥ ⎪M 3 ⎪ l 2 ⎦ ⎩ 27 ⎭ ⎣ 1. 27 9 27 9 Example 5. Fig. E5. E5. ⎪ ⎪ p l 2 12 ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ . FRAMES AND GRIDS 105 Substituting the displacements into the other four equations yields 6l ⎤ ⎧ V1 ⎫ ⎡ − 12 8 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ ⎧− l ⎫ 2 EI ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ 81 ⎪ F l = ⎪ M 1 ⎪ .5 Solution. M 1 = F l . third and fifth rows and columns. M3 = − Fl .5. Using the boundary conditions Q1 = Q3 = Q5 = 0 . BEAMS.5 where the right span carries a uniformly distributed load.

E5.6. E5. 8 V3 = 7 pl . substituted into the second and third equation EI l3 gives ⎛ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ ⎧ 2l 2 ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ 0 ⎩ ⎫ ⎡ 8l 2 ⎪ ⎬ Q2 + ⎢ 2 ⎪ ⎢ 2l ⎭ ⎣ 2l 2 ⎤ ⎧ Q4 ⎫ ⎞ p l 2 ⎧− 1⎫ ⎥⎨ ⎬⎟= ⎨ ⎬. 32 E I (b) Substituting the rotations (b) in (a) we obtain pl3 . 48 E I ϕ3 = Q6 = pl3 .106 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The first equation above yields ⎧Q ⎫ Q2 = ⎣ − 1 2 0 ⎦ ⎨ 4 ⎬ ⎩ Q6 ⎭ (a) which. 4l 2 ⎥ ⎩ Q6 ⎭ ⎟ 12 ⎩ 1 ⎭ ⎦ ⎠ ϕ 2 = Q4 = − pl3 . 16 Example 5. 16 V2 = 5 pl .6 . Fig. 96 E I The reaction forces are calculated from ϕ1 = Q2 = 6l 0 ⎤ ⎧ Q2 ⎡ 6l EI ⎢ ⎪ − 6l 0 6l ⎥ ⎨ Q4 3 ⎢ ⎥ l ⎢ 0 − 6l − 6l ⎥ ⎪ Q6 ⎣ ⎦⎩ obtaining V1 ⎫ ⎧ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ = ⎨ V2 − p l 2 ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ V − pl 2 ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ 3 ⎭ V1 = − pl .6 Find the transverse displacement and the angle of rotation at 2 for the beam shown in Fig.

5l ⎤ ⎧ Q3 ⎫ ⎧ 6l ⎫ ⎢ 4.5l − 12 6l ⎥ ⎪Q3 ⎪ ⎪ − 0. EI ϕ 2 = Q4 = 0.0518 p0 l 3 .5l l 4.5 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 1.5 4.7.5 − 1. ⎟ 0 ⎭ ⎦⎩ 4⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ ⎠ ⎩ v2 = Q3 = −0.5l 0 0 ⎤ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎧ V1 − 0. Answer.5l 6l ⎤ ⎧ Q3 EI ⎢ ⎪ 4. FRAMES AND GRIDS 107 Solution.7 Find the shape functions for the 3-node beam element shown in Fig.3 p0l ⎫ ⎡ 13.5l l ⎪ ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ E I ⎢− 1.5l 2 2 2l 0 0 ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪M 1 − 0.084 p0 l 4 .5l 6l − 6l 2l ⎥ ⎪Q4 ⎪ ⎪ 0.1333 p0l ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎭ ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎬.7 p0 l ⎫ − 1. 3 ⎢ 1. Two Bernoulli-Euler beam elements are used to model the system. BEAMS. second and fifth rows and columns we obtain ⎡ 13. EI Example 5.5 4.5l 6l 2 ⎥ ⎨ Q ⎬ + ⎨ 2l 2 ⎬ Q6 ⎟ = ⎨0.5.5l 6l 2 2l 2 ⎥ ⎨ Q4 3 ⎢ ⎥ l ⎢ 6l 2l 2 4l 2 ⎥ ⎪ Q6 ⎣ ⎦⎩ The last equation yields ⎫ ⎧ − 0 . the finite element equations can be written 1.5l 13.5l ⎡ 1. 4 ( ) . ⎪ ⎭ Q6 = − 3 1 Q3 − Q4 2l 2 which.5 1. Using the boundary conditions Q1 = Q2 = Q5 = 0 .3 p 0 l ⎪ ⎪ 2 ⎬ = ⎨ 0.3 p0 l ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬=⎨ 2 2 2⎥⎨ 2 ⎬. E5.2 p0 l 2 ⎪ − 1. substituted into the first two equations EI l3 gives ⎛ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ ⎞ ⎧ − 0.1333 p0 l ⎪ l ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎪ 0 V3 − 12 − 6l 12 − 6l ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 0 6l 2l 2 − 6l 4l 2 ⎥ ⎪Q6 ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎢ 0 ⎣ ⎦⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ Deleting the first.1333 p l 2 ⎬ . N 1( r ) = 1 2 r 4 − 5r − 2r 2 + 3r 3 .5 4. 4 ( ) N 2 (r ) = 1 2 r 1 −r − r 2 + r 3 .

b .7. a Fig. 4 ( ) Fig. 2 1 2 r 4 + 5r − 2r 2 − 3r 3 . 4 ( ) N 6 (r ) = 1 2 r −1− r +r 2 + r3 .108 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS N 3(r ) = 1 − r 2 N 5 (r ) = ( ) 2 . E5.7. E5. N 4 (r ) = r 1− r 2 ( ).

a b c d e Fig.0698e-2 1. E5.8. E5. shear and bending moment.260e-3 -6. FRAMES AND GRIDS 109 Example 5. E5. The diagrams of the axial force N .8 . Answer.889e-3 -1. A = 1600 mm 2 and I = 2 ⋅ 10 mm . a has pinned ends and is loaded in 2 by a force 5 4 F = 1000 N .260e-2 The deformed shape is shown in Fig.5. plot the deformed shape and the diagrams of axial force. Determine the nodal displacements. It has E = 2 ⋅ 1011 N m 2 .0696e-2 0 Displ Y 0 8. BEAMS. d.700e-6 1.353e-3 2. b.8.4 2 2 Coord Y 0 1 2 2 2 2 1 Displ X 0 0.010 1. c. The frame is modeled with 6 elements and 7 nodes.531e-3 2.8 The planar frame shown in Fig.500e-7 0 Rotation Z -1.8.232e-2 -5. E5. shear T and bending moment M are shown in Figs. e.0697e-2 1.321e-3 -8. Nodal data Node nr 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Restr X 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 Restr Y 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 Restr Z 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Coord X 0 0 0 0.5 1.592e-3 -1.0699e-2 1.500e-7 1.309e-3 2.

The deformed shape is presented in Fig.00623 rad . It is loaded by a couple M 3 = 2 ⋅ 106 N mm and two point loads F6 = −2 ⋅ 10 4 N and F12 = −10 4 N . find the displacements in 6 and plot the deformed shape. I = 2 ⋅104 mm 4 . v 6 = −0. The frame is modeled with 12 elements and 13 nodes. E5.9 The planar frame shown in Fig. a has fixed ends in 1.2476 mm . Fig.9673 mm . Answer. E5. a The displacements in 6 are h 6 = 0. E5. b. 5. 13.9. E5. ϕ 6 = −0.9.9.110 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Example 5. b . 10.9. For E = 2 ⋅105 N mm 2 . A = 400 mm 2 . l1− 2 = 100 mm and l 9 −10 = l 9 −11 = 200 mm . Fig.

12. Nodes are located by their coordinates in the global reference frame XOY and element connectivity is defined by the indices of the end nodes. a. as shown in Fig.8. defined as the rotation about the X axis. without shear deformations and not loaded between ends. where the nodal displacements are also shown. the degrees of freedom of node i are Q3 i − 2 . Typically.11. Q3 i −1 and Q3 i . respectively. BEAMS. the torsional rigidity G I t and the length l . 5. 5. FRAMES AND GRIDS 111 5. describing bending and torsional effects. 5. Each node has three degrees of freedom. They are special cases of tree-dimensional frames in which each joint has only three nodal displacements. a translation and two rotations.8 Grids Grids or grillages are planar structural systems subjected to loads applied normally to their plane. the rotation about the Y axis and the displacement along the Z axis.2 Element stiffness matrix in local coordinates Consider an inclined grid element.5. Elements are modelled as uniform rods with bending and torsional flexibility. 5. Their properties are the flexural rigidity E I .1 Finite element discretization The grid is divided into finite elements. as illustrated in Fig.11 5. two rotations and a linear displacement. . Fig.8. Only cross sections whose shear centre coincides with the centroid are considered.

112

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

In a local physical coordinate system, the x axis, oriented along the beam, is inclined an angle α with respect to the global X axis. The z axis for the local coordinate system is collinear with the Z axis for the global system. Alternatively, an intrinsic (natural) coordinate system can be used.

Fig. 5.12 The vector of element nodal displacements is

{ q }= ⎣ q

e e

1

q2

q3

q4

q5

q6

⎦T ⎦T .

(5.68)

and the corresponding vector of element nodal forces can be written

{ f }= ⎣ f

In (5.69)

f 3 and

1

f2

f3

f4

f5

f6

(5.69)

f 5 are

f 6 are transverse forces, while f 2 and

couples producing bending (Fig. 5.12, b). The corresponding displacements q 3 , q 6 are translations, while q 2 , q 5 are rotations. Their column vectors are related by the flexural stiffness matrix. Rearranging the matrix (5.29) we obtain

⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩

f2 f3 f5

⎡ 4l 2 6l 2l 2 − 6l ⎤ ⎧q 2 ⎫ ⎫ ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 12 6l − 12 ⎥ ⎪q 3 ⎪ ⎪ EI e ⎢ 6l ⎨ ⎬. ⎬= 3 ⎢ 2 6l 4l 2 − 6l ⎥ ⎪q 5 ⎪ ⎪ l e ⎢ 2l ⎥ f6 ⎪ ⎢− 6l − 12 − 6l 12 ⎥ e ⎪q 6 ⎪ ⎭ ⎣ ⎦ ⎩ ⎭

(5.70)

The axial nodal forces f 1 , f 4 are torques and the nodal displacements q 1 , q 4 are twist angles. They describe torsional effects so that their action is decoupled from bending. The respective stiffness matrix can be calculated

5. BEAMS, FRAMES AND GRIDS

113

separately. The derivation of this matrix is essentially identical to the derivation of the stiffness matrix for axial effects in a frame element or in a truss element. The twist angle can be expressed in terms of the shape functions (4.51) as

θ (r ) = N1 (r ) q 1 + N 2 (r ) q 4 ,

which substituted into the strain energy

Ue = G It e 2

(5.71)

∫

e

⎛ ∂θ ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ dx ⎜ ∂x ⎟ ⎝ ⎠

+1

2

(5.72)

yields, after the change of coordinates, the element stiffness matrix

[ ]=

kte

2 G It e

le

−1

∫ ⎣N ′ ⎦

r

T

′ ⎣N r ⎦ d r .

(5.73)

As a consequence of this analogy, the nodal forces are related to the nodal displacements by equation ⎧ f1 ⎫ e ⎧ q1 ⎫ (5.74) ⎨ ⎬ = kt ⎨ ⎬ ⎩ f4 ⎭ ⎩ q4 ⎭

[ ]

te

where the stiffness matrix for torsional effects is

[ k ] = GlI

e t

e

⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎢− 1 1 ⎥ . ⎣ ⎦

(5.75)

In (5.75), G is the shear modulus of elasticity and I t e is the torsional constant of the cross section. For axially symmetrical cross sections the latter is the polar second moment of area. For the grid element, combining the stiffness matrices from equations (5.70) and (5.75), we get the stiffness matrix in local coordinates relating the nodal forces (5.69) and the nodal displacements (5.68) −a 0 0 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ a ⎢ 0 4l 2 6l 2 − 6l ⎥ 0 2l ⎥ ⎢ 6l 12 0 6l − 12 ⎥ EI e ⎢ 0 = 3 ⎢ ⎥ a 0 0 0 0 ⎥ l e ⎢− a ⎢ 0 2l 2 6l 0 4l 2 − 6l ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ 0 − 6l − 12 0 − 6l 12 ⎥ e ⎦ ⎣

[k ]

e

(5.76)

where a = G I t e l 2 E I e . e

114

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

5.8.3 Coordinate transformation

It is necessary to transform the matrix (5.76) from the local to the global system of coordinates before its assemblage in the stiffness matrix for the complete grid. As has been indicated, the z direction for local axes coincides with the Z direction for the global axes, so that only the rotational components of displacements should be converted. The transformation of coordinates is defined by equation

where q e system,

{ } is the element displacement vector (5.68) in the local coordinate

{ q } = [ T ] { Q },

e e e

(5.77)

{ Q } = ⎣Q

e

1

Q2

Q3

Q4

Q5

Q6 ⎦ T

is the element displacement vector in the global coordinate system (Fig. 5.12) and ⎡c ⎢− s ⎢ ⎢0 =⎢ ⎢0 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎣ s 0 c 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0⎤ 0 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0 0⎥ ⎥, c s 0⎥ − s c 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0 1⎥ ⎦ 0

[T ]

e

(5.78)

where c = cos α and s = sin α , is the local-to-global coordinate transformation matrix. The same transformation matrix (5.78) serves to transform the nodal forces from local to global coordinates.

**5.8.4 Element stiffness matrix in global coordinates
**

Using the same procedure as for frame elements, we obtain the stiffness matrix of the grid element in global coordinates as

[ K ]= [T ] [ k ][T ] .

e e T e e

(5.79)

It is used to assemble the unreduced global stiffness matrix [ K ] using ~ element connectivity matrices T e that relate the nodal displacements at element level with the nodal displacements at the complete structure level, by equations of the form (5.64).

[ ]

5. BEAMS, FRAMES AND GRIDS

115

For grounded systems the unreduced matrix [ K ] is then condensed using the boundary conditions. The effect of lumped springs can be accounted for by adding their values along the main diagonal at the appropriate locations in the global stiffness matrix.

Example 5.10

The grid shown in Fig. E5.10 is fixed at points 1 and 2, has E = 210 GPa , G = 81 GPa , l = 1 m and diameter d = 20 mm . Find the vertical displacement of point 7 when the grid is loaded by forces F7 = F8 = −500 N and draw the spatial deflected shape.

a Fig. E5.10

b

Answer. The grid is modeled with 14 elements and 8 nodes, having 18 dof’s. The deflected shape is presented in Fig. E5.10, b. The deflection is w7 = − 0.436 m .

Example 5.11

The grid shown in Fig. E5.11, a is fixed at points 1 and 2, and has l = 1 m , I = 0.785 ⋅ 10 −8 m 4 , I t = 1.57 ⋅ 10 −8 m 4 , E = 210 GPa and G = 81 GPa . Find the vertical displacement of point 5 when the grid is loaded by a force F5 = −103 N . Draw the deflected shape and the diagrams of the bending moment and torque.

116

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

a

b

c Fig. E5.11

d

Answer. The grid is modeled with 5 elements and 5 nodes, having 9 dof’s. The largest displacement is w5 = − 0.4 m . The deflected shape is presented in Fig. E5.11, b. The bending moment and torque diagrams are shown in Figs. E5.11, c, d.

**5.9 Deep beam bending element
**

Shear deformation becomes important when analyzing deep beams, for which Bernoulli’s hypothesis is no more valid. The nonlinear distribution of shear stresses produces the warping of the cross section. A simplifying hypothesis (Poncelet, 1825) considers an average shear strain, constant over the cross section. This way, planar cross sections remain undistorted and plane (warping neglected) but no more perpendicular to the centroidal axis. The assumption is adopted in the formulation of the Timoshenko beam element used in vibration studies.

a). Normal stresses on the cross section are given by Hooke’s law dϕ y. Note that the slope v′ is no more equal to the rotation ϕ .5. Only transverse loads act upon the beam. 5. BEAMS.81) (5. FRAMES AND GRIDS 117 5.82) γ xy = dv ∂u ∂ v + = −ϕ + = −ϕ + v′ .9. dx ∂ y ∂x where v′ is the slope of the deformed beam axis. is approximated by u (x.13 The axial displacement of any point on the section. σ x = E ε x = −E (5. y ) = − y ϕ (x ) . Fig. dx where E is Young’s modulus of the material. 5. as in the Bernoulli-Euler theory. axial forces are ignored.1 Static analysis of a uniform beam Beams with cross sections that are symmetric with respect to the plane of loading are considered herein (Fig. The strain components ε x and γ xy are given by (5.13. dx dx (5. at a distance y from the neutral axis.80) εx = du dϕ = −y = − yϕ ′ .83) The bending moment is the resultant of the normal stress distribution on the cross section . where ϕ is the cross section rotation at position x .

2 Shape functions Consider a prismatic beam element (Fig. b) is that positive internal forces and moments act in positive (negative) coordinate directions on beam cross sections with a positive (negative) outward normal. r = 2 x l .9. dx (5.85) The transverse load per unit length is p (x ) = − dT . 5.90) (5. (5.87) where G is the shear modulus of elasticity. κ is a shear factor and As is the ‘effective shear area’ calculated as As [ ∫τ dA ] = ∫τ 2 2 dA . elimination of M and T gives the differential equations of equilibrium G As v′′ − G Asϕ ′ = 0 . (5.14) of length l (the index e is omitted) not loaded between ends ( p = 0 ) .88) Equations (5.13. .87) give T = G As ( v′ − ϕ ) . The shear force is given by T (x ) = − dM . 5. 5. The sign convention used here (Fig.82) and (5. dx (5.91) G As v′ + E I z ϕ ′′ − G Asϕ = 0 .84) where I z is the second moment of area of the cross section.89) For a uniform beam not loaded between ends ( p = 0 ) . Using natural coordinates. (5.118 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS M (x ) = − σ x y dA = E I z A ∫ dϕ = E I zϕ′ dx (5.86) The average shear strain is γ xy = T T = G As κ AG (5.

becomes 2 dv d 2ϕ +β −ϕ = 0. in the new variable r. FRAMES AND GRIDS 119 Fig.93) The general solutions of these equations are v (r ) = a 4 r 3 + a 3 r 2 + a 2 r + a 1 . l b2 = 4 a3 .98) This leaves only four independent constants which can be determined by evaluating (5. G As l 2 (5. (5. d r3 (5.95) ϕ (r ) = b 3 r 2 + b 2 r + b 1 . l l (5.90) and (5.94) and (5.94) and (5.96) gives b3 = 6 a4 . BEAMS. The resulting displacement functions are .14 Eliminating ϕ and v in turn in (5.94) (5. l b1 = 2 12 a2 + β a 4 . The seven constants of integration are not independent since the above solutions must also satisfy equation (5.96) where β= 4E I z . d x3 (5.97) Substituting (5.91) which.95) into (5. 5.95) at r = ± 1 .91) gives d4v =0. d x4 and d 3ϕ = 0. d r4 and d 3ϕ = 0. l dr d r2 (5.5.92) Changing to the r coordinate yields d4v =0.

120 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎢ v = ⎢ N1 ⎣ ⎢2 ~ ⎣l l N2 2 N3 2 ~ N3 l e l ⎥ N4 ⎥ 2 ⎦ { q } = ⎣N ⎦ { q }. 2 + 6β ( 1 − r ) . 4 ) . the first four functions (5.101) 1 4 ( 1 + 3β ) [ 2 − 3r + r 2 3 + 6β ( 1 − r ) .103) It is useful to introduce a third set of shape functions which are used in the derivation of the element stiffness matrix. (5.99) ϕ = ⎢ N1 N 2 where ~ ~ ⎥ N4 ⎥ ⎦ ~ { q } = ⎣N ⎦ { q }.. ] For β = 0 .. (5.102) 2 ~ N 2 (r ) = ~ N3 ( r ) = 1 4 ( 1 + 3β 1 4 ( 1 + 3β ) ) ) [ − 1 −2r + 3r ( 3 − 3r ).. ( )] ) ( − 3 + 3r ) . ] ~ N 4 (r ) = 1 4 ( 1 + 3β [ − 1 +2r + 3r 2 + 6β ( 1 + r ) .. and defined by . ] N 2 (r ) = N 3(r ) = 1 4 ( 1 + 3β 1 4 ( 1 + 3β [1 −r − r ) ) + r 3 + 3β 1 − r 2 .102) become the third degree Hermitic polynomials (5.100) { q }= ⎣v The shape functions are N 1( r ) = 1 ϕ 1 v2 ϕ 2 ⎦ T .21) and the last four functions satisfy the relationship 2 ∂ Ni ~ N i (r ) = l ∂r ( i = 1. ] N 4 (r ) = ~ N1 ( r ) = 4 ( 1 + 3β ) 1 4 ( 1 + 3β 1 [ − 1 −r + r 2 2 + r 3 + 3β − 1 + r 2 . (5. e e (5. 3 ( )] [ 2 + 3r − r + 6β ( 1 + r ) . e e (5.

99) into (5.109) On substituting (5.5.104) They are 3β 1 ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ N1 (r ) = N 2 (r ) = − N 3 (r ) = N 4 (r ) = . BEAMS.111) On substituting (5. ⎣ dr ⎦ ~ ˆ ⎣ N ⎦= ⎣ N ⎦ − l (5. FRAMES AND GRIDS 121 2 ⎢ dN ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ .108) we get B Ue 1 = 2 {q } +1 e T 2 EIz l −1 ∫ ⎣N ′⎦ ⎣N ′⎦ dr { q } ~ T ~ e (5.106) dϕ 2 d ϕ = dx l dr +1 and dx = (5.9.3 Stiffness matrix The strain energy for a beam element with shear effects included is E Iz Ue = 2 As l2 −l 2 ∫ ⎛dϕ ⎞ G As ⎜ ⎜ d x ⎟ dx + 2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 2 l 2 −l 2 ∫ ⎛ dv ⎞ ⎜ϕ − ⎟ dx .100) and (5.109) we get . l e B T z −1 +1 (5. 2 2 (5. ⎜ dx⎟ ⎝ ⎠ l dr .105) 5.108) and the contribution due to shear is G As l S Ue = 2 2 +1 ∫ −1 ⎛ 2 dv ⎞ ⎟ dr . 1 + 3β l (5.107) the contribution due to bending is B Ue E Iz 2 = 2 l −1 ∫ ⎛dϕ ⎞ ⎜ ⎜ d r ⎟ dr .110) wherefrom we obtain the element stiffness matrix due to bending ~ ~ [ k ] = E I 2 ∫ ⎣N ′⎦ ⎣N ′⎦ dr .100) into (5. ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 2 (5. ⎜ϕ − ⎜ l dr⎟ ⎠ ⎝ 2 (5.

e S T s −1 +1 (5.102) and (5.112) wherefrom we obtain the element stiffness matrix due to shear l ˆ ˆ [ k ] = G A 2 ∫ ⎣N ⎦ ⎣N ⎦ dr .114) The vector of consistent nodal forces is identical to the corresponding vector (5.122 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS S Ue 1 = 2 {q } +1 e T l G As 2 −1 ˆ ∫ ⎣N ⎦ T ˆ ⎣N ⎦ d r { q e } (5.113) Substituting the shape functions (5. . ⎥ 2⎥ (4 + 3β ) l ⎦ − 6l (2 − 3β ) l 6l 2⎥ ⎤ (5.42) derived for a slender beam.105) and performing the integration yields the stiffness matrix [k ] e ⎡ 12 ⎢ 1 EI z ⎢ 6l = 1 + 3β l 3 ⎢− 12 ⎢ ⎣ 6l (4 + 3β ) l − 6l 6l − 12 2 − 6l 12 − 6l (2 − 3β ) l 2 ⎥.

(b) equations of compatibility or strain/displacement relations. Points in the body are located by x. is shown in Fig. 6. and (c) concentrated forces. pv z . ∂n ∂y . like centrifugal or gravity forces. (b) surface forces.6. (c) stress/strain relations or Hooke’s law. pv y . Internal body forces Internal body forces inside the volume V can be inertial forces. the portion on which surface forces are prescribed. LINEAR ELASTICITY In this chapter the fundamental concepts from the linear theory of elasticity are recalled. and (d) boundary conditions.1. Any point on the surface has a local outward-pointing normal n whose orientation is usually described by its three direction cosines ∂n ∂x .1) . 6. ∂n ∂z . (6. and S σ . z coordinates. The total surface S of the body has two distinct parts: S u .1 Matrix notation for loads. with emphasis on two-dimensional problems. Their the magnitude per unit volume is denoted by components pv x . In general there may be three sets of applied forces: (a) internal body forces. It is convenient to write these components as a single body force vector { pv } = ⎣ pv x pv y pv z ⎦ T . the portion of the boundary on which displacements are prescribed. stresses and strains An arbitrarily shaped tree-dimensional body of volume V. The four main groups of equations are written in the matrix notation used in FEA: (a) equations of equilibrium. y. in equilibrium under the action of external loads and the reactions in supports.

2) Concentrated loads are defined by their three components { Fi } = ⎣ Fi x Fi y Fi z ⎦T . σ y .τ zx . the direct stress components σ x . (6. (6.σ z and the shear stresses τ xy . also having three components { ps } = ⎣ ps x Concentrated loads ps y ps z ⎦T . (6. It is convenient to represent both stress and strain components as single column matrices. (6. Fig. defined by the magnitude per unit surface area.5) .4) where u .124 Surface tractions FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Likewise there could be surface forces (not necessarily normal pressures) on the surface Sσ .1) to (6.τ yz . w are the displacement components inside the body or on the surface Sσ with unprescribed displacements.3) Any system of loads has to fall into categories (6. Thus {σ } = ⎣σ x σ y σ z τ xy τ yz τ zx ⎦T . 6.3).1 Displacements It is natural to form the single displacement vector { u} = ⎣u v w⎦ T . Stresses and strains The stresses inside V will have two types of component. v .

7) can be written .6.2 In matrix form. equations (6.7) Fig. 6. The small linear increments in stresses are equilibrated by the applied body forces yielding the following equilibrium equations.6) In two-dimensional problems {ε } = ⎣ε x ε y γ xy ⎦T .6. where τ xy = τ yx ∂σ x ∂τ yx + pv x = 0. a) Strains are represented in vector form as ε y ε z γ xy γ yz γ zx (6. a) 6. LINEAR ELASTICITY 125 In two-dimensional problems {σ } = ⎣ σ x {ε } = ⎣ε x σ y τ xy ⎦T . + ∂y ∂x ∂τ xy ∂σ y + + p v y = 0. (6.2 Equations of equilibrium inside V Figure 6. ∂x ∂y (6.5.2 shows stresses acting on an infinitesimal element in the plane xOy. ⎦T . (6.

τ xy l + σ y m = ps y .1) ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ∂ ⎥ .8) or. ∂y ⎥ ∂ ⎥ ⎥ ∂x ⎦ ⎥ (6. 6.2 Equations of equilibrium on the surface Let now consider an element near the loaded boundary Sσ . Sσ (6. The equilibrium along the two axes directions yields σ x l + τ yx m = ps x .126 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎡ ∂ ⎢ ∂x ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎣ 0 ∂ ∂y ∂ ∂y ∂ ∂x ⎤ ⎧σ ⎥⎪ x ⎥ ⎨σy ⎥⎪ ⎥ ⎩ τ xy ⎦ ⎫ ⎧ p vx ⎫ ⎪ ⎬ ⎬ = −⎨ ⎩ pvy ⎭ ⎪ ⎭ (6. (6.11) the direction cosines for the outward normal n are . denoting the matrix of differential operators ⎡ ∂ ⎢ ⎢ ∂x [∂ ]= ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ∂ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ ∂y and using (6.3 In (6.10) 6.11) Fig.9) [ ∂ ]T {σ } + { pv } = { 0 } .

∂x ∂n m = cos (n .15) where ∂T n implies that the operators in [ ∂ ] T are acting upon n. ⎪ ⎩ sy ⎭ ⎭ (6. ∂x ∂v .16) In matrix form ⎡ ∂ ⎢ ⎧ εx ⎫ ⎢ ∂x ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎨ εy ⎬ = ⎢ 0 ⎪γ ⎪ ⎢ ⎩ xy ⎭ ∂ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ ∂y and can be summarized as ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ∂ ⎥⎧u⎫ ⎨ ⎬. 6. ∂y ∂ v ∂u + .12) In matrix form. sometimes written (6.4 gives the deformation of the dx − dy face for small deformations.18) . (6. y ) = = ny . LINEAR ELASTICITY 127 l = cos (n . equations (6. ∂y ⎥⎩ v ⎭ ∂ ⎥ ⎥ ∂x ⎥ ⎦ (6.14) [ ∂ n ] {σ } = { p T s }. x ) = ∂n = nx . The equations of compatibility have the familiar form ∂u .6.13) or in condensed form [ n ] T {σ } = { p s } .11) can be written ⎧σ ⎡ nx 0 n y ⎤ ⎪ x ⎢ 0 n n ⎥ ⎨σy y x ⎦⎪ ⎣ ⎩ τ xy ⎫ ⎪ ⎧ ps x ⎫ ⎬ =⎨ p ⎬ .17) {ε } = [ ∂ ] { u } . ∂y (6. (6. ∂x ∂ y εx = εy = γ xy = (6.3 Strain-displacement relations Figure 6.

20) {σ } = [ C ] −1{ε } = [ D ] {ε } .128 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Fig. The inverse of [ C ] is the material stiffness matrix (6. 0 ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ 2 ( 1 + ν )⎥ ⎦ 0 0 (6.21) .4 6. 6.4 Stress-strain relations For linear isotropic elastic materials. where the material elastic compliance matrix is (6.19) −ν ⎡1 − ν ⎢ 1 −ν ⎢ ⎢ 1 [C ]= 1 ⎢ E ⎢ ⎢ SYM ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ The inverse relation is 0 0 0 2 (1 +ν 0 0 ) 0 0 2 (1 +ν ) ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥. the stress-strain relations come from the generalized Hooke’s law {ε } = [ C ] {σ } .

τ xz .24) which is used as {σ } = [ D ] {ε }. 5 and 6 in (6.21) and discarding rows and columns 3. Plane strain If a long body of uniform cross section is subjected to transverse loading along its length. and γ yz are set as zero. 5 and 6 in (6.22) ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ 1 −ν ⎥ 2 ⎦ A thin planar body subjected to in-plane loading on its edge surface is said to be in plane stress. LINEAR ELASTICITY 129 ⎡1 − ν ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ E ⎢ [D] = (1 + ν )(1 − 2ν ) ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ Plane stress ν 1 −ν ν ν 1 −ν 0 0 0 1 −ν 2 0 0 0 0 1 −ν 2 SYM 0 ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ . If stresses σ z . discarding rows and columns 3. from (6. a small thickness in the loaded area can be treated as subjected to plane strain. the Hooke’s law can be written ⎧ εx ⎪ ⎨ εy ⎪γ ⎩ xy ⎫ ⎡ 1 ⎪ 1 ⎢ ⎬ = ⎢ −ν ⎪ E⎢ 0 ⎣ ⎭ −ν 1 0 ⎤ ⎧σx ⎪ 0 ⎥ ⎨σy ⎥ 2 (1 + ν ) ⎥ ⎪ τ xy ⎦⎩ 0 ⎤⎧ ⎥ ⎪ εx ⎥ ⎨ εy ⎥⎪ ⎥ ⎩ γ xy ⎦ ⎫ ⎪ ⎬.6.25) . γ xz . we obtain ⎧σx ⎪ ⎨σy ⎪τ ⎩ xy ⎡ ⎫ ν ⎢ 1 −ν ⎪ E ⎢ ν 1 −ν ⎬= (1 + ν )(1 − 2ν ) ⎢ ⎪ 0 ⎢ 0 ⎭ ⎣ ⎤⎧ ⎥ ⎪ εx ⎥ ⎨ εy ⎥⎪ ⎥ ⎩ γ xy ⎦ 0 0 1 −ν 2 ⎫ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎭ (6. and τ yz are set as zero.(6. If strains ε z .20).22).23) The inverse relations are given by ⎧σx ⎪ ⎨σy ⎪τ ⎩ xy ⎫ ⎪ E ⎬= 2 ⎪ 1 −ν ⎭ ⎡ 0 ⎢1 ν ⎢ν 1 0 ⎢ 1 −ν ⎢0 0 2 ⎣ ⎫ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎭ (6. ⎪ ⎭ (6.

27) {ε 0 } = ⎣α T In plane strain αT 0 ⎦ T .21) we obtain the strain energy in terms of strains U= 1 2 V ∫ {ε } [ D ] {ε } dV . 6.32) .130 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS which is also used as {σ } = [ D ] { ε } but here [ D ] has a different expression as in (6.31) Substituting (6. (6. the total strain energy is given by U= 1 2 V ∫ {ε } {σ } dV . 6.30) For the elastic body shown in Fig. The stress-strain relations become {σ } = [ D ] ( {ε } − {ε 0 } ) .1.6 Strain energy For linear elastic materials. 2 (6. (6.24). T (6.28) {ε 0 } = (1 + ν ) ⎣α T αT 0⎦ T . In plane stress (6.29) 6. the strain energy per unit volume in the body is U0 = 1 {σ 2 }T {ε } = 1 {ε }T {σ }. T (6. (6.26) where T is the temperature rise and α is the coefficient of linear expansion of the material.5 Temperature effects The temperature strains are represented as initial strains {ε 0 } = ⎣ α T αT αT 0 0 0 ⎦ T .

Good approximations can be realized with low-degree polynomials. defined over small subdomains of the structure. the form known as the principle of virtual displacements (PVD) will be used. virtual displacements are: a) arbitrary (fictitious. 7.1 Virtual displacements By definition. The classical Rayleigh-Ritz technique represents a variational approach whereby a distributed system is approximated by a discrete one by assuming a solution of the differential eigenvalue problem as a finite series of admissible functions. b) infinitesimal (follow the rules of differential calculus). as applied to elastic bodies. ENERGY METHODS The finite element method can be considered a Rayleigh-Ritz method. the approximate solution is constructed using local admissible functions. Instead of solving differential equations with complicated boundary conditions.1 Principle of virtual work (PVW) PVW is basically a statement of the static equilibrium of a mechanical system. In the finite element method. In the following. Variational methods put less strict conditions on the functions approximating the displacement field than the analytical methods based on differential equations.1. systems with complex geometry or complex boundary conditions cannot be accomodated easily by global admissible functions. Unfortunately. 7.7. the finite element method evaluates integrals of relatively simple polynomial functions. virtual). . Displacements are calculated by methods based on the principle of virtual work and/or the principle of minimum total potential energy.

Because the continuity required is reduced from C 2 in the governing differential equation to C1 in the variational equation. δu . (7. 6. up to the mth order inclusive. e. A virtual displacement will be denoted by ‘ δ ’ in front of a letter. e) kinematically admissible.2) . the vector of virtual displacements is {δu } = ⎣ δu δv δw ⎦ T . If the differential equation of the problem is of order m = 2n . the admissible functions must have continuity C n −1 . For bars. where [ B ] is the strain-displacement matrix.e. plates and shells. while a continuity C1 is imposed for beams.4) inside the body or on the surface Sσ with unprescribed displacements (Fig. i.g. (7. the functional is said to have a “weak form”. the geometrical boundary conditions must be satisfied to the (n − 1)th derivative. A continuity C 0 is generally required for bars and elasticity problems. Denoting by 1 { u} = ⎣u v w⎦ T .e.1). exist and are continuous in the domain V. d) continuous in the interior and on the surface of the body. Remember that a function of several variables is said to be of class C m in a domain V if all its partial derivatives. m = 2 and the assumed functions must have continuity C 0 . The symbol ‘ δ ’ was introduced by Lagrange to emphasize the virtual character of the variations. Exceptions do exist. For beams m = 4 and the approximating functions must have continuity C . i.1) The vector of the corresponding virtual strains will be { δε } = [ B ] { δu } . as opposed to the symbol d which designates actual differentials of position coordinates. the displacement vector (6.132 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS c) not related to either the actual displacements or to the forces producing them. consistent with the system kinematic boundary conditions (geometric constraints).

. 7.3 Virtual work of internal forces For a three-dimensional continuum.1. a b Fig.1. In the general case of loading by conservative body forces (6. a). the latter being arbitrary. 7. the virtual work of external loads is δ WE = V ∫ { δu } { pv }dV + ∫ { δu } { ps }d A + ∑ { δui } { Fi } .1.1. 7. 7. because the external loads remain constant during the action along the virtual displacements. (7. Note that it is simply (force × displacement).2 for the uniaxial case.3).4) Note that the scalar product under the first integral is { δu }T { pv } = δu ⋅ pv x + δ v ⋅ pv y + δ w ⋅ pv z . i T T T Sσ (7. 7. b) or nonlinear elastic (Fig. 7. T (7. because the force is constant along the virtual displacement.1).3) It has the same value whether the bar material is linear elastic (Fig. c).5) as shown in Fig. the virtual work of the external force F is δWE = F ⋅ δu .2) and point forces (6. surface tractions (6.1 c Note also the absence of the factor 1 2 which occurs in the expression of the work of elastic forces.7.1. ENERGY METHODS 133 7. the virtual work of internal stresses is δ WI = V ∫ { δε } {σ }dV . hence independent of the force.2 Virtual work of external loads For a bar in tension (Fig.

7. stresses remain constant during the action on virtual strains.1.4 Principle of virtual displacements For elastic bodies. so that the PVD will ensure approximate equilibrium. The nodal displacements do not permit the fully equilibrating position to be reached.6) Also: A body is in equilibrium if the internal virtual work equals the external virtual work for every kinematically admissible displacement field. V ∫ { δε } {σ }dV − ∫ { δu } { pv }dV − ∫ { δu } { ps }d A − ∑ { δui } { Fi } = 0 . a) In (7. 7. i. whether the material is elastic or inelastic.e. If stresses are expressed in terms of a set of parameters defining completely the displacement pattern – the nodal displacements.2 Again. then during an arbitrary small displacement from the equilibrium position.6) δWE is the work of external loads on the virtual displacements { δu } which are independent of loading and kinematically admissible. the virtual work of applied loads equals the virtual work of internal forces δWE = δWI . i T T T T V Sσ (7. Since the principle of virtual displacements is an equilibrium requirement.6.134 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Fig. Note that the virtual work of reaction forces at supports is zero. (7. then equilibrium relations can be obtained and the displacement parameters determined. It applies only . it is independent of material behaviour. the principle of virtual displacements states that: If a system is in equilibrium.

b). loaded by a force F.7. δΔ2 . 7. The initial state. 7. 7. producing the elongations Δ1 . δΔ 2 . Δ3 (Fig. ENERGY METHODS 135 for loading by conservative forces. The final state of static equilibrium. a).3 Solution.3. find the internal bar forces and the displacement of point 4. in which the external force F.19) .4. An imaginary state. c). F2 and by internal forces T1 . Consider three states of the analyzed system: 1. The virtual displacements δu1 and δu2 and the virtual bar extensions δΔ 1 . The external work is independent of the path taken. produces a displacement of the joint 4. 7.4. the applied forces remaining constant. 2. 7. 7. in which the joint 4 is given a virtual displacement of components δu1 and δu2 (Fig. The joint 4 is acted upon by the external forces F1 . 7. T3 (Fig. in which bars are not loaded by external forces and are not prestressed (Fig. e). T2 . of components F1 = F sinα and F2 = F cosα . 3. which do not change direction during the action on the virtual displacements.4. Example 7.1 For the three-bar pin-jointed framework shown in Fig. 7. Δ2 . of components u1 and u2 (Fig. δΔ3 satisfy the compatibility equations (2. δΔ3 (Fig. f).4.4. d).4. which produce virtual elongations in bars δΔ1 . The joint reacts with forces equal in magnitude but of opposite sign. Fig.

7.6) using the products of real forces and virtual displacements we obtain T1 δ Δ 1+ T2 δ Δ 2 + T3 δ Δ 3 = F1 δu1 + F2 δu2 . the force-elongation equations (2.136 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS δΔ1 = δu1 sinθ + δu 2 cosθ . EA (7.8) Fig. EA Δ 2= T2 l cosθ .7) Δ 1= T1 l . For the three bars.4 Equating internal work to external work (7.7) into (7.21) can be written (7.9) Substituting (7. δΔ3 = −δu1 sinθ + δu 2 cosθ . EA Δ 3= T3 l . δΔ2 = δu 2 .9) and collecting coefficients of δu1 and δu2 . gives (7.

11).6. Substituting (7. ∂x dV = Sσ ∫ σ x d(δu ) l d A = ∫ σ x δu l d A − ∫ Sσ V V ∫ σ y δε y dV = Sσ ∫ σ y δv m d A − ∫ δv V ∂σ y ∂y dV . then in (7. T T T V Sσ (7.12) 7. V ∫ τ xy δγ xy dV = ∫ τ xy (δ v ⋅ l + δu ⋅ m)d A − ∫ Sσ V ∂τ xy ⎞ ⎛ ∂τ xy ⎜ ⎜ ∂ x δ v + ∂ y δu ⎟ dV . Equation (7. b) Convert { δε } to { δu } using the integration by parts V ⎜ ⎟ ∫ σ x δε x dV = ∫ σ x δ ⎜ ∂ x ⎟ d x dy dz = ∫ ⎝ ⎠ V ⎛ ∂u ⎞ σx Sσ ∂ (δu ) d x l d A = ∂x δu ∂σ x dx dy dz . (7. we could put either to zero.5 Proof that PDV is equivalent to equilibrium equations Consider a form of equation (7.1.7. It is confirmed that the principle of virtual work is an equivalent statement of statical equilibrium. l EA ⎛ 1 ⎞ 2 ⎜ 2 cos θ + ⎟ u 2 = F2 .11) These are indeed the equations of equilibrium.10) Since δu1 and δu2 are unrelated to each other. (7. cosθ ⎠ l ⎝ (7.8) in the finite form of (7. ENERGY METHODS 137 δu1 (T1 sin θ − T3 sin θ − F1 ) + δu2 (T1 cos θ + T2 + T3 cos θ − F2 ) = 0 .10) must be zero whatever the values of δu1 and δu2 .7).6. a) without point forces V ∫ { δε } {σ }dV = ∫ { δu } { pv }dV + ∫ { δu } { ps }d A . This can only be true if their coefficients vanish T1 sinθ − T3 sinθ = F1 . ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ . T1 cosθ + T2 + T3 cosθ = F2 . the components of the displacement of point 4 can be determined from the following equations 2 EA 2 sin θ ⋅ u 1 = F1 .

So. its coefficients must vanish. This applies only within a single element and up to its surface.6. The equations of equilibrium emerge from the brackets [ ∂ ]T {σ } + { pv } = { 0 } in V. when using approximate functions for { u }.138 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS where l and m are direction cosines of the outward normal at the surface. it is not necessary to worry about the equilibrium boundary conditions. Adding together V ∫ ( δε x σ x + δε y σ y + δγ xy τ xy )dV = ∫ [ δu (σ x l + τ xy m)+ δ v (τ xy l + σ y m) ] d A − Sσ − V ∫ ⎡ ⎛ ∂σ x ∂τ xy + ⎢δ u ⎜ ⎜ ∂y ⎢ ⎝ ∂x ⎣ ∂σ y ⎞ ⎛ ∂τ ⎟ + δ v ⎜ xy + ⎟ ⎜ ∂x ∂y ⎠ ⎝ ⎞⎤ ⎟⎥ dV . that is the stress and displacement fields are continuous. Sσ V Because { δu } are arbitrary. Sσ .e. The PVD supplies equilibrium conditions both within and on the surface of the body. i. is supported in some way and there the tractions { ps } will be unknown reactions and not specified loads. Most finite elements in use today do not achieve continuous stresses across interfaces. but only in the mean. Sσ V V which is true provided [ ∂ ] T {σ } and {ε } are finite in V. The componets of stresses at element interfaces may not balance at a point. Part of the surface. b) T T T T ∫ { δu } ( [ ∂ ] {σ } + { pv }) dV − ∫ { δu } ( [ n ] {σ } − { ps }) d A = 0 . ⎟ ⎠⎥ ⎦ In matrix form (Gauss’ theorem) T T T T T ∫ { δε } {σ }dV = ∫ { δu } [ n ] {σ }d A − ∫ { δu } [ ∂ ] {σ }dV . . It is conventional to remove the unknown reactions by choosing the virtual displacements { δu } to be zero over Sσ . On substituting in (7. [ n ]T {σ } − { ps } = { 0 } on Sσ .

substituting ε = − y δU = ∫ l ⎛ ⎞ ∂ 2δv ∂ 2 v ⎜ 2 ⎟ E y dA ⎟ dx = ⎜ ⎟ ∂ x2 ∂ x2 ⎜ ⎝A ⎠ ∫ ∫ l d 2δv d2v EI dx .4).13) 7. dx dx d2v (5.2 Principle of minimum total potential energy The total potential energy Π of an elastic body is defined as the sum of the strain energy U and the work potential of external loads WP Π = U + WP . ∫ { δε } V T [ D ] {ε } dV = ∫ { δε }T {σ } dV = δWI .7. the virtual variation of the strain energy is equal to the virtual work of the internal stresses on virtual strains. 2 V T ({ δε } δU = T [ D ] {ε } ) = { ε } T [ D ] { δε } .14) For an elastic body. V ∫ { δε } [ D ] {ε } dV + 1 ∫ { ε }T [ D ] { δε } dV . yields dx δU = V ∫ δε σ dV = ∫ δε Eε A d x = ∫ l l d δu du EA dx . (7.1 Strain energy Consider the strain energy (6. the virtual increase of strain energy is δU = Because 1 2 V ∫ {ε } T T [ D ] { ε } dV . substituting σ = E ε and ε = du . V δ U = δWI .16) The above expressions can be obtained directly from the strain energies .15) For a beam in bending.32) U= 1 2 For a virtual strain { δε } . For a bar in tension. (7. ENERGY METHODS 139 7. d x2 d x2 (7.2. gives d x2 (7.

3 Total potential energy The total potential energy (7.20) For virtual displacements {δu } δWP = − δWE . For a three-dimensional continuum WP = − V ∫ {u } { pv }dV − ∫ {u } { ps }d A − ∑ {ui } { Fi } .13. ⎜ d x2 ⎟ d ⎝ ⎠ 2 (7. An external point load F j has potential energy − F j u j ( ) instead of ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎜ − F j u j ⎟ . (7. a) Its variation is . i T T (7. For example.2 External potential energy The work potential of external loads WP is equal to the negative product of external forces by the corresponding displacement WP = − WE . because this potential arises from the magnitude of force and its ⎝ 2 ⎠ capacity to do work when it moves.18) 7. a gravitational force F = m g acts in the opposite direction to a vertical displacement h and the potential becomes m g h .17) for a beam U= ∫ l EI 2 ⎛ d2v ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ x.21) 7. (7. i T T T Sσ (7.13) can be written Π = ∫ { δε }T {σ } dV − ∫ { u }T { pv }dV − V V Sσ ∫ {u } { ps }d A − ∑ { ui } { Fi } .2.19) The negative sign appears because the external loads lose some of their capacity for doing work when displaced in the direction they act. 2 ⎜ dx ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 2 (7.2. being independent of the linear properties of the body on which it acts.140 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS for a bar U= ∫ l E A ⎛ du ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ dx .

3. it can be considered that (7. the total potential energy can be written . the strain energy for a bar is 1 1 E Ai 2 Δi . rather than a result of the equilibrium. Reciprocally. ENERGY METHODS 141 δΠ = δU + δWP = δWI − δWE . the equilibrium is stable. If δ 2 Π > 0 . then it is in a stable equilibrium state. Thus. i i i Expressing the elongations in terms of displacements. the stationary value is a minimum. (7. An equivalent statement is: For conservative systems.6) it follows that (7. a) hence. Example 7. the one satisfying equilibrium corresponds to a minimum value of the total potential energy. then the total potential energy has a minimum value. U i = Ti Δ i = 2 2 li and the external potential energy is WP = − ∑F u . if under the action of external loads and reaction forces the total potential energy of a deformable body is a minimum. The principle of minimum total potential energy states that: If a deformable body is in equilibrium under the action of external loads and reaction forces. Based on equation (7. of all possible kinematically admissible displacement fields. according to the compatibility relations.7.22.22) δΠ = 0 . any kinematically admissible displacement field which minimizes the total potential energy represents a stable equilibrium configuration. Reciprocally.22.2 For the truss shown in Fig. the total potential energy has a stationary value. at equilibrium. a) is a condition that establishes or defines the equilibrium. 7.

5. the total potential energy is Π = 1 2 ∫ E I (v′′) d x − ∫ p v dx + M 2 0 v′ 0 − M l v′ − T0 v0 + Tl vl . δΠ = 0 or ∫ E I v′′ δ(v′′)d x − ∫ p δv dx + M l l 0 ′ δ v0 − M l δ v′ − T0 δ v0 + Tl δ vl = 0 .11). Cancelling the derivatives of Π with respect to each independent variable ∂Π = 0. l l l At equilibrium. l (a) Integrating by parts the first term gives . Show that PMTPE is equivalent to the equilibrium conditions inside and at the ends of the beam. 7. For a beam segment loaded as shown.3 Apply the principle of minimum total potential energy to a beam in bending. Π is stationary. subjected to a distributed load and to the end bending moments and shear forces as shown in Fig. Example 7.5 Solution. ∂ u2 we obtain the equilibrium equations (7.142 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Π = + EA ( u1 sinθ + u2 cosθ 2l EA (− u1 sinθ + u2 cosθ 2l )2 + EA 2 u2 + 2 l cosθ )2 − F1 u1 − F2 u2 . Fig. 7. ∂ u1 ∂Π =0.

which are the boundary conditions.M ) δv′ − (( E I v′′ ) − T )δv l l 0 =0. or δ vl = 0 .3 The Rayleigh-Ritz method The Rayleigh-Ritz method involves the construction of an assumed displacement field. the other terms deliver the equilibrium conditions at the beam ends ( E I v′′) 0 = M 0 . As δ v is arbitrary. l l d ′ Integrating by parts the last term gives ∫ (E I v′′) δv′ dx = ∫ (E I v′′) d x (δv)dx = ∫ (E I v′′) d (δv)= l l l ′ ′ d ′ = (E I v′′)′ δ v l 0 − ∫ l l 0 d (E I v′′)′ dx δ v = (E I v′′)′ δ v dx l 0 − ∫ (E I v′′) δv dx. For a beam. 0 ( E I v′′)0′ = T0 . or δ v0 = 0 . or δ v′ = 0 .7. 7. ENERGY METHODS 143 ∫ l E I v′′ δ(v′′) d x = l ∫ l E I v′′ d ⎛ dv ⎞ ⎜ δ ⎟ dx = dx ⎜ dx ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ∫ E I v′′ d (δv′) = l l 0 = E I v′′ δ v′ 0 − ∫ d x (E I v′′) dx δv′ = E I v′′ δv′ − ∫ (E I v′′) δv′ dx. the transverse displacement v (x ) is approximated by a finite series . The coefficient of δ v in the integrand gives the equation of equilibrium (E I v′′)″ = p (x ) . ( E I v′′) l = M l . l l 0 ″ Equation (a ) becomes l E I v′′ δ v′ 0 − (E I v′′)′ δ v + ∫ (E I v′′) δv dx − ∫ p δv dx − M δv′ l l l 0 ″ + T δv l 0 =0 or ″ ′ ∫ ((E I v′′) − p ) δv dx + ( E I v′′ . and l ( E I v′′)l′ = Tl . or δ v′ = 0 .

called admissible functions. the latter becomes a function of the parameters a j ... The total potential energy is . (7. c) The sequence of functions must be complete.144 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS v (x ) ≅ ∑ a ϕ (x ) j j j =1 n (7.e.23) into the expression of the total potential energy Π . ∂Π =0... Solution. F = 100 N and q = 200 N m . If the functions are not selected from the domain space of the operator of the equation being solved (completeness property) the resulting solution could be either zero or wrong. l = 3 m . Consider: E = 210 MPa .24) which is a linear algebraic set of equations in the constants a j . whose values are determined from the stationarity conditions δΠ = ∑ ∂a j ∂Π j δa j = 0 .23) which represents an approximate deflected shape. i. 7. and ϕ j ( x ) are prescribed functions of x . Example 7. n ) . b) The functions must individually satisfy the geometric boundary conditions. ∂aj ( j = 1. The necessary requirements for the convergence of the Rayleigh-Ritz method are the following: a) The approximating functions must be continuous to one order less the highest derivative in the integrand. The solutions are back-substituted into (7. which is more accurate the more terms are selected in the respective series. that satisfy the kinematic (geometric) boundary conditions and are continuous within the definition interval. Because δa j are arbitrary.23) where a j are undetermined constants called generalized coordinates. to be admissible functions.6 find the vertical displacement of point 2.4 For the beam shown in Fig. I = 1600 mm4 . Substituting the displacements (7.

27) into (7.7. 0 2l 3 l . (7. (7. leads to two equations relating the generalized coordinates ∂Π = EI ∂ a1 ∫ ( a1 ϕ1′′ + a2 ϕ2′′ ) ϕ1′′ d x − ∫ q ϕ1 d x − F ϕ1(l 2) = 0 .27) ϕ1 (x ) = x 2 (3 x − 2 l )( x − l ) l4 . ⎝ 3 ⎠ v (l ) = 0 .25) we obtain the functional 1 Π = EI 2 ′ ∫ ( a1 ϕ1′′ + a2 ϕ2′ ) dx − ∫ q ( a1 ϕ1 + a2 ϕ2 ) dx − . l 2l 3 Requiring Π to be stationary with respect to a1 and a 2 . ϕ 2 (x ) = x 3 (3 x − 2 l )( x − l ) l5 . ENERGY METHODS 145 1 Π = EI 2 ∫ 0 l ⎛ d2v ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ d x − q v (x )d x − F v ⎛ l ⎞ . for simplicity. v′ (0) = 0 . 7. the transverse displacements are approximated by a series consisting of only two terms v ( x ) = a1 ϕ1 (x ) + a2 ϕ 2 (x ) .25) The geometric boundary conditions are v (0) = 0 . ⎛ 2l ⎞ v ⎜ ⎟=0. where the functions (7.26) In the following. 2 0 l l −F [ a1 ϕ1(l 2) + a2 ϕ2 (l 2) ]. ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ d x2 ⎟ ⎝2⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 2l 3 2 ∫ l (7.26).6 Substituting (7. Fig.28) satisfy all geometrical boundary conditions (7.

3 5 l 4320 l 10 72 E I 269 EI a + a =− ql. Answer. 7. 5 l3 The solutions are a1 = 0. 3 1 3 2 7 l 46656 l For example. E I (7. the equations are linear in aj . we obtain 56 E I 11 EI a 1 + 10 3 a2 = − ql. .146 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ∂Π = EI ∂ a2 ∫ ( a ϕ ′′ + a ϕ ′′ ) ϕ ′′ d x − ∫ q ϕ 1 1 2 2 2 0 2l 3 l l 2 d x − F ϕ 2 (l 2 ) = 0 . the displacement is v (l 2 ) = a1 ϕ1 (l 2) + a2 ϕ 2 (l 2) = = 1 1 q l4 = 2. b) is 1 2 ku − Fu .5 Consider a linear spring of stiffness k (Fig. Because Π is of second order in ϕ and ϕ ′ .48 mm. the variation of the total potential energy is δ Π = k u δu − F δ u = ( k u − F ) δ u . 7. Substituting the functions (7.7.29) In 2. the coefficient of a1 in the first equation is EI ∫ ( ϕ ′′ ) 1 0 l 2 dx = EI 1 ∫ l ( 36 x 8 0 l 2 − 30 l x + 4 l 2 ) 2 dx = 56 E I . for F = q l 6 .00257 q l4 .7. a) subjected to a load F. The total potential energy (Fig.9 ⋅10− 5 16 32 E Iy Example 7. a1 + a2 = 4.30) For a small virtual displacement δu .00207 q l4 . 2 Π = (7. Comment on the approximations of the Rayleigh-Ritz method. EI a2 = −0.28).

In magnitude Π app < Π eq . The total potential energy of the equilibrium configuration is 1 1 1 F2 . b. = 2 Π eq 2 Π eq Π eq = The stiffness is (7.7 For δΠ =0 we obtain k ueq − F = 0 .34) If F is prescribed and the resulting u has been approximated by a RayleighRitz solution uapp ≠ ueq .34) and Fig. Fig.7. 7. b indicate that a) Because Π eq is a minimum. 7.33) U eq = 1 2 1 F2 = −Π eq . F ueq − F ueq = − F ueq = − 2 2 2 k 1 F2 1 F2 . ENERGY METHODS 147 The equilibrium equation is obtained by requiring δΠ to be zero ( Π be stationary) for arbitrary δu .31) As seen in Fig.7. the potential energy for an approximate displacement which satisfies the kinematic boundary conditions is greater than the true value Π app > Π eq . the exact solution corresponds to an absolute minimum value of Π .32) k =− The strain energy is (7. equations (7. . (7. k ueq = 2 2 k (7. 7.32) – (7.7.

. to present output data in an engineering format.35) c) The approximate displacement is underestimated u ↓= F .4 F.4. Use PVD or PMTPE as an approximate method for solving the boundary-value problem. { Fi } . 7. k↑ (7. find the displacement field { u } within V and on the surface Sσ (Fig.36) An approximate compatible displacement field corresponds to a structure which is stiffer than the actual structure and therefore will give a lower bound on displcement.148 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS the approximate total potential energy is underestimated. b) Solution approach. 2 Π eq ↓ (7.E. 7. Admissible functions are defined over small size finite elements. in the FEM the admissible functions are defined over small size subdomains.M. 6.1 F. With these individually defined functions matching each other at certain points (nodes) at the element interfaces. the unknown function is approximated piecewise over the entire domain (continuity at global level).a localized version of the Rayleigh-Ritz method Instead of finding an admissible function satisfying the boundary conditions for the entire domain. b) The approximate stiffness is overestimated k ↑= 1 F2 . For this a matrix notation is used. c) Procedure. reaction forces. in Structural Mechanics a) Problem. which is often difficult. Given a geometrically complex structure (including the boundary conditions) and the external loads { pv } . d) Tools. with simple geometry and well identified structural behaviour. internal forces. The geometric shape and the internal displacement field are described by a series of discrete quantities (like nodal coordinates and nodal displacements) distributed through the structure. Computers are used to store long lists of separate numbers and to manipulate them. .M. taking advantage of graphical and animation facilities. Then determine stresses.1). etc.E. { ps } .

The aim is the calculation of the element stiffness matrix and load vector. ⎜ Ve ⎟ Sσ e ⎝ ⎠ ∫ (7.4.8) that define the mesh. ENERGY METHODS 149 7.7. T T Sσ (7.3 Principle of virtual displacements For the entire structure.6. PVD yields δΠ = ∑ δΠ e e = ∑ ∫ e ⎛ ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ T T ⎜ { δε } {σ }dV − { δu } { ps }d A ⎟ = 0 . the trial function is expressed as a finite expansion .38) In the following. 7. a) can be written (considering only surface tractions) δΠ = V ∫ { δε } {σ }dV − ∫ { δu } { ps }d A = 0 . only δ Π e will be considered.4 Approximating functions for the element In the Rayleigh-Ritz method. 7.4.2 Discretization The structure is divided into finite elements (Fig.8 7. Elements are defined by their nodal coordinates and some physical parameters.37) As a summation of virtual works on all elements. equation (7. 7. Fig.4.

5 Compatibility between strains and nodal displacements From the compatibility relationship (6.40) or { u } = [ N ] {Q e }.18) {ε } = [ ∂ ] { u } = [ ∂ ][ N ] {Q e }= [ B ] {Q e }. ∑ n The basic idea of FEM is to choose the constants . A finite element described by admissible shape functions (integrable in the interior and with equal values of generalized coordinates at element interfaces) is referred to as co-deformable or conforming.150 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎧ a1 ⎫ ⎪a ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ (7. .4. { } The proper selection of shape functions ensure the continuity of the displacement field at global level.the displacement unknowns at the nodes { a } = Q e and to prescribe admissible functions denoted ⎣ϕ ⎦ = ⎣N ⎦ so that { } 0 ⎧ u ⎫ ⎡ ⎣N u ⎦ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎨ v ⎬=⎢ 0 ⎪w⎪ ⎢ 0 ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ ⎣N v ⎦ 0 e ⎤ ⎧ Qu ⎪ e 0 ⎥ ⎨ Qv ⎥ e ⎣N w ⎦ ⎥ ⎪ Qw ⎦⎩ 0 { }⎫ { }⎪ ⎬ { }⎪ ⎭ (7. where [ B ] is the matrix of differentiated shape functions. defined by Q e remains to be found. The reason is that elements are small enough so that the shape of the displacement field can be approximated without too much error and only the magnitude.39) u (x ) ≅ a j ϕ j (x ) = ⎣ϕ1 ϕ 2 L ϕ n ⎦ ⎨ 2 ⎬ = ⎣ϕ ⎦ { a } L⎪ ⎪ j =1 ⎪ an ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ where the undetermined constants a j have no direct evident signification. where [ N ] is the matrix of shape functions (interpolation functions). The strain virtual variation is (7. 7.41) { δε } = [ B ] {δQ e }.

e e e (7.6 Element stiffness matrix and load vector Using the constitutive equation element is δΠ e = or δΠ e {σ } = [ D ] {ε } . (7. all individual elements are assembled together so that the displacements are continuous across element interfaces and the boundary conditions are satisfied.4. (7. ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ ⎞ As δQ e are arbitrary and non-zero.7. The kinematic connectivity is expressed by the relationship between element and global displacements ~ Q e = T e { Q }.4. {Q } is the vector of the ~ global displacements of the structure and T e is a connectivity matrix.42) where the element stiffness matrix is [ K ]= ∫ [ B ] e Ve e T [ D ][ B ] dV (7.43) and the vector of consistent nodal forces is {F }= ∫ [ N ] Ae T { ps }d A . cancelation of the bracket yields the element equilibrium equation { } [ K ] {Q }= {F }.45) where Q e is the vector of nodal element displacements. containing ones at the nodal displacements of element nodes and zeros elsewhere. the virtual work for an Ve T T e T e e T ∫ {δ Q } [ B ] [ D ][ B ]{Q }dV − ∫ { δQ } [ N ] { ps }d A = 0 Ae ⎜ = { δQ } ⎜ ∫ [ B ] ⎜ e T ⎛ T [ D ][ B ] dV ⎝ Ve {Q }− ∫ [ N ] e Ae T { ps }d A ⎟ = 0 .7 Assembly of the global stiffness matrix and load vector In the next step.44) 7. { } { } [ ] [ ] The variation of element displacements is . ENERGY METHODS 151 7.

e T (7.46) The PVD equation for the entire structure is ∑ {δQ } [ K ] {Q }= ∑ {δQ } {F }.46) {δQ }T ∑ e ~ ~ ~ [ T ] [ K ][ T ] {Q } = {δQ } ∑ [ T ] {Q }.50) The above procedure is never used in practice.4. In the back-substitution phase. the unreduced global equilibrium equations are [ K ] {Q } = { F } .152 ~ { δQ }= [ T ] { δQ }. the condensed equilibrium equations are [ K ] {Q } = { F } .50). 7.25).48) and the global load vector is ~ { F } = ∑ [ T e ] T {Q e }. element stresses are evaluated as ~ {σ } = [ D ] {ε } = [ D ][ B ] Q e = [ D ][ B ] T e { Q } { } [ ] where [ D ] is given by (6. . e T e e T e T e e As { δ Q } are arbitrary and non-zero. e e FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS (7.49) Applying the boundary conditions. e T e e e T e e e or using (7.47) where the global stiffness matrix is [ K ]= ∑ e ~ ~ [ T ] [ K ][ T ] e e (7. The assembly is done by directly placing the nonzero entries of element stiffness matrices in the right locations of the global stiffness matrix based on element connectivity.45) and (7. It has been used only to show algebraically how to assemble a global stiffness matrix. e (7.8 Solution and back-substitution Nodal displacements are determined by solving the linear equations (7.24) or (6. (7.

so that the corners of adjacent elements have common displacements. strain and stress components are uniform through the plate thickness. Only transversely homogeneous plates will be analyzed herein. The very first approximate finite element developed in 1956 to model delta wing skin panels. is treated separately. the CST was one of the most widely used elements and is still available in systems today. . 8. designed to be primarily loaded in their plane and to resist loads by membrane action rather than bending. The elements fill the entire region except of a small region at the boundary. It is a much more adaptable shape than the rectangle and it allows the user to tailor the element mesh to suit any structural geometry.1 Discretization of structure The plate is divided into a number of straight-sided triangles (Fig. discussed in the next chapter. composite and sandwich plates being studied in other courses. 8.1. and uniformly stressed regions can be left with a small number of larger triangles. A large number of small elements can be densely packed into a region of expected high stress gradients.8. This chapter presents the element stiffness matrices and consistent force vectors for triangular and rectangular elements. a). TWO-DIMENSIONAL ELEMENTS Many engineering structures can be modeled as two-dimensional flat plates. which is considered constant. In-plane displacement.1. without the need for numerical integration. 8. joined together at their corners (nodes). This unfilled region exists for curved boundaries and it can be reduced by choosing smaller elements.1 The plane constant-strain triangle (CST) Before the advent of arbitrarily shaped isoparametric elements. that allow closed form derivations. the three-noded triangle with constant strain field.

y ) = a1 + a2 x + a3 y . y ) = a4 + a5 x + a6 y with six arbitrary parameters. (8. The displacement components of a local node j are denoted as u j in the x direction and v j in the y direction. v ( x . 2 and 3. a Fig. 8. The numbering is in anticlockwise direction to avoid calculating a negative area. (8. the assumed displacement field is linear u (x . Because for two displacements there are six boundary conditions. each node has two degrees of freedom. 8. The corresponding nodal coordinates are designated as ( x1 . b are numbered locally as 1.1.1. Thus. y3 ) .2) .1 b Each node is permitted to displace in the two directions x and y.2 Polynomial approximation of the displacement field The displacements u and v of a point within the triangle are expressed in terms of the nodal displacements.154 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The three nodes of the isolated element from Fig. The vector of element nodal displacements is defined as { q }= ⎣ u e 1 v1 u2 v2 u3 v3 T ⎦ . y2 ) and ( x3 . ( x2 .1) 8. y1 ) .

Since the functions for u and v are of the same form. ∂ y ∂x hence the name “constant strain triangle”. We can write u = ⎣1 x ⎧ a1 ⎪ y ⎦ ⎨ a2 ⎪a ⎩ 3 ⎫ ⎪ ⎬ = ⎣1 x ⎪ ⎭ y⎦ { a } .6) where . . a) where (8. (8. A nodal approximation is preferred.5) { a } = [ A ] −1 { u e }.4) { u }= [ A ] { a } . ∂x εy = ∂v = a6 = const . ⎥ y3 ⎥ ⎦ (8.4. (8.1.2) the constants ai have no physical meaning. .8. ∂y γ xy = ∂u ∂ v + = a3 + a5 = const . TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 155 The strains (6.3 Nodal approximation of the displacement field In the polynomial approximation (8. only one need be considered in detail. ⎪ ⎭ (8.3) Evaluating the expression for u at the three nodes gives the nodal displacements in terms of the polynomial coefficients ⎧ u1 ⎪ ⎨ u2 ⎪u ⎩ 3 or e ⎫ ⎡ 1 x1 ⎪ ⎢ ⎬ = ⎢ 1 x2 ⎪ ⎢1 x 3 ⎭ ⎣ y1 y2 y3 ⎤ ⎧ a1 ⎥ ⎪a ⎥⎨ 2 ⎥ ⎪ a3 ⎦⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎬ . 8. ⎡ 1 x1 [A ] = ⎢ 1 x2 ⎢ ⎢ 1 x3 ⎣ By inversion y1 ⎤ y2 ⎥ .16) are εx = ∂u = a2 = const . . in which the constants are the nodal displacements and the displacement field is obtained by interpolation based on values of corner displacements.

9) The determinant is positive if nodes 1.3) gives u = ⎣N ⎦ {u } e (8. γ i = xk − x j (8. y3 y1 (8. Substituting (8.11) By transposition T −T T ⎣N ⎦ = [A ] ⎣1 x y ⎦ . 3 are labeled anticlockwise around the element.12. β i = y j − yk .6) into (8. 2. 3 ) (8. (8.10) where the row vector of shape functions −1 ⎣N ⎦ = ⎣N1 N 2 N 3 ⎦ = ⎣ 1 x y ⎦ [ A ] . j . 2A ( i = 1. 2. { } (8. a) Similarly v = ⎣N ⎦ v e .12) 1 ( α i + βi x + γ i y ) . ⎧ N1 ⎪ ⎨ N2 ⎪N ⎩ 3 or Ni = ⎫ ⎡ α1 ⎪ 1 ⎢ ⎬= ⎢α 2 ⎪ 2 A ⎢α ⎭ ⎣ 3 β1 γ 1 ⎤ ⎧ 1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ β2 γ 2 ⎥ ⎨ x ⎬ ⎥ β3 γ 3 ⎥ ⎪ y ⎪ ⎦⎩ ⎭ (8.8) and the subscripts i . = ⎥ 2A ⎢ ⎢γ 1 γ 2 γ 3 ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ (8. The area of the triangle A is equal to one half the magnitude of the determinant of [ A ] 1 x1 2 A = 1 x2 1 x3 y2 = (x2 y3 − x3 y2 ) + ( x3 y1 − x1 y3 ) + (x1 y2 − x2 y1 ) .156 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS [A ] in which −1 ⎡α1 α 2 α 3 ⎤ 1 ⎢ β1 β 2 β 3 ⎥ .7) α i = x j yk − xk y j . k permute in a natural order.13) .

2: N i ( xi . y ) = N 3 (x . y ) = N 2 (x .10) and (8. 3 (8. b) Fig.2 The shape functions N i vary linearly. have a unit value at node i and zero values at the other two nodes. y ) = 1 [ x2 y3 − x3 y2 + ( y2 − y3 ) x + (x3 − x2 ) y ] . a) can also be written N1 (x .14) ∑ Ni = 1 . 8. 2. 2A 1 [ x3 y1 − x1 y3 + ( y3 − y1 ) x + (x1 − x3 ) y ] .8.12. as illustrated in Fig. 3 ) (8. yi ) = δ i j . 8. and i =1 ( i . 2A 1 [ x1 y2 − x2 y1 + ( y1 − y2 ) x + (x2 − x1 ) y ] . 2A (8.15) Combining (8.12.14) yields . TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 157 The shape functions (8. j = 1.

16. as shown in Fig. a) Fig.1.3 The displacement u (x.y ) + u3 N 3 (x. . 8.y ) + u2 N 2 (x.4 The matrix [B ] Strains are expressed in terms of displacements as ⎡ ∂ ⎢ ⎢ ∂x = [ ∂ ] { u }= ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ∂ ⎢ ⎢ ∂y ⎣ ⎤ ⎡ ∂ 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ∂x ⎧u⎫ ⎢ ∂ ⎥ ⎨ ⎬= 0 ∂y ⎥ ⎩ v ⎭ ⎢ ⎢ ∂ ∂ ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ∂x ⎦ ⎥ ⎢ ∂y ⎣ ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ∂ ⎥ [N ∂y ⎥ ∂ ⎥ ⎥ ∂x ⎦ ⎥ {ε } e ] { q e }= [ B ] { q e }.y ) determines a plane surface passing through u1 .16) or ⎧u⎫ ⎨ ⎬=[N ⎩v⎭ ] { q e }. u2 and u3 .3.158 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎧ u ⎫ ⎡ N1 ⎨ ⎬=⎢ ⎩v⎭ ⎣ 0 0 N1 N2 0 0 N2 N3 0 ⎧ u1 ⎪v ⎪ 1 0 ⎤ ⎪ u2 ⎪ ⎨ N 3 ⎥ ⎪ v2 ⎦ ⎪ u3 ⎪ ⎪ v3 ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ (8. 8. 8. (8.y ) =u1 N1 (x.

The consistent nodal forces due to traction loads acting on a portion of the boundary are calculated as for a linear two-node element. Sometimes it is 0 x32 y23 y31 ⎡ y23 1 ⎢ [ B ]= ⎢ 0 2A ⎢ x32 ⎣ 0 x13 y31 y12 0 x13 0 x21 0 ⎤ x21 ⎥ ⎥ y12 ⎥ ⎦ (8.43) is [k ]= ∫ [ B ] e Ve T [ D ][ B ] dV = [ B ]T [ D ][ B ] t e A.8. When the surface load distribution (per unit . ⎥ y1 − y2 ⎥ ⎦ 0 x3 − x2 y 2 − y3 y1 − y2 x2 − x1 0 0 x1 − x3 (8. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 159 The matrix of the derivatives of shape functions is ⎡ ∂ N1 ⎢ ⎢ ∂x [ B ]= ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ∂N 1 ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ ∂y 0 ∂ N1 ∂y ∂ N1 ∂x ∂ N2 ∂x 0 ∂ N2 ∂y 0 ∂ N2 ∂y ∂ N2 ∂x ∂ N3 ∂x 0 ∂ N3 ∂y ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ∂ N3 ⎥ . 8.17. (8. Along an edge 1-2.17) The matrix written simply [B] is constant for a given CST element. ⎥ β3 ⎥ ⎦ 0 ⎤ x2 − x1 ⎥ .5 Element stiffness matrix and load vector The element stiffness matrix (7. a) where the notation is obvious.24) for plane stress and by (6.25) for plane strain conditions. ∂y ⎥ ∂ N3 ⎥ ⎥ ∂x ⎦ ⎥ ⎡ β1 1 ⎢ [ B ]= ⎢ 0 2A ⎢ γ1 ⎣ ⎡ y2 − y3 1 ⎢ [ B ]= ⎢ 0 2A ⎢ x3 − x2 ⎣ 0 β2 0 β3 γ1 0 β1 γ 2 y3 − y1 γ2 0 β2 γ 3 0 x1 − x3 y3 − y1 0 ⎤ γ3 ⎥ . satisfying N1 + N 2 = 1 .1.18) where t e is the element thickness. the shape function N 3 is zero while N1 and N 2 are similar to the shape functions in one dimension. A is the element area and [ D ] is the material stiffness matrix given by (6.

8. b which however produces a larger bandwidth.5 . Fig. and this could be corrected by using the “union jack” pattern of Fig. 8. varying from p1 at node 1 to p2 at node 2 (Fig.4 The nodal forces associated with the weight of an element are equally distributed at the nodes.160 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS area) is linear. even in a fine mesh.5. 8. 6 f 2e = lte ( p1 + 2 p2 6 ) (8.6 Remarks A mesh like in Fig.5. 8. Benchmark tests using triangular elements have shown that CST elements. 8. 8.1.4). Because of linearity they coincide with the static resultants. a is clearly a directionally sensitive assembly. the nodal forces are f1e = lte ( 2 p1 + p2 ) . Fig. are much inferior to higher order elements in a coarse mesh.19) where t e is the thickness of the element.

8. only one quarter of the plate is considered. The diagram compares the theoretical stress distribution along the marked line with the averaged values calculated using CSTs. 8. Most programs contain facilities for averaging the stresses. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 161 A drawback of the displacement form of the finite element method is that equilibrium is only satisfied in the mean or over the element. Fig. Taking advantage of symmetry. where they should be continuous. The simplest form of averaging consists of simply connecting the centroids of two adjacent triangles and to assign the mean stress value to the crossing point of this line with the common edge.6 for a square plate with a circular hole. This means that along an edge which is common to two elements the stresses are different across the edge.6 . A simple example of stress averaging is shown in Fig.8.

a).3 Example 8. Divide the plate into four CST elements and find: a) the nodal displacements. x3 = 0 . Let ν = 0 . E8. y3 = l . x2 = l .17) is [B ] 1 ⎡ −1 0 1 0 0 0 ⎤ 1⎢ = ⎢ 0 −1 0 0 0 1 ⎥ .1 Solution. ⎥ l ⎢ −1 −1 0 1 1 0 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (b) The element stiffness matrix (8. b) stresses in elements.24) is ⎡1 0 0 ⎤ [ D ]= E ⎢ 0 1 0 ⎥ . The area is A = l 2 2 and the matrix (8.1.18) is . and c) the support reactions. a Fig.1 A square plate of thickness t and Young’s modulus E is pin-jointed at three corners and subjected to a force F at the free corner (Fig.162 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The procedure will be used in Example E8. the nodal coordinates of element 1 are x1 = y1 = 0 . ⎢ ⎥ ⎢0 0 1 2⎥ ⎣ ⎦ b (a) With the origin of coordinate axes at the plate centre. The material stiffness matrix (6. y2 = 0 . E8.

In general. e e T e e (f) For θ = 900 we obtain ⎡ 0 ⎢ −1 ⎢ ⎢ 0 =⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎣ 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0⎤ 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0⎥ 0 1⎥ ⎥ −1 0 ⎥ ⎦ 0 [T ] 2 0 −1 0 (g) The stiffness matrix of element 2 is [ K ] = [T ] [ k ] [T ]. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 163 1 T [ K ]= [k ]= [ B ] 1 1 [ D ] [ B1 ] t A . the transformation matrix for a rotation with an angle θ is ⎡ c ⎢−s ⎢ ⎢ 0 =⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎣ s c 0 0 0 0 0 c 0 0 0 0 s 0 0 0⎤ 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0⎥ c s⎥ ⎥ −s c⎥ ⎦ 0 [T ] e 0 −s c (e) where c = cos θ and s = sin θ . . The stiffness matrix of the rotated element is [ K ] = [T ] [ k ] [T ]. (c) [K ] 1 ⎡ 3 2 1 2 −1 −1 2 −1 2 0 ⎤ ⎢ 32 0 −1 2 −1 2 −1 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 1 0 0 0 ⎥ Et ⎢ = ⎢ ⎥. 2 2 T 1 2 . 12 12 0 ⎥ 2 ⎢ ⎢ SYM 12 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 1 ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ ⎦ (d) Element 2 can be obtained by rotating 900 anticlockwise element 1.8. .

17) and performing the product (8. x2 = 0 . E8. Due to symmetry.164 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS [K ] 2 ⎡ 3 2 −1 2 −1 2 0 −1 1 2 ⎤ ⎢ 32 1 2 −1 0 −1 2 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 12 0 0 −1 2 ⎥ Et ⎢ = ⎢ ⎥. x3 = −1 .1. 1 0 0 ⎥ 2 ⎢ ⎢ SYM 1 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 12 ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ ⎦ (h) The same matrix is obtained by substituting the nodal coordinates x1 = y1 = 0 . 2E t u2 = 3F . H5 = − F 4 . y3 = 0 in (8.18). . 0 0 12 1 0 0 −1 2 ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ H3 ⎪ 2 ⎢ −1 ⎢ ⎥ 0 0 0 2 0 0 ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ V3 ⎪ −2 ⎢ 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ∗ ⎪ ⎢ −1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ H4 ⎪ ⎢ ⎥ 0 0 1 2 ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ V4 ⎪ −1 2 0 ⎢ 1 2 −1 2 0 ⎣ ⎦⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ Solving E t ⎡ 3 − 1⎤ ⎧ u1 ⎫ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎨ ⎬=⎨ ⎬ 2 ⎢ − 1 1 ⎥ ⎩ u2 ⎭ ⎩ F 2 ⎭ ⎣ ⎦ we obtain the nodal displacements u1 = F . so that for the entire plate H4 = − F 2 . Using the appropriate boundary conditions. y2 = 1 . only the upper half of the plate can be considered (Fig. the finite element equations can be written 0 0 − 1 1 2 ⎤ ⎧ u1 ⎫ ⎧ 0 ⎫ −1 −1 2 −1 ⎡ 3 ⎢ 0 3 0 −1 2 0 − 2 0 − 1 2 ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ V1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ −1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 ⎥ ⎪ u2 ⎪ ⎪ F 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 12 0 0 0 ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ V2 ⎪ Et ⎢ − 1 2 −1 2 0 1 2 ⎨ ⎬=⎨ ⎬. ∗ H4 = − F 4 . 2E t The reaction forces for half the plate are obtained as H3 = − F 4 . b).

.8. and c) the support reactions. = ⎢ 0 0⎥ ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬ u l 2l E t ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ − 1 0⎥ ⎩ 2 ⎭ ⎩− 1⎭ ⎣ ⎦ ⎫ ⎪ 1 ⎬ =[D ] ε = E ⎪ ⎭1 ⎡1 0 0 ⎤ ⎧ 2 ⎫ ⎧2⎫ ⎢0 1 0 ⎥ F ⎪ 0 ⎪= F ⎪ 0 ⎪. Divide the plate into three CST elements and find: a) the nodal displacements.3 . E8.2 A thin triangular plate is fixed along the edge 5-4 and loaded by forces F1 = −1 and F2 = −2 along the upper edge in its plane (Fig. ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ { ε }= [ B ]{ q } 1 1 1 {ε } 1 ⎧2⎫ ⎡− 1 1⎤ 1⎢ ⎥ ⎧ u1 ⎫ = F ⎪ 0 ⎪ . TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 165 Strains and stresses in elements are ⎧ u1 ⎪ 0 ⎡ −1 0 1 0 0 0 ⎤ ⎪ ⎪u 1 ⎪ = ⎢ 0 −1 0 0 0 1 ⎥ ⎨ 2 ⎥ 0 l⎢ ⎢ −1 −1 0 1 1 0 ⎥ ⎪ ⎣ ⎦⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬.2). ⎬ ⎢ ⎥ 2l E t ⎨ ⎬ 2 l t ⎨ ⎪− 1 2 ⎪ ⎪− 1⎪ ⎢0 0 1 2⎥ ⎭ ⎩ ⎣ ⎦ ⎩ ⎭ ⎧ σx ⎪ ⎨ σy ⎪τ ⎩ xy { } { ε }= [ B ] { q } 2 2 2 ⎧u1 ⎫ ⎪0⎪ 0 0 0 −1 0 ⎤ ⎪ ⎪ ⎡ 1 ⎧1⎫ ⎪ ⎪ 1⎢ ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ = F ⎪ 0 ⎪. Assume the cantilever to have unit thickness t = 1 and be in plane stress. with Young’s modulus E = 1 and Poisson’s ratio ν = 0. The units are coherent. = ⎢ 0 −1 0 1 0 0 ⎥ ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬ l ⎪ 0 ⎪ 2l E t ⎪− 1⎪ ⎢ −1 1 0 0 1 −1 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎪0⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪0⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎧ σx ⎫ ⎡1 0 0 ⎤ ⎧ 1 ⎫ ⎧1⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢0 1 0 ⎥ F ⎪ 0 ⎪= F ⎪ 0 ⎪. 2 ⎬ ⎨ σy ⎬ =[D ] ε = E ⎢ ⎥ 2l E t ⎨ ⎬ 2 l t ⎨ ⎪− 1 2 ⎪ ⎪ τ ⎪ ⎪− 1⎪ ⎢0 0 1 2⎥ ⎭ ⎩ ⎣ ⎦ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ xy ⎭2 { } Example 8. b) stresses in elements.

the stiffness matrix is calculated longhand from equation (8.2 Solution.24).18). based on the nodal coordinates. .166 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Fig. E8. and the matrix [ D ] is given by (6. where the matrix [ B ] is obtained from (8.17). The input data are given below For each element.

165 ⎤ ⎧ u1 ⎡ 0.301 0 0 ⎥ ⎪ u2 − 0. .8.317 0.125 0 − 1.835 .823 .111 0.192 0 ⎥ ⎪ v1 ⎢ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎢ − 0.111 ⎢ 0 − 0.712 .192 1.301 0 ⎥ ⎪ u3 ⎢ ⎥⎪ 0 0 − 1.192 − 0.686 . ⎪ ⎪−2⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎭ ⎭ ⎩ u1 = 7.192 − 0. v3 = −13.903 ⎥ ⎪ v2 ⎢ 0. v2 = −15.666 0 1. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 167 The element stiffness matrices are the following: The condensed global stiffness matrix is The condensed finite element equations can be written 0 0 − 0.317 0. u3 = −2.582 .111 − 0.165 ⎣ ⎦⎩ The solution to these equations gives ⎫ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ −1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎬=⎨ ⎬.125 ⎥ ⎪ v3 ⎢ − 0.165 − 0.165 − 0.317 ⎢ 0 0. v1 = −40.903 0 2. u2 = 6.666 ⎢ ⎥⎨ 0 2.542 .

c) the distribution of σ x stresses in the midsection. Note that the adopted discretization is very crude. the plate should be modeled by many more elements. to allow longhand calculation. width b = 40 mm . b) the location and magnitude of the maximum von Mises stress in the plate. Along the edge 4-5. Determine: a) the deformed shape of the hole. Normally.6. and this leads to misleading results. However. E8. a).168 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The output data are presented below: The reaction forces at nodes 4 and 5 are obtained from the ‘unused’ unreduced equations. Solution. a distribution of bending stresses from compressive at 4 to tensile at 5 is expected.3 A thin rectangular plate. is subjected to loads that produce uniform tensile stresses σ 0 = 5 MPa at its ends (Fig. The plate has length l = 60 mm . E = 210 GPa and ν = 0.1.3 . Taking advantage of the symmetry of geometry and symmetry of loading. which is wrong. Compare the stress values at the periphery of the hole obtained by FEM and from the theory of elasticity. . containing a circular hole of radius a = 10 mm . a more realistic stress distribution along the edge 4-5 is obtained. Example 8. we can analyze only one-quarter of the plate (upper right). gives only one value of σ x . Ascribing stress values to the element centroids and averaging them as shown in section 8. thickness t = 5 mm . element 3. being a constant strain element.3.

3. c. The hole is elongated in the direction of the loading axis. Let x and y represent the axes of symmetry. The deformed shape is shown in Fig.3. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 169 Fig. b. but the element numbering is omitted for clarity. 81-element mesh is created as shown in Fig.3. are denoted a to f. b The applied nodal forces are shown. E8. and the crossing points of the lines connecting the centroids with the common sides (where stresses are averaged). . a A 55-node. and points along the y axis are constrained along the x direction.8. E8.3. Fig. The centroids of the elements near the midsection are marked. E8. The points along the x axis are constrained in the y direction. E8.

3. E8.6 MPa and occurs in element 1. Elements are hatched according to the value of von Mises stresses. d. E8. using five intervals with limits shown in the legend. E8.3. Stress values in elements near the midsection are given in Table E8.3.170 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Fig. d The maximum von Mises stress is 19. c The calculation of stresses is summarized in Fig. Fig.3. .

5786 7.39 c 9.8845 1.4577 11.927 0. have the following values: Point a 15. a). averaged at points a to f.4 An axially loaded thin plate with a circular fillet (Fig.0752 σy 0. thickness 5 mm .89 σ x . E = 2 ⋅ 105 MPa and ν = 0. width of the reduced portion 40 mm .5706 -0. Example 8.3 Element 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 σx 20. The normal stress at a point far to the right of the fillet has a uniformly distributed value .2632 0.8. width of the extended portion 80 mm . fillet radius 20 mm .815 1.8037 Stresses σ x . The maximum stress occurs at the periphery of the hole (r = a ) and is σ xmax = 3σ 0 = 15 MPa .5768 0.25 .78 MPa .78 b 11.5693 5.9228 0.6445 5.69 d 7. is σ xa = 15.68 f 4. E8.174 0.6667 0.0595 0. ⎜ 2r 2r ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ where r is the distance from the x axis (Fig.068 7.6221 0. in point a. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 171 Table E8. E8.4.6821 10.3275 8.6155 10.3595 σ eq 19.7162 4. MPa The theoretical distribution of stresses σ x in the midsection of a plate containing a small circular hole and subjected to uniaxial tension is approximated by ⎛ a2 3 a4 ⎞ σ x = σ0 ⎜ 1+ 2 + 4 ⎟ . which is surprisingly accurate for the rough mesh used in the exercise.3. a) has length 150 mm .9433 7. The averaged value of elements 1 and 2.0178 11.763 τ xy -0.7073 3.1651 0.85 e 6.

Fig. b The nodal loads are calculated from equation (8. E8. Fig. each with a surface of 25 mm 2 . E8. .19). E8. for the quarter plate. b. The nodal loads for each element are 440 × 25 / 2 = 5500 N . Taking advantage of the symmetry.7 MPa . The largest equivalent stress is 604. Points along the left edge are constrained in the horizontal direction.4. only half of the plate is considered. Determine the stress concentration factor for the circular fillet. a Answer. c for five stress intervals given in the legend. The right edge has four elements. have magnitudes of 5500 N at the upper and lower node. A model comprising 95 nodes and 144 CST elements is constructed as shown in Fig. E8. The points along the symmetry axis are constrained in the vertical direction.4. Find the location and magnitude of the maximum von Mises stress in the plate. The resulting five nodal forces. and 11000 N at the three middle nodes.4.4. subjected to a normal stress of 440 N mm 2 .172 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS of 440 MPa . The distribution of von Mises stresses is shown in Fig.

11224 . v60 = −3.415. The largest principal stress σ 1 is 622.4198 0 ⎤ ⎡ − 0. The stress concentration factor relative to the value 440 MPa is 1. This value is reasonably close to the theoretical true value of 1. b are given below: x60 = 92. E8.0596 − 0.4198 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ .4. E8.5 . c Values of the principal stress σ 1 around the fillet are presented in the upper part.12247 . The triangle area is A96 = 4.0596 0 − 0. x64 = 95 . x65 = 95.1925 mm 2 .8. ⎥ ⎢ 0. E = 2 ⋅ 105 MPa and ν = 0. Solution. = 0.63e − 3 . u65 u60 = 0.3757 0 0.5 The nodal coordinates and the nodal displacements of element 96 in Fig. Example 8.1216 0 0.3757 − 0.52 .12367 . v64 = −3.2982 ⎢ [ B ]= ⎢ 0 0. u64 = 0.42 given by Singer (1962).3160 ⎥ .3160 0. v65 = −4.25 .2982 − 0. Calculate the element stresses.17) 0 − 0.5 . y60 = 21. The matrix [ B ] is (8.4.35 .7 MPa . TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 173 Fig. y65 = 20.1216 0. y64 = 18 .97e − 3 .92e − 3 .

σ y τ xy ⎦ T = ⎣596.8 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 5 The vector of nodal displacements (8.92e − 3 ⎦ T .174 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The matrix [ D ] is (6.08⎦ T . but is distributed over a larger area than for the mating contact of two teeth.63e − 3 0.6.6 Find the deformed shape and the stress distribution in the loaded gear tooth shown in Fig. a.58 − 120. ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0 0 0 . Fig. Element stresses are given by {σ } = [ D ][ B ] { q }.5333 2.72 63. {σ } = ⎣σ x Example 8.12367 − 3. to concentrate only on the influence of fillet geometry.12247 − 4. The load is not applied at the tooth tip.24) ⎡ 2.1333 0 ⎥ .1) is { q } = ⎣ 0.11224 − 3. a . E8. E8.97e − 3 0.5333 0 ⎤ [ D ] = 10 ⎢ 0.1333 0.6.

b. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 175 Answer. c. The deformed shape is presented in Fig. Fig. E8. b The stress distribution is shown in Fig.6.8. c . where the equivalent von Mises stresses are indicated.6. The adopted finite element mesh has 126 nodes and 212 CST elements. Note the restraints which model the tooth built-in end. Note the stress concentration at both fillet areas. E8.6.6. E8. Fig. E8.

8.2.176 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 8.0 ) = 1 we get c1 = 1 . y1 ) = N1 ( 0. hence it must be of the form N1 ( x . y ) = x a y ⎞ ⎛ ⎜ 1− ⎟ . For example. built up beams and boxes.1 The four-node rectangle (linear) Consider the 4-node element in Fig. the remaining three shape functions are N2 ( x. a b N4 ( x. b ⎠ ⎝ N3 ( x. 8. y ) = x y . hence ab 1 ( a − x ) ( b − y ) = ⎛ 1− x ⎞ ⎛ 1− y ⎞ . N1 ( x . From condition N1 ( x1 . y ) = ⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟ ab a ⎠⎝ b ⎠ ⎝ Likewise. a⎠ ⎝ It is convenient to transform to dimensionless central coordinates . and has a unit value at the node with the same index N1 ( x1 . ( ) (8.7. y ) = c1 ( a − x ) ( b − y ) . N1 is identically zero on lines x = a and y = b .2 Rectangular elements Rectangular elements are the easiest to discuss and are used to model stiffened thinwalled panel structures. y ) = y b x⎞ ⎛ ⎜ 1− ⎟ . 8.20) They can be generated using the equations of the sides. y j = δ ij . but zero at all other nodes on the element N i x j . y1 ) = 1 . Fig.7 We have to find two-dimensional shape functions which have unit values at one selected node.

a (8. N4 ⎥ ⎦ u4 v4 ⎦ . there are eight boundary conditions. The required shape functions are 1 (1 − r ) (1 − s ) .25) The use of the shape functions (8.23) The displacements inside the element can be expressed in terms of the nodal displacements as ⎧ u ⎫ ⎡ N1 ⎨ ⎬=⎢ ⎩v⎭ ⎣ 0 0 N1 N2 0 0 N2 N3 0 0 N3 N4 0 0 ⎤ e q .24) where {q } e T = ⎣u1 v1 u2 v2 u3 v3 (8. Some improvement can be gained by diminishing the shear variation through the use of reduced integration on the shear contribution in the element stiffness matrix. (8. Because. N2 = 1 (1 + r ) (1 − s ) . v ( x . all like powers in x and y are not present. 4 4 N1 = (8. for two displacements. y ) = a 1 + a2 x + a3 y + a4 x y . The displacements u and v of a point within the rectangle can be expressed in terms of the nodal displacements by a polynomial approximation. . Many users prefer to use higher order elements rather than use a larger number of small 4-noded rectangles. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 177 s= 2y −1. 4 4 1 1 N3 = ( 1 + r ) ( 1 + s ) . the assumed displacement field is u (x . where the stiffness has to be reevaluated as the load increments are applied and plasticity spreads. { } (8.…. The 4-noded rectangular element is exploited in non-linear problems like elasto-plastic behaviour.8.23) has one drawback – they are not complete. 1 ± s = 0 . N 4 = ( 1 − r ) ( 1 + s ) .21) The equations of element sides become 1 ± r = 0 .26) The direct strain ε x = a2 + a4 y is constant in the x direction whereas the shear strain γ xy = a3 + a4 x + b2 + b4 y varies linearly with x and y .22) (8. In this case x y is present but x 2 and y 2 are not. That is. b r= 2x −1. y ) = b1 + b 2 x + b 3 y + b4 x y . Thus the variation of strain does not have the same order in all directions.

39) is [k ]= ∫ [ B ] e Ve T [ D ][ B ] dV .9. Fig. b shows the expected circular deformed shape free of shear deformations. because the strain energy is underestimated. (≥ 3) 8. a shows the deformed shape of a single element in pure bending. Fig. bending strains b This explains the poor results obtained with high aspect ratio elements which have also badly conditioned stiffness matrices.178 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The element stiffness matrix (7.8. 8. in an example where it is expected to behave like a slender beam in which bending stresses are dominant. At the element ends the shear strain is γ xy = d b and only the centre has no shear deformation. The direct strains are ε x = d a on the upper and lower surface. 8. where [ B ] = [ ∂ ][ N ] .8 Figure 8. The stress discontinuities at element interfaces can be comparable with the mean values and the free edge stresses are not zero. The ratio spurious shears a = = aspect ratio . . The 4-node element has flat sides.8. In comparison.2 The eight-node rectangle (quadratic) The higher order 8-node rectangular element is shown in Fig. stresses are lower than the true values. Adding four nodes means adding four supplementary boundary conditions (or nodal displacements) so that in the polynomial approximation we can add four more (higher order) terms. The poor performance of the 4-noded element is shown below. Generally.2. 8.

The 16 constants can be expressed (interpolated) in terms of the 16 nodal displacements and the nodal coordinates.8. 8. v = N1 v1 + N 2 v2 + N 3 v3 + .28) where the shape functions N i can be easily built up based on the equations of the lines passing through the nodes (serendipity approach).. N 8 = ( 1 − r ) ( 1 − s ) ( 1 + s ). 2 4 N1 = − .9 only the lines through the new nodes are shown for clarity.. Note that choosing the last terms in x 3 and y 3 would make the element more anisotropic. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 179 The assumed displacement field is cubic u (x . 8. N6 = ( 1 + r ) ( 1 − s ) ( 1 + s ) . the shape functions have the following expressions 1 ( 1 − r ) ( 1 − s ) (1 + r + s ) . Using the nodal approximation. 4 4 (8. Fig.27) so that the strains are quadratic. y ) = a 1 + a2 x + a3 y + a4 x 2 + a5 x y + a6 y 2 + a7 x 2 y + a8 x y 2 . N 4 = − ( 1 − r ) ( 1 + s ) (1 + r − s ) .7. y ) = b1 + b2 x + b3 y + b4 x 2 + b5 x y + b6 y 2 + b7 x 2 y + b8 x y 2 . 4 4 1 1 N 3 = − ( 1 + r ) ( 1 + s ) ( 1 − r − s ). v ( x . 2 2 1 1 N 7 = ( 1 − r ) ( 1 + r ) (1 + s ) . In the natural system of coordinates r and s. (8. the displacement field is expressed as u = N1 u1 + N 2 u2 + N 3 u3 + . the old ones are presented in Fig. N 2 = − 1 ( 1 + r ) ( 1 − s ) (1 − r + s ) . + N8 u8 .29) 1 1 N5 = ( 1 − r ) ( 1 + r ) ( 1 − s ) . + N8 v8 . (8... 8.9 In Fig.

ζ3 = .30) { q }= ⎣u e 1 v1 u2 v 2 L L u8 (8. as h1 h2 h3 . { } (8.10. N8 ⎥ ⎦ v8 ⎦ T . 1 + r + s = 0 . 1 − r = 0 . 3. The displacements inside the element can be expressed in terms of the nodal displacements as ⎧ u ⎫ ⎡ N1 ⎨ ⎬=⎢ ⎩v⎭ ⎣ 0 where 0 N1 N2 0 0 L L N8 N2 L L 0 0 ⎤ e q . and nondimensionalized. the functions [ B ] = [ ∂ ][ N [ ] ] 8.3.29)..e. by division to the triangle heights. elements having linear. The position of any point M in the triangle is identified by the perpendicular distances h1 . Therefore N1 is of the form N1 = c1 ( 1 − r ) ( 1 − s ) (1 + r + s ) .. 8 and have a value of unity at node 1. Having generated the shape functions [ N ] . ζ1 = H1 H2 H3 . i. Equivalently. a).31) follow and the element stiffness matrix k e can be evaluated using [ D ] .1 Area coordinates For a triangle it is possible to define a completely symmetrical coordinate system known as area coordinates.180 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The interpolation function N1 should be zero at nodes 2.3 Triangular elements In order to obtain accurate results for stresses with a constant strain discretization. where c1 is a constant which is determined so as to yield N1 (− 1. quadratic or higher-order strain expansions. i... Considerable effort has been devoted to develop ‘refined’ elements. which gives the expression of N1 in (8. ζ2 = . h2 . N1 should vanish on the sides defined by the equations of lines passing through nodes 2 to 8: 1 − s = 0 . h3 from the three sides (Fig. 8. one has to use a large number of elements. c1 = −1 4 . 8.−1) = 1 .e.

10.8. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 181 or ζ1 = A1 A .12) ⎫ ⎡α1 ⎪ 1 ⎢ ⎬= ⎢α 2 ⎪ 2 A ⎢α ⎭ ⎣ 3 β1 γ 1 ⎤ ⎧ 1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ β2 γ 2 ⎥ ⎨ x ⎬ ⎥ β3 γ 3 ⎥ ⎪ y ⎪ ⎦⎩ ⎭ .10 The physical coordinates of point M can be expressed in terms of the nodal coordinates as x = ζ 1 x1 + ζ 2 x 2 + ζ 3 x3 . one obtains ζ1 + ζ 2 + ζ 3 = 1 . 8. or in matrix form ⎧1 ⎫ ⎡1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎨ x ⎬ = ⎢ x1 ⎪ y ⎪ ⎢y ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ 1 ⎧ ζ1 ⎪ ⎨ ζ2 ⎪ζ ⎩ 3 or 1 x2 y2 1 ⎤ ⎧ ζ1 ⎪ x3 ⎥ ⎨ ζ 2 ⎥ y3 ⎥ ⎪ ζ 3 ⎦⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎬. we obtain equation (8. y = ζ 1 y1 + ζ 2 y2 + ζ 3 y3 . (8.33) so the three coordinates are not independent and they behave like the shape functions.32) As A1 + A2 + A3 = A (Fig. ζ2 = A2 A . b).34) By inversion. ζ3 = A3 A . 8. ⎪ ⎭ (8. Fig. (8.

{ } (8. β i = y j − yk . In Fig.38) .2 Linear strain triangle (LST) The linear strain triangle is a six-noded element. 2. the equations of the three sides and the lines through the mid-side nodes are shown using area coordinates. 2A FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ( i = 1.182 ζi = 1 ( α i + βi x + γ i y ) .3.36) The displacements in terms of the nodal displacements are ⎧ u ⎫ ⎡ N1 ⎨ ⎬=⎢ ⎩v⎭ ⎣ 0 0 N1 1 N2 0 0 L L N6 N2 L L 0 0 ⎤ e q . 2⎠ 2⎠ ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ N 5 = 4 ζ 2 ζ 3 . 3 ) (8. 8. N6 ⎥ ⎦ v6 ⎦ T .11. obtained adding three mid-side nodes to the CST. Fig.9) and the expressions (8.35) where A is given by (8. N 6 = 4 ζ 3 ζ1 . γ i = xk − x j .37) where { q }= ⎣u e v1 u2 v 2 L L u6 (8. N 3 = 2 ⎜ ζ 3 − ⎟ ζ 3 .11 The shape functions are readily seen to be 1 ⎛ N1 = 2 ⎜ ζ1 − 2 ⎝ N 4 = 4 ζ1 ζ 2 .8) are α i = x j yk − xk y j . 8. N 2 = 2 ⎜ ζ 2 − ⎟ ζ 2 . 8. (8. 1⎞ 1⎞ ⎞ ⎛ ⎛ ⎟ ζ1 .

The inverse relationship is ⎧ ∂ ⎪ ∂x ⎪ ⎨ ∂ ⎪ ⎪∂y ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬=[J ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎧ ∂ ⎪ ζ ] −1 ⎪ ∂∂ 2 ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ∂ ζ3 ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ 1 ⎡ β2 ⎪ ⎬= ⎢ ⎪ 2A ⎣ γ 2 ⎪ ⎭ ⎧ ∂ β3 ⎤ ⎪ ∂ ζ 2 ⎪ ⎥⎨ ∂ γ3 ⎦ ⎪ ⎪ ∂ ζ3 ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬. However.and second-degree terms are ∫ζ A i dA = A . 12 ∫ζ A 2 i dA = A . (2 + a + b ) ! (8. 6 (8. ζ 3 .43) The results for first. (8. γ i are defined by (8.8. ∂y ∂ ζ2 ∂y ∂ ζ3 ⎤⎧ ∂ ⎥⎪ ∂x ⎪ ⎥⎨ ⎥⎪ ∂ ⎥⎪∂y ⎦⎩ ⎧ ∂ ⎪ ] ⎪ ∂∂x ⎨ ⎪ ⎪∂y ⎩ (8. The integration is frequently performed numerically. The element stiffness matrix is [k ]= ∫ [ B ] e A T [ D ][ B ] t e d A .44) . 3 ∫ζ ζ i A j dA = A .9) and β i .34) obtaining x = (x 2 − x1 ) ζ 2 + (x3 − x1 ) ζ 3 + x1 . b and [ D ] using the integration formula for monomials ∫ζ A a b i ζj dA = 2 A a! b! .33) we can eliminate ζ1 in (8. Using (8. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 183 To form [ B ] = [ ∂ ][ N ] we need to find the derivatives of shape functions with respect to the physical coordinates. so we must transform from x . it can be solved explicitly in terms of a.8). ζ 2 .41) where A is the triangle area (8.39) Using the chain rule for partial derivatives ⎧ ∂ ⎪ ∂ζ ⎪ 2 ⎨ ∂ ⎪ ⎪ ∂ ζ3 ⎩ ⎫ ⎡ ∂x ⎪ ⎢ ∂ζ ⎪ 2 ⎬ = ⎢ ∂x ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ∂ ζ3 ⎭ ⎣ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬=[J ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬.40) where [ J ] is the Jacobian of the transformation. ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ (8.42) where d A = l 3 dζ 2 l 2 dζ 3 sinθ = 2 A dζ 2 dζ 3 . y = ( y2 − y1 ) ζ 2 + ( y3 − y1 ) ζ 3 + y1 . ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ (8. y to ζ1 .

There are three constants for this case (the function is quadratic) and an additional interior node is required for each boundary. 2 (8. the displacement expansion on a boundary must involve only the nodal quantities for that boundary. ζ1 = 1 − ζ 2 − ζ 3 = 1 − r − s (8. Denoting ζ 2 = r. without recourse to computationally inefficient internal nodes. It is convenient to locate these interior nodes at the mid-points of the sides.46) we can introduce oblique triangular coordinates (Fig. 8. There are twelve nodal displacements. the nodal approximation (8.37) is obtained.12 The coefficients of the nodal coordinates are genuine geometric interpolation functions N1 = 1 − r − s . Solving for the constants in terms of the nodal displacements. (8.12). N2 = r . containing all possible products. six for each component.48) . y = ( 1 − r − s ) y1 + r y2 + s y3 . 2 2 v = b1 + b2 ζ 2 + b3 ζ 3 + b4 ζ 2 + b5 ζ 2 ζ 3 + b6 ζ 3 . ζ 3 = s. N3 = s . so the element is truly isotropic. The physical coordinates of a point within the triangle are x = ( 1 − r − s ) x1 + r x 2 + s x3 . In order to satisfy inter-element displacement compatibility.184 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The LST element is based on expanding the displacements in a complete second-degree polynomial in ζ 2 and ζ 3 2 u = a1 + a2 ζ 2 + a3 ζ 3 + a4 ζ 2 + a5 ζ 2 ζ 3 + a6 ζ 3 . 8.45) The displacement field is complete.47) Fig. (8.

8.50) where . TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 185 The nodal displacements for the 3-node triangle can also be written u = ( 1 − r − s ) u1 + r u2 + s u3 . a. (8. taking as nodal quantities the displacement components.13 The displacements are expressed as complete cubic polynomials. i =1 9 (8.13. 8. This is the basic idea behind the isoparametric formulation. i =1 9 v = ∑ N i vi + N c v c . v = ( 1 − r − s ) v1 + r v2 + s v3 . The side nodes are located at the third points.8.3 Quadratic strain triangle A triangular element with a quadratic displacement field can be built up in two ways. the displacement function for a side must depend only on the nodal displacement quantities for the side. 8. Fig. treated in the next chapter. In order to satisfy inter-element displacement compatibility. The displacement nodal expansion has the form u = ∑ N i ui + N c u c . This element is shown in Fig. An additional interior node is needed to maintain completeness of the polynomial since. Since the function is cubic. four nodal quantities are required to define the distribution on a side.3. if the polynomial is not complete. One possibility is to work with corner point nodes and two interior nodes per side. the stiffness will have preferred direction which is not desirable.49) so that the same functions can be used as interpolation functions. It is convenient to take the interior node at the centroid.

It is convenient to take the displacement components of the centroid (uc . 2 N8 = ζ 3 ( γ 2 ζ1 − γ 1 ζ 2 ) + ( γ 1 − γ 2 ) ζ1 ζ 2 ζ 3 . N 7 = ζ 2 ζ 3 ( 3 ζ 3 − 1 ). . two displacements and four first derivatives.53) N c = 27 ζ1 ζ 2 ζ 3 . as nodal quantities.52) the interpolation polynomials.186 N1 = N3 N4 N6 N8 Nc FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 1 1 ζ1 ( 3 ζ1 − 1 ) ( 3 ζ1 − 2 ) . (8. Two additional displacement quantities not associated with the boundaries are required for completeness. . b). 2 2 = 27 ζ1 ζ 2 ζ 3 .. a total of 18 parameters (Fig. 2 2 N 7 = ζ 3 ( ζ 3 + 3 ζ1 + 3 ζ 2 ) − 7 ζ1 ζ 2 ζ 3 . (8. are 2 N1 = ζ1 ( ζ1 + 3 ζ 2 + 3 ζ 3 ) − 7 ζ1 ζ 2 ζ 3 .52) In (8. x x (8.. N 2 = ζ 2 ( 3 ζ 2 − 1 ) ( 3 ζ 2 − 2 ) . N 5 = ζ1 ζ 2 ( 3 ζ 2 − 1 ). The nodal expansion for u has the form u = N1 u1 + N 2 u′ 1 + N 3 u′y1 + N 4 u2 + N 5 u′ 2 + . vc ) as the remaining parameters. 2 N 6 = ζ 2 ( β 3 ζ1 − β1 ζ 3 ) + ( β1 − β 3 ) ζ1 ζ 2 ζ 3 . At each corner. there are six . 2 N 2 = ζ1 ( γ 3 ζ 2 − γ 2 ζ 3 ) + ( γ 2 − γ 3 ) ζ1 ζ 2 ζ 3 . 8. + + N 9 u′y 3 + N cuc . N 9 = ζ 3 ζ 1 ( 3 ζ 1 − 1 ) . 2 N 5 = ζ 2 ( γ 1 ζ 3 − γ 3 ζ1 ) + ( γ 3 − γ 1 ) ζ 1 ζ 2 ζ 3 . 2 2 9 9 = ζ 3 ζ1 ( 3 ζ 3 − 1 ) . 2 N 9 = ζ 3 ( β1 ζ 2 − β 2 ζ1 ) + ( β 2 − β1 ) ζ1 ζ 2 ζ 3 .51) Another possibility is to work only with corner nodes. in order to reduce the bandwidth of the stiffness matrix. 2 9 9 = ζ1 ζ 2 ( 3 ζ1 − 1 ) . expressed in terms of triangular coordinates. N 4 = ζ 2 ( ζ 2 + 3 ζ 3 + 3 ζ1 ) − 7 ζ1 ζ 2 ζ 3 . 2 N 3 = ζ1 ( β 2 ζ 3 − β 3 ζ 2 ) + ( β 3 − β 2 ) ζ1 ζ 2 ζ 3 .13. 2 2 1 = ζ3 ( 3 ζ3 − 1 ) ( 3 ζ3 − 2 ) . 2 2 9 9 = ζ 2 ζ 3 ( 3 ζ 2 − 1 ). ∂x ∂ y ∂x ∂ y nodal variables. The solution is to include displacement ∂ u ∂ u ∂v ∂v derivatives .

∂x 2 ∂y 1− ν ∂ ∂ γ xy + ε y + ν ε x = 0.8) and the subscript c refers to the centroid. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 187 where γ i . but equilibrium is usually not satisfied. 8.4.26) (8. of the rectangular element.16) in (8. + = − 2 ⎜ ∂ x 2 ∂ x ∂y ⎟ ∂ x2 ∂ y 2 ⎝ ⎠ u ( x . compatibility is satisfied if the assumed element displacement field is continuous. Substituting the stress-strain relations (6. compatibility In a FEM solution based on assumed displacement fields. convergence and compatibility It is useful to make some general comments on the fulfilment of the equilibrium and compatibility conditions in a finite element solution based on assumed displacement fields [33].24) into the equilibrium ∂ 1− ν ∂ ε x +ν ε y + γ xy = 0. For example. one can say that: a) Within elements.55) Equations (8.56) . β i are defined by (8.54) Substituting the strain-displacement relations (6. v ( x .4 Equilibrium.1 Equilibrium vs. y ) = b1 + b2 x + b3 y + b4 x y . 8. + 2 = − 2 ⎜ ∂ y 2 ∂ x ∂y ⎟ ∂ x2 ∂ y ⎝ ⎠ ∂ 2 v ∂ 2 v 1 + ν ⎛ ∂ 2 v ∂ 2u ⎞ ⎜ ⎟.54) gives ∂ 2u ∂ 2u 1 + ν ⎛ ∂ 2u ∂ 2v ⎞ ⎜ ⎟. 2 ∂x ∂y equations (6.8. (8.55) are not satisfied by the assumed displacement field (8.7) we obtain ( ) ( ) (8. y ) = a1 + a2 x + a3 y + a4 x y . pv x Let write the equilibrium equations in terms of displacements for the case = pv y = 0 . The same interpolation functions are valid for v .

the convergence of displacements with the mesh refinement must be monotonic from below. But as already shown. and equilibrium is usually not satisfied. the elements fit together. Happily.188 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ∂u ∂u ∂ 2v ∂ 2u ∂ 2u = a2 + a4 y . the rectangle is inferior to the triangle. where stresses are constant within the element but differ from one element to another. equilibrium is satisfied within the CST because of its extreme simplicity. in a ‘proper’ finite element solution. the edges remain straight. any violations of equilibrium and compatibility tend to vanish as more and more elements are used in the mesh. and equilibrium of nodal forces and moments is satisfied. the direct strain ε x is linear in the y direction whereas the shear strain γ xy varies linearly with x and y . 8. for both the 3-node triangle and the 4-node rectangle. When inter-element compatibility is satisfied. compatibility is enforced by joining elements at these locations. = a3 + a4 x . b) Between elements.55) is not satisfied. for any nodal displacement. As the discretization is refined. Moreover. The finite element equations are a set of equilibrium equations and the solution is such that resultant forces and moments acting on each node are zero. However. The rectangle would satisfy equilibrium if a4 = b4 = 0 . So. in general. and ∂x ∂y ∂ x ∂y ∂ x2 ∂ y which is not zero. inter-element stress continuity may exist. so the first equation (8. as in the case of uniform beams loaded only at nodes. = b4 = 2 = 0 . the solution will converge monotonically to the true solution. Inter-element equilibrium is obviously violated in the CST. and adjacent elements do not overlap or separate. In some cases it can give better results. but this is the case only in a field of constant strain. the finite element solution gives an upper bound on the total potential energy. c) At nodes. compatibility may or may not be satisfied. u and v are linear in x (or y ) along element edges. For example.2 Convergence and compatibility As the mesh of elements is refined.4. provided that the new mesh contains all the nodes of the previous meshes. However. the sequence of solutions to a problem is expected to converge to the correct result if the assumed element displacement fields satisfy the following criteria: . One cannot conclude from this that.

Such elements do satisfy inter-element compatibility in the limit of mesh refinement. The model consists of an assembly of several elements arranged so that at least one node is completely surrounded by elements. and stresses within elements should be consistent with the constant strain state. i. if there is a ‘balanced’ representation of terms in the polynomial expansion. b) When the nodal degrees of freedom are given values corresponding to a state of constant strain. e) The element should have no preferred directions. When nodal degrees of freedom are given values corresponding to a state of rigid body motion. it is not possible to construct a minimizing sequence with non-compatible elements. To satisfy the requirements on both rigid body modes and constant strain rates.8. Also. . Elements should be invariant with respect to the orientation of the load system. the expansion must be at least a complete polynomial of order equal to the highest derivative occurring in the strain-displacement relations. The boundary nodes are then given either displacements or forces consistent with a constant strain state. the element must exhibit zero strain and therefore zero nodal forces. the slope must be continuous across interelement boundaries. However. Invariance exists if complete polynomials are used for element displacement fields. strains. d) Compatibility must exist between elements. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 189 a) The displacement field within an element must be continuous. The check is done using the so called “patch test”. we will not be able to reproduce the displacement patterns corresponding to the n − 1 previous discretizations. If not. plate and shell elements. noncompatible elements do not provide a bound on the potential energy. the element type is invalid or at least suspect (it may happen that an element is valid in certain configurations only). and the equations of nodal equilibrium are altered. This is normally ensured by the selection of shape functions. This means that by suitably specializing the nodal displacements for the nth discretization. the displacement field must produce the constant strain state throughout the element. Internal nodes are to be neither loaded nor restrained. If this requirement is violated. as each element approaches a state of constant strain. The computed displacements.e. This requirement is violated by many successful non-conforming elements. we do not know whether the potential energy corresponding to a particular non-conforming element is higher or lower than the true value. It is achieved even when based on incomplete polynomials. c) Rigid body modes must be represented. In the case of beam. extraneous nodal forces appear. Elements must not overlap or separate.

E8.6. a simple patch test is carried out as follows. v4 = 1 . The condensed set of finite element equations has the form [K ] ⎧ ⎨ where [K ] depends on the material properties and {F } depends on both the material properties and the prescribed nodal displacements.7 Assume a displacement field u=v= x+ y for which the strains are {ε } = ⎣1 1 2⎦ T . .7 For the assembly of four triangular elements shown in Fig. The resulting nodal displacements are u1 = 0 . v2 = 1 . u3 = 4 . the internal node must behave accordingly. v1 = 0 . If these are the boundary conditions imposed to the model. E8.25 and the strains at any point must be {ε } = ⎣1 1 2⎦ T . v3 = 4 . u4 = 1 .190 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Example 8. Fig. Its solution must be u5 ⎫ ⎬ = {F } . u2 = 1 . ⎩v5 ⎭ u5 = v5 = 1.

The constant strain triangle is an isoparametric element though it was not treated like that. 9.9. (9.1) . It is possible to construct subparametric elements whose geometry is determined by a lower order model than the displacements. 3 and 4 are labelled counterclockwise. the same interpolation functions are used to define the element shape as are used to define the displacement field within the element. the result is an isoparametric element. The displacement components of a local node i are denoted as ui in the x direction and vi in the y direction. The local nodes 1. yi ) . a. 2. If we develop higher order triangular elements while keeping straight sides. Each node has two degrees of freedom. ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS Simple triangular and rectangular elements allow closed form derivations of stiffness matrices and load vectors. they are subparametric elements. For isoparametric elements. because only the displacement expansion is refined whereas the geometry definition remains the same. When it is mapped into a quadrilateral with parabolically curved sides.1. we obtain a subparametric element. the shapes of the interpolation functions and not the parameters are the same. Elements with curved sides provide a better fit to curved edges of an actual structure. When the eight node rectangle is transformed into a quadrilateral with straight sides. 9. In fact.1 Linear quadrilateral element Consider the general quadrilateral element shown in Fig. The coordinates of node i are ( xi . The construction of shape functions and evaluation of stiffness matrices for quadrilateral and higher-order elements with curved sides faces difficulties which are overcome by the use of isoparametric elements and numerical integration. The vector of element nodal displacements is defined as { q }= ⎣ u e 1 v1 u2 v2 u3 v3 u4 v4 ⎦ T .

s } plane. a).2 b . a Fig. which extends over r ∈ [ − 1. The coordinates r and s vary from − 1 on one side to + 1 at the other.1. The transformation between the natural coordinates { r .1 Natural coordinates A natural coordinate system can be attached to a quadrilateral element as illustrated in Fig.192 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 9. 9. called the reference element (or master element). quadrilateral elements become a square of side 2 (Fig. 9. 1 ] . They are called quadrilateral coordinates. b.1.2. This is called the reference plane. s } in the reference plane and the cartesian coordinates { x . In the reference plane. taking the value zero over the quadrilateral medians. a Fig. 9. y } is called the isoparametric mapping.1 b In the development of isoparametric elements it is useful to visualize the quadrilateral coordinates plotted as cartesian coordinates in the { r . 1 ] . 9. s ∈ [ − 1.

The drawback is that the mapping is a change of coordinates which implies complications in the evaluation of the integral in the element stiffness matrix.2.2 Shape functions The interpolation functions (8. x3 ⎪ x4 ⎪ ⎭ (9. y = N1 y1 + N 2 y2 + N 3 y3 + N 4 y4 = ∑ N i y i . b). The coordinates of a point within the element are expressed in terms of the nodal coordinates as x = N1 x1 + N 2 x 2 + N 3 x3 + N 4 x 4 = ∑ N i x i .2) 1 1 N3 = ( 1 + r ) ( 1 + s ) . b) . N 4 = ( 1 − r ) ( 1 + s ) . ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 193 Each quadrilateral ‘child’ in the { x . 9. a) y = ⎣N ⎦ y e = ⎣N1 { } N2 N3 ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ N4 ⎦ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ y1 y2 y3 y4 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬.4) In matrix form x = ⎣N ⎦ x e = ⎣N1 { } N2 N3 ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ N4 ⎦ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ x1 ⎫ x2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎬. 9. si ) are the coordinates of node i . 4 4 The following compact representation is useful for the implementation in a computer program Ni ( r .1.4. N 2 = ( 1 + r ) ( 1 − s ) .3) where ( ri . s ) = 1 ( 1 + r ri )( 1 + s si ) .4.9. y } is generated by the ‘parent’ or ‘reference’ element from the { r . 4 4 (9. The advantage is that the interpolation functions defined for the reference element are the same for all actual elements and have simple expressions. 4 (9.23) developed for the rectangle are directly applicable 1 1 N1 = ( 1 − r ) ( 1 − s ) . i =1 i =1 4 4 (9. ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ (9. s } plane (Fig.

because r (or s) is constant. along each side the approximation is linear. r = 1 and u u r =1 (9.8) = a1 + a2 + ( a3 + a4 ) s .7) As the shape functions in natural coordinates (9.3 The displacement field In the isoparametric formulation. overlaps or discontinuities . v = N1 v1 + N 2 v2 + N 3 v3 + N 4 v4 = ∑ N i v i . where (9.2.6) [ N ]= ⎡ ⎢ N1 0 N1 N2 0 0 N2 N3 0 0 N3 N4 0 ⎣ 0 0 ⎤ . s ) . This ensures interelement compatibility.194 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 9. i. the compatibility requirement is satisfied in cartesian coordinates too. If the u displacement is approximated as u ( r . s ) = a1 + a2 r + a3 s + a4 r s . Then it is easy to show that the displacements along a side of the element depend only upon the displacements of the nodes occurring on that side. then u = N1 u 1 + N 2 u 2 + N 3 u 3 + N 4 u 4 = ∑ N i u i . along the side 2-3 (Fig. 9.e. N4 ⎥ ⎦ (9. For example. = 1− s 1+ s u2 + u3 . i =1 i =1 4 4 (9. 2 2 r =1 The four-node quadrilateral is termed a “linear” (sometimes bi-linear) element because its sides remain straight during deformation. the same shape functions are used to express the displacements within the element in terms of the nodal values as are used to define the element shape. there are no openings.5) which can be written in matrix form { u } = [ N ] { q e }. As mentioned in Chapter 8.2) fulfil continuity of geometry and displacements both within the element and between adjacent elements. a). polynomial models are inherently continuous within the element.1. If u and v are the displacement components of a point located at ( r .

u ( x ) varies quadratically and cannot be uniquely defined as a function of u 2 and u 3 . ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ (9.10) and (9. Along 2-3. the 4-node quadrilateral is a non-conforming element. where m is the slope of 2-3. y (r .10) where [ J ]= ⎡ ⎢ J11 ⎣ J 21 J12 ⎤ J 22 ⎥ ⎦ (9. ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 195 between the elements.9) is non-conforming. If the u displacement is approximated as u ( x . Using (9.1.4).1. we have ⎧ ∂ ⎪ ∂r ⎪ ⎨ ∂ ⎪ ⎪ ∂s ⎩ ⎫ ⎡ ∂x ⎪ ⎢ ∂r ⎪ ⎬ = ⎢ ∂x ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ ⎢ ∂s ⎭ ⎣ ∂y ∂r ∂y ∂s ⎤⎧ ∂ ⎥⎪ ∂x ⎪ ⎥⎨ ⎥⎪ ∂ ⎥⎪∂y ⎦⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬=[J ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎧ ∂ ⎪ ] ⎪ ∂∂x ⎨ ⎪ ⎪∂y ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬.11) is the Jacobian matrix. we need to express the derivatives of a function in { x . s } coordinates. because the interpolation displacement model provides rigid body displacements in the natural coordinate system. along each side the approximation is quadratic. the equation of the side 2-3 (Fig. 9. s ) . This is done considering the function f = f ( x . it can also be expressed as . Transformation of differential operators Using the chain rule of differentiation.9) For example. 9. (9. The approximation (9. Also. y } coordinates in terms of its derivatives in { r . the conditions of both rigid body displacements and constant strain states are satisfied in cartesian coordinates too. y ) = b1 + b2 x + b3 y + b4 x y . The 4-node isoparametric quadrilateral is a conforming element. so that u ( x) 2 −3 = b1 + cb3 + ( b2 + m b3 + c b4 ) x + m b4 x 2 . s ) ] .4 Mapping from natural to cartesian coordinates Subsequently. On the contrary. a) has the form y = m x + c . y ) to be an implicit function of r and s as f = f [ x (r .9.

.13) ⎡ − x1 + x 2 + x3 − x 4 + ⎢ 1 ⎢ + s (x1 − x 2 + x3 − x 4 ) [ J ]= ⎢ 4 − x1 − x 2 + x3 + x 4 + ⎢ ⎢ + r (x1 − x 2 + x3 − x 4 ) ⎣ ⎧ ∂ ⎪ ∂x ⎪ ⎨ ∂ ⎪ ⎪∂y ⎩ ⎫ ⎡ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ ⎬=⎢ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ ⎢ ⎭ ⎣ ∂r ∂x ∂r ∂y ∂s ∂x ∂s ∂y ⎤⎧ ∂ ⎥ ⎪ ∂r ⎪ ⎥⎨ ⎥⎪ ∂ ⎥ ⎪ ∂s ⎦⎩ − y1 + y2 + y3 − y4 + ⎤ ⎥ + s ( y1 − y2 + y3 − y4 ) ⎥ ⎥.16) [ ( y4 − y2 )( x3 − x1 ) − ( y3 − y1 )( x4 − x2 ) ] .14) where [ j ] = [ J ] −1 is the inverse of the Jacobian matrix [ j ]= ⎡ ⎢ j11 ⎣ j21 j12 ⎤ 1 ⎡ J 22 − J12 ⎤ . ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ (9.196 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎧ ∂ ⎪ [ J ] = ⎪ ∂∂r ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ∂s ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎣x ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎧ ∂ ⎪ ∂r ⎪ y⎦ = ⎨ ∂ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ∂s ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎣ ⎣N ⎦ { x e } ⎣N ⎦ { y e }⎦ = (9. where A0 = 1 8 (9.15) For the four-node quadrilateral element det [ J ] = A0 + A1 r + A2 s . ⎥= j22 ⎦ det [J ] ⎢ − J 21 J11 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (9. the inverse relationship is (9. − y1 − y2 + y3 + y4 + ⎥ + r ( y1 − y2 + y3 − y4 ) ⎥ ⎦ ⎫ ⎧ ∂ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ∂r ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ = [ j ]⎨ ∂ ⎬ . a) Analogously. For the four-node quadrilateral element [ J ]= 1 ⎡ ⎢ − (1 − s ) (1 − s ) 4 ⎣ − (1 − r ) − (1 + r ) (1 + s ) (1 + r ) ⎡ x1 − (1 + s ) ⎤ ⎢ x 2 ⎢ (1 − r ) ⎥ ⎢ x3 ⎦ ⎢ ⎣ x4 y1 y2 y3 y4 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥.12) ⎫ ⎧ ∂ ⎪ ∂ r ⎣N ⎦ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ =⎨ ⎬ ∂ ⎪ N⎦ ⎪ ⎣ ⎪ ⎪ ∂s ⎭ ⎩ ⎣{ x e } { y e }⎦ .13. ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ∂s ⎪ ⎭ ⎭ ⎩ (9.

contours respectively. the elementary area dA is given by the modulus of the cross product d x ×d y . ∂f ∂f . (9. where d x = d x ⋅ i . In cartesian coordinates { x . s = s ( x . and s = const . the elementary area dA is given by the modulus of the cross product d r ×d s . determined on the reference element. and i . d y = d y ⋅ j . [ ( y4 − y1 )( x3 − x2 ) − ( y3 − y2 )( x4 − x1 ) ] . Transformation of an infinitesimal area An additional result that will be needed is the relation dx dy = det [ J ] dr ds . It is equal to the area of the elemental parallelogram enclosed by the two vectors d r and d s directed tangentially to the r = const .9.17) It is needed because. . y ) . ∂r ∂r d s = ( J 21 i + J 22 j ) d s . . s } . in terms of ∂x ∂y Usually [ j] is used because we want to express ∂f ∂f . The above expressions will be used in the derivation of the element stiffness matrix. By equating the moduli of the cross products d x ×d y = d x d y ⋅ k . The components of these vectors in a cartesian coordinate system are dr = ∂x ∂y d r ⋅ i + d r ⋅ j = ( J11 i + J12 j ) d r . j are base vectors. for the evaluation of the element stiffness matrix. we need [ j ]. Because r = r ( x . In a curvilinear system { r . ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 197 A1 = A2 = 1 8 1 8 [ ( y3 − y4 )( x2 − x1 ) − ( y2 − y1 )( x3 − x4 ) ]. y }. y ) ∂r ∂s are not explicitly known. the integration on the real element is replaced by the simpler integration over the reference element.

(9.41) gives the strain-displacement matrix ⎡ ∂ ⎢ ⎢ ∂x [ B ]= [∂ ] [ N ]= ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ∂ ⎢ ⎢ ∂y ⎣ ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ∂ ⎥ [ N ].14) we obtain [ B ] = [ B1 ][ B2 ] .41) [ B ] = [ ∂ ][ N ] . ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ (9. j J12 J 22 k 0 d r d s = det [J ] d r d s ⋅ k 0 9.19) [ N ] is the matrix of Substituting (6.1.9) into (7.22) .43) is [k ]= t ∫ [ B ] e e A T [ D ][ B ] d A .21) ⎡ j11 [ B1 ] = ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ j21 ⎣ j12 0 j22 0 j21 j11 0 j22 j12 ⎤ ⎥. where (9.20) Using the transformation (9.7).9) and shape functions (9.198 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS i d r ×d s = J11 J 21 we obtain equation (9. where [ ∂ ] is the matrix of differential operators (6.18) where [ D ] is the material stiffness matrix and t e is the element thickness.5 Element stiffness matrix The element stiffness matrix (7. (9. ∂y ⎥ ∂ ⎥ ⎥ ∂x ⎥ ⎦ (9.17). The matrix of differentiated shape functions [ B ] is (7.

the consistent nodal forces applied along that side are calculated as for a linear two-node element. the element stiffness matrix can be written [k ]= t ∫ ∫ [ B ] e e −1 −1 +1 +1 T [ D ][ B ] det [ J ] dr ds .24) Because [ B ] and det [ J ] are involved functions of r and s. 9. the above integration has to be performed numerically. ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 199 and ⎡ ∂ ⎢ ∂r ⎢ ⎢ ∂ [ B2 ] = ⎢ ∂ s ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎣ ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ [ N ]. along side 2-3 in Fig. ∂ ⎥ ⎥ ∂r ⎥ ∂ ⎥ ∂s ⎥ ⎦ (9. − (1 + s )⎥ (1 − r ) ⎥ ⎦ 0 Using equation (9. then the equivalent nodal force vector is { f }= 1 l ⎣ 0 2 e 2−3 0 px py px py (9.1.23) or 0 0 (1 − s ) ⎡ − (1 − s ) ⎢ − (1 − r ) 0 − (1 + r ) 0 [ B2 ] = 1 ⎢ (1 − s ) 0 − (1 − s ) 0 4⎢ ⎢ 0 − (1 − r ) 0 − (1 + r ) ⎣ (1 + s ) (1 + r ) 0 0 0 0 (1 + s ) (1 + r ) − (1 + s ) (1 − r ) 0 0 ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥. as shown in the following. .25) if p x and p y are constants and l 2 −3 is the length of the side 2-3. 9.9. (9.17). If there is a distributed load having components ( px . p y ) per unit length 0 0 ⎦T .6 Element load vectors Because the displacements along a side of the quadrilateral isoparametric element are linear.1.

The isoparametric mapping introduces det [ J ] in the integrand so that closed form evaluation of stiffness integrals becomes impossible..26) is exact up to the chosen order.. whose heights are equal to the function values at the sampling points..1 One dimensional Gauss quadrature The one-dimensional version of the Gauss method relies on the concept that any function f ( r ) can be represented approximately over the interval r ∈ [ − 1. the stiffness integrals become progressively more complicated. A polynomial of order (2n − 1) can be ‘fitted’ to f ( r ) by imposing n weights wi and n sampling points in such a way that the summation +1 −1 ∫ f (r ) d r = ∑ wi f ( r i ) i =1 n (9.2 Numerical integration The numerical evaluation of stiffness integrals is usually done by Gaussian quadrature. For higher order elements. As the order of the displacement field increases. the differentiated shape functions in the matrix [ B ] grow algebraically more cumbersome. + a2 n r 2 n −1 . They turn out to be the roots of Legendre polynomials and so the method is referred to as a Gauss-Legendre integration.. as for example the NewtonCotes integration. The 2n coefficients are determined from the condition that the above equation is satisfied for a polynomial of order 2n − 1 of the form f ( r ) = a1 + a2 r + a3 r 2 + . The actual area represented by the integral is replaced by a series of rectangles of unequal widths.2. 1 ] by a polynomial which can be integrated exactly.200 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 9.. 9. + wi f (ri ) + . In other words. because it involves only a half of the sample values of the integrand required by the latter. (9. It is more efficient than other methods.. + wn f (r n ) . the integral of a polynomial function is replaced by a linear combination of its values at the integration points ri : +1 −1 ∫ f ( r )d r = w1 f (r1 ) + w2 f (r 2 ) + . The particular positions of these sampling points are known as Gauss Points.27) .

+ wn r n n −1 . + wn ) + ) ( ) (9.. ( −1 ∫ d r + a2 ∫ r d r + .. n .28) Identifying the terms +1 −1 ∫ d r = ∑ wi ... 3 (9. This is a set of 2 n equations.. 0 = w1 r1 + w2 r 2 + .. + a2 n −1 +1 +1 −1 ∫r 2 n −1 d r = a1 ( w1 + w2 + .3. ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 201 On substitution above we get +1 a1 + a2 w1 r1 + w2 r 2 + ..29) so that 2 = w1 + w2 + . + wn r n 2 n −1 ... i =1 n +1 −1 ∫ r α d r = ∑ wi riα .. 2 2 2 2 = w1 r1 + w2 r 2 + .. + wn r n + ... The 2 n parameters are determined from conditions wi > 0 ⎫ i = 1.9. linear in wi and nonlinear in r i .30) L L L L L L 2 2 2 0 = w1 r1 n −1 + w2 r 2 n −1 + . 9.. i =1 n +1 −1 ∫ r d r = ∑ wi r i .... − 1 < r i < +1 ⎬ ⎭ One-point formula For n = 1 we have the midpoint rule (Fig. 2 ... + a2 n w1 r12 n −1 + w2 r 2 2 n −1 + .. + wn r n . + wn .. i =1 n Generally +1 0 ⎧ ⎪ rα dr = ⎨ 2 ⎪ α +1 ⎩ −1 ∫ if i is odd if i is even (9.. a) +1 −1 ∫ f ( r )d r ≈ w1 f (r1 ) . + wn r n .

30) give 2 = w1 + w2 . 0 = w1 r1 + w2 r 2 .g.202 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS which is exact only when f (r ) is a polynomial of order 1. The solution to this set of equations is w1 = w2 = 1 . 9.3 . 3 3 3 0 = w1 r1 + w2 r 2 . (9. 2 2 2 = w1 r1 + w2 r 2 .57735 ) . equations (9. 9. However. Two-point formula For a two-point integration +1 −1 ∫ f ( r )d r = w1 f (r1 ) + w2 f (r 2 ) . avoiding the so-called shear locking by using reduced integration for shearing.57735 ) + 1 ⋅ f ( − 0. b) +1 −1 r1 = − r 2 = 1 = 0. so that (Fig. it is employed in some selective integration schemes.31) For a polynomial of order 2n − 1 = 2 ⋅ 2 − 1 = 3 .3. Fig. e.5773502691 3 ∫ f ( r )d r = 1 ⋅ f ( 0. to separate shear from extension effects.

0 0. s ) d r d s = ∑ ∑ wi w j f ri . . 3 i =1 Gauss points and weights are given in Table 9.2. 9. s1 ) + f ( r1 . c) ∑ wi f (ri ) = 0.652145 0.774596 ± 0.774 ) . so that I = f ( r1 . ri 0 wi 2.347854 1 2 3 4 1 3 5 7 ± 0. r1 = s 1 = − 0. s )d r d s ≅ +1 +1 −1 −1 +1 n n ⎡ n ⎤ ⎢ ∑ w j f r . s j ⎥ ds = ∑ wi ∑ w j f ri . 9.339981 ± 0. s1 ) + f ( r2 . ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 203 Three-point formula For a three-point integration (Fig.57735 ± 0. s j . s j .861136 0 9.555 ⋅ f ( 0. Weights.9. s2 ) .1 Number of Gauss points Order of polynomial integrated exactly Gauss Points.3. Table 9.774) + 0.2. ∫ ⎥ i =1 j =1 −1 ⎢ j =1 ⎣ ⎦ ( ) ( ) I= For n = 2 ∫ ∫ f ( r .57735 .1 for the first four orders.2 Two dimensional Gauss quadrature The one dimensional version of Gaussian quadrature is readily extended to two dimensions if we use the rectangles or isoparametric quadrilaterals of section 9.888 ⋅ f ( 0 ) + 0. s2 ) + f ( r2 .8888 0. r 2 = s 2 = 0.57735 .5555 0. i =1 j =1 n n ( ) (9.32) w1 = w2 = 1 .0 1.1: I= +1 +1 −1 −1 ∫ ∫ f ( r . Gauss quadrature formulae for quadrilateral elements are shown in Table.555 ⋅ f ( − 0.

4 81 ⎝ 9 9 ⎠ 9. 3.3 Stiffness integration The element stiffness matrix (9.204 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Table 9. 3. 3.24) is [k ]= t ∫ ∫ [ B ] e e 1 1 −1 −1 T [ D ][ B ] det [ J ] dr ds which means that the integral above actually consists of the integral of each element (below or above the main diagonal) in an ( 8 × 8 ) matrix. w j 1 (1×1) 1 4 (= 2 × 2) at centre 2 4 (2 × 2) 1 (= 1 × 1) at points 1. 4 81 ⎝ 9 9 ⎠ 64 ⎛ 8 8 ⎞ ⎜ = × ⎟ at points 1. ri . the elements of .2. det [ J ] is a linear function of r and s . For a rectangle or parallelogram it is a constant. 2. 3. 2 . wi .2 n Number of Gauss points n×n Gauss Points. Therefore. 4 81 ⎝ 9 9 ⎠ 3 9 (3 × 3) 40 ⎛ 5 8 ⎞ ⎜ = × ⎟ at points 1. In general. 4 25 ⎛ 5 5 ⎞ ⎜ = × ⎟ at points 1. s j Weights. 2. The elements of [ B ] are obtained by dividing a bilinear function of r and s by a linear function. 2.

This will be the case if one of these modes gives zero strain at the integration point. we can write . Experience has shown that the best order of integration for the 4-node quadrilateral element is a ( 2 × 2 ) array of points.33) The integral in (9.24) becomes [ ] [k ]≈ [ B ] e T [ D ][ B ] ∫ +1 +1 −1 −1 ∫ t det [ J ] dr ds .4 However. the state of constant strain is reached within an element. one integration point is unacceptable since it gives rise to zero-energy deformation modes (Fig. These are modes of deformation which give rise to zero strain energy. 9. to be constant and noting that det [ J ] is linear. The existence of these modes is indicated by the stiffness matrix having more zero eigenvalues than rigid body modes. indicates that the volume can be evaluated exactly using one integration point. is the number required to evaluate exactly the volume of the element. This is cheaper as well.4). in the present case. This means that k e cannot be evaluated exactly using numerical integration. the minimum number of integration points.9. An alternative is to use reduced integration at fewer points than necessary. with the aim of decreasing the stiffness and so compensating for the overstiff finite element model. ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 205 [ B ]T [ D ][ B ] det [ J ] are bi-quadratic functions divided by a linear function. e (9. t e . From practical considerations. In this case.33). it is best to use as few integration points as is possible without causing numerical difficulties. Taking the thickness. A lower limit on the number of integration points can be obtained by observing that as the mesh is refined. 9. the stiffness matrix equation (9. Using the 2 × 2 rule (9. Fig. Therefore.33) represents the volume of the element.

s2 )] ] [ B ( r1 .11) [ J ( ri .34) + t e [ B ( r2 . s2 ) ] T [ [ D ] det [ J ( r2 . The calculation consists of four basic steps: a) Calculation of [ J ] at the Gauss points (9.34).57735 .1 with the following nodal coordinates ⎡ x1 ⎢x ⎢ 2 ⎢ x3 ⎢ ⎣ x4 y1 y2 y3 y4 ⎤ ⎡ 10 ⎥ ⎢ 20 ⎥ =⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 25 ⎥ ⎢ ⎦ ⎣ 8 10 ⎤ 15 ⎥ ⎥. ( ) c) Calculation of the [ B ] matrix (9. consider approximately the Gauss Points at r i . Example 9. s ) ] [ [ D ] det [J ( r .1 Consider the quadrilateral element from Fig. s2 ) ] [ [ D ] det [J ( r1 . s j = ± 0. For the first term in (9. s ) ]+ 1 1 [ B ( r1 .21) ⎡ j11 [B ]= 1 ⎢ 0 4⎢ ⎢ j 21 ⎣ j12 0 j 22 0 j 21 j11 0 ⎤ ⎥ j 22 ⎥ j12 ⎥ ⎦ 0 ⎡− 1 − s j ⎢ 0 − (1 − ri ) ⎢ ⎢ 0 − 1− s j ⎢ 0 − (1 − ri ) ⎢ ⎣ ( ) ( ) 1− s j 0 1+ s j 0 1 + ri − (1 + ri ) 0 1− s j 0 0 0 − (1 + ri ) 0 0 1+ s j 1 + ri − 1+ s j 1 − ri 0 0 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ − 1+ s j ⎥ ⎥ 1 − ri ⎥ ⎦ ( 0 0 ) .s j ) ] = 1 ⎡ −( 1 − s j ) ( 1 − s j ) ( 1 + s j ) − ( 1 + s j ) ⎢ 4 ⎢ − ( 1 − ri ) ⎣ − ( 1 + ri ) ( 1 + ri ) ( 1 − ri ) ⎡ x1 ⎤ ⎢ x2 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ x3 ⎦ ⎢ ⎣ x4 y1 ⎤ y2 ⎥ ⎥ y3 ⎥ ⎥ y4 ⎦ and its determinant. s j = ± 0. For convenience. 30 ⎥ ⎥ 25 ⎦ det [ J ] and [ B ] calculated at GP1. d) Calculation of [k ] e using the 2 × 2 rule (9. s2 ) ]+ + t e [ B ( r2 . s 1 ) ]T [ [ D ] det [ J ( r2 . b) Calculation of the inverse [ j ] = [ J ] −1 at the Gauss points.5 instead of r i . s 1 )] ] [ B ( r2 .206 e e 1 1 T 1 1 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS [ k ] ≅ t [ B ( r . 9. s2 ) ] . s2 )] ] [ B ( r2 . s )] ] [ B ( r .34) we need . s 1 ) ]+ +t e T (9.

35) In practice.125 . 5 ⎥ ⎥ 0.5 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 − 0.4 Stress calculations In the quadrilateral element. ⎥ 850 ⎢− 12 10 − 49 30 36 30 25 − 50⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 9. (9. where they are found to be accurate (Barlow. 5 0.5 − 1.5 − 1.5 0.11) is ⎡ 10 −0. Some programs which use Gauss point stresses extrapolate to the element nodes and then output the mean value if several elements meet at a node. − 1.5 1.9.5 0 0 0 0 0.5 0 0 0 ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥. the matrix [ B ] is given by (9.2. 5 1. stresses are evaluated at the Gauss points.5 1. stresses {σ } = [ D ] [ B ] {q e } vary within the element. ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 207 At GP1. In order not to miss these peak stresses.5 − 1. Maximum stresses usually occur at edges of plates or at other discontinuities at the element boundaries. ⎣ ⎦ det [ J ]= 53. .5 1.5 ⎦ 0 30 0 30 0 − 50 0 ⎤ ⎡− 10 1 ⎢ [ B ] = ⎢ 0 − 12 0 − 49 0 36 0 25 ⎥ . [ j ] = [ J ] −1 = 1 ⎡ 60 − 20 ⎤ .5 0.5 − 1. Gauss point values are ideal for constructing internal stress contours. However. the Jacobian matrix (9. 5 ⎣ 0.5 ⎥ ⎢ 25 ⎣ ⎦ ⎢ ⎣ 8 Its determinant and inverse are 10 ⎤ 15 ⎥ 1 ⎥= 30 ⎥ 8 ⎥ 25 ⎦ ⎡ 61 20 ⎤ ⎢ 13 60 ⎥ .5 0 0 0 0 1.5⎤ ⎢ 20 ⎢ [ J ]= 1 ⎡ 4 ⎢− 0.21) 0 ⎤ ⎡ 60 − 20 0 [ B ] = 1 ⎢ 0 0 − 13 61 ⎥ ⎥ 1700 ⎢ ⎢− 13 61 60 − 20⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 0 ⎡− 0. 5 1.5 ⎢− 0.5 ⎢ 0 − 0. 425 ⎢ − 13 61 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ At GP1. 1976). a refined mesh should be used in these regions.5 − 1.

9. 9.2. using a 2 × 2 integration scheme would result in a singular stiffness matrix. The difference is that in cartesian coordinates it has curved sides (Fig.3 Eight-node quadrilateral This element is the isoparametric version of the eight-node rectangle presented in section 8.36) The element has three nodes along one edge.2. The product [ B ] T [ D ][ B ] is therefore fourth order and det [ J ] is cubic. The eight-node quadrilateral employs displacement fields quadratic in r and s .27) are u = a1 + a2 r + a3 s + a4 r 2 + a5 r s + a6 s 2 + a7 r 2 s + a8 r s 2 . (9. b).208 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 9.5 The displacement functions in simple polynomial form (8. v = b1 + b2 r + b3 s + b4 r 2 + b5 r s + b6 s 2 + b7 r 2 s + b8 r s 2 .5. so that the displacement variation should be parabolic (three constants) to satisfy compatibility.5. Fig. and 2 × 2 integration is normally used for this popular element. The optimal sampling points for this element are the Gauss points for the 2 × 2 scheme . a) and the master element is a square (Fig. In practice. For a single 8-node rectangular element. It would seem necessary to use a 4 × 4 Gauss quadrature for exact stiffness integration. even if it is supported conventionally. large groups of elements will not suffer from such mechanisms. as are the stresses. 9.

they belong to the serendipity *) family of elements.3. 4 ∂ N i ri ( 1 + s si ) (2r ri + s si ) . 2 1 N6 = (1 + r ) 1 − s 2 . 4 1 N3 = − ( 1 + r ) ( 1 + s ) ( 1 − r − s ). ∂ N i = si ( 1 + r ri ) (2s si + r ri ) . it is sufficient to examine the Jacobian determinant.9. 4 N5 = ( ( ) ( ) ( ) ) As they are constructed based on the equations of the lines passing through the nodal points. so the advantages of reduced integration are compounded. For ease in programming.1 Shape functions The shape functions (8.37) 2 1 N8 = ( 1 − r ) 1 − s 2 .38) ___________ *) After the extraordinary discoveries of the princes of Serendip from the horror novels by Horace Walpole (1717-1797).29) have the following expressions 1 ( 1 − r ) ( 1 − s ) (1 + r + s ) . The eight-node curved ‘quad’ is ideal for nonlinear problems and can be easily adapted to model cracks by moving the midside nodes. better displacements are obtained using a 3 × 3 Gauss point mesh. due to reduced integration. 9. in order to evaluate the minimum order of the numerical integration. It was shown that. one can also use the following equivalent formulae in which ( ri . For an 8-node quadrilateral element. 4 1 N 2 = − ( 1 + r ) ( 1 − s ) (1 − r + s ) . 4 N1 = − 1 1 − r 2 (1 − s ) . . For the 8-node quadratic element. 4 1 N 4 = − ( 1 − r ) ( 1 + s ) (1 + r − s ) . ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 209 and not those for the higher order 3 × 3 scheme. (9. det [ J ] is of third order hence the minimum number of integration points is 4 (2 × 2) . 2 1 N 7 = 1 − r 2 ( 1 + s ) . = ∂r ∂s 4 4 Ni = (9. Care is needed because the accuracy declines with excessive shape distortion. si ) are the natural coordinates of node i: for corner nodes 1 ( 1 + r ri ) ( 1 + s si ) (r ri + s si − 1) .

⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ ] is ∂ N2 L 0 ∂y ∂ N2 ∂ N8 L ∂x ∂y (9.41) ⎨ ⎬ =[N ] q .45) leads to . = − s ( 1 + r ri ∂r ∂s 2 Ni = ( ) ( ) ).42) ⎢ 0 N 0 N 2 L L 0 N8 ⎥ 1 ⎣ ⎦ { } { q }= ⎣u e 1 v1 u2 v 2 L L u8 v8 ⎦ T . s ) x i . i =1 8 y = ∑ N i (r .40) The displacements inside the element can be expressed in terms of the nodal displacements as ⎧u⎫ e (9. ∂r ∂s 2 Ni = ( ) ( ) (9. s ) y i i =1 8 (9. 2 ∂ Ni 1 ∂ Ni = ri 1 − s 2 . v⎭ ⎩ where N 0 N 2 0 L L N8 0 ⎤ [ N ]= ⎡ 1 . (9.2 Shape function derivatives Use of the isoparametric formulation x = ∑ N i (r .210 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS for mid-side nodes. 2 ∂ Ni ∂ Ni 1 = − r ( 1 + s si ) .44) 9. the matrix [ B ] = [ ∂ ][ N ⎡ ∂ N1 ⎢ ⎢ ∂x [ B ]= ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢∂N ⎢ 1 ⎢ ∂y ⎣ 0 ∂ N1 ∂y ∂ N1 ∂x ∂ N2 ∂x 0 ∂ N2 ∂y 0 L ∂ N8 ∂x 0 ∂ N8 ∂y ∂ N8 ∂x ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥.43) Having generated the shape functions [ N ] . (9. when si = 0 1 1 − s 2 ( 1 + r ri ) .39) for mid-side nodes. = si 1 − r 2 . (9.3. when ri = 0 1 1 − r 2 ( 1 + s si ) .

⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0 0 D5⎥ ⎣ ⎦ e . s ) yi . ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ (9. s ) xi . ∂r ∂x = ∂s ∂y = ∂s ∑ ∂ N∂(sr . s ) x i 8 i .3. ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 211 − ∂y ∂r ∂x ∂r ⎤ ⎧ ∂ Ni ⎥ ⎪ ∂r ⎪ ⎥⎨ ⎥ ⎪ ∂ Ni ⎥ ⎪ ∂s ⎦⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬. − ∂r ∂s ∂s ∂r (9. ∂s 9. s ) yi .50) where t is the thickness of the plate and the material stiffness matrix [ D ] has the form ⎡ D1 D 2 0 ⎤ (9. (9.51) [ D ] = ⎢D 2 D 4 0 ⎥ . ∂r ∂ N i (r .3.49) 9.47) ∑ i =1 i =1 8 ∂ N i (r .3 Determinant of the Jacobian matrix The Jacobian matrix is ⎡ ∂x ⎢ r [ J ]= ⎢ ∂x ⎢∂ ⎢ ∂s ⎣ ∂y ∂r ∂y ∂s ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ .46) where ∂x = ∂r ∂y = ∂r ∑ ∑ i =1 i =1 8 ∂ N i (r .48) and its determinant is det [ J ] = ∂x ∂ y ∂x ∂ y .9.4 Element stiffness matrix The element stiffness matrix is +1 +1 [k ]= t ∫ ∫ [ B ] e e −1 −1 T [ D ][ B ] det [ J ] d r d s (9. ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎧ ∂ Ni ⎪ ∂x ⎪ ⎨ ∂N i ⎪ ⎪ ∂y ⎩ ⎫ ⎧ ∂ Ni ⎫ ⎡ ∂y ⎪ ⎪ ∂r ⎪ 1 ⎢ ∂s ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎬ = [ j ]⎨ ∂N ⎬ = i ⎪ det [ J ] ⎢ ∂ x ⎪ ⎪ − ⎢ ∂s ⎪ ⎪ ∂s ⎪ ⎣ ⎭ ⎭ ⎩ 8 (9.

54) the elements of the matrix (9. = ∑∑ w ⎜ D 2 + D5 ⎜ ∂x ∂ y ∂ y ∂x ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ ∂ Ni ∂ N j ∂ Ni ∂ N j ⎞ ⎟.53) ∂y ⎥ ⎥ ∂N j ⎥ ∂x ⎥ ⎦ or Denoting [ k ] i j = ⎢k 1 ⎣ ⎡k 3 k 2⎤ k 4⎥ ⎦ . = ∑∑ w ⎜ D 2 + D5 ⎜ ∂ y ∂x ∂x ∂ y ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (9. k 1 i j = ∑∑ w ⎜ D 1 + D5 ⎜ ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ k2 k3 ij ⎛ ∂ Ni ∂ N j ∂ Ni ∂ N j ⎞ ⎟.53.52) The (16 × 16) element stiffness matrix contains submatrices [ k ] i j which. a) w = t e w p wq det [ J ] .212 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Substituting (9. the stiffness matrix (9.55) ij . (9. (9. a) can be determined as ⎛ ∂ Ni ∂ N j ∂ Ni ∂ N j ⎞ ⎟. evaluated by numerical integration.50) can be written ⎡ ∂ N1 ⎢ ∂x ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ∂ N2 +1 +1 ⎢ ∂x ⎢ ⎡ ke ⎤ = te ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎢ −1 −1 ⎢ ⎢ L ⎢∂N ⎢ 8 ⎢ ∂x ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎣ 0 ∂ N1 ∂y ∫∫ 0 ∂ N2 ∂y L 0 ∂ N8 ∂y ∂ N1 ⎤ ∂y ⎥ ⎥ ∂ N1 ⎥ ∂x ⎥ ⎥ ∂ N2 ⎥ ∂y ⎥ ⎥ ∂ N2 ⎥ ∂x ⎥ ⎥ L ⎥ ∂ N8 ⎥ ⎥ ∂y ⎥ ∂ N8 ⎥ ⎥ ∂x ⎦ ⎥ T ⎡ ∂ N1 ⎢ ⎢ ∂x [D ] ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ∂ N1 ⎢ ∂y ⎣ 0 ∂ N1 ∂y ∂ N1 ∂x ∂ N2 ∂x 0 ∂ N2 ∂y ∂ N2 ∂x L L ∂ N8 ∂x 0 ∂ N8 ∂y ∂ N8 ∂x 0 ∂ N2 ∂y 0 ∂ N8 L ∂y ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ det [ J ] d r d s ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ .44). have the form ⎡ ∂ Ni ⎢ ∂x w p wq ⎢ ⎢ 0 q =1 ⎢ ⎣ n [k ] i j = t e ∑∑ p =1 n 0 ∂ Ni ∂y ∂ Ni ∂y ∂ Ni ∂x ⎡ ∂N j ⎢ ⎤ ⎢ ∂x ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ [D]⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ∂N j ⎦ ⎢ ∂y ⎣ ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ∂N j ⎥ det [ J ] .53. (9. ij (9.

9. 9.3. This method (K.57) The explicit form of equation (9.57) for the quadratic 8-node element is ⎧σx ⎪ ⎨σy ⎪τ ⎩ xy ⎫ ⎡ D1 ⎪ ⎢ ⎬ = ⎢D 2 ⎪ ⎢ 0 ⎭ ⎣ ⎡ ∂ N1 ⎢ 0 ⎤ ⎢ ∂x ⎥ 0 ⎥⎢ 0 ⎢ D5⎥ ⎢∂N ⎦ ⎢ 1 ⎢ ∂y ⎣ 8 D2 D4 0 L ∂ N2 L 0 ∂y ∂ N2 ∂ N8 L ∂x ∂y ⎤ ⎧u 1 ⎫ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎥ ⎪v1 ⎪ ⎥ ⎪u ⎪ ⎥ ⎨ 2⎬ ⎥ ⎪L ⎪ ⎥ ⎪v ⎪ ⎥ ⎪ 8⎪ ⎦⎩ ⎭ wherefrom σ x = D1 ∑ i =1 8 ∂ Ni ∂ Ni ui + D2 ∑ vi . ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 213 ⎛ ∂ Ni ∂ N j ∂ Ni ∂ N j ⎞ ⎟.5 Stress calculation The vector of element stresses is {σ } = [ D ][ B ]{ q e }. Therefore. it is useful to store separately in an array [ S ] i j the sum of the products of the shape function derivatives multiplied by w . 0 ∂ N1 ∂y ∂ N1 ∂x ∂ N2 ∂x 0 ∂ N2 ∂y 0 ∂ N8 ∂x 0 ∂ N8 ∂y ∂ N8 ∂x (9. Gupta & B. Mohraz. k 2 = k 3 . A close inspection of equations (9.55) by incorporating the relevant material constants. such that ⎡ ⎢∑∑ w =⎢ ⎢ ⎢∑∑ w ⎣ ∂ Ni ∂x ∂ Ni ∂y ∂N j ∂x ∂N j ∂x ∂ Ni ∂x ∂N ∑∑ w ∂ yi ∂N j ⎤ ⎥ ∂y ⎥ ∂N j ⎥ ∂y ⎥ ⎦ [ S ]i j ∑∑ w (9. 1972) reduces the computing time by a factor of nine over the full matrix multiplication method. providing that the material properties are constant throughout the element.55) shows that all the terms are of the form (cons tan t ) × (material property) × ( product of shape function derivatives ) . k 4 i j = ∑∑ w ⎜ D 4 + D5 ⎜ ∂y ∂y ∂x ∂x ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ When i = j .56) and then to work out equations (9. A. ∂x i =1 ∂ y .

ui + D4 ∑ ∂x i =1 ∂ y (9. since the nodal positions are readily located and it is convenient to output the displacements and stresses at the same points. in which superior accuracy is obtained and averaging is not necessary. Edge pressure When coding the load vectors in a computer program. It is usual to use all the nodes of the element in the computation. the actual pressure distribution along an element edge is replaced by a parabolic distribution defined by the pressure values at each of the three nodes along that edge. element by element. in which all loads can be reduced to nodes intuitively or by statics. if the stresses of all elements meeting at a node are averaged. closer results to the true values are obtained. acting along the s = +1 edge of an element. and it is therefore reasonable to expect the most accurate stresses and strains occurring at the same points. specified in force per unit length.3. so that there is no need to sort out the appropriate shape functions for the three nodes with given pressure values.58) τ xy = D 5 ∑ ⎜ ⎜ ⎛ ∂ Ni ∂ Ni ⎞ vi ⎟.44) { f }= ∫ [ N ] e Ve T { p }d V . It has been found that nodal stresses from an 8-node quadratic element are usually incorrect. into the global load vector which represents the right hand side of the linear set of equations to be solved for displacements. This is due to the fact that the element stiffness is calculated by sampling at the Gauss points.214 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS σ y = D2 ∑ 8 8 i =1 8 ∂ Ni ∂ Ni vi . for a quadratic isoparametric element the nodal forces due to distributed loads must be computed in accordance with equation (7.59) The equivalent nodal forces are added. The components of the force p d r acting upon an elemental length d r are . ui + ⎟ ∂x ⎠ i =1 ⎝ ∂ y In some programs the stresses are determined at nodes. Consider a distributed load p . However. 9. A better alternative is to calculate stresses at the Gauss points. All intermediate values can be calculated using the shape functions.6 Consistent nodal forces Unlike the triangular element. (9.

65) . since a positive pressure is assumed to act towards the centre of e If the same pressure acts on the edge s = −1 . (9.s ) p k k =1 8 k .9.59) in which the volume integral has been reduced to a line integral { f }= ∫ e +1 −1 where [ N ] is given by (9. py ⎭ ⎩ ⎪− ⎪ ⎪ ∂r ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ (9.61) The above vector is usually integrated numerically and is written as ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ (9.42).63) the element. ⎪ ⎪i ⎭ (9. { f } is reversed. ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 215 ⎧ ∂y ⎫ ⎪ ∂r ⎪ ⎧ px ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ = p ⎨ ∂ x ⎬ dr . the sign of the force vector { } n (9.64) A similar expression for pressure loads on the r = ±1 edges is { f }= ∑ e n i =1 ⎧ ∂y − ⎞ ⎪ ∂s ⎛ 8 ⎪ T⎜ wi wr [N ] ⎜ ∑ N k p k ⎟ ⎨ ⎟ ∂x ⎠⎪ ⎝ k =1 ⎪ ∂s ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ .60) The consistent load for p is given by a modified form of equation (9.62) wi [ N ] T fe = ⎬ ⎪ i =1 ⎪i ⎭ where pi is the pressure at the Gauss point i along the s = +1 edge and is computed by equation { } ∑ n ⎧ ∂y ⎪ ∂r ⎪ pi ⎨ ∂x ⎪− ⎪ ∂r ⎩ p= ∑ N (r . ⎧ ∂y ⎪ ∂r ⎪ p [ N ]T ⎨ ∂x ⎪− ⎪ ∂r ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ dr ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ (9. A more general equation applicable to the two edges s = ±1 is ⎧ ∂y ⎫ ⎞ ⎪ ∂r ⎪ ⎛ 8 ⎪ ⎪ f e = ∑ wi ws [N ]T ⎜ ∑ N k p k ⎟ ⎨ ⎟ ⎜ ∂x ⎬ i =1 ⎠⎪− ⎝ k =1 ⎪ ⎪ ∂ r ⎪i ⎩ ⎭ where w s takes up the value of the s coordinate for the loaded edge.

y axes. Equation (9.2 Consider the element of Fig. Fig.2 Solution. ⎪ ⎭ (9. we can write f y3 = − f y7 = − P 2 P 2 +1 −1 +1 −1 1 ∫ 4 ( 1 + r ri ) ( 1 + s si ) ( r ri + s si − 1) d r .66) Denoting the total pressure load P = 2 p a . For the rectangular element ∂y ∂x = 0 and = a . For the edge s = +1 we have N1 = N 5 = N 2 = N 6 = N8 = 0 . Example 9. E9.61) gives ∂r ∂r {f } e ⎧ f y3 ⎪ = ⎨ f y7 ⎪f ⎩ y4 ⎫ +1 ⎪ ⎬= p ⎪ −1 ⎭ ∫ ⎧ N3 ⎪ ⎨ N7 ⎪N ⎩ 4 ⎫ ⎪ ⎬ (− a ) d r . E9. it is possible to integrate the equations for the equivalent nodal forces explicitly. Find the equivalent nodal forces. . a with a uniform pressure load along the top edge.216 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS For a rectangular isoparametric element with edges parallel to the x . 1 2 ∫ 4 ( 1 + s si ) ( 1 − r ) d r .2.

In the above expressions. substituting r i = 1 and s i = 1 for node 3.3 Consider the rectangular element of Fig.68) Example 9. Solution. Find the equivalent nodal forces. 4 3 1 (1 − r )(2)(− r + 1 − 1) d r = − P .59) is { f }= ∫ m [ N ] e T ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎨ ⎬d x d y = ⎩− g ⎭ +1 +1 −1 −1 ∫ ∫ m [N ] T ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎨ ⎬ det [ J ] d r d s ⎩− g ⎭ (9. ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS P 2 +1 −1 217 f y4 = − ∫ 1 (1 + r ri 4 ) (1 + s si ) ( r ri + s si − 1) d r . but in the ratio 1 6 : 2 3 : 1 6 (Fig. 4 6 1 ( 2 ) 1 − r 2 dr = − 2P . The same result could have been obtained noticing that the integrands in the above equations are the shape functions of the three-node isoparametric onedimensional element (4. and r i = −1 and s i = 1 for node 4. Because all the equivalent nodal forces act in the y direction. 4 6 ∫ ( ) ∫ Hence a uniform load acting along an edge is not distributed in the intuitive ratio of 1 4 : 1 2 : 1 4 . a with gravity loading. r i = 0 and s i = 1 for node 7. The integration is carried out numerically and equation (9. Gravity loading For gravity loading (downwards negative) the vector of equivalent nodal forces (9.26). ⎩− g ⎭ (9.67) where m is the mass per unit area and g the acceleration in the y direction.3. E9. yields f y3 = − f y7 = − f y4 = − +1 −1 +1 −1 +1 −1 P 2 P 2 P 2 ∫ 1 (1 + r )( 2)( r + 1 − 1) d r = − P .2.67) takes the form { f }= ∑∑ w w e n n i i =1 j =1 j ⎧ 0 ⎫ m [ N ] T ⎨ ⎬ det [ J ] . b). E9.9. .

16 1 (9. and I3 = − −1 −1 ∫ ∫ (1 + r ri ) (1 + s si ) d r d s = − 4 .69) For a rectangular element det [ J ] = ab . the force (9. +1 +1 For a corner node i the integral becomes f yi = − −1 −1 ∫ ∫ m g 4 (1 + r ri ) (1 + s si ) ( r ri + s si − 1) det [ J ] d r d s . ⎜ ⎟ 16 16 ⎝ 3 3 ⎠ 12 (9. (9.73) since si = ±1 for all corner nodes. I2 = −1 −1 ∫ ∫ (1 + r ri ) (1 + s si ) s si d r d s = 3 +1 +1 4 (9.72) since ri = ±1 for all corner nodes. L⎪ ⎪ ⎪ N8 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ∫ ∫ (9. the integral is f yi = − 1 W 2 ∫ ∫ m g 2 (1 − s ) (1 + r ri ) det [ J ] d r d s = − 3 . W ( I1 + I 2 + I 3 ) .74) Therefore. the integral is f yi = − 1 W 2 ∫ ∫ m g 2 (1 − r ) (1 + s si ) det [ J ] d r d s = − 3 .71) 4 where +1 +1 I1 = −1 −1 ∫ ∫ (1 + r ri ) (1 + s si ) r ri d r d s = 3 +1 +1 (9. 1 1 (9.218 ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ f y1 ⎫ f y2 ⎪ ⎪ = L ⎬ ⎪ f y8 ⎪ ⎭ +1 +1 −1 −1 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎧ N1 ⎫ ⎪N ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ m g ⎨ 2 ⎬ det [ J ] d r d s .75) For a midside node i with ri = 0 .70) Denoting the total weight of the element W = m g ⋅ 2a ⋅ 2b . the equivalent nodal forces for gravity loading at a corner node i are given by f yi = − +1 +1 (9.76) −1 −1 For a midside node i with si = 0 .70) can be written f yi = − (9. W ( I1 + I 2 + I 3 ) = − W ⎛ 4 + 4 − 4 ⎞ = W .77) −1 −1 .

a. it contains an internal node. Apart from the eight nodes located on the boundary. they are different from the values of − W 12 and − W 6 . b. Again. 9.3. ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 219 Fig.6. which would have been assigned intuitively to the corner and midside nodes respectively. 9. b. 9. 9. The master element is presented in Fig. The local node numbers for this element are shown in Fig.4 Nine-node quadrilateral This element belongs to the Lagrange family of elements.6. E9. E9.6 .9. Fig.3 Hence for gravity loading the equivalent nodal forces are as shown in Fig.

for three points..7.79) They turn out to be Lagrange polynomials. which.220 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The associated displacement functions in polynomial form are u = a1 + a2 r + a3 s + a4 r 2 + a5 r s + a6 s 2 + a7 r 2 s + a8 r s 2 + a9 r 2 s 2 . (9. 9. we can define generic shape functions L1 . as shown in Fig. L 3 (r ) = r (1 + r ) . Higher-order rectangular elements can be systematically developed with the help of the so-called Pascal’s triangle. Fig.) . 9. Considering the r axis alone.78) Along the sides of the element.. and rs . The polynomial is incomplete. r.6. The quadratic quadrilateral element has 9 nodes.7 Since a linear quadrilateral element has four nodes.1. 9. 2 (9. . the polynomial is quadratic (with three terms . which contains the terms of polynomials of various degrees in the two variables r and s . L2 and L3 having unit value at the node with the same index and zero at the other two nodes L1 (r ) = − r (1 − r ) . b.as can be seen setting s = 0 in u ). In general. s. as shown at the bottom of Fig. It contains the complete polynomial of the second degree (6 terms) plus other three terms which have to be located symmetrically: the third degree terms r 2 s and r s 2 and also an r 2 s 2 term. the polynomial should have the first four terms 1. have the expressions . 2 L 2 (r ) = ( 1 + r )( 1 − r ) . and is determined by its values at the three nodes on that side. The shape functions are defined as follows. v = b1 + b2 r + b3 s + b4 r 2 + b5 r s + b6 s 2 + b7 r 2 s + b8 r s 2 + b9 r 2 s 2 . a pth-order Lagrange rectangular element has ( p + 1) 2 nodes ( p = 0.

ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS L 1 (r ) = 221 ( r − r 2 ) ( r − r3 ) ( r1 − r 2 ) ( r1 − r3 ) . as can be seen from the top three rows of Pascal’s triangle. 9. N5 = 4 ζ 2 ζ 3 .82) . generic shape functions can be defined along the s axis. 9.e.. (9. with the constant term and the first and last terms of a given row being the vertices of the triangle. but their shape functions cannot be obtained using products of one-dimensional interpolation functions. The six node triangle (Fig. 9. 9. a.9.6. N 3 = ζ 3 ( 2 ζ 3 − 1 ) . b L1 (s ) = − s (1 − s ) .80) The shape functions N i can be constructed as products of the above onedimensional functions ⎡ N1 ⎢N ⎢ 5 ⎢ N2 ⎣ N8 N9 N6 N 4 ⎤ ⎧ L 1 (r ) ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ N 7 ⎥ = ⎨ L 2 (r ) ⎬ ⎣ L 1 (s ) L 2 (s ) L 3 (s ) ⎦ . one can use the serendipity elements. N 4 = 4 ζ1 ζ 2 .8). the shape functions can be expressed in terms of area coordinates as for the linear strain triangle (8. 2 L 2 (s ) = ( 1 + s ) ( 1 − s ) . as shown at the right of Fig.9.81) It should be cautioned that the subscripts of N i refer to the node numbering used in Fig. the degree of the polynomial is 2). L 2 (r ) = ( r − r1 ) ( r − r 3 ) ( r 2 − r1 ) ( r 2 − r 3 ) . they can be condensed out at the element level to reduce the size of the element matrices. which can be expressed in terms of the nodal values of the variable being interpolated. L 3 (s ) = s (1 + s ) . By referring to the master element in Fig. 2 (9. b. 9. L 3 (r ) = ( r − r1 ) ( r − r 2 ) ( r 3 − r1 ) ( r 3 − r 2 ) . ⎥ N 3 ⎥ ⎪ L 3 (r ) ⎪ ⎦ ⎩ ⎭ (9. Similarly.36) N1 = ζ1 ( 2 ζ1 − 1 ) .5 Six-node triangle Higher-order triangular elements can be developed using Pascal’s triangle (Fig.6. Since the internal nodes of the higher-order elements of the Lagrange family do not contribute to the inter-element connectivity. N 6 = 4 ζ 3 ζ1 . a) is an element of order 2 (i. One can view the position of the terms as the nodes of the triangle. Alternatively. The polynomial involves six constants. N 2 = ζ 2 ( 2 ζ 2 − 1 ) .9. 9.

Because of terms ζ 2 . i =1 (9. Fig. 9. N6 ⎥ ⎦ { } (9. and x = ∑ Ni x i . this element is also called a quadratic triangle. i =1 y = ∑ Ni y i .8 The isoparametric representation is (8.84) Fig.222 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 2 2 where ζ 1 = 1 − ζ 2 − ζ 3 .37) ⎧ u ⎫ ⎡ N1 ⎨ ⎬=⎢ ⎩v⎭ ⎣ 0 0 N1 v1 u2 6 N2 0 0 N2 L L N6 L L 0 0 ⎤ e q .83) where { q }= ⎣u e 1 v 2 L L u6 6 v6 ⎦ T . ζ 3 in the shape functions. 9.9 .

s ) coordinates are defined by (8. This gives ∂ ∂ ∂ = − .46). This inverse exists if there is no excessive distortion of the element such that lines of constant r or s intersect inside or on the element boundaries or there are re-entrant angles. When the element is degenerated into a triangle by increasing an internal angle to 1800 then [ J ] is singular at that corner. [∂ ] will The above statements are illustrated for the one-dimensional quadratic isoparametric element shown in Fig. This condition ensures that det [ J ] does not attain a value of zero in the element. The sign of det [ J ] should be checked. ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 223 The element stiffness matrix. and. ∂ s ∂ N 3 ∂ N1 (9. The Gauss quadrature formulas for a triangle differ from those considered earlier for the rectangle. If the determinant det [ J ] → 0 . as an internal angle approaches 1800 there is a loss of accuracy in the element stress.6 Jacobian positiveness In the higher-order isoparametric elements discussed above. Therefore to ensure that [ J ] can be inverted. Note that while the Jacobian is always computed at Gauss points. particularly at that corner.24) if the (r . 39]. a warning message will be signaled indicating the nonuniqueness of mapping. which has to be integrated numerically. The midside node should be as near as possible to the centre of the side. then [ j ] and the operators in increase without limit and consequently produce infinite strains. can be evaluated using (9. it is more likely to be negative at corners. A similar situation occurs when two adjacent corner nodes are made coincident to produce a triangular element.85) Details on numerical integration schemes for triangles are given in [18. It must be placed inside the middle third of a side.9. ∂ r ∂ N 2 ∂ N1 ∂ ∂ ∂ = − . ⎦ ⎣ 1 1 . The row vector of shape functions is ⎢ ⎥ ⎣N ⎦ = ⎣N1 N 2 N 3 ⎦ = ⎢ 2 r ( r − 1) ( 1 + r )( 1 − r ) 2 r ( r + 1) ⎥ .13) to shape functions is that [ J ] can be inverted. If the Jacobian becomes negative at any location.4. A necessary requirement for applying equation (9. where stresses may be computed. we note the presence of ‘midside’ nodes. 4. any internal angle of each corner node of the element should be less than 1800 . 9.

5 l . l 3l < x 2 < .5 ) l − 2 r x2 . if −1 ≤ where 0 ≤ x 2 ≤ l . then det [ J ] does not vanish on the element. 0 .224 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The Jacobian matrix is [ J ] = J11 = ⎢ ∂N1 ⎢ ⎣ ∂r ∂N 2 ∂r ⎧ x1 ∂N 3 ⎥ ⎪ ⎥ ⎨ x2 ∂r ⎦ ⎪ ⎩ x3 ⎫ ⎪ ⎢ 2r − 1 − 2r ⎬=⎢ ⎪ ⎣ 2 ⎭ ⎧ 0 2r + 1 ⎥ ⎪ ⎨ x2 2 ⎥⎪ ⎦ ⎩ l ⎫ ⎪ ⎬. For any x2 this determinant vanishes at the point r0 = 0.10) if − 1 ≤ r 0 ≤ 1 . 2x2 −l If . 9. ⎪ ⎭ The determinant of the Jacobian matrix is det [ J ] = J11 = ( r + 0.5 l ≤1. 2x2 −l Fig. This explains 4 4 why it is recommended to place precautiously the ‘midside’ node inside the middle third of a side.e. 9.10 This point lies within the element (Fig. i.

such as the floors of buildings and aircraft. which is the plane midway between the faces of the plate.10. and c) the direct stress in the transverse direction can be disregarded. finite element displacement models for the flat plate bending problem are discussed. in which on the faces of plate the shear strains are equal to zero. For thin plates. 10. rectangular or quadrilateral in shape. b) normals to the middle plane of the undeformed plate remain straight and normal to the middle surface of the plate during deformation. The plate has constant thickness h and is subject to distributed surface loads. Such structures can be analyzed by dividing the plate into an assemblage of twodimensional finite elements called plate bending elements. Thin plates with transverse shear neglected are analyzed based on Kirchhoff’s classical theory.1 Thin plate theory (Kirchhoff) A plate is described as a structure in which the thickness is very small compared with the other dimensions. 10. PLATE BENDING Flat plate structures. .1) and the positive z-direction is upwards. These elements may be either triangular. Kirchhoff’s hypotheses are adopted: a) there is no deformation (stretching) in the middle plane of the plate. that is the thickness-to-span is h l ≤ 0. In this chapter.1 . For this case. Plates with a constant shear deformation through the plate thickness are treated in the Reissner-Mindlin plate theory. it can be assumed that the plate deformation may be expressed by the deformation state at the middle surface. enclosures surrounding machinery and bridge decks are subject to loads normal to their plane. For thick or composite plates some higher-order shear deformation plate theories are available. The x-y plane is taken to coincide with the middle surface of the plate (Fig.

3) . z ) = − z ∂w . z ) = − z ∂w . y. a). ∂x v ( x. Fig.1) where w ( x. 10. y ) denotes the displacement of the middle surface in the z-direction (Fig. (10. ∂z ∂ y γ yz = γ zx = ∂w ∂u + = 0.226 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The displacements parallel to the undeformed middle surface are given by u ( x. 10. 10. = −z 2 . γ x y = = −2 z + ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂ y ∂ y ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂v ∂w + =0.2. y. ε y = = −z 2 . ∂y (10.2) a Fig.2 The strain vector can be written in the form b {ε } = ⎣ ε x where the curvature vector ε y γ x y ⎦ T = − z { χ }.1 The components of the strain are given as follows: εx = ∂2w ∂u ∂v ∂u ∂2w ∂v ∂2w . ∂x ∂z (10.

8) Fig. 10.5) (10.6) {σ } = ⎣σ x and σ y τ x y ⎦T . where (10.10) . the stress-strain relations take the form {σ } = [ D ] {ε } = − z [ D ] { χ } .10.3. 12 (10. Their definig equations are h2 ⎣M x My Mxy ⎦= −h 2 ∫ z ⎣σ h2 x σ y τ xy ⎦ dz .4) Since σ z = 0 .7) The strain energy in the plate can be written as U= 1 2 V ∫ {σ }T {ε }dV = 1 2 ∫ A h3 { χ }T [ D ] { χ }d A . d12 d 22 d 26 d16 d 26 d 66 ⎤ ⎥. (10. ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ ⎡ d11 [ D ] = ⎢ d12 ⎢ ⎢ d16 ⎣ (10. PLATE BENDING 227 ⎢ 2 {χ }= ⎢ ∂ w 2 ⎢ ∂x ⎣ ∂2w ∂ y2 ∂2w ⎥ 2 ⎥ ∂x ∂ y ⎥ ⎦ T . (10. 10.9) Denoting Di j = −h 2 ∫d ij z2 d z (10.3 The positive sense of internal bending and twisting moments (per unit length) is shown in Fig.

The equilibrium equations are ∂M x ∂M y x − Qx = 0 . ⎟ ⎠ Qy = − D ∂ ⎛ ∂2w ∂2w ⎜ + ∂ y ⎜ ∂ x2 ∂ y2 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟.curvature equations can be expressed as follows ⎧ ∂2w ⎪ ∂ x2 D16 ⎤ ⎪ 2 ⎪ ⎥⎪ ∂ w D26 ⎥ ⎨ ∂ y2 D66 ⎥ ⎪ 2 ⎦⎪ ∂ w ⎪ ⎪ ∂x∂ y ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎧ Mx ⎪ ⎨ My ⎪M ⎩ xy ⎫ ⎡ D11 ⎪ ⎢ ⎬ = ⎢ D12 ⎪ ⎢D ⎭ ⎣ 16 D12 D22 D26 (10.16) . From (10.12) ⎡ 0 ⎢1 ν [ D ] = D ⎢ν 1 0 ⎢ 1 −ν ⎢0 0 2 ⎣ where ⎤ ⎥ ⎥.15) it can be shown that (10.228 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS the moment .14) E is Young’s modulus and ν is the Poisson’s ratio.13) D= 12 1 − ν ( E h3 2 ) . ∂x ∂y forces (per unit length).15) where p z is the lateral distributed load (per unit surface) and Qx .11) or { M } = − [ D ]{ χ } For isotropic materials .11) and (10. + ∂y ∂x ∂M x y ∂M y + − Qy = 0 . Q y are the shear Qx = − D ∂ ⎛ ∂2w ∂2w ⎜ + ∂ x ⎜ ∂ x2 ∂ y2 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟. (10. ∂x ∂y ∂ Qx ∂ Q y + + pz = 0 . ⎟ ⎠ (10. (10. ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ (10.

PLATE BENDING 229 By substituting (10.2. Then. ⎣τ z x τ yz ⎦= 3 2h ⎞ ⎟ ⎣ Qx ⎟ ⎠ Qy ⎦. Mindlin simplified Reissner’s assumption considering that normals to the plate midsurface before deformation remain straight but not necessarily normal to the plate after deformation.17) ⎣σ x σ y τxy ⎦= 12 z ⎣M x h3 My Mxy ⎦ (10. The displacements of the middle surface are independent of the rotations of the normal (Fig. − 2 ∂ x ∂ y2 ⎟ ⎥ ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ ∂x ∂ y ⎟ ⎠ ⎠⎥ ⎝ ⎦ (10. D ∂y ∂x ∂ y ∂ x4 The bending and torsion stresses are given by (10. 10. The transverse normal stress is disregarded as in the Kirchhoff’s theory.18) and the shear stresses by 2 ⎛ ⎜ 1 − 4z ⎜ h2 ⎝ where a parabolic distribution is assumed.9) (10.16) into the last equation (10. Reissner proposed to introduce the rotations of the normal to the plate midsurface in the xOz and yOz plane as independent variables.8) can be expressed as D U= 2 ∫ A 2 ⎡⎛ 2 2 ⎢ ⎜ ∂ w + ∂ w ⎞ + 2 (1 − ν ⎟ ⎢ ⎜ ∂ x2 ∂ y 2 ⎟ ⎠ ⎢⎝ ⎣ ⎞⎤ ⎛ ⎛ 2 ⎞2 ∂2w ∂ 2w ⎟ ⎥ ⎜⎜ ∂ w ⎟ )⎜ ⎜ dx dy . the displacements parallel to the middle surface can be expressed as .10. the thickness-to-span ratio is not small enough to neglect transverse shear deformations and Kirchhoff’s assumption is no longer valid. b). the differential equilibrium equation for isotropic materials can be obtained as ∂4w p ∂4w ∂4w +2 2 2 + 4 = z . A ∫ (10.2 Thick plate theory (Reissner-Mindlin) For moderately thick plates. First.15). According to Reissner-Mindlin assumptions.19) The strain energy (10. (10. To overcome this problem.20) The potential of the external load is W P = − p z w dx dy .21) 10. the classical hypothesis of zero transverse shear strain is relaxed.

23) ⎢ ∂θ {χ }= ⎢ − y ⎣ ∂x ∂v ∂w + .25) Substituting for the displacements from (10. z ) = − zθ x (x . ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ (10. (10. y . (10. equation (10. z ) = z θ y (x .24) The transverse shear strains are γ yz = γ zx = ∂w ∂u .26) gives θ x = θy = − ∂w . ⎣ ⎦ ⎦ (10. y ) .27) where κ is a shear correction factor and [ D ] = ⎡⎢ G 0 S ⎣ ⎡1 0⎤ ⎤ E ⎥ = 2 (1 +ν ) ⎢ 0 1 ⎥ . ∂z ∂ y ∂θ x ∂y ∂θ x ∂θ y ⎥ − ⎥ ∂x ∂y ⎦ T . θ y are the rotations about the Ox and Oy axes of lines originally normal The in-plane strains are now given by { ε } = − z { χ }. (10.4).22) where θ x . γ z x = 0 . (10.28) The strain energy in the plate can be written as the sum of the energies due to bending and shear deformation U= 1 2 V ∫ {σ } {ε }dV + 2 ∫ T 1 {τ }T {γ }dV . where the curvature vector is (10.24) reduces to (10. + ∂x ∂z (10. y ) . and equation (10. to the middle plane before deformation. y . ∂x The average shear stresses are given by {τ } = ⎨ ⎧τ yz ⎫ = κ DS τzx ⎬ ⎩ ⎭ 0 G [ ]{ γ } .22) gives ∂w ⎧ −θ + ⎧γ yz ⎫ ⎪ x ∂ y {γ } = ⎨ ⎬ = ⎪ ⎨ ∂w ⎩ γ zx ⎭ ⎪ θy + ⎪ ∂x ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬.26) ∂w .230 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS u (x . ∂y Note that when γ y z = 0 .29) V . v (x .

31) or (10.11) becomes ⎡ ⎫ 0 ⎢1 ν ⎪ ⎢ν 1 0 ⎬=D ⎢ 1 −ν ⎪ ⎢0 0 ⎭ 2 ⎣ ⎧ ∂θ y − ⎤⎪ ∂x ⎥⎪ ∂θ x ⎪ ⎥⎨ ∂y ⎥⎪ ⎥ ⎪ ∂θ ∂θ y x ⎦ ⎪ ∂x − ∂ y ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎧ Mx ⎪ ⎨ My ⎪M ⎩ xy (10.24). ⎬=κG ⎨ ⎨ ∂w ⎬ ⎩ Qx ⎭ ⎪ ⎪ θy + ⎪ ∂x ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ (10.20). If θ x = . which is not true. T S A (10.10. ∂y ∂x The main drawback of this theory is the arbitrary averaging of the shear strains. As the thickness of the plate becomes extremely thin. ⎟ ⎠⎦ + ∫ A ⎡ ⎛ ∂w ⎢Qx ⎜ θ y + ⎜ ∂x ⎣ ⎝ ∂w ∂w and θ y = − . the shear strain energy predicted by the finite element analysis can be magnified unreasonably and a ‘shear locking’ occurs for large span-to-thickness ratios. equation (10. PLATE BENDING 231 or. If a constant shear strain is considered through the plate thickness. on the faces of plate the shear strains are not zero. This assumption is equivalent to the introduction of ‘parasitic’ shear stresses that force the normal to remain a straight line. The transverse shear constitutive equation is ∂w ⎫ ⎧ ⎪ −θx + ∂ y ⎪ ⎧ Qy ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ . the above expression reduces to (10.30) can be expressed as U= 1 2 1 2 ∫ A ⎡ ⎛ ∂θ y ⎢M x ⎜ − ⎜ ∂x ⎢ ⎝ ⎣ ∂θ ⎞ ⎛ ∂θ ⎟ + Mxy ⎜ x − y ⎟ ⎜ ∂x ∂y ⎠ ⎝ ⎛ ⎞ ∂w ⎟ + Qy ⎜ − θ x + ⎜ ⎟ ∂y ⎝ ⎠ ⎞ ∂θ ⎤ ⎟ + M y x ⎥ dx dy + ⎟ ∂y ⎥ ⎠ ⎦ ⎞⎤ ⎟⎥ dx dy .30) For isotropic materials.12). integrating through the thickness U= 1 2 ∫ A h3 { χ }T [ D ] { χ }d A + 1 12 2 ∫ κ h {γ } [ D ]{γ }d A . where { χ } is given by (10.32) The strain energy (10.

1 ACM element (non-conforming) Figure 10. the strain energy is given by (10.4 shows a thin rectangular element of thickness h.4 The dimensionless coordinates ξ = x a and η = y b will be used in the following with the origin at the plate centre. one at each corner. taken as degrees of freedom at each node. complete polynomials of at least degree two should be used. In terms of the ∂y ∂x dimensionless coordinates ξ and η . Fig. having four node points. The assumed form of the displacement function. 10. the transverse ∂w ∂w displacement w .1961. Also. irrespective of the element shape. (10. There are three degrees of freedom at each node.3. therefore.20) and the potential of the external load by (10.33) Figure 10. Hence. These three quantities are. it will be necessary to ∂w ∂w and are continuous between ensure that w and its first derivatives ∂x ∂y elements. 1963). Melosh . these become .3 Rectangular plate bending elements For a thin plate bending element. 10. Clough. according to the convergence criteria of the Rayleigh-Ritz method. namely. for convergence.5 shows the ACM element (Adini.232 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 10. is w = a1 + a2 x + a3 y + a4 x 2 + a5 x y + a6 y 2 + higher degree terms. The highest derivative appearing in these expressions is the second.21). and the two rotations θ x = and θ y = − .

35) can be written in the following matrix form w = 1 ξ η ξ 2 ξ η η 2 ξ 3 ξ 2η ξ η 2 η 3 ξ 3η ξη 3 ⎣ ⎦ {α }.35) Note that this function is a complete cubic to which two quartic terms ξ 3η and ξη 3 have been added.37) Differentiating (10. (10.36) gives ⎣ ⎣ η 0 3ξ 2 2ξη η 2 0 3ξ 2η η 3 ⎦ {α } . . (10. a) w = ⎣P ( ξ . (10.39) ∂w = 0 0 1 0 ξ ∂η ⎦ {α }. Fig. which are symetrically located in Pascal’s triangle.η )⎦ {α } .36) (10.10. PLATE BENDING 233 θx = 1 ∂w .5 The expression (10. where {α }T = ⎣ α1 ∂w = 0 1 0 2ξ ∂ξ α 2 α 3 L α12 ⎦ . that is w = α1 + α 2 ξ + α 3η + α 4 ξ 2 + α 5 ξ η + α 6η 2 + + α 7 ξ 3 + α 8 ξ 2η + α 9 ξη 2 + α10η 3 + α11ξ 3η + α12 ξη 3 . This ensures that the element is geometrically invariant. 10. the displacement function can be represented by a polynomial having twelve terms. 2η 0 ξ2 2ξη 3η 2 ξ 3 3ξη 2 (10.34) Since the element has 12 degrees of freedom. a ∂ξ (10.38) (10.36. b ∂η θy = − 1 ∂w .

evaluating (10. (10. ⎪ ⎭ ⎣N 4 ⎦ T ⎧0⎫ ⎪ ⎪ = ⎨ 0 ⎬. e e (10. e T 1 x1 y1 4 x4 y4 e Solving (10.η )⎦ T ⎧1 2 2 ⎪ 8 ( 1 + ξ i ξ ) 1 + η jη 2 + ξ i ξ + ηi η − ξ − η ⎪ b ⎪ ( 1 + ξi ξ )( ηi + η ) η 2 − 1 =⎨ 8 ⎪ a ⎪ ( ξi + ξ ) ξ 2 − 1 ( 1 + ηi η ) ⎪ 8 ⎩ ( )( ( ) )⎫ ⎪ ( ) ⎪ ⎪ ⎬. e e ⎣N 2 ⎦ ⎣N 3 ⎦ ⎣N 4 ⎦ ⎦ {q }. (10.38) and (10.42) into (10.40) where { q } = ⎣w bθ aθ L w bθ aθ ⎦ {α }.44) and the shape functions are defined as ⎣N i (ξ .42) Substituting (10. ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ The element is non-conforming. ⎬ ⎪ ⎭ ⎣N 3 ⎦ T ⎧ (1 4 )( 1 + η ) 2 + η − η 2 ⎪ = ⎨ (b 4 )( 1 + η ) η 2 − 1 ⎪ 0 ⎩ ( ( ) )⎫ ⎪ ⎬. for conciseness.45) where ( ξi . (10.45) on the side 2-3 (for ξ = +1 ) gives ⎣N 1 ⎦ T ⎣N 2 ⎦ T ⎧ (1 4 )( 1 − η ) 2 − η − η 2 ⎪ = ⎨ (b 4 )( − 1 + η ) η 2 − 1 ⎪ 0 ⎩ ( ( )⎫ ) ⎪.234 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Evaluating (10. Indeed. ⎪0⎪ ⎩ ⎭ . η = ±1 gives { q }= [ A ]{α }. (10.39) at ξ = ±1 .40) for {α } gives {α } = [ Ae ] w = ⎣N (ξ . ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ = ⎨ 0 ⎬ .43) where the vector of nodal displacements is { q } = ⎣w e T 1 θ x1 θ y1 L w4 θ x 4 θ y 4 ⎦ .36).ηi ) are the coordinates of node i. a) yields { } (10. ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ (10.41) and the matrix [ A ] is given in [87] but not reproduced here.36.η )⎦ q e = ⎣ ⎣N1 ⎦ −1 {q } .

The rotation θ y is given by (10. 3.10.48) where the element stiffness matrix is h [ k ] = ∫ 12 [ B ] e 3 T [ D ] [ B ]dA (10.34) θy = − ∂ ⎣N 4 ⎦ ⎥ e 1 ∂w 1⎢∂ N = − ⎢ ⎣ 1⎦ L ⎥ q .η )⎦ T ∂ξ ⎫ ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ξ i η ( ηi − η ) ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ b ξ i ( ηi + η ) η 2 − 1 ⎬ . this is not the case with the rotation θ y .49) A and the strain-displacement matrix is . Substituting (10.45) into (10. then w and θ x will be continuous along the common side.8) gives Ue = 1 2 { q } [k ] { q }. The rotation θ y is not continuous across the side 2-3 and the element is non-conforming. and 4 as well as by θ y at nodes 2 and 3. and hence the rotation θ x .46) Substituting (10. ⎪ ⎭ ⎫ ⎪ ⎬. 2. ⎪ ⎭ −η ( 1 − η ) ⎧ ∂ ⎣N 4 ⎦ T ⎪ = ⎨ − (b 8) ( 1 + η ) η 2 − 1 ∂ξ ⎪ 0 ⎩ ( ) The above expressions indicate that θ y is determined by the values of w and θ x at nodes 1. e T e e (10. ∂ξ ⎪ ⎪ − (a 2 ) ( 1 − η ) ⎭ ⎩ ( ) ⎫ ⎪ ⎬.47) Evaluating (10.43) into (10. are uniquely determined by their values at nodes 2 and 3. ⎪ ⎭ η (− 1 − η ) ⎧ ∂ ⎣N 3 ⎦ T ⎪ = ⎨ (b 8) ( 1 + η ) η 2 − 1 ∂ξ ⎪ − (a 2 ) ( 1 + η ) ⎩ ( ) ⎫ ⎪ ⎬.4) and (10. =⎨ ⎪ ⎪ 8 ⎪ − a ( 2 + 2ξ ) ( 1 + η η ) ⎪ i i ⎪ ⎪ 8 ⎭ ⎩ ( ) (10. PLATE BENDING 235 This indicates that the displacement w . Unfortunately.46) gives ∂ ⎣N i (ξ .47) along ξ = +1 gives −η ( − 1 − η ) ⎧ ∂ ⎣N1 ⎦ T ⎪ = ⎨− (b 8) ( − 1 + η ) η 2 − 1 ∂ξ ⎪ 0 ⎩ ( ) η (− 1 − η ) ⎫ ⎧ ⎪ ∂ ⎣N 2 ⎦ T ⎪ = ⎨ (b 8) ( − 1 + η ) η 2 − 1 ⎬. ∂ξ ⎦ a ∂ξ a ⎣ ∂ξ { } (10. If the element is attached to another rectangular element at nodes 2 and 3.

⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ (10.50) Substituting the shape functions from (10. −ν a b ⎥ ⎥ 4 2 4 ⎧ ⎫ 2 ⎨ β + ( 1 − ν )⎬ a ⎥ 15 ⎩3 ⎭ ⎥ ⎦ 1 ⎧ ⎫ ⎤ − ⎨2β 2 + (1 − ν )⎬ a ⎥ 5 ⎩ ⎭ ⎥ ⎥.236 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎧ ∂2 ⎪ 2 ⎪ ∂x 2 ⎪ [ B ]= ⎪ ∂ 2 ⎨ ⎪ ∂y ⎪ ∂2 ⎪2 ⎪ ∂x∂ y ⎩ ⎫ ⎧ 1 ∂2 ⎪ ⎪ 2 2 ⎪ ⎪ a ∂ξ ⎪ ⎪ 1 ∂2 ⎪ ⎪ N⎦ = ⎨ 2 ⎬⎣ 2 ⎪ ⎪ b ∂η ⎪ ⎪ 2 ∂2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ab ∂ξ ∂η ⎭ ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎣N (ξ .η )⎦ . 0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎧1 2 1 ⎫ 2 ⎨ β + ( 1 − ν )⎬ a ⎥ 15 ⎩3 ⎭ ⎥ ⎦ ⎡ ⎧ 2 ⎧ 2 1 ⎫ ⎫ 2 2 ⎨α − (1 + 4ν )⎬ b ⎢− ⎨2 2 β − α + 5 (7 − 2ν )⎬ 5 ⎩ ⎭ ⎭ ⎢ ⎩ ⎧2 2 4 ⎫ 2 ⎧ 2 1 ⎫ ⎢ [ k12 ] = ⎢ ⎨ α − (1 − ν )⎬ b ⎨α − (1 + 4ν )⎬ b 5 15 ⎩3 ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎢ ⎧ 2 1 ⎫ ⎢ 0 ⎨ 2 β + (1 − ν )⎬ a ⎢ 5 ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ ⎡ ⎧ 2 ⎧ 2 1 ⎫ ⎫ 2 2 ⎨α − ( 1 − ν )⎬ b ⎢− ⎨2 β + α + 5 (7 − 2ν )⎬ 5 ⎩ ⎭ ⎭ ⎢ ⎩ ⎧1 2 1 ⎫ 2 ⎧ 2 1 ⎫ ⎢ [ k13 ] = ⎢ ⎨− α + ( 1 − ν )⎬ b ⎨ α + ( 1 − ν )⎬ b 5 15 ⎩3 ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎢ ⎧ 2 1 ⎫ ⎢ 0 ⎨ β − ( 1 − ν )⎬ a ⎢ 5 ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ ( ) ( ) . 0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎧2 2 1 ⎫ 2 ⎨ β − (1 − ν )⎬ a ⎥ 15 ⎩3 ⎭ ⎥ ⎦ ⎧ 2 1 ⎫ ⎤ ⎨− β + ( 1 − ν )⎬ a ⎥ 5 ⎩ ⎭ ⎥ ⎥.51) where the submatrices have the following expressions ⎡ 2 ⎧ 2 1 ⎫ 2 2 ⎢4 β + α + 5 (7 − 2ν ) ⎨2α + 5 (1 + 4ν )⎬ b ⎩ ⎭ ⎢ ⎧4 2 4 ⎫ 2 ⎢ [ k11 ] = ⎢ ⎨ α + (1 − ν )⎬ b 15 ⎩3 ⎭ ⎢ ⎢ SYM ⎢ ⎣ ( ) ⎧ ⎫ ⎤ 2 1 ⎨− 2β − (1 + 4ν )⎬ a ⎥ 5 ⎩ ⎭ ⎥ ⎥.45) and integrating gives the element stiffness matrix [k ] e ⎡ [ k11 ] ⎢ Eh ⎢ = 2 48 1 −ν a b ⎢ ⎢ ⎣SYM 3 ( ) [ k12 ] [ k13 ] [ k14 ]⎤ [ k22 ] [ k23 ] [ k24 ]⎥ ⎥ [ k33 ] [ k34 ]⎥ [ k44 ]⎥ ⎦ (10.

36) for w and substitute for {α } after performing the integration.53) The above relationships are presented in reference [87]. [ k24 ] = [ I 3 ]T [ k23 ][ I 3 ] .52) where ⎡ − 1 0 0⎤ [ I1 ] = ⎢ 0 1 0⎥ . [ k23 ] = [ I 3 ]T [ k14 ][ I 3 ] . In terms of the nodal displacements they can be expressed as e z { f }= p .54) and integrating. substituting the shape functions into { f } = ∫ ⎣N ⎦ e A T pz d A (10. PLATE BENDING ⎡ 2 ⎧ 2 1 ⎫ 2 2 ⎢2 β − 2α − 5 (7 − 2ν ) ⎨ 2α + 5 (1 − ν )⎬ b ⎩ ⎭ ⎢ ⎧2 2 1 ⎫ 2 ⎢ ⎧− 2α 2 − 1 (1 − ν )⎫ b [ k 41 ] = ⎢ ⎨ ⎨ α − (1 − ν )⎬ b ⎬ 5 15 ⎩3 ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎢ 1 ⎧ ⎫ ⎢ ⎨− β 2 + (1 + 4ν )⎬ a 0 ⎢ ⎩ 5 ⎭ ⎣ 237 ( ) ⎧ ⎫ ⎤ 2 1 ⎨− β + (1 + 4ν )⎬ a ⎥ 5 ⎩ ⎭ ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎧2 2 4 ⎫ 2 ⎨ β − (1 − ν )⎬ a ⎥ 15 ⎩3 ⎭ ⎥ ⎦ and α= a . ⎢ ⎥ ⎢0 0 − 1⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (10. A typical integration is then of the form +1 +1 −1 −1 ∫∫ ξ mη n dξ dη = ⎨ ⎧ ⎪ 0 4 ⎪ (m + 1)(n + 1) ⎩ m or n odd m and n even For p z = constant . [ k34 ] = [ I1 ]T [ k12 ][ I1 ] .5). it is simpler to use the expression (10. [ k44 ] = [ I 2 ]T [ k11 ][ I 2 ] .51) are [ k22 ] = [ I 3 ]T [ k11 ][ I 3 ] . ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0 0 1⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡1 0 0⎤ [ I 2 ] = ⎢0 − 1 0 ⎥ . (10. [ k33 ] = [ I1 ]T [ k11 ][ I1 ] . a The remaining submatrices of (10. b β= b . the vector of equivalent nodal forces is obtained as ab T ⎣ 3 b − a 3 b a 3 − b a 3 − b − a⎦ . 3 Stresses at any point in the plate are given by (10. In deriving this result. ⎢ ⎥ ⎢0 0 1 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡1 0 0 ⎤ [ I 3 ] = ⎢0 1 0 ⎥ .10.

238 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS {σ } = − z [ D ][ B ]{q e }.55) where [ B ] is defined in (10. when we examine the derivatives of these products we find that the twist ∂ 2 w ∂ξ ∂η is zero at all four corners and that there is no constant component to this second derivative. The most accurate values are at the Gauss points of a (2 × 2) numerical integration scheme. this violates the fundamental requirement that the element can represent all constant strain states. of the form shown in Fig. This element does have constant strain but is non-conforming. can be obtained using products of separate one-dimensional Hermitian shape functions (5. and discontinuities in slope occur at interfaces. ⎪ − a g (ξ ) f (η ) ⎪ i i ⎩ ⎭ (10.η )⎦ where T ⎧ f i (ξ ) f i (η ) ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ = ⎨ b f i (ξ ) g i (η ) ⎬ . the displacement function is of the form (10. However. as the mesh is refined and the element size is decreased.2 BFS element (conforming) A conforming rectangular element. The nodal expansion of the displacement function has the form (10. In the limit. (10. A compromise is to use the cubic Hermitian polynomials for the deflection shape functions but reduce the order to linear for the rotation shape functions.1966). As this controls the shear strain in equation (10.2).4. 4 4 f i (ξ ) = ( ( ) ) ( ( ) ) (10. g i (η ) = − ηi − η +ηi η 2 + η 3 .3.ηi ) are the coordinates of node i.43) with ⎣N i (ξ . Unfortunately. the results are convergent.43) but with 16 terms . 4 4 1 1 f i (η ) = 2 + 3ηi η − ηi η 3 .57) in which ( ξi . Fox and Schmit .21) as for uniform slender beams. commonly referred to as the BFS element (Bogner.56) 1 1 2 + 3ξ i ξ − ξ i ξ 3 . In this case. 10. The solution used for the BFS element is the introduction of ∂ 2 w ∂ξ ∂η as an additional degree of freedom at each node. as an increasing number of elements is used. g i (ξ ) = − ξ i − ξ +ξ i ξ 2 + ξ 3 . the plate will tend towards a zero twist condition. It is a four-node thin plate bending element. 10.50).

33). the shear deformations become important and a Reissner-Mindlin plate model is adopted.24) and (10. (10. This is ensured by the presence in the functions (10. 10.53) where the matrix ⎣N ⎦ is defined by (10.and ydirections.59). . The highest derivative of w .59) of the first six terms in (10. The transverse displacement and tangential slope are continuous between elements but the normal slope is not. Hence. θ x and θ y appearing in these expressions is the first. 2b 1 θ y 2 − θ y3 . Brebbia – 1971) by introducing the approximations ′ w′x y1 = ′ w′x y 3 = 1 θ y1 − θ y 4 . θ x and θ y are the only degrees of freedom required at the nodal points (Fig.49) and (10. The element stiffness matrix and consistent vector of nodal forces are given by (10. 2a 1 θ x3 − θ x 4 . Although the BFS element is more accurate than the ACM element.30) and the potential of the external load is (10. 2b ( ) ′ w′x y 2 = ′ w′x y 4 = 1 θ x 2 − θ x1 .3. 10. For a thick plate-bending element. w .59) It can be shown that this element can perform rigid body movements without deformation and can describe pure bending behaviour in the x.10. This is overcome in the WB element (Wilson. 2a ( ) ( ) ( ) Applying the above constraints to the BFS element makes it a nonconforming one.5).26). with { χ } and {γ } given by (10.η )⎦ T ⎧ f i (ξ ) f i (η ) ⎫ ⎪ b f (ξ ) g (η ) ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ i i =⎨ ⎬.21). for convergence. it is difficult to use in conjunction with other types of elements in built-up structures due to the presence of the degree of freedom ∂ 2 w ∂x ∂y .43) and (10.3 HTK thick rectangular element When the thickness is greater than about a tenth of the plate width. PLATE BENDING 239 1 { q } = ⎣w e T ′ θ x1 θ y1 w′x y1 L w4 θ x 4 θ y 4 ′ w′x y 4 ⎦ .58) ′ where w′x y ≡ ∂ 2 w ∂x ∂y and ⎣N i (ξ . the strain energy expression is (10. ⎪ − a g i (ξ ) f i (η ) ⎪ ⎪ ab g i (ξ ) g i (η ) ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ (10.

e B S (10. θ x = ∑ Ni θ x i . expressions (10. that is Ni = 1 1 + ξ i ξ 1 + η iη .60) can be written ⎧w ⎪ ⎨ θx ⎪θ ⎩ y where ⎫ ⎪ e ⎬=[N] q .3).62) { q } = ⎣w e T 1 θ x1 θ y1 L w4 θ x 4 θ y 4 ⎦ . In matrix form. θ x and θ y are continuous between elements. i =1 i =1 i =1 4 4 4 (10. The displacement functions are of the form w = ∑ Ni w i . Taylor and Kanoknukulcha .240 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The four-node HTK element (Hughes. It represents the shear deformation directly.44) and ⎡ N1 [ N ]= ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎣ N1 0 0 L N1 L (10.61) These functions ensure that w .26) and (10.1977) expands separately w .62) into (10. (10.64) where the element stiffness matrix k e can be written as the sum of the matrices due to bending and shear [ ] [ k ] = [ k ] + [ k ].30) gives Ue = 1 2 { q } [ k ] { q }. ⎪ ⎭ { } (10. 4 ( )( ) (10. 0 0 L N4 0 0 0 N4 0 0 ⎤ 0 ⎥.63) Substituting (10. θ x and θ y in terms of their nodal values.65) In (10. without having to infer it as the derivative of the bending moment. e T e e (10.60) where the functions N i are defined by (9. ⎥ N4 ⎥ ⎦ (10.65) . θ y = ∑ Ni θ y i .24).

68) where [ ] BiB The strain-displacement matrix B S is of the form S S 1 S 2 S 3 S 4 [ ] [ B ]= [ [ B ] [ B ] [ B ] [ B ] ] ∂N [ B ] = ⎡⎢ ∂ N S i i i 0 − ∂ Ni ∂ x ⎤ ⎡0 ⎥.69) and (10.70) where ⎣ ∂x 0 ∂ y − Ni Ni ⎤ .69) (10.66) A and [ k ] = ∫ κ h [ B ] [ D ][ B ] d A . PLATE BENDING 241 h [ k ] = ∫ 12 [ B ] B 3 B T [ D ] [BB ] d A S S (10. 0 ⎥ ⎦ (10.10.68) and the resulting matrices into (10.67) (10.72) into (10.66) gives the element stiffness matrix due to bending .73) 4 ⎣( ⎦ S i i i i i i i i i Substituting (10.71) Substituting (10.71) gives [ ] BiB ⎡0 − ξ i 1 + η iη 4a ⎤ 0 ⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ 0 1 + ξ i ξ η i 4b 0 ⎥ ⎢ 0 ξ i 1 + η i η 4 a − 1 + ξ i ξ η i 4b ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ( ( ) ( ) ) ( ) (10. The strain-displacement matrix [ B ] is of the form [ B ]= [ [ B ] [ B ] [ B ] [ B ] ] S S T A B B B 1 B 2 B 3 B 4 (10.72) and ( ηη a 0 [ B ] = ⎡⎢ ξ1 +1ξ+ ξ )η ) 4b − (1 + ξ ξ )(1 + η η ) 4 (1 + ξ ξ )(01 + η η ) 4 ⎤⎥ . ⎢ 0 ∂N ∂ y 0 =⎢ i ⎥ ⎢ 0 ∂ Ni ∂ x − ∂ Ni ∂ y ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ (10.(10.61) into (10.

2 ⎥ 2 2 2⎥ β − ( 1 −ν ) a ⎥ 3 ⎦ 0 { } and α= a .242 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS [k ]= B 48 1 − ν 2 ( E h3 ) ⎡ kB ⎢ 11 ⎢ ⎢ ab ⎢ ⎢ ⎢SYM ⎣ [ ] [ k ] [ k ] [ k ] ⎤⎥ [ k ] [ k ] [ k ] ⎥⎥ [ k ] [ k ] ⎥⎥ [ k ] ⎥⎦ B B B 12 13 14 B B B 22 23 24 B 33 B 34 B 44 (10. b β= b .74) where the submatrices are ⎡0 ⎢ ⎢ = ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢0 ⎢ ⎣ 0 4 3 ⎧ 2 1 ⎫ 2 ⎨α + ( 1 −ν )⎬ b 2 ⎩ ⎭ 1 − (1 +ν )a b 2 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ 1 ⎥. a . 2 ⎥ 1 2 2⎥ − 4 β + ( 1 −ν ) a ⎥ 3 ⎦ 0 { } [k ] B 13 2⎧ ⎫ 2 2 1 ⎨ − α − ( 1 −ν ) ⎬ b 3⎩ 2 ⎭ 1 (1 +ν )a b 2 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ 1 ⎥. ( 1 +ν )a b ⎥ 2 ⎥ 2⎧ 1 ⎫ − β 2 − ( 1 −ν ) ⎬ a 2 ⎥ ⎨ 3⎩ 2 ⎭ ⎥ ⎦ 0 [k ] B 14 ⎡0 0 ⎢ ⎢ 1 = ⎢0 − 4α 2 + ( 1 − ν ) b 2 3 ⎢ 1 ⎢0 ( 3ν − 1 ) a b ⎢ 2 ⎣ { } ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ 1 − ( 3ν − 1) a b ⎥ . − (1 +ν )a b ⎥ 2 ⎥ 4⎧ 2 1 ⎫ β + ( 1 −ν )⎬ a 2 ⎥ ⎨ 3⎩ 2 ⎭ ⎥ ⎦ 0 [k ] B 11 [k ] B 12 ⎡0 ⎢ ⎢ = ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎢ ⎣ ⎡0 ⎢ ⎢ = ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢0 ⎢ ⎣ 0 2 α 2 − ( 1 −ν ) b 2 3 1 − ( 3ν − 1 ) a b 2 0 { } ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ 1 ( 3ν − 1) a b ⎥ .

75) where γ S = E h 3 12κ G b 2 is a shear parameter similar to (5.10.63) and (10.52). a2 ⎥ ⎦ [k ] S 12 ⎡ − 1 + α 2 α 2b ⎢ = ⎢ α 2b α 2 b2 ⎢ a 0 ⎣ ⎡1 − α 2 α 2b ⎢ = ⎢ − α 2b α 2 b 2 ⎢ −a 0 ⎣ − a⎤ ⎥ 0 ⎥. a2 ⎥ ⎦ − a⎤ ⎥ 0 ⎥.97) and [k ] S 11 ⎡1 + α 2 α 2b ⎢ = ⎢ α 2b α 2 b 2 ⎢ −a 0 ⎣ ⎡ − 1 − α 2 α 2b ⎢ = ⎢ − α 2b α 2 b 2 ⎢ a 0 ⎣ − a⎤ ⎥ 0 ⎥.67) gives the element stiffness matrix due to shear [k ] S ⎡ kS ⎢ 11 ⎢ E h3 ⎢ = 48 γ S a b ⎢ ⎢ ⎢SYM ⎣ [ ] [ k ] [ k ] [ k ] ⎤⎥ [ k ] [ k ] [ k ] ⎥⎥ . The bending and twisting moments per unit length are given by .71) and the resulting matrices into (10.76) ⎪ 0 ⎪ A ⎩ ⎭ For pz = constant.76) and integrating gives { } ∫ e T⎪ { f }= p a b ⎣ 1 e z 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0⎦ T (10.73) into (10. PLATE BENDING 243 The remaining submatrices of (10.52). a2 ⎥ ⎦ − a⎤ ⎥ 0 ⎥. The vector of equivalent nodal forces is ⎧ pz ⎫ ⎪ f = ⎣N ⎦ ⎨ 0 ⎬ d A (10. substituting the shape functions from (10.61) into (10. a2 ⎥ ⎦ [k ] S 13 [k ] S 14 The remaining submatrices of (10. [ k ] [ k ] ⎥⎥ [ k ] ⎥⎦ S S S 12 13 14 S S S 22 23 24 S 33 S 34 S 44 (10.77) which means that one quarter of the total force is concentrated at each node. Substituting (10.74) are given by relationships corresponding to (10.75) are given by relationships corresponding to (10. The above expressions are presented in reference [87].

. The bending strains in the 8-node version are recovered accurately if sampled at the reduced (2 × 2) Gauss points. lowering the integration order for the stiffness matrix due to shear. However. However. Obviously.g. Alternative methods. suggest to subdivide the element into regions (e.79) The most accurate values are at the centre of the element. This is avoided by selective integration.78) where [ I 3 ] is defined by (10.244 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎧ Mx ⎪ ⎨ My ⎪M ⎩ xy ⎫ ⎪ h3 = − [ I3 ] [ D ] B B ⎬ 12 ⎪ ⎭ [ ]{q }. large errors can occur in the case of cantilever plates. the individual functions must be continuous (up to the first derivatives) across the interior boundaries as well as the exterior boundaries. In very thin plates.26) thus imply a dependent relationship between w . There is no perfect rectangular plate-bending element. The above analysis can be easily extended to 8-node or higher-order plate elements. 10. S S e (10. the shear strains become very small and near-zero values in (10. Benchmark problems have shown that the HTK element yields accurate solutions for simply supported or clamped plates. The most accurate values are at the Gauss points of a (2 × 2) numerical integration scheme. into four triangles) and work with different displacement functions over each region. considering rather difficult to generate a displacement function valid over the entire rectangular element. The shear forces per unit length are ⎧ Qx ⎫ ⎨ ⎬=κ h ⎩ Qy ⎭ [ D ][ B ]{q }. θ x and θ y which is not true for thick plates.53). There are different formulations using mixtures of corner and mid-side freedoms in order to achieve near complete polynomials. the standard (2 × 2) integration is reported to give good results for width-to-thickness ratios up to 50. . e (10.4 Triangular plate bending elements In this section we outline the development of some plate-bending triangular elements.

1 Thin triangular element (non-conforming) Figure 10. (10. (10.81.82) Differentiating (10.10. the transverse displacement w . the coefficients of x 2 y and x y 2 are taken to be equal.80) Note that a complete cubic has ten terms so that the polynomial (10. The local x-axis lies along the side 1-2 and the local y-axis is perpendicular to it. a) w = ⎣P ( x . In order to maintain symmetry.6 shows the T element (Tocher . y3 ) . Nodes 1.6 The expression (10.0) .81) (10.0) and (x3 . where {α }T = ⎣ α1 α 2 α3 L α9 ⎦ . 2 and 3 have coordinates (0. ( ) (10. and the two rotations θ x = and ∂y θy = − ∂w with respect to the local axes. Fig.1962). There are three degrees of freedom at each ∂w node.80) can be written in the following matrix form w= 1 x ⎣ y x2 xy y2 x3 (x 2 y + x y2 ) y3 ⎦ {α } . PLATE BENDING 245 10. y )⎦ {α } . ∂x Since the element has 9 degrees of freedom. the displacement function can be represented by a polynomial having nine terms. 10.80) is incomplete. (x2 . that is w = α1 + α 2 x + α 3 y + α 4 x 2 + α 5 x y + α 6 y 2 + + α 7 x3 + α8 x 2 y + x y 2 + α 9 y 3 .4. namely.81) gives .

0 0 0 0 x2 0 x3 y3 x3 − y3 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 y3 2 y3 0 0 0 0 3 x2 0 2 3 x2 3 x3 (10.83) ⎥ ⎦ Evaluating (10. therefore. a) yields [ ] { q }. the locations of the nodes should be altered to avoid this condition.84) where { q } = ⎣w e T 1 θ x1 θ y1 L w3 θ x 3 θ y 3 ⎦ .89) and. (10.83) at the nodal points gives { q } = [ A ] {α } .81.88) x2 − 2 x3 − y3 = 0 (10. (10. gives . This element is non-conforming.83) along the side 1-2.84) for {α } gives {α } = [ Ae ] −1 {q } . Evaluating (10.87) Substituting (10. e −1 (10. y )⎦ Ae e e (10. e e (10. If this occurs. of equation y = 0 . cannot be inverted.85) and the matrix ⎡1 0 0 ⎢0 0 1 ⎢ ⎢ 0 −1 0 ⎢ ⎢ 1 x2 0 =⎢0 0 1 ⎢ ⎢ 0 −1 0 ⎢1 x y3 3 ⎢ ⎢0 0 1 ⎢ ⎣ 0 −1 0 0 0 0 2 x2 0 − 2 x2 2 x3 0 0 0 0 2 x2 0 2 2 x3 y3 + x3 y3 2 x3 + 2 x3 y3 2 − 2 x3 y3 − y3 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 y3 2 3 y3 0 [A ] e 0 − 2 x3 0 2 − 3x3 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ .86) ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ Solving (10. the matrix [ A ] is singular whenever w = ⎣P (x .246 ⎧w ⎪ ⎨ θx ⎪θ ⎩ y ⎫ ⎡ 1 x y x2 x y y2 x3 ⎪ ⎢ 0 0 x 2y ⎬=⎢0 0 1 ⎪ ⎢ 0 − 1 0 − 2 x − y 0 − 3x 2 ⎭ ⎣ FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS x2 y + x y2 x2 + 2x y − 2x y − y2 y3 3y2 0 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ {α }. Unfortunately.87) into (10.

92) is of the form which can be evaluated analytically.90) The rotation θ x is a quadratic function having coefficients α 3 . Calculation of the element stiffness matrix referred to local axes requires the local coordinates of .80) is not invariant with respect to the choice of coordinate axes. Therefore the normal slope is not continuous between elements. PLATE BENDING 247 0 x2 0 0⎤ ⎥ 0 ⎥ {α } .94) Note that nodal coordinates are usually given in global axes. { f }= [ A ] ∫ e e −T A T ⎣P ⎦ p z d A .4) and (10. These cannot be determined using the values of θ x at nodes 1 and 2 only.10. The edge 1-2 was taken along the x-axis.93) ∫x A m n y dA . In this case θ x is a tangential component and θ y is a normal component of rotation.8) gives Ue = 1 2 { q } [ k ]{ q } e T e e (10. The vector of consistent nodal forces is given by (10. Moreover. in some plate-bending elements a linear variation of the tangential component of rotation is adopted. To alleviate this. (10. the assumed function (10.91) where the element stiffness matrix in the local coordinate system is h [ k ] = [ A ] ∫ 12 [ B ] e e −T 3 A T [ D ] [ B ]d A [A ] e −1 (10. while the tangential component θ x is not. due to the x 2 y and x y 2 terms. 0⎥ ⎦ ⎧w ⎪ ⎨ θx ⎪θ ⎩ y ⎡ 1 x 0 x2 0 0 ⎫ x3 ⎢ ⎪ 0 x 0 0 ⎬ =⎢0 0 1 ⎪ ⎢ 0 − 1 0 − 2 x 0 0 − 3x 2 ⎭1− 2 ⎣ (10. The transverse displacement w and the normal component θ y are continuous between elements. α 5 and α 8 . Substituting (10.92) and the strain-displacement matrix is 2y 0 ⎤ ⎡ 0 0 0 2 0 0 6x ⎢0 0 0 0 0 2 0 [B ]= ⎢ 2x 6y ⎥ . ⎥ ⎢ 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 4 (x + y ) 0 ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ A typical element of the integrand in (10.88) into (10.

These can be obtained from their global coordinates using the corresponding transformation matrix. In matrix form. In order to assemble the global stiffness matrix.4. the transverse displacement w . ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ 0 0 ζ1 0 0 ζ 2 0 0 ζ 3 ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ (10. Tocher. The displacement functions are assumed to be w = ∑ ζ i wi . i =1 i =1 i =1 3 3 3 (10. the element matrices have to be first transformed from local to global axes through a matrix triple product which is one of the more time-consuming procedures in finite element analysis.248 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS nodes 2 and 3. 10. θ X = ∑ ζ i θ X i .2 Thick triangular element (conforming) Consider a thick triangular element (THT element – Henschel. expressions (10. ζ 2 and ζ 3 (8. (10. θ X i and θY i are the degrees of freedom at node i. namely. (10. Nodes 1.97) and ⎡ ζ1 0 0 ζ 2 0 0 ζ 3 0 0 ⎤ [ N ] = ⎢ 0 ζ1 0 0 ζ 2 0 0 ζ 3 0 ⎥ .95) where wi . and the two rotations θ X and θY with respect to the global axes. θY = ∑ ζ i θY i . 2 and 3 have area coordinates ζ 1 .98) Functions expressed in area coordinates can be differentiated with respect to Cartesian coordinates using .35). There are three independent degrees of freedom at each node. θ X and θY are continuous between elements. They ensure that w .96) where the vector of nodal displacements is { q } = ⎣w e T 1 θ X 1 θ Y 1 L w3 θ X 3 θ Y 3 ⎦ . 1969) referred to a global coordinate system.95) are written ⎧ w ⎪ ⎨θX ⎪θ ⎩ Y ⎫ ⎪ ⎬=[N ⎪ ⎭ ]{ q e }.

96) into (10. PLATE BENDING 249 ∂ 1 3 ∂ = ∑ β i ∂ζ .24) and using (10.102) Substituting (10. the stiffness matrix due to bending is h [ k ] = 12 A [ B ] B 3 B T [ D ] [ B B ]. [ k ] ⎥⎦ S S 12 13 S S 22 23 (10. ∂ 1 3 ∂ = ∑ γ i ∂ζ .99) Substituting (10. (10. ∂ x 2 A i =1 i where β i and γ i are defined in (8.99) shows that the straindisplacement matrix due to shear is [B ] S ⎡ ⎢ =⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ β1 2A 0 − ζ1 ζ1 0 β2 2A 0 −ζ2 ζ2 0 β3 2A 0 −ζ3 ζ3 ⎥ ⎤ γ1 γ2 γ3 2A 2A 2A ⎥. ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎦ (10.96) into (10.102) into (10.103) gives the stiffness matrix due to shear ⎡ kS ⎢ 11 = κG h ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ SYM ⎣ [k ] S [ ] [ k ] [ k ] ⎤⎥ [ k ] [ k ] ⎥⎥ . −γ3 ⎥ ⎦ (10.67) and integrating using the formula ∫ζ A m n p 1 ζ2 ζ3 dA = m ! n!p ! 2A (m + n + p + 2)! (10.10. ∂ y 2 A i =1 i (10.99) gives the straindisplacement matrix due to bending [B ] B ⎡ 0 0 − β1 0 0 1 ⎢ = 0 γ1 0 0 γ2 2A ⎢ ⎢ 0 β 1 − γ1 0 β 2 ⎣ −β2 0 −γ2 0 0 0 γ3 0 β3 −β3 ⎤ ⎥ 0 ⎥.104) S 33 where .8).100) As this matrix is constant.24) and using (10.101) Substituting (10.

⎥ A⎥ 6 ⎥ ⎦ [k ] S 23 ⎡ β3 β 2 + γ 3 γ 2 ⎢ 4A ⎢ γ3 ⎢ =⎢ − 6 ⎢ β3 ⎢ ⎢ 6 ⎣ − γ2 β2 ⎤ 6 A 12 0 ⎥ 6 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥. Dhatt1967).3 Discrete Kirchhoff triangles (DKT) The difficulties to formulate simple (minimum degrees of freedom) and high-performing elements based on the Kirchhoff theory at the continuum level (which requires a C1 continuity for w ) led to the development of the so-called Discrete Kirchhoff (DK) technique (Wempner-1969.76) and integrating gives the vector of equivalent nodal forces { f }= p e z A T ⎣1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0⎦ 3 (10. For pz = constant. ⎥ A⎥ 6⎥ ⎦ [k ] S 12 ⎡ β2 β 1 + γ 2 γ1 ⎢ 4A ⎢ γ2 ⎢ =⎢ − 6 ⎢ β2 ⎢ ⎢ 6 ⎣ 2 ⎡β 2 +γ2 2 ⎢ ⎢ 4A γ2 ⎢ =⎢ − 6 ⎢ β 2 ⎢ ⎢ 6 ⎣ − γ1 6 A 12 0 ⎥ 6⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥. 10. Stricklin et al. ⎥ A⎥ 12 ⎥ ⎦ β1 ⎤ − γ2 6 A 6 0 β2 ⎤ [k ] S 22 ⎥ 6 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥.105) which shows that one third of the total force is concentrated at each node. substituting the shape functions from (10.65). . The above relationships are presented in reference [87].250 2 2 ⎡ β 1 + γ1 ⎢ ⎢ 4A γ1 ⎢ =⎢ − 6 ⎢ β 1 ⎢ ⎢ 6 ⎣ FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS − γ1 6 A 6 0 β1 ⎤ [k ] S 11 ⎥ 6⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥. ⎥ A⎥ 6 ⎥ ⎦ The complete element stiffness matrix is the sum (10.98) into (10. ⎥ A⎥ 12 ⎥ ⎦ β1 ⎤ [k ] S 13 ⎡ β3 β 1 + γ 3 γ 1 ⎢ 4A ⎢ γ3 ⎢ =⎢ − 6 ⎢ β3 ⎢ ⎢ 6 ⎣ − γ1 6 A 12 0 ⎥ 6⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥.-1969. ⎥ A⎥ 12 ⎥ ⎦ [k ] S 33 2 ⎡β 2 +γ3 3 ⎢ ⎢ 4A γ3 ⎢ =⎢ − 6 ⎢ β 3 ⎢ ⎢ 6 ⎣ − γ3 6 A 6 0 β3 ⎤ ⎥ 6 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥.4.

For instance.7. only the bending strain energy is considered. The Kirchhoff constraints are imposed in a discrete manner on the element or/and on the sides. the tangential and normal components of rotations θ s k and θ n k at the mid-side node k. PLATE BENDING 251 In the formulation of various DK plate elements. It was shown that. 10. in terms of the first derivatives of the rotations (10.4.10. Constant curvature patch-tests are needed to check the validity of the elements. a). 10. the rotations vary quadratically and their tangential component (normal slope) is not continuous between elements.1 can be called a ‘continuous’ Kirchhoff triangle. The aim is to preserve the C 0 continuity of the tangential components of rotations (normal slopes). In this case only C 0 approximations of these rotations can be considered. The shear strain energy is neglected. The latter condition means that the transverse displacement w can vary cubically. while the normal component θ n varies quadratically (Fig. a Fig. The tangential component θ s is assumed to vary linearly along each edge. of length l k .24).106) . To remedy this. the transverse shear strains are either taken equal to zero at the mid-side points (collocation on sides) or their integral along each edge is taken equal to zero. along a side. in the discrete Kirchhoff triangles the two components of rotations are assumed independent of one another. are defined in terms of the components along the coordinate axes by ⎧ θ s k ⎫ ⎡ ck ⎨θ ⎬ = ⎢ ⎩ n k ⎭ ⎣ − sk where sk ⎤ ⎧ θ x k ⎫ ⎨ ⎬ ck ⎥ ⎩ θ y k ⎭ ⎦ (10. as in the ReissnerMindlin plate theory.7 b For a side i − j . The T element presented in section 10. in which the curvatures are expressed.

Fig. The rotation θ n varies parabolically (Fig. This is done requiring the shear strains γ s z to vanish along each side. Its expression in terms of the dimensionless coordinate can be written as s′ = s l k θ n = ( 1 − s′ )θ ni + s′θ n j + 4s′ ( 1 − s′ )α k . the three parameters α 4 . 10. The parameter α k has to be eliminated.107) Consider a discrete Kirchhoff triangle (DKT) with three nodes and three degrees of freedom per node (sometimes called DKT9). a). Then.8. ( ) sk = y j − y i l k . At the mid-side node k 1 θ ni + θ n j + α k . Initially. 10. b). ( ) (10. the degrees of freedom at mid-side nodes are eliminated. it is assumed that it has six nodes (Fig. One kind of ‘discrete’ Kirchhoff constraint is formulated in integral form as j j ∫ i γ s z ds = ∫ i ⎛ ∂w ⎞ ⎜ ⎜ ∂s + θn ⎟ ds = 0 .8 In order to eliminate the degrees of freedom at mid-side nodes.252 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ck = x j − x i l k . The rotation θ s is assumed to vary linearly (Fig. b) θ s = ( 1 − s′ )θ s i + s′θ s j .7. α 5 .8. α 6 must be expressed in terms of the degrees of freedom at the corner nodes. 10. 2 θnk = ( ) where the first term in the right hand side is expressed in terms of the rotations at the corner nodes.108) . ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (10. 10.

(w j − wi ) + l k ∫ [ ( 1 − s′ )θ ni + s′θ n j + 4s′ ( 1 − s′ )α k ] d s′ = 0 . where (10. the condition γ s z = 0 will be ∂s satisfied at all points along the contour.108) can be written ∫ dw + ∫ θ i 0 1 0 j lk n ds = 0 . wherefrom we obtain αk = 3 3 wi − w j − θ n i + θ n j .110) ⎣N ⎦ = ⎣ N1 N 2 N3 ⎦ = ⎣1 − ξ − η ξ η ⎦ . {θ y }= ⎣θ y1 α5 α6 ⎦ T . θ y 2 θ y 3 ⎦T . Then. {θ x } = ⎣θ x1 θ x 2 θ x3 ⎦T .109) can also be obtained by adopting a Hermitian cubic polynomial for w (s ) and using the discrete Kirchhoff collocation constraint (zero ∂w shear strain) γ s z = + θ n = 0 at points i.111) {α } = ⎣ α 4 ⎣Px ⎦ = ⎣ − P4 s4 − P5 s5 − P6 s6 ⎦ . j. ⎣ P4 P5 P6 ⎦ = ⎣ 4ξ ( 1 − ξ − η ) 4ξη 4η ( 1 − ξ − η ) ⎦ . θ x and θ y in terms of the corner nodal variables Substituting (10. 2l k 4 ( ) ( ) (10.110) we obtain the explicit expressions of . k. 2l k 4 ( ) ( ) or. PLATE BENDING 253 Equation (10.109) into (10.10. (10. in terms of the degrees of freedom of the corner points αk = 3 3 wi − w j − − s k θ x i + c k θ y i − s k θ x j + c k θ y j .109) The equation (10. θ y = ⎣N ⎦ {θ y }+ ⎣Py ⎦ {α }. The rotations θ x and θ y can be expressed as θ x = ⎣N ⎦ {θ x } + ⎣Px ⎦ {α }. ⎣Py ⎦ = ⎣ P4c4 P5c5 P6 c6 ⎦ . because w is cubical and θ n is quadratic.

⎥ y y y ⎥ ⎢ ⎣N1 ⎦ ⎣N 2 ⎦ ⎣N 3 ⎦ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ Nx 1 (10.115).113) [ N ]= ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣N 2x ⎦ ⎣N3x ⎦ ⎤ .112) { q } = ⎣w e T 1 θ x1 θ y1 L w3 θ x 3 θ y 3 ⎦ . the nodal rotations θ x i and θ y i have the expressions used in Kirchhoff’s theory θ xi = ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ∂y ⎟ .1 Corner point. the shape functions have the following expressions 3 3 Pk sk + Pm sm . as shown in Table 10. 4 4 3 3 Pk ck − Pm cm . ⎠i ⎝ ⎛∂w⎞ ( i = 1.116) 3 3 2 2 Pk ck − Pm cm . i 1 2 3 Side k ( i − j ) 5 (2−3 ) 6 (3 −1 ) 4 (1− 2 ) Side m ( i − j ) 4 (1− 2 ) 6 (3 −1 ) 5 (2−3 ) . ⎠i ⎝ ⎛∂w⎞ θ yi = − ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ∂x ⎟ .254 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎧ θx ⎫ ⎨ ⎬=[N ⎩θy ⎭ where ] {q e }. (10. Table 10. 3 ⎦ ⎣N1y ⎦ = ⎣Niy1 N iy = 1 N iy 2 N iy . 4 4 N ix2 = N i − N ix = 3 N iy = N ix . Taking into account the hypotheses adopted in formulating the DKT. 3 ) allowing the introduction of Kirchhoff-type boundary conditions.115) In (10. 4 4 N iy = N i − 3 In the above expressions the indices k and m relate to the two edges having the common corner point i. 2l k 2l m 3 3 2 2 Pk sk − Pm sm .114) ⎣N1x ⎦ = ⎣N ix1 N ix = − 1 N ix2 N ix .1. 2. 3 ⎦ (10. 3 2 3 3 Pk sk ck + Pm sm cm . (10. 2l k 2l m (10.

⎪ γ H + 2γ H ⎪ 3 ⎣ ⎦6 ⎭ ⎩ 2 ⎣ ⎦5 .118) The curvature vector (10. can be rewritten as ⎣G ⎦ = ⎣1 ⎣H ⎦ = ⎣1 ⎢ ∂θ {χ }= ⎢ − y ⎣ ∂x ξ η ξ 2 ξη η 2 ⎦ [ G ] . 2A 1 e ⎣1 ξ η ⎦ { Z } q .119) The elements of the curvature vector can be expressed in terms of the rows of the ( 6 × 9 ) matrices [ G ] and [ H ] as follows χ1 = χ2 = 1 ⎣1 ξ η ⎦ { X 2A }{ q e }. PLATE BENDING 255 Because the parameters α k are eliminated using an expression which is a function of the nodal variables of the side k only. y1 ) . Equation (10. In the following. presented explicitly in terms of the local oblique coordinates ξ and η .120) ⎧ β 2 ⎣G ⎦ + β 3 ⎣G ⎦ ⎫ 2 3 ⎪ ⎪ { X } = ⎨ 2β 2 ⎣G ⎦ 4 + β 3 ⎣G ⎦ 5 ⎬ . (x2 . y2 ) and (x3 . the continuity C 0 of θ n is maintained. (10. it will be derived in global coordinates as in [68]. (10.112) can be split as θ x = ⎣G ⎦ q e . y3 ) . { } (10. { } θ y = ⎣H ⎦ q e .24) is written for convenience as ∂θ x ∂y ∂θ x ∂θ y ⎥ − ⎥ ∂x ∂y ⎦ T = ⎣ χ1 χ2 χ12 ⎦ T .120) χ12 = { } where A is the area of the triangle with vertices (x1 .10. The stiffness matrix of the DKT element can be expressed in explicit form.117) The shape function row vectors ⎣G ⎦ and ⎣H ⎦ . 1 e ⎣1 ξ η ⎦ {Y } q . in a local coordinate system [18]. ⎪ β G + 2β G ⎪ 3 ⎣ ⎦6 ⎭ ⎩ 2 ⎣ ⎦5 ⎧ γ 2 ⎣H ⎦ + γ 3 ⎣H ⎦ ⎫ 2 3 ⎪ ⎪ {Y } = ⎨ 2γ 2 ⎣H ⎦ 4 + γ 3 ⎣H ⎦ 5 ⎬ . In (10. ξ η ξ 2 ξη η 2 ⎦ [ H ] . using a Hammer integration rule. 2A { } (10.

256

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

⎧ γ 2 ⎣G ⎦ + γ 3 ⎣G ⎦ + β 2 ⎣H ⎦ + β 3 ⎣H ⎦ ⎫ 2 3 2 3 ⎪ ⎪ { Z } = ⎨ 2γ 2 ⎣G ⎦ 4 + γ 3 ⎣G ⎦ 5 + 2β 2 ⎣H ⎦ 4 + β 3 ⎣H ⎦ 5 ⎬ , ⎪ γ G + 2γ G + β H + 2 β H ⎪ 3 ⎣ ⎦6 2 ⎣ ⎦5 3 ⎣ ⎦6 ⎭ ⎩ 2 ⎣ ⎦5

(10.121)

where ⎣G ⎦ i and ⎣H ⎦ i represent the ith row of [ G ] and [ H ] , respectively, and

**β i = y j − yk and γ i = xk − x j as in (8.8), with i, j, k taking values 1, 2, 3
**

cyclically. Substituting for the curvature terms into the bending strain energy expression 1 { χ }T [ D ] { χ }d x d y , Ue = (10.122) 2

∫

A

**where the material matrix [ D
**

Ue =

]

1 2

has the form (10.13), U e can be written as

{ q } [ K ]{ q },

e T e e

where K e is the element stiffness matrix in global coordinates, given by

[ ]

[K ]

e

⎡ [ X ]⎤ 1 ⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ [Y ] ⎥ 2A ⎢ [Z ]⎥ ⎣ ⎦

T

⎡ D11 [ R ] D12 [ R ] D16 [ R ]⎤ ⎡ [ X ] ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ D22 [ R ] D26 [ R ]⎥ ⎢ [ Y ] ⎥ , ⎢ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ SYM D66 [ R ]⎥ ⎢ [ Z ] ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦

(10.123)

with ⎡ 12 4 4 ⎤ 1 ⎢ [ R ]= ⎢ 4 2 1 ⎥ . ⎥ 24 ⎢ 4 1 2⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (10.124)

The matrix K e is of rank 6, so there are 3 deformation modes with zero strain energy. The integrations in (10.122) have the form

[ ]

∫∫

0 0

ξ 1−ξ

ξ mη n dξ dη ==

m ! n! . (m + n + 2)!

The presented procedure avoids the matrix triple products needed when the element stiffness matrix is given in the local coordinate system.

References

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vector of − beam 90. 151 − − − − Band storage 38 Bars 47 Bar element 47 Beams 79 Beam element 83 − stiffness matrix 87 − vector of nodal forces 89 Bernoulli-Euler beam theory 79 BFS plate-bending element 238 Compatibility 28.Index ACM plate-bending element Admissible functions 144 Area coordinates 180 Aspect ratio 178 Assembly of global matrices Axial effects 97 232 8-node quad 214 ACM plate-bending element 237 T plate-bending element 247 THT plate-bending element 249 Expanded stiffness matrix 29 External potential energy 140 Force transformation 20 Four-node rectangle 176 Frame element 97 Gauss points 200 Gauss quadrature 200 − one-dimensional 200 − two-dimensional 203 Gravity loading 217 Grids 111 Hermitian polynomials 85 HTK plate-bending element 239 Initial strain effects 59 Internal forces 35 Inverse of Jacobian matrix 196 Isoparametric elements 191 Jacobian matrix 195 Jacobian positiveness 223 Joint force equilibrium equations Kinematic equivalent forces 47 Kirchhoff’s hypotheses 225 Lagrange polynomials 220 Linear elasticity 123 Linear strain triangle 182 Master element 192 Natural coordinates 192 Nine-node quad 219 Nodal approximation 155 Nodal forces 55 Node numbering 37 Non-conforming elements 232. 98 Deep beam 117 Direct method 26 Direct stiffness method 17 Discrete Kirchhoff constraints 252 Discrete Kirchhoff triangle 250 Displacement method 9 Effective shear area 118 Eight-node quad 208 Eight-node rectangle 178 Energy methods 131 Equation of equilibrium 199 Equivalent nodal forces. 95 − frame 98 − constant strain triangle 160 − linear quad 199 31 . 187 Conforming elements 150. 245 Numerical integration 200 100. 187 Coordinate transformation 19. 248 Consistent nodal forces 214 Consistent vector of nodal forces 89 Constant strain triangle 153 Continuity 132 Convergence 97. 238. 150.

230 Six-node triangle 221 . 122 − constant strain triangle 159 − frame 98 − grid 113 − linear strain triangle 183 − linear quadrilateral 199 − eight-node quad 211 − T plate-bending element 247 − ACM plate-bending element 236 − HTK plate-bending element 242 − THT plate-bending element 249 Strain-displacement matrix 158. 236 − relations 121 Strain energy 124 . 52 − shaft 61 − beam 87.266 Object of FEA 1 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Skyline storage 39 Stiffness matrix 17 − bars 17. 120 − constant strain triangle 157 − four-node rectangle 177 − eight-node rectangle 179 − linear strain triangle 182 − quadratic strain triangle 186 − linear quadrilateral 193 − eight-node quad 209 − nine-node quad 221 − six-node triangle 221 − ACM plate-bending element 234 − BFS plate-bending element 238 − HTK plate-bending element 240 − THT plate-bending element 248 Shear correction factor 118. 94. 22.139 − bending 231 − shear 232 Stress averaging 161 Stress-strain relations 122 Subparametric elements 191 T plate-bending element 245 Temperature effects 124 Thick plate theory 229 Thermal loads 36 Thin plate theory 225 Total potential energy 140 Transformation of − differential operators 195 − infinitesimal area 197 Triangle area 156 − quadratic strain triangle 185 Triangular membrane element 180 − linear strain triangle 182 − quadratic strain triangle 185 − six-node 221 Triangular thin plate element 245 − thick plate element 248 Two-dimensional elements 153 Two-point formula 202 Unreduced global stiffness matrix Virtual displacements 131 − work of external loads 133 − work of internal forces 193 WB plate-bending element 239 30 Pascal’s triangle 220 Patch test 190 Plate bending elements 225 − rectangular 232 − triangular 244 Polynomial approximation 154 Principle of − minimum total potential energy − virtual displacements 134 − virtual work 131 Quadratic strain triangle 185 − triangle 222 Quadrilateral membrane element − eight-node 208 − linear 191 − nine-node 219 139 191 Rayleigh-Ritz method 143 Reactions 35 Rectangular membrane element 176 − thin plate element 232 − thick plate elements 239 Reduced global stiffness matrix 33 − integration 205 Reference element 192 Reissner-Mindlin plate theory 229 Serendipity elements 209 Shaft elements 60 Shape functions − bars 50. 53 − shaft 62 − beam 85. 107..

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