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Preface

This textbook represents the Finite Element Analysis lecture course given to students in the third year at the Department of Engineering Sciences (now F.I.L.S.), English Stream, University Politehnica of Bucharest, since 1992. It grew in time along with a course taught in Romanian to students in the Faculty of Transports, helped by the emergence of microcomputer networks and integration of the object into mechanical engineering curricula. The syllabus of the 28-hour course, supplemented by 28-hour tutorial and lab. classes, was structured along the NAFEMS recommendations published in the October 1988 issue of BENCHmark. The course represents only an introduction to the finite element analysis, for which we wrote simple stand-alone single-element programs to assist students in solving problems as homework. It is followed by an advanced course in the fourth year at F.I.L.S., called Computational Structural Mechanics, where students are supposed to use commercial programs. In designing the course, our aim was to produce students capable of: (a) understanding the theoretical background, (b) appreciating the structure of finite element programs for potential amendment and development, (c) running packages and assessing their limitations, (d) taking a detached view in checking output, and (e) understanding failure messages and finding ways of rectifying the errors. The course syllabus was restricted to 2D linear elastic structural problems. It has been found advantageous to divide the finite element analysis into two parts. Firstly, the assembly process without any approximations (illustrated by frameworks) followed by the true finite element process which involves approximations. This is achieved starting with trusses, then with beams and plane frames, and progressively dealing with membrane and plate-bending elements. Solid elements and shells are not treated. Our objective was to ensure that students have achieved: (a) a familiarity in working with matrix methods and developing stiffness matrices, (b) an understanding of global versus local coordinate systems, (c) the abilty to use the minimum potential energy theorem and virtual work equations, (d) the mapping from isoparametric space to real geometrics and the need for numerical integration, (e) an insight in numerical techniques for linear equation solving (Gauss elimination, frontal solvers etc), and (f) the use of equilibrium, compatibility, stress/strain relations and boundary conditions. As a course taught for non-native speakers, it has been considered useful to reproduce as language patterns some sentences from English texts. November 2006 Mircea Radeş

Prefaţă

Lucrarea reprezintă cursul Analiza cu elemente finite predat studenţilor anului III al Facultăţii de Inginerie în Limbi Străine, Filiera Engleză, la Universitatea Politehnica Bucureşti, începând cu anul 1992. Conţinutul cursului s-a lărgit în timp, fiind predat din 1992 şi studenţilor de la facultatea de Transporturi, favorizat de apariţia reţelelor de calculatoare şi de includerea sa în planul de învăţământ al facultăţilor cu profil mecanic. Programa cursului, care prevede 28 ore de curs şi 28 ore de seminar/laborator, a fost structurată în conformiatate cu recomandările NAFEMS publicate în numărul din Octombrie 1988 al revistei BENCHmark. Cursul reprezintă doar o introducere în analiza cu elemente finite, pentru care am scris programe simple, cu un singur tip de element finit, care să fie utilizate de studenţi la rezolvarea unor teme de casă. Nu se tratează învelişuri şi elemente tridimensionale. În anul IV, planul de învăţământ de la F.I.L.S. conţine cursul Computational Structural Mechanics, la care studenţii aprofundează modelarea cu elemente finite şi utilizează un program de firmă. La structurarea cursului am avut în vedere necesitatea formării unor studenţi capabili: (a) să înţeleagă baza teoretică, (b) să desluşească structura programelor cu elemente finite pentru eventuale corecţii şi dezvoltări, (c) să ruleze programe şi să recunoască limitele acestora, (d) să poată verifica rezultatele şi (e) să înţeleagă mesajele de eroare şi să găsească modalităţi de corectare a erorilor. Programa cursului a fost limitată la structuri elastice liniare bidimensionale. S-a considerat potrivit să se prezinte analiza cu elemente finite în două etape: întâi procesul de asamblare fără nici o aproximare (aplicat la grinzi cu zăbrele), apoi modelarea cu elemente finite, care presupune aproximarea câmpului de deplasări, de la triunghiul cu deformaţii specifice constante la elemente patrulatere izoparametrice, incluzând integrarea numerică. S-a urmărit ca studenţii să dobândească: (a) familiaritate cu metodele matriciale şi calculul matricelor de rigiditate; (b) înţelegerea utilităţii coordonatelor locale şi globale; (c) abilitatea folosirii principiului energiei potenţiale minime şi a principiului lucrului mecanic virtual; (d) trecerea de la coordonate naturale la coordonate fizice şi necesitatea integrării numerice; (e) o vedere de ansamblu asupra rezolvării sistemelor algebrice liniare (eliminarea Gauss, metoda frontală etc.) şi (f) utilizarea celor patru tipuri de ecuaţii – echilibru, compatibilitate, constitutive şi condiţii la limită. Fiind un curs predat unor studenţi a căror limbă maternă nu este limba engleză, au fost reproduse expresii şi fraze din cărţi scrise de vorbitori nativi ai acestei limbi. Noiembrie 2006 Mircea Radeş

Contents

Preface Contents 1. Introduction

1.1 Object of FEA 1.2 Finite element displacement method 1.3 Historical view 1.4 Stages of FEA

i iii 1

1 3 4 5

2. Displacement Method

2.1 Equilibrium equations 2.2 Conditions for geometric compatibility 2.3 Force/elongation relations 2.4 Boundary conditions 2.5 Solving for displacements 2.6 Comparison of the force method and displacement method

9

9 10 11 12 12 13

**3. Direct Stiffness Method
**

3.1 Stiffness matrix for a bar element 3.2 Transformation from local to global coordinates

3.2.1 Coordinate transformation 3.2.2 Force transformation 3.2.3 Element stiffness matrix in global coordinates 3.2.4 Properties of the element stiffness matrix

17

17 19

19 20 21 22

3.3 Link’s truss 3.4 Direct method 3.5 Compatibility of nodal displacements 3.6 Expanded element stiffness matrix 3.7 Unreduced global stiffness matrix

25 26 28 29 30

iv

3.8 Joint force equilibrium equations 3.9 Reduced global stiffness matrix 3.10 Reactions and internal forces 3.11 Thermal loads and stresses 3.12 Node numbering Exercises

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 31 33 35 36 37 41

**4. Bars and shafts
**

4.1 Plane bar elements

4.1.1 Differential equation of equilibrium 4.1.2 Coordinates and shape functions 4.1.3 Bar not loaded between ends 4.1.4 Element stiffness matrix in local coordinates 4.1.5 Bar loaded between ends 4.1.6 Vector of element nodal forces 4.1.7 Assembly of the global stiffness matrix and load vector 4.1.8 Initial strain effects

47

47

47 48 49 51 52 55 56 59

4.2 Plane shaft elements Exercises

60 63

**5. Beams, frames and grids
**

5.1 Finite element discretization 5.2 Static analysis of a uniform beam 5.3 Uniform beam not loaded between ends

5.3.1 Shape functions 5.3.2 Stiffness matrix 5.3.3 Physical significance of the stiffness matrix

79

79 81 83

84 86 88

**5.4 Uniform beam loaded between ends
**

5.4.1 Consistent vector of nodal forces 5.4.2 Higher degree interpolation functions 5.4.3 Bending moment and shear force

89

89 92 95

**5.5 Basic convergence requirements 5.6 Frame element
**

5.6.1 Axial effects 5.6.2 Stiffness matrix and load vector in local coordinates

96 97

97 98

1 Virtual displacements 7.1.3 Principle of virtual displacements 143 148 148 149 149 .2 Shape functions 5.2 Equations of equilibrium inside V 6.1 Principle of virtual work 7.2.1 Strain energy 7.6.6.4.1 Matrix notation for loads.3 Equations of equilibrium on the surface Sσ 6.2 Virtual work of external forces 7.3 Stiffness matrix 100 111 116 117 118 121 6.9.9.1 Static analysis of a uniform beam 5.2 External potential energy 7.9.4 Stiffness matrix and load vector in global coordinates 98 100 v 5.7 Assembly of the global stiffness matrix 5.3 Coordinate transformation 5.6 Temperature effects 6. Linear elasticity 6.4 Strain-displacement relations 6.2 Discretization 7.1 FEM in Structural Mechanics 7.4.2.8 Grids 5.4 FEM – a localized version of the Rayleigh-Ritz method 7.CONTENTS 5.2.4 Principle of virtual displacements 7.1.3 Virtual work of internal forces 7.9 Deep beam bending element 5.7 Strain energy 123 123 125 126 127 128 130 130 7.5 Proof that PDV is equivalent to equilibrium equations 131 131 131 133 133 134 137 7. Energy methods 7.3 The Rayleigh-Ritz method 7.2 Principle of minimum total potential energy 7.4.3 Total potential energy 139 139 140 140 7.5 Stress-strain relations 6.1.1.1. stresses and strain 6.

1 Natural coordinates 9.1.7 Assembly of the global stiffness matrix and load vector 7.1.6 Element load vectors 191 191 192 193 194 195 198 199 9.4 The matrix [ B ] 8.5 Element stiffness matrix and load vector 8.4.1.1 One dimensional Gauss quadrature 200 200 .1 Linear quadrilateral element 9.2.4.2.1.5 Element stiffness matrix 9.4 Approximating functions for the element FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 149 150 151 151 152 7.4.1.4.2 Polynomial approximation of the displacement field 8.8 Solution and back-substitution 8 Two-dimensional elements 8.1 The plane constant-strain triangle (CST) 8.3.vi 7.1. Discretization of structure 8.1.2 Rectangular elements 8. convergence and compatibility 8.1.4.2 Convergence and compatibility 187 187 188 9 Isoparametric elements 9.3 Nodal approximation of the displacement field 8.1.1 The four-node rectangle (linear) 8.4 Mapping from natural to Cartesian coordinates 9.5 Compatibility between strains and nodal displacements 7.1.1 Equilibrium vs.4 Equilibrium.1 Area coordinates 8.6 Element stiffness matrix and load vector 7.3 The displacement field 9.3 Quadratic strain triangle 180 180 182 185 8.2 Numerical integration 9.1. compatibility 8.2.1.2 Linear strain triangle (LST) 8.2 Shape functions 9.4.6 Remarks 153 153 153 154 155 158 159 160 8.3.1.3.2 The eight-node rectangle (quadratic) 176 176 178 8.4.3 Triangular elements 8.

3 Determinant of the Jacobian matrix 9.3.3.4 Stress calculations 203 204 207 vii 9.4 Element stiffness matrix 9.3 Stiffness integration 9.3.2 Two dimensional Gauss quadrature 9.3 Eight-node quadrilateral 9.4 Triangular plate-bending elements 10.6 Jacobian positiveness 219 221 223 10 Plate bending 10.3.1 Shape functions 9.3.2 Thick plate theory (Reissner-Mindlin) 10.1 Thin plate theory (Kirchhoff) 10.4.3 Rectangular plate-bending elements 10.3 HTK thick rectangular element 225 225 229 232 232 238 239 10.CONTENTS 9.5 Stress calculation 9.4.2 Shape function derivatives 9.3.2.2.1 Thin triangular element (non-conforming) 10.3.4 Nine-node quadrilateral 9.4.3.6 Consistent nodal forces 208 209 210 211 211 213 214 9.1 ACM element (non-conforming) 10.2 BFS element (conforming) 10.2.3 Discrete Kirchhoff triangles (DKT) 244 245 248 250 References Index 257 265 .3.5 Six-node triangle 9.2 Thick triangular element (conforming) 10.

1.and initialvalue problem by dividing the domain of the system into a set of interconnected finite-sized subdomains of different size and shape. This requires a matrix notation. the unknown function is approximated over the entire domain. The procedure is a discretized approach: the geometric shape or the internal stressstrain-displacement field are described by a series of discrete quantities (like coordinates) distributed through the structure. the set of finite elements is known as the mesh and the trial functions are referred to as interpolation functions. The subdomains are called finite elements. Its task is to model and describe the mechanical behaviour of geometrically complex structures. strength of materials. based on knowledge from three fields: (1) Structural Mechanics. weighted-residual. and (3) Applied Computer Science. able to store long lists of numbers and manipulate them. dealing with the development and maintenance of large computer codes. dynamics. With the individually defined functions matching each other at certain points called nodes. The primary difference between the FEA and other approximate methods for the solution of boundary-value problems (finite-difference.1. etc. etc. The aim is finding an approximate solution to a boundary.1 Object of FEA The object of FEA is to replace the infinite degree of freedom system in continuum applications by a finite system exhibiting the same basis as discrete analysis. eigenproblems. and defining the unknown state variable approximately. encompassing elasticity. FEA is used to solve large-scale analytical problems. involving approximation methods. (2) Numerical Analysis. by means of a linear combination of trial functions. within each element. solving linear sets of equations. . The tools are the computers. plasticity. INTRODUCTION Finite Element Analysis (FEA) as applied to structures is a multidisciplinary technique.

solving [ A ] { x } = { b } is equivalent to 1 minimizing P (x ) = { x }T [ A ]{ x } − { x }T { b }. or to handle parameter non-uniformities. The outstanding success of the finite element method can be attributed to a large extent to timing. In FEA. . integrating known polynomial functions. While the finite element method was being developed. but also to carry out such diverse tasks as the formulation of equations. some of them made available as open source free software. by making decisions concerning the finite element mesh and the assembly of stiffness matrices. coupled with the development of powerful computer codes based on the method. the evaluation of such a function will require the solution of simultaneous equations. Mathematically. This extreme versatility. the equations of equilibrium are obtained from variational principles implying the stationarity of the functional defined by the total potential energy. should be easier. in the FEA the admissible functions (called shape functions) are defined over element domains with simple geometry and pay no attention to complications at the boundaries.2 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Rayleigh-Ritz. Galerkin) is that in the FEA the approximation is confined to relatively small subdomains. While solving differential equations with complicated boundary conditions may be difficult. Since the entire domain is divided into numerous elements and the function is approximated in terms of its values at the element nodes. so were increasingly powerful digital computers. In order to match a given irregular boundary. This was possible only at the time the computers became available. difficult to handle on a routine basis. Perhaps more important is the fact that the finite element method can accommodate systems with complicated geometries and parameter distributions. The wide use of the classical Rayleigh-Ritz method has been limited by the inability to generate suitable admissible functions for a large number of practical problems. has made the FEA the method of choice for the analysis of structures. Indeed. This is the heart of the FEA when 2 applied to structures. the FEA can change not only the size of the finite elements but also their shape. The computer is not only able to solve the discretized equations of equilibrium. In turn. Instead of finding an admissible function satisfying the boundary conditions for the entire domain. which is often difficult. FEA is a localized version of the Rayleigh-Ritz method. which led to automation. which tend to have complicated expressions. in the FEA an approximate solution is constructed using local admissible functions. even approximately. defined over small subdomains of the structure. systems with complex boundary conditions or complex geometry cannot be described easily by global admissible functions.

The first part of the finite element modeling process involves choosing the correct and appropriate types of elements. Displacements at the nodes are taken as the primary discrete variables. Modeling the joints and the contact between structural parts as well as the damping in dynamic problems are the most difficult tasks. Finally. but may be trigonometric functions as well. INTRODUCTION 3 1. Displacements within the elements are expressed in terms of these nodal displacements using interpolation functions referred to as shape functions. The “shapes” are polynomials. a structure is discretized (hypothetically) into finite elements and points named nodes are selected on the inter-element boundaries or in the interior of the elements. Mesh refinements (and automatic mesh generation) do not bring necessarily increased accuracy. and curved elements flat). FEA has evolved into a technique that can be applied . Among the reasons why the FEA has gained such universal acceptance are: (1) the routine choice of shape functions. This involves recognizing error messages when this process breaks down or when it simply becomes inefficient because the structure has been modeled inconveniently. by just assembling predetermined element matrices. a larger number of equations to be solved. (3) find the element properties. understanding the pedigree of elements and spotting wrong answers due to the use of inadequate elements. and (6) make additional computations if desired. Finer mesh yields also larger stiffness matrices. The three main sources of approximation are: (1) the definition of the domain (physically or geometrically). making curved lines straight.2 Finite element displacement method In the finite element modeling. (4) assemble the element properties. The second part of the process is the assembly of the elements and the solution of the complete structural equations. hence larger computer storage space and running time. Developed originally as a method for analyzing stresses in complex aircraft structures. leaving only the magnitude to be found. (2) the discretization of the domain (cutting the corners. Finite elements are so small that the shape of the displacement field can be approximated without too much error. The six basic steps of FEA are the following: (1) discretize the continuum. and (3) the solution algorithms. and (3) the versatility. (2) the easiness of producing stiffness matrices (and load vectors). (5) solve the system of equations.1. All individual elements are assembled together in such a way that the displacements are continuous in some fashion across element interfaces. and the prescribed boundary conditions are satisfied. the internal stresses are in equilibrium with the applied loads. (2) select interpolation functions. the governing discrete equations are generated by a variational approach.

4 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS to a large variety of linear and nonlinear. stability and dynamic engineering problems. and Topp (1956). the idea found application in aircraft structural analysis. Martin. After the Second World War. In modern times. Modeling delta wings required two-dimensional panel elements of arbitrary geometry. collected later in a book by Argyris and Kelsey (1960). so that the method was not practical then. where wings and fuselages are treated as assemblages of stringers. panels. The approximation methods have been developed by Ritz (1908) and Galerkin (1915). After a first attempt by Levy (1953) with triangular elements. the article series by Argyris in four issues of Aircraft Engineering (1954. The use of piecewise continuous functions defined over a subdomain to approximate the unknown function dates back to Courant (1943). 1. The first energy theorems have been established by Maxwell (1864) and Castigliano (1875). Ostenfeld (1926) is credited with the first book on the deformation method. In the early 1940s.3 Historical view The idea of representing a given domain as a collection of discrete elements is not novel with the finite element method. who used an assemblage of small triangular elements and the principle of minimum potential energy to study Saint Venant’s torsion problem. the Force Method (Flexibility Method) was sustained by Levy (1947) and Garvey (1951) and the matrix Displacement Method (Stiffness Method) was used by Levy (1953) in the sweptback wing analysis. ribs. Clough. static. But that geometry was inadequate to model delta wings. Ancient mathematicians estimated the value of π approximating the circumference of a circle by the perimeter of a polygon inscribed in the circle. 1955). The reason why Courant’s paper did not attract more attention can be attributed to poor timing. The development of the Force Method ended in 1969. who during 1952-1953 succeeded to directly derive the stiffness of a triangular panel at Boeing. The development of delta wing structures revived the interest in stiffness methods. stiffeners and spars. The theoretical background of FEA laids on the energy approach of Structural Mechanics and on the approximation techniques. The term “finite element” was first used by Clough (1960). The formal presentation of the finite element method is attributed to Turner. Turner formulated and perfected the Direct Stiffness Method at Boeing (1959). computers capable of solving large sets of equations of equilibrium did not exist. contains the derivation of the stiffness matrix of a flat rectangular panel using bilinear displacement interpolation. .

Wilson. lead by Zienkiewicz. who systematized the variational derivation of stiffness matrices and recognized that FEA is a Rayleigh-Ritz method applied on small size elements (1963). Martin Baltimore and Bell Aero Systems under contract to NASA. (2) processing. and thermal loading. General purpose programs have capabilities of linear dynamic response. (1975). MARC – by Marc Analysis Research Corporation. electromagnetics etc). NISA – by Engineering Mechanics Research Corporation. the inventor of isoparametric models.I. Since 1963. Fraeijs de Veubeke (1964) and Irons and coworkers (1964. and at Swansea University. developed the static condensation algorithm (1974) and three SAP computer programs (the first open source FEA software). Bathe at M. 1. and E. Major contributions are due to B. SAP5 and NONSAP. Karlsson @ Sorensen.4 Stages of FEA FEA involves three stages of activity: (1) preprocessing. (1978). element connectivity. static and dynamic stability. STRUDL . 1966. Preprocessing involves the input and preparation of data.1. M. Influential papers have been written by Argyris (1965). PATRAN. including computation of natural frequencies. J. IDEAS-MS. under Martin. INTRODUCTION 5 The first book devoted to FEA was written by Zienkiewicz and Cheung (1967). shape functions. Inc. fluids. and (3) postprocessing.by the Civil Engineering Department at Massachusetts Institute of Technology and McDonnell Douglas Automation Company (1967). Other known finite element codes are ANSYS. R. 1970). directed by Clough. S.-J. such as nodal coordinates.by Hibbitt.T. ABAQUS . finite element computer programs were freely disseminated into the nonaerospace community. COSMOS-M – by Structural Research & Analysis Corp. Irons.by SAMTECH (1965). L. SESAM – by Det Norske Veritas. Bathe to develop the finite element codes SAP4 (1973). boundary conditions. developed by Swanson Analysis Systems (1970). who studied the sparse matrix assembly and solution techniques (1963). After 1967 the FEA has been applied to non-structural field problems (thermal. SAMCEF . at Washington University.-J. frontal solvers and the patch test (1964-1980). material properties and . completed in 1968 and first revised in 1972. nonlinear static and dynamic response. crashworthiness. STARDYNE by Mechanics Research Inc. Starting with 1965 the NASTRAN finite element system was developed by COSMIC. ALGOR etc. MacNeal Schwendler. who introduced the consistent mass matrix concept (1963). ADINA – developed by K. (1985). He was joined later by K. followed by books by Przemieniecki (1968) and Gallagher (1964). Archer. Research developed in the Civil Engineering Department at Berkeley. Melosh. J.

as well as element connectivity data.2 . are presented for a connecting rod (Fig.E.D. Badly placed nodes or improper blocking of boundary nodes can be easily traced. or C. Automatic mesh generation can be used to produce nodal coordinate data and optimal node numbering.6 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS loading. some input data can be imported from other F. Fig. 1. Italia.T.I. Alternatively.A. Data input can be carried out either in an interactive way. Mesh plotting is a convenient and useful way of checking the input data. 1. through a userfriendly interface. Fig. 1.2). or reading from a data file. 1.1 Three-dimensional finite element meshes. represented with hidden line removal. as obtained using the program SIMPAT developed by I.1) and a car engine piston (Fig. programs.A.

so that condensation and dynamic substructuring are used to reduce the size of the dynamic problem before the processing stage.4 In dynamic analyses.1. In static analyses. Often this contains much more detail than the dynamic analysis requires.3 In the processing stage. 1. processing involves solving an eigenproblem or determining the transient response by incremental techniques. INTRODUCTION 7 The finite element model of a vehicle cabin frame obtained with MSC/NASTRAN is shown in Fig. the finite element program processes the input data and calculates the nodal variable quantities such as displacements and temperatures (equation solving). Fig. 1. . the cost of the solution of the linear set of equations increases linearly with the problem size. 1. The cost in terms of computer resource increases with the cube of the problem size. Fig. and element quantities such as stresses and gradients (backcalculation).3. It would be obviously convenient to use in dynamic analyses the same finite element model that was built for the static analysis.

6. More recent finite element programs show animated displays of the deformed configuration. with 1174 triangular 6-node elements. vibration mode shapes and stress distributions. 1. a Fig. Fig. 1. as obtained using ALGOR SUPERSAP. Fig. 1.4 shows the initial mesh and the deformed shape of a cooling tower under the wind action.5 Scalar nodal variables such as temperatures or pressures are presented in the form of contour plots of isotherms or isobars. b shows the optimized mesh obtained with the postprocessor ESTEREF. as in Fig. 1. 1.6. .5 for a crankshaft. Most programs produce displays of the deformed configuration. containing only 814 elements and a four times reduced global discretization error. a shows the two-dimensional initial mesh for the analysis of a gear tooth. 1.6 b Fig. Fig.8 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Postprocessing deals with the presentation of results. Early programs used tabular presentations.

2. a relatively simple pin-jointed framework will be used. F2 . Once the displacements are determined. there are four types of equations that should be used: equilibrium equations. they are back-substituted into the compatibility equations to obtain bar extensions. Variables include reaction forces at the supports and internal forces. and hence strains. F4 . If forces and elongations are eliminated and the displacements are the variables which are solved first. In order to illustrate the usual longhand analytical procedure.1 . T1 . the procedure is referred to as the displacement method. 2. geometric compatibility conditions.1 [74]. constitutive relationships and boundary conditions.1 Equilibrium equations Consider the truss shown in Fig. T3 are the tensions in members and F1 . F5 are the reaction forces at the supports. Fig. 2. 2. assume that all members are in tension and write the equilibrium of each node in turn. It works whether the structure is statically determinate or not. DISPLACEMENT METHOD In solving any structural problem. displacements of the bar ends and bar extensions (elongations). T2 . then stresses from the constitutive relationship.

Fig. 2.10 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS At Node 1 (Fig. inclined an angle θ with respect to the X axis of the global coordinate system.2) (2.3) have seven unknowns.2. a). u 2 = U 2 cos θ + V 2 sin θ .2.3) The six equations (2.2 Conditions for geometric compatibility The compatibility equations relate a bar extension Δl to the displacements of the ends of the bar. (2. T3 2 / 2 + F4 = 0. The solution is not possible by using only equilibrium. 2.2.1) to (2. The system is statically indeterminate. c) T3 2 /2 + F5 − T2 2 /2 = 0. and consideration must be given to the geometry of deformation. 2. resolving forces horizontally and vertically leads to T1 + T2 2 2 + F1 = 0. The displacements in the local coordinate frame xOy can be expressed in terms of the displacements in the global coordinate frame as u 1 = U 1 cos θ + V 1 sin θ . At Node 3 (Fig. 2. equilibrium gives 6 F − T1 − T3 2 /2 = 0. At Node 2 (Fig.3. Consider a typical pin-jointed element 1-2 of a frame. T2 2 / 2 + F2 = 0. b). 2. 9 F − T2 2 / 2 − T3 2 /2 = 0.2 c 2. The change in length of the member is (2.1) (2.4) . a b Fig.

2. DISPLACEMENT METHOD 11 Δl = u 2 − u1 = U 2 − U1 cosθ + V 2 − V1 sin θ . (2. 2 2 2 ⎠ 2 .6) (2. Starting from the Hooke’s law for uniaxial stress-strain conditions. Δl13 = (U 3 − U1 ) 2 2 + (V3 − V1 ) . 2. 2E A Δl 23 = T3 2 l 2 2E A T l T1 l T l .2.U1 .3 Applying equation (2. EA Δl 13 = T2 2 l 2 .8) ⎛ 2⎞ ⎟ + (V3 − V2 ) Δl 23 = (U 3 − U 2 ) ⎜ − ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ The three equations (2. ( ) ( ) (2. six displacements and three elongations. Δl 23 = 3 .9) EA 2E A 2E A Three more equations have been added and so there are now 12 equations for 16 unknowns.5) Fig. Δl12 = .7) (2. 2 (2.5) to each member in turn leads to Δl12 = U 2 .8) have nine unknowns. Δl13 = 2 . the force/elongation relations can be written Δl12 or T l = 1 .3 Force/elongation relations Truss members are in either simple tension or compression.6) to (2.

(2. Δl 12 = l l 2E A EA T2 = Δl 13 = 2 ( U 3 − U1 + V3 − V1 ) .3) yields 6 equations 2 U1 + V1 − U 2 − U 3 − V3 = U1 + V1 − U 3 − V3 = F2 l .4 Boundary conditions The discrepancy of 4 equations is made up by adding the boundary conditions U1 = V1 = V2 = U 3 = 0 which complete the set of 22 linear algebraic equations.10) 2. this set of six equations can be written in matrix form as . EA F1 l .10). l l Substitution of the expressions for T1 to T3 into the equilibrium equations (2.8) to force/displacement equations as follows T1 = EA EA ( U 2 − U1 ) . EA − U1 − V1 − U 2 + V2 + 2 U 3 = − U1 − V1 + U 2 − V2 + 2 V3 = F5 l .5 Solving for displacements Equations (2.12 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 2. l l 2E A EA T3 = Δl 23 = 2 ( − U 3 + U 2 + V3 − V2 ) . EA Taking into account the boundary conditions (2. EA 6F l . EA 9 Fl .9) can be used to convert the compatibility equations (2.1) . EA − U1 + 2 U 2 − V2 − U 3 + V3 = − U 2 + V2 + U 3 − V3 = F4 l .6)(2.(2.

12) ⎡2 1 ⎤ ⎡U 2 ⎤ ⎧6 F ⎫ ⎢1 2⎥ ⋅ ⎢ V ⎥ = ⎨9 F ⎬ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ 3⎦ ⎩ ⎭ Substituting U 2 and V3 into the remaining equations yields the reaction forces F1 = −5F . i =1 i =1 7 7 (2..2. (2.13) Substituting these forces into the equilibrium equations (2.. Consider the 7-bar pin-jointed framework shown in Figure 2.. the equilibrium equations of joint 8 can be written Fx − Fy − ∑ Ti cosθi = 0.14) . ∑ Ti sinθi = 0. F4 = −5 F .3) yields the tensions in the members. (2.. which are equal and opposite to the forces acting on the joints. F2 = −4 F . EA (2.1)-(2. EA V3 = 4 Fl . DISPLACEMENT METHOD 13 ⎡2 ⎢1 ⎢ EA ⎢ − 1 ⎢ l ⎢0 ⎢− 1 ⎢ ⎢− 1 ⎣ 1 1 0 0 −1 −1 −1 0 2 −1 −1 1 0 0 −1 1 1 −1 − 1 − 1⎤ ⎡ 0 ⎤ ⎡ F1 ⎤ − 1 − 1⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ F2 ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ − 1 1 ⎥ ⎢U 2 ⎥ ⎢ 6 F ⎥ ⎥ ⋅ ⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ ⎥ . The joint 8 is subjected to a force of components Fx and Fy . F5 = − F .7 ) the forces applied by each bar to the end nodes.6 Comparison of the force method and displacement method Navier’s Problem. 2.4. Force Method Denoting Ti ( i = 1.11) 1 − 1⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ F4 ⎥ 2 0 ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ F5 ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 0 2 ⎥ ⎢ V3 ⎥ ⎢ 9 F ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ The third and the sixth equation can be decoupled EA l and solved to give U2 = Fl . Divided by the corresponding area they give the stresses. Determine the internal bar forces and the displacement of joint 8.

according to (2.4 The strain energy is U= 5 ⎞ 1 ⎛ 2 ⎜ T1 l 1 + T22l 2 + X i2l i ⎟ ⎟ 2 EA ⎜ i =1 ⎝ ⎠ ∑ (2. Fig. X 3 = T5 .14)..18) . X 4 = T6 .15) where T1 and T2 are functions of X 1 to X 5 .14 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS This is a set of two equations with seven unknowns.5 ) (2.. ∂Fx v8 = ∂U . ∂X i ( i = 1. The components of the displacement of joint 8 are given by Castigliano’s second theorem u8 = ∂U . Using Menabrea’s theorem. so the framework is statically indeterminate. We choose X1 = T3 . the five deformation conditions can be written ∂U = 0. 2.. They are of the form l1 T1 ∂T1 ∂T + l 2 T2 2 + l i X i = 0 . X 2 = T4 ... and X 5 = T7 as redundant forces. ∂Fy (2..17) This is a set of five linear equations wherefrom the five redundant forces X 1 to X 5 are determined..5 ) (2.16) since we are assuming no support movement.. ∂X i ∂X i ( i = 1.

7 ) (2. Regardless the number of concurrent bars. the larger the number of statically indeterminate forces. Displacement Method The elongation-displacement (compatibility) equations (2.16).. (2. the larger the number of bars.7 ) (2. only two equations are obtained for the two joint displacements.. sinθ i ( i = 1. The bar length is li = a .7 ) (2.. DISPLACEMENT METHOD 15 In the force method... hence the number of equations (2.7 ) (2....21) gives the force-displacement relations Ti = EA u 8 cos θ i + v 8 sin θ i sin θ i . a ( ) ( i = 1.20) Substituting (2.19) into the force-elongation equations Ti = EA Δl i li . In matrix form they can be written ⎧ Fx ⎫ ⎡ K11 ⎨ ⎬=⎢ ⎩ Fy ⎭ ⎣ K 21 K12 ⎤ ⎧ u8 ⎫ ⎨ ⎬ K 22 ⎥ ⎩ v 8 ⎭ ⎦ (2.22) into the equilibrium equations (2.24) where the stiffness coefficients are . ( i = 1.5) are Δl i = u 8 cosθi + v 8 sin θi ... 3 a Fy − u8 EA ∑ i =1 cosθ i sin θ i − v 8 ∑ i =1 which is solved for u8 and v 8 .19) ( i = 1.22) Inserting (2....14) of joint 8 yields a Fx − u8 EA ∑ i =1 7 7 cos 2θ i sinθ i − v 8 2 ∑ i =1 7 7 sin 2θ i cosθ i = 0 ..2..23) sin θ i = 0 ..

219 Fy a EA .16 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS K11 = EA a ∑ cos2θi sinθi = 1.26) The approach used in the displacement method is the same whether the structure is statically determinate or not. a (2.7097 Fx a . (2.24) gives u 8 = 0. i =1 7 ∑ i =1 sin 3θ i = 4. a Solving (2. EA v 8 = 0.25) K12 = K 21 = K 22 = EA a 7 EA a ∑ cosθi sin 2θi = 0. .409 i =1 7 EA .567 EA .

The relationship between the end forces and end displacements of each member is represented by an element stiffness matrix. 3. It has length l e . 3. cross section area Ae and Young’s modulus Ee . DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD The Finite Element Method (FEM) started as an extension of the stiffness method or displacement method. q 2 . contributions are made to the structure load carrying capacity.1 Stiffness matrix for a bar element In the FEM. They are natural finite elements. pinconnected at the ends. We may imagine that the structure is built by adding elements one by one. It is acted upon by the nodal forces f1 . bar elements are assumed to be uniform (EAe = const. Consider a two-noded pin-jointed element in the own local coordinate system (Fig. If the members are pin-ended bars they are real distinct elements requiring no approximation.1). Starting with simple planar frameworks it is possible to explain the assembly process and to make an introduction into the matrix stiffness method. the basic steps of the Direct Stiffness Method (DSM) are shown using a pin-jointed plane truss. hence to the structure stiffness matrix. axially loaded (no bending) and with no forces between ends. respectively. Generally. which relates all joint displacements to all joint forces. with each element being placed in a preassigned location. In the following. f 2 . linearly elastic. Assembly and solution for displacements are of main concern.) . In the stiffness method for skeletal structures. Nodes are conveniently numbered 1 and 2. the elements of the actual structure are connected together at discrete joints. the names “joint” and “member” are replaced by node and element. As elements are added to the structure. .3. The nodal displacements are q 1 .

3) Combining equations (3.1) Next. the force/elongation relations are used. ⎣ ⎦ (3. q 2 = 2 e and Ee Ae E A f1 = − f 2 = − e e q 2 . q 1 = 1 e and Ee Ae f1 = − f 2 = Ee Ae q1 .6) . then for q 1 = 0 .5) where the element stiffness matrix in local coordinates is [ k ] = El A e e e e ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎢− 1 1 ⎥ .2) le Similarly. f 2 are positive in the positive x direction. The equilibrium equation for the bar element is f1 + f 2 = 0. (3.3). 3. (3. q 2 and the nodal forces f1 .4) or { f }= [ k ] { q } e e e (3.1 Both the nodal displacements q 1 . f l q 2 = 0 .18 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Fig. which incorporate compatibility and stress/strain relations. if end 2 is now fixed but end 1 allowed to move. the complete stiffness relationship is obtained as ⎧ f1 ⎫ Ee Ae ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ = 1⎥ le ⎢ ⎪ f 2 ⎪e ⎣ ⎦ ⎩ 23 144− 1443 ⎭ 2 1 nodal forces element stiffness matrix nodal displacements ⎧q1 ⎫ ⎨q ⎬ 2 ⎩ 2⎭e 1 3 (3.2) and (3. le (3. If end 1 is fixed and end 2 is allowed to f l move.

2 Transformation from local to global coordinates Bar elements in a truss have different orientations in space and it is necessary to define their stiffness properties with respect to a single global coordinate system attached to the whole structure.4) q 1 = Q x1 cos θ e + Q y1 sin θ e . where both the local coordinate system xOy and the global coordinate system XOY are drawn. In fact. In matrix form (3.2.2. Displacements in the local coordinate frame xOy can be expressed in terms of the displacements in the global coordinate frame as (2.2 Let the bar be inclined an angle θ e with respect to the X-axis of the global coordinate system. End forces and displacements have two components at each node.3. Nodal displacements are denoted by lower case letters in the local coordinate system and by upper case letters in the global coordinate system.1 Coordinate transformation A typical bar element 1-2 is shown in Figure 3. q 2 = Q x 2 cos θ e + Q y 2 sin θ e . the angle θ e is the angle between the positive X-axis and the positive direction of the beam (defined as 1 to 2). so that nodal forces and nodal displacements can be arranged into 4-element column vectors related by a 4 × 4 stiffness matrix. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 19 3. 3. 3.7) . Fig.

3. 3.Y1 ) and ( X 2 .3) subjected to forces f1 and f2 applied at the ends 1 and 2. 3.10) are calculated based on the above equations.2 Force transformation Consider the pin-jointed member (Fig.3 The force components in the global coordinate system are .9) 0 ⎤ sinθ e ⎥ ⎦ where [T ] = ⎡⎢ cosθ 0 e e ⎣ sinθ e 0 0 cosθ e (3. we obtain cos θ e = . denoting X 2 − X1 le ( X 1 .8) global displacements or { q }= [T ] { Q }. From nodal coordinate data.Y 2 ) the coordinates of nodes 1 and 2. Fig.10) is a coordinate transformation matrix. sin θ e = Y 2 − Y1 le . The entries in the matrix (3. e e e (3.20 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎧ Qx1 ⎫ ⎪Q ⎪ ⎪ y1 ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ ⎪ Qx 2 ⎪ ⎪ Qy2 ⎪ ⎩4 4e ⎭ 123 local displacements ⎧ q1 ⎫ 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ cosθ e sinθ e ⎪ ⎪ = ⎢ ⎨q ⎬ 0 0 cosθ e sinθ e ⎥ ⎪ 2⎪ ⎣ ⎦ ⎩ ⎭ e 123 4 4 1444444 2444444 3 4 4 transformation matrix (3.2. le = (X 2 − X 1 ) 2 + (Y 2 − Y1 ) 2 . respectively.

12) or { F } = [ T ] { f }. Fy 2 = f 2 sinθ e .9) for the local displacements.13) Equation (3. equation (3.5) into (3.11) global force components ⎧ Fx1 ⎫ 0 ⎤ ⎡cosθ e ⎪F ⎪ ⎢ sinθ 0 ⎥ ⎧ f1 ⎫ ⎪ y1 ⎪ e ⎥ ⎨ ⎬ . 3. e e T e hence { f } [T ] = { F } e T e e T which by transposition becomes (3.3 Element stiffness matrix in global coordinates Inserting equation (3. e T e e T e e T e e T e (3. Work is a scalar quantity.14) Substituting (3. e e T e (3.13). DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 21 Fx1 = f1 cosθ e . In matrix form Fx 2 = f 2 cosθ e . having the same value regardless the coordinate system { f } { q }= {F } { Q } . . Fy1 = f1 sinθ e .9) into the resulting matrix product.3.15) (3.16) [ K ] = [T ] [ k ] [T ].14) becomes { f } { q } = { f } [T ] { Q } = {F } { Q } .13) can be directly obtained from consideration of mechanical work.2. (3.13) {F }= [T ] { f }= [T ] [ k ] { q }= [14]4[2444] { Q } T k ][ T 4 3 e e T e e T e e e T e e e we find where {F } = [ K ] { Q } e e e (3. e e T e e .13). and comparing with (3. then equation (3. =⎢ ⎨F ⎬ ⎢ 0 cosθ e ⎥ ⎩ f 2 ⎭ e ⎪ x2 ⎪ ⎢ ⎥ ⎪Fy ⎪ sinθ e ⎦ 2 ⎭e ⎩ 23 ⎣ 0 1 4 4 144 244 3 1 3 4 4 2 transformation matrix local forces (3.

4. singular (order 4. [ ] .2.10) we find the element stiffness matrix in global coordinates [K ] e ⎡ c2 cs − c2 − cs⎤ ⎢ ⎥ E A cs s2 − cs − s2 ⎥ = e e⎢ 2 . the stiffness matrix.18) According to Maxwell’s reciprocity theorem. Expressing displacements in terms of forces gives { Q }= [ K ] { F }= [ δ ] { F } e e −1 e e e so that the inverse of the stiffness matrix is the flexibility matrix [K ] e −1 = δe . l e ⎢− c − cs c2 cs ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 2 cs s2 ⎥ ⎢− c s − s ⎣ ⎦ (3. rank 1) and each column (row) sums to zero. Remember that the element stiffness matrix is a proportionality factor between the components of forces applied by the nodes to the element and the components of nodal displacements in global coordinates ⎧ Fx1 ⎫ ⎪F ⎪ Ee Ae ⎪ y1 ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ = Fx 2 ⎪ le ⎪ ⎪ Fy 2 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭e ⎡ c2 c s − c 2 − c s ⎤ ⎧ Qx1 ⎫ ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ s 2 − c s − s 2 ⎥ ⎪ Qy1 ⎪ ⎢ ⋅⎨ ⎬ . with positive diagonal elements. a) 3.4 Properties of the element stiffness matrix The element stiffness matrix is symmetric.17) where c = cosθ e and s = sin θ e .17. ⎢ c2 c s ⎥ ⎪Q x 2 ⎪ ⎢ ⎥ s 2 ⎥ ⎪Q y 2 ⎪e ⎢SYM ⎭ ⎣ ⎦ ⎩ (3.22 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Carrying out the matrix multiplications and using (3. 3.1 Symmetric matrix Stiffness matrices are symmetrical [ K ]= [K ] e e T . the flexibility matrix δ e must be symmetrical about the leading diagonal. [ ] (3.2. And so must be its inverse.

this work is absorbed by the structure as strain energy. As forces are increased from zero to their final values. the total work done by these forces is T 1 Qe Fe .3 Positive diagonal elements Each diagonal entry of the matrix K e is positive. displacements are proportional to the applied loads. For linear structures. The rigid body modes are defined {Q } e for which 2U e = Q e T e e e by the eigenvectors corresponding to its zero eigenvalues.19) we obtain the strain energy which is a scalar T 1 Ue = Qe K e Qe .19) 2 In the absence of dynamic effects. This can only be true if the determinant of [ K ] vanishes. A single ungrounded bar can be moved in space as a rigid body without straining it and hence with zero strain energy. 3.4.3.4.2 Singular matrix The element stiffness matrix is of order 4 and rank 1. 3. The zero determinant implies that there are linear relationships between its columns (rows). so that the stiffness matrix has rank 1 (or its rank deficiency is 3). Substituting (3. One can verify that the determinants of the 3× 3 and 2 × 2 reduced sets are still zero. [ K ]= [K ] e e T . The rank of a matrix is the size of the largest sub-matrix with a non-zero determinant. a force and its corresponding displacement would be oppositely directed.15) into (3.20) 2 We = { }{ } { } [ ]{ } e T e T It is equal to its transpose Ue = 1 2 { Q } [K ] { Q } e (3. (3. a) so that which defines the symmetry. (3.20. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 23 The same result can be obtained following strain energy arguments. which is [ ] . This means that there exist a set of rigid body displacements e e e { } [ K ] { Q }= 0 wherefrom [ K ] { Q } = { 0 } . The matrix [ K ] is said to be singular.2. If this were not so.2. The rank deficiency is 3 and this corresponds to the three possible and independent forms of rigid body motion in plane for the unsupported bar: two translations and one rotation.

. 3.24 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS physically unsound. The displacement Qx1 = 1 produces an axial shortening Qx1 cosθ e = cosθ e .4 Each column (row) sums to zero [ ] Consider a bar element with end 2 fixed Qx 2 = Q y 2 = 0 and end 1 having a unit displacement along the global X-axis Qx1 = 1. 3. k 21 . .17. Moreover.⎥ ⎪Qx 2 = 0 ⎪ ⎥ . k31 and k 41 . Fx 2 = k31 . That is.22) This shows that the first column of the stiffness matrix represents the forces that must be applied to the element to preserve static equilibrium when Qx1 = 1 and all other displacements are zero. a) can be written ⎧ Fx1 ⎫ ⎡ k11 ⎪F ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ y1 ⎪ ⎢k 21 ⎨ ⎬= ⎪ Fx 2 ⎪ ⎢ k31 ⎪ Fy 2 ⎪ ⎢k 41 ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ which yields . the quadratic form that represents strain energy (3. .⎥ ⎪ Q y1 = 0 ⎪ ⎥⋅⎨ ⎬ .4. . Fy1 = k21 .⎦ ⎪Q y 2 = 0⎪ ⎩ ⎭ (3.21) Fx1 = k11 . Q y1 = 0 as in Fig. Fy 2 = k 41 . . (3. . ( ( ) ) Fig. the matrix K e is positive semidefinite. Equilibrium of horizontal and vertical forces yields k11 + k31 = 0 .4 Equation (3.⎤ ⎧ Qx1 = 1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ .4. k21 + k41 = 0 .2. E A which corresponds to a compressive force e e cosθ e .20) is either positive or zero. whose components must le be equilibrated by the external forces k11 . . 3. . .

Fig. already analyzed in Chapter 2. In the element stiffness matrix.1. The same applies for the other columns. and acted upon by forces 6F and 9F. The global displacements and nodal forces are shown in Fig. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 25 so that the first column sums to zero.6. A node whose global index is i has associated with it the global displacements and forces (2 i − 1) and 2 i . 3. consider Link’s truss [74] shown in Fig. 3. It is simply supported in 2 and 3.5. 2. each column represents an equilibrium set of nodal forces produced by a unit displacement of one nodal degree of freedom. a b . Fig. 3. 3.5 The truss comprises 3 elements and 3 nodes.3 Link’s truss In order to illustrate the assembly of the global stiffness matrix from the elemental stiffness matrices. firmly located in 1.3.

26 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Fig. Table 3.6 Element data are given in Table 3.1 together with information useful for the computation. The first three columns define the element connectivities.4 Direct method Using the data from Table 3.1. their localization within the structure.e. i. Element numbering can be arbitrary. the element stiffness matrices (3.17) are calculates as 1 2 3 4 ⎡• • • • K ⎢• • • • K ⎢ ⎢• • • • K ⎢ ⎢• • • • K ⎢K K K K K ⎢ ⎢K K K K K ⎣ K⎤ K⎥ ⎥ K⎥ ⎥. ⎢K K K K K K⎥ ⎢• • K K • •⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢• • K K • •⎥ ⎣ ⎦ . 3. K⎥ K⎥ ⎥ K⎥ ⎦ [K ] 1 ⎡ 1 ⎢ EA ⎢ 0 = l ⎢− 1 ⎢ ⎣ 0 0 − 1 0⎤ 1 0 0 0⎥ 2 ⎥ 0 1 0⎥ 3 ⎥ 0 0 0⎦ 4 T 1 2 5 6 [ ] ⎡ 1 1 − 1 − 1⎤ 1 ⎢ ⎥ E A ⎢ 1 1 − 1 − 1⎥ 2 T K2 = 1⎥ 5 l ⎢− 1 − 1 1 ⎢ ⎥ 1⎦ 6 ⎣− 1 − 1 1 ⎡• • K K • •⎤ ⎢• • K K • •⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢K K K K K K⎥ ⎢ ⎥.1 Member Nodes θe 0 cosθ e 1 2 2 2 2 sinθ e 0 2 2 2 2 c2 1 s2 0 1 2 1 2 cs 0 i 1 1 j 2 le EAe EAe le l 2 l 2 EA EA l EA l EA l 2 1 3 45 1 2 1 2 1 2 − 1 2 2 EA 2 3 2 3 135 − 2 l 2 2 EA 2 3.

each member will contribute with a force component to maintain equilibrium under an arbitrary set of nodal displacements. the two displacement and force components (along X and Y) for node i = 1 are numbered 2 i − 1 = 1 and 2 i = 2 . element 2 is located in the truss between the left end node i = 1 and the right end node j = 3 (nodal labels i and j may be assigned arbitrarily). according to Table 3. In the global matrix. The simple addition of different stiffness coefficients in a location is based on the fact that finite element equations are in fact nodal equilibrium equations.2 Node Element 1 2 3 2 Direction X Y X Y Local nodal coordinate 1 2 3 4 Global nodal coordinate 1 2 3 4 1 2 5 6 3 4 5 6 1 The assembly of the unreduced global stiffness matrix (3.3. eventually adding it to the coefficients already accumulated at that location. An alternative algebraic explanation of the assembly of system stiffness matrices is presented in the following. so that if a node is common to several elements. For instance.2. the numbering of coordinates in the global stiffness matrix is shown. locating each coefficient of the element stiffness matrices into the appropriate place in the global 6 × 6 matrix (for this example). and those for the node j = 3 are numbered 2 j − 1 = 5 and 2 j = 6 . . K • • • •⎥ K • • • •⎥ ⎥ K • • • •⎥ ⎦ [ ] At the top and on the right of the element stiffness matrices. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 27 and 3 4 5 6 ⎡ 1 − 1 − 1 1⎤ 3 ⎢ 1 − 1⎥ 4 T E A ⎢− 1 1 ⎥ K3 = 1 − 1⎥ 5 l ⎢− 1 1 ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 1 − 1 − 1 1⎦ 6 ⎡K ⎢K ⎢ ⎢K ⎢ ⎢K ⎢K ⎢ ⎢K ⎣ K K K K K⎤ K K K K K⎥ ⎥ K • • • •⎥ ⎥. Table 3. This is referred to as the direct matrix method. as indicated by dots above.28) is done systematically.

23) Q e = T e { Q }. . { Q } is the element displacement vector in global coordinates. 3. equation (3.23) applied to the three elements yields ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎡1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪Q ⎪ 0 = ⎨ 2⎬ = ⎢ ⎪Q3 ⎪ ⎢0 ⎪Q4 ⎪ ⎢0 ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ 0⎤ ⎪Q2 ⎪ 0⎥ ⎪Q3 ⎪ ~ ⎥⋅⎪ ⎪ = T1 ⎨ ⎬ 0⎥ ⎪Q4 ⎪ ⎥ 0⎦ ⎪Q5 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪Q6 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ {Q } 1 [ ] [Q ] . { } [ ] where e full connectivity or localization matrix.5. containing ones at the nodal displacements of element nodes and zeros elsewhere. { } ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎡1 ⎪Q ⎪ ⎢0 ⎪ ⎪ 2 Q = ⎨ 2⎬ = ⎢ ⎪Q5 ⎪ ⎢0 ⎪Q6 ⎪ ⎢0 ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ 0⎤ ⎪Q2 ⎪ ⎥ ⎪Q ⎪ 0⎥ ⎪ 3 ⎪ ~ ⋅⎨ ⎬ = T 2 0⎥ ⎪Q4 ⎪ ⎥ 1⎦ ⎪Q5 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪Q6 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ 0⎤ ⎪Q2 ⎪ 0⎥ ⎪Q3 ⎪ ~ ⎥⋅⎪ ⎪ = T 3 ⎨ ⎬ 0⎥ ⎪Q4 ⎪ ⎥ 1⎦ ⎪Q5 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩Q6 ⎭ [ ] [ Q ]. can be expressed by equations of the form ~ (3. with the nodal displacements at the whole truss structure level.28 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 3. { } ⎧Q3 ⎫ ⎡0 ⎪Q ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ 0 Q3 = ⎨ 4 ⎬ = ⎢ ⎪Q5 ⎪ ⎢0 ⎪Q6 ⎪ ⎢0 ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 [ ] [ Q ].5 Compatibility of nodal displacements The compatibility of nodal displacements at element level. {Q } is the ~ displacement vector of the truss structure and [T ] is referred to as a e For the truss from Fig.

20.23) into (3.6 Expanded element stiffness matrix The element strain energy in global coordinates can be written in terms of the global displacement vector.24) yields ⎡1 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 =⎢ ⎢0 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎣ 0 0 0⎤ 1 0 0⎥ ⎡ 1 ⎥ ⎥ EA ⎢ 0 0 1 0 ⎢ ⎥ 0 0 1⎥ l ⎢− 1 ⎢ 0 0 0⎥ ⎣ 0 ⎥ 0 0 0⎥ ⎦ ~ [K ] = [T~ ] [ K ][T~ ] 1 1 T 1 1 0 − 1 0 ⎤ ⎡1 0 0 0⎥ ⎢0 ⎥⋅⎢ 0 1 0⎥ ⎢0 ⎥ ⎢ 0 0 0⎦ ⎣0 0 0 0 0 0⎤ ⎥ 1 0 0 0 0⎥ .3.5. equation (3. where the expanded element stiffness matrix ~ ~ ~ [ K ] = [T ] [ K ] [T ] e e T e e (3. 0 1 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0 1⎦ . 3. substituting (3. 0 1 0 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0 1 0 0⎦ or ⎡ 1 ⎢ 0 ⎢ ~ 1 EA ⎢− 1 K = ⎢ l ⎢ 0 ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎣ ⎡1 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 =⎢ ⎢0 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎣ 0 − 1 0 0 0⎤ 0 0 0 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 1 0 0 0⎥ ⎥. a) Ue = 1 2 ~ ~ { Q }T [T e ] T [ K e ][T e ]{ Q } Ue = 1 2 or ~ { Q }T [ K e ]{ Q }. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 29 3. For the truss from Fig.24) has the size of the system matrix. 0 0 0 0 0⎥ 0 0 0 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0 0 0 0⎥ ⎦ 0 0 0⎤ 1 0 0⎥ 1 − 1 − 1⎤ ⎡1 0 0 ⎡ 1 ⎥ ⎢ 1 0 0 0⎥ EA ⎢ 1 − 1 − 1⎥ ⎢0 1 0 ⎥⋅⎢ ⎥ 0 0 0⎥ l ⎢ − 1 − 1 1 1 ⎥ ⎢0 0 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ 0 1 0⎥ 1 ⎦ ⎣0 0 0 ⎣− 1 − 1 1 ⎥ 0 0 1⎥ ⎦ [ ] ~ [K ] = [T~ ] [K ][T~ ] 2 2 T 2 2 0 0 0⎤ 0 0 0⎥ ⎥.

0 0 0 1 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0 0 0 1⎦ or ~ [K ] 3 ⎡0 ⎢0 ⎢ EA ⎢0 = ⎢ l ⎢0 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎣ 3.25) U= 1 1 ~ ~ ∑U = ∑ 2 { Q } [ K ]{ Q } = 2 { Q } ∑ [ K ] { Q }.26) we get ~ [ K ]= ∑[K e ] e . (3. 2 can be calculated by simply adding the element strain energies U= (3.27) The global stiffness matrix is equal to the sum of the expanded element stiffness matrices. 0 −1 1 1 − 1⎥ 0 −1 1 1 − 1⎥ ⎥ 0 1 −1 − 1 1⎥ ⎦ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0⎤ ⎥ 0 0 1 0 0⎥ .7 Unreduced global stiffness matrix The strain energy for the complete truss structure 1 { Q }T [ K ]{ Q }.30 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS or ~ [K ] 2 1 ⎡ 1 ⎢ 1 1 ⎢ 0 EA ⎢ 0 = ⎢ 0 l ⎢ 0 ⎢− 1 − 1 ⎢ ⎢− 1 − 1 ⎣ ⎡0 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢1 =⎢ ⎢0 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎣ 0 0 − 1 − 1⎤ 0 0 − 1 − 1⎥ ⎥ 0 0 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0 0 0⎥ 0 0 1 1⎥ ⎥ 0 0 1 1⎥ ⎦ and ~ [K ] = [T~ ] [ K ][T~ ] 3 3 T 3 3 0 0 0⎤ 0 0 0⎥ ⎡ 1 − 1 − 1 1 ⎤ ⎡0 ⎥ 0 0 0⎥ EA ⎢− 1 1 1 − 1⎥ ⎢0 ⎥⋅⎢ ⎢ ⎥ 1 0 0⎥ l ⎢− 1 1 1 − 1⎥ ⎢0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ 0 1 0⎥ ⎣ 1 − 1 − 1 1 ⎦ ⎣0 ⎥ 0 0 1⎥ ⎦ 0 0 0⎤ 0⎥ ⎥ 0 1 −1 − 1 1⎥ ⎥. .25) and (3.26) Comparing (3. T e T e e e e e (3.

⎢ 0 − 1 1 1 − 1⎥ l ⎢ 0 ⎢− 1 − 1 − 1 1 2 0⎥ ⎥ ⎢ 2⎥ ⎢− 1 − 1 1 − 1 0 ⎦ ⎣ [ ] ~ ~ ~ [ K ] = [ K 1 ]+ [ K 2 ]+ [ K 3 ] (3. An exploded layout of the truss is shown in Fig. The joint equilibrium equations. 3.5. 3. they are never used in practice. has positive elements along the main diagonal and each column (row) sums to zero. equation (3. An alternative presentation is given below. 3. singular (for a plane truss.28) The expanded element stiffness matrices have been used above only to show algebraically how to assemble a global stiffness matrix. Note that element equilibrium equations (3. For a grounded system. using for convenience the truss from Fig.1) used so far involved only forces applied by nodes to the elements. 3.5.8 Joint force equilibrium equations The assembly of the global stiffness matrix has been based on strain energy considerations. Resolving nodal forces horizontally and vertically.3. It corresponds to the free-free system.7. Equal forces are labelled only once for clarity. the deficiency is 3). involving forces applied by elements to nodes. we obtain 6 equilibrium equations . The expensive product (3. based on joint equilibrium equations. nodes are acted upon by forces equal and in opposite direction to those applied to elements. this matrix is condensed using the boundary conditions. are used in the following. The effect of elastic supports modelled as lumped springs can be accounted for by adding their stiffnesses along the main diagonal at the appropriate locations in the stiffness matrix.27) yields ⎡ 2 1 − 1 0 − 1 − 1⎤ ⎢ 1 1 0 0 − 1 − 1⎥ ⎥ ⎢ 2 − 1 − 1 1⎥ EA ⎢− 1 0 = ⎥. Apart from external forces and support reactions. For the truss from Fig. The global stiffness assembly is a simple book-keeping exercise and is done by directly placing the nonzero coefficients of element stiffness matrices in the right locations of the global stiffness matrix based on element connectivity.24) is never formed. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 31 The unreduced stiffness matrix K is symmetric.

7 In matrix form 1 ⎧ Fx1 ⎫ ⎪ 1 ⎪ ⎪ Fy1 ⎪ ⎪ 1 ⎪ ⎪ Fx 2 ⎪ 1 ⎪ Fy 2 ⎪ ⎪−−− ⎪ 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0⎤ ⎪ ⎪ 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 ⎥ ⎪ Fx2 ⎪ 1 ⎥ 2 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 ⎥ ⎪ Fy1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎥⋅⎨ 2 ⎬ 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 ⎥ ⎪ Fx 2 ⎪ 2 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 ⎥ ⎪ Fy 2 ⎪ ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 ⎥ ⎪−−− ⎪ ⎦ 14 244 14 244 4 3 4 3 F3 ⎪ x1 ⎪ ~2 T ~3 T T T ⎪F3 ⎪ ⎪ y1 ⎪ 3 ⎪ Fx 2 ⎪ ⎪ 3 ⎪ ⎪ Fy 2 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎧ F1 ⎫ ⎡ 1 0 0 0 ⎪F ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ 2⎪ ⎢ 0 1 0 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ F3 ⎪ ⎢ 0 0 1 0 ⎨ ⎬=⎢ ⎪ F4 ⎪ ⎢ 0 0 0 1 ⎪ F5 ⎪ ⎢ 0 0 0 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ F6 ⎪ ⎢ 0 0 0 0 ⎣ 4 ⎩ ⎭ 14 244 3 [ T~ ] 1 T [ ] [ ] whose partitioned form can be written in scalar product form as ~ ~ ~ { F } = [ T 1 ] T {F 1 }+ [ T 2 ] T {F 2 }+ [ T 3 ] T {F 3 } or generally ~ { F } = ∑ [ T e ] T {F e }. 3. e (3. 3 F6 = Fy22 + Fy 2 . 1 1 F3 = Fx 2 + Fx3 . 1 1 3 F4 = Fy 2 + Fy1 . FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS F5 = Fx22 + Fx32 . Fig.29) .32 1 F1 = Fx1 + Fx2 . 1 1 F2 = Fy1 + Fy2 .

Most often the support nodal displacements are zero. equation (3. Qi = 0 . it can be written ~ { F } = ∑ [ K e ] {Q } = [ K ] {Q } . of the type Qi = ai ( i = 1 to ns ).27).32) .3. Boundary conditions eliminate the possibility of the structure to move as a rigid body. [ 2 ][ T 3 T e T e e (3.15) and (3. Another type are the multipoint constraints. L L ⎥ ⎪L⎪ ⎪ L ⎪ ⎥ L K NN ⎦ ⎪QN ⎪ ⎪ FN − K N 1 a1 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ (3. ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬ ⎢L L L L ⎥ ⎪ L ⎪ ⎪L⎪ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ K N 1 K N 2 L K NN ⎦ ⎪QN ⎪ ⎪ FN ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ Consider a single boundary condition. where bi . A general type of boundary conditions include specified displacements of the support nodes. e (3. using equations (3. where ns is the number of supports. of the type bi Qi + b j Q j = b0 . the finite element equations in the remaining N − 1 unknowns are ⎡ K 22 ⎢K ⎢ 32 ⎢ L ⎢ ⎣K N 2 K 23 K 33 L KN3 L K 2 N ⎤ ⎧ Q2 ⎫ ⎧ F2 − K 21 a1 ⎫ L K 3 N ⎥ ⎪ Q3 ⎪ ⎪ F3 − K 31 a1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎥⋅⎪ ⎪ = ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬.31) are of the form ⎡ K11 K12 L K1N ⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎧ F1 ⎫ ⎢K ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 21 K 22 L K 2 N ⎥ ⋅ ⎪ Q2 ⎪ = ⎪ F2 ⎪ . b j and b0 are known constants.23). [ ] 3.30) then.24) and (3.9 Reduced global stiffness matrix The global truss should be supported adequately and there should be no internal mechanism. encountered in inclined roller supports and rigid connections. the finite element equations (3. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 33 Substituting (3. As Q1 is known. For an N-degree-of-freedom structure.31) The unreduced global stiffness matrix K relates the unreduced vector of nodal forces { F } to the unreduced vector of nodal displacements { Q }.29) becomes ~ { F } = ∑ [ T e ] T [ K e ]{Q e }= ∑ e e ~ [1~4]44K 444] {Q }. Q1 = a1 .

5.35) The first two equations can be written EA ⎡2 1 ⎤ ⎡Q3 ⎤ ⎧6 F ⎫ ⋅⎢ ⎥ = ⎨ ⎬ l ⎢1 2⎥ ⎣Q6 ⎦ ⎩9 F ⎭ ⎣ ⎦ . The matrix [ K ] is not singular. the reduced global stiffness matrix is obtained deleting as many rows and columns as the number of specified displacements.33) where [K ] is a reduced stiffness matrix. Having assembled the unreduced global stiffness matrix. obtained by eliminating the row and column corresponding to the specified or “support” degrees of freedom.34) can be rearranged as follows ⎡ 2 1 ⎢ 2 ⎢ 1 ⎢ EA ⎢− 1 − 1 l ⎢ 0 −1 ⎢ ⎢− 1 − 1 ⎢ ⎣− 1 0 0 − 1 − 1 ⎤ ⎡Q3 ⎤ ⎡6 F ⎤ ⎥ − 1 − 1 − 1 0 ⎥ ⎢Q6 ⎥ ⎢9 F ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ 2 1 0 − 1⎥ ⋅ ⎢ 0 ⎥ = ⎢ F1 ⎥ . and where the forces are specified.32) may be written in condensed form [ K ] { Q } = { F }. 0 −1 1 1 − 1⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ F4 ⎥ l ⎢ 0 ⎢− 1 − 1 − 1 1 2 0⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ F5 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 0 2⎥ ⎢Q6 ⎥ ⎢9 F ⎥ ⎢− 1 − 1 1 − 1 ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ (3. the nodal displacements are unknown.34) It can be seen that where the displacements are specified. respectively. It is instructive now to consider the truss from Fig.33) can be solved for the displacement vector { Q } using Gauss elimination. { Q } and { F } are the reduced vectors of global displacements and forces. Equations (3. the following set of linear equations is obtained 1 −1 0 − 1 − 1⎤ ⎡ 0 ⎤ ⎡ F1 ⎤ ⎡ 2 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 1 1 0 0 − 1 − 1⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ F2 ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ 0 2 −1 −1 1 ⎥ ⎢Q3 ⎥ ⎢6 F ⎥ EA ⎢ − 1 ⎢ ⎥ ⋅⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ ⎥ . The final equations (3. after substitution of the boundary conditions Q1 = Q2 = Q4 = Q5 = 0 and the values of the applied forces F3 = 6 F and F6 = 9 F . ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 1 1 0 − 1⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ F2 ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 0 0 1 1⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ F4 ⎥ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ −1 −1 1 2⎦ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ F5 ⎥ −1 (3.34 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The ( N − 1 ) × (N − 1) stiffness matrix above is obtained simply by deleting or eliminating the first row and column from the original ( N × N ) stiffness matrix. the nodal forces are unknown. Equation (3. For a truss supported on many supports. 3. (3.

3. 3. { Qb } The first set of equations can be written { Fa } = [ K aa ] { Qa }+ [ K ab ] { Qb } .36) is the vector of known where displacements and [ K ba ] = [ K ab ] . which in this case are the external reactions.37) then multiplied to the left by [ K aa ] −1 to yield the unknown displacements The unknown forces. EA EA In general. T { Fa } is the vector of known forces.39) For the truss from Fig. .10 Reactions and internal forces (3.5. for non-zero boundary conditions. { Qa } = [ K aa ] −1 ( { Fa } − [ K ab ] { Qb } ) . [ K bb ]⎥ ⎨ { Qb }⎬ ⎨ { Fb }⎬ ⎦ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ (3.3.33) can be written in partitioned form Q3 = ⎡ [ K aa ] ⎢[K ] ⎣ ba [ K ab ]⎤ ⎧ { Qa }⎫ ⎧ { Fa }⎫ ⋅ = . so that ⎧ F1 ⎫ ⎧− 5F ⎫ ⎡ − 1 − 1⎤ ⎪F ⎪ ⎢ 0 − 1⎥ Q ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 2 ⎪ EA ⎢ ⎥ ⋅ ⎧ 3 ⎫ = ⎪− 4 F ⎪ . equations (3. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 35 and solved to give Fl Fl Q6 = 4 . = ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬ l ⎢ − 1 − 1⎥ ⎩Q6 ⎭ ⎪ − 5 F ⎪ ⎪ F4 ⎪ ⎥ ⎢ ⎪ F5 ⎪ ⎪−F ⎪ ⎣− 1 0 ⎦ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ The elongation of an element (2.40) which can be computed when all displacements have been determined. the support displacements are zero. The axial force in a truss element is .38) (3. are given by { Fb } = [ K ab ] T { Qa }+ [ K bb ] { Qb } .5) is Δl e = q2 − q1 = ( Qx 2 − Qx1 ) cosθ e + ( Q y 2 − Q y1 ) sinθ e (3. (3.

C. the member forces are ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎪Q ⎪ EA ⎪ ⎪ EA T1 = b−1 0 1 0c ⎨ 2 ⎬ = Q3 = F . l Stresses can be determined dividing these forces by the element crosssection areas. Q3 ⎪ l l ⎪ ⎪ Q4 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎪Q ⎪ 2 EA 2 ⎪ 2⎪ T2 = b − 1 − 1 1 1c ⎨ ⎬= l 2 ⎪ Q5 ⎪ ⎪ Q6 ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ ⎧ Q3 ⎫ ⎪Q ⎪ 2 EA 2 ⎪ 4⎪ T3 = b1 1 − 1 1 c ⎨ ⎬= l 2 ⎪ Q5 ⎪ ⎪ Q6 ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ (3.42) . (3. M. the element acts upon its nodes with equal and opposite forces { FT } = α EAT b − c − s c s cT . where α is the coefficient of thermal expansion and T is the amount of uniform heating (temperature difference). where E is Young’s modulus.11 Thermal loads and stresses Thermal stresses are calculated using the “restraining method” suggested by J.41) 2 EA Q6 = 4 2 F .5. The restrained state is equivalent to a pre-stressing with compressive stresses σ T = −α ET . Duhamel (1838). 3. Accordingly. where A is the cross-section area. Suppose the node displacements are completely restrained (blocked). Restraining produces a compressive axial force α EAT in the element. le le ⎪Q x 2 ⎪ ⎪Q y 2 ⎪ ⎭e ⎩ For the truss from Fig. l 2 EA ( Q3 + Q6 ) = 5 2 F .36 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎧ Qx1 ⎫ ⎪Q ⎪ E A E A ⎪ y1 ⎪ Te = e e Δl e = e e b − c − s c s c ⎨ ⎬ . 3. This produces thermal strains ε T = −α T .

They are also banded. This is obvious for one-directional structures and can be achieved by rational node numbering in other structures. After determining the displacements produced by these forces. only the diagonal elements and those from one side of the main diagonal are retained. ⎜ l ⎟ ⎝ e ⎠ i. i.42. due to the sparseness.37) and the stresses are calculated as ⎛ Δl ⎞ (3. (3. The half-bandwidth is denoted B. with the nonzero elements clustered in a band along the main diagonal. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 37 or. in local coordinates. there are many zero elements in the upper triangle. if the case).12 Node numbering Stiffness matrices are symmetric and sparse. a. Consider the 12 × 12 unreduced global stiffness matrix of the truss from Fig.3.44) Because of symmetry. 3.43) σ e = Ee ⎜ e − α T ⎟ .8. 3. a) These forces should be included in the vector of nodal forces (added to the external forces. { fT } = α EAT b − 1 1cT . the initial stresses produced by restraining. .e.e. adding to the stresses produced by the thermal (and external) loads. It is as if unrestraining forces are applied at the ends of the element to free it from the initial restraining. ×⎥ ⎥ ×⎥ ⎥ ×⎥ ×⎥ ⎥ ×⎥ ×⎥ ⎦ [ ] ⎡× × × × ⎢ × × × ⎢ ⎢ × × ⎢ × ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ K =⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢s y m m ⎣ × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × e t r i c (3. with nonzero elements in the upper triangle identified by the symbol X ← B → × × × × × × × × × × × × 0 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥. Even so. the element elongations are determined from (3.

the half-bandwidth of the original matrix. equal to the size of the original matrix. for the numbering from Fig. 3. b. the mth diagonal of the original matrix is stored as the mth column.8 b For plane trusses. B = 6 . For the numbering scheme of Fig. the information in the above matrix can be compactly stored in the 12× 6 matrix below 1 2 ↓ ↓ ⎡× ⎢ ⎢× ⎢× ⎢ ⎢× ⎢× ⎢ ⎢× =⎢ × ⎢ ⎢× ⎢ ⎢× ⎢× ⎢ ⎢× ⎢× ⎣ × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × B ↓ ×⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ×⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ×⎥ ⎥.44). a Fig.8. ⎥ ×⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ [ Kb ] The first column contains the diagonal elements of the full matrix (3. However. . As a general rule. B = 12 . In general. The efficiency of band-storage increases with the order of the matrix. then progressing along the longer dimension.8. a small bandwidth can be obtained by numbering nodes along the shorter dimension of a structure.38 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Since only nonzero elements need to be stored. 3. The second column contains the elements from the second diagonal. B is equal to 2 plus twice the maximum node number difference in an element. a . 3.e. The number of columns in the banded-form storage is equal to B . i.

⎨ ⎬ ⎪12 ⎪ ⎪13 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪17 ⎪ ⎪22⎪ ⎩ ⎭ . the columns of the matrix upper triangle are stored serially and concatenated in a column vector { K s } . If there are zeros at the top of a column. Gaussian elimination algorithms are used for symmetric banded matrices which enable also the reduction of computer time. efficient reduction of both storage and computing time can be achieved using the skyline storage and a skyline equation solver. Apart from storage savings. The line separating the top zeroes from the first nonzero element is called the skyline. only the elements between the diagonal term and the first nonzero term need be stored. For large sparse stiffness matrices. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 39 The half-bandwidth is automatically determined within the finite element program from the node numbering.3. Consider the following matrix Column height → 1 2 2 0 k 23 k33 4 k14 k 24 k34 k 44 3 0 0 k35 0 k55 1 0 0 0 0 0 k 66 4 0 0 0 k 47 0 k67 k77 5 0 ⎤ ⎥ 0 ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ k 48 ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ k 78 ⎥ ⎥ k88 ⎥ ⎦ ⎡k11 k12 ⎢ k 22 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ Skyline The active columns are stored in the column vector { K s } and a diagonal pointer vector { ID } is built up with the indices of diagonal elements in { K s } ⎧ k11 ⎫ ⎪ k ⎪←1 ⎪ 12 ⎪ ⎪ k22 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪←3 ⎪ k23 ⎪ ⎪ k33 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪←5 ⎪ k14 ⎪ {Ks } = ⎨ ⎬ ⎪ k24 ⎪ ⎪ k34 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ k44 ⎪ ⎪ L ⎪←9 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪L⎪ ⎪k ⎪ ⎩ 88 ⎭ ⎧1⎫ ⎪3⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪5⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 9 { ID } = ⎪ ⎪ . In this case.

Gaussian elimination can be applied using a skyline solver program. A generic flow chart of the Matrix Displacement Method is given in the following. For the solution of the finite element equations. Matrix Displacement Method Input Data Geometric data of truss (Nodal coordinates) Material properties + Cross-section area of members Connectivity table of elements Boundary conditions ↓ 1 Element stiffness matrix in local coordinates Transformation to global coordinates ↓ 2 Assembly of the global stiffness matrix ↓ 3 Introduction of boundary conditions ↓ 4 Solving the linear set of equations ↓ 5 Back-calculation External reactions Member forces (and stresses) 6 .40 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The height of the jth column is given by ID ( j ) − ID ( j − 1) .

3 2. 3 2. a) The finite element model consists of 8 nodes and 13 elements.7 0 Element data Element nr 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Nodes 1. A = 1 . and c) the support reactions. determine: a) the maximum nodal displacement and its location b) the maximum stress and its location.1 -391. 2 1. 7 6. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 41 Exercises E3. Taking l = 1 .6 176 62.9 224 Displ Y 0 -361. 5 Axial stress 16 -10 0 16 -9. 6 4.1 -361.1.7 -339. a.16 -10.83 0 12 -15 . 8 Axial stress 12 -4. Fig.7 -339.1. For the truss in Fig. 7 6. 4 3. E = 1 and F = 1 . 6 4. E3. Plot the deformed shape. 4 3.16 -10.3 128 127. 8 7.8 -343. E3. we obtain the following: Nodal data Node nr 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Restr X 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Restr Y 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Coord X 0 4 4 8 8 12 12 16 Coord Y 0 0 3 0 6 0 3 0 Displ X 0 64 208. 7 5. a Answer.3.83 8 Element nr 8 9 10 11 12 13 Nodes 4.1.

E3. b) the maximum stress.1. b.787 EA element 7 is N 7 = −6 F A .4 F .42 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The support reactions are R1 = −8 . E3.2. The deformed shape is presented in Fig. and c) the support reactions. a) Fl . c) The support reactions are R1 = − R3 = 5. The finite element model consists of 7 nodes and 11 elements. Fig.2. The deformed shape is shown in Fig. E3.2. b E3. Plot the deformed shape. a Answer. and R2 = 6 F . Fig.1. a. Consider the pin-jointed framework shown in Fig.2. E3. E3. b. and R3 = 9 . Determine: a) the maximum nodal displacement. R2 = 6 . b) The axial stress in The vertical displacement of point 7 is v7 = −219. .

E3.3. a Answer. b) the maximum stress. R2 = 3. E3. .4 F and R3 = 2.3. Consider the truss shown in Fig. The finite element model consists of 6 nodes and 9 elements. b.3. a) Fl .6 F . DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 43 Fig. E3.3.3.25 F A . E3.2. Fig. b) The axial stress in The vertical displacement of point 3 is v3 = −137. Determine the location and the value of: a) the maximum nodal displacement.83 EA element 1 is N1 = −7. The deformed shape is presented in Fig. c) The support reactions are R1 = 0 . Plot the deformed shape. Calculate c) the support reactions. b E3. a.

4. E3. Plot the deformed shape.4.2095 -9. E = 1 and F = 1 .0896 .6705 Displ Y 0 0 -3. a. The finite element model consists of 4 nodes and 5 elements. Determine: a) the maximum nodal displacement. E3.3294 2.4.3. A = 1 . Fig. we obtain the following: Nodal data Node nr 1 2 3 4 Restr X 1 1 0 0 Restr Y 1 1 0 0 Coord X 0 0 1 2 Coord Y 0 1 0 1 Displ X 0 0 -1. b E3. b) the maximum stress. Consider the truss shown in Fig. E3. Taking l = 1 . and c) the support reactions.44 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Fig. a Answer.

Consider the pin-jointed framework shown in Fig. b) The axial stress in element 4 is N 4 = 1.4.0. b E3.0. Determine the location and the value of: a) the maximum nodal displacement. b. a where point 6 is displaced v6 = −5 .3.5. R2 = 0.5. 3 2.665F . c) The support reactions are R1 = − R3 = 2 F .09 F l E A . b) the maximum stress.335F and R4 = 0. 4 1.1.335 F A . DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 45 Element data Element nr 1 2 3 4 5 Nodes 3.940 . E3.5. 4 Axial stress . Fig.335 . Plot the deformed shape. Fig.749 a) The vertical displacement of point 4 is v4 = −9. 4 1. a .4. E3.940 1.329 0. The deformed shape is presented in Fig. E3. E3. 3 2.

E3. E3.366 . Taking l = 1 . b. Fig.538 . A = 1 and E = 1 .5. The finite element model consists of 14 nodes and 25 elements. and the axial stress in element 15 is N15 = 0.5. b .46 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Answer. the vertical displacements of points 7 and 8 are v7 = v8 = −4. The deformed shape is presented in Fig.

They are modeled by elements having one-degree-of-freedom per node. 4. The displacement within the element is expressed in terms of the nodal displacements using shape functions. This implies replacement of the distributed loads by equivalent forces applied to nodes. Their longitudinal dimension is much larger than the transverse dimensions. Displacements must be continuous across the element boundary.1. The dimensions of p are force/length. true displacements are described by higher order polynomials. In this section.1 Plane bar elements Bars are structural elements used to model truss elements. This approximation becomes increasingly accurate as more elements are considered in the model. the corresponding element stiffness matrix and load vectors will be derived. It is shown that their use is tantamount to adding internal nodes. . it is common practice to use linear shape functions and two-node elements without loads between ends.1 Differential equation of equilibrium In a thin uniform rod of cross-section area A and Young’s modulus E. For a bar without loads between ends the linear interpolation is exact. chains and ropes. cables. The displacement at x + d x will be u + du . For bars with distributed loads. However. The unknown displacement field within an element is usually interpolated by a linear distribution. 4. there are axial displacements u = u (x ) due to axial loads p(x ) . These kinematically equivalent forces are determined using the appropriate shape functions from the condition to perform the same mechanical work as the actual loading.4. having one degree of freedom per node. Bars are loaded only by axial forces. BARS AND SHAFTS This chapter deals with simple one-dimensional structural elements. The compatibility of adjacent elements requires only C 0 continuity.

1) is d N + p d x = 0 . Nodes are conveniently numbered 1 and 2. We define a natural or intrinsic reference system which permits the specification of a point within the element by a dimensionless number r= x + x2 ⎞ 2 ⎛ ⎜x− 1 ⎟ x 2 − x1 ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (4.48 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The axial strain is given by the strain-displacement relation ε x = du d x . dx or. 4. . b). their coordinates in the physical (Cartesian) reference system being x 1 and x 2 respectively (Fig. a). 4.2. (4. EA d2 u = − p (x ) .1 The internal axial force N is du .2 Coordinates and shape functions Consider a two-node pin-jointed element in the own or local coordinate system. d x2 (4.4) 4. The normal stresses result from Hooke’s law (4.2. 4.1) σ x = E du d x . (4.5) so that r = −1 at node 1 and r = +1 at node 2 (Fig. 4. N = Aσ x = E A dN + p (x ) = 0 .3) dx The equation of equilibrium of an infinitesimal element of length dx of the rod (Fig.3).2) Fig. using (4.1.

d 2u d x 2 = 0 .3 4.b. Fig.3 Bar not loaded between ends For a prismatic bar not loaded between ends. 4. d u d x = const . so that the displacement field within the element may be expressed as a linear polynomial . . p = 0 . The graphs of these functions are shown in Figs.3.7) 2 2 can be considered as geometric interpolation functions. where N1 (r ) = (4. They have a unit value at the node of the same index and zero at the other node. 4. BARS AND SHAFTS 49 Fig. a. 4.1.2 Expressing the physical coordinate in terms of the natural coordinate yields x = N1 (r ) x 1 + N 2 (r ) x 2 .4.6) 1 ( 1 − r ) and N 2 (r ) = 1 ( 1 + r ) (4.

(4. 2 2 (4. a and b. u= The displacement of an arbitrary point within the element can be expressed in terms of the nodal displacements q 1 and q 2 as u = N1 (r ) q1 + N 2 (r ) q2 . q 1 and q 2 . ⎣N ⎦ In (4.6) is simpler.8) The two integration constants above may be determined from the nodal displacements and the geometry of the element. the displacement at any point within an element can be found by multiplying the matrix of shape functions by the vector of nodal displacements. With q1 = a + b x1 at node 1 and q2 = a + b x2 at node 2.9) can also be written u= or.12) Thus.50 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS u (x ) = a + b x . (4. are the nodal displacements. x2 − x1 x2 − x1 1− r 1+ r q1 + q2 . q e is the column vector of element nodal displacements and is the row vector of displacement interpolation functions also named shape { } .9) Equation (4. using (4. where N1 (r ) = element. but the integration constants. have no simple physical meaning. The nodal expansion (4. equation (4.10) is more complicated.10) 1 ( 1 − r ) and N 2 (r ) = 1 ( 1 + r ) are the shape functions of the 2 2 The polynomial form (4. but the integration constants.8) becomes u= q2 − q1 q x − q2 x1 x+ 1 2 . e i i i =1 2 (4.5).11). In matrix form u= where ∑ N q = ⎣N ⎦ { q }. (4.11) ⎣N ⎦ = ⎣N1 N 2 ⎦ and {q }= { q e 1 q2 }T . x2 − x1 x2 − x1 x − x1 − x + x2 q1 + q2 .

The transformation from x to r in equation (4. c).6) and (4.4 Element stiffness matrix in local coordinates Strains can be expressed in terms of the shape functions as εx = where du d e e = ⎣N ⎦ q = ⎣B ⎦ q dx dx { } { } (4.13) in (4. The element strain energy U e is Ue = 1 2 ∫σ e x εx dV = 1 2 ∫E ε e e 2 x dV .14) is the row vector of the derivatives of shape functions.3.16) we obtain Ue = 1 2 { q } ∫ ⎣B ⎦ e T Ve T Ee ⎣B ⎦ dV { q }. BARS AND SHAFTS 51 functions. generally called the element strain-displacement matrix.5) yields dx = x 2 − x1 2 dr = le dr . (4. Equations (4.10) show that both the element geometry and the displacement field are interpolated using the same shape functions.17) 144 2444 4 3 The above equation is of the form Ue = 1 2 { q } [ k ] { q }.1.13) ⎣B ⎦ = d x ⎣N ⎦ d (4. It gives the strain at any point due to unit nodal displacement. and that u varies linearly (Fig.16) Substituting (4. which is referred to as the isoparametric formulation. e T e e (4. 2 (4. 4.18) where the element stiffness matrix k e is given by [ ] .15) where − 1 ≤ r ≤ +1 and the length of the element is l e = x 2 − x 1 .4. 4. e (4. It is easy to check that u = q 1 at node 1 and u = q 2 at node 2.

5 Bar loaded between ends For a prismatic bar acted upon by a uniformly distributed axial load. 4. .4. This can be done if we use a three-node onedimensional element. a).1. ⎣ dr ⎦ ⎣ dr ⎦ T (4. 1⎥ ⎦ ⎧− 1 2 ⎫ ⎢ 1 1⎥ dr 2⎥ ⎦ or [ k ] = El A ⎡⎢−11 e e e e ⎣ (4.22) which is the same as equation (3.20) Because dN dN d r 2 dN = = .21) d N2 1 d N1 1 = − and = + . In terms of the shape functions [ ] e Ve [k ]= E A ∫ e e le ⎢dN ⎥ ⎢dN ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ dx .52 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS [ k ] = ∫ ⎣B⎦ e T Ee ⎣B ⎦ dV . p = const.6). (4. b and c. An internal node is added at the midpoint to comply with the requirement of a quadratic fit (Fig. have to be determined from three boundary conditions. (4. . .19) This form guarantees that k e will be a symmetric matrix.21) yields dr 2 dr 2 [k ] e 2E A = e e le +1 −1 ∫ ⎨ 1 2 ⎬ ⎢⎣− 2 ⎩ ⎭ − 1⎤ . so that the displacement field within the element may be expressed as a quadratic polynomial u (x ) = a + b x + c x 2 . d 2u d x 2 = const . ⎣ dx ⎦ ⎣ dx ⎦ T (4. 4.23) The three integration constants. a. we can write dx dr d x l e dr [ ke ] = 2 Ee Ae le Substituting +1 −1 ∫ ⎢dN ⎥ ⎢dN ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ dr . equation (4.

4. BARS AND SHAFTS

53

For a linearly distributed axial load (as in a bar rotating at constant angular speed around an end, acted upon by a distributed centrifugal load proportional to the distance to the rotation centre), the true displacement field is given by a cubic polynomial, involving four integration constants (see Example 4.8). For an exact solution, this implies using a four-node element (adding two internal nodes). The usual practice is to assume an approximate lower order linear displacement field, i.e. a two-node element and to replace the actual linearly distributed load by equivalent nodal forces, having thus an element not loaded between ends describable by linear shape functions.

Fig. 4.4 Consider the three-node quadratic element from Fig. 4.4, a, with node 3 at the midpoint. Nodal coordinates are x1 , x2 , x3 , and the vector of element nodal displacements is q e = { q1 q2 q3 }T . The x-coordinate system is mapped onto an intrinsic r-coordinate system, given by the transformation

T

{ }

2 ( x − x3 ) . x2 − x1 It comes out that r = −1 , 0, and + 1 at nodes 1, 3, and 2 (Fig. 4.4, b). r=

(4.24)

The displacements within the element can be written in terms of the three nodal displacements q 1 , q2 , and q 3 as

u = N1 (r ) q 1 + N 2 (r ) q 2 + N 3 (r ) q 3 ,

where the quadratic shape functions N i N1 (r ) = −

(4.25)

( i = 1, 2, 3 ) are

(4.26)

1 1 r ( 1 − r ) , N 2 (r ) = r ( 1 + r ) , 2 2 N 3 (r ) = ( 1 + r )( 1 − r ) .

The graphs of the shape functions (4.26) are shown in Fig. 4.5. They have a unit value at the node with the same index and zero at the other nodes. This is a general property of the shape functions.

54

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

The expressions for these shape functions can be written down by inspection. For example, since N1 = 0 at r = 0 and r = 1 , we know that N1 has to contain the product r ( 1 − r ) , i. e. the left hand part of the equations of the vertical lines passing through nodes 3 and 2. That is, N1 is of the form N1 = C r ( 1 − r ) . The constant C is obtained from the condition N1 = 1 at r = −1 , which yields C = −1 2 , resulting in the expression given in (4.26).

Fig. 4.5 The displacement field within the element is written in matrix form as u= where

∑ N q = ⎣N ⎦ { q } ,

e i i i =1

3

(4.27)

⎣N ⎦ = ⎣N1 N 2 N3 ⎦ and

{ q }= { q

e

1

q2

q3

}T .

(4.28)

At any point within an element the axial displacement can be found by multiplying the matrix of shape functions by the vector of nodal displacements, as in (4.27). It is easy to check that u = q 1 at node 1, because N1 = 1 and

**N 2 = N3 = 0 . Similarly, u = q 2 at node 2, and u = q 3 at node 3. Thus, u is a
**

quadratic polynomial passing through q1 , q2 , and q3 (Fig. 4.6). It is obtained by interpolation, using quadratic shape functions.

4. BARS AND SHAFTS

55

**The element strain-displacement row vector ⎣B ⎦ in (4.14) is given by
**

⎢ ⎣B ⎦ = d x ⎣N ⎦ = d r ⎣N ⎦ d x = l ⎢− 2 e ⎣ d d dr 2 1− 2r 1+ 2r 2 ⎥ − 2 r⎥ . ⎦

(4.29)

Fig. 4.6 The element stiffness matrix (4.19) is

[k ]

e

+1

Al = e e 2

∫⎣⎦

B

−1

T

Ee ⎣B ⎦ d r

or, substituting (4.29),

[k ]

e

1 − 8⎤ ⎡7 Ee Ae ⎢ = 7 − 8⎥ . ⎥ ⎢1 3l e ⎢− 8 − 8 16 ⎥ ⎦ ⎣

(4.30)

**4.1.6 Vector of element nodal forces
**

Consider an axial load p (x ) , having the units of force per unit length, distributed along the bar element. The mechanical work of such a force is

W=

le

∫ u p dx = ∫ u

le

T

p dx .

(4.31)

**Substituting (4.11), equation (4.31) becomes
**

W = qe It has the form

{ } ∫ ⎣N ⎦

T le

T

p dx .

(4.32)

56

W = qe

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

{ } {f }

T e

(4.33)

+1

where the element equivalent load vector is

{ f }= ∫ ⎣N ⎦

e

T

p dx =

le

le 2

∫1 ⎣N ⎦ −

T

p dr .

(4.34)

For the linear two-node element, if the axial force is uniformly distributed, p = const . , then

{f }

e

+1

l = e p 2

∫

T ⎣N ⎦ d r

(4.35)

−1

or, substituting (4.7),

{ f }= p2l

e

e

⎧ 1⎫ ⎨ ⎬. ⎩ 1⎭

(4.36)

A force

p le , equal to half the total force on the element, is applied at each node. 2

For the quadratic three-node element, if p = const. , substituting the shape functions (4.26) into (4.35), gives

{ f }= p l

e

e

T ⎣1 6 1 6 2 3 ⎦ .

(4.37)

**4.1.7 Assembly of the global stiffness matrix and load vector
**

Assembly of the system stiffness matrix for one-dimensional structures modelled as bars is carried out as shown in sections 3.4 to 3.7 for trusses. Consider the five-node finite element model in Fig. 4.7, a. Each node has only one degree of freedom in the x-direction. The nodal displacements are Q1 , Q2 ,…, Q5 (Fig. 4.7, b). The global vector of nodal displacements is denoted by

{Q } = ⎣ Q1

{ F } = ⎣ F1

Q2

Q3

Q4

Q5 ⎦ T .

**The nodal forces are F1 , F2 ,…, F5 . The global load vector is denoted by
**

F2 F3 F4 F5 ⎦ T .

The unreduced global stiffness matrix [ K ] proportionality factor between the two global vectors

plays the role of a

4. BARS AND SHAFTS

57

{ F } = [ K ] {Q }.

Fig. 4.7 The assembly of [ K ] from the element stiffness matrices can be explained by an energy approach. Consider the strain energy in, say, element 3. We have

U3 = 1 2

{ q } [k ] { q }

3 T 3 3

or U3 = EA ⎡ 1 − 1 ⎤ ⎧ Q3 ⎫ 1 ⎣ Q3 Q4 ⎦ l 3 ⎢ − 1 1⎥ ⎨ Q ⎬ . 2 ⎦ ⎩ 4⎭ 3 ⎣

We can write U 3 as

U3 =

1 ⎣ Q1 Q2 2

Q3 Q4

⎡0 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 Q5 ⎦ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎣

0 0

0 0 EA3 0 l3 EA 0 − 3 l3 0 0

0 0 EA − 3 l3 EA3 l3 0

0⎤ 0⎥ ⎥ ⎥ 0⎥ ⎥ 0⎥ ⎥ 0⎥ ⎦

⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩

Q1 ⎫ Q2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ Q3 ⎬ Q4 ⎪ ⎪ Q5 ⎪ ⎭

or

U3 = 1 2 ~ { Q }T [ K 3 ] { Q },

4 for truss elements. It has the size of the [ ] fourth rows and columns of the [ K ] matrix. but the elements of the matrix k 3 occupy the third and [ ] The strain energy of the entire structure is equal to the sum of the element strain energies U= 1 1 ~ T ~ T ∑ U e = ∑ 2 { Q } [ K e ]{ Q } = 2 { Q } ∑ [ K e ] { Q } e e e so that. The entries of the element matrices k e are placed in [ ] 1 1 [ k ] = ElA ⎡⎢− 1 1 1 1 2 − 1⎤ 1 . ⎢− 1 1⎥ 4 ⎣ ⎦ [ k ] = ElA 4 4 4 At the top and on the right of the element stiffness matrices. ⎣ ⎦ 4 5 ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ 4 . based on element connectivity. as in (3. The element matrices can be written This is a convenient algebraic explanation of the assembly process. Overlapping elements are simply added as already shown in section 3. This is based on the simple addition of element strain energies.1. ∑[ e ] the appropriate locations of the global [ K ] matrix by the so-called direct method.58 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ~ where K 3 is the expanded stiffness matrix of element 3. according to the connectivity Table 4.27).1 Element 1 2 3 4 Node i 1 2 3 4 j 2 3 4 5 . global stiffness matrix. the global stiffness matrix is equal to the sum of the expanded element stiffness matrices ~ [ K ]= K e . the numbering of coordinates in the global stiffness matrix is shown. ⎢− 1 1⎥ 5 ⎣ ⎦ 3 [ k ] = ElA 3 3 3 ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ 3 . which is never done in practice. 1⎥ 2 ⎦ 4 2 3 ⎣ [ k ] = ElA 2 2 2 ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ 2 ⎢ − 1 1⎥ 3 . Table 4.

8 Initial strain effects Let an initial strain ε 0 be induced in a bar element. (4. 4. and the reduced load vector . this information is stored for the subsequent calculation of the reaction R 1 . The stress-strain law in the presence of ε 0 is of the form σ = E ( ε − ε0 ) . as shown in section 3. ⎥ A4 ⎥ − ⎥ l4 ⎥ A4 ⎥ l4 ⎥ ⎦ The global load vector is assembled as {F }= ⎣ − R1 F2 The final finite element equations are obtained. It may arise from thermal action or by forcing members into place that are either too short or too long.by deleting the first element. Stresses are then calculated from the axial forces obtained using equation (3.13).5.4. BARS AND SHAFTS 59 The result is the following unreduced global stiffness matrix ⎡ A1 ⎢ l ⎢ 1 ⎢− A1 ⎢ l1 ⎢ [ K ]= E ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎣ A1 l1 A1 A2 + l1 l 2 A − 2 l2 − 0 0 0 A2 l2 A2 A3 + l2 l3 A − 3 l3 − 0 0 0 A3 l3 A3 A4 + l3 l4 A − 4 l4 − 0 0 F5 ⎦ T . the expression (4. ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥.1. (4.38) The mechanical work of external nodal forces applied to suppress the initial prestressing due to ε 0 is W= Ve ∫σε 0 dV = Ve ∫σ T ε 0 dV = ε 0 Ee Ae le ∫ε T dx .39) Substituting (4.41). using the boundary condition. due to fabrication errors.39) becomes . The reduced (non-singular) stiffness matrix is obtained deleting the first row and column of the unreduced matrix. Q 1 = 0 . In fact.

60 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS W = qe { }ε T 0 Ee Ae le ∫ ⎣B⎦ T dx . The nodal torques M 1 and M 2 can be related to the nodal rotation angles θ 1 and θ 2 using the equilibrium and the torque/rotation equations . from a material with shear modulus of elasticity G. is shown in Fig. θ l A two-node shaft finite element.2 Plane shaft elements From Mechanics of Materials it is known that a uniform shaft of diameter d and length l .44) where α is the coefficient of thermal expansion and T is the average change in temperature within the element.41) or { f }= ε e +1 0 Ee Ae −1 ∫ ⎢dN ⎥ le ⎢ ⎥ d r = ε 0 Ee Ae 2 ⎣ dr ⎦ ⎧ − 1⎫ Ae ⎨ ⎬ .43) In the case of thermal loading. where the element load vector due to initial straining is { f }= ε e 0 Ee Ae le ∫ ⎣B ⎦ T l dx = ε 0 Ee Ae e 2 T +1 −1 ∫ ⎣B⎦ +1 T dr (4. (4. where I p = is the polar second GIp 32 moment of area of the shaft cross section.33). The shaft torsional stiffness is then GIp M K= t = .42) After solving for nodal displacements. 4.40) It has the form (4. ⎩ 1 ⎭ −1 ∫ ⎧− 1⎫ ⎨ ⎬ dr .8. acted upon by a torque M t will twist an angle θ = πd4 Mt l . ⎩1⎭ hence { f }= ε e 0 Ee (4. ε0 = αT . (4. le (4. of length l and torsional rigidity G I p . stresses are computed as σ e = Ee q2 − q1 + ( − Ee ε 0 ) . 4.

8 The derivation of the shaft stiffness matrix is essentially identical to the derivation of the stiffness matrix for an axially loaded bar element. 4. θ 1 = 0. BARS AND SHAFTS 61 M1 = − M 2 = K θ 1 when θ 2 = 0.46) { M }= [ k ] { θ }. (4.49) dx E A The rotation angle of an arbitrary section within the shaft element can be expressed in terms of the nodal rotations θ 1 and θ 2 as θ = N1 (r ) θ1 + N 2 (r ) θ 2 .3) du N = . Similarity between these two derivations occurs because the differential equations for both problems have the same mathematical form. M 1 = − M 2 = − K θ 2 when (4. (4.50) .47) is the stiffness matrix of the shaft element. e e e where [ k ] = GlI e p ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎢− 1 1⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (4.45) may be written in matrix form as ⎧ M1 ⎫ ⎡ K ⎨ ⎬=⎢ ⎩ M 2 ⎭ ⎣− K or in shorthand form − K⎤ ⎧ θ1 ⎫ ⎨ ⎬ K ⎥ ⎩θ 2 ⎭ ⎦ (4. (4. Fig.45) Equations (4. The differential equation for torsional displacement is Mt dθ .4.48) = dx GI p while for the axial displacement is (4.

20).54) Equation (4. E4. .1 Consider the bar in Fig.54) is also used to account for torsional effects in grid finite elements. Fig. and c) the support reactions.53) [ k ] = G lI e ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎢− 1 1⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (4.52) or [ ke ] = which yields e 2 Ge I p e le e pe +1 −1 ∫ ⎢dN ⎥ ⎢dN ⎥ ⎢ dr ⎥ ⎢ dr ⎥ dr ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ (4.62 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS where N1 (r ) = 1 ( 1 − r ) and N 2 (r ) = 1 ( 1 + r ) 2 2 (4. the same as for the axially loaded bar element.22) is used to account for axial effects in inclined beam finite elements. E4.51) are the shape functions of the shaft element. l = 0. For non-axially-symmetric cross sections. a) The bar is divided into three bar finite elements. b) the stresses in bar.1 Solution. Analogous to equation (4. E = 200 GPa .2 m . Example 4. Determine: a) the displacement of point 2.1 with d = 5 mm . loaded by an axial load F = 2 kN . as equation (4. the stiffness matrix for the shaft element can be calculated from [ k ] = G I ∫ ⎢⎢ ddN ⎥⎥ ⎣ x⎦ e e pe le T ⎢dN ⎥ ⎢ dx ⎥ dx ⎣ ⎦ T (4. the polar second moment of area I p is replaced by the torsional constant I t .

c) Stresses are .4 d 4 )2 = 38.21 mm .47 + 38.47 38. The element stiffness matrices are ⋅ 19 [ k ] = 2 ⋅10400 .47 ⋅ 103 1⎥ ⎦ The global unreduced stiffness matrix is − 9.81 + 38.47 0 ⎥ 3 ⎢ ⎥.81 48. ⎢− 1 1⎥ mm ⎣ ⎦ ⋅ 38 [ k ] = [ k ] = 2 ⋅10200 .47 − 38.47 ⎤ ⎧ Q2 ⎫ ⎧ 0 ⎫ 103 ⎢ ⎬=⎨ ⎥⎨ 3 ⎬ ⎣− 38.47 38.47 Q3 = 38. BARS AND SHAFTS 63 The areas of the cross sections are A1 = π d2 4 = 19.81 Q2 = 9.21 = 1662 .42 mm .47 − 38.47 76.4.47 ⎦ ⎣ 0 Including the boundary conditions (degrees of freedom 1 and 4 are fixed).47 0 ⎥ ⎪ Q2 ⎥⎪ 103 ⎢ ⎨ ⎢ 0 − 38.28 − 38. A2 = A3 = π ( 1.47 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 0 − 38.62 ⎡⎢− 1 1 1 5 ⎣ − 1⎤ = 9. the finite element equations can be written − 9. b) The reactions are obtained from the first and fourth equation R1 = 9.81 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ 9.47 ⎦ ⎪ 0 0 ⎩ ⎣ 0 ⎫ ⎧ − R1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬=⎨ ⎬.47 ⋅103 ⋅ 43.81 ⋅ 103 ⋅ 34. 2 ⋅ 103 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ − R4 ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ Retaining only the second and third equation yields ⎡ 48.81 0 0 ⎤⎧ 0 ⎡ 9. [ K ] = 10 ⎢ 0 − 38.47 76.47 ⎥ ⎪ Q3 ⎥ ⎢ − 38.81 9.62 mm 2 . R4 = 38.47 ⎡⎢− 1 1 2 3 5 ⎣ − 1⎤ = 38.94 ⎦ ⎩ Q3 ⎭ ⎩ 2 ⋅ 10 ⎭ with solutions Q2 = 34. Q3 = 43.42 = 337.47 mm 2 .81 ⋅ 103 1⎥ ⎦ ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ N .94 − 38.81 ⎢− 9.47 38.8 N .28 − 38.2 N . ⎢− 1 1⎥ mm ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ N .81 ⎢− 9.

64

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

σ 12 = E ε12 = E σ 23 = E ε 23 = E

σ 34 = E ε 34 = E

**Q2 − Q1 Q 34.42 N = E 2 = 2 ⋅ 105 = 17.2 , l1 2l 400 mm 2 Q3 − Q2 Q − Q2 8.79 N =E 3 = 2 ⋅105 = 8.79 , 200 l2 l mm 2
**

Q4 − Q3 Q 43.21 N = − E 3 = −2 ⋅ 105 = − 43.2 . l3 l 200 mm 2

Example 4.2

A support, consisting of a steel bar 1 fitted inside a cast iron tube 2, is loaded by a 60 kN axial force, as in Fig. E4.2. Consider A1 = 200 mm 2 ,

A2 = 800 mm 2 , E1 = 210 GPa , E2 = 120 GPa , l = 0.2 m . Determine: a) the elongation of the assembly, b) the stress in each material, and c) the internal forces in bar and tube.

Fig. E4.2 Solution. a) Using a two-node two-element finite element model, the element stiffness matrices are

**[ k ] = 2.1⋅10 ⋅ 200 ⎡⎢− 1 1 200
**

1 5

⎣

− 1⎤ = 2.1 ⋅ 105 1⎥ ⎦

⎡ 1 − 1⎤ N , ⎢− 1 1⎥ mm ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ N . ⎢− 1 1⎥ mm ⎣ ⎦

**1 [ k ] = 1.2 ⋅10 ⋅ 800 ⎡⎢− 1 200
**

2 5

⎣

− 1⎤ = 4.8 ⋅ 105 1⎥ ⎦

The global unreduced stiffness matrix is 48 [ K ] = 105 ⎡− 2.1 + 4..8 ⎢ 2.1 − ⎣ − 2.1 − 4.8⎤ 5 ⎥ = 6.9 ⋅ 10 2.1 + 4.8⎦ ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ N . ⎢− 1 1⎥ mm ⎣ ⎦

4. BARS AND SHAFTS

65

**If point 1 is fixed, the finite element equations are
**

⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎧ R1 ⎫ 6.9 ⋅105 ⎢ ⎬=⎨ ⎥⎨ 4 ⎬, ⎣− 1 1 ⎦ ⎩ Q2 ⎭ ⎩ − 6 ⋅10 ⎭

Q2 = − 0.087 mm ,

which is equal to the beam shortening. b) Stresses are

Q2 − Q1 Q − 0.087 N = E1 2 = 2.1 ⋅105 = −91.3 , 200 l l mm 2 Q2 − Q1 Q − 0.087 N = E2 2 = 1.2 ⋅ 105 = −52.14 . l l 200 mm 2

σ 1 = E1 ε 1 = E1

σ 2 = E2 ε 2 = E2

**c) Internal forces are
**

N1 = σ 1 A1 = − 91.3 ⋅ 200 = − 18.26 kN ,

N 2 = σ 2 A2 = − 52.14 ⋅ 800 = − 41.74 kN .

Example 4.3

The temperature of the bar in Fig. E4.3 is raised 800 C . If E = 130 GPa and α = 17 ⋅10−6 , determine the thermal stresses.

Fig. E4.3 Solution. We should first determine whether contact occurs between the bar and the wall. If the wall does not exist, the displacement of point 2 is

**Δl = lα T = 1800 ⋅ 17 ⋅ 10 −6 ⋅ 80 = 2.448 mm > 2 mm
**

so that the contact does occur. Denoting by A the cross section area, the temperature forces (4.42) are

66

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

{ fT } = α T E A ⎧ ⎨

− 1⎫ ⎧ − 1⎫ ⎧ − 1⎫ −6 5 ⎬ = 17 ⋅ 10 ⋅ 80 ⋅ 1.3 ⋅ 10 ⋅ A ⎨ ⎬ = 176.8 ⋅ A⎨ ⎬ N . ⎩ 1⎭ ⎩ 1 ⎭ ⎩ 1⎭

The stiffness matrix is

[ k ] = 1.3 ⋅10

⋅ A ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ N . 1⎥ mm 1800 ⎢ − 1 ⎣ ⎦

5

**As point 1 is fixed, the finite element equations are
**

1.3 ⋅ 105 ⋅ A ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎧ R 1 − 176.8 A ⎫ ⎢− 1 1 ⎥ ⎨ 2 ⎬ = ⎨ R + 176.8 A ⎬ 1800 ⎣ ⎦⎩ ⎭ ⎩ 2 ⎭

wherefrom we get the reactions

R 1 = 176.8 A − 144.4 A = 32.4 A ,

so that the normal stress is

R 2 = − 32.4 A ,

σ=

R2 N . = − 32.4 A mm 2

Example 4.4

A prismatic bar is made of two different materials, as shown in Fig. E4.4. The temperature of the central part is raised T 0C . Determine the axial stress in the bar.

Fig. E4.4 Solution. The bar is divided into three linear finite elements. The element stiffness matrices are 1 [ k ] = [ k ] = El A ⎡⎢− 1

1 3 2

⎣

− 1⎤ , 1⎥ ⎦

1 [ k ] = E2lA ⎡⎢− 1

2 1

⎣

− 1⎤ . 1⎥ ⎦

For element 2, the vector of nodal thermal forces is

{ f }= α T E A ⎣ − 1

2 1

1⎦T .

4. BARS AND SHAFTS

67

Using the boundary conditions Q1 = Q4 = 0 , the finite element equations can be written

⎡ E2 ⎢ A ⎢ − E2 ⎢ l ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎣

− E2 E E2 + 1 2 E1 − 2 0

0 E − 1 2 E1 + E2 2 − E2

0 ⎤ ⎥⎧ 0 0 ⎥ ⎪Q ⎪ 2 ⎥⎨ − E2 ⎥ ⎪ Q3 ⎥⎪ 0 E2 ⎥ ⎩ ⎦

R1 ⎫ ⎫ ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ −α T E A ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 1 ⎪ ⎬. ⎬=⎨ ⎪ ⎪ α T E1 A ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ R4 ⎭ ⎩ ⎭

**The second and third equation yield
**

E1 ⎡ ⎢ E2 + 2 ⎢ E ⎢ − 1 2 ⎣ E1 ⎤ 2 ⎥ ⎧ Q2 ⎫ = α T E A ⎧ − 1 ⎫ ⎬ ⎬ 1 ⎨ E ⎥⎨ ⎩ 1 ⎭ E2 + 1 ⎥ ⎩ Q3 ⎭ 2⎦ −

A l

with solutions Q2 = − α T l E1 , E1 + E2 Q3 = α T l E1 . E1 + E2

Q3 − Q2 E1 . =αT 2l E1 + E2

The strains in elements are

ε1 = ε 3 =

Q2 Q E1 , = − 4 = −α T l l E1 + E2

ε2 =

Stresses are

σ 1 = σ 3 = E2 ε 1 = −α T

1 , 1 1 + E1 E2

σ 2 = E1 ε 2 − E1α T = −α T

1 = σ1. 1 1 + E1 E2

Example 4.5

A steel bolt of active length l = 100 mm and diameter δ = 10 mm is single threaded with a 1.6 mm pitch. It is mounted inside a copper tube with diameters d = 12 mm and D = 18 mm (Fig. E4.5, a). After the nut has been fitted smugly, it is tightened one-quarter of a full turn. Determine stresses in bolt and tube, if for steel E1 = 208 GPa and for copper E2 = 100 GPa . Solution. The assembly is modeled by two bar finite elements as in Fig. E4.5, b. Both elements have fixed ends at points 1 and 4 so that Q1 = Q4 = 0 . The problem has a multipoint constraint

68

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

Q3 − Q2 = 0.4 mm .

Such conditions are programmed using a so-called penalty approach. Herein a simpler straightforward solution is given.

**Fig. E4.5 The cross section areas are
**

A1 =

π δ2

4

= 78.54 mm 2 , A2 =

π D2 − d 2

4

(

) = 141.37 mm

2

.

The element stiffness matrices are

**[ k ] = 2.08 ⋅10 ⋅ 78.54 ⎡⎢− 1 1 100
**

1 5

⎣

− 1⎤ 5 ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ N , ⎥ = 1.63 ⋅ 10 ⎢ − 1 1⎥ mm 1⎦ ⎦ ⎣

[ k ] = 10

2

5

⋅ 141.37 ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ 5 ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ N . ⎢ − 1 1⎥ = 1.41 ⋅ 10 ⎢ − 1 1⎥ mm 100 ⎦ ⎦ ⎣ ⎣ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬. ⎪ ⎪ ⎭

The finite element equations are 0 0 ⎤ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎧ R1 ⎡ 1.63 − 1.63 ⎢− 1.63 1.63 0 0 ⎥ ⎪ Q2 ⎪ ⎪ − F ⎪ ⎪ ⎥⎪ 105 ⎢ ⎨ ⎬=⎨ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎪ − Q3 ⎪ ⎪ − F 0 1.41 − 1.41 ⎢ ⎥ − 1.41 1.41 ⎦ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ R4 0 ⎣ 0 ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ Retaining only the second and third equation yields

⎡1.63 0 ⎤ ⎧ Q2 ⎫ ⎧ − F ⎫ 105 ⎢ ⎬=⎨ ⎬ ⎥⎨ ⎣ 0 1.41⎦ ⎩ − Q3 ⎭ ⎩ − F ⎭

with solutions

For the bar of Fig. Substituting in the multipoint constraint condition gives 1 1 ⎛ ⎞ F⎜ + = 0.6 Solution.4 . Fig. with linearly variable cross-section x ⎞ ⎛ A ( x ) = A0 ⎜1 + ⎟ .41 ⋅ 10 ⎠ or Stresses are given by F = 30314 N . E4.63 ⋅ 10 5 Q2 = − . the element stiffness matrices are .6.41 ⋅ 105 . divided into two equal length tapered elements. =− = −214. find the displacement at the free end under the action of force ⎝ 2l ⎠ F.5 A2 141. Q3 = F 1. BARS AND SHAFTS 69 F 1.37 mm 2 σ2 = − Example 4. E4.63 ⋅ 10 1.6 For the bar of Fig. σ1 = F 30316 N = = 386 .4. A1 78.54 mm 2 F 30316 N . 5 5⎟ ⎝ 1. using two tapered bar finite elements.6. The stiffness matrix for a bar element with variable cross section is [ k ] = lE e 2 e ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎢− 1 1⎥ ⎣ ⎦ le ∫ A dx . E4.

condensing Q3 from condition F3 = 0 . 4l ⎢ 0 − 7 7 ⎥ ⎪ Q3 ⎪ ⎪ F ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ ⎦⎩ From the second and third equation EA0 4l wherefrom Q2 = 4 Fl . Example 4. E4. ⎜ 1 + ⎟ dx = 4l ⎢− 1 1⎥ ⎝ 2l ⎠ ⎣ ⎦ 7 E A0 x ⎞ ⎛ ⎜ 1 + ⎟ dx = 4l ⎝ 2l ⎠ ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ . 5 E A0 Q3 = 48 F l . the finite element equations can be written ⎡ 5 − 5 0 ⎤ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎧ R1 ⎫ EA0 ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎥⎪ ⎢ − 5 12 − 7 ⎥ ⎨ Q2 ⎬ = ⎨ 0 ⎬ .7 Write the stiffness matrix of the bar shown in Fig.7 Solution. ⎣ ⎦⎩ 3⎭ ⎩ ⎭ The approximate assumed linear variation of the displacement field yields constant strain elements. ⎢− 1 1⎥ ⎣ ⎦ [k ] ∫ l With Q1 = 0 . hence a stepwise variation of stresses along the bar. Fig. 35 E A0 ⎡ 12 − 7 ⎤ ⎧ Q2 ⎫ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎢− 7 7 ⎥ ⎨ Q ⎬ = ⎨ F ⎬ .70 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS [k ] 1 2 E ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ = 2⎢ ⎥ A0 l ⎣− 1 1⎦ E ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ A0 = 2⎢ 1⎥ l ⎣− 1 ⎦ ∫ 0 2l l 5 E A0 ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ x ⎞ ⎛ . b) a three-node quadratic element. Model the bar by: a) two two-node linear elements. Comment the results. E4. a) Consider the bar divided into two linear elements. The element stiffness matrices are .7.

the last equation yields Q3 = ⎧Q ⎫ Q1 + Q2 =⎣ 1 2 1 2 ⎦⎨ 1 ⎬ 2 ⎩ Q2 ⎭ ⎫ ⎪ ⎬. b) Consider the bar modeled by a 3-node quadratic bar element. ⎪ ⎭ which assumes a linear displacement field within the bar. The finite element equations can be written .4. ⎥ ⎢ 0 −1 1 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ The finite element equations can be written ⎡ 1 0 − 1 ⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎧ F1 2 EA ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ ⎥⎪ ⎢ 0 1 − 1 ⎥ ⎨ Q2 ⎬ = ⎨ F2 l ⎢ − 1 − 1 2 ⎥ ⎪ Q3 ⎪ ⎪ F3 ⎭ ⎩ ⎣ ⎦⎩ For F3 = 0 . The first two equations give 2 EA l ⎧ F1 ⎫ ⎡ 1 0 ⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ 2 EA ⎧ − 1 ⎫ ⎢ 0 1 ⎥ ⎨ Q ⎬ + l ⎨ − 1 ⎬ Q3 = ⎨ F ⎬ ⎣ ⎦⎩ 2⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ 2⎭ and upon substitution of Q3 2 EA l which can be written EA l ⎡ 1 − 1 ⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎧ F1 ⎫ ⎢ − 1 1 ⎥ ⎨ Q ⎬ = ⎨F ⎬ ⎣ ⎦ ⎩ 2 ⎭ ⎩ 2⎭ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎧ F1 ⎫ ⎡ 1 0 ⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ 2 EA ⎧ − 1 ⎫ ⎢ 0 1 ⎥ ⎨ Q ⎬ + l ⎨ − 1 ⎬ ⎣ 1 2 1 2 ⎦ ⎨ Q ⎬ = ⎨F ⎬ ⎣ ⎦⎩ 2⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ 2 ⎭ ⎩ 2⎭ where the left hand side contains the (2 × 2) stiffness matrix of the two-node linear element. BARS AND SHAFTS 71 1 [ k ] = [ k ] = 2EA ⎡⎢− 1 l 1 2 ⎣ − 1⎤ . 1⎥ ⎦ The unreduced global stiffness matrix is ⎡ 1 −1 0 ⎤ 2 EA ⎢ [ K ] = l ⎢ −1 2 −1 ⎥ .

⎭ 1 U e = ⎣ Q1 Q2 2 ⎦ ⎡1 0 1 ⎢0 1 1 ⎣ .72 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 1 − 8 ⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎧ F1 ⎡ 7 EA ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 7 − 8 ⎥ ⎨ Q2 ⎬ = ⎨ F2 ⎢ 1 ⎥ 3l ⎢ − 8 − 8 16 ⎥ ⎪ Q3 ⎪ ⎪ F3 ⎭ ⎩ ⎣ ⎦⎩ Condensing Q3 from condition F3 = 0 yields Q3 = ⎫ ⎪ ⎬. c) Comments. 2 ⎩ Q2 ⎭ The first two equations give ⎧ F1 ⎫ EA ⎡ 7 1 ⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ EA ⎧ − 8 ⎫ ⎢ 1 7 ⎥ ⎨ Q ⎬ + 3l ⎨ − 8 ⎬ Q3 = ⎨ F ⎬ 3l ⎣ ⎦⎩ 2⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ 2⎭ and upon substitution of Q3 ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎧ F1 ⎫ EA ⎡ 7 1 ⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ EA ⎧ − 8 ⎫ ⎢ 1 7 ⎥ ⎨ Q ⎬ + 3l ⎨ − 8 ⎬ ⎣ 1 2 1 2 ⎦ ⎨ Q ⎬ = ⎨ F ⎬ 3l ⎣ ⎦⎩ 2⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ 2 ⎭ ⎩ 2⎭ which can be written again EA ⎡ 1 − 1 ⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎧ F1 ⎫ ⎨ ⎬ = ⎨ ⎬. Q3 ⎦ ⎥ 3l ⎢ ⎢ − 8 − 8 16 ⎥ ⎪ Q3 ⎪ ⎭ ⎣ ⎦⎩ 0 ⎤ 1 −8 ⎤ ⎡ 1 ⎡ 7 2⎤ EA ⎢ ⎧Q ⎥ ⎢ 0 1 ⎥⎨ 1 7 −8 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 3l ⎢ 1 ⎥ Q 2⎦ ⎢ − 8 − 8 16 ⎥ ⎢ 1 2 1 2 ⎥ ⎩ 2 ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎫ ⎬. ⎪ ⎭ ⎧Q ⎫ Q1 + Q2 =⎣ 1 2 1 2 ⎦⎨ 1 ⎬. l ⎢ − 1 1 ⎥ ⎩ Q2 ⎭ ⎩ F2 ⎭ ⎣ ⎦ where the matrix in the left hand can be recognized as the conventional bar matrix developed from linear polynomials.18) gives 1 U e = ⎣Q1 Q2 2 1 − 8 ⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎡ 7 EA ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ 1 7 − 8 ⎥ ⎨ Q2 ⎬ . Substituting ⎧ Q1 ⎪ ⎨ Q2 ⎪Q ⎩ 3 0 ⎤ ⎫ ⎡ 1 ⎧Q ⎫ ⎪ ⎢ 1 ⎥⎨ 1⎬ ⎬=⎢ 0 ⎥ Q ⎪ ⎢1 2 1 2 ⎥ ⎩ 2 ⎭ ⎭ ⎣ ⎦ into the expression of the strain energy (4.

E4. Determine the axial stress distribution due to the centrifugal force in the rod using: a) two quadratic elements. exact displacements within the elements may be obtained from equation (4. the work of nodal forces is W = ⎣Q1 Q2 e Q3 ⎦ ⎧ F1 ⎪ ⎨ F2 ⎪F ⎩ 3 Q3 ⎦ W = ⎣Q1 Q2 e ⎦ ⎧1 6 ⎫ ⎡1 0 1 2 ⎤ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢0 1 1 2⎥ ⎨ 1 6 ⎬ pl e = ⎣Q1 Q2 ⎣ ⎦ ⎪2 3⎪ ⎭ ⎩ ⎦ ⎨1⎬ 2 e . displacements within elements depend upon the general (homogeneous plus the particular) solution. Example 4. form the complete homogeneous solution of the differential equation of equilibrium (4. The conventional formulation based on a linear polynomial will yield exact displacements within the elements only when p = 0 . a). and b) three linear elements. used to describe the displacement field.4. ⎩⎭ ⎧1⎫ pl We may conclude that the introduction of the quadratic term in equation (4. only the homogeneous part of the solution contains the free parameters with respect to which the total potential energy is minimized.8 ω = 30 rad sec (Fig. obtained by a minimization of the total potential energy with respect to Q3 at element level. the variable Q3 must be computed from the exact nodal displacements (computed for the conventional linear element). For the case p = const. BARS AND SHAFTS 73 1 ⎣ Q1 Q2 2 Ue = ⎦ l ⎢− 1 1 ⎥ ⎨ Q ⎬ . ⎣ ⎦ ⎩ 2⎭ ⎫ ⎪ ⎬ = ⎣Q1 Q2 ⎪ ⎭ ⎧1 6 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ 1 6 ⎬ pl e .23) does not bring about a change in the conventional stiffness matrix and load vector. The beam is acted upon by a centrifugal linearly distributed load Consider a prismatic robot arm.8.4). Solution. . before using equation (4. Whenever the assumed functions. via a constraint equation between Q3 and the remaining nodal variables. . However. The parameters in the particular part of the solution are prescribed and do not take part in the process of minimization. The exactness of the stiffness matrix and load vector also implies that the computed nodal displacements will also be exact. the developed stiffness matrix and the equivalent load vector will be exact. However.25). as it is shown in a next chapter.25). rotating at constant angular velocity . This is because. ⎪2 3⎪ ⎭ ⎩ EA ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ For p = const .

74 p ( x ) = p0 x . E4. l FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS where p0 = ρ Al ω 2 .8 . Fig.

are given by equation (4. the finite element equations can be written R1 0 0 ⎤⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎧ ⎫ ⎡ 7 −8 1 ⎪ ⎢ − 8 16 − 8 0 ⎥⎪Q ⎪ ⎪ p0l 12 0 ⎥⎪ 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 2 EA ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 1 − 8 14 − 8 1 ⎥ ⎨ Q3 ⎬ = ⎨ p0l 24 + p0l 24 ⎬ . c. ⎢ ⎥ − 8 16 − 8 ⎥ 0 ⎢ 0 ⎢ 0 −8 7 ⎥ 0 1 ⎣ ⎦ The axial load acting on the two elements can be decomposed as in Fig.8.37). c are replaced by the kinematically equivalent nodal forces shown in Fig. E4. 1] . E4. The element stiffness matrices are ⎡ 7 −8 1 ⎤ 2 EA ⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ − 8 16 − 8 ⎥ .8.4. The nodal forces. 3l ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ 3 p0l 12 0 − 8 16 − 8 ⎥ ⎪ Q4 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 0 ⎪ p0l 12 0 1 − 8 7 ⎥ ⎪ Q5 ⎪ ⎪ ⎣ ⎦⎩ ⎭ ⎭ ⎩ . For a uniformly distributed load they are given by equation (4.8. b. ⎪ 4 ξ (1 −ξ ) ⎪ ⎪1 3⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ interval [0. d. The model has five degrees of freedom. E4.8. where ξ = x l e and the shape functions (4. Using the boundary condition Q1 = 0 . { f }= p l ⎣ 1 2 12 2 0 3 1⎦T . BARS AND SHAFTS 75 a) A finite element model with two quadratic elements is shown in Fig. The element nodal load vectors are { f }= p l ⎣ 0 12 1 0 1 1 2 ⎦T .26) are defined for convenience over an The distributed loads from Fig. E4. 3l ⎢ 1 −8 7 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ [k ]= [k ] 1 2 The unreduced global stiffness matrix is 1 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ 7 −8 ⎢ − 8 16 − 8 0 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ EA [ K ] = 23l ⎢ 1 − 8 7 + 7 − 8 1 ⎥ .34) { f }= ∫ ⎣N ⎦ e le T p dx = p0 l e ∫ 0 1 ⎧(1 − 2ξ )(1 − ξ )⎫ ⎧0⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ − ξ (1 − 2ξ ) ⎬ ξ dξ = p0 l e ⎨1 6⎬ . equivalent to a linearly distributed load.

3 2E A ⎝ 4 ⎠ 384 2 E A ⎝ 2 ⎠ 48 2 E A ⎝ 4 ⎠ 384 2 E A The finite element values of the nodal displacements are exact. u (l ) = . u⎜ ⎟ = . This is due to the nodal equivalence of forces. The element strain-displacement row vector ⎣B ⎦ in (4. The strains are calculated as 2 ′ ′ (N 2 Q3 + N 3 Q2 ) = p0l ( 25 − 6ξ ) . 48 EA l 2 ′ ′ (N1′ Q3 + N 2 Q5 + N 3 Q4 ) = p0l ( 19 − 18ξ ) . While the nodal displacements are exact. ⎜ l 3l 3 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (a) 2 2 2 1 p0 l 2 ⎛ l ⎞ 47 p0 l ⎛ l ⎞ 11 p0 l ⎛ 3l ⎞ 117 p0 l u⎜ ⎟ = . we obtain the reduced global stiffness matrix and reduced global load vector which yield Q2 = 47 p0 l 2 88 p0 l 2 117 p0 l 2 128 p0 l 2 . 48 A 48 A 48 A 48 A 48 A The stresses can be compared with the exact solution . Q4 = . the displacements within the elements are approximate because the exact cubic distribution (a) has been replaced by a quadratic law. ε5 = .29) is given by ⎣B ⎦ = d x ⎣N ⎦ = l ⎣− 3 + 4ξ − 1 + 4ξ 4 − 8 ξ ⎦ . ε4 = . σ4 = . ε2 = . σ3 = . ε3 = . 48 EA 48 EA 48 EA 48 EA 48 EA The corresponding axial stresses are σ1 = 25 p0l 22 p0 l 19 p0 l 10 p0 l 1 p0 l . σ2 = . l 48 EA d 1 ε1 = ε2 = which yields the following nodal values ε1 = 25 p0l 22 p0 l 19 p0 l 10 p0 l 1 p0 l . 384 E A 384 E A 384 E A 384 E A The nodal displacements can be compared with the exact solution. σ5 = .76 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Deleting the first row and column. given by u( x ) = We obtain p0 l 2 2E A ⎛ x x3 ⎞ ⎜ − ⎟. Q5 = . u⎜ ⎟ = . Q3 = .

8. If p1 and p2 are the intensities of a linearly distributed load at nodes 1 and 2. { f }= p l ⎣4 54 2 0 5⎦ T . The model has four degrees of freedom. respectively. the nodal forces are given by equation (4. g. e. Using the boundary condition Q 1 = 0 .5 p0 l . For p1 = p2 = p . ⎭ where ξ = x l e and the shape functions (4.8. 1 ] .8. 1⎥ ⎦ The axial load acting on the three elements can be decomposed as in Fig. The distributed loads from Fig. g are replaced by the kinematically equivalent nodal forces shown in Fig. σ⎜ ⎟= . ⎜ l2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (b) which yields the following nodal values σ (0) = σ⎜ ⎟= ⎛l⎞ ⎝2⎠ 24 p0 l ⎛ l ⎞ 22.8. The element nodal load vectors are { f }= p l ⎣1 54 1 0 2⎦ T . E4. f. σ⎜ ⎟= . E4. the finite element equations can be written .4.5 p0 l . h. b) A finite element model comprised of three linear elements is shown in Fig.34). E4. are given by equation (4.36). p ( ξ ) = p1 + ( p2 − p1 )ξ . E4. σ (l ) = 0 .26) are defined for convenience over an interval [ 0. BARS AND SHAFTS 77 σ ( x )= p0 l 2A 2⎞ ⎛ ⎜ 1− x ⎟ . E4. The element stiffness matrices are 1 [ k ] = [ k ] = [ k ] = 3EA ⎡⎢− 1 l 1 2 3 ⎣ − 1⎤ . equivalent to a load per unit length. The nodal forces. { f }= p l ⎣7 54 3 0 8⎦ T . 48 A ⎝ 4 ⎠ 48 A 18 p0 l ⎛ 3l ⎞ 10. { f }= ∫ ⎣ N ⎦ e le T p dx = l e ∫ 0 1 ⎧1 − ξ ⎫ l e ⎧ 2 p1 + p2 ⎨ ⎬ [ p1 + ( p2 − p1 ) ξ ] dξ = ⎨ 6 ⎩ p1 + 2 p2 ⎩ ξ ⎭ ⎫ ⎬.8. 48 A ⎝ 4 ⎠ 48 A A graph of the stress distribution is shown in Fig.

81 E A 81 E A 81 E A 3 E A The element strain-displacement row vector ⎣B ⎦ in (4.9 Show that the shape functions of the four-node cubic bar element. N 2 (r ) = ⎜ ⎟ 16 ⎝3 ⎠ N1 (r ) = − 27 (1 + r ) (1 − r ) ⎛ 1 + r ⎞ . 27 A 4 p0 l . The corresponding axial stresses are 13 p0l .29) is given by ⎣B ⎦ = d x ⎣N ⎦ = l ⎣− 1 1⎦ . ⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟ 16 ⎝3 ⎠⎝3 ⎠ 27 (1 + r ) (1 − r ) ⎛ 1 − r ⎞ . e d 1 The strains are calculated as ε 1 = Q2 = 3 l 13 p0 l 3 4 p0 l 3 10 p0 l . E4. 16 ⎝ 3 ⎠⎝3 ⎠ N 3 (r ) = . Q4 = .8. 27 A 10 p0 l .78 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎡ 1 −1 0 0 ⎤ ⎧ 0 ⎢ ⎥⎪ 3EA ⎢ − 1 2 − 1 0 ⎥ ⎪ Q2 ⎨ l ⎢ 0 − 1 2 − 1 ⎥ ⎪ Q3 ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 0 0 − 1 1 ⎦ ⎪ Q4 ⎩ The last three equations yield Q2 = 54 R1 ⎧ ⎫ ⎪1+ p l ⎪ 0 ⎪ p0 l ⎪ ⎪ 6 = ⎬ ⎨ ⎪ 54 ⎪ 12 ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎪ 8 ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬. are the following 9 (1 − r ) ⎛ 1 + r ⎞ ⎛ 1 − r ⎞ . ε 2 = ( Q3 − Q2 ) = . i they are compared to those given by equation (b). ε 3 = ( Q4 − Q3 ) = . 27 A σ1 = σ2 = σ3 = In Fig. l 27 EA 27 EA l 27 EA and are constant within each element. ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ 13 p0 l 2 23 p0 l 2 27 p0 l 2 1 p0 l 2 = . Q3 = . ⎜ ⎟ 16 ⎝3 ⎠ 9 ⎛1 ⎞⎛1 ⎞ N 4 (r ) = − ⎜ + r ⎟ ⎜ − r ⎟ (1 + r ) . Example 4. in local natural coordinates.

5. The Timoshenko beam model pertains to the class of C 0 elements. defined as the displacement along the X axis. and the Timoshenko beam theory. that incorporates a first order correction for transverse shear effects. Each node has three degrees of freedom. we first present the finite element formulation for plane Bernoulli-Euler beams. FRAMES AND GRIDS Frames are structures with rigidly connected members called beams. This requires that both transverse displacements and slopes must be continuous over the entire member and. that neglects transverse shear deformations. BEAMS. It is based on the assumption that plane sections remain plane but not necessarily normal to the deformed neutral surface. Beams are slender members used to support transverse loading. then extend it to plane frames. They are connected by rigid joints that have determinate rotations and. between adjacent beam elements. respectively. . and for grids. In this section. two linear displacements and a rotation. One-dimensional mathematical models of structural beams are constructed on two beam theories: the Bernoulli-Euler beam theory. Q3 i −1 and Q3 i . the displacement along the Y axis and the rotation about the Z axis. An inclined beam element will be referred to as a frame element. 5. apart from forces. This leads to the introduction of a mean shear distortion.5. the degrees of freedom of node i are Q3 i − 2 . in particular.1 Finite element discretization A plane frame is divided into elements. which is constant over the element.1. as shown in Fig. transmit bending moments from member to member. Grids are planar frames subjected to loads applied normally to their plane. Typically. Beam behaviour is described by fourth order differential equations and require C1 continuity.

Imposing the boundary conditions. Fig.2 . then the element stiffness matrix is calculated first in the local coordinate system. then simply added to get the global uncondensed stiffness matrix. Elements are modelled as uniform beams without shear deformations and not loaded between ends. Fig. the reduced stiffness matrix and load vector are calculated and used in the static analysis. 5.80 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Nodes are located by their coordinates in the global reference frame XOY and element connectivity is defined by the indices of the end nodes. 5. Their properties are the bending rigidity E I and the length l . The latter are expanded to the structure size.1 In the following. the shape functions are established for the plane Bernoulli-Euler beam element. then in the global coordinate system.

q 5 . q 6 describe the element bending (Fig. oriented along the beam. at a distance y from the neutral axis. q 3 . Fig. and axial displacements q 1 . FRAMES AND GRIDS 81 Consider an inclined beam element. 5.3). an intrinsic (natural) coordinate system can be used. is approximated by dv u = −ϕ y = − y. Their action is decoupled so that the respective stiffness matrices can be calculated separately. 5. Transverse shear deformations are neglected. 5. the x axis. f 5. describe the element stretching (Fig. BEAMS. a.2. as in the Bernoulli-Euler classical beam theory. In a local physical coordinate system. f 6 and the corresponding displacements q 2 . where the nodal displacements are also shown.3 The axial displacement of any point on the section. f 4 . 5. Only transverse loads act upon the beam. is inclined an angle θ with respect to the global X axis. b) while axial forces f 1 . as illustrated in Fig. 5. The vector of nodal displacements in the local coordinate system is { q }= ⎣ q e e 1 q2 q3 q4 q5 q6 ⎦ T (5.3) dx .2. f 3.1) and the corresponding vector of element nodal forces can be written { f }= ⎣ f 1 f2 f3 f4 f5 f6 ⎦ T . (5. c).5. (5.2) Forces f 2. Alternatively.2 Static analysis of a uniform beam Beams with cross sections that are symmetric with respect to the plane of loading are considered herein (Fig.2. 5. axial forces are ignored. q 4 .

4) where χ ≈ v′′ denotes the deformed beam axis curvature. involving the transverse displacement and slope. dx dx 3 (5.5) The bending moment is the resultant of the stress distribution on the cross section M (x ) = − σ x y dA = E I z ∫ d2 v dx2 = EIz χ (5. Axial strains are εx = du d2 v = − 2 y = −χ y . dx2 where E is Young’s modulus of the material. The shear force is given by T (x ) = − dM d3 v = −E I z = − E I z v III .8) The differential equation of equilibrium is EIz d4 v = p (x ) .7) The transverse load per unit length is p (x ) = − dT d4 v = EIz = E I z v IV . dx4 (5. The negative sign above is introduced because M is considered positive if it compresses the upper portion of the beam cross section. Normal stresses on the cross section are given by Hooke’s law d2 v y. involving the shear and bending moment. . and physical boundary conditions. dx dx4 (5.9) This is a fourth order differential equation and consequently four boundary conditions are required. dx dx (5.82 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS where v is the deflection of the centroidal axis at x and ϕ = v′ is the cross section rotation (or slope) at x . two at each end. The product E I z is called the bending rigidity of the beam. σ x = E ε x = −E (5.6) A where I z is the second moment of area of the section with respect to the neutral axis z. They can be geometric or kinematic boundary conditions.

p = 0 and equation (5. v = v1 = q2 . Integrating four times.9) yields d 4 v d x 4 = 0 . a 3 . 5. and d v d x = ϕ1 = q3 .5.10) can be determined from the geometric boundary conditions at each end (Fig. a 4 in (5. ϕ 2 . so that the beam deflection can be expressed in terms of the nodal displacements.10) For a free-free beam element. (5. a 4 can be expressed in terms of the nodal displacements v1 . (5. a 2 . at x = x 2 .4 This gives ⎧ v1 ⎪ϕ ⎪ 1 ⎨ ⎪ v2 ⎪ ϕ2 ⎩ 3 ⎫ ⎡ x1 ⎪ ⎢ 2 ⎪ ⎢ 3 x1 ⎬=⎢ 3 ⎪ ⎢ x2 ⎪ ⎢ 3x2 ⎭ ⎣ 2 2 x1 2 x1 2 x2 2 x2 x1 1 x2 1 1 ⎤ ⎧ a1 ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎥ ⎪ a2 ⋅⎨ 1 ⎥ ⎪ a3 ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎪ a4 ⎦ ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬. b) Fig. 5. v = v2 = q5 . the integration constants a 1 . and d v d x = ϕ 2 = q6 . v2 .3 Uniform beam not loaded between ends For a uniform beam not loaded between ends. 5. a 3 . ϕ1 .1 Shape functions The transverse displacement v can be expressed in terms of the nodal displacements as . a) at x = x1 . ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ On inversion.11. FRAMES AND GRIDS 83 5. we obtain the deflection v described by a third order polynomial v (x ) = a 1 x 3 + a 2 x 2 + a 3 x + a 4 .4): (5. the four integration constants a 1 . BEAMS.3. a 2 .11.

17) (5. (5.84 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS v (x ) = ⎣N ⎦ q e . ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠1 ⎝ ⎠2 (5.19) In (5.12) where ⎣N ⎦ is a row vector containing the shape functions.14) x= x1 + x 2 2 + x 2 − x1 2 r and since l e = x 2 − x 1 is the length of the element. with r = −1 at node 1 and r = +1 at node 2.14) the beam transverse displacement can be written ⎛dv⎞ ⎛dv⎞ v (r ) = N1 (r ) v 1 + N 2 (r ) ⎜ ⎜ d r ⎟ + N 3 (r ) v 2 + N 4 (r ) ⎜ d r ⎟ .18) or v (r ) = N1 ⋅ q2 + le l N 2 ⋅ q3 + N 3 ⋅ q5 + e N 4 ⋅ q6 . r= x + x2 ⎞ 2 ⎛ ⎟ ⎜x− 1 ⎜ 2 ⎟ x 2 − x1 ⎝ ⎠ (5. dr 2 dx equation (5. (5. and { q }= ⎣ v e 1 ϕ1 v2 ϕ 2 ⎦ T .20) .12) the row vector of shape functions is ⎣N ⎦ = ⎢ N1 ⎣ ⎢ le N2 2 N3 le ⎥ N4 ⎥ 2 ⎦ . 2 2 (5.15) becomes v (r ) = N1 (r ) v 1 + N 2 (r ) le 2 ⎛dv⎞ le ⎜ ⎜ d x ⎟ + N 3 (r ) v 2 + N 4 (r ) 2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠1 ⎛dv⎞ ⎜ ⎜dx⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠2 (5. called Hermitian cubic polynomials.15) Because the coordinates transform by the relationship (5.16) Using the differentiation chain rule d v le d v = . 2 (5. { } (5. dx = le dr .13) Using natural coordinates.

BEAMS. 4 4 1 ( 1 − r ) 2 ( 1 + r ) = 1 1 −r − r 2 + r 3 . 5.1 N1 r = −1 r = +1 1 0 N′ 1 0 0 N2 0 0 N ′2 1 0 N3 0 1 N ′3 0 0 N4 0 0 N ′4 0 1 Imposing the above conditions to cubic polynomials with four arbitrary constants. Table 5.1. 4 4 1 ( 1 + r ) 2 ( 1 − r ) = − 1 1 + r −r 2 − r 3 . where primes indicate differentiation with respect to r. 4 4 ( ) ( ) (5. we obtain the expressions of the beam element shape functions in terms of r. 4 4 ( ) N 4 (r ) = − ( ) Fig. graphically shown in Fig.5 N 1(r ) = N 2 (r ) = 1 ( 1 − r ) 2 ( 2 + r ) = 1 2 − 3r + r 3 .21) N 3(r ) = 1 ( 1 + r ) 2 ( 2 − r ) = 1 2 + 3r − r 3 .5 .5. FRAMES AND GRIDS 85 The Hermitian shape functions are cubic polynomials which should satisfy the boundary conditions given in Table 5. 5.

⎢ dr ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ { } ⎛ d 2v ⎞ ⎟ = qe ⎜ ⎜ d x2 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ 2 { } T 16 N ′′ T N ′′ q e . dr 2 5. while at node 2. 4 ⎣ r⎦ ⎣ r⎦ le { } (5. ⎜ d x2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ d 2v 4 d 2 v = . e (5.12) we obtain and d 2v dx 2 = 4 ⎢d 2 N ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ l2 ⎢ d r 2 ⎥ e ⎣ ⎦ { q }. dr 2 d v le = q 3 . d x2 l2 d r 2 e 2 (5.17) yields ∫ e ⎛ d 2v ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ dx . v = q 2 and v = q 5 and d v le = q6 .2 Stiffness matrix The strain energy U e of a beam element is E Ie Ue = 2 Equation (5.22) we get the element strain energy 1 Ue = 2 which has the form {q } e T 8E I e l3 e +1 −1 ∫ e ′ T ′ ⎣N r′ ⎦ ⎣N r′ ⎦ d r { q } (5.22) dv 2 d v = d x le d r Substituting (5.24) On substituting (5.24) into (5.86 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS It is easy to check that at node 1.3.23) The square of the above quantity is calculated as ⎛ 2 ⎞ ⎛ d 2v ⎞ ⎟ =⎜d v⎟ ⎜ ⎜ d x2 ⎟ ⎜ d x2 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ which can also be written 2 T ⎛ d 2v ⎞ ⎟ = qe ⎜ ⎜ d x2 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ { } T 16 l4 e ⎢d 2 N ⎥ ⎢ 2⎥ ⎢ dr ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ T ⎢d 2 N ⎥ e ⎢ 2 ⎥ q .16) and (5.25) .

BEAMS.19) [ k ] = ∫ ⎣B⎦ e Ve T Ee ⎣B ⎦ dV .30) gives the matrix (5.29).21) and performing the integration yields the stiffness matrix due to bending in local coordinates [k ] e B 6l − 12 6l ⎤ ⎡ 12 ⎢ 6l 4l 2 − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ EI ⎥ .32) Substituting (5.31) where the curvature-displacement row vector ⎣B ⎦ is ⎣B ⎦ = l ⎢6 l 3r − 1 − 6 l 3r + 1⎥ . ′ ′′ N 3′N 4 ⎥ ⎥ ′ ⎦ (N 4′ )2 ⎥ (5.27) −1 or EI [ k ] = 8l ∫ e B e 3 e +1 −1 ⎡ (N1′)2 N1′N 2 ′ ′ ′′ ⎢ ′′ ′ ′′ 2 ⎢ N 2 N1′ (N 2 ) ⎢ N ′′N ′′ N ′′N ′′ 3 2 ⎢ 3 1 ′′ ′ ′′ ′′ N 4 N1′ N 4 N 2 ⎢ ⎣ ′ ′ N1′N 3′ ′′ ′ N 2 N 3′ ′ (N 3′ )2 ′′ ′ N 4 N 3′ ′ ′′ N1′N 4 ⎤ ⎥ ′′ ′′ N2 N4 ⎥ dr . e ⎣ e e ⎦ 1 ⎢ r r ⎥ (5. e e (5.5.25) with (5.23) can be expressed in terms of the nodal displacements as χ= d 2v dx 2 = 4 ⎢d 2 N ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ l2 ⎢ d r 2 ⎥ e ⎣ ⎦ { q }= ⎣B⎦ { q }.32) and d V = Ae d x into (5. .28) Substituting the shape functions (5.26) we obtain the element stiffness matrix due to bending EI [ k ] = 8l ∫ e B e 3 e +1 ′ T ′ ⎣N r′ ⎦ ⎣N r′ ⎦ d r (5. e T e B e (5.29) is based on the general formula (4. = 3e ⎢ l e ⎢− 12 − 6l 12 − 6l ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ 2 − 6l 4l 2 ⎦ e ⎣ 6l 2l (5.30) The curvature χ (5. FRAMES AND GRIDS 87 Ue = 1 2 { q } [ k ] { q }.26) Comparing (5.29) An alternative way of deriving the matrix (5. (5.

For equilibrium k11 + k31 = 0 . . 5. .6 Equation (5. .33) Consider a beam element with end 2 fixed ( q5 = q6 = 0 ) and end 1 having a unit displacement along the global X-axis ( q2 = 1. Fig.6. f 3 = k 21 . . (5.⎦ ⎪q6 = 0⎪ ⎩ ⎭ f 6 = k 41 .36) . as in Fig.⎥ ⎪q3 = 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎥⋅⎪ ⎨ ⎬ ⎥ ⎪q5 = 0 ⎪ . (5. . ⎥ .29) relates the vector of nodal forces to the vector of nodal displacements ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ f2 ⎫ f3 ⎪ EI e ⎪ ⎬ = 3 f5 ⎪ le f 6 ⎪e ⎭ 6l − 12 6l ⎤ ⎧ q2 ⎡ 12 ⎢ 6l 4l 2 − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ ⎪ q ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ 3 ⎨ ⎢− 12 − 6l 12 − 6l ⎥ ⎪ q5 ⎢ ⎥ 2 − 6l 4l 2 ⎦ e ⎪ q6 ⎣ 6l 2 l ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ . 5.34) f 5 = k31 . q3 = 0) and zero rotation.3.88 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 5.33) can be written ⎧ f 2 ⎫ ⎡ k11 ⎪ f ⎪ ⎢k ⎪ 3 ⎪ ⎢ 21 ⎨ ⎬= ⎪ f 5 ⎪ ⎢ k31 ⎪ f 6 ⎪ ⎢k 41 ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ which gives f 2 = k11 .35) This shows that the first column of the stiffness matrix represents the forces and moments that must be applied to the beam element to preserve static equilibrium when q2 = 1 and all other displacements are zero. . . k 21 + k 41 + k31 l = 0 .3 Physical significance of the stiffness matrix The element stiffness matrix (5. . ⎪ ⎪ ⎭e (5. (5. .⎤ ⎧ q2 = 1⎫ .

4 Uniform beam loaded between ends For a uniform beam loaded between ends. Within the elements. However. (5. p = const . p ≠ 0 .37) becomes W = qe It has the form { } ∫ ⎣N ⎦ le p dx . the general solution of equation (5. However. distributed along the beam element.4.9) and the beam deflected shape is no more a cubic polynomial. v (x ) will be a quintic with six arbitrary constants. For beams with transverse forces. . But they can be used only if the element has uniform rigidity E I z and is not loaded between nodes. BEAMS. equation (5. The corresponding five constants have to be determined from five boundary conditions. the solution is to replace the actual distributed load by equivalent nodal forces. As already shown in Chapter 4.12).9) is a quartic polynomial. (5.5.39) . moments and shear forces are in error. it is the homogeneous solution of the differential equation. as shown in the following. The mechanical work of such a force is W= le ∫ v p dx = ∫ v le T T T p dx . the computed nodal displacements are exact. adding the transverse displacement and slope at the element midpoint to the element nodal coordinates. They can be determined. the displacements. 5. introducing its nodal displacement as the fifth nodal coordinate. d 4 v d x 4 ≠ 0 in equation (5.1 Consistent vector of nodal forces Consider a transverse load p (x ) . When the transverse load is uniformly distributed. The cubic shape functions do the job. An internal node added at the centre of element will solve the problem. For a linearly distributed transverse load. FRAMES AND GRIDS 89 5. Using cubic polynomials as admissible functions. having the units of force per unit length. rising the power of the function describing the displacement within a beam element is tantamount to introducing additional internal nodes.37) Substituting (5. the current practice is to use lower order approximate assumed shape functions that ensure the minimal convergence requirements.38) W = qe where the element load vector is { } {f } T e (5.

(5.90 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS { f } = ∫ ⎣N ⎦ e le T l p ( x ) dx = e 2 +1 −1 ∫ ⎣N ⎦ dr T p (r ) d r . a it is seen that f 2e is a shear force and f 3e is a moment. 5. a b c Fig. {f } e p l2 e 12 p le 2 p l2 ⎥ e − ⎥ . the vector of element consistent nodal forces is {f } e l = e p 2 ⎢ pl =⎢ e ⎢ 2 ⎣ +1 −1 ∫ ⎣N ⎦ T (5.42) In Fig.7.40) For the Hermitian two-node element. 5.41) or. would keep all nodal displacements zero in the presence of the true loading. if the transverse force is uniformly distributed.18). p = const . b) would be incorrect since the beam element has the ends rigidly jointed. . To replace p = const . if applied in the opposite direction as constraints.6. 5. substituting (5.7 d The kinematically equivalent loads are those which. They are called “kinematically equivalent” nodal forces since they replace a distributed load p (r ) weighted with the shape functions N i (r ) so that the correct work is simulated. . by statically equivalent forces (Fig. 12 ⎥ ⎦ T (5.

so we would expect to increase the accuracy by increasing the number of elements modeling the same structure.6. Kinematically equivalent loads yield displacements which do not coincide with those produced by actual loading.e. Fig. due to the difference between the applied load p (x ) and the resistance E I z v IV which gives rise to a sort of unbalanced residual force. as shown in Example 5. or refining the mesh. The deflections of this over-stiff finite element model are smaller “in the mean” than the true deflections of the actual structure. stiffening it. for uniform loading.1 . The finite element solution is therefore referred to as a lower bound.1. E5. 5. The smaller the element. Assuming cubic displacement functions implies linearly varying bending moments (and hence stresses) in uniform beams. c and d.5. forcing the beam to maintain the approximate deflection.1. i. for instance. Example 5.e. nodal forces must include moments. they have a quadratic distribution. the equilibrium within the elements is broken. In order to ensure the C1 continuity across elements. The source of error comes from the arbitrary selection of the shape functions. FRAMES AND GRIDS 91 i. Equivalent nodal forces for linearly distributed loads are given in Figs. A correct solution will approach the true value with monotonically increasing values of displacements. Local stresses may be higher than the true ones. Even if these functions are built up to satisfy the geometric boundary conditions at the ends. the smaller the error. BEAMS. This applies only to the strain energy and not to the displacement or stress at a point.1 Calculate the transverse displacement at the centre of the simply supported beam shown in Fig. even if it is known that. This is equivalent to applying additional constraints to the beam. E5. not only shear forces. Assuming approximate deflected shapes instead of the true ones may be imagined as the result of application of a fake loading. it is rigidly built in the adjacent beam elements.

as expected. 12 l 2 EI ( 2q3 + 4q6 ) = − pl . the distributed load is replaced by two concentrated moments at the ends.92 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Solution. Using the boundary conditions and the equivalent nodal loads. the equations of equilibrium can be written ⎧ pl ⎫ ⎪ 2 ⎪ ⎪ 6l − 12 6l ⎤ ⎧ q2 = 0 ⎫ ⎪ ⎡ 12 pl 2 ⎪ ⎢ 6l 4l 2 − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ ⎪ q ⎪ ⎪ EIz ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ 3 ⎪ = ⎪ 12 ⎪ . 12 l with solutions q6 = − q3 = − The displacement at the middle is pl3 . 96 E I ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ The true solution is v true = 5 pl 4 384 E I so that the approximate finite element solution is. ⎝ 2⎠ 5 5.4. 24 E I pl 4 ⎛l⎞ ⎛l⎞ ⎛l⎞ v ⎜ ⎟ = N 2 ⎜ ⎟ q3 + N 4 ⎜ ⎟ q6 = .2 Higher-degree interpolation functions Let explore the possibility of approximating the displacements of a fourth order system by a quadratic function of the form . ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬ 3 ⎢ − 12 − 6l 12 − 6l ⎥ ⎪ q5 = 0 ⎪ ⎪ pl ⎪ l ⎥ ⎢ 2 − 6l 4l 2 ⎦ ⎪ q6 ⎪ ⎪ 2 2 ⎪ ⎣ 6l 2l ⎩ ⎭ ⎪ pl ⎪ ⎪− ⎪ ⎩ 12 ⎭ The set of equations in the unknown displacements is 2 EI ( 4q3 + 2q6 ) = pl . smaller ⎛l⎞ 4 v ⎜ ⎟ = vtrue . Using a single beam element.

8): at x = x1 . d v d x = ϕ2 . 5. (5.43) The five integration constants a 1 . at x = x3 . a 3 . This gives the nodal coordinates in terms of the polynomial coefficients ⎧ v1 ⎪ϕ ⎪ 1 ⎪ ⎨ v2 ⎪ϕ ⎪ 2 ⎪ v3 ⎩ On inversion ⎡ 1 ⎢ ⎧ a5 ⎫ ⎢ 0 ⎪ a ⎪ ⎢ 11 ⎪ 4⎪ ⎢ − ⎪ ⎪ 2 ⎨ a3 ⎬ = ⎢ l ⎪ a ⎪ ⎢ 18 ⎪ 2 ⎪ ⎢ l3 ⎪ a1 ⎪ ⎢ 8 ⎩ ⎭ ⎢− ⎢ l4 ⎣ 0 1 − 4 l 5 l2 2 0 0 5 − 2 l 14 − 4 l l3 8 0 0 1 l 3 0 ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎧ v1 ⎫ ⎥ 16 ⎥ ⎪ ϕ1 ⎪ ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ l 2 ⎥ ⋅ ⎪ v2 ⎪ . (5. v = v2 . 4l 3 ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ a2 l4 ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ ⎥ ⎪ a1 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ 16 ⎦ − 3 l − 2 l 2 l3 The beam deflection is given by an expression of the form (5.12) ⎧ v1 ⎪ϕ ⎪ 1 ⎪ N 5 ⎦ ⎨ v2 ⎪ϕ ⎪ 2 ⎪ v3 ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬.5. at x = x 2 .44) ⎡1 ⎫ ⎢ ⎪ ⎢0 ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ 1 ⎬=⎢ ⎪ ⎢0 ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ ⎢1 ⎭ ⎣ 0 1 l 1 l 2 0 0 l2 2l l2 4 0 0 l3 3l 2 l3 8 0 ⎤ ⎧ a5 ⎫ 0 ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ ⎥ a4 ⎪ ⎪ l4 ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ ⎥ ⋅ ⎨ a3 ⎬ . ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ v (x ) = ⎣N ⎦ q e = ⎣N1 { } N2 N3 N4 (5. and the displacement of the internal node at the centre of the element (Fig. a5 in (5. BEAMS. v = v3 . v = v1 . FRAMES AND GRIDS 93 v (x ) = a 1 x 4 + a 2 x 3 + a 3 x 2 + a 4 x + a5 . a 2 . ⎨ ⎬ 32 ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ − 3 ϕ2 l ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ ⎥ ⎪ v3 ⎪ 16 ⎩ ⎭ ⎥ l4 ⎥ ⎦ and and d v d x = ϕ1 .45) where the quartic shape functions are . a 4 .43) can be determined from the end displacements and slopes.

.46) N 5 (r ) = (1 − r ) 2 (1 + r ) 2 .41) is . In equations (5.8 Substituting the shape functions (5. 5. 128l e ⎥ 1024 ⎥ ⎦ [k ] e B (5. 8 N 1( r ) = − FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS (5. we obtain the element stiffness matrix ⎡ 316 94l e 196 − 34l e ⎢ 36l 2 34l e − 6l 2 e e EI e ⎢ = 3⎢ 316 − 94l e 5l e ⎢ 36l 2 e ⎢SYM ⎣ − 512 ⎤ − 128l e ⎥ ⎥ − 512 ⎥ . Fig. 8 1 N 3 ( r ) = ( 3 − 2r ) r ( 1 + r ) 2 .47) For p = const . 4 1 N 2 ( r ) = − ( 1 −r ) 2 r ( 1 + r )l .46). 4 1 N 4 (r ) = − (1 − r ) r (1 + r ) 2 l .94 1 ( 1 − r ) 2 r ( 3 + 2r ) . N 5 is called a “bubble function”. having zero displacements and slopes at the ends.27) and performing the integration. the element consistent load vector (5.46) into equation (5.

3 3 dx l e dr le 2 − l e ⎦ qe . For p = 0 .5. BEAMS.12) we get M = EIz M= d2 v 4 d2 v 4 = EIz 2 = E I z 2 ⎣N ′′⎦ q e . . 15 ⎥ ⎦ T (5. e [ ]{ q }.7) T = −E I z T= d3 v 8 d3 v 8 = −E I z 3 = − E I z 3 ⎣N ′′′⎦ q e .49) and (5. The second term consists of The shear forces at the two ends of the beam element are T1 = − R2 and T2 = R5 . (5. the end equilibrium loads are given by ⎧ pl e ⎫ ⎪− 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎧ R2 ⎫ 6l − 12 6l ⎤ ⎧ q2 ⎫ ⎪ ⎡ 12 pl2 ⎪R ⎪ ⎢ 6l 4l 2 − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ ⎪ q ⎪ ⎪− e ⎪ EI e ⎪ 3⎪ ⎥ ⎪ 3 ⎪ + ⎪ 12 ⎪ . the exact moment and shear force within the element are Mp =M − 2 pl 2 pl e l e e ( r + 1) + p l e ( r + 1) 2 . they are obtained substituting r = −1 and r = +1 in (5.48) 5. 2 2 dx l e dr le { } EIz ⎣6 r l2 e (3r − 1) l e − 6r (3r + 1) l e ⎦ { q e }.49) The shear force is given by equation (5.3 Bending moment and shear force Using the bending moment expression (5. When p = const . + 12 2 2 2 4 . FRAMES AND GRIDS 95 {f } e ⎢7 ple =⎢ ⎢ 30 ⎣ p l2 e 60 7 p le 30 p l2 e − 60 8 p le ⎥ ⎥ .4. The end bending moments are M 1 = − R3 and M 2 = R 6 .6) and equation (5.51) ⎨ ⎬ = 3 ⎢ ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬ R5 ⎪ ⎢− 12 − 6l 12 − 6l ⎥ ⎪ q5 ⎪ ⎪ p l e ⎪ le ⎪ − ⎢ ⎥ 2 ⎪ R6 ⎪ − 6l 4l 2 ⎦ e ⎪ q6 ⎪e ⎪ 2 ⎪ ⎣ 6l 2l ⎩ ⎭ ⎪ ⎩ ⎭e pl 2 ⎪ e ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ 12 ⎭ e The first term on the right is k B elements that are called fixed-end reactions.50) For elements with uniformly distributed load. (5.50). { } 6E I z ⎣− 2 − l e l3 e { } (5.

96 Tp = T − pl e r. 5.9. with node 1 fixed and node 2 having a vertical displacement l e (Fig. ⎬= l⎪ 2 2 2 1⎪ ⎭ which shows that the element has indeed an anticlockwise rotation as a rigid body. If the nodes are given unit vertical displacements (Fig. the element must exhibit zero strain and therefore zero nodal forces. because the structure as a whole should be in equilibrium. 1⎪ 4 4 ⎪ 0⎭ ( ) ( ) which shows that the element has indeed a vertical displacement as a rigid body. an element as a whole should be in equilibrium. An element should describe rigid body modes exactly. When nodal displacements are given values corresponding to a state of rigid body motion.50). b). . valid for p = 0 . If the nodes are given unit rotations. the sequence of solutions to a problem is expected to converge to the correct result if the assumed element displacement fields satisfy the following criteria: 1.5 Basic convergence requirements As element sizes are reduced.49) and (5. Vertical translation.9. equation (5. Rotation. a. 5. 5.12) gives ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ v (x ) = ⎣N ⎦ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ 0⎫ 1 ⎪ le l l ⎪ N 2 + l e N 3 + e N 4 = e ( 1 + r ) = linear . and the interior points should correspond to the assumed rigid body displacement. a). respectively. equation (5. b. Although equilibrium is not satisfied exactly at every interior point or across interfaces.12) gives ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ v (x ) = ⎣N ⎦ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ 1⎫ 0⎪ 1 1 ⎪ 3 3 ⎬ = N1 + N 3 = 2 − 3 r + r + 2 + 3 r − r = 1 = const . 2 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS where M and T are the expressions (5.

apart from moments and shear forces. In the case of beams. c) ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎪ 1 ⎪ l l ⎪ ⎪ le v (x ) = ⎣N ⎦ ⎨ N2 − e N4 = e 1 − r 2 . 5. Assuming zero nodal vertical displacements and unit rotations in opposite directions (Fig.9.l 2 = const .1 Axial effects The axial nodal forces are related to the nodal displacements by equation ⎧ f1 ⎫ e ⎧ q1 ⎫ ⎨ ⎬ = kS ⎨ ⎬ ⎩ f4 ⎭ ⎩ q4 ⎭ where the stiffness matrix for stretching (4.9 c 2. the two stiffness matrices can be added taking into account the proper location of their elements.22) is [ ] e (5. FRAMES AND GRIDS 97 a b Fig.53) . An element should simulate constant strain states.5. it is acted upon by axial forces.6. 5. when element sizes shrink to zero.52) [ k ]= ElA ⎡⎢−11 e S e ⎣ − 1⎤ .2. BEAMS. they must have at least constant curvature. 5.6 Frame element As shown in Fig. 5. ⎬= 2 4 ⎪ 0 ⎪ 2 ⎪ −1 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ so that the second derivative (curvature) is constant ( ) v′′ = . 5. 1⎥ ⎦ (5. Because there is no coupling between the bending and stretching displacements. an inclined beam element should include longitudinal displacements since.

so the stiffness matrix may possibly be numerically ill-conditioned.10 both in the initial and deformed state.54) is of order 2 { f } = ⎢0 ⎢ e ⎢ ⎣ p le 2 p l2 e 12 0 p le 2 − p l2 ⎥ e ⎥ . For node 1.55) 5. where ‘i’ is the relevant radius of gyration.29).53) and (5. 5.56) can be written in matrix form as (5. (5. (5. and arranging the elements in proper locations we get the element stiffness matrix given by ⎡ EA ⎢ l ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ 0 =⎢ ⎢− E A ⎢ l ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎣ 0 12 E I l3 6E I l2 0 − 12 E I l3 6E I l2 − 0 6E I l2 4E I l 0 6E I l2 2E I l − EA l 0 0 EA l 0 0 0 − 12 E I l3 6E I − 2 l 0 12 E I l3 6E I − 2 l ⎤ ⎥ 6E I ⎥ ⎥ l2 ⎥ 2E I ⎥ l ⎥ .57) .54) ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ 6E I ⎥ − 2 ⎥ l 4E I ⎥ ⎥ l ⎥e ⎦ 0 [k ] e .6. 12 ⎥ ⎦ T (5. this ratio may be as small as 1 20 or 1 50 . combining equations (5.56) Equations (5. the local linear displacements q 1 and q 2 are related to the global linear displacements Q 1 and Q 2 by the equations q 1 = Q 1 cos θ + Q 2 sin θ . ⎧ q1 ⎫ ⎡ c ⎨q ⎬=⎢ ⎩ 2 ⎭ ⎣− s s ⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎨ ⎬ c⎥ ⎩ Q 2 ⎭ ⎦ .6. the vector of consistent nodal forces is (i l ) The ratio of the bending terms to the stretching terms in (5. If there is a uniformly distributed load on a member. q 2 = −Q 1 sin θ + Q 2 cos θ .98 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 5.3 Coordinate transformation A frame element is shown in Fig.2 Stiffness matrix and load vector in local coordinates For the frame element. For slender beams.

60). . { Q } is the beam element displacement vector in the global e e coordinate system and [T ] e ⎡c ⎢− s ⎢ ⎢0 =⎢ ⎢0 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎣ s 0 c 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0⎤ 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0 0⎥ ⎥ c s 0⎥ − s c 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0 1⎥ ⎦ 0 0 (5.10 Adding the similar relationships for node 2 ⎧ q4 ⎫ ⎡ c ⎨q ⎬=⎢ ⎩ 5 ⎭ ⎣− s we obtain e s ⎤ ⎧ Q4 ⎫ ⎨ ⎬. (5.60) In (5.58) Fig.61) is the local-to-global coordinate transformation matrix for plane frames. 5.5.59) { q } = [ T ] { Q }. (5. { q } is the beam element displacement vector in the local coordinate system. (5. BEAMS. The angular displacements (rotations) are the same in both coordinate systems q 3 = Q3 . FRAMES AND GRIDS 99 where c = cos θ and s = sin θ . c⎥ ⎩ Q 5 ⎭ ⎦ e e q6 = Q6 .

63) 5.4).65) ∑[ ] e where ~ ~ ~ [ K ] = [T ] [ K ][T ] .4 Stiffness matrix and load vector in global coordinates Using the same procedure as in section 3. (5.12) and (5.7. by equations of the form ~ Q e = T e { Q }.60) ε e = − y v′′ = − y ⎣N ′′⎦ q e = − y ⎣N ′′⎦ T e { } [ ] { Q }. e e T e e (5.62) The nodal loads due to a uniformly distributed load p are given by The values of F e { } are added to the global load vector. {F }= [T ] { f } e e T e (5.67) . Having solved [ K ] { Q } = { F } it is routine to backtrack and recover the eth element strains. [K ].64) [ ] The global stiffness matrix. e (5. that relate the nodal displacements at element level with the nodal displacements at the entire structure level. e e T e e (5. (5.100 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 5.7 Assembly of the global stiffness matrix is assembled from element matrices ~ K e using element connectivity matrices T e . (5.6. the stiffness matrix of the frame element in global coordinates is obtained as [ K ]= [T ] [ k ][T ] . using equations (5. [ ] { } [ ] The global uncondensed stiffness matrix is equal to the sum of the expanded element stiffness matrices ~ [K ] = K e .66) The equations of equilibrium can be regarded as having been derived as soon as the reduced stiffness matrix and load vector have been calculated using the boundary conditions.

E5. Example 5. Strains are derivatives of an approximate displacement (in beams .2 Calculate the transverse displacement at the free end of the cantilever stepped beam shown in Fig. Consider the beam divided into two cubic Hermitian elements. Fig. = 3 ⎢ ⎢− 12 − 6l 12 − 6l ⎥ l ⎢ ⎥ 2 − 6l 4l 2 ⎦ ⎣ 6l 2l [k ] 2 6l − 12 6l ⎤ ⎡ 12 ⎢ 6l 4l 2 − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ EI ⎥ .5. are not accurate. and omitting the first two rows and columns.second derivatives) and differentiation inevitably decreases accuracy. = 3 ⎢ ⎢− 12 − 6l 12 − 6l ⎥ l ⎢ ⎥ 2 − 6l 4l 2 ⎦ ⎣ 6l 2l 0 ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥ − 12 6l ⎥ ⎥. E5. The element stiffness matrices are [k ] 1 6l − 12 6l ⎤ ⎡ 12 ⎢ 6l 4l 2 − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ 2E I ⎥ .2. − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ 12 − 6l ⎥ ⎥ − 6l 4l 2 ⎥ ⎦ 0 0 The unreduced global stiffness matrix is 12l − 24 12l ⎡ 24 ⎢ 12l 8l 2 − 12l 4l 2 ⎢ − 6l E I ⎢− 24 − 12l 36 K ]= 3 ⎢ 2 − 6l 12l 2 l ⎢ 12l 4l ⎢ 0 0 − 12 − 6l ⎢ 0 6l 2l 2 ⎢ 0 ⎣ [ Using the boundary conditions at the fixed end Q1 = Q2 = 0 . BEAMS. FRAMES AND GRIDS 101 Strains. and hence stresses. we obtain the finite element equations .2 Solution.

5 Example 5. the unreduced global stiffness matrix is obtained as 6l − 12 6l 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ 12 ⎢ 6l 4l 2 − 6l 2l 2 0 0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ 0 − 12 6l ⎥ E I ⎢− 12 − 6l 24 [ K ] = 3 ⎢ 6l 2l 2 0 8l 2 − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ .3. l ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0 0 − 12 − 6l 12 − 6l ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ 0 6l 2l 2 − 6l 4l 2 ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎦ ⎣ .102 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎡ 36 − 6l ⎢ 2 EI ⎢ − 6l 12l l 3 ⎢ − 12 − 6l ⎢ 2l 2 ⎣ 6l ⎡ 36 − 6l ⎢ − 6l 12l 2 ⎢ ⎢ 6l 2l 2 ⎣ or ⎧ Q3 ⎪ ⎨ Q4 ⎪Q ⎩ 6 ⎫ 1 ⎪ ⎬= 2 ⎪ 216l ⎭ − 12 6l ⎤ ⎧ Q3 − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ ⎪ Q4 ⎥⎪ ⎨ 12 − 6l ⎥ ⎪ Q5 ⎥ − 6l 4l 2 ⎦ ⎪ Q6 ⎩ ⎤ ⎧ Q3 ⎥ ⎪Q ⎥⎨ 4 ⎥ ⎪ Q6 ⎦⎩ ⎫ ⎧ 0 ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎬=⎨ ⎪ ⎪−F ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎭ ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬. E5. ⎪ ⎪ 6l ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎡ 11l 2 9l − 21l ⎤ ⎧ 12 ⎫ ⎧ 60l ⎫ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 1 ⎪ ⎪ 27 − 27 ⎥ ⎨ 6l ⎬ Q5 = ⎨ 108 ⎬ Q5 . Consider the beam modeled by two Bernoulli-Euler beam elements.3 Calculate the transverse displacement at 2 and the support reactions for the beam shown in Fig. ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ The three equations with zero right hand side can be written 6l 2l 2 4l 2 ⎫ ⎧ 12 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ = ⎨ 6l ⎬ Q5 . Solution. Assembling the element stiffness matrices (5. ⎢ 9l 216 l ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ − 21l − 27 99 ⎥ ⎪ 6l ⎪ ⎩ 180 ⎭ ⎦⎩ ⎭ ⎣ By substitution into the equation with non-zero right hand side EI (− 12 Q3 − 6l Q4 + 12 Q5 − 6l Q6 ) = − F l3 the transverse displacement in 3 is obtained as F l3 .29). EI v3 = Q5 = −1.

Omitting the corresponding rows and columns. 96 E I v2 = Q3 = − The rotations are ϕ 2 = Q4 = − 3 F l2 . 96 E I ϕ3 = Q6 = 12 F l 2 . we obtain the finite element equations 6l ⎤ ⎧ Q3 ⎫ ⎧ − F ⎫ ⎡ 24 0 EI ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 2 0 8l 2l 2 ⎥ ⎨ Q4 ⎬ = ⎨ 0 ⎬ . 3 ⎢ ⎥ l ⎢ 6l 2l 2 4l 2 ⎥ ⎪ Q6 ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎭ ⎣ ⎦⎩ ⎭ ⎩ The last two equations give ⎡ 8l 2 ⎢ 2 ⎢ 2l ⎣ or Q4 = 3 Q3 .3 Substitution of Q4 and Q6 into the first equation gives ⎧ 3 7l ⎫ F l3 24 Q3 + ⎣ 0 6l ⎦ ⎨ ⎬ Q3 = − EI ⎩ − 12 7l ⎭ or 7 F l3 . 7l ⎧0 ⎫ 2l 2 ⎤ ⎧ Q4 ⎫ ⎥⎨ ⎬ = − ⎨ ⎬ Q3 4l 2 ⎥ ⎩ Q6 ⎭ ⎩ 6l ⎭ ⎦ Fig. FRAMES AND GRIDS 103 At the fixed end Q1 = Q2 = 0 . E5. 7l Q6 = − 12 Q3 .5. BEAMS. at the simply supported end Q5 = 0 . 96 E I The support reactions are given by .

5 − 4.5l 2l 2 ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ M 3 ⎪ 0 1. 2 2 2 ⎥⎨ 3 ⎢ 6l − 4.5l 6l ⎦ ⎩ Q4 ⎭ ⎩ 0 ⎭ with solutions v2 = Q3 = − 8 F l3 .5l − 1. Fig.5l 1.5l ⎥ ⎪Q3 ⎪ ⎪− F ⎪ ⎬=⎨ ⎬. Using the boundary conditions Q1 = Q2 = Q5 = Q6 = 0 .5l 2l l ⎥ ⎪Q4 ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎪ l ⎢ ⎢ 0 − 1. E5. 81 E I ϕ 2 = Q4 = − 2 F l2 .5l 6l − 1.5 − 1.4 Find the transverse displacement at 2 and the support reactions for the beam with fixed ends shown in Fig.5l ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ V3 ⎪ 0 ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ 2 − 1.5 1. the finite element equations can be written − 12 6l 6l 0 0 ⎤ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎧ V1 ⎫ ⎡ 12 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 6l 4l 2 2 − 6l 2l 0 0 ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ M1 ⎪ ⎢ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ E I ⎢− 12 − 6l 13. Consider the beam modeled by two Bernoulli-Euler beam elements.104 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 0 ⎤ ⎧ Q3 ⎡ − 12 6l EI ⎢ ⎪ 2 0 ⎥ ⎨ Q4 − 6l 2l 3 ⎢ ⎥ l ⎢ − 12 − 6l − 6l ⎥ ⎪ Q6 ⎣ ⎦⎩ which yield V1 = ⎫ ⎧ V1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ = ⎨ M1 ⎬ ⎪ ⎪V ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ 3 ⎭ 11 F.5l ⎤ ⎧ Q3 ⎫ ⎧ − F ⎫ ⎬=⎨ ⎬ ⎢ 2 ⎥⎨ l 3 ⎣ − 4. 16 3 M1 = − F l .4 Solution. 27 E I . 8 V3 = 5 F.4.5 − 4. 16 Example 5. E5.5 − 1.5l l ⎢ 0 ⎦⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎣ ⎭ From the third and fourth rows we obtain E I ⎡ 13.

Using the boundary conditions Q1 = Q3 = Q5 = 0 . M3 = − Fl . E5. E5. FRAMES AND GRIDS 105 Substituting the displacements into the other four equations yields 6l ⎤ ⎧ V1 ⎫ ⎡ − 12 8 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ ⎧− l ⎫ 2 EI ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ 81 ⎪ F l = ⎪ M 1 ⎪ . third and fifth rows and columns. ⎪ ⎪ p l 2 12 ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ . 3 ⎢ 6l 0 8l 2 − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ ⎪Q4 ⎪ ⎪ − p l 2 12 ⎪ 2l 2 l ⎢ ⎢ 0 0 − 12 − 6l 12 − 6l ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪V3 − p l 2 ⎪ ⎢ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 0 6l 2l 2 − 6l 4l 2 ⎥ ⎪Q6 ⎪ ⎪ p l 2 12 ⎪ ⎢ 0 ⎣ ⎦⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ Omitting the first. M 1 = F l . Fig.5 Solution. The continuous beam is modeled by two Bernoulli-Euler beam elements. we obtain ⎡ 4l 2 ⎢ 2 ⎢ 2l ⎢ 0 ⎣ 0 ⎤ ⎧ Q2 ⎥⎪ 2l 2 ⎥ ⎨ Q4 4l 2 ⎥ ⎪ Q6 ⎦⎩ EI l3 2l 2 8l 2 2l 2 0 ⎫ ⎧ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 2 ⎬ = ⎨ − p l 12 ⎬ .5 where the right span carries a uniformly distributed load.5l ⎥ ⎪ − 2 ⎪ E I ⎪ V3 ⎪ ⎢ ⎥ ⎪M 3 ⎪ l 2 ⎦ ⎩ 27 ⎭ ⎣ 1.5. 27 9 27 9 Example 5. ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬ l 3 ⎢− 1. the finite element equations can be written 6l − 12 6l 0 0 ⎤ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎧ V1 ⎫ ⎡ 12 ⎢ 6l 4l 2 − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ ⎪Q ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 0 0 0 ⎥ ⎪ 2⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ − 12 6l ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪V2 − p l 2⎪ 0 E I ⎢− 12 − 6l 24 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎥⎨ ⎬=⎨ ⎬. V3 = F .5l ⎩ ⎭ The support reactions are V1 = 20 4 7 2 F .5 − 1. BEAMS.5 Calculate the rotations at supports and the reaction forces for the two-span beam shown in Fig.

8 V3 = 7 pl .6 Find the transverse displacement and the angle of rotation at 2 for the beam shown in Fig. 48 E I ϕ3 = Q6 = pl3 . E5.6 .106 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The first equation above yields ⎧Q ⎫ Q2 = ⎣ − 1 2 0 ⎦ ⎨ 4 ⎬ ⎩ Q6 ⎭ (a) which. 32 E I (b) Substituting the rotations (b) in (a) we obtain pl3 . 16 V2 = 5 pl .6. Fig. 16 Example 5. 96 E I The reaction forces are calculated from ϕ1 = Q2 = 6l 0 ⎤ ⎧ Q2 ⎡ 6l EI ⎢ ⎪ − 6l 0 6l ⎥ ⎨ Q4 3 ⎢ ⎥ l ⎢ 0 − 6l − 6l ⎥ ⎪ Q6 ⎣ ⎦⎩ obtaining V1 ⎫ ⎧ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ = ⎨ V2 − p l 2 ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ V − pl 2 ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ 3 ⎭ V1 = − pl . substituted into the second and third equation EI l3 gives ⎛ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ ⎧ 2l 2 ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ 0 ⎩ ⎫ ⎡ 8l 2 ⎪ ⎬ Q2 + ⎢ 2 ⎪ ⎢ 2l ⎭ ⎣ 2l 2 ⎤ ⎧ Q4 ⎫ ⎞ p l 2 ⎧− 1⎫ ⎥⎨ ⎬⎟= ⎨ ⎬. 4l 2 ⎥ ⎩ Q6 ⎭ ⎟ 12 ⎩ 1 ⎭ ⎦ ⎠ ϕ 2 = Q4 = − pl3 . E5.

7 Find the shape functions for the 3-node beam element shown in Fig. ⎟ 0 ⎭ ⎦⎩ 4⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ ⎠ ⎩ v2 = Q3 = −0. second and fifth rows and columns we obtain ⎡ 13.5l l ⎪ ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ E I ⎢− 1.5 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 1.5 4. EI ϕ 2 = Q4 = 0.5l l 4. ⎪ ⎭ Q6 = − 3 1 Q3 − Q4 2l 2 which.5.1333 p0 l ⎪ l ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎪ 0 V3 − 12 − 6l 12 − 6l ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 0 6l 2l 2 − 6l 4l 2 ⎥ ⎪Q6 ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎢ 0 ⎣ ⎦⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ Deleting the first. substituted into the first two equations EI l3 gives ⎛ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ ⎞ ⎧ − 0.5 4.3 p0l ⎫ ⎡ 13.5l ⎤ ⎧ Q3 ⎫ ⎧ 6l ⎫ ⎢ 4.7.5 − 1.7 p0 l ⎫ − 1.5l ⎡ 1.5l 6l − 6l 2l ⎥ ⎪Q4 ⎪ ⎪ 0. N 1( r ) = 1 2 r 4 − 5r − 2r 2 + 3r 3 .5l 6l 2 2l 2 ⎥ ⎨ Q4 3 ⎢ ⎥ l ⎢ 6l 2l 2 4l 2 ⎥ ⎪ Q6 ⎣ ⎦⎩ The last equation yields ⎫ ⎧ − 0 . BEAMS.1333 p0l ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎭ ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎬.5l 0 0 ⎤ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎧ V1 − 0.5l − 12 6l ⎥ ⎪Q3 ⎪ ⎪ − 0.3 p 0 l ⎪ ⎪ 2 ⎬ = ⎨ 0.5l 2 2 2l 0 0 ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪M 1 − 0. 4 ( ) . 3 ⎢ 1.5l 6l 2 ⎥ ⎨ Q ⎬ + ⎨ 2l 2 ⎬ Q6 ⎟ = ⎨0. FRAMES AND GRIDS 107 Solution.0518 p0 l 3 .1333 p l 2 ⎬ . Two Bernoulli-Euler beam elements are used to model the system. Using the boundary conditions Q1 = Q2 = Q5 = 0 .5 4. E5. EI Example 5.3 p0 l ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬=⎨ 2 2 2⎥⎨ 2 ⎬. 4 ( ) N 2 (r ) = 1 2 r 1 −r − r 2 + r 3 . Answer.5 1.084 p0 l 4 .5l 6l ⎤ ⎧ Q3 EI ⎢ ⎪ 4.5l 13. the finite element equations can be written 1.2 p0 l 2 ⎪ − 1.

E5. 2 1 2 r 4 + 5r − 2r 2 − 3r 3 . N 4 (r ) = r 1− r 2 ( ).7. E5. b .108 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS N 3(r ) = 1 − r 2 N 5 (r ) = ( ) 2 .7. 4 ( ) N 6 (r ) = 1 2 r −1− r +r 2 + r3 . a Fig. 4 ( ) Fig.

E5. shear and bending moment. FRAMES AND GRIDS 109 Example 5. Nodal data Node nr 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Restr X 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 Restr Y 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 Restr Z 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Coord X 0 0 0 0.500e-7 1.0698e-2 1. E5.5 1. The frame is modeled with 6 elements and 7 nodes. E5. b.8.0697e-2 1. e. The diagrams of the axial force N . Determine the nodal displacements.010 1. BEAMS.0699e-2 1.500e-7 0 Rotation Z -1.889e-3 -1.321e-3 -8. a has pinned ends and is loaded in 2 by a force 5 4 F = 1000 N . A = 1600 mm 2 and I = 2 ⋅ 10 mm . plot the deformed shape and the diagrams of axial force.0696e-2 0 Displ Y 0 8.260e-2 The deformed shape is shown in Fig. d.5.8 . Answer.4 2 2 Coord Y 0 1 2 2 2 2 1 Displ X 0 0. c.8 The planar frame shown in Fig.592e-3 -1.260e-3 -6.8.531e-3 2.309e-3 2. a b c d e Fig.353e-3 2.8. E5. shear T and bending moment M are shown in Figs.232e-2 -5.700e-6 1. It has E = 2 ⋅ 1011 N m 2 .

2476 mm . Fig.9. It is loaded by a couple M 3 = 2 ⋅ 106 N mm and two point loads F6 = −2 ⋅ 10 4 N and F12 = −10 4 N .9. Fig. v 6 = −0. a The displacements in 6 are h 6 = 0. I = 2 ⋅104 mm 4 . A = 400 mm 2 .9 The planar frame shown in Fig. b. E5. 13. 10. Answer. a has fixed ends in 1. l1− 2 = 100 mm and l 9 −10 = l 9 −11 = 200 mm . ϕ 6 = −0.9. E5.110 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Example 5. 5.00623 rad . E5. The frame is modeled with 12 elements and 13 nodes. For E = 2 ⋅105 N mm 2 .9673 mm .9. b . E5. find the displacements in 6 and plot the deformed shape. The deformed shape is presented in Fig.

the torsional rigidity G I t and the length l . where the nodal displacements are also shown. describing bending and torsional effects. a. respectively. as illustrated in Fig.8 Grids Grids or grillages are planar structural systems subjected to loads applied normally to their plane.12. Only cross sections whose shear centre coincides with the centroid are considered. as shown in Fig. 5.2 Element stiffness matrix in local coordinates Consider an inclined grid element. 5.11 5. Nodes are located by their coordinates in the global reference frame XOY and element connectivity is defined by the indices of the end nodes. without shear deformations and not loaded between ends. . two rotations and a linear displacement.11. Q3 i −1 and Q3 i . a translation and two rotations. Elements are modelled as uniform rods with bending and torsional flexibility. 5.5. Their properties are the flexural rigidity E I . the degrees of freedom of node i are Q3 i − 2 .1 Finite element discretization The grid is divided into finite elements. Each node has three degrees of freedom. They are special cases of tree-dimensional frames in which each joint has only three nodal displacements. 5. BEAMS. defined as the rotation about the X axis. Typically.8.8. the rotation about the Y axis and the displacement along the Z axis. FRAMES AND GRIDS 111 5. Fig.

112

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

In a local physical coordinate system, the x axis, oriented along the beam, is inclined an angle α with respect to the global X axis. The z axis for the local coordinate system is collinear with the Z axis for the global system. Alternatively, an intrinsic (natural) coordinate system can be used.

Fig. 5.12 The vector of element nodal displacements is

{ q }= ⎣ q

e e

1

q2

q3

q4

q5

q6

⎦T ⎦T .

(5.68)

and the corresponding vector of element nodal forces can be written

{ f }= ⎣ f

In (5.69)

f 3 and

1

f2

f3

f4

f5

f6

(5.69)

f 5 are

f 6 are transverse forces, while f 2 and

couples producing bending (Fig. 5.12, b). The corresponding displacements q 3 , q 6 are translations, while q 2 , q 5 are rotations. Their column vectors are related by the flexural stiffness matrix. Rearranging the matrix (5.29) we obtain

⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩

f2 f3 f5

⎡ 4l 2 6l 2l 2 − 6l ⎤ ⎧q 2 ⎫ ⎫ ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 12 6l − 12 ⎥ ⎪q 3 ⎪ ⎪ EI e ⎢ 6l ⎨ ⎬. ⎬= 3 ⎢ 2 6l 4l 2 − 6l ⎥ ⎪q 5 ⎪ ⎪ l e ⎢ 2l ⎥ f6 ⎪ ⎢− 6l − 12 − 6l 12 ⎥ e ⎪q 6 ⎪ ⎭ ⎣ ⎦ ⎩ ⎭

(5.70)

The axial nodal forces f 1 , f 4 are torques and the nodal displacements q 1 , q 4 are twist angles. They describe torsional effects so that their action is decoupled from bending. The respective stiffness matrix can be calculated

5. BEAMS, FRAMES AND GRIDS

113

separately. The derivation of this matrix is essentially identical to the derivation of the stiffness matrix for axial effects in a frame element or in a truss element. The twist angle can be expressed in terms of the shape functions (4.51) as

θ (r ) = N1 (r ) q 1 + N 2 (r ) q 4 ,

which substituted into the strain energy

Ue = G It e 2

(5.71)

∫

e

⎛ ∂θ ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ dx ⎜ ∂x ⎟ ⎝ ⎠

+1

2

(5.72)

yields, after the change of coordinates, the element stiffness matrix

[ ]=

kte

2 G It e

le

−1

∫ ⎣N ′ ⎦

r

T

′ ⎣N r ⎦ d r .

(5.73)

As a consequence of this analogy, the nodal forces are related to the nodal displacements by equation ⎧ f1 ⎫ e ⎧ q1 ⎫ (5.74) ⎨ ⎬ = kt ⎨ ⎬ ⎩ f4 ⎭ ⎩ q4 ⎭

[ ]

te

where the stiffness matrix for torsional effects is

[ k ] = GlI

e t

e

⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎢− 1 1 ⎥ . ⎣ ⎦

(5.75)

In (5.75), G is the shear modulus of elasticity and I t e is the torsional constant of the cross section. For axially symmetrical cross sections the latter is the polar second moment of area. For the grid element, combining the stiffness matrices from equations (5.70) and (5.75), we get the stiffness matrix in local coordinates relating the nodal forces (5.69) and the nodal displacements (5.68) −a 0 0 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ a ⎢ 0 4l 2 6l 2 − 6l ⎥ 0 2l ⎥ ⎢ 6l 12 0 6l − 12 ⎥ EI e ⎢ 0 = 3 ⎢ ⎥ a 0 0 0 0 ⎥ l e ⎢− a ⎢ 0 2l 2 6l 0 4l 2 − 6l ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ 0 − 6l − 12 0 − 6l 12 ⎥ e ⎦ ⎣

[k ]

e

(5.76)

where a = G I t e l 2 E I e . e

114

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

5.8.3 Coordinate transformation

It is necessary to transform the matrix (5.76) from the local to the global system of coordinates before its assemblage in the stiffness matrix for the complete grid. As has been indicated, the z direction for local axes coincides with the Z direction for the global axes, so that only the rotational components of displacements should be converted. The transformation of coordinates is defined by equation

where q e system,

{ } is the element displacement vector (5.68) in the local coordinate

{ q } = [ T ] { Q },

e e e

(5.77)

{ Q } = ⎣Q

e

1

Q2

Q3

Q4

Q5

Q6 ⎦ T

is the element displacement vector in the global coordinate system (Fig. 5.12) and ⎡c ⎢− s ⎢ ⎢0 =⎢ ⎢0 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎣ s 0 c 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0⎤ 0 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0 0⎥ ⎥, c s 0⎥ − s c 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0 1⎥ ⎦ 0

[T ]

e

(5.78)

where c = cos α and s = sin α , is the local-to-global coordinate transformation matrix. The same transformation matrix (5.78) serves to transform the nodal forces from local to global coordinates.

**5.8.4 Element stiffness matrix in global coordinates
**

Using the same procedure as for frame elements, we obtain the stiffness matrix of the grid element in global coordinates as

[ K ]= [T ] [ k ][T ] .

e e T e e

(5.79)

It is used to assemble the unreduced global stiffness matrix [ K ] using ~ element connectivity matrices T e that relate the nodal displacements at element level with the nodal displacements at the complete structure level, by equations of the form (5.64).

[ ]

5. BEAMS, FRAMES AND GRIDS

115

For grounded systems the unreduced matrix [ K ] is then condensed using the boundary conditions. The effect of lumped springs can be accounted for by adding their values along the main diagonal at the appropriate locations in the global stiffness matrix.

Example 5.10

The grid shown in Fig. E5.10 is fixed at points 1 and 2, has E = 210 GPa , G = 81 GPa , l = 1 m and diameter d = 20 mm . Find the vertical displacement of point 7 when the grid is loaded by forces F7 = F8 = −500 N and draw the spatial deflected shape.

a Fig. E5.10

b

Answer. The grid is modeled with 14 elements and 8 nodes, having 18 dof’s. The deflected shape is presented in Fig. E5.10, b. The deflection is w7 = − 0.436 m .

Example 5.11

The grid shown in Fig. E5.11, a is fixed at points 1 and 2, and has l = 1 m , I = 0.785 ⋅ 10 −8 m 4 , I t = 1.57 ⋅ 10 −8 m 4 , E = 210 GPa and G = 81 GPa . Find the vertical displacement of point 5 when the grid is loaded by a force F5 = −103 N . Draw the deflected shape and the diagrams of the bending moment and torque.

116

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

a

b

c Fig. E5.11

d

Answer. The grid is modeled with 5 elements and 5 nodes, having 9 dof’s. The largest displacement is w5 = − 0.4 m . The deflected shape is presented in Fig. E5.11, b. The bending moment and torque diagrams are shown in Figs. E5.11, c, d.

**5.9 Deep beam bending element
**

Shear deformation becomes important when analyzing deep beams, for which Bernoulli’s hypothesis is no more valid. The nonlinear distribution of shear stresses produces the warping of the cross section. A simplifying hypothesis (Poncelet, 1825) considers an average shear strain, constant over the cross section. This way, planar cross sections remain undistorted and plane (warping neglected) but no more perpendicular to the centroidal axis. The assumption is adopted in the formulation of the Timoshenko beam element used in vibration studies.

5. dx ∂ y ∂x where v′ is the slope of the deformed beam axis.9. Fig. is approximated by u (x.13 The axial displacement of any point on the section. a). FRAMES AND GRIDS 117 5.13.83) The bending moment is the resultant of the normal stress distribution on the cross section . BEAMS. dx dx (5. y ) = − y ϕ (x ) . where ϕ is the cross section rotation at position x . Normal stresses on the cross section are given by Hooke’s law dϕ y. σ x = E ε x = −E (5.81) (5. at a distance y from the neutral axis. Only transverse loads act upon the beam.5. Note that the slope v′ is no more equal to the rotation ϕ . The strain components ε x and γ xy are given by (5. axial forces are ignored.80) εx = du dϕ = −y = − yϕ ′ . dx where E is Young’s modulus of the material. 5. as in the Bernoulli-Euler theory.82) γ xy = dv ∂u ∂ v + = −ϕ + = −ϕ + v′ .1 Static analysis of a uniform beam Beams with cross sections that are symmetric with respect to the plane of loading are considered herein (Fig.

(5. 5. elimination of M and T gives the differential equations of equilibrium G As v′′ − G Asϕ ′ = 0 .87) where G is the shear modulus of elasticity.87) give T = G As ( v′ − ϕ ) . κ is a shear factor and As is the ‘effective shear area’ calculated as As [ ∫τ dA ] = ∫τ 2 2 dA . (5.82) and (5. b) is that positive internal forces and moments act in positive (negative) coordinate directions on beam cross sections with a positive (negative) outward normal.91) G As v′ + E I z ϕ ′′ − G Asϕ = 0 .85) The transverse load per unit length is p (x ) = − dT .13.14) of length l (the index e is omitted) not loaded between ends ( p = 0 ) . dx (5.89) For a uniform beam not loaded between ends ( p = 0 ) . Using natural coordinates. (5.9.90) (5. 5.118 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS M (x ) = − σ x y dA = E I z A ∫ dϕ = E I zϕ′ dx (5.88) Equations (5. 5.86) The average shear strain is γ xy = T T = G As κ AG (5. The sign convention used here (Fig. r = 2 x l . .2 Shape functions Consider a prismatic beam element (Fig.84) where I z is the second moment of area of the cross section. The shear force is given by T (x ) = − dM . dx (5.

94) (5.95) into (5. FRAMES AND GRIDS 119 Fig.94) and (5.96) gives b3 = 6 a4 . (5.91) which. d r4 and d 3ϕ = 0.14 Eliminating ϕ and v in turn in (5. d r3 (5. l b1 = 2 12 a2 + β a 4 . l b2 = 4 a3 . BEAMS. G As l 2 (5. The seven constants of integration are not independent since the above solutions must also satisfy equation (5. d x3 (5.95) ϕ (r ) = b 3 r 2 + b 2 r + b 1 .97) Substituting (5. d x4 and d 3ϕ = 0.90) and (5. The resulting displacement functions are . in the new variable r.91) gives d4v =0.98) This leaves only four independent constants which can be determined by evaluating (5. l l (5.94) and (5.92) Changing to the r coordinate yields d4v =0. 5. l dr d r2 (5.96) where β= 4E I z .5.93) The general solutions of these equations are v (r ) = a 4 r 3 + a 3 r 2 + a 2 r + a 1 . becomes 2 dv d 2ϕ +β −ϕ = 0.95) at r = ± 1 .

102) become the third degree Hermitic polynomials (5. ] N 4 (r ) = ~ N1 ( r ) = 4 ( 1 + 3β ) 1 4 ( 1 + 3β 1 [ − 1 −r + r 2 2 + r 3 + 3β − 1 + r 2 . ] N 2 (r ) = N 3(r ) = 1 4 ( 1 + 3β 1 4 ( 1 + 3β [1 −r − r ) ) + r 3 + 3β 1 − r 2 . ( )] ) ( − 3 + 3r ) .101) 1 4 ( 1 + 3β ) [ 2 − 3r + r 2 3 + 6β ( 1 − r ) ..102) 2 ~ N 2 (r ) = ~ N3 ( r ) = 1 4 ( 1 + 3β 1 4 ( 1 + 3β ) ) ) [ − 1 −2r + 3r ( 3 − 3r ). 3 ( )] [ 2 + 3r − r + 6β ( 1 + r ) .100) { q }= ⎣v The shape functions are N 1( r ) = 1 ϕ 1 v2 ϕ 2 ⎦ T . ] ~ N 4 (r ) = 1 4 ( 1 + 3β [ − 1 +2r + 3r 2 + 6β ( 1 + r ) . the first four functions (5. 4 ) . e e (5. (5.. and defined by .21) and the last four functions satisfy the relationship 2 ∂ Ni ~ N i (r ) = l ∂r ( i = 1.120 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎢ v = ⎢ N1 ⎣ ⎢2 ~ ⎣l l N2 2 N3 2 ~ N3 l e l ⎥ N4 ⎥ 2 ⎦ { q } = ⎣N ⎦ { q }. ] For β = 0 . (5.103) It is useful to introduce a third set of shape functions which are used in the derivation of the element stiffness matrix. 2 + 6β ( 1 − r ) . e e (5...99) ϕ = ⎢ N1 N 2 where ~ ~ ⎥ N4 ⎥ ⎦ ~ { q } = ⎣N ⎦ { q }. (5.

106) dϕ 2 d ϕ = dx l dr +1 and dx = (5.110) wherefrom we obtain the element stiffness matrix due to bending ~ ~ [ k ] = E I 2 ∫ ⎣N ′⎦ ⎣N ′⎦ dr .99) into (5. 1 + 3β l (5.108) and the contribution due to shear is G As l S Ue = 2 2 +1 ∫ −1 ⎛ 2 dv ⎞ ⎟ dr .109) we get . ⎜ϕ − ⎜ l dr⎟ ⎠ ⎝ 2 (5.111) On substituting (5. ⎜ dx⎟ ⎝ ⎠ l dr .3 Stiffness matrix The strain energy for a beam element with shear effects included is E Iz Ue = 2 As l2 −l 2 ∫ ⎛dϕ ⎞ G As ⎜ ⎜ d x ⎟ dx + 2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 2 l 2 −l 2 ∫ ⎛ dv ⎞ ⎜ϕ − ⎟ dx .9. ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 2 (5. FRAMES AND GRIDS 121 2 ⎢ dN ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ . ⎣ dr ⎦ ~ ˆ ⎣ N ⎦= ⎣ N ⎦ − l (5.104) They are 3β 1 ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ N1 (r ) = N 2 (r ) = − N 3 (r ) = N 4 (r ) = . 2 2 (5.108) we get B Ue 1 = 2 {q } +1 e T 2 EIz l −1 ∫ ⎣N ′⎦ ⎣N ′⎦ dr { q } ~ T ~ e (5.100) into (5. l e B T z −1 +1 (5. BEAMS.107) the contribution due to bending is B Ue E Iz 2 = 2 l −1 ∫ ⎛dϕ ⎞ ⎜ ⎜ d r ⎟ dr .5.100) and (5.109) On substituting (5.105) 5.

113) Substituting the shape functions (5.102) and (5. .42) derived for a slender beam.122 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS S Ue 1 = 2 {q } +1 e T l G As 2 −1 ˆ ∫ ⎣N ⎦ T ˆ ⎣N ⎦ d r { q e } (5.105) and performing the integration yields the stiffness matrix [k ] e ⎡ 12 ⎢ 1 EI z ⎢ 6l = 1 + 3β l 3 ⎢− 12 ⎢ ⎣ 6l (4 + 3β ) l − 6l 6l − 12 2 − 6l 12 − 6l (2 − 3β ) l 2 ⎥.114) The vector of consistent nodal forces is identical to the corresponding vector (5. ⎥ 2⎥ (4 + 3β ) l ⎦ − 6l (2 − 3β ) l 6l 2⎥ ⎤ (5. e S T s −1 +1 (5.112) wherefrom we obtain the element stiffness matrix due to shear l ˆ ˆ [ k ] = G A 2 ∫ ⎣N ⎦ ⎣N ⎦ dr .

pv z . The four main groups of equations are written in the matrix notation used in FEA: (a) equations of equilibrium. (b) surface forces. Their the magnitude per unit volume is denoted by components pv x . It is convenient to write these components as a single body force vector { pv } = ⎣ pv x pv y pv z ⎦ T . and (d) boundary conditions. (b) equations of compatibility or strain/displacement relations. with emphasis on two-dimensional problems.1 Matrix notation for loads. The total surface S of the body has two distinct parts: S u . z coordinates. and (c) concentrated forces.6. Any point on the surface has a local outward-pointing normal n whose orientation is usually described by its three direction cosines ∂n ∂x . stresses and strains An arbitrarily shaped tree-dimensional body of volume V. Points in the body are located by x. LINEAR ELASTICITY In this chapter the fundamental concepts from the linear theory of elasticity are recalled.1) . ∂n ∂y .1. y. ∂n ∂z . In general there may be three sets of applied forces: (a) internal body forces. and S σ . (c) stress/strain relations or Hooke’s law. (6. is shown in Fig. in equilibrium under the action of external loads and the reactions in supports. the portion on which surface forces are prescribed. like centrifugal or gravity forces. Internal body forces Internal body forces inside the volume V can be inertial forces. the portion of the boundary on which displacements are prescribed. 6. pv y . 6.

1 Displacements It is natural to form the single displacement vector { u} = ⎣u v w⎦ T . It is convenient to represent both stress and strain components as single column matrices. v . 6.τ zx . w are the displacement components inside the body or on the surface Sσ with unprescribed displacements.124 Surface tractions FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Likewise there could be surface forces (not necessarily normal pressures) on the surface Sσ .2) Concentrated loads are defined by their three components { Fi } = ⎣ Fi x Fi y Fi z ⎦T . also having three components { ps } = ⎣ ps x Concentrated loads ps y ps z ⎦T .τ yz .3) Any system of loads has to fall into categories (6. (6. σ y .1) to (6. Thus {σ } = ⎣σ x σ y σ z τ xy τ yz τ zx ⎦T . the direct stress components σ x . defined by the magnitude per unit surface area.5) .σ z and the shear stresses τ xy .3). Stresses and strains The stresses inside V will have two types of component. (6. (6. Fig.4) where u . (6.

5.6. ⎦T .6. ∂x ∂y (6.7) Fig. where τ xy = τ yx ∂σ x ∂τ yx + pv x = 0.7) can be written . + ∂y ∂x ∂τ xy ∂σ y + + p v y = 0. a) 6. (6.2 shows stresses acting on an infinitesimal element in the plane xOy. LINEAR ELASTICITY 125 In two-dimensional problems {σ } = ⎣ σ x {ε } = ⎣ε x σ y τ xy ⎦T .2 Equations of equilibrium inside V Figure 6.2 In matrix form. a) Strains are represented in vector form as ε y ε z γ xy γ yz γ zx (6. 6.6) In two-dimensional problems {ε } = ⎣ε x ε y γ xy ⎦T . equations (6. The small linear increments in stresses are equilibrated by the applied body forces yielding the following equilibrium equations. (6.

6.11) Fig. Sσ (6.8) or. The equilibrium along the two axes directions yields σ x l + τ yx m = ps x . ∂y ⎥ ∂ ⎥ ⎥ ∂x ⎦ ⎥ (6.126 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎡ ∂ ⎢ ∂x ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎣ 0 ∂ ∂y ∂ ∂y ∂ ∂x ⎤ ⎧σ ⎥⎪ x ⎥ ⎨σy ⎥⎪ ⎥ ⎩ τ xy ⎦ ⎫ ⎧ p vx ⎫ ⎪ ⎬ ⎬ = −⎨ ⎩ pvy ⎭ ⎪ ⎭ (6.9) [ ∂ ]T {σ } + { pv } = { 0 } . τ xy l + σ y m = ps y . denoting the matrix of differential operators ⎡ ∂ ⎢ ⎢ ∂x [∂ ]= ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ∂ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ ∂y and using (6.10) 6.1) ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ∂ ⎥ .3 In (6.2 Equations of equilibrium on the surface Let now consider an element near the loaded boundary Sσ .11) the direction cosines for the outward normal n are . (6.

14) [ ∂ n ] {σ } = { p T s }.6. ∂y ⎥⎩ v ⎭ ∂ ⎥ ⎥ ∂x ⎥ ⎦ (6.12) In matrix form. ∂x ∂n m = cos (n . ∂x ∂ y εx = εy = γ xy = (6. x ) = ∂n = nx . (6.4 gives the deformation of the dx − dy face for small deformations.11) can be written ⎧σ ⎡ nx 0 n y ⎤ ⎪ x ⎢ 0 n n ⎥ ⎨σy y x ⎦⎪ ⎣ ⎩ τ xy ⎫ ⎪ ⎧ ps x ⎫ ⎬ =⎨ p ⎬ .17) {ε } = [ ∂ ] { u } .18) . LINEAR ELASTICITY 127 l = cos (n .15) where ∂T n implies that the operators in [ ∂ ] T are acting upon n. sometimes written (6. ⎪ ⎩ sy ⎭ ⎭ (6. 6.16) In matrix form ⎡ ∂ ⎢ ⎧ εx ⎫ ⎢ ∂x ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎨ εy ⎬ = ⎢ 0 ⎪γ ⎪ ⎢ ⎩ xy ⎭ ∂ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ ∂y and can be summarized as ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ∂ ⎥⎧u⎫ ⎨ ⎬.13) or in condensed form [ n ] T {σ } = { p s } . y ) = = ny .3 Strain-displacement relations Figure 6. ∂y (6. ∂y ∂ v ∂u + . ∂x ∂v . equations (6. The equations of compatibility have the familiar form ∂u . (6.

20) {σ } = [ C ] −1{ε } = [ D ] {ε } .4 Stress-strain relations For linear isotropic elastic materials. 0 ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ 2 ( 1 + ν )⎥ ⎦ 0 0 (6. the stress-strain relations come from the generalized Hooke’s law {ε } = [ C ] {σ } . The inverse of [ C ] is the material stiffness matrix (6.19) −ν ⎡1 − ν ⎢ 1 −ν ⎢ ⎢ 1 [C ]= 1 ⎢ E ⎢ ⎢ SYM ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ The inverse relation is 0 0 0 2 (1 +ν 0 0 ) 0 0 2 (1 +ν ) ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥.4 6.128 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Fig.21) . where the material elastic compliance matrix is (6. 6.

If strains ε z . ⎪ ⎭ (6. and τ yz are set as zero. If stresses σ z .23) The inverse relations are given by ⎧σx ⎪ ⎨σy ⎪τ ⎩ xy ⎫ ⎪ E ⎬= 2 ⎪ 1 −ν ⎭ ⎡ 0 ⎢1 ν ⎢ν 1 0 ⎢ 1 −ν ⎢0 0 2 ⎣ ⎫ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎭ (6.20). τ xz . and γ yz are set as zero. a small thickness in the loaded area can be treated as subjected to plane strain. γ xz . from (6.25) . LINEAR ELASTICITY 129 ⎡1 − ν ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ E ⎢ [D] = (1 + ν )(1 − 2ν ) ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ Plane stress ν 1 −ν ν ν 1 −ν 0 0 0 1 −ν 2 0 0 0 0 1 −ν 2 SYM 0 ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ . the Hooke’s law can be written ⎧ εx ⎪ ⎨ εy ⎪γ ⎩ xy ⎫ ⎡ 1 ⎪ 1 ⎢ ⎬ = ⎢ −ν ⎪ E⎢ 0 ⎣ ⎭ −ν 1 0 ⎤ ⎧σx ⎪ 0 ⎥ ⎨σy ⎥ 2 (1 + ν ) ⎥ ⎪ τ xy ⎦⎩ 0 ⎤⎧ ⎥ ⎪ εx ⎥ ⎨ εy ⎥⎪ ⎥ ⎩ γ xy ⎦ ⎫ ⎪ ⎬.22) ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ 1 −ν ⎥ 2 ⎦ A thin planar body subjected to in-plane loading on its edge surface is said to be in plane stress.6. we obtain ⎧σx ⎪ ⎨σy ⎪τ ⎩ xy ⎡ ⎫ ν ⎢ 1 −ν ⎪ E ⎢ ν 1 −ν ⎬= (1 + ν )(1 − 2ν ) ⎢ ⎪ 0 ⎢ 0 ⎭ ⎣ ⎤⎧ ⎥ ⎪ εx ⎥ ⎨ εy ⎥⎪ ⎥ ⎩ γ xy ⎦ 0 0 1 −ν 2 ⎫ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎭ (6. 5 and 6 in (6. discarding rows and columns 3.24) which is used as {σ } = [ D ] {ε }.22).21) and discarding rows and columns 3. Plane strain If a long body of uniform cross section is subjected to transverse loading along its length. 5 and 6 in (6.(6.

(6.27) {ε 0 } = ⎣α T In plane strain αT 0 ⎦ T .21) we obtain the strain energy in terms of strains U= 1 2 V ∫ {ε } [ D ] {ε } dV .5 Temperature effects The temperature strains are represented as initial strains {ε 0 } = ⎣ α T αT αT 0 0 0 ⎦ T .6 Strain energy For linear elastic materials. (6.32) .26) where T is the temperature rise and α is the coefficient of linear expansion of the material. 2 (6. 6.1. the strain energy per unit volume in the body is U0 = 1 {σ 2 }T {ε } = 1 {ε }T {σ }. (6.29) 6. the total strain energy is given by U= 1 2 V ∫ {ε } {σ } dV .30) For the elastic body shown in Fig. 6.28) {ε 0 } = (1 + ν ) ⎣α T αT 0⎦ T .24). T (6.31) Substituting (6. In plane stress (6. T (6.130 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS which is also used as {σ } = [ D ] { ε } but here [ D ] has a different expression as in (6. The stress-strain relations become {σ } = [ D ] ( {ε } − {ε 0 } ) .

7. as applied to elastic bodies. systems with complex geometry or complex boundary conditions cannot be accomodated easily by global admissible functions. virtual displacements are: a) arbitrary (fictitious.1 Principle of virtual work (PVW) PVW is basically a statement of the static equilibrium of a mechanical system. Unfortunately.1 Virtual displacements By definition.1. the finite element method evaluates integrals of relatively simple polynomial functions. b) infinitesimal (follow the rules of differential calculus). The classical Rayleigh-Ritz technique represents a variational approach whereby a distributed system is approximated by a discrete one by assuming a solution of the differential eigenvalue problem as a finite series of admissible functions. 7. 7. virtual). defined over small subdomains of the structure. Good approximations can be realized with low-degree polynomials. Instead of solving differential equations with complicated boundary conditions. In the finite element method. . In the following. Variational methods put less strict conditions on the functions approximating the displacement field than the analytical methods based on differential equations. Displacements are calculated by methods based on the principle of virtual work and/or the principle of minimum total potential energy. the form known as the principle of virtual displacements (PVD) will be used. ENERGY METHODS The finite element method can be considered a Rayleigh-Ritz method. the approximate solution is constructed using local admissible functions.

while a continuity C1 is imposed for beams. the functional is said to have a “weak form”. d) continuous in the interior and on the surface of the body. (7. m = 2 and the assumed functions must have continuity C 0 .1) The vector of the corresponding virtual strains will be { δε } = [ B ] { δu } . plates and shells.4) inside the body or on the surface Sσ with unprescribed displacements (Fig. as opposed to the symbol d which designates actual differentials of position coordinates. the vector of virtual displacements is {δu } = ⎣ δu δv δw ⎦ T . i. Denoting by 1 { u} = ⎣u v w⎦ T . δu . A continuity C 0 is generally required for bars and elasticity problems. up to the mth order inclusive. the geometrical boundary conditions must be satisfied to the (n − 1)th derivative. Remember that a function of several variables is said to be of class C m in a domain V if all its partial derivatives. consistent with the system kinematic boundary conditions (geometric constraints). e) kinematically admissible. A virtual displacement will be denoted by ‘ δ ’ in front of a letter. exist and are continuous in the domain V. (7.g. e.e. 6. If the differential equation of the problem is of order m = 2n . the displacement vector (6. For beams m = 4 and the approximating functions must have continuity C . the admissible functions must have continuity C n −1 .2) . Exceptions do exist. For bars.1).132 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS c) not related to either the actual displacements or to the forces producing them. Because the continuity required is reduced from C 2 in the governing differential equation to C1 in the variational equation. The symbol ‘ δ ’ was introduced by Lagrange to emphasize the virtual character of the variations. i. where [ B ] is the strain-displacement matrix.e.

.1.3 Virtual work of internal forces For a three-dimensional continuum.2 for the uniaxial case. 7.1. a b Fig.7.1). c). because the force is constant along the virtual displacement. ENERGY METHODS 133 7. hence independent of the force. 7. In the general case of loading by conservative body forces (6.1. a). T (7.3) It has the same value whether the bar material is linear elastic (Fig.1.2 Virtual work of external loads For a bar in tension (Fig.4) Note that the scalar product under the first integral is { δu }T { pv } = δu ⋅ pv x + δ v ⋅ pv y + δ w ⋅ pv z .1 c Note also the absence of the factor 1 2 which occurs in the expression of the work of elastic forces. the latter being arbitrary. Note that it is simply (force × displacement). the virtual work of internal stresses is δ WI = V ∫ { δε } {σ }dV .2) and point forces (6.5) as shown in Fig. 7. because the external loads remain constant during the action along the virtual displacements.3). the virtual work of the external force F is δWE = F ⋅ δu . b) or nonlinear elastic (Fig. the virtual work of external loads is δ WE = V ∫ { δu } { pv }dV + ∫ { δu } { ps }d A + ∑ { δui } { Fi } . 7. (7. 7.1. i T T T Sσ (7. 7. surface tractions (6.

it is independent of material behaviour.4 Principle of virtual displacements For elastic bodies.e. then during an arbitrary small displacement from the equilibrium position. whether the material is elastic or inelastic. Since the principle of virtual displacements is an equilibrium requirement. then equilibrium relations can be obtained and the displacement parameters determined. (7. Note that the virtual work of reaction forces at supports is zero. the virtual work of applied loads equals the virtual work of internal forces δWE = δWI . a) In (7. 7.1. V ∫ { δε } {σ }dV − ∫ { δu } { pv }dV − ∫ { δu } { ps }d A − ∑ { δui } { Fi } = 0 .6) δWE is the work of external loads on the virtual displacements { δu } which are independent of loading and kinematically admissible. i T T T T V Sσ (7. The nodal displacements do not permit the fully equilibrating position to be reached. If stresses are expressed in terms of a set of parameters defining completely the displacement pattern – the nodal displacements.6. stresses remain constant during the action on virtual strains. It applies only . the principle of virtual displacements states that: If a system is in equilibrium.6) Also: A body is in equilibrium if the internal virtual work equals the external virtual work for every kinematically admissible displacement field. 7. i. so that the PVD will ensure approximate equilibrium.134 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Fig.2 Again.

T3 (Fig. of components u1 and u2 (Fig.4. The joint reacts with forces equal in magnitude but of opposite sign. The joint 4 is acted upon by the external forces F1 . in which the external force F. producing the elongations Δ1 .7.4. a). produces a displacement of the joint 4. The external work is independent of the path taken. which do not change direction during the action on the virtual displacements. the applied forces remaining constant.4. find the internal bar forces and the displacement of point 4.3 Solution. δΔ3 satisfy the compatibility equations (2. δΔ 2 . δΔ3 (Fig. which produce virtual elongations in bars δΔ1 . d). T2 . Fig. Δ3 (Fig. Example 7. 7. 7. An imaginary state. The initial state.19) . 7. The virtual displacements δu1 and δu2 and the virtual bar extensions δΔ 1 . in which bars are not loaded by external forces and are not prestressed (Fig. 7. 3.4. 7. Consider three states of the analyzed system: 1. loaded by a force F. 7.1 For the three-bar pin-jointed framework shown in Fig. F2 and by internal forces T1 . f). ENERGY METHODS 135 for loading by conservative forces. 7. 7. b). 2. Δ2 . of components F1 = F sinα and F2 = F cosα .3. δΔ2 . The final state of static equilibrium.4. e). in which the joint 4 is given a virtual displacement of components δu1 and δu2 (Fig. c).4.

δΔ2 = δu 2 .8) Fig.7) into (7. the force-elongation equations (2.9) Substituting (7.136 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS δΔ1 = δu1 sinθ + δu 2 cosθ .9) and collecting coefficients of δu1 and δu2 .4 Equating internal work to external work (7.6) using the products of real forces and virtual displacements we obtain T1 δ Δ 1+ T2 δ Δ 2 + T3 δ Δ 3 = F1 δu1 + F2 δu2 .7) Δ 1= T1 l . EA Δ 2= T2 l cosθ . gives (7. EA Δ 3= T3 l .21) can be written (7. For the three bars. 7. δΔ3 = −δu1 sinθ + δu 2 cosθ . EA (7.

1. Equation (7. a) without point forces V ∫ { δε } {σ }dV = ∫ { δu } { pv }dV + ∫ { δu } { ps }d A .7).11). (7. we could put either to zero. then in (7. ENERGY METHODS 137 δu1 (T1 sin θ − T3 sin θ − F1 ) + δu2 (T1 cos θ + T2 + T3 cos θ − F2 ) = 0 . It is confirmed that the principle of virtual work is an equivalent statement of statical equilibrium.10) must be zero whatever the values of δu1 and δu2 .12) 7. ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ .6.7.6. ∂x dV = Sσ ∫ σ x d(δu ) l d A = ∫ σ x δu l d A − ∫ Sσ V V ∫ σ y δε y dV = Sσ ∫ σ y δv m d A − ∫ δv V ∂σ y ∂y dV . (7.8) in the finite form of (7. T1 cosθ + T2 + T3 cosθ = F2 . T T T V Sσ (7. b) Convert { δε } to { δu } using the integration by parts V ⎜ ⎟ ∫ σ x δε x dV = ∫ σ x δ ⎜ ∂ x ⎟ d x dy dz = ∫ ⎝ ⎠ V ⎛ ∂u ⎞ σx Sσ ∂ (δu ) d x l d A = ∂x δu ∂σ x dx dy dz . This can only be true if their coefficients vanish T1 sinθ − T3 sinθ = F1 . l EA ⎛ 1 ⎞ 2 ⎜ 2 cos θ + ⎟ u 2 = F2 .11) These are indeed the equations of equilibrium. cosθ ⎠ l ⎝ (7. V ∫ τ xy δγ xy dV = ∫ τ xy (δ v ⋅ l + δu ⋅ m)d A − ∫ Sσ V ∂τ xy ⎞ ⎛ ∂τ xy ⎜ ⎜ ∂ x δ v + ∂ y δu ⎟ dV . Substituting (7.10) Since δu1 and δu2 are unrelated to each other. the components of the displacement of point 4 can be determined from the following equations 2 EA 2 sin θ ⋅ u 1 = F1 .5 Proof that PDV is equivalent to equilibrium equations Consider a form of equation (7.

[ n ]T {σ } − { ps } = { 0 } on Sσ . Adding together V ∫ ( δε x σ x + δε y σ y + δγ xy τ xy )dV = ∫ [ δu (σ x l + τ xy m)+ δ v (τ xy l + σ y m) ] d A − Sσ − V ∫ ⎡ ⎛ ∂σ x ∂τ xy + ⎢δ u ⎜ ⎜ ∂y ⎢ ⎝ ∂x ⎣ ∂σ y ⎞ ⎛ ∂τ ⎟ + δ v ⎜ xy + ⎟ ⎜ ∂x ∂y ⎠ ⎝ ⎞⎤ ⎟⎥ dV . but only in the mean. It is conventional to remove the unknown reactions by choosing the virtual displacements { δu } to be zero over Sσ . when using approximate functions for { u }. b) T T T T ∫ { δu } ( [ ∂ ] {σ } + { pv }) dV − ∫ { δu } ( [ n ] {σ } − { ps }) d A = 0 . is supported in some way and there the tractions { ps } will be unknown reactions and not specified loads. Sσ V V which is true provided [ ∂ ] T {σ } and {ε } are finite in V.6. Sσ V Because { δu } are arbitrary. Part of the surface. The equations of equilibrium emerge from the brackets [ ∂ ]T {σ } + { pv } = { 0 } in V. The PVD supplies equilibrium conditions both within and on the surface of the body. i. On substituting in (7. that is the stress and displacement fields are continuous. its coefficients must vanish. Most finite elements in use today do not achieve continuous stresses across interfaces. So. Sσ . it is not necessary to worry about the equilibrium boundary conditions. . The componets of stresses at element interfaces may not balance at a point.138 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS where l and m are direction cosines of the outward normal at the surface. This applies only within a single element and up to its surface. ⎟ ⎠⎥ ⎦ In matrix form (Gauss’ theorem) T T T T T ∫ { δε } {σ }dV = ∫ { δu } [ n ] {σ }d A − ∫ { δu } [ ∂ ] {σ }dV .e.

(7. yields dx δU = V ∫ δε σ dV = ∫ δε Eε A d x = ∫ l l d δu du EA dx .13) 7. (7.32) U= 1 2 For a virtual strain { δε } . V ∫ { δε } [ D ] {ε } dV + 1 ∫ { ε }T [ D ] { δε } dV .2. substituting ε = − y δU = ∫ l ⎛ ⎞ ∂ 2δv ∂ 2 v ⎜ 2 ⎟ E y dA ⎟ dx = ⎜ ⎟ ∂ x2 ∂ x2 ⎜ ⎝A ⎠ ∫ ∫ l d 2δv d2v EI dx . the virtual variation of the strain energy is equal to the virtual work of the internal stresses on virtual strains. V δ U = δWI .16) The above expressions can be obtained directly from the strain energies . gives d x2 (7. ∫ { δε } V T [ D ] {ε } dV = ∫ { δε }T {σ } dV = δWI . For a bar in tension. dx dx d2v (5. the virtual increase of strain energy is δU = Because 1 2 V ∫ {ε } T T [ D ] { ε } dV .15) For a beam in bending.14) For an elastic body. d x2 d x2 (7.2 Principle of minimum total potential energy The total potential energy Π of an elastic body is defined as the sum of the strain energy U and the work potential of external loads WP Π = U + WP . substituting σ = E ε and ε = du .7. ENERGY METHODS 139 7. 2 V T ({ δε } δU = T [ D ] {ε } ) = { ε } T [ D ] { δε } .4).1 Strain energy Consider the strain energy (6.

140 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS for a bar U= ∫ l E A ⎛ du ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ dx .2 External potential energy The work potential of external loads WP is equal to the negative product of external forces by the corresponding displacement WP = − WE . For a three-dimensional continuum WP = − V ∫ {u } { pv }dV − ∫ {u } { ps }d A − ∑ {ui } { Fi } . An external point load F j has potential energy − F j u j ( ) instead of ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎜ − F j u j ⎟ . For example.21) 7. (7. 2 ⎜ dx ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 2 (7.19) The negative sign appears because the external loads lose some of their capacity for doing work when displaced in the direction they act. being independent of the linear properties of the body on which it acts.13) can be written Π = ∫ { δε }T {σ } dV − ∫ { u }T { pv }dV − V V Sσ ∫ {u } { ps }d A − ∑ { ui } { Fi } .2. i T T (7. a gravitational force F = m g acts in the opposite direction to a vertical displacement h and the potential becomes m g h .2. because this potential arises from the magnitude of force and its ⎝ 2 ⎠ capacity to do work when it moves. ⎜ d x2 ⎟ d ⎝ ⎠ 2 (7.3 Total potential energy The total potential energy (7.13. i T T T Sσ (7.17) for a beam U= ∫ l EI 2 ⎛ d2v ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ x.20) For virtual displacements {δu } δWP = − δWE . a) Its variation is .18) 7. (7.

the equilibrium is stable. Reciprocally. of all possible kinematically admissible displacement fields. Based on equation (7. ENERGY METHODS 141 δΠ = δU + δWP = δWI − δWE .22. any kinematically admissible displacement field which minimizes the total potential energy represents a stable equilibrium configuration. If δ 2 Π > 0 .2 For the truss shown in Fig. Reciprocally. a) hence. rather than a result of the equilibrium. U i = Ti Δ i = 2 2 li and the external potential energy is WP = − ∑F u . the one satisfying equilibrium corresponds to a minimum value of the total potential energy. according to the compatibility relations.7. the stationary value is a minimum. The principle of minimum total potential energy states that: If a deformable body is in equilibrium under the action of external loads and reaction forces. An equivalent statement is: For conservative systems. then the total potential energy has a minimum value.3. the total potential energy has a stationary value.6) it follows that (7.22) δΠ = 0 .22. it can be considered that (7. at equilibrium. 7. a) is a condition that establishes or defines the equilibrium. Example 7. (7. then it is in a stable equilibrium state. the strain energy for a bar is 1 1 E Ai 2 Δi . Thus. the total potential energy can be written . i i i Expressing the elongations in terms of displacements. if under the action of external loads and reaction forces the total potential energy of a deformable body is a minimum.

Show that PMTPE is equivalent to the equilibrium conditions inside and at the ends of the beam.5. For a beam segment loaded as shown. subjected to a distributed load and to the end bending moments and shear forces as shown in Fig. the total potential energy is Π = 1 2 ∫ E I (v′′) d x − ∫ p v dx + M 2 0 v′ 0 − M l v′ − T0 v0 + Tl vl . ∂ u1 ∂Π =0. δΠ = 0 or ∫ E I v′′ δ(v′′)d x − ∫ p δv dx + M l l 0 ′ δ v0 − M l δ v′ − T0 δ v0 + Tl δ vl = 0 .3 Apply the principle of minimum total potential energy to a beam in bending. ∂ u2 we obtain the equilibrium equations (7. l (a) Integrating by parts the first term gives . Cancelling the derivatives of Π with respect to each independent variable ∂Π = 0. Example 7. Fig.142 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Π = + EA ( u1 sinθ + u2 cosθ 2l EA (− u1 sinθ + u2 cosθ 2l )2 + EA 2 u2 + 2 l cosθ )2 − F1 u1 − F2 u2 .5 Solution. Π is stationary. 7. 7.11). l l l At equilibrium.

which are the boundary conditions. As δ v is arbitrary. 7. The coefficient of δ v in the integrand gives the equation of equilibrium (E I v′′)″ = p (x ) . or δ v0 = 0 . l l 0 ″ Equation (a ) becomes l E I v′′ δ v′ 0 − (E I v′′)′ δ v + ∫ (E I v′′) δv dx − ∫ p δv dx − M δv′ l l l 0 ″ + T δv l 0 =0 or ″ ′ ∫ ((E I v′′) − p ) δv dx + ( E I v′′ . the other terms deliver the equilibrium conditions at the beam ends ( E I v′′) 0 = M 0 . 0 ( E I v′′)0′ = T0 . l l d ′ Integrating by parts the last term gives ∫ (E I v′′) δv′ dx = ∫ (E I v′′) d x (δv)dx = ∫ (E I v′′) d (δv)= l l l ′ ′ d ′ = (E I v′′)′ δ v l 0 − ∫ l l 0 d (E I v′′)′ dx δ v = (E I v′′)′ δ v dx l 0 − ∫ (E I v′′) δv dx. ENERGY METHODS 143 ∫ l E I v′′ δ(v′′) d x = l ∫ l E I v′′ d ⎛ dv ⎞ ⎜ δ ⎟ dx = dx ⎜ dx ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ∫ E I v′′ d (δv′) = l l 0 = E I v′′ δ v′ 0 − ∫ d x (E I v′′) dx δv′ = E I v′′ δv′ − ∫ (E I v′′) δv′ dx. or δ vl = 0 . or δ v′ = 0 .M ) δv′ − (( E I v′′ ) − T )δv l l 0 =0. ( E I v′′) l = M l . For a beam. or δ v′ = 0 . and l ( E I v′′)l′ = Tl . the transverse displacement v (x ) is approximated by a finite series .7.3 The Rayleigh-Ritz method The Rayleigh-Ritz method involves the construction of an assumed displacement field.

The necessary requirements for the convergence of the Rayleigh-Ritz method are the following: a) The approximating functions must be continuous to one order less the highest derivative in the integrand. (7. c) The sequence of functions must be complete. Substituting the displacements (7.4 For the beam shown in Fig. If the functions are not selected from the domain space of the operator of the equation being solved (completeness property) the resulting solution could be either zero or wrong.23) into the expression of the total potential energy Π .23) which represents an approximate deflected shape.. that satisfy the kinematic (geometric) boundary conditions and are continuous within the definition interval. Because δa j are arbitrary. i. Example 7. Solution. The solutions are back-substituted into (7. I = 1600 mm4 . the latter becomes a function of the parameters a j .23) where a j are undetermined constants called generalized coordinates. Consider: E = 210 MPa . which is more accurate the more terms are selected in the respective series..e. The total potential energy is . ∂Π =0. and ϕ j ( x ) are prescribed functions of x . whose values are determined from the stationarity conditions δΠ = ∑ ∂a j ∂Π j δa j = 0 . l = 3 m .144 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS v (x ) ≅ ∑ a ϕ (x ) j j j =1 n (7.6 find the vertical displacement of point 2. b) The functions must individually satisfy the geometric boundary conditions.. to be admissible functions. ∂aj ( j = 1.. called admissible functions.24) which is a linear algebraic set of equations in the constants a j . n ) . 7. F = 100 N and q = 200 N m .

25) we obtain the functional 1 Π = EI 2 ′ ∫ ( a1 ϕ1′′ + a2 ϕ2′ ) dx − ∫ q ( a1 ϕ1 + a2 ϕ2 ) dx − . where the functions (7. v′ (0) = 0 .25) The geometric boundary conditions are v (0) = 0 .26). ⎝ 3 ⎠ v (l ) = 0 .26) In the following.27) into (7. ϕ 2 (x ) = x 3 (3 x − 2 l )( x − l ) l5 . Fig. l 2l 3 Requiring Π to be stationary with respect to a1 and a 2 .6 Substituting (7. ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ d x2 ⎟ ⎝2⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 2l 3 2 ∫ l (7. ⎛ 2l ⎞ v ⎜ ⎟=0. ENERGY METHODS 145 1 Π = EI 2 ∫ 0 l ⎛ d2v ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ d x − q v (x )d x − F v ⎛ l ⎞ . (7.7. for simplicity. (7. 7. leads to two equations relating the generalized coordinates ∂Π = EI ∂ a1 ∫ ( a1 ϕ1′′ + a2 ϕ2′′ ) ϕ1′′ d x − ∫ q ϕ1 d x − F ϕ1(l 2) = 0 . 0 2l 3 l . the transverse displacements are approximated by a series consisting of only two terms v ( x ) = a1 ϕ1 (x ) + a2 ϕ 2 (x ) . 2 0 l l −F [ a1 ϕ1(l 2) + a2 ϕ2 (l 2) ].27) ϕ1 (x ) = x 2 (3 x − 2 l )( x − l ) l4 .28) satisfy all geometrical boundary conditions (7.

7. . Answer. The total potential energy (Fig. EI a2 = −0. Substituting the functions (7. Comment on the approximations of the Rayleigh-Ritz method. 3 5 l 4320 l 10 72 E I 269 EI a + a =− ql. a) subjected to a load F.5 Consider a linear spring of stiffness k (Fig.28). 2 Π = (7. 7.30) For a small virtual displacement δu . Because Π is of second order in ϕ and ϕ ′ . the displacement is v (l 2 ) = a1 ϕ1 (l 2) + a2 ϕ 2 (l 2) = = 1 1 q l4 = 2.9 ⋅10− 5 16 32 E Iy Example 7.146 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ∂Π = EI ∂ a2 ∫ ( a ϕ ′′ + a ϕ ′′ ) ϕ ′′ d x − ∫ q ϕ 1 1 2 2 2 0 2l 3 l l 2 d x − F ϕ 2 (l 2 ) = 0 . E I (7.00257 q l4 . the equations are linear in aj .48 mm. we obtain 56 E I 11 EI a 1 + 10 3 a2 = − ql.00207 q l4 . for F = q l 6 . the variation of the total potential energy is δ Π = k u δu − F δ u = ( k u − F ) δ u .29) In 2. 7. 3 1 3 2 7 l 46656 l For example. the coefficient of a1 in the first equation is EI ∫ ( ϕ ′′ ) 1 0 l 2 dx = EI 1 ∫ l ( 36 x 8 0 l 2 − 30 l x + 4 l 2 ) 2 dx = 56 E I . a1 + a2 = 4. b) is 1 2 ku − Fu .7. 5 l3 The solutions are a1 = 0.

32) – (7. 7.34) and Fig. b indicate that a) Because Π eq is a minimum.34) If F is prescribed and the resulting u has been approximated by a RayleighRitz solution uapp ≠ ueq .7.31) As seen in Fig. (7. the potential energy for an approximate displacement which satisfies the kinematic boundary conditions is greater than the true value Π app > Π eq .33) U eq = 1 2 1 F2 = −Π eq . The total potential energy of the equilibrium configuration is 1 1 1 F2 . equations (7.7. 7. = 2 Π eq 2 Π eq Π eq = The stiffness is (7. 7.7. k ueq = 2 2 k (7. ENERGY METHODS 147 The equilibrium equation is obtained by requiring δΠ to be zero ( Π be stationary) for arbitrary δu . Fig.7 For δΠ =0 we obtain k ueq − F = 0 . the exact solution corresponds to an absolute minimum value of Π .32) k =− The strain energy is (7. b. In magnitude Π app < Π eq . F ueq − F ueq = − F ueq = − 2 2 2 k 1 F2 1 F2 . .

The geometric shape and the internal displacement field are described by a series of discrete quantities (like nodal coordinates and nodal displacements) distributed through the structure.M. in the FEM the admissible functions are defined over small size subdomains. . reaction forces. k↑ (7.E.1 F. { ps } .4 F. Admissible functions are defined over small size finite elements. Use PVD or PMTPE as an approximate method for solving the boundary-value problem. find the displacement field { u } within V and on the surface Sσ (Fig. taking advantage of graphical and animation facilities. 7. the unknown function is approximated piecewise over the entire domain (continuity at global level).E. etc. { Fi } . Computers are used to store long lists of separate numbers and to manipulate them. With these individually defined functions matching each other at certain points (nodes) at the element interfaces. which is often difficult.4.148 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS the approximate total potential energy is underestimated. d) Tools. 2 Π eq ↓ (7. with simple geometry and well identified structural behaviour.M. Given a geometrically complex structure (including the boundary conditions) and the external loads { pv } . 6. b) Solution approach. in Structural Mechanics a) Problem.35) c) The approximate displacement is underestimated u ↓= F . b) The approximate stiffness is overestimated k ↑= 1 F2 . For this a matrix notation is used. Then determine stresses.a localized version of the Rayleigh-Ritz method Instead of finding an admissible function satisfying the boundary conditions for the entire domain. c) Procedure.36) An approximate compatible displacement field corresponds to a structure which is stiffer than the actual structure and therefore will give a lower bound on displcement. 7. . internal forces. to present output data in an engineering format.1).

the trial function is expressed as a finite expansion .4 Approximating functions for the element In the Rayleigh-Ritz method.4. only δ Π e will be considered.3 Principle of virtual displacements For the entire structure.4. Elements are defined by their nodal coordinates and some physical parameters. 7.4.6. a) can be written (considering only surface tractions) δΠ = V ∫ { δε } {σ }dV − ∫ { δu } { ps }d A = 0 .37) As a summation of virtual works on all elements.8) that define the mesh.2 Discretization The structure is divided into finite elements (Fig. 7.8 7. ⎜ Ve ⎟ Sσ e ⎝ ⎠ ∫ (7.7. equation (7. PVD yields δΠ = ∑ δΠ e e = ∑ ∫ e ⎛ ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ T T ⎜ { δε } {σ }dV − { δu } { ps }d A ⎟ = 0 .38) In the following. The aim is the calculation of the element stiffness matrix and load vector. ENERGY METHODS 149 7. Fig. 7. T T Sσ (7.

4.5 Compatibility between strains and nodal displacements From the compatibility relationship (6. where [ N ] is the matrix of shape functions (interpolation functions). The strain virtual variation is (7.150 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎧ a1 ⎫ ⎪a ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ (7. defined by Q e remains to be found. where [ B ] is the matrix of differentiated shape functions. .the displacement unknowns at the nodes { a } = Q e and to prescribe admissible functions denoted ⎣ϕ ⎦ = ⎣N ⎦ so that { } 0 ⎧ u ⎫ ⎡ ⎣N u ⎦ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎨ v ⎬=⎢ 0 ⎪w⎪ ⎢ 0 ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ ⎣N v ⎦ 0 e ⎤ ⎧ Qu ⎪ e 0 ⎥ ⎨ Qv ⎥ e ⎣N w ⎦ ⎥ ⎪ Qw ⎦⎩ 0 { }⎫ { }⎪ ⎬ { }⎪ ⎭ (7. { } The proper selection of shape functions ensure the continuity of the displacement field at global level. A finite element described by admissible shape functions (integrable in the interior and with equal values of generalized coordinates at element interfaces) is referred to as co-deformable or conforming.40) or { u } = [ N ] {Q e }.18) {ε } = [ ∂ ] { u } = [ ∂ ][ N ] {Q e }= [ B ] {Q e }. ∑ n The basic idea of FEM is to choose the constants .39) u (x ) ≅ a j ϕ j (x ) = ⎣ϕ1 ϕ 2 L ϕ n ⎦ ⎨ 2 ⎬ = ⎣ϕ ⎦ { a } L⎪ ⎪ j =1 ⎪ an ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ where the undetermined constants a j have no direct evident signification. The reason is that elements are small enough so that the shape of the displacement field can be approximated without too much error and only the magnitude. 7.41) { δε } = [ B ] {δQ e }.

cancelation of the bracket yields the element equilibrium equation { } [ K ] {Q }= {F }. The kinematic connectivity is expressed by the relationship between element and global displacements ~ Q e = T e { Q }. containing ones at the nodal displacements of element nodes and zeros elsewhere. e e e (7.7.4. the virtual work for an Ve T T e T e e T ∫ {δ Q } [ B ] [ D ][ B ]{Q }dV − ∫ { δQ } [ N ] { ps }d A = 0 Ae ⎜ = { δQ } ⎜ ∫ [ B ] ⎜ e T ⎛ T [ D ][ B ] dV ⎝ Ve {Q }− ∫ [ N ] e Ae T { ps }d A ⎟ = 0 . {Q } is the vector of the ~ global displacements of the structure and T e is a connectivity matrix.43) and the vector of consistent nodal forces is {F }= ∫ [ N ] Ae T { ps }d A . all individual elements are assembled together so that the displacements are continuous across element interfaces and the boundary conditions are satisfied. ENERGY METHODS 151 7.45) where Q e is the vector of nodal element displacements.4. (7. ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ ⎞ As δQ e are arbitrary and non-zero. { } { } [ ] [ ] The variation of element displacements is . (7.6 Element stiffness matrix and load vector Using the constitutive equation element is δΠ e = or δΠ e {σ } = [ D ] {ε } .42) where the element stiffness matrix is [ K ]= ∫ [ B ] e Ve e T [ D ][ B ] dV (7.44) 7.7 Assembly of the global stiffness matrix and load vector In the next step.

The assembly is done by directly placing the nonzero entries of element stiffness matrices in the right locations of the global stiffness matrix based on element connectivity.152 ~ { δQ }= [ T ] { δQ }. the unreduced global equilibrium equations are [ K ] {Q } = { F } . e T e e T e T e e As { δ Q } are arbitrary and non-zero. (7.50) The above procedure is never used in practice.49) Applying the boundary conditions.25). e T e e e T e e e or using (7.47) where the global stiffness matrix is [ K ]= ∑ e ~ ~ [ T ] [ K ][ T ] e e (7.45) and (7. In the back-substitution phase. e T (7.50). .48) and the global load vector is ~ { F } = ∑ [ T e ] T {Q e }.46) The PVD equation for the entire structure is ∑ {δQ } [ K ] {Q }= ∑ {δQ } {F }. e e FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS (7. the condensed equilibrium equations are [ K ] {Q } = { F } .8 Solution and back-substitution Nodal displacements are determined by solving the linear equations (7. e (7.4. element stresses are evaluated as ~ {σ } = [ D ] {ε } = [ D ][ B ] Q e = [ D ][ B ] T e { Q } { } [ ] where [ D ] is given by (6.46) {δQ }T ∑ e ~ ~ ~ [ T ] [ K ][ T ] {Q } = {δQ } ∑ [ T ] {Q }.24) or (6. It has been used only to show algebraically how to assemble a global stiffness matrix. 7.

Only transversely homogeneous plates will be analyzed herein. the CST was one of the most widely used elements and is still available in systems today. so that the corners of adjacent elements have common displacements. strain and stress components are uniform through the plate thickness. A large number of small elements can be densely packed into a region of expected high stress gradients. The very first approximate finite element developed in 1956 to model delta wing skin panels. 8. composite and sandwich plates being studied in other courses.1. 8.8. In-plane displacement. This unfilled region exists for curved boundaries and it can be reduced by choosing smaller elements. The elements fill the entire region except of a small region at the boundary. and uniformly stressed regions can be left with a small number of larger triangles. It is a much more adaptable shape than the rectangle and it allows the user to tailor the element mesh to suit any structural geometry.1 Discretization of structure The plate is divided into a number of straight-sided triangles (Fig. the three-noded triangle with constant strain field. that allow closed form derivations. 8. This chapter presents the element stiffness matrices and consistent force vectors for triangular and rectangular elements. TWO-DIMENSIONAL ELEMENTS Many engineering structures can be modeled as two-dimensional flat plates. . designed to be primarily loaded in their plane and to resist loads by membrane action rather than bending. is treated separately. joined together at their corners (nodes). a). without the need for numerical integration.1 The plane constant-strain triangle (CST) Before the advent of arbitrarily shaped isoparametric elements. discussed in the next chapter.1. which is considered constant.

Thus.2 Polynomial approximation of the displacement field The displacements u and v of a point within the triangle are expressed in terms of the nodal displacements. ( x2 . y ) = a4 + a5 x + a6 y with six arbitrary parameters.154 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The three nodes of the isolated element from Fig. y3 ) . b are numbered locally as 1. 2 and 3. (8. y2 ) and ( x3 . each node has two degrees of freedom.1. v ( x . 8.1) 8. Because for two displacements there are six boundary conditions.2) .1 b Each node is permitted to displace in the two directions x and y. The corresponding nodal coordinates are designated as ( x1 . y1 ) . The displacement components of a local node j are denoted as u j in the x direction and v j in the y direction. The numbering is in anticlockwise direction to avoid calculating a negative area.1. (8. the assumed displacement field is linear u (x . The vector of element nodal displacements is defined as { q }= ⎣ u e 1 v1 u2 v2 u3 v3 T ⎦ . 8. a Fig. y ) = a1 + a2 x + a3 y .

3) Evaluating the expression for u at the three nodes gives the nodal displacements in terms of the polynomial coefficients ⎧ u1 ⎪ ⎨ u2 ⎪u ⎩ 3 or e ⎫ ⎡ 1 x1 ⎪ ⎢ ⎬ = ⎢ 1 x2 ⎪ ⎢1 x 3 ⎭ ⎣ y1 y2 y3 ⎤ ⎧ a1 ⎥ ⎪a ⎥⎨ 2 ⎥ ⎪ a3 ⎦⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎬ . ∂x εy = ∂v = a6 = const .16) are εx = ∂u = a2 = const . .2) the constants ai have no physical meaning. ⎥ y3 ⎥ ⎦ (8. . a) where (8.5) { a } = [ A ] −1 { u e }.6) where . ∂ y ∂x hence the name “constant strain triangle”. . We can write u = ⎣1 x ⎧ a1 ⎪ y ⎦ ⎨ a2 ⎪a ⎩ 3 ⎫ ⎪ ⎬ = ⎣1 x ⎪ ⎭ y⎦ { a } . (8. ∂y γ xy = ∂u ∂ v + = a3 + a5 = const . Since the functions for u and v are of the same form. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 155 The strains (6. ⎪ ⎭ (8. 8.4.3 Nodal approximation of the displacement field In the polynomial approximation (8.8. in which the constants are the nodal displacements and the displacement field is obtained by interpolation based on values of corner displacements. A nodal approximation is preferred.1.4) { u }= [ A ] { a } . only one need be considered in detail. ⎡ 1 x1 [A ] = ⎢ 1 x2 ⎢ ⎢ 1 x3 ⎣ By inversion y1 ⎤ y2 ⎥ . (8.

156 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS [A ] in which −1 ⎡α1 α 2 α 3 ⎤ 1 ⎢ β1 β 2 β 3 ⎥ . = ⎥ 2A ⎢ ⎢γ 1 γ 2 γ 3 ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ (8. (8. 3 ) (8.10) where the row vector of shape functions −1 ⎣N ⎦ = ⎣N1 N 2 N 3 ⎦ = ⎣ 1 x y ⎦ [ A ] .7) α i = x j yk − xk y j .9) The determinant is positive if nodes 1. ⎧ N1 ⎪ ⎨ N2 ⎪N ⎩ 3 or Ni = ⎫ ⎡ α1 ⎪ 1 ⎢ ⎬= ⎢α 2 ⎪ 2 A ⎢α ⎭ ⎣ 3 β1 γ 1 ⎤ ⎧ 1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ β2 γ 2 ⎥ ⎨ x ⎬ ⎥ β3 γ 3 ⎥ ⎪ y ⎪ ⎦⎩ ⎭ (8.12) 1 ( α i + βi x + γ i y ) . γ i = xk − x j (8. β i = y j − yk . j . y3 y1 (8.11) By transposition T −T T ⎣N ⎦ = [A ] ⎣1 x y ⎦ . k permute in a natural order.13) . 2A ( i = 1. a) Similarly v = ⎣N ⎦ v e .6) into (8.3) gives u = ⎣N ⎦ {u } e (8.12. { } (8. 2. 2. 3 are labeled anticlockwise around the element. The area of the triangle A is equal to one half the magnitude of the determinant of [ A ] 1 x1 2 A = 1 x2 1 x3 y2 = (x2 y3 − x3 y2 ) + ( x3 y1 − x1 y3 ) + (x1 y2 − x2 y1 ) .8) and the subscripts i . Substituting (8.

j = 1.2: N i ( xi .12. as illustrated in Fig.8. 3 (8.2 The shape functions N i vary linearly. 2A 1 [ x3 y1 − x1 y3 + ( y3 − y1 ) x + (x1 − x3 ) y ] . have a unit value at node i and zero values at the other two nodes. 2. y ) = N 2 (x . 8. yi ) = δ i j . y ) = N 3 (x .14) yields .14) ∑ Ni = 1 .15) Combining (8. 2A 1 [ x1 y2 − x2 y1 + ( y1 − y2 ) x + (x2 − x1 ) y ] . b) Fig. 3 ) (8. 2A (8. y ) = 1 [ x2 y3 − x3 y2 + ( y2 − y3 ) x + (x3 − x2 ) y ] .10) and (8. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 157 The shape functions (8. a) can also be written N1 (x .12. and i =1 ( i . 8.

4 The matrix [B ] Strains are expressed in terms of displacements as ⎡ ∂ ⎢ ⎢ ∂x = [ ∂ ] { u }= ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ∂ ⎢ ⎢ ∂y ⎣ ⎤ ⎡ ∂ 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ∂x ⎧u⎫ ⎢ ∂ ⎥ ⎨ ⎬= 0 ∂y ⎥ ⎩ v ⎭ ⎢ ⎢ ∂ ∂ ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ∂x ⎦ ⎥ ⎢ ∂y ⎣ ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ∂ ⎥ [N ∂y ⎥ ∂ ⎥ ⎥ ∂x ⎦ ⎥ {ε } e ] { q e }= [ B ] { q e }.y ) determines a plane surface passing through u1 . u2 and u3 . 8. as shown in Fig. 8.y ) =u1 N1 (x.158 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎧ u ⎫ ⎡ N1 ⎨ ⎬=⎢ ⎩v⎭ ⎣ 0 0 N1 N2 0 0 N2 N3 0 ⎧ u1 ⎪v ⎪ 1 0 ⎤ ⎪ u2 ⎪ ⎨ N 3 ⎥ ⎪ v2 ⎦ ⎪ u3 ⎪ ⎪ v3 ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ (8.3 The displacement u (x.y ) + u2 N 2 (x.y ) + u3 N 3 (x. (8. 8.16) or ⎧u⎫ ⎨ ⎬=[N ⎩v⎭ ] { q e }. a) Fig.1. .16.3.

Along an edge 1-2. (8.8. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 159 The matrix of the derivatives of shape functions is ⎡ ∂ N1 ⎢ ⎢ ∂x [ B ]= ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ∂N 1 ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ ∂y 0 ∂ N1 ∂y ∂ N1 ∂x ∂ N2 ∂x 0 ∂ N2 ∂y 0 ∂ N2 ∂y ∂ N2 ∂x ∂ N3 ∂x 0 ∂ N3 ∂y ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ∂ N3 ⎥ . Sometimes it is 0 x32 y23 y31 ⎡ y23 1 ⎢ [ B ]= ⎢ 0 2A ⎢ x32 ⎣ 0 x13 y31 y12 0 x13 0 x21 0 ⎤ x21 ⎥ ⎥ y12 ⎥ ⎦ (8.18) where t e is the element thickness. the shape function N 3 is zero while N1 and N 2 are similar to the shape functions in one dimension. ∂y ⎥ ∂ N3 ⎥ ⎥ ∂x ⎦ ⎥ ⎡ β1 1 ⎢ [ B ]= ⎢ 0 2A ⎢ γ1 ⎣ ⎡ y2 − y3 1 ⎢ [ B ]= ⎢ 0 2A ⎢ x3 − x2 ⎣ 0 β2 0 β3 γ1 0 β1 γ 2 y3 − y1 γ2 0 β2 γ 3 0 x1 − x3 y3 − y1 0 ⎤ γ3 ⎥ . 8. ⎥ β3 ⎥ ⎦ 0 ⎤ x2 − x1 ⎥ . ⎥ y1 − y2 ⎥ ⎦ 0 x3 − x2 y 2 − y3 y1 − y2 x2 − x1 0 0 x1 − x3 (8.43) is [k ]= ∫ [ B ] e Ve T [ D ][ B ] dV = [ B ]T [ D ][ B ] t e A.25) for plane strain conditions.24) for plane stress and by (6.17. The consistent nodal forces due to traction loads acting on a portion of the boundary are calculated as for a linear two-node element.17) The matrix written simply [B] is constant for a given CST element.1. A is the element area and [ D ] is the material stiffness matrix given by (6. satisfying N1 + N 2 = 1 . a) where the notation is obvious.5 Element stiffness matrix and load vector The element stiffness matrix (7. When the surface load distribution (per unit .

b which however produces a larger bandwidth.1. Fig.5 .160 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS area) is linear. 8.5. are much inferior to higher order elements in a coarse mesh.4). even in a fine mesh. Benchmark tests using triangular elements have shown that CST elements. varying from p1 at node 1 to p2 at node 2 (Fig. 8.4 The nodal forces associated with the weight of an element are equally distributed at the nodes.6 Remarks A mesh like in Fig. Because of linearity they coincide with the static resultants.19) where t e is the thickness of the element. the nodal forces are f1e = lte ( 2 p1 + p2 ) . 8. 8.5. and this could be corrected by using the “union jack” pattern of Fig. Fig. a is clearly a directionally sensitive assembly. 8. 6 f 2e = lte ( p1 + 2 p2 6 ) (8. 8.

TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 161 A drawback of the displacement form of the finite element method is that equilibrium is only satisfied in the mean or over the element. Most programs contain facilities for averaging the stresses. A simple example of stress averaging is shown in Fig. This means that along an edge which is common to two elements the stresses are different across the edge. The simplest form of averaging consists of simply connecting the centroids of two adjacent triangles and to assign the mean stress value to the crossing point of this line with the common edge. 8. Taking advantage of symmetry.8. 8.6 . only one quarter of the plate is considered. The diagram compares the theoretical stress distribution along the marked line with the averaged values calculated using CSTs. Fig. where they should be continuous.6 for a square plate with a circular hole.

162 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The procedure will be used in Example E8. E8. y3 = l . the nodal coordinates of element 1 are x1 = y1 = 0 .1 A square plate of thickness t and Young’s modulus E is pin-jointed at three corners and subjected to a force F at the free corner (Fig. x2 = l .24) is ⎡1 0 0 ⎤ [ D ]= E ⎢ 0 1 0 ⎥ . a Fig. The material stiffness matrix (6.3 Example 8. x3 = 0 .17) is [B ] 1 ⎡ −1 0 1 0 0 0 ⎤ 1⎢ = ⎢ 0 −1 0 0 0 1 ⎥ . and c) the support reactions. a). The area is A = l 2 2 and the matrix (8. E8. Divide the plate into four CST elements and find: a) the nodal displacements.1. ⎢ ⎥ ⎢0 0 1 2⎥ ⎣ ⎦ b (a) With the origin of coordinate axes at the plate centre.18) is . ⎥ l ⎢ −1 −1 0 1 1 0 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (b) The element stiffness matrix (8. b) stresses in elements. y2 = 0 . Let ν = 0 .1 Solution.

the transformation matrix for a rotation with an angle θ is ⎡ c ⎢−s ⎢ ⎢ 0 =⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎣ s c 0 0 0 0 0 c 0 0 0 0 s 0 0 0⎤ 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0⎥ c s⎥ ⎥ −s c⎥ ⎦ 0 [T ] e 0 −s c (e) where c = cos θ and s = sin θ . . 12 12 0 ⎥ 2 ⎢ ⎢ SYM 12 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 1 ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ ⎦ (d) Element 2 can be obtained by rotating 900 anticlockwise element 1. . In general. e e T e e (f) For θ = 900 we obtain ⎡ 0 ⎢ −1 ⎢ ⎢ 0 =⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎣ 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0⎤ 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0⎥ 0 1⎥ ⎥ −1 0 ⎥ ⎦ 0 [T ] 2 0 −1 0 (g) The stiffness matrix of element 2 is [ K ] = [T ] [ k ] [T ]. 2 2 T 1 2 . (c) [K ] 1 ⎡ 3 2 1 2 −1 −1 2 −1 2 0 ⎤ ⎢ 32 0 −1 2 −1 2 −1 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 1 0 0 0 ⎥ Et ⎢ = ⎢ ⎥.8. The stiffness matrix of the rotated element is [ K ] = [T ] [ k ] [T ]. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 163 1 T [ K ]= [k ]= [ B ] 1 1 [ D ] [ B1 ] t A .

x2 = 0 .1. x3 = −1 . Using the appropriate boundary conditions. only the upper half of the plate can be considered (Fig. Due to symmetry. ∗ H4 = − F 4 . 2E t The reaction forces for half the plate are obtained as H3 = − F 4 .164 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS [K ] 2 ⎡ 3 2 −1 2 −1 2 0 −1 1 2 ⎤ ⎢ 32 1 2 −1 0 −1 2 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 12 0 0 −1 2 ⎥ Et ⎢ = ⎢ ⎥.18). E8. the finite element equations can be written 0 0 − 1 1 2 ⎤ ⎧ u1 ⎫ ⎧ 0 ⎫ −1 −1 2 −1 ⎡ 3 ⎢ 0 3 0 −1 2 0 − 2 0 − 1 2 ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ V1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ −1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 ⎥ ⎪ u2 ⎪ ⎪ F 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 12 0 0 0 ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ V2 ⎪ Et ⎢ − 1 2 −1 2 0 1 2 ⎨ ⎬=⎨ ⎬. so that for the entire plate H4 = − F 2 . y2 = 1 . 2E t u2 = 3F .17) and performing the product (8. 1 0 0 ⎥ 2 ⎢ ⎢ SYM 1 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 12 ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ ⎦ (h) The same matrix is obtained by substituting the nodal coordinates x1 = y1 = 0 . H5 = − F 4 . 0 0 12 1 0 0 −1 2 ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ H3 ⎪ 2 ⎢ −1 ⎢ ⎥ 0 0 0 2 0 0 ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ V3 ⎪ −2 ⎢ 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ∗ ⎪ ⎢ −1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ H4 ⎪ ⎢ ⎥ 0 0 1 2 ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ V4 ⎪ −1 2 0 ⎢ 1 2 −1 2 0 ⎣ ⎦⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ Solving E t ⎡ 3 − 1⎤ ⎧ u1 ⎫ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎨ ⎬=⎨ ⎬ 2 ⎢ − 1 1 ⎥ ⎩ u2 ⎭ ⎩ F 2 ⎭ ⎣ ⎦ we obtain the nodal displacements u1 = F . . y3 = 0 in (8. b).

2). and c) the support reactions.2 A thin triangular plate is fixed along the edge 5-4 and loaded by forces F1 = −1 and F2 = −2 along the upper edge in its plane (Fig. Divide the plate into three CST elements and find: a) the nodal displacements. b) stresses in elements. 2 ⎬ ⎨ σy ⎬ =[D ] ε = E ⎢ ⎥ 2l E t ⎨ ⎬ 2 l t ⎨ ⎪− 1 2 ⎪ ⎪ τ ⎪ ⎪− 1⎪ ⎢0 0 1 2⎥ ⎭ ⎩ ⎣ ⎦ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ xy ⎭2 { } Example 8. with Young’s modulus E = 1 and Poisson’s ratio ν = 0. E8. . Assume the cantilever to have unit thickness t = 1 and be in plane stress.8. ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ { ε }= [ B ]{ q } 1 1 1 {ε } 1 ⎧2⎫ ⎡− 1 1⎤ 1⎢ ⎥ ⎧ u1 ⎫ = F ⎪ 0 ⎪ . = ⎢ 0 −1 0 1 0 0 ⎥ ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬ l ⎪ 0 ⎪ 2l E t ⎪− 1⎪ ⎢ −1 1 0 0 1 −1 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎪0⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪0⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎧ σx ⎫ ⎡1 0 0 ⎤ ⎧ 1 ⎫ ⎧1⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢0 1 0 ⎥ F ⎪ 0 ⎪= F ⎪ 0 ⎪.3 . = ⎢ 0 0⎥ ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬ u l 2l E t ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ − 1 0⎥ ⎩ 2 ⎭ ⎩− 1⎭ ⎣ ⎦ ⎫ ⎪ 1 ⎬ =[D ] ε = E ⎪ ⎭1 ⎡1 0 0 ⎤ ⎧ 2 ⎫ ⎧2⎫ ⎢0 1 0 ⎥ F ⎪ 0 ⎪= F ⎪ 0 ⎪. ⎬ ⎢ ⎥ 2l E t ⎨ ⎬ 2 l t ⎨ ⎪− 1 2 ⎪ ⎪− 1⎪ ⎢0 0 1 2⎥ ⎭ ⎩ ⎣ ⎦ ⎩ ⎭ ⎧ σx ⎪ ⎨ σy ⎪τ ⎩ xy { } { ε }= [ B ] { q } 2 2 2 ⎧u1 ⎫ ⎪0⎪ 0 0 0 −1 0 ⎤ ⎪ ⎪ ⎡ 1 ⎧1⎫ ⎪ ⎪ 1⎢ ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ = F ⎪ 0 ⎪. The units are coherent. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 165 Strains and stresses in elements are ⎧ u1 ⎪ 0 ⎡ −1 0 1 0 0 0 ⎤ ⎪ ⎪u 1 ⎪ = ⎢ 0 −1 0 0 0 1 ⎥ ⎨ 2 ⎥ 0 l⎢ ⎢ −1 −1 0 1 1 0 ⎥ ⎪ ⎣ ⎦⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬.

17).166 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Fig. and the matrix [ D ] is given by (6. E8.18). based on the nodal coordinates. .2 Solution. where the matrix [ B ] is obtained from (8.24). the stiffness matrix is calculated longhand from equation (8. The input data are given below For each element.

192 − 0.666 0 1. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 167 The element stiffness matrices are the following: The condensed global stiffness matrix is The condensed finite element equations can be written 0 0 − 0.111 ⎢ 0 − 0.317 0.165 − 0.111 − 0.686 .317 ⎢ 0 0.317 0.903 0 2. v2 = −15.8.192 1.301 0 0 ⎥ ⎪ u2 − 0.582 .165 − 0.823 .192 − 0.712 . u2 = 6. v1 = −40.192 0 ⎥ ⎪ v1 ⎢ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎢ − 0.165 ⎤ ⎧ u1 ⎡ 0.835 .125 0 − 1. u3 = −2. .666 ⎢ ⎥⎨ 0 2.125 ⎥ ⎪ v3 ⎢ − 0.542 .111 0. v3 = −13.301 0 ⎥ ⎪ u3 ⎢ ⎥⎪ 0 0 − 1. ⎪ ⎪−2⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎭ ⎭ ⎩ u1 = 7.903 ⎥ ⎪ v2 ⎢ 0.165 ⎣ ⎦⎩ The solution to these equations gives ⎫ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ −1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎬=⎨ ⎬.

E = 210 GPa and ν = 0. However. c) the distribution of σ x stresses in the midsection. element 3. we can analyze only one-quarter of the plate (upper right).3 A thin rectangular plate. the plate should be modeled by many more elements. a more realistic stress distribution along the edge 4-5 is obtained. Normally. . to allow longhand calculation. Taking advantage of the symmetry of geometry and symmetry of loading. which is wrong. Note that the adopted discretization is very crude.168 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The output data are presented below: The reaction forces at nodes 4 and 5 are obtained from the ‘unused’ unreduced equations.3. a distribution of bending stresses from compressive at 4 to tensile at 5 is expected. Compare the stress values at the periphery of the hole obtained by FEM and from the theory of elasticity. Solution.3 . a). Determine: a) the deformed shape of the hole. E8. Ascribing stress values to the element centroids and averaging them as shown in section 8. gives only one value of σ x . The plate has length l = 60 mm . Example 8. Along the edge 4-5. thickness t = 5 mm . is subjected to loads that produce uniform tensile stresses σ 0 = 5 MPa at its ends (Fig. width b = 40 mm . containing a circular hole of radius a = 10 mm . and this leads to misleading results.6. b) the location and magnitude of the maximum von Mises stress in the plate. being a constant strain element.1.

a A 55-node. The points along the x axis are constrained in the y direction.3.3. Fig. Let x and y represent the axes of symmetry. and the crossing points of the lines connecting the centroids with the common sides (where stresses are averaged).3. 81-element mesh is created as shown in Fig. but the element numbering is omitted for clarity. E8. E8. E8. b The applied nodal forces are shown. The centroids of the elements near the midsection are marked. and points along the y axis are constrained along the x direction. are denoted a to f. The deformed shape is shown in Fig. b.8. c. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 169 Fig. . E8. The hole is elongated in the direction of the loading axis.3.

3. Elements are hatched according to the value of von Mises stresses.3.170 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Fig.3. E8.6 MPa and occurs in element 1. using five intervals with limits shown in the legend. d. . Fig. E8.3. Stress values in elements near the midsection are given in Table E8. c The calculation of stresses is summarized in Fig. d The maximum von Mises stress is 19. E8.

69 d 7.85 e 6. have the following values: Point a 15.8037 Stresses σ x .8845 1. The normal stress at a point far to the right of the fillet has a uniformly distributed value .174 0. which is surprisingly accurate for the rough mesh used in the exercise. a) has length 150 mm .5706 -0.8.78 MPa .068 7.39 c 9. E8. width of the reduced portion 40 mm .7073 3.5786 7.0752 σy 0.815 1. MPa The theoretical distribution of stresses σ x in the midsection of a plate containing a small circular hole and subjected to uniaxial tension is approximated by ⎛ a2 3 a4 ⎞ σ x = σ0 ⎜ 1+ 2 + 4 ⎟ .1651 0.0595 0.4 An axially loaded thin plate with a circular fillet (Fig.4577 11.5693 5.6667 0.6155 10.89 σ x .4.763 τ xy -0.0178 11. averaged at points a to f.3595 σ eq 19. The averaged value of elements 1 and 2. The maximum stress occurs at the periphery of the hole (r = a ) and is σ xmax = 3σ 0 = 15 MPa . a).6445 5. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 171 Table E8.78 b 11. E8.2632 0. ⎜ 2r 2r ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ where r is the distance from the x axis (Fig. E = 2 ⋅ 105 MPa and ν = 0.3 Element 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 σx 20. is σ xa = 15. Example 8.9433 7.25 .3.7162 4. fillet radius 20 mm .9228 0. in point a. width of the extended portion 80 mm .927 0.6821 10. thickness 5 mm .3275 8.6221 0.68 f 4.5768 0.

subjected to a normal stress of 440 N mm 2 . each with a surface of 25 mm 2 . The largest equivalent stress is 604. b The nodal loads are calculated from equation (8.4. Points along the left edge are constrained in the horizontal direction. Fig. E8. a Answer. and 11000 N at the three middle nodes. A model comprising 95 nodes and 144 CST elements is constructed as shown in Fig. E8. for the quarter plate. The distribution of von Mises stresses is shown in Fig.4.7 MPa . The nodal loads for each element are 440 × 25 / 2 = 5500 N . The points along the symmetry axis are constrained in the vertical direction. E8.19).172 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS of 440 MPa . c for five stress intervals given in the legend. Determine the stress concentration factor for the circular fillet. The resulting five nodal forces. Find the location and magnitude of the maximum von Mises stress in the plate. have magnitudes of 5500 N at the upper and lower node. The right edge has four elements.4. b. . Taking advantage of the symmetry. E8. Fig. only half of the plate is considered.4.

3757 0 0. x64 = 95 .5 . This value is reasonably close to the theoretical true value of 1. u64 = 0.2982 − 0.12367 . x65 = 95. E8. The matrix [ B ] is (8. y65 = 20.63e − 3 .0596 − 0.8.4198 0 ⎤ ⎡ − 0.1216 0 0. The largest principal stress σ 1 is 622.5 .12247 .1216 0. = 0.3160 0.4198 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ . Calculate the element stresses.4.4. The triangle area is A96 = 4. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 173 Fig.0596 0 − 0.11224 .42 given by Singer (1962). E8.92e − 3 .97e − 3 .415. ⎥ ⎢ 0.1925 mm 2 .3757 − 0. v60 = −3.3160 ⎥ . Example 8. u65 u60 = 0.17) 0 − 0. The stress concentration factor relative to the value 440 MPa is 1.7 MPa .52 .5 The nodal coordinates and the nodal displacements of element 96 in Fig. y60 = 21. v64 = −3. Solution. y64 = 18 .35 .25 . E = 2 ⋅ 105 MPa and ν = 0. v65 = −4. b are given below: x60 = 92. c Values of the principal stress σ 1 around the fillet are presented in the upper part.2982 ⎢ [ B ]= ⎢ 0 0.

92e − 3 ⎦ T .24) ⎡ 2. {σ } = ⎣σ x Example 8. to concentrate only on the influence of fillet geometry.11224 − 3.97e − 3 0.12247 − 4. σ y τ xy ⎦ T = ⎣596.58 − 120. ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0 0 0 . but is distributed over a larger area than for the mating contact of two teeth.6.6 Find the deformed shape and the stress distribution in the loaded gear tooth shown in Fig.08⎦ T .63e − 3 0. E8.72 63.5333 0 ⎤ [ D ] = 10 ⎢ 0.1333 0.1333 0 ⎥ .174 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The matrix [ D ] is (6. The load is not applied at the tooth tip.8 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 5 The vector of nodal displacements (8.6. Fig.12367 − 3.5333 2. a.1) is { q } = ⎣ 0. Element stresses are given by {σ } = [ D ][ B ] { q }. E8. a .

The adopted finite element mesh has 126 nodes and 212 CST elements. Fig.8. E8. where the equivalent von Mises stresses are indicated.6. Fig.6. c . The deformed shape is presented in Fig. Note the restraints which model the tooth built-in end.6. E8. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 175 Answer. Note the stress concentration at both fillet areas. E8. b The stress distribution is shown in Fig.6. c. b. E8.

2.20) They can be generated using the equations of the sides.2 Rectangular elements Rectangular elements are the easiest to discuss and are used to model stiffened thinwalled panel structures. built up beams and boxes. y j = δ ij . a⎠ ⎝ It is convenient to transform to dimensionless central coordinates . hence it must be of the form N1 ( x . Fig. y ) = x y . N1 ( x . y ) = c1 ( a − x ) ( b − y ) . hence ab 1 ( a − x ) ( b − y ) = ⎛ 1− x ⎞ ⎛ 1− y ⎞ . the remaining three shape functions are N2 ( x. y ) = ⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟ ab a ⎠⎝ b ⎠ ⎝ Likewise. a b N4 ( x. but zero at all other nodes on the element N i x j . y1 ) = N1 ( 0. N1 is identically zero on lines x = a and y = b .7 We have to find two-dimensional shape functions which have unit values at one selected node. 8. ( ) (8.7. y ) = y b x⎞ ⎛ ⎜ 1− ⎟ . For example.1 The four-node rectangle (linear) Consider the 4-node element in Fig. y1 ) = 1 . From condition N1 ( x1 . b ⎠ ⎝ N3 ( x.176 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 8.0 ) = 1 we get c1 = 1 . and has a unit value at the node with the same index N1 ( x1 . 8. y ) = x a y ⎞ ⎛ ⎜ 1− ⎟ . 8.

The displacements u and v of a point within the rectangle can be expressed in terms of the nodal displacements by a polynomial approximation. there are eight boundary conditions. The required shape functions are 1 (1 − r ) (1 − s ) . N4 ⎥ ⎦ u4 v4 ⎦ . a (8. Thus the variation of strain does not have the same order in all directions. That is. (8.8. Some improvement can be gained by diminishing the shear variation through the use of reduced integration on the shear contribution in the element stiffness matrix.25) The use of the shape functions (8.22) (8. . Many users prefer to use higher order elements rather than use a larger number of small 4-noded rectangles. 1 ± s = 0 .…. 4 4 1 1 N3 = ( 1 + r ) ( 1 + s ) .23) has one drawback – they are not complete. { } (8. the assumed displacement field is u (x . b r= 2x −1.23) The displacements inside the element can be expressed in terms of the nodal displacements as ⎧ u ⎫ ⎡ N1 ⎨ ⎬=⎢ ⎩v⎭ ⎣ 0 0 N1 N2 0 0 N2 N3 0 0 N3 N4 0 0 ⎤ e q . all like powers in x and y are not present. for two displacements. N2 = 1 (1 + r ) (1 − s ) . Because. In this case x y is present but x 2 and y 2 are not. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 177 s= 2y −1. y ) = a 1 + a2 x + a3 y + a4 x y . where the stiffness has to be reevaluated as the load increments are applied and plasticity spreads. The 4-noded rectangular element is exploited in non-linear problems like elasto-plastic behaviour. 4 4 N1 = (8.26) The direct strain ε x = a2 + a4 y is constant in the x direction whereas the shear strain γ xy = a3 + a4 x + b2 + b4 y varies linearly with x and y . N 4 = ( 1 − r ) ( 1 + s ) .21) The equations of element sides become 1 ± r = 0 .24) where {q } e T = ⎣u1 v1 u2 v2 u3 v3 (8. y ) = b1 + b 2 x + b 3 y + b4 x y . v ( x .

b shows the expected circular deformed shape free of shear deformations. The poor performance of the 4-noded element is shown below. Fig. The 4-node element has flat sides.39) is [k ]= ∫ [ B ] e Ve T [ D ][ B ] dV . in an example where it is expected to behave like a slender beam in which bending stresses are dominant. In comparison. . 8. stresses are lower than the true values.8.8. Adding four nodes means adding four supplementary boundary conditions (or nodal displacements) so that in the polynomial approximation we can add four more (higher order) terms.9. At the element ends the shear strain is γ xy = d b and only the centre has no shear deformation. where [ B ] = [ ∂ ][ N ] . a shows the deformed shape of a single element in pure bending. (≥ 3) 8. 8.178 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The element stiffness matrix (7.2 The eight-node rectangle (quadratic) The higher order 8-node rectangular element is shown in Fig. 8. Generally. bending strains b This explains the poor results obtained with high aspect ratio elements which have also badly conditioned stiffness matrices. because the strain energy is underestimated.8 Figure 8. The ratio spurious shears a = = aspect ratio . The direct strains are ε x = d a on the upper and lower surface. Fig.2. The stress discontinuities at element interfaces can be comparable with the mean values and the free edge stresses are not zero.

N6 = ( 1 + r ) ( 1 − s ) ( 1 + s ) .27) so that the strains are quadratic.9 In Fig. + N8 u8 . the old ones are presented in Fig. y ) = b1 + b2 x + b3 y + b4 x 2 + b5 x y + b6 y 2 + b7 x 2 y + b8 x y 2 . N 4 = − ( 1 − r ) ( 1 + s ) (1 + r − s ) . N 8 = ( 1 − r ) ( 1 − s ) ( 1 + s ). v ( x .7. Note that choosing the last terms in x 3 and y 3 would make the element more anisotropic. 8. 4 4 1 1 N 3 = − ( 1 + r ) ( 1 + s ) ( 1 − r − s ). + N8 v8 . 8. N 2 = − 1 ( 1 + r ) ( 1 − s ) (1 − r + s ) . In the natural system of coordinates r and s. Using the nodal approximation... (8. 4 4 (8. the displacement field is expressed as u = N1 u1 + N 2 u2 + N 3 u3 + . the shape functions have the following expressions 1 ( 1 − r ) ( 1 − s ) (1 + r + s ) .29) 1 1 N5 = ( 1 − r ) ( 1 + r ) ( 1 − s ) . 2 4 N1 = − .9 only the lines through the new nodes are shown for clarity.. v = N1 v1 + N 2 v2 + N 3 v3 + . Fig. The 16 constants can be expressed (interpolated) in terms of the 16 nodal displacements and the nodal coordinates.8.28) where the shape functions N i can be easily built up based on the equations of the lines passing through the nodes (serendipity approach). 2 2 1 1 N 7 = ( 1 − r ) ( 1 + r ) (1 + s ) .. (8. 8. y ) = a 1 + a2 x + a3 y + a4 x 2 + a5 x y + a6 y 2 + a7 x 2 y + a8 x y 2 . TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 179 The assumed displacement field is cubic u (x .

the functions [ B ] = [ ∂ ][ N [ ] ] 8. 1 − r = 0 . 3. one has to use a large number of elements. Considerable effort has been devoted to develop ‘refined’ elements. as h1 h2 h3 . { } (8..29). where c1 is a constant which is determined so as to yield N1 (− 1.3. i.31) follow and the element stiffness matrix k e can be evaluated using [ D ] .−1) = 1 . Having generated the shape functions [ N ] .e. 1 + r + s = 0 . Equivalently.. h2 . The displacements inside the element can be expressed in terms of the nodal displacements as ⎧ u ⎫ ⎡ N1 ⎨ ⎬=⎢ ⎩v⎭ ⎣ 0 where 0 N1 N2 0 0 L L N8 N2 L L 0 0 ⎤ e q . quadratic or higher-order strain expansions. i. N1 should vanish on the sides defined by the equations of lines passing through nodes 2 to 8: 1 − s = 0 . ζ3 = .e. ζ1 = H1 H2 H3 ... a). N8 ⎥ ⎦ v8 ⎦ T . Therefore N1 is of the form N1 = c1 ( 1 − r ) ( 1 − s ) (1 + r + s ) . h3 from the three sides (Fig. 8.1 Area coordinates For a triangle it is possible to define a completely symmetrical coordinate system known as area coordinates. The position of any point M in the triangle is identified by the perpendicular distances h1 . elements having linear. 8 and have a value of unity at node 1.10. ζ2 = . 8.180 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The interpolation function N1 should be zero at nodes 2.3 Triangular elements In order to obtain accurate results for stresses with a constant strain discretization. c1 = −1 4 .30) { q }= ⎣u e 1 v1 u2 v 2 L L u8 (8. which gives the expression of N1 in (8. and nondimensionalized. by division to the triangle heights.

⎪ ⎭ (8.8. 8. ζ2 = A2 A . (8.10 The physical coordinates of point M can be expressed in terms of the nodal coordinates as x = ζ 1 x1 + ζ 2 x 2 + ζ 3 x3 .12) ⎫ ⎡α1 ⎪ 1 ⎢ ⎬= ⎢α 2 ⎪ 2 A ⎢α ⎭ ⎣ 3 β1 γ 1 ⎤ ⎧ 1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ β2 γ 2 ⎥ ⎨ x ⎬ ⎥ β3 γ 3 ⎥ ⎪ y ⎪ ⎦⎩ ⎭ . we obtain equation (8. b). Fig.32) As A1 + A2 + A3 = A (Fig. or in matrix form ⎧1 ⎫ ⎡1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎨ x ⎬ = ⎢ x1 ⎪ y ⎪ ⎢y ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ 1 ⎧ ζ1 ⎪ ⎨ ζ2 ⎪ζ ⎩ 3 or 1 x2 y2 1 ⎤ ⎧ ζ1 ⎪ x3 ⎥ ⎨ ζ 2 ⎥ y3 ⎥ ⎪ ζ 3 ⎦⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎬. ζ3 = A3 A . TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 181 or ζ1 = A1 A .34) By inversion. y = ζ 1 y1 + ζ 2 y2 + ζ 3 y3 . (8. one obtains ζ1 + ζ 2 + ζ 3 = 1 .33) so the three coordinates are not independent and they behave like the shape functions. 8.10.

In Fig. N6 ⎥ ⎦ v6 ⎦ T .2 Linear strain triangle (LST) The linear strain triangle is a six-noded element. obtained adding three mid-side nodes to the CST.38) .8) are α i = x j yk − xk y j . γ i = xk − x j . 2⎠ 2⎠ ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ N 5 = 4 ζ 2 ζ 3 . 8.37) where { q }= ⎣u e v1 u2 v 2 L L u6 (8. 8.182 ζi = 1 ( α i + βi x + γ i y ) . (8. 2.36) The displacements in terms of the nodal displacements are ⎧ u ⎫ ⎡ N1 ⎨ ⎬=⎢ ⎩v⎭ ⎣ 0 0 N1 1 N2 0 0 L L N6 N2 L L 0 0 ⎤ e q .11. { } (8. N 3 = 2 ⎜ ζ 3 − ⎟ ζ 3 . 8.9) and the expressions (8. 1⎞ 1⎞ ⎞ ⎛ ⎛ ⎟ ζ1 . the equations of the three sides and the lines through the mid-side nodes are shown using area coordinates.35) where A is given by (8. N 6 = 4 ζ 3 ζ1 . 2A FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ( i = 1.3.11 The shape functions are readily seen to be 1 ⎛ N1 = 2 ⎜ ζ1 − 2 ⎝ N 4 = 4 ζ1 ζ 2 . Fig. 3 ) (8. N 2 = 2 ⎜ ζ 2 − ⎟ ζ 2 . β i = y j − yk .

34) obtaining x = (x 2 − x1 ) ζ 2 + (x3 − x1 ) ζ 3 + x1 .44) .41) where A is the triangle area (8. so we must transform from x .43) The results for first. y to ζ1 . ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ (8. it can be solved explicitly in terms of a. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 183 To form [ B ] = [ ∂ ][ N ] we need to find the derivatives of shape functions with respect to the physical coordinates. Using (8.and second-degree terms are ∫ζ A i dA = A .8). The inverse relationship is ⎧ ∂ ⎪ ∂x ⎪ ⎨ ∂ ⎪ ⎪∂y ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬=[J ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎧ ∂ ⎪ ζ ] −1 ⎪ ∂∂ 2 ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ∂ ζ3 ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ 1 ⎡ β2 ⎪ ⎬= ⎢ ⎪ 2A ⎣ γ 2 ⎪ ⎭ ⎧ ∂ β3 ⎤ ⎪ ∂ ζ 2 ⎪ ⎥⎨ ∂ γ3 ⎦ ⎪ ⎪ ∂ ζ3 ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬. y = ( y2 − y1 ) ζ 2 + ( y3 − y1 ) ζ 3 + y1 . ζ 2 . ζ 3 . γ i are defined by (8.40) where [ J ] is the Jacobian of the transformation. 6 (8.9) and β i .39) Using the chain rule for partial derivatives ⎧ ∂ ⎪ ∂ζ ⎪ 2 ⎨ ∂ ⎪ ⎪ ∂ ζ3 ⎩ ⎫ ⎡ ∂x ⎪ ⎢ ∂ζ ⎪ 2 ⎬ = ⎢ ∂x ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ∂ ζ3 ⎭ ⎣ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬=[J ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬. However. The integration is frequently performed numerically. ∂y ∂ ζ2 ∂y ∂ ζ3 ⎤⎧ ∂ ⎥⎪ ∂x ⎪ ⎥⎨ ⎥⎪ ∂ ⎥⎪∂y ⎦⎩ ⎧ ∂ ⎪ ] ⎪ ∂∂x ⎨ ⎪ ⎪∂y ⎩ (8. b and [ D ] using the integration formula for monomials ∫ζ A a b i ζj dA = 2 A a! b! . 3 ∫ζ ζ i A j dA = A .33) we can eliminate ζ1 in (8. ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ (8. 12 ∫ζ A 2 i dA = A . (2 + a + b ) ! (8.42) where d A = l 3 dζ 2 l 2 dζ 3 sinθ = 2 A dζ 2 dζ 3 . (8. The element stiffness matrix is [k ]= ∫ [ B ] e A T [ D ][ B ] t e d A .8.

containing all possible products. ζ 3 = s. There are three constants for this case (the function is quadratic) and an additional interior node is required for each boundary. It is convenient to locate these interior nodes at the mid-points of the sides. (8. y = ( 1 − r − s ) y1 + r y2 + s y3 . 2 2 v = b1 + b2 ζ 2 + b3 ζ 3 + b4 ζ 2 + b5 ζ 2 ζ 3 + b6 ζ 3 .47) Fig. 2 (8. The physical coordinates of a point within the triangle are x = ( 1 − r − s ) x1 + r x 2 + s x3 . six for each component.45) The displacement field is complete.12 The coefficients of the nodal coordinates are genuine geometric interpolation functions N1 = 1 − r − s . There are twelve nodal displacements.184 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The LST element is based on expanding the displacements in a complete second-degree polynomial in ζ 2 and ζ 3 2 u = a1 + a2 ζ 2 + a3 ζ 3 + a4 ζ 2 + a5 ζ 2 ζ 3 + a6 ζ 3 . the displacement expansion on a boundary must involve only the nodal quantities for that boundary. Denoting ζ 2 = r. Solving for the constants in terms of the nodal displacements. N2 = r . without recourse to computationally inefficient internal nodes. ζ1 = 1 − ζ 2 − ζ 3 = 1 − r − s (8. the nodal approximation (8.48) .37) is obtained.46) we can introduce oblique triangular coordinates (Fig. In order to satisfy inter-element displacement compatibility. (8. 8. 8.12). N3 = s . so the element is truly isotropic.

taking as nodal quantities the displacement components.8. i =1 9 v = ∑ N i vi + N c v c .3.3 Quadratic strain triangle A triangular element with a quadratic displacement field can be built up in two ways. v = ( 1 − r − s ) v1 + r v2 + s v3 . Since the function is cubic.50) where . The side nodes are located at the third points.49) so that the same functions can be used as interpolation functions. The displacement nodal expansion has the form u = ∑ N i ui + N c u c . 8. This is the basic idea behind the isoparametric formulation. 8.13 The displacements are expressed as complete cubic polynomials. This element is shown in Fig. the stiffness will have preferred direction which is not desirable. four nodal quantities are required to define the distribution on a side. It is convenient to take the interior node at the centroid. 8. i =1 9 (8. An additional interior node is needed to maintain completeness of the polynomial since.13. Fig. (8. One possibility is to work with corner point nodes and two interior nodes per side. treated in the next chapter. In order to satisfy inter-element displacement compatibility. a. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 185 The nodal displacements for the 3-node triangle can also be written u = ( 1 − r − s ) u1 + r u2 + s u3 . the displacement function for a side must depend only on the nodal displacement quantities for the side. if the polynomial is not complete.

2 9 9 = ζ1 ζ 2 ( 3 ζ1 − 1 ) . + + N 9 u′y 3 + N cuc ..51) Another possibility is to work only with corner nodes. The solution is to include displacement ∂ u ∂ u ∂v ∂v derivatives . are 2 N1 = ζ1 ( ζ1 + 3 ζ 2 + 3 ζ 3 ) − 7 ζ1 ζ 2 ζ 3 . x x (8. 2 N 9 = ζ 3 ( β1 ζ 2 − β 2 ζ1 ) + ( β 2 − β1 ) ζ1 ζ 2 ζ 3 . (8. N 7 = ζ 2 ζ 3 ( 3 ζ 3 − 1 ). expressed in terms of triangular coordinates. It is convenient to take the displacement components of the centroid (uc . 2 2 9 9 = ζ 2 ζ 3 ( 3 ζ 2 − 1 ). 8. N 2 = ζ 2 ( 3 ζ 2 − 1 ) ( 3 ζ 2 − 2 ) . 2 N 5 = ζ 2 ( γ 1 ζ 3 − γ 3 ζ1 ) + ( γ 3 − γ 1 ) ζ 1 ζ 2 ζ 3 . 2 N 2 = ζ1 ( γ 3 ζ 2 − γ 2 ζ 3 ) + ( γ 2 − γ 3 ) ζ1 ζ 2 ζ 3 .13. (8. At each corner. N 9 = ζ 3 ζ 1 ( 3 ζ 1 − 1 ) . 2 N8 = ζ 3 ( γ 2 ζ1 − γ 1 ζ 2 ) + ( γ 1 − γ 2 ) ζ1 ζ 2 ζ 3 . 2 2 = 27 ζ1 ζ 2 ζ 3 . two displacements and four first derivatives. 2 N 3 = ζ1 ( β 2 ζ 3 − β 3 ζ 2 ) + ( β 3 − β 2 ) ζ1 ζ 2 ζ 3 .. a total of 18 parameters (Fig. there are six . 2 2 1 = ζ3 ( 3 ζ3 − 1 ) ( 3 ζ3 − 2 ) . ∂x ∂ y ∂x ∂ y nodal variables. 2 N 6 = ζ 2 ( β 3 ζ1 − β1 ζ 3 ) + ( β1 − β 3 ) ζ1 ζ 2 ζ 3 .186 N1 = N3 N4 N6 N8 Nc FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 1 1 ζ1 ( 3 ζ1 − 1 ) ( 3 ζ1 − 2 ) . as nodal quantities. N 4 = ζ 2 ( ζ 2 + 3 ζ 3 + 3 ζ1 ) − 7 ζ1 ζ 2 ζ 3 . The nodal expansion for u has the form u = N1 u1 + N 2 u′ 1 + N 3 u′y1 + N 4 u2 + N 5 u′ 2 + . 2 2 9 9 = ζ 3 ζ1 ( 3 ζ 3 − 1 ) .52) the interpolation polynomials. vc ) as the remaining parameters. Two additional displacement quantities not associated with the boundaries are required for completeness. 2 2 N 7 = ζ 3 ( ζ 3 + 3 ζ1 + 3 ζ 2 ) − 7 ζ1 ζ 2 ζ 3 . . N 5 = ζ1 ζ 2 ( 3 ζ 2 − 1 ). b).53) N c = 27 ζ1 ζ 2 ζ 3 . .52) In (8. in order to reduce the bandwidth of the stiffness matrix.

+ 2 = − 2 ⎜ ∂ y 2 ∂ x ∂y ⎟ ∂ x2 ∂ y ⎝ ⎠ ∂ 2 v ∂ 2 v 1 + ν ⎛ ∂ 2 v ∂ 2u ⎞ ⎜ ⎟. one can say that: a) Within elements.54) gives ∂ 2u ∂ 2u 1 + ν ⎛ ∂ 2u ∂ 2v ⎞ ⎜ ⎟.56) .7) we obtain ( ) ( ) (8. (8. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 187 where γ i . + = − 2 ⎜ ∂ x 2 ∂ x ∂y ⎟ ∂ x2 ∂ y 2 ⎝ ⎠ u ( x . For example. y ) = b1 + b2 x + b3 y + b4 x y . ∂x 2 ∂y 1− ν ∂ ∂ γ xy + ε y + ν ε x = 0.8. compatibility is satisfied if the assumed element displacement field is continuous. pv x Let write the equilibrium equations in terms of displacements for the case = pv y = 0 . 8.4.16) in (8.24) into the equilibrium ∂ 1− ν ∂ ε x +ν ε y + γ xy = 0.26) (8.55) are not satisfied by the assumed displacement field (8.54) Substituting the strain-displacement relations (6.4 Equilibrium. y ) = a1 + a2 x + a3 y + a4 x y . but equilibrium is usually not satisfied.8) and the subscript c refers to the centroid. β i are defined by (8. v ( x . Substituting the stress-strain relations (6. 2 ∂x ∂y equations (6. compatibility In a FEM solution based on assumed displacement fields.55) Equations (8. 8.1 Equilibrium vs. of the rectangular element. convergence and compatibility It is useful to make some general comments on the fulfilment of the equilibrium and compatibility conditions in a finite element solution based on assumed displacement fields [33]. The same interpolation functions are valid for v .

inter-element stress continuity may exist. The rectangle would satisfy equilibrium if a4 = b4 = 0 . as in the case of uniform beams loaded only at nodes. the rectangle is inferior to the triangle. b) Between elements. in general. and ∂x ∂y ∂ x ∂y ∂ x2 ∂ y which is not zero. However. the edges remain straight. In some cases it can give better results. provided that the new mesh contains all the nodes of the previous meshes. 8. The finite element equations are a set of equilibrium equations and the solution is such that resultant forces and moments acting on each node are zero. Moreover. but this is the case only in a field of constant strain. the finite element solution gives an upper bound on the total potential energy. One cannot conclude from this that. u and v are linear in x (or y ) along element edges. Inter-element equilibrium is obviously violated in the CST. compatibility is enforced by joining elements at these locations. compatibility may or may not be satisfied. However. in a ‘proper’ finite element solution. = a3 + a4 x . But as already shown. for both the 3-node triangle and the 4-node rectangle.4. the convergence of displacements with the mesh refinement must be monotonic from below. so the first equation (8. the direct strain ε x is linear in the y direction whereas the shear strain γ xy varies linearly with x and y . c) At nodes. When inter-element compatibility is satisfied. the sequence of solutions to a problem is expected to converge to the correct result if the assumed element displacement fields satisfy the following criteria: . the solution will converge monotonically to the true solution.55) is not satisfied. where stresses are constant within the element but differ from one element to another. and adjacent elements do not overlap or separate. As the discretization is refined. any violations of equilibrium and compatibility tend to vanish as more and more elements are used in the mesh. the elements fit together. and equilibrium of nodal forces and moments is satisfied. and equilibrium is usually not satisfied. So. for any nodal displacement.188 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ∂u ∂u ∂ 2v ∂ 2u ∂ 2u = a2 + a4 y . Happily. For example. = b4 = 2 = 0 . equilibrium is satisfied within the CST because of its extreme simplicity.2 Convergence and compatibility As the mesh of elements is refined.

if there is a ‘balanced’ representation of terms in the polynomial expansion. the expansion must be at least a complete polynomial of order equal to the highest derivative occurring in the strain-displacement relations. Also. d) Compatibility must exist between elements. and the equations of nodal equilibrium are altered. If not. the element type is invalid or at least suspect (it may happen that an element is valid in certain configurations only). i. strains. The boundary nodes are then given either displacements or forces consistent with a constant strain state. . This requirement is violated by many successful non-conforming elements. the displacement field must produce the constant strain state throughout the element. plate and shell elements. and stresses within elements should be consistent with the constant strain state. we do not know whether the potential energy corresponding to a particular non-conforming element is higher or lower than the true value. The model consists of an assembly of several elements arranged so that at least one node is completely surrounded by elements.e. the element must exhibit zero strain and therefore zero nodal forces. This is normally ensured by the selection of shape functions. In the case of beam. the slope must be continuous across interelement boundaries. When nodal degrees of freedom are given values corresponding to a state of rigid body motion. The check is done using the so called “patch test”. we will not be able to reproduce the displacement patterns corresponding to the n − 1 previous discretizations. c) Rigid body modes must be represented. e) The element should have no preferred directions. b) When the nodal degrees of freedom are given values corresponding to a state of constant strain. extraneous nodal forces appear. it is not possible to construct a minimizing sequence with non-compatible elements. This means that by suitably specializing the nodal displacements for the nth discretization. as each element approaches a state of constant strain. Such elements do satisfy inter-element compatibility in the limit of mesh refinement. Invariance exists if complete polynomials are used for element displacement fields. Elements must not overlap or separate. However. It is achieved even when based on incomplete polynomials. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 189 a) The displacement field within an element must be continuous. If this requirement is violated. The computed displacements. noncompatible elements do not provide a bound on the potential energy. Internal nodes are to be neither loaded nor restrained. Elements should be invariant with respect to the orientation of the load system.8. To satisfy the requirements on both rigid body modes and constant strain rates.

⎩v5 ⎭ u5 = v5 = 1.190 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Example 8. v1 = 0 . . The condensed set of finite element equations has the form [K ] ⎧ ⎨ where [K ] depends on the material properties and {F } depends on both the material properties and the prescribed nodal displacements. v3 = 4 . v4 = 1 . Fig. v2 = 1 . the internal node must behave accordingly. If these are the boundary conditions imposed to the model. a simple patch test is carried out as follows. The resulting nodal displacements are u1 = 0 .7 Assume a displacement field u=v= x+ y for which the strains are {ε } = ⎣1 1 2⎦ T . E8. u4 = 1 . u3 = 4 .25 and the strains at any point must be {ε } = ⎣1 1 2⎦ T . E8. Its solution must be u5 ⎫ ⎬ = {F } .7 For the assembly of four triangular elements shown in Fig. u2 = 1 .6.

1. because only the displacement expansion is refined whereas the geometry definition remains the same. In fact. The construction of shape functions and evaluation of stiffness matrices for quadrilateral and higher-order elements with curved sides faces difficulties which are overcome by the use of isoparametric elements and numerical integration. 2. Each node has two degrees of freedom.1 Linear quadrilateral element Consider the general quadrilateral element shown in Fig. The displacement components of a local node i are denoted as ui in the x direction and vi in the y direction. If we develop higher order triangular elements while keeping straight sides. The constant strain triangle is an isoparametric element though it was not treated like that. The vector of element nodal displacements is defined as { q }= ⎣ u e 1 v1 u2 v2 u3 v3 u4 v4 ⎦ T . (9. It is possible to construct subparametric elements whose geometry is determined by a lower order model than the displacements. the result is an isoparametric element. ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS Simple triangular and rectangular elements allow closed form derivations of stiffness matrices and load vectors. 9. When it is mapped into a quadrilateral with parabolically curved sides. they are subparametric elements. The coordinates of node i are ( xi . For isoparametric elements. The local nodes 1.1) .9. the shapes of the interpolation functions and not the parameters are the same. a. When the eight node rectangle is transformed into a quadrilateral with straight sides. 3 and 4 are labelled counterclockwise. Elements with curved sides provide a better fit to curved edges of an actual structure. we obtain a subparametric element. the same interpolation functions are used to define the element shape as are used to define the displacement field within the element. yi ) . 9.

9. which extends over r ∈ [ − 1. y } is called the isoparametric mapping. a). In the reference plane. a Fig. The coordinates r and s vary from − 1 on one side to + 1 at the other. This is called the reference plane. quadrilateral elements become a square of side 2 (Fig.1 b In the development of isoparametric elements it is useful to visualize the quadrilateral coordinates plotted as cartesian coordinates in the { r .1. They are called quadrilateral coordinates. a Fig. 1 ] .1.2. s } plane. b. 9. called the reference element (or master element). taking the value zero over the quadrilateral medians. s } in the reference plane and the cartesian coordinates { x .1 Natural coordinates A natural coordinate system can be attached to a quadrilateral element as illustrated in Fig. The transformation between the natural coordinates { r . s ∈ [ − 1. 1 ] . 9. 9.192 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 9.2 b .

23) developed for the rectangle are directly applicable 1 1 N1 = ( 1 − r ) ( 1 − s ) . a) y = ⎣N ⎦ y e = ⎣N1 { } N2 N3 ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ N4 ⎦ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ y1 y2 y3 y4 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬. 4 (9. y } is generated by the ‘parent’ or ‘reference’ element from the { r . N 2 = ( 1 + r ) ( 1 − s ) . y = N1 y1 + N 2 y2 + N 3 y3 + N 4 y4 = ∑ N i y i . s } plane (Fig. x3 ⎪ x4 ⎪ ⎭ (9.4. The drawback is that the mapping is a change of coordinates which implies complications in the evaluation of the integral in the element stiffness matrix.4.9. i =1 i =1 4 4 (9. 4 4 The following compact representation is useful for the implementation in a computer program Ni ( r . The coordinates of a point within the element are expressed in terms of the nodal coordinates as x = N1 x1 + N 2 x 2 + N 3 x3 + N 4 x 4 = ∑ N i x i . 4 4 (9.2 Shape functions The interpolation functions (8. The advantage is that the interpolation functions defined for the reference element are the same for all actual elements and have simple expressions.2. 9. ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 193 Each quadrilateral ‘child’ in the { x . s ) = 1 ( 1 + r ri )( 1 + s si ) . ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ (9. N 4 = ( 1 − r ) ( 1 + s ) . b).2) 1 1 N3 = ( 1 + r ) ( 1 + s ) . 9. b) .1. si ) are the coordinates of node i .3) where ( ri .4) In matrix form x = ⎣N ⎦ x e = ⎣N1 { } N2 N3 ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ N4 ⎦ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ x1 ⎫ x2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎬.

v = N1 v1 + N 2 v2 + N 3 v3 + N 4 v4 = ∑ N i v i .1. This ensures interelement compatibility.3 The displacement field In the isoparametric formulation. If u and v are the displacement components of a point located at ( r .2) fulfil continuity of geometry and displacements both within the element and between adjacent elements. i. s ) .8) = a1 + a2 + ( a3 + a4 ) s . For example. 2 2 r =1 The four-node quadrilateral is termed a “linear” (sometimes bi-linear) element because its sides remain straight during deformation. As mentioned in Chapter 8. If the u displacement is approximated as u ( r . Then it is easy to show that the displacements along a side of the element depend only upon the displacements of the nodes occurring on that side. s ) = a1 + a2 r + a3 s + a4 r s . where (9. along the side 2-3 (Fig. the compatibility requirement is satisfied in cartesian coordinates too.2. because r (or s) is constant.7) As the shape functions in natural coordinates (9.194 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 9. a). N4 ⎥ ⎦ (9. polynomial models are inherently continuous within the element. there are no openings. then u = N1 u 1 + N 2 u 2 + N 3 u 3 + N 4 u 4 = ∑ N i u i . i =1 i =1 4 4 (9.5) which can be written in matrix form { u } = [ N ] { q e }.6) [ N ]= ⎡ ⎢ N1 0 N1 N2 0 0 N2 N3 0 0 N3 N4 0 ⎣ 0 0 ⎤ .e. overlaps or discontinuities . = 1− s 1+ s u2 + u3 . the same shape functions are used to express the displacements within the element in terms of the nodal values as are used to define the element shape. 9. along each side the approximation is linear. r = 1 and u u r =1 (9.

y ) to be an implicit function of r and s as f = f [ x (r . 9. the 4-node quadrilateral is a non-conforming element. s ) . ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 195 between the elements. u ( x ) varies quadratically and cannot be uniquely defined as a function of u 2 and u 3 . because the interpolation displacement model provides rigid body displacements in the natural coordinate system. a) has the form y = m x + c . If the u displacement is approximated as u ( x . the equation of the side 2-3 (Fig. Transformation of differential operators Using the chain rule of differentiation. s } coordinates. ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ (9.1. 9. The approximation (9. y (r . On the contrary. Also.11) is the Jacobian matrix.10) where [ J ]= ⎡ ⎢ J11 ⎣ J 21 J12 ⎤ J 22 ⎥ ⎦ (9.4 Mapping from natural to cartesian coordinates Subsequently. This is done considering the function f = f ( x .10) and (9. y ) = b1 + b2 x + b3 y + b4 x y .4). where m is the slope of 2-3. Along 2-3. along each side the approximation is quadratic.9) For example. Using (9.1. we need to express the derivatives of a function in { x .9. we have ⎧ ∂ ⎪ ∂r ⎪ ⎨ ∂ ⎪ ⎪ ∂s ⎩ ⎫ ⎡ ∂x ⎪ ⎢ ∂r ⎪ ⎬ = ⎢ ∂x ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ ⎢ ∂s ⎭ ⎣ ∂y ∂r ∂y ∂s ⎤⎧ ∂ ⎥⎪ ∂x ⎪ ⎥⎨ ⎥⎪ ∂ ⎥⎪∂y ⎦⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬=[J ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎧ ∂ ⎪ ] ⎪ ∂∂x ⎨ ⎪ ⎪∂y ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬. (9. s ) ] . y } coordinates in terms of its derivatives in { r . so that u ( x) 2 −3 = b1 + cb3 + ( b2 + m b3 + c b4 ) x + m b4 x 2 .9) is non-conforming. the conditions of both rigid body displacements and constant strain states are satisfied in cartesian coordinates too. it can also be expressed as . The 4-node isoparametric quadrilateral is a conforming element.

− y1 − y2 + y3 + y4 + ⎥ + r ( y1 − y2 + y3 − y4 ) ⎥ ⎦ ⎫ ⎧ ∂ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ∂r ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ = [ j ]⎨ ∂ ⎬ .12) ⎫ ⎧ ∂ ⎪ ∂ r ⎣N ⎦ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ =⎨ ⎬ ∂ ⎪ N⎦ ⎪ ⎣ ⎪ ⎪ ∂s ⎭ ⎩ ⎣{ x e } { y e }⎦ . ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ (9. ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ∂s ⎪ ⎭ ⎭ ⎩ (9. For the four-node quadrilateral element [ J ]= 1 ⎡ ⎢ − (1 − s ) (1 − s ) 4 ⎣ − (1 − r ) − (1 + r ) (1 + s ) (1 + r ) ⎡ x1 − (1 + s ) ⎤ ⎢ x 2 ⎢ (1 − r ) ⎥ ⎢ x3 ⎦ ⎢ ⎣ x4 y1 y2 y3 y4 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥.13. the inverse relationship is (9. ⎥= j22 ⎦ det [J ] ⎢ − J 21 J11 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (9. where A0 = 1 8 (9.14) where [ j ] = [ J ] −1 is the inverse of the Jacobian matrix [ j ]= ⎡ ⎢ j11 ⎣ j21 j12 ⎤ 1 ⎡ J 22 − J12 ⎤ . a) Analogously. .16) [ ( y4 − y2 )( x3 − x1 ) − ( y3 − y1 )( x4 − x2 ) ] .13) ⎡ − x1 + x 2 + x3 − x 4 + ⎢ 1 ⎢ + s (x1 − x 2 + x3 − x 4 ) [ J ]= ⎢ 4 − x1 − x 2 + x3 + x 4 + ⎢ ⎢ + r (x1 − x 2 + x3 − x 4 ) ⎣ ⎧ ∂ ⎪ ∂x ⎪ ⎨ ∂ ⎪ ⎪∂y ⎩ ⎫ ⎡ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ ⎬=⎢ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ ⎢ ⎭ ⎣ ∂r ∂x ∂r ∂y ∂s ∂x ∂s ∂y ⎤⎧ ∂ ⎥ ⎪ ∂r ⎪ ⎥⎨ ⎥⎪ ∂ ⎥ ⎪ ∂s ⎦⎩ − y1 + y2 + y3 − y4 + ⎤ ⎥ + s ( y1 − y2 + y3 − y4 ) ⎥ ⎥.196 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎧ ∂ ⎪ [ J ] = ⎪ ∂∂r ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ∂s ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎣x ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎧ ∂ ⎪ ∂r ⎪ y⎦ = ⎨ ∂ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ∂s ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎣ ⎣N ⎦ { x e } ⎣N ⎦ { y e }⎦ = (9.15) For the four-node quadrilateral element det [ J ] = A0 + A1 r + A2 s .

where d x = d x ⋅ i . j are base vectors. the elementary area dA is given by the modulus of the cross product d r ×d s . Transformation of an infinitesimal area An additional result that will be needed is the relation dx dy = det [ J ] dr ds . d y = d y ⋅ j . y ) . the elementary area dA is given by the modulus of the cross product d x ×d y .17) It is needed because.9. contours respectively. Because r = r ( x . . ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 197 A1 = A2 = 1 8 1 8 [ ( y3 − y4 )( x2 − x1 ) − ( y2 − y1 )( x3 − x4 ) ]. and s = const . The above expressions will be used in the derivation of the element stiffness matrix. . ∂r ∂r d s = ( J 21 i + J 22 j ) d s . ∂f ∂f . and i . the integration on the real element is replaced by the simpler integration over the reference element. [ ( y4 − y1 )( x3 − x2 ) − ( y3 − y2 )( x4 − x1 ) ] . It is equal to the area of the elemental parallelogram enclosed by the two vectors d r and d s directed tangentially to the r = const . The components of these vectors in a cartesian coordinate system are dr = ∂x ∂y d r ⋅ i + d r ⋅ j = ( J11 i + J12 j ) d r . in terms of ∂x ∂y Usually [ j] is used because we want to express ∂f ∂f . By equating the moduli of the cross products d x ×d y = d x d y ⋅ k . for the evaluation of the element stiffness matrix. (9. y ) ∂r ∂s are not explicitly known. s = s ( x . y }. In cartesian coordinates { x . s } . In a curvilinear system { r . determined on the reference element. we need [ j ].

where [ ∂ ] is the matrix of differential operators (6. j J12 J 22 k 0 d r d s = det [J ] d r d s ⋅ k 0 9.41) gives the strain-displacement matrix ⎡ ∂ ⎢ ⎢ ∂x [ B ]= [∂ ] [ N ]= ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ∂ ⎢ ⎢ ∂y ⎣ ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ∂ ⎥ [ N ].43) is [k ]= t ∫ [ B ] e e A T [ D ][ B ] d A . ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ (9.9) and shape functions (9.17).41) [ B ] = [ ∂ ][ N ] . where (9. (9. The matrix of differentiated shape functions [ B ] is (7.198 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS i d r ×d s = J11 J 21 we obtain equation (9.5 Element stiffness matrix The element stiffness matrix (7. ∂y ⎥ ∂ ⎥ ⎥ ∂x ⎥ ⎦ (9.7). (9.14) we obtain [ B ] = [ B1 ][ B2 ] .20) Using the transformation (9.9) into (7.19) [ N ] is the matrix of Substituting (6.21) ⎡ j11 [ B1 ] = ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ j21 ⎣ j12 0 j22 0 j21 j11 0 j22 j12 ⎤ ⎥.22) .18) where [ D ] is the material stiffness matrix and t e is the element thickness.1.

the above integration has to be performed numerically. along side 2-3 in Fig. as shown in the following.9.25) if p x and p y are constants and l 2 −3 is the length of the side 2-3.1. ∂ ⎥ ⎥ ∂r ⎥ ∂ ⎥ ∂s ⎥ ⎦ (9. 9.17).6 Element load vectors Because the displacements along a side of the quadrilateral isoparametric element are linear.24) Because [ B ] and det [ J ] are involved functions of r and s. (9.23) or 0 0 (1 − s ) ⎡ − (1 − s ) ⎢ − (1 − r ) 0 − (1 + r ) 0 [ B2 ] = 1 ⎢ (1 − s ) 0 − (1 − s ) 0 4⎢ ⎢ 0 − (1 − r ) 0 − (1 + r ) ⎣ (1 + s ) (1 + r ) 0 0 0 0 (1 + s ) (1 + r ) − (1 + s ) (1 − r ) 0 0 ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥. ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 199 and ⎡ ∂ ⎢ ∂r ⎢ ⎢ ∂ [ B2 ] = ⎢ ∂ s ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎣ ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ [ N ]. If there is a distributed load having components ( px . the consistent nodal forces applied along that side are calculated as for a linear two-node element. p y ) per unit length 0 0 ⎦T . the element stiffness matrix can be written [k ]= t ∫ ∫ [ B ] e e −1 −1 +1 +1 T [ D ][ B ] det [ J ] dr ds . − (1 + s )⎥ (1 − r ) ⎥ ⎦ 0 Using equation (9. then the equivalent nodal force vector is { f }= 1 l ⎣ 0 2 e 2−3 0 px py px py (9. 9. .1.

. + a2 n r 2 n −1 .... A polynomial of order (2n − 1) can be ‘fitted’ to f ( r ) by imposing n weights wi and n sampling points in such a way that the summation +1 −1 ∫ f (r ) d r = ∑ wi f ( r i ) i =1 n (9. They turn out to be the roots of Legendre polynomials and so the method is referred to as a Gauss-Legendre integration.27) .26) is exact up to the chosen order.1 One dimensional Gauss quadrature The one-dimensional version of the Gauss method relies on the concept that any function f ( r ) can be represented approximately over the interval r ∈ [ − 1. The 2n coefficients are determined from the condition that the above equation is satisfied for a polynomial of order 2n − 1 of the form f ( r ) = a1 + a2 r + a3 r 2 + . the differentiated shape functions in the matrix [ B ] grow algebraically more cumbersome. whose heights are equal to the function values at the sampling points. It is more efficient than other methods. the stiffness integrals become progressively more complicated. The particular positions of these sampling points are known as Gauss Points.2. the integral of a polynomial function is replaced by a linear combination of its values at the integration points ri : +1 −1 ∫ f ( r )d r = w1 f (r1 ) + w2 f (r 2 ) + .200 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 9.. (9. 1 ] by a polynomial which can be integrated exactly. + wn f (r n ) . 9.. In other words. The isoparametric mapping introduces det [ J ] in the integrand so that closed form evaluation of stiffness integrals becomes impossible. The actual area represented by the integral is replaced by a series of rectangles of unequal widths. For higher order elements. as for example the NewtonCotes integration.2 Numerical integration The numerical evaluation of stiffness integrals is usually done by Gaussian quadrature. As the order of the displacement field increases. because it involves only a half of the sample values of the integrand required by the latter. + wi f (ri ) + .

+ a2 n −1 +1 +1 −1 ∫r 2 n −1 d r = a1 ( w1 + w2 + .... 9. 3 (9... + wn r n + .. + wn r n .3... linear in wi and nonlinear in r i .29) so that 2 = w1 + w2 + . ( −1 ∫ d r + a2 ∫ r d r + . ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 201 On substitution above we get +1 a1 + a2 w1 r1 + w2 r 2 + .30) L L L L L L 2 2 2 0 = w1 r1 n −1 + w2 r 2 n −1 + .. a) +1 −1 ∫ f ( r )d r ≈ w1 f (r1 ) . 2 . − 1 < r i < +1 ⎬ ⎭ One-point formula For n = 1 we have the midpoint rule (Fig.. The 2 n parameters are determined from conditions wi > 0 ⎫ i = 1.. 0 = w1 r1 + w2 r 2 + . This is a set of 2 n equations. i =1 n +1 −1 ∫ r α d r = ∑ wi riα .9... + wn r n n −1 ... + wn ) + ) ( ) (9.28) Identifying the terms +1 −1 ∫ d r = ∑ wi . 2 2 2 2 = w1 r1 + w2 r 2 + .... i =1 n +1 −1 ∫ r d r = ∑ wi r i . + wn r n . + wn r n 2 n −1 . n . + wn . + a2 n w1 r12 n −1 + w2 r 2 2 n −1 + . i =1 n Generally +1 0 ⎧ ⎪ rα dr = ⎨ 2 ⎪ α +1 ⎩ −1 ∫ if i is odd if i is even (9.....

9. Fig. (9.g. avoiding the so-called shear locking by using reduced integration for shearing. The solution to this set of equations is w1 = w2 = 1 . 0 = w1 r1 + w2 r 2 .5773502691 3 ∫ f ( r )d r = 1 ⋅ f ( 0. to separate shear from extension effects. 9. b) +1 −1 r1 = − r 2 = 1 = 0.57735 ) + 1 ⋅ f ( − 0. 2 2 2 = w1 r1 + w2 r 2 .202 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS which is exact only when f (r ) is a polynomial of order 1.31) For a polynomial of order 2n − 1 = 2 ⋅ 2 − 1 = 3 . Two-point formula For a two-point integration +1 −1 ∫ f ( r )d r = w1 f (r1 ) + w2 f (r 2 ) . equations (9.30) give 2 = w1 + w2 . it is employed in some selective integration schemes. e. 3 3 3 0 = w1 r1 + w2 r 2 .57735 ) . However. so that (Fig.3.3 .

774 ) .861136 0 9.339981 ± 0. s2 ) + f ( r2 .555 ⋅ f ( − 0.652145 0.0 1. c) ∑ wi f (ri ) = 0.774) + 0. ri 0 wi 2. s1 ) + f ( r2 .5555 0. Gauss quadrature formulae for quadrilateral elements are shown in Table.1 for the first four orders. r1 = s 1 = − 0.347854 1 2 3 4 1 3 5 7 ± 0.555 ⋅ f ( 0. s2 ) . 9. s j .0 0. so that I = f ( r1 .9.57735 ± 0. s )d r d s ≅ +1 +1 −1 −1 +1 n n ⎡ n ⎤ ⎢ ∑ w j f r . 9. r 2 = s 2 = 0. Weights.1: I= +1 +1 −1 −1 ∫ ∫ f ( r .1 Number of Gauss points Order of polynomial integrated exactly Gauss Points. s j . ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 203 Three-point formula For a three-point integration (Fig.2. Table 9.8888 0.3. s ) d r d s = ∑ ∑ wi w j f ri .2. i =1 j =1 n n ( ) (9. s1 ) + f ( r1 . 3 i =1 Gauss points and weights are given in Table 9. s j ⎥ ds = ∑ wi ∑ w j f ri .888 ⋅ f ( 0 ) + 0.774596 ± 0.32) w1 = w2 = 1 .2 Two dimensional Gauss quadrature The one dimensional version of Gaussian quadrature is readily extended to two dimensions if we use the rectangles or isoparametric quadrilaterals of section 9. .57735 . ∫ ⎥ i =1 j =1 −1 ⎢ j =1 ⎣ ⎦ ( ) ( ) I= For n = 2 ∫ ∫ f ( r .57735 .

the elements of . w j 1 (1×1) 1 4 (= 2 × 2) at centre 2 4 (2 × 2) 1 (= 1 × 1) at points 1.3 Stiffness integration The element stiffness matrix (9.2 n Number of Gauss points n×n Gauss Points. 2. 2. 3. s j Weights. 2. Therefore. wi . 3. det [ J ] is a linear function of r and s . 4 81 ⎝ 9 9 ⎠ 9.204 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Table 9. 4 81 ⎝ 9 9 ⎠ 3 9 (3 × 3) 40 ⎛ 5 8 ⎞ ⎜ = × ⎟ at points 1. 3. 4 25 ⎛ 5 5 ⎞ ⎜ = × ⎟ at points 1.2. In general. 2 . ri .24) is [k ]= t ∫ ∫ [ B ] e e 1 1 −1 −1 T [ D ][ B ] det [ J ] dr ds which means that the integral above actually consists of the integral of each element (below or above the main diagonal) in an ( 8 × 8 ) matrix. The elements of [ B ] are obtained by dividing a bilinear function of r and s by a linear function. 3. For a rectangle or parallelogram it is a constant. 4 81 ⎝ 9 9 ⎠ 64 ⎛ 8 8 ⎞ ⎜ = × ⎟ at points 1.

33) represents the volume of the element.4). Experience has shown that the best order of integration for the 4-node quadrilateral element is a ( 2 × 2 ) array of points.24) becomes [ ] [k ]≈ [ B ] e T [ D ][ B ] ∫ +1 +1 −1 −1 ∫ t det [ J ] dr ds . one integration point is unacceptable since it gives rise to zero-energy deformation modes (Fig. Taking the thickness. Fig. the stiffness matrix equation (9. In this case.33) The integral in (9. t e . to be constant and noting that det [ J ] is linear. This will be the case if one of these modes gives zero strain at the integration point. is the number required to evaluate exactly the volume of the element.33). The existence of these modes is indicated by the stiffness matrix having more zero eigenvalues than rigid body modes. This means that k e cannot be evaluated exactly using numerical integration.4 However. An alternative is to use reduced integration at fewer points than necessary. with the aim of decreasing the stiffness and so compensating for the overstiff finite element model. From practical considerations. indicates that the volume can be evaluated exactly using one integration point. Using the 2 × 2 rule (9. the state of constant strain is reached within an element. 9. it is best to use as few integration points as is possible without causing numerical difficulties. ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 205 [ B ]T [ D ][ B ] det [ J ] are bi-quadratic functions divided by a linear function. A lower limit on the number of integration points can be obtained by observing that as the mesh is refined. These are modes of deformation which give rise to zero strain energy. the minimum number of integration points. This is cheaper as well. 9. Therefore. we can write . e (9. in the present case.9.

s 1 )] ] [ B ( r2 . s ) ] [ [ D ] det [J ( r . s2 )] ] [ B ( r2 .1 with the following nodal coordinates ⎡ x1 ⎢x ⎢ 2 ⎢ x3 ⎢ ⎣ x4 y1 y2 y3 y4 ⎤ ⎡ 10 ⎥ ⎢ 20 ⎥ =⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 25 ⎥ ⎢ ⎦ ⎣ 8 10 ⎤ 15 ⎥ ⎥. s2 )] ] [ B ( r1 .s j ) ] = 1 ⎡ −( 1 − s j ) ( 1 − s j ) ( 1 + s j ) − ( 1 + s j ) ⎢ 4 ⎢ − ( 1 − ri ) ⎣ − ( 1 + ri ) ( 1 + ri ) ( 1 − ri ) ⎡ x1 ⎤ ⎢ x2 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ x3 ⎦ ⎢ ⎣ x4 y1 ⎤ y2 ⎥ ⎥ y3 ⎥ ⎥ y4 ⎦ and its determinant. 9.21) ⎡ j11 [B ]= 1 ⎢ 0 4⎢ ⎢ j 21 ⎣ j12 0 j 22 0 j 21 j11 0 ⎤ ⎥ j 22 ⎥ j12 ⎥ ⎦ 0 ⎡− 1 − s j ⎢ 0 − (1 − ri ) ⎢ ⎢ 0 − 1− s j ⎢ 0 − (1 − ri ) ⎢ ⎣ ( ) ( ) 1− s j 0 1+ s j 0 1 + ri − (1 + ri ) 0 1− s j 0 0 0 − (1 + ri ) 0 0 1+ s j 1 + ri − 1+ s j 1 − ri 0 0 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ − 1+ s j ⎥ ⎥ 1 − ri ⎥ ⎦ ( 0 0 ) . For convenience.206 e e 1 1 T 1 1 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS [ k ] ≅ t [ B ( r .57735 . s2 ) ] T [ [ D ] det [ J ( r2 .11) [ J ( ri . s )] ] [ B ( r . s j = ± 0. s 1 ) ]+ +t e T (9. The calculation consists of four basic steps: a) Calculation of [ J ] at the Gauss points (9. For the first term in (9.34). b) Calculation of the inverse [ j ] = [ J ] −1 at the Gauss points. s2 ) ] [ [ D ] det [J ( r1 .5 instead of r i .1 Consider the quadrilateral element from Fig.34) we need . Example 9. s 1 ) ]T [ [ D ] det [ J ( r2 . d) Calculation of [k ] e using the 2 × 2 rule (9. consider approximately the Gauss Points at r i . s ) ]+ 1 1 [ B ( r1 . s j = ± 0. s2 ) ]+ + t e [ B ( r2 .34) + t e [ B ( r2 . s2 ) ] . 30 ⎥ ⎥ 25 ⎦ det [ J ] and [ B ] calculated at GP1. ( ) c) Calculation of the [ B ] matrix (9.

125 . the matrix [ B ] is given by (9.5 0 0 0 0 1. − 1. a refined mesh should be used in these regions. Some programs which use Gauss point stresses extrapolate to the element nodes and then output the mean value if several elements meet at a node. ⎥ 850 ⎢− 12 10 − 49 30 36 30 25 − 50⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 9. where they are found to be accurate (Barlow.5 ⎥ ⎢ 25 ⎣ ⎦ ⎢ ⎣ 8 Its determinant and inverse are 10 ⎤ 15 ⎥ 1 ⎥= 30 ⎥ 8 ⎥ 25 ⎦ ⎡ 61 20 ⎤ ⎢ 13 60 ⎥ . Maximum stresses usually occur at edges of plates or at other discontinuities at the element boundaries.2. ⎣ ⎦ det [ J ]= 53.35) In practice. 5 ⎥ ⎥ 0. 5 1. .9.5 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 − 0.5 − 1.5 0.5⎤ ⎢ 20 ⎢ [ J ]= 1 ⎡ 4 ⎢− 0. stresses {σ } = [ D ] [ B ] {q e } vary within the element.21) 0 ⎤ ⎡ 60 − 20 0 [ B ] = 1 ⎢ 0 0 − 13 61 ⎥ ⎥ 1700 ⎢ ⎢− 13 61 60 − 20⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 0 ⎡− 0. 5 1.5 1. ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 207 At GP1.11) is ⎡ 10 −0. In order not to miss these peak stresses.5 0. Gauss point values are ideal for constructing internal stress contours. 1976).5 − 1. stresses are evaluated at the Gauss points. the Jacobian matrix (9.5 1.5 − 1. 5 ⎣ 0.5 − 1. 425 ⎢ − 13 61 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ At GP1. (9.4 Stress calculations In the quadrilateral element. However.5 − 1.5 ⎦ 0 30 0 30 0 − 50 0 ⎤ ⎡− 10 1 ⎢ [ B ] = ⎢ 0 − 12 0 − 49 0 36 0 25 ⎥ .5 0 0 0 0 0.5 ⎢ 0 − 0. [ j ] = [ J ] −1 = 1 ⎡ 60 − 20 ⎤ . 5 0.5 0 0 0 ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥.5 ⎢− 0.5 1.

The optimal sampling points for this element are the Gauss points for the 2 × 2 scheme .2.27) are u = a1 + a2 r + a3 s + a4 r 2 + a5 r s + a6 s 2 + a7 r 2 s + a8 r s 2 .5. The difference is that in cartesian coordinates it has curved sides (Fig.2.5 The displacement functions in simple polynomial form (8. In practice. large groups of elements will not suffer from such mechanisms. 9. 9. so that the displacement variation should be parabolic (three constants) to satisfy compatibility. as are the stresses. a) and the master element is a square (Fig.208 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 9. using a 2 × 2 integration scheme would result in a singular stiffness matrix.5.36) The element has three nodes along one edge. even if it is supported conventionally. and 2 × 2 integration is normally used for this popular element. The eight-node quadrilateral employs displacement fields quadratic in r and s . (9. 9. The product [ B ] T [ D ][ B ] is therefore fourth order and det [ J ] is cubic. It would seem necessary to use a 4 × 4 Gauss quadrature for exact stiffness integration.3 Eight-node quadrilateral This element is the isoparametric version of the eight-node rectangle presented in section 8. v = b1 + b2 r + b3 s + b4 r 2 + b5 r s + b6 s 2 + b7 r 2 s + b8 r s 2 . For a single 8-node rectangular element. Fig. b).

29) have the following expressions 1 ( 1 − r ) ( 1 − s ) (1 + r + s ) . For ease in programming. 2 1 N6 = (1 + r ) 1 − s 2 .38) ___________ *) After the extraordinary discoveries of the princes of Serendip from the horror novels by Horace Walpole (1717-1797). in order to evaluate the minimum order of the numerical integration. 9. better displacements are obtained using a 3 × 3 Gauss point mesh. 4 ∂ N i ri ( 1 + s si ) (2r ri + s si ) . 2 1 N 7 = 1 − r 2 ( 1 + s ) . det [ J ] is of third order hence the minimum number of integration points is 4 (2 × 2) . For the 8-node quadratic element. Care is needed because the accuracy declines with excessive shape distortion. they belong to the serendipity *) family of elements. ∂ N i = si ( 1 + r ri ) (2s si + r ri ) . 4 N5 = ( ( ) ( ) ( ) ) As they are constructed based on the equations of the lines passing through the nodal points. = ∂r ∂s 4 4 Ni = (9. one can also use the following equivalent formulae in which ( ri .9. due to reduced integration. . (9. 4 1 N3 = − ( 1 + r ) ( 1 + s ) ( 1 − r − s ). The eight-node curved ‘quad’ is ideal for nonlinear problems and can be easily adapted to model cracks by moving the midside nodes. si ) are the natural coordinates of node i: for corner nodes 1 ( 1 + r ri ) ( 1 + s si ) (r ri + s si − 1) .1 Shape functions The shape functions (8. It was shown that. ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 209 and not those for the higher order 3 × 3 scheme.3. it is sufficient to examine the Jacobian determinant. 4 1 N 4 = − ( 1 − r ) ( 1 + s ) (1 + r − s ) . so the advantages of reduced integration are compounded.37) 2 1 N8 = ( 1 − r ) 1 − s 2 . 4 1 N 2 = − ( 1 + r ) ( 1 − s ) (1 − r + s ) . 4 N1 = − 1 1 − r 2 (1 − s ) . For an 8-node quadrilateral element.

when si = 0 1 1 − s 2 ( 1 + r ri ) .41) ⎨ ⎬ =[N ] q . when ri = 0 1 1 − r 2 ( 1 + s si ) . s ) y i i =1 8 (9. the matrix [ B ] = [ ∂ ][ N ⎡ ∂ N1 ⎢ ⎢ ∂x [ B ]= ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢∂N ⎢ 1 ⎢ ∂y ⎣ 0 ∂ N1 ∂y ∂ N1 ∂x ∂ N2 ∂x 0 ∂ N2 ∂y 0 L ∂ N8 ∂x 0 ∂ N8 ∂y ∂ N8 ∂x ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥.40) The displacements inside the element can be expressed in terms of the nodal displacements as ⎧u⎫ e (9. s ) x i . (9. (9. 2 ∂ Ni 1 ∂ Ni = ri 1 − s 2 .39) for mid-side nodes. (9. = si 1 − r 2 .43) Having generated the shape functions [ N ] . = − s ( 1 + r ri ∂r ∂s 2 Ni = ( ) ( ) ). ∂r ∂s 2 Ni = ( ) ( ) (9. v⎭ ⎩ where N 0 N 2 0 L L N8 0 ⎤ [ N ]= ⎡ 1 . i =1 8 y = ∑ N i (r .45) leads to .44) 9.42) ⎢ 0 N 0 N 2 L L 0 N8 ⎥ 1 ⎣ ⎦ { } { q }= ⎣u e 1 v1 u2 v 2 L L u8 v8 ⎦ T .210 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS for mid-side nodes.3.2 Shape function derivatives Use of the isoparametric formulation x = ∑ N i (r . 2 ∂ Ni ∂ Ni 1 = − r ( 1 + s si ) . ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ ] is ∂ N2 L 0 ∂y ∂ N2 ∂ N8 L ∂x ∂y (9.

46) where ∂x = ∂r ∂y = ∂r ∑ ∑ i =1 i =1 8 ∂ N i (r .3 Determinant of the Jacobian matrix The Jacobian matrix is ⎡ ∂x ⎢ r [ J ]= ⎢ ∂x ⎢∂ ⎢ ∂s ⎣ ∂y ∂r ∂y ∂s ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ .49) 9. ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 211 − ∂y ∂r ∂x ∂r ⎤ ⎧ ∂ Ni ⎥ ⎪ ∂r ⎪ ⎥⎨ ⎥ ⎪ ∂ Ni ⎥ ⎪ ∂s ⎦⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬. ∂r ∂x = ∂s ∂y = ∂s ∑ ∂ N∂(sr . ∂s 9.4 Element stiffness matrix The element stiffness matrix is +1 +1 [k ]= t ∫ ∫ [ B ] e e −1 −1 T [ D ][ B ] det [ J ] d r d s (9. s ) yi .3. ∂r ∂ N i (r . s ) x i 8 i . s ) yi . ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎧ ∂ Ni ⎪ ∂x ⎪ ⎨ ∂N i ⎪ ⎪ ∂y ⎩ ⎫ ⎧ ∂ Ni ⎫ ⎡ ∂y ⎪ ⎪ ∂r ⎪ 1 ⎢ ∂s ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎬ = [ j ]⎨ ∂N ⎬ = i ⎪ det [ J ] ⎢ ∂ x ⎪ ⎪ − ⎢ ∂s ⎪ ⎪ ∂s ⎪ ⎣ ⎭ ⎭ ⎩ 8 (9.51) [ D ] = ⎢D 2 D 4 0 ⎥ . (9.47) ∑ i =1 i =1 8 ∂ N i (r .3. s ) xi . ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0 0 D5⎥ ⎣ ⎦ e . ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ (9. − ∂r ∂s ∂s ∂r (9.9.50) where t is the thickness of the plate and the material stiffness matrix [ D ] has the form ⎡ D1 D 2 0 ⎤ (9.48) and its determinant is det [ J ] = ∂x ∂ y ∂x ∂ y .

44).50) can be written ⎡ ∂ N1 ⎢ ∂x ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ∂ N2 +1 +1 ⎢ ∂x ⎢ ⎡ ke ⎤ = te ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎢ −1 −1 ⎢ ⎢ L ⎢∂N ⎢ 8 ⎢ ∂x ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎣ 0 ∂ N1 ∂y ∫∫ 0 ∂ N2 ∂y L 0 ∂ N8 ∂y ∂ N1 ⎤ ∂y ⎥ ⎥ ∂ N1 ⎥ ∂x ⎥ ⎥ ∂ N2 ⎥ ∂y ⎥ ⎥ ∂ N2 ⎥ ∂x ⎥ ⎥ L ⎥ ∂ N8 ⎥ ⎥ ∂y ⎥ ∂ N8 ⎥ ⎥ ∂x ⎦ ⎥ T ⎡ ∂ N1 ⎢ ⎢ ∂x [D ] ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ∂ N1 ⎢ ∂y ⎣ 0 ∂ N1 ∂y ∂ N1 ∂x ∂ N2 ∂x 0 ∂ N2 ∂y ∂ N2 ∂x L L ∂ N8 ∂x 0 ∂ N8 ∂y ∂ N8 ∂x 0 ∂ N2 ∂y 0 ∂ N8 L ∂y ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ det [ J ] d r d s ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ .53. = ∑∑ w ⎜ D 2 + D5 ⎜ ∂ y ∂x ∂x ∂ y ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (9. (9. evaluated by numerical integration. = ∑∑ w ⎜ D 2 + D5 ⎜ ∂x ∂ y ∂ y ∂x ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ ∂ Ni ∂ N j ∂ Ni ∂ N j ⎞ ⎟. a) can be determined as ⎛ ∂ Ni ∂ N j ∂ Ni ∂ N j ⎞ ⎟. ij (9. the stiffness matrix (9.212 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Substituting (9. k 1 i j = ∑∑ w ⎜ D 1 + D5 ⎜ ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ k2 k3 ij ⎛ ∂ Ni ∂ N j ∂ Ni ∂ N j ⎞ ⎟. have the form ⎡ ∂ Ni ⎢ ∂x w p wq ⎢ ⎢ 0 q =1 ⎢ ⎣ n [k ] i j = t e ∑∑ p =1 n 0 ∂ Ni ∂y ∂ Ni ∂y ∂ Ni ∂x ⎡ ∂N j ⎢ ⎤ ⎢ ∂x ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ [D]⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ∂N j ⎦ ⎢ ∂y ⎣ ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ∂N j ⎥ det [ J ] .54) the elements of the matrix (9.55) ij . (9.53.53) ∂y ⎥ ⎥ ∂N j ⎥ ∂x ⎥ ⎦ or Denoting [ k ] i j = ⎢k 1 ⎣ ⎡k 3 k 2⎤ k 4⎥ ⎦ . a) w = t e w p wq det [ J ] .52) The (16 × 16) element stiffness matrix contains submatrices [ k ] i j which. (9.

such that ⎡ ⎢∑∑ w =⎢ ⎢ ⎢∑∑ w ⎣ ∂ Ni ∂x ∂ Ni ∂y ∂N j ∂x ∂N j ∂x ∂ Ni ∂x ∂N ∑∑ w ∂ yi ∂N j ⎤ ⎥ ∂y ⎥ ∂N j ⎥ ∂y ⎥ ⎦ [ S ]i j ∑∑ w (9.55) shows that all the terms are of the form (cons tan t ) × (material property) × ( product of shape function derivatives ) . ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 213 ⎛ ∂ Ni ∂ N j ∂ Ni ∂ N j ⎞ ⎟. it is useful to store separately in an array [ S ] i j the sum of the products of the shape function derivatives multiplied by w . Mohraz. This method (K.57) The explicit form of equation (9. 1972) reduces the computing time by a factor of nine over the full matrix multiplication method. Therefore.9. ∂x i =1 ∂ y .56) and then to work out equations (9. providing that the material properties are constant throughout the element. 0 ∂ N1 ∂y ∂ N1 ∂x ∂ N2 ∂x 0 ∂ N2 ∂y 0 ∂ N8 ∂x 0 ∂ N8 ∂y ∂ N8 ∂x (9. k 4 i j = ∑∑ w ⎜ D 4 + D5 ⎜ ∂y ∂y ∂x ∂x ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ When i = j .5 Stress calculation The vector of element stresses is {σ } = [ D ][ B ]{ q e }. k 2 = k 3 .57) for the quadratic 8-node element is ⎧σx ⎪ ⎨σy ⎪τ ⎩ xy ⎫ ⎡ D1 ⎪ ⎢ ⎬ = ⎢D 2 ⎪ ⎢ 0 ⎭ ⎣ ⎡ ∂ N1 ⎢ 0 ⎤ ⎢ ∂x ⎥ 0 ⎥⎢ 0 ⎢ D5⎥ ⎢∂N ⎦ ⎢ 1 ⎢ ∂y ⎣ 8 D2 D4 0 L ∂ N2 L 0 ∂y ∂ N2 ∂ N8 L ∂x ∂y ⎤ ⎧u 1 ⎫ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎥ ⎪v1 ⎪ ⎥ ⎪u ⎪ ⎥ ⎨ 2⎬ ⎥ ⎪L ⎪ ⎥ ⎪v ⎪ ⎥ ⎪ 8⎪ ⎦⎩ ⎭ wherefrom σ x = D1 ∑ i =1 8 ∂ Ni ∂ Ni ui + D2 ∑ vi .55) by incorporating the relevant material constants. 9.3. A close inspection of equations (9. A. Gupta & B.

element by element. for a quadratic isoparametric element the nodal forces due to distributed loads must be computed in accordance with equation (7. closer results to the true values are obtained. ui + D4 ∑ ∂x i =1 ∂ y (9. if the stresses of all elements meeting at a node are averaged.214 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS σ y = D2 ∑ 8 8 i =1 8 ∂ Ni ∂ Ni vi . A better alternative is to calculate stresses at the Gauss points.59) The equivalent nodal forces are added. (9. in which all loads can be reduced to nodes intuitively or by statics. and it is therefore reasonable to expect the most accurate stresses and strains occurring at the same points. Consider a distributed load p . It has been found that nodal stresses from an 8-node quadratic element are usually incorrect. so that there is no need to sort out the appropriate shape functions for the three nodes with given pressure values.6 Consistent nodal forces Unlike the triangular element. specified in force per unit length. Edge pressure When coding the load vectors in a computer program. ui + ⎟ ∂x ⎠ i =1 ⎝ ∂ y In some programs the stresses are determined at nodes. into the global load vector which represents the right hand side of the linear set of equations to be solved for displacements. It is usual to use all the nodes of the element in the computation. This is due to the fact that the element stiffness is calculated by sampling at the Gauss points. However. acting along the s = +1 edge of an element. The components of the force p d r acting upon an elemental length d r are . All intermediate values can be calculated using the shape functions. in which superior accuracy is obtained and averaging is not necessary.3. since the nodal positions are readily located and it is convenient to output the displacements and stresses at the same points.58) τ xy = D 5 ∑ ⎜ ⎜ ⎛ ∂ Ni ∂ Ni ⎞ vi ⎟. 9.44) { f }= ∫ [ N ] e Ve T { p }d V . the actual pressure distribution along an element edge is replaced by a parabolic distribution defined by the pressure values at each of the three nodes along that edge.

60) The consistent load for p is given by a modified form of equation (9. A more general equation applicable to the two edges s = ±1 is ⎧ ∂y ⎫ ⎞ ⎪ ∂r ⎪ ⎛ 8 ⎪ ⎪ f e = ∑ wi ws [N ]T ⎜ ∑ N k p k ⎟ ⎨ ⎟ ⎜ ∂x ⎬ i =1 ⎠⎪− ⎝ k =1 ⎪ ⎪ ∂ r ⎪i ⎩ ⎭ where w s takes up the value of the s coordinate for the loaded edge. ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 215 ⎧ ∂y ⎫ ⎪ ∂r ⎪ ⎧ px ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ = p ⎨ ∂ x ⎬ dr .64) A similar expression for pressure loads on the r = ±1 edges is { f }= ∑ e n i =1 ⎧ ∂y − ⎞ ⎪ ∂s ⎛ 8 ⎪ T⎜ wi wr [N ] ⎜ ∑ N k p k ⎟ ⎨ ⎟ ∂x ⎠⎪ ⎝ k =1 ⎪ ∂s ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ .59) in which the volume integral has been reduced to a line integral { f }= ∫ e +1 −1 where [ N ] is given by (9. { f } is reversed.63) the element.42).61) The above vector is usually integrated numerically and is written as ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ (9.9.62) wi [ N ] T fe = ⎬ ⎪ i =1 ⎪i ⎭ where pi is the pressure at the Gauss point i along the s = +1 edge and is computed by equation { } ∑ n ⎧ ∂y ⎪ ∂r ⎪ pi ⎨ ∂x ⎪− ⎪ ∂r ⎩ p= ∑ N (r . since a positive pressure is assumed to act towards the centre of e If the same pressure acts on the edge s = −1 . ⎪ ⎪i ⎭ (9. py ⎭ ⎩ ⎪− ⎪ ⎪ ∂r ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ (9.65) .s ) p k k =1 8 k . the sign of the force vector { } n (9. (9. ⎧ ∂y ⎪ ∂r ⎪ p [ N ]T ⎨ ∂x ⎪− ⎪ ∂r ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ dr ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ (9.

it is possible to integrate the equations for the equivalent nodal forces explicitly.2 Consider the element of Fig. E9. we can write f y3 = − f y7 = − P 2 P 2 +1 −1 +1 −1 1 ∫ 4 ( 1 + r ri ) ( 1 + s si ) ( r ri + s si − 1) d r . 1 2 ∫ 4 ( 1 + s si ) ( 1 − r ) d r . Equation (9. .2 Solution.216 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS For a rectangular isoparametric element with edges parallel to the x .66) Denoting the total pressure load P = 2 p a . Example 9.61) gives ∂r ∂r {f } e ⎧ f y3 ⎪ = ⎨ f y7 ⎪f ⎩ y4 ⎫ +1 ⎪ ⎬= p ⎪ −1 ⎭ ∫ ⎧ N3 ⎪ ⎨ N7 ⎪N ⎩ 4 ⎫ ⎪ ⎬ (− a ) d r . a with a uniform pressure load along the top edge.2. Find the equivalent nodal forces. For the rectangular element ∂y ∂x = 0 and = a . y axes. Fig. E9. For the edge s = +1 we have N1 = N 5 = N 2 = N 6 = N8 = 0 . ⎪ ⎭ (9.

In the above expressions. The same result could have been obtained noticing that the integrands in the above equations are the shape functions of the three-node isoparametric onedimensional element (4.3 Consider the rectangular element of Fig. 4 6 1 ( 2 ) 1 − r 2 dr = − 2P . 4 3 1 (1 − r )(2)(− r + 1 − 1) d r = − P . 4 6 ∫ ( ) ∫ Hence a uniform load acting along an edge is not distributed in the intuitive ratio of 1 4 : 1 2 : 1 4 . but in the ratio 1 6 : 2 3 : 1 6 (Fig. b). Find the equivalent nodal forces.9. substituting r i = 1 and s i = 1 for node 3. and r i = −1 and s i = 1 for node 4. Because all the equivalent nodal forces act in the y direction. Solution. r i = 0 and s i = 1 for node 7.2. The integration is carried out numerically and equation (9.67) where m is the mass per unit area and g the acceleration in the y direction. Gravity loading For gravity loading (downwards negative) the vector of equivalent nodal forces (9.67) takes the form { f }= ∑∑ w w e n n i i =1 j =1 j ⎧ 0 ⎫ m [ N ] T ⎨ ⎬ det [ J ] . a with gravity loading. yields f y3 = − f y7 = − f y4 = − +1 −1 +1 −1 +1 −1 P 2 P 2 P 2 ∫ 1 (1 + r )( 2)( r + 1 − 1) d r = − P . ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS P 2 +1 −1 217 f y4 = − ∫ 1 (1 + r ri 4 ) (1 + s si ) ( r ri + s si − 1) d r . . E9.26).59) is { f }= ∫ m [ N ] e T ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎨ ⎬d x d y = ⎩− g ⎭ +1 +1 −1 −1 ∫ ∫ m [N ] T ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎨ ⎬ det [ J ] d r d s ⎩− g ⎭ (9.3. E9.68) Example 9. ⎩− g ⎭ (9.

77) −1 −1 .76) −1 −1 For a midside node i with si = 0 . L⎪ ⎪ ⎪ N8 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ∫ ∫ (9. (9.70) can be written f yi = − (9. +1 +1 For a corner node i the integral becomes f yi = − −1 −1 ∫ ∫ m g 4 (1 + r ri ) (1 + s si ) ( r ri + s si − 1) det [ J ] d r d s .73) since si = ±1 for all corner nodes. the integral is f yi = − 1 W 2 ∫ ∫ m g 2 (1 − r ) (1 + s si ) det [ J ] d r d s = − 3 .75) For a midside node i with ri = 0 . ⎜ ⎟ 16 16 ⎝ 3 3 ⎠ 12 (9. W ( I1 + I 2 + I 3 ) .218 ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ f y1 ⎫ f y2 ⎪ ⎪ = L ⎬ ⎪ f y8 ⎪ ⎭ +1 +1 −1 −1 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎧ N1 ⎫ ⎪N ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ m g ⎨ 2 ⎬ det [ J ] d r d s . the integral is f yi = − 1 W 2 ∫ ∫ m g 2 (1 − s ) (1 + r ri ) det [ J ] d r d s = − 3 .74) Therefore.69) For a rectangular element det [ J ] = ab . I2 = −1 −1 ∫ ∫ (1 + r ri ) (1 + s si ) s si d r d s = 3 +1 +1 4 (9.71) 4 where +1 +1 I1 = −1 −1 ∫ ∫ (1 + r ri ) (1 + s si ) r ri d r d s = 3 +1 +1 (9. W ( I1 + I 2 + I 3 ) = − W ⎛ 4 + 4 − 4 ⎞ = W .70) Denoting the total weight of the element W = m g ⋅ 2a ⋅ 2b . the equivalent nodal forces for gravity loading at a corner node i are given by f yi = − +1 +1 (9.72) since ri = ±1 for all corner nodes. and I3 = − −1 −1 ∫ ∫ (1 + r ri ) (1 + s si ) d r d s = − 4 . 16 1 (9. the force (9. 1 1 (9.

3.6 . 9.9. E9. 9. The local node numbers for this element are shown in Fig. b. they are different from the values of − W 12 and − W 6 .3 Hence for gravity loading the equivalent nodal forces are as shown in Fig.6. which would have been assigned intuitively to the corner and midside nodes respectively. a. Apart from the eight nodes located on the boundary. it contains an internal node. ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 219 Fig. Again. b. The master element is presented in Fig. 9.6. Fig.4 Nine-node quadrilateral This element belongs to the Lagrange family of elements. E9. 9.

6. r.79) They turn out to be Lagrange polynomials. Considering the r axis alone. the polynomial is quadratic (with three terms . L2 and L3 having unit value at the node with the same index and zero at the other two nodes L1 (r ) = − r (1 − r ) . The quadratic quadrilateral element has 9 nodes. 9. 9. and is determined by its values at the three nodes on that side. s. as shown at the bottom of Fig. which. In general.. v = b1 + b2 r + b3 s + b4 r 2 + b5 r s + b6 s 2 + b7 r 2 s + b8 r s 2 + b9 r 2 s 2 . as shown in Fig.) . which contains the terms of polynomials of various degrees in the two variables r and s . It contains the complete polynomial of the second degree (6 terms) plus other three terms which have to be located symmetrically: the third degree terms r 2 s and r s 2 and also an r 2 s 2 term. 9.7 Since a linear quadrilateral element has four nodes. and rs . for three points. have the expressions . The shape functions are defined as follows. 2 L 2 (r ) = ( 1 + r )( 1 − r ) .7.220 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The associated displacement functions in polynomial form are u = a1 + a2 r + a3 s + a4 r 2 + a5 r s + a6 s 2 + a7 r 2 s + a8 r s 2 + a9 r 2 s 2 . 2 (9. L 3 (r ) = r (1 + r ) . The polynomial is incomplete. we can define generic shape functions L1 .78) Along the sides of the element. Higher-order rectangular elements can be systematically developed with the help of the so-called Pascal’s triangle. the polynomial should have the first four terms 1.as can be seen setting s = 0 in u ). b. a pth-order Lagrange rectangular element has ( p + 1) 2 nodes ( p = 0.. (9.1. . Fig.

6. N5 = 4 ζ 2 ζ 3 . Alternatively. they can be condensed out at the element level to reduce the size of the element matrices. with the constant term and the first and last terms of a given row being the vertices of the triangle. L 2 (r ) = ( r − r1 ) ( r − r 3 ) ( r 2 − r1 ) ( r 2 − r 3 ) . 9. 2 (9. b. N 2 = ζ 2 ( 2 ζ 2 − 1 ) . N 6 = 4 ζ 3 ζ1 .6. One can view the position of the terms as the nodes of the triangle. 9. a. The six node triangle (Fig. as can be seen from the top three rows of Pascal’s triangle. b L1 (s ) = − s (1 − s ) . L 3 (s ) = s (1 + s ) .36) N1 = ζ1 ( 2 ζ1 − 1 ) .8). ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS L 1 (r ) = 221 ( r − r 2 ) ( r − r3 ) ( r1 − r 2 ) ( r1 − r3 ) . By referring to the master element in Fig. 9. the shape functions can be expressed in terms of area coordinates as for the linear strain triangle (8. generic shape functions can be defined along the s axis.82) . The polynomial involves six constants. 9.9.e. but their shape functions cannot be obtained using products of one-dimensional interpolation functions. L 3 (r ) = ( r − r1 ) ( r − r 2 ) ( r 3 − r1 ) ( r 3 − r 2 ) . Similarly. ⎥ N 3 ⎥ ⎪ L 3 (r ) ⎪ ⎦ ⎩ ⎭ (9. one can use the serendipity elements.80) The shape functions N i can be constructed as products of the above onedimensional functions ⎡ N1 ⎢N ⎢ 5 ⎢ N2 ⎣ N8 N9 N6 N 4 ⎤ ⎧ L 1 (r ) ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ N 7 ⎥ = ⎨ L 2 (r ) ⎬ ⎣ L 1 (s ) L 2 (s ) L 3 (s ) ⎦ . N 3 = ζ 3 ( 2 ζ 3 − 1 ) . Since the internal nodes of the higher-order elements of the Lagrange family do not contribute to the inter-element connectivity. a) is an element of order 2 (i..81) It should be cautioned that the subscripts of N i refer to the node numbering used in Fig. 9. as shown at the right of Fig. 9.9. 2 L 2 (s ) = ( 1 + s ) ( 1 − s ) . (9.9. N 4 = 4 ζ1 ζ 2 .5 Six-node triangle Higher-order triangular elements can be developed using Pascal’s triangle (Fig. the degree of the polynomial is 2). which can be expressed in terms of the nodal values of the variable being interpolated.

and x = ∑ Ni x i . 9. this element is also called a quadratic triangle.9 .83) where { q }= ⎣u e 1 v 2 L L u6 6 v6 ⎦ T . 9.222 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 2 2 where ζ 1 = 1 − ζ 2 − ζ 3 . N6 ⎥ ⎦ { } (9. Fig. ζ 3 in the shape functions. Because of terms ζ 2 .84) Fig. i =1 (9.8 The isoparametric representation is (8.37) ⎧ u ⎫ ⎡ N1 ⎨ ⎬=⎢ ⎩v⎭ ⎣ 0 0 N1 v1 u2 6 N2 0 0 N2 L L N6 L L 0 0 ⎤ e q . i =1 y = ∑ Ni y i .

This gives ∂ ∂ ∂ = − . A necessary requirement for applying equation (9.9.6 Jacobian positiveness In the higher-order isoparametric elements discussed above. The Gauss quadrature formulas for a triangle differ from those considered earlier for the rectangle. ∂ r ∂ N 2 ∂ N1 ∂ ∂ ∂ = − . If the determinant det [ J ] → 0 . then [ j ] and the operators in increase without limit and consequently produce infinite strains. 39]. This condition ensures that det [ J ] does not attain a value of zero in the element. it is more likely to be negative at corners. 9. we note the presence of ‘midside’ nodes. can be evaluated using (9. which has to be integrated numerically. If the Jacobian becomes negative at any location. ∂ s ∂ N 3 ∂ N1 (9. It must be placed inside the middle third of a side. A similar situation occurs when two adjacent corner nodes are made coincident to produce a triangular element. The row vector of shape functions is ⎢ ⎥ ⎣N ⎦ = ⎣N1 N 2 N 3 ⎦ = ⎢ 2 r ( r − 1) ( 1 + r )( 1 − r ) 2 r ( r + 1) ⎥ .85) Details on numerical integration schemes for triangles are given in [18. and. [∂ ] will The above statements are illustrated for the one-dimensional quadratic isoparametric element shown in Fig. This inverse exists if there is no excessive distortion of the element such that lines of constant r or s intersect inside or on the element boundaries or there are re-entrant angles. ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 223 The element stiffness matrix. any internal angle of each corner node of the element should be less than 1800 . When the element is degenerated into a triangle by increasing an internal angle to 1800 then [ J ] is singular at that corner. s ) coordinates are defined by (8. Note that while the Jacobian is always computed at Gauss points. a warning message will be signaled indicating the nonuniqueness of mapping. The midside node should be as near as possible to the centre of the side.24) if the (r . The sign of det [ J ] should be checked. Therefore to ensure that [ J ] can be inverted.4. 4. particularly at that corner.46). ⎦ ⎣ 1 1 .13) to shape functions is that [ J ] can be inverted. as an internal angle approaches 1800 there is a loss of accuracy in the element stress. where stresses may be computed.

2x2 −l If . l 3l < x 2 < . if −1 ≤ where 0 ≤ x 2 ≤ l . then det [ J ] does not vanish on the element. i.5 l ≤1.5 l .10) if − 1 ≤ r 0 ≤ 1 .5 ) l − 2 r x2 . 2x2 −l Fig. 0 .10 This point lies within the element (Fig. 9.224 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The Jacobian matrix is [ J ] = J11 = ⎢ ∂N1 ⎢ ⎣ ∂r ∂N 2 ∂r ⎧ x1 ∂N 3 ⎥ ⎪ ⎥ ⎨ x2 ∂r ⎦ ⎪ ⎩ x3 ⎫ ⎪ ⎢ 2r − 1 − 2r ⎬=⎢ ⎪ ⎣ 2 ⎭ ⎧ 0 2r + 1 ⎥ ⎪ ⎨ x2 2 ⎥⎪ ⎦ ⎩ l ⎫ ⎪ ⎬. For any x2 this determinant vanishes at the point r0 = 0. 9.e. This explains 4 4 why it is recommended to place precautiously the ‘midside’ node inside the middle third of a side. ⎪ ⎭ The determinant of the Jacobian matrix is det [ J ] = J11 = ( r + 0.

. For this case. PLATE BENDING Flat plate structures. in which on the faces of plate the shear strains are equal to zero. Plates with a constant shear deformation through the plate thickness are treated in the Reissner-Mindlin plate theory. Such structures can be analyzed by dividing the plate into an assemblage of twodimensional finite elements called plate bending elements. rectangular or quadrilateral in shape. 10. The plate has constant thickness h and is subject to distributed surface loads. it can be assumed that the plate deformation may be expressed by the deformation state at the middle surface. In this chapter. These elements may be either triangular.1 . For thick or composite plates some higher-order shear deformation plate theories are available.10. Kirchhoff’s hypotheses are adopted: a) there is no deformation (stretching) in the middle plane of the plate. b) normals to the middle plane of the undeformed plate remain straight and normal to the middle surface of the plate during deformation. The x-y plane is taken to coincide with the middle surface of the plate (Fig. enclosures surrounding machinery and bridge decks are subject to loads normal to their plane. For thin plates.1) and the positive z-direction is upwards. Thin plates with transverse shear neglected are analyzed based on Kirchhoff’s classical theory. 10. finite element displacement models for the flat plate bending problem are discussed.1 Thin plate theory (Kirchhoff) A plate is described as a structure in which the thickness is very small compared with the other dimensions. such as the floors of buildings and aircraft. that is the thickness-to-span is h l ≤ 0. which is the plane midway between the faces of the plate. and c) the direct stress in the transverse direction can be disregarded.

z ) = − z ∂w .226 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The displacements parallel to the undeformed middle surface are given by u ( x. a). ∂x ∂z (10. y ) denotes the displacement of the middle surface in the z-direction (Fig. (10. Fig.3) . 10. z ) = − z ∂w . ∂x v ( x. ε y = = −z 2 . y. 10.2 The strain vector can be written in the form b {ε } = ⎣ ε x where the curvature vector ε y γ x y ⎦ T = − z { χ }.2. ∂y (10. = −z 2 .1 The components of the strain are given as follows: εx = ∂2w ∂u ∂v ∂u ∂2w ∂v ∂2w . 10. γ x y = = −2 z + ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂ y ∂ y ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂v ∂w + =0. ∂z ∂ y γ yz = γ zx = ∂w ∂u + = 0.2) a Fig. y.1) where w ( x.

Their definig equations are h2 ⎣M x My Mxy ⎦= −h 2 ∫ z ⎣σ h2 x σ y τ xy ⎦ dz .10) . 12 (10. ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ ⎡ d11 [ D ] = ⎢ d12 ⎢ ⎢ d16 ⎣ (10. where (10. PLATE BENDING 227 ⎢ 2 {χ }= ⎢ ∂ w 2 ⎢ ∂x ⎣ ∂2w ∂ y2 ∂2w ⎥ 2 ⎥ ∂x ∂ y ⎥ ⎦ T .10.6) {σ } = ⎣σ x and σ y τ x y ⎦T . (10. the stress-strain relations take the form {σ } = [ D ] {ε } = − z [ D ] { χ } .7) The strain energy in the plate can be written as U= 1 2 V ∫ {σ }T {ε }dV = 1 2 ∫ A h3 { χ }T [ D ] { χ }d A .3 The positive sense of internal bending and twisting moments (per unit length) is shown in Fig. d12 d 22 d 26 d16 d 26 d 66 ⎤ ⎥.3.4) Since σ z = 0 .8) Fig. (10. 10.9) Denoting Di j = −h 2 ∫d ij z2 d z (10.5) (10. 10.

16) . From (10. ∂x ∂y forces (per unit length).11) or { M } = − [ D ]{ χ } For isotropic materials .13) D= 12 1 − ν ( E h3 2 ) . ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ (10.15) where p z is the lateral distributed load (per unit surface) and Qx .15) it can be shown that (10.11) and (10. ∂x ∂y ∂ Qx ∂ Q y + + pz = 0 . Q y are the shear Qx = − D ∂ ⎛ ∂2w ∂2w ⎜ + ∂ x ⎜ ∂ x2 ∂ y2 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟. The equilibrium equations are ∂M x ∂M y x − Qx = 0 .14) E is Young’s modulus and ν is the Poisson’s ratio. (10. + ∂y ∂x ∂M x y ∂M y + − Qy = 0 . ⎟ ⎠ Qy = − D ∂ ⎛ ∂2w ∂2w ⎜ + ∂ y ⎜ ∂ x2 ∂ y2 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟. ⎟ ⎠ (10.228 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS the moment .curvature equations can be expressed as follows ⎧ ∂2w ⎪ ∂ x2 D16 ⎤ ⎪ 2 ⎪ ⎥⎪ ∂ w D26 ⎥ ⎨ ∂ y2 D66 ⎥ ⎪ 2 ⎦⎪ ∂ w ⎪ ⎪ ∂x∂ y ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎧ Mx ⎪ ⎨ My ⎪M ⎩ xy ⎫ ⎡ D11 ⎪ ⎢ ⎬ = ⎢ D12 ⎪ ⎢D ⎭ ⎣ 16 D12 D22 D26 (10.12) ⎡ 0 ⎢1 ν [ D ] = D ⎢ν 1 0 ⎢ 1 −ν ⎢0 0 2 ⎣ where ⎤ ⎥ ⎥. (10.

The transverse normal stress is disregarded as in the Kirchhoff’s theory. (10.18) and the shear stresses by 2 ⎛ ⎜ 1 − 4z ⎜ h2 ⎝ where a parabolic distribution is assumed.15).8) can be expressed as D U= 2 ∫ A 2 ⎡⎛ 2 2 ⎢ ⎜ ∂ w + ∂ w ⎞ + 2 (1 − ν ⎟ ⎢ ⎜ ∂ x2 ∂ y 2 ⎟ ⎠ ⎢⎝ ⎣ ⎞⎤ ⎛ ⎛ 2 ⎞2 ∂2w ∂ 2w ⎟ ⎥ ⎜⎜ ∂ w ⎟ )⎜ ⎜ dx dy .10.2. Mindlin simplified Reissner’s assumption considering that normals to the plate midsurface before deformation remain straight but not necessarily normal to the plate after deformation. the differential equilibrium equation for isotropic materials can be obtained as ∂4w p ∂4w ∂4w +2 2 2 + 4 = z . the displacements parallel to the middle surface can be expressed as . Reissner proposed to introduce the rotations of the normal to the plate midsurface in the xOz and yOz plane as independent variables.17) ⎣σ x σ y τxy ⎦= 12 z ⎣M x h3 My Mxy ⎦ (10.20) The potential of the external load is W P = − p z w dx dy .19) The strain energy (10. First.21) 10. D ∂y ∂x ∂ y ∂ x4 The bending and torsion stresses are given by (10. ⎣τ z x τ yz ⎦= 3 2h ⎞ ⎟ ⎣ Qx ⎟ ⎠ Qy ⎦. − 2 ∂ x ∂ y2 ⎟ ⎥ ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ ∂x ∂ y ⎟ ⎠ ⎠⎥ ⎝ ⎦ (10. Then.16) into the last equation (10.9) (10. the thickness-to-span ratio is not small enough to neglect transverse shear deformations and Kirchhoff’s assumption is no longer valid. b). the classical hypothesis of zero transverse shear strain is relaxed. A ∫ (10. To overcome this problem. PLATE BENDING 229 By substituting (10. According to Reissner-Mindlin assumptions.2 Thick plate theory (Reissner-Mindlin) For moderately thick plates. The displacements of the middle surface are independent of the rotations of the normal (Fig. 10.

to the middle plane before deformation. θ y are the rotations about the Ox and Oy axes of lines originally normal The in-plane strains are now given by { ε } = − z { χ }. z ) = − zθ x (x . (10. y .230 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS u (x .24) The transverse shear strains are γ yz = γ zx = ∂w ∂u .23) ⎢ ∂θ {χ }= ⎢ − y ⎣ ∂x ∂v ∂w + . and equation (10. ∂y Note that when γ y z = 0 . equation (10.28) The strain energy in the plate can be written as the sum of the energies due to bending and shear deformation U= 1 2 V ∫ {σ } {ε }dV + 2 ∫ T 1 {τ }T {γ }dV .22) gives ∂w ⎧ −θ + ⎧γ yz ⎫ ⎪ x ∂ y {γ } = ⎨ ⎬ = ⎪ ⎨ ∂w ⎩ γ zx ⎭ ⎪ θy + ⎪ ∂x ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬. ⎣ ⎦ ⎦ (10. where the curvature vector is (10.22) where θ x .26) gives θ x = θy = − ∂w . γ z x = 0 . (10. z ) = z θ y (x . + ∂x ∂z (10. y ) . y .4).26) ∂w .24) reduces to (10.29) V . (10.27) where κ is a shear correction factor and [ D ] = ⎡⎢ G 0 S ⎣ ⎡1 0⎤ ⎤ E ⎥ = 2 (1 +ν ) ⎢ 0 1 ⎥ . ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ (10. y ) .25) Substituting for the displacements from (10. ∂z ∂ y ∂θ x ∂y ∂θ x ∂θ y ⎥ − ⎥ ∂x ∂y ⎦ T . v (x . ∂x The average shear stresses are given by {τ } = ⎨ ⎧τ yz ⎫ = κ DS τzx ⎬ ⎩ ⎭ 0 G [ ]{ γ } . (10.

⎟ ⎠⎦ + ∫ A ⎡ ⎛ ∂w ⎢Qx ⎜ θ y + ⎜ ∂x ⎣ ⎝ ∂w ∂w and θ y = − . If a constant shear strain is considered through the plate thickness.11) becomes ⎡ ⎫ 0 ⎢1 ν ⎪ ⎢ν 1 0 ⎬=D ⎢ 1 −ν ⎪ ⎢0 0 ⎭ 2 ⎣ ⎧ ∂θ y − ⎤⎪ ∂x ⎥⎪ ∂θ x ⎪ ⎥⎨ ∂y ⎥⎪ ⎥ ⎪ ∂θ ∂θ y x ⎦ ⎪ ∂x − ∂ y ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎧ Mx ⎪ ⎨ My ⎪M ⎩ xy (10. where { χ } is given by (10.32) The strain energy (10. equation (10. T S A (10.12). which is not true.31) or (10.10.30) can be expressed as U= 1 2 1 2 ∫ A ⎡ ⎛ ∂θ y ⎢M x ⎜ − ⎜ ∂x ⎢ ⎝ ⎣ ∂θ ⎞ ⎛ ∂θ ⎟ + Mxy ⎜ x − y ⎟ ⎜ ∂x ∂y ⎠ ⎝ ⎛ ⎞ ∂w ⎟ + Qy ⎜ − θ x + ⎜ ⎟ ∂y ⎝ ⎠ ⎞ ∂θ ⎤ ⎟ + M y x ⎥ dx dy + ⎟ ∂y ⎥ ⎠ ⎦ ⎞⎤ ⎟⎥ dx dy . the shear strain energy predicted by the finite element analysis can be magnified unreasonably and a ‘shear locking’ occurs for large span-to-thickness ratios. the above expression reduces to (10.30) For isotropic materials. PLATE BENDING 231 or. The transverse shear constitutive equation is ∂w ⎫ ⎧ ⎪ −θx + ∂ y ⎪ ⎧ Qy ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ . on the faces of plate the shear strains are not zero. ∂y ∂x The main drawback of this theory is the arbitrary averaging of the shear strains.20). If θ x = . integrating through the thickness U= 1 2 ∫ A h3 { χ }T [ D ] { χ }d A + 1 12 2 ∫ κ h {γ } [ D ]{γ }d A .24). This assumption is equivalent to the introduction of ‘parasitic’ shear stresses that force the normal to remain a straight line. ⎬=κG ⎨ ⎨ ∂w ⎬ ⎩ Qx ⎭ ⎪ ⎪ θy + ⎪ ∂x ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ (10. As the thickness of the plate becomes extremely thin.

20) and the potential of the external load by (10. one at each corner. 10.232 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 10. the strain energy is given by (10. The highest derivative appearing in these expressions is the second. Fig.4 The dimensionless coordinates ξ = x a and η = y b will be used in the following with the origin at the plate centre. according to the convergence criteria of the Rayleigh-Ritz method. Melosh . These three quantities are. Hence. 10.4 shows a thin rectangular element of thickness h.1961.1 ACM element (non-conforming) Figure 10.3. for convergence. taken as degrees of freedom at each node.3 Rectangular plate bending elements For a thin plate bending element. In terms of the ∂y ∂x dimensionless coordinates ξ and η . therefore.21). complete polynomials of at least degree two should be used.33) Figure 10. these become . Also. irrespective of the element shape. is w = a1 + a2 x + a3 y + a4 x 2 + a5 x y + a6 y 2 + higher degree terms. Clough. The assumed form of the displacement function. There are three degrees of freedom at each node. and the two rotations θ x = and θ y = − . namely.5 shows the ACM element (Adini. 1963). the transverse ∂w ∂w displacement w . it will be necessary to ∂w ∂w and are continuous between ensure that w and its first derivatives ∂x ∂y elements. (10. having four node points.

which are symetrically located in Pascal’s triangle.10. a) w = ⎣P ( ξ . where {α }T = ⎣ α1 ∂w = 0 1 0 2ξ ∂ξ α 2 α 3 L α12 ⎦ .38) (10.36) (10. that is w = α1 + α 2 ξ + α 3η + α 4 ξ 2 + α 5 ξ η + α 6η 2 + + α 7 ξ 3 + α 8 ξ 2η + α 9 ξη 2 + α10η 3 + α11ξ 3η + α12 ξη 3 . b ∂η θy = − 1 ∂w . Fig. a ∂ξ (10. the displacement function can be represented by a polynomial having twelve terms.35) can be written in the following matrix form w = 1 ξ η ξ 2 ξ η η 2 ξ 3 ξ 2η ξ η 2 η 3 ξ 3η ξη 3 ⎣ ⎦ {α }.37) Differentiating (10.36) gives ⎣ ⎣ η 0 3ξ 2 2ξη η 2 0 3ξ 2η η 3 ⎦ {α } . PLATE BENDING 233 θx = 1 ∂w . (10. (10.35) Note that this function is a complete cubic to which two quartic terms ξ 3η and ξη 3 have been added. 2η 0 ξ2 2ξη 3η 2 ξ 3 3ξη 2 (10. 10.36.34) Since the element has 12 degrees of freedom.5 The expression (10. (10. .η )⎦ {α } . This ensures that the element is geometrically invariant.39) ∂w = 0 0 1 0 ξ ∂η ⎦ {α }.

η )⎦ q e = ⎣ ⎣N1 ⎦ −1 {q } . e T 1 x1 y1 4 x4 y4 e Solving (10.44) and the shape functions are defined as ⎣N i (ξ .36. ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ (10. ⎪ ⎭ ⎣N 4 ⎦ T ⎧0⎫ ⎪ ⎪ = ⎨ 0 ⎬.42) Substituting (10.38) and (10.45) on the side 2-3 (for ξ = +1 ) gives ⎣N 1 ⎦ T ⎣N 2 ⎦ T ⎧ (1 4 )( 1 − η ) 2 − η − η 2 ⎪ = ⎨ (b 4 )( − 1 + η ) η 2 − 1 ⎪ 0 ⎩ ( ( )⎫ ) ⎪. e e (10. (10.39) at ξ = ±1 .234 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Evaluating (10.41) and the matrix [ A ] is given in [87] but not reproduced here. ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ The element is non-conforming. a) yields { } (10. (10.36). Indeed.42) into (10.ηi ) are the coordinates of node i. η = ±1 gives { q }= [ A ]{α }. e e ⎣N 2 ⎦ ⎣N 3 ⎦ ⎣N 4 ⎦ ⎦ {q }.40) where { q } = ⎣w bθ aθ L w bθ aθ ⎦ {α }. (10. for conciseness. ⎪0⎪ ⎩ ⎭ . ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ = ⎨ 0 ⎬ .45) where ( ξi .η )⎦ T ⎧1 2 2 ⎪ 8 ( 1 + ξ i ξ ) 1 + η jη 2 + ξ i ξ + ηi η − ξ − η ⎪ b ⎪ ( 1 + ξi ξ )( ηi + η ) η 2 − 1 =⎨ 8 ⎪ a ⎪ ( ξi + ξ ) ξ 2 − 1 ( 1 + ηi η ) ⎪ 8 ⎩ ( )( ( ) )⎫ ⎪ ( ) ⎪ ⎪ ⎬.40) for {α } gives {α } = [ Ae ] w = ⎣N (ξ . (10. evaluating (10. ⎬ ⎪ ⎭ ⎣N 3 ⎦ T ⎧ (1 4 )( 1 + η ) 2 + η − η 2 ⎪ = ⎨ (b 4 )( 1 + η ) η 2 − 1 ⎪ 0 ⎩ ( ( ) )⎫ ⎪ ⎬.43) where the vector of nodal displacements is { q } = ⎣w e T 1 θ x1 θ y1 L w4 θ x 4 θ y 4 ⎦ .

10.8) gives Ue = 1 2 { q } [k ] { q }. ⎪ ⎭ −η ( 1 − η ) ⎧ ∂ ⎣N 4 ⎦ T ⎪ = ⎨ − (b 8) ( 1 + η ) η 2 − 1 ∂ξ ⎪ 0 ⎩ ( ) The above expressions indicate that θ y is determined by the values of w and θ x at nodes 1. this is not the case with the rotation θ y .49) A and the strain-displacement matrix is . ∂ξ ⎪ ⎪ − (a 2 ) ( 1 − η ) ⎭ ⎩ ( ) ⎫ ⎪ ⎬. e T e e (10. ∂ξ ⎦ a ∂ξ a ⎣ ∂ξ { } (10. The rotation θ y is given by (10. The rotation θ y is not continuous across the side 2-3 and the element is non-conforming. ⎪ ⎭ η (− 1 − η ) ⎧ ∂ ⎣N 3 ⎦ T ⎪ = ⎨ (b 8) ( 1 + η ) η 2 − 1 ∂ξ ⎪ − (a 2 ) ( 1 + η ) ⎩ ( ) ⎫ ⎪ ⎬.47) along ξ = +1 gives −η ( − 1 − η ) ⎧ ∂ ⎣N1 ⎦ T ⎪ = ⎨− (b 8) ( − 1 + η ) η 2 − 1 ∂ξ ⎪ 0 ⎩ ( ) η (− 1 − η ) ⎫ ⎧ ⎪ ∂ ⎣N 2 ⎦ T ⎪ = ⎨ (b 8) ( − 1 + η ) η 2 − 1 ⎬. then w and θ x will be continuous along the common side. PLATE BENDING 235 This indicates that the displacement w .48) where the element stiffness matrix is h [ k ] = ∫ 12 [ B ] e 3 T [ D ] [ B ]dA (10.4) and (10.η )⎦ T ∂ξ ⎫ ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ξ i η ( ηi − η ) ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ b ξ i ( ηi + η ) η 2 − 1 ⎬ .46) gives ∂ ⎣N i (ξ . 3. 2. =⎨ ⎪ ⎪ 8 ⎪ − a ( 2 + 2ξ ) ( 1 + η η ) ⎪ i i ⎪ ⎪ 8 ⎭ ⎩ ( ) (10. and hence the rotation θ x . ⎪ ⎭ ⎫ ⎪ ⎬.34) θy = − ∂ ⎣N 4 ⎦ ⎥ e 1 ∂w 1⎢∂ N = − ⎢ ⎣ 1⎦ L ⎥ q .46) Substituting (10.45) into (10. If the element is attached to another rectangular element at nodes 2 and 3. and 4 as well as by θ y at nodes 2 and 3. are uniquely determined by their values at nodes 2 and 3. Substituting (10. Unfortunately.47) Evaluating (10.43) into (10.

⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ (10.45) and integrating gives the element stiffness matrix [k ] e ⎡ [ k11 ] ⎢ Eh ⎢ = 2 48 1 −ν a b ⎢ ⎢ ⎣SYM 3 ( ) [ k12 ] [ k13 ] [ k14 ]⎤ [ k22 ] [ k23 ] [ k24 ]⎥ ⎥ [ k33 ] [ k34 ]⎥ [ k44 ]⎥ ⎦ (10.51) where the submatrices have the following expressions ⎡ 2 ⎧ 2 1 ⎫ 2 2 ⎢4 β + α + 5 (7 − 2ν ) ⎨2α + 5 (1 + 4ν )⎬ b ⎩ ⎭ ⎢ ⎧4 2 4 ⎫ 2 ⎢ [ k11 ] = ⎢ ⎨ α + (1 − ν )⎬ b 15 ⎩3 ⎭ ⎢ ⎢ SYM ⎢ ⎣ ( ) ⎧ ⎫ ⎤ 2 1 ⎨− 2β − (1 + 4ν )⎬ a ⎥ 5 ⎩ ⎭ ⎥ ⎥. −ν a b ⎥ ⎥ 4 2 4 ⎧ ⎫ 2 ⎨ β + ( 1 − ν )⎬ a ⎥ 15 ⎩3 ⎭ ⎥ ⎦ 1 ⎧ ⎫ ⎤ − ⎨2β 2 + (1 − ν )⎬ a ⎥ 5 ⎩ ⎭ ⎥ ⎥.50) Substituting the shape functions from (10.236 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎧ ∂2 ⎪ 2 ⎪ ∂x 2 ⎪ [ B ]= ⎪ ∂ 2 ⎨ ⎪ ∂y ⎪ ∂2 ⎪2 ⎪ ∂x∂ y ⎩ ⎫ ⎧ 1 ∂2 ⎪ ⎪ 2 2 ⎪ ⎪ a ∂ξ ⎪ ⎪ 1 ∂2 ⎪ ⎪ N⎦ = ⎨ 2 ⎬⎣ 2 ⎪ ⎪ b ∂η ⎪ ⎪ 2 ∂2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ab ∂ξ ∂η ⎭ ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎣N (ξ . 0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎧1 2 1 ⎫ 2 ⎨ β + ( 1 − ν )⎬ a ⎥ 15 ⎩3 ⎭ ⎥ ⎦ ⎡ ⎧ 2 ⎧ 2 1 ⎫ ⎫ 2 2 ⎨α − (1 + 4ν )⎬ b ⎢− ⎨2 2 β − α + 5 (7 − 2ν )⎬ 5 ⎩ ⎭ ⎭ ⎢ ⎩ ⎧2 2 4 ⎫ 2 ⎧ 2 1 ⎫ ⎢ [ k12 ] = ⎢ ⎨ α − (1 − ν )⎬ b ⎨α − (1 + 4ν )⎬ b 5 15 ⎩3 ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎢ ⎧ 2 1 ⎫ ⎢ 0 ⎨ 2 β + (1 − ν )⎬ a ⎢ 5 ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ ⎡ ⎧ 2 ⎧ 2 1 ⎫ ⎫ 2 2 ⎨α − ( 1 − ν )⎬ b ⎢− ⎨2 β + α + 5 (7 − 2ν )⎬ 5 ⎩ ⎭ ⎭ ⎢ ⎩ ⎧1 2 1 ⎫ 2 ⎧ 2 1 ⎫ ⎢ [ k13 ] = ⎢ ⎨− α + ( 1 − ν )⎬ b ⎨ α + ( 1 − ν )⎬ b 5 15 ⎩3 ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎢ ⎧ 2 1 ⎫ ⎢ 0 ⎨ β − ( 1 − ν )⎬ a ⎢ 5 ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ ( ) ( ) . 0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎧2 2 1 ⎫ 2 ⎨ β − (1 − ν )⎬ a ⎥ 15 ⎩3 ⎭ ⎥ ⎦ ⎧ 2 1 ⎫ ⎤ ⎨− β + ( 1 − ν )⎬ a ⎥ 5 ⎩ ⎭ ⎥ ⎥.η )⎦ .

[ k23 ] = [ I 3 ]T [ k14 ][ I 3 ] . In deriving this result.36) for w and substitute for {α } after performing the integration. (10. [ k44 ] = [ I 2 ]T [ k11 ][ I 2 ] .54) and integrating. ⎢ ⎥ ⎢0 0 − 1⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (10.53) The above relationships are presented in reference [87].5). 3 Stresses at any point in the plate are given by (10. the vector of equivalent nodal forces is obtained as ab T ⎣ 3 b − a 3 b a 3 − b a 3 − b − a⎦ . PLATE BENDING ⎡ 2 ⎧ 2 1 ⎫ 2 2 ⎢2 β − 2α − 5 (7 − 2ν ) ⎨ 2α + 5 (1 − ν )⎬ b ⎩ ⎭ ⎢ ⎧2 2 1 ⎫ 2 ⎢ ⎧− 2α 2 − 1 (1 − ν )⎫ b [ k 41 ] = ⎢ ⎨ ⎨ α − (1 − ν )⎬ b ⎬ 5 15 ⎩3 ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎢ 1 ⎧ ⎫ ⎢ ⎨− β 2 + (1 + 4ν )⎬ a 0 ⎢ ⎩ 5 ⎭ ⎣ 237 ( ) ⎧ ⎫ ⎤ 2 1 ⎨− β + (1 + 4ν )⎬ a ⎥ 5 ⎩ ⎭ ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎧2 2 4 ⎫ 2 ⎨ β − (1 − ν )⎬ a ⎥ 15 ⎩3 ⎭ ⎥ ⎦ and α= a . a The remaining submatrices of (10. [ k24 ] = [ I 3 ]T [ k23 ][ I 3 ] . [ k34 ] = [ I1 ]T [ k12 ][ I1 ] . substituting the shape functions into { f } = ∫ ⎣N ⎦ e A T pz d A (10. ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0 0 1⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡1 0 0⎤ [ I 2 ] = ⎢0 − 1 0 ⎥ . ⎢ ⎥ ⎢0 0 1 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡1 0 0 ⎤ [ I 3 ] = ⎢0 1 0 ⎥ . A typical integration is then of the form +1 +1 −1 −1 ∫∫ ξ mη n dξ dη = ⎨ ⎧ ⎪ 0 4 ⎪ (m + 1)(n + 1) ⎩ m or n odd m and n even For p z = constant . In terms of the nodal displacements they can be expressed as e z { f }= p . it is simpler to use the expression (10.51) are [ k22 ] = [ I 3 ]T [ k11 ][ I 3 ] . b β= b .10. [ k33 ] = [ I1 ]T [ k11 ][ I1 ] .52) where ⎡ − 1 0 0⎤ [ I1 ] = ⎢ 0 1 0⎥ .

2).43) but with 16 terms . 10.4.η )⎦ where T ⎧ f i (ξ ) f i (η ) ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ = ⎨ b f i (ξ ) g i (η ) ⎬ . This element does have constant strain but is non-conforming. the results are convergent. However. can be obtained using products of separate one-dimensional Hermitian shape functions (5. ⎪ − a g (ξ ) f (η ) ⎪ i i ⎩ ⎭ (10. Unfortunately.2 BFS element (conforming) A conforming rectangular element. as the mesh is refined and the element size is decreased. when we examine the derivatives of these products we find that the twist ∂ 2 w ∂ξ ∂η is zero at all four corners and that there is no constant component to this second derivative. The most accurate values are at the Gauss points of a (2 × 2) numerical integration scheme. Fox and Schmit .238 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS {σ } = − z [ D ][ B ]{q e }.43) with ⎣N i (ξ . g i (η ) = − ηi − η +ηi η 2 + η 3 . g i (ξ ) = − ξ i − ξ +ξ i ξ 2 + ξ 3 .50). as an increasing number of elements is used. The nodal expansion of the displacement function has the form (10. of the form shown in Fig.56) 1 1 2 + 3ξ i ξ − ξ i ξ 3 . this violates the fundamental requirement that the element can represent all constant strain states. As this controls the shear strain in equation (10. A compromise is to use the cubic Hermitian polynomials for the deflection shape functions but reduce the order to linear for the rotation shape functions.1966).21) as for uniform slender beams. 4 4 1 1 f i (η ) = 2 + 3ηi η − ηi η 3 . the displacement function is of the form (10. It is a four-node thin plate bending element.55) where [ B ] is defined in (10. 4 4 f i (ξ ) = ( ( ) ) ( ( ) ) (10. The solution used for the BFS element is the introduction of ∂ 2 w ∂ξ ∂η as an additional degree of freedom at each node.57) in which ( ξi . 10. In this case.ηi ) are the coordinates of node i.3. commonly referred to as the BFS element (Bogner. In the limit. (10. and discontinuities in slope occur at interfaces. the plate will tend towards a zero twist condition.

This is overcome in the WB element (Wilson. (10.21). Brebbia – 1971) by introducing the approximations ′ w′x y1 = ′ w′x y 3 = 1 θ y1 − θ y 4 . the shear deformations become important and a Reissner-Mindlin plate model is adopted. θ x and θ y are the only degrees of freedom required at the nodal points (Fig. PLATE BENDING 239 1 { q } = ⎣w e T ′ θ x1 θ y1 w′x y1 L w4 θ x 4 θ y 4 ′ w′x y 4 ⎦ .10. ⎪ − a g i (ξ ) f i (η ) ⎪ ⎪ ab g i (ξ ) g i (η ) ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ (10. 10.59). 2b ( ) ′ w′x y 2 = ′ w′x y 4 = 1 θ x 2 − θ x1 .59) of the first six terms in (10.49) and (10.5). .3 HTK thick rectangular element When the thickness is greater than about a tenth of the plate width. θ x and θ y appearing in these expressions is the first.and ydirections. Although the BFS element is more accurate than the ACM element.43) and (10.59) It can be shown that this element can perform rigid body movements without deformation and can describe pure bending behaviour in the x.30) and the potential of the external load is (10.η )⎦ T ⎧ f i (ξ ) f i (η ) ⎫ ⎪ b f (ξ ) g (η ) ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ i i =⎨ ⎬. 10.33). Hence. 2a 1 θ x3 − θ x 4 . The transverse displacement and tangential slope are continuous between elements but the normal slope is not. For a thick plate-bending element. The highest derivative of w . w . This is ensured by the presence in the functions (10. the strain energy expression is (10.3. 2b 1 θ y 2 − θ y3 . it is difficult to use in conjunction with other types of elements in built-up structures due to the presence of the degree of freedom ∂ 2 w ∂x ∂y . with { χ } and {γ } given by (10.53) where the matrix ⎣N ⎦ is defined by (10. 2a ( ) ( ) ( ) Applying the above constraints to the BFS element makes it a nonconforming one. for convergence. The element stiffness matrix and consistent vector of nodal forces are given by (10.58) ′ where w′x y ≡ ∂ 2 w ∂x ∂y and ⎣N i (ξ .24) and (10.26).

1977) expands separately w . that is Ni = 1 1 + ξ i ξ 1 + η iη .3).26) and (10. ⎥ N4 ⎥ ⎦ (10. 4 ( )( ) (10. i =1 i =1 i =1 4 4 4 (10. θ y = ∑ Ni θ y i . without having to infer it as the derivative of the bending moment.61) These functions ensure that w . θ x and θ y are continuous between elements. (10.24).240 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The four-node HTK element (Hughes. e T e e (10.65) In (10. ⎪ ⎭ { } (10.65) .30) gives Ue = 1 2 { q } [ k ] { q }. θ x and θ y in terms of their nodal values. The displacement functions are of the form w = ∑ Ni w i .44) and ⎡ N1 [ N ]= ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎣ N1 0 0 L N1 L (10. 0 0 L N4 0 0 0 N4 0 0 ⎤ 0 ⎥.60) can be written ⎧w ⎪ ⎨ θx ⎪θ ⎩ y where ⎫ ⎪ e ⎬=[N] q . θ x = ∑ Ni θ x i .63) Substituting (10. e B S (10. It represents the shear deformation directly. Taylor and Kanoknukulcha .60) where the functions N i are defined by (9. expressions (10.62) into (10.62) { q } = ⎣w e T 1 θ x1 θ y1 L w4 θ x 4 θ y 4 ⎦ .64) where the element stiffness matrix k e can be written as the sum of the matrices due to bending and shear [ ] [ k ] = [ k ] + [ k ]. In matrix form.

66) gives the element stiffness matrix due to bending .73) 4 ⎣( ⎦ S i i i i i i i i i Substituting (10. The strain-displacement matrix [ B ] is of the form [ B ]= [ [ B ] [ B ] [ B ] [ B ] ] S S T A B B B 1 B 2 B 3 B 4 (10.66) A and [ k ] = ∫ κ h [ B ] [ D ][ B ] d A . PLATE BENDING 241 h [ k ] = ∫ 12 [ B ] B 3 B T [ D ] [BB ] d A S S (10.10. 0 ⎥ ⎦ (10.68) and the resulting matrices into (10. ⎢ 0 ∂N ∂ y 0 =⎢ i ⎥ ⎢ 0 ∂ Ni ∂ x − ∂ Ni ∂ y ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ (10.70) where ⎣ ∂x 0 ∂ y − Ni Ni ⎤ .71) gives [ ] BiB ⎡0 − ξ i 1 + η iη 4a ⎤ 0 ⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ 0 1 + ξ i ξ η i 4b 0 ⎥ ⎢ 0 ξ i 1 + η i η 4 a − 1 + ξ i ξ η i 4b ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ( ( ) ( ) ) ( ) (10.69) (10.(10.67) (10.61) into (10.71) Substituting (10.72) into (10.72) and ( ηη a 0 [ B ] = ⎡⎢ ξ1 +1ξ+ ξ )η ) 4b − (1 + ξ ξ )(1 + η η ) 4 (1 + ξ ξ )(01 + η η ) 4 ⎤⎥ .69) and (10.68) where [ ] BiB The strain-displacement matrix B S is of the form S S 1 S 2 S 3 S 4 [ ] [ B ]= [ [ B ] [ B ] [ B ] [ B ] ] ∂N [ B ] = ⎡⎢ ∂ N S i i i 0 − ∂ Ni ∂ x ⎤ ⎡0 ⎥.

74) where the submatrices are ⎡0 ⎢ ⎢ = ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢0 ⎢ ⎣ 0 4 3 ⎧ 2 1 ⎫ 2 ⎨α + ( 1 −ν )⎬ b 2 ⎩ ⎭ 1 − (1 +ν )a b 2 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ 1 ⎥. 2 ⎥ 2 2 2⎥ β − ( 1 −ν ) a ⎥ 3 ⎦ 0 { } and α= a . − (1 +ν )a b ⎥ 2 ⎥ 4⎧ 2 1 ⎫ β + ( 1 −ν )⎬ a 2 ⎥ ⎨ 3⎩ 2 ⎭ ⎥ ⎦ 0 [k ] B 11 [k ] B 12 ⎡0 ⎢ ⎢ = ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎢ ⎣ ⎡0 ⎢ ⎢ = ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢0 ⎢ ⎣ 0 2 α 2 − ( 1 −ν ) b 2 3 1 − ( 3ν − 1 ) a b 2 0 { } ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ 1 ( 3ν − 1) a b ⎥ .242 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS [k ]= B 48 1 − ν 2 ( E h3 ) ⎡ kB ⎢ 11 ⎢ ⎢ ab ⎢ ⎢ ⎢SYM ⎣ [ ] [ k ] [ k ] [ k ] ⎤⎥ [ k ] [ k ] [ k ] ⎥⎥ [ k ] [ k ] ⎥⎥ [ k ] ⎥⎦ B B B 12 13 14 B B B 22 23 24 B 33 B 34 B 44 (10. b β= b . a . 2 ⎥ 1 2 2⎥ − 4 β + ( 1 −ν ) a ⎥ 3 ⎦ 0 { } [k ] B 13 2⎧ ⎫ 2 2 1 ⎨ − α − ( 1 −ν ) ⎬ b 3⎩ 2 ⎭ 1 (1 +ν )a b 2 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ 1 ⎥. ( 1 +ν )a b ⎥ 2 ⎥ 2⎧ 1 ⎫ − β 2 − ( 1 −ν ) ⎬ a 2 ⎥ ⎨ 3⎩ 2 ⎭ ⎥ ⎦ 0 [k ] B 14 ⎡0 0 ⎢ ⎢ 1 = ⎢0 − 4α 2 + ( 1 − ν ) b 2 3 ⎢ 1 ⎢0 ( 3ν − 1 ) a b ⎢ 2 ⎣ { } ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ 1 − ( 3ν − 1) a b ⎥ .

The vector of equivalent nodal forces is ⎧ pz ⎫ ⎪ f = ⎣N ⎦ ⎨ 0 ⎬ d A (10. a2 ⎥ ⎦ − a⎤ ⎥ 0 ⎥.76) and integrating gives { } ∫ e T⎪ { f }= p a b ⎣ 1 e z 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0⎦ T (10.63) and (10.52). a2 ⎥ ⎦ − a⎤ ⎥ 0 ⎥.52).97) and [k ] S 11 ⎡1 + α 2 α 2b ⎢ = ⎢ α 2b α 2 b 2 ⎢ −a 0 ⎣ ⎡ − 1 − α 2 α 2b ⎢ = ⎢ − α 2b α 2 b 2 ⎢ a 0 ⎣ − a⎤ ⎥ 0 ⎥.61) into (10.75) are given by relationships corresponding to (10. a2 ⎥ ⎦ [k ] S 12 ⎡ − 1 + α 2 α 2b ⎢ = ⎢ α 2b α 2 b2 ⎢ a 0 ⎣ ⎡1 − α 2 α 2b ⎢ = ⎢ − α 2b α 2 b 2 ⎢ −a 0 ⎣ − a⎤ ⎥ 0 ⎥. [ k ] [ k ] ⎥⎥ [ k ] ⎥⎦ S S S 12 13 14 S S S 22 23 24 S 33 S 34 S 44 (10.76) ⎪ 0 ⎪ A ⎩ ⎭ For pz = constant.67) gives the element stiffness matrix due to shear [k ] S ⎡ kS ⎢ 11 ⎢ E h3 ⎢ = 48 γ S a b ⎢ ⎢ ⎢SYM ⎣ [ ] [ k ] [ k ] [ k ] ⎤⎥ [ k ] [ k ] [ k ] ⎥⎥ . substituting the shape functions from (10. The bending and twisting moments per unit length are given by . Substituting (10.75) where γ S = E h 3 12κ G b 2 is a shear parameter similar to (5. The above expressions are presented in reference [87]. PLATE BENDING 243 The remaining submatrices of (10.74) are given by relationships corresponding to (10. a2 ⎥ ⎦ [k ] S 13 [k ] S 14 The remaining submatrices of (10.10.71) and the resulting matrices into (10.77) which means that one quarter of the total force is concentrated at each node.73) into (10.

26) thus imply a dependent relationship between w . . into four triangles) and work with different displacement functions over each region. The shear forces per unit length are ⎧ Qx ⎫ ⎨ ⎬=κ h ⎩ Qy ⎭ [ D ][ B ]{q }. Benchmark problems have shown that the HTK element yields accurate solutions for simply supported or clamped plates.78) where [ I 3 ] is defined by (10. S S e (10. The most accurate values are at the Gauss points of a (2 × 2) numerical integration scheme. 10. suggest to subdivide the element into regions (e. the individual functions must be continuous (up to the first derivatives) across the interior boundaries as well as the exterior boundaries. However. θ x and θ y which is not true for thick plates. e (10. considering rather difficult to generate a displacement function valid over the entire rectangular element. Obviously.53). There are different formulations using mixtures of corner and mid-side freedoms in order to achieve near complete polynomials.g. There is no perfect rectangular plate-bending element. the shear strains become very small and near-zero values in (10. However. large errors can occur in the case of cantilever plates.4 Triangular plate bending elements In this section we outline the development of some plate-bending triangular elements.. In very thin plates. lowering the integration order for the stiffness matrix due to shear. The bending strains in the 8-node version are recovered accurately if sampled at the reduced (2 × 2) Gauss points. Alternative methods. This is avoided by selective integration. the standard (2 × 2) integration is reported to give good results for width-to-thickness ratios up to 50.79) The most accurate values are at the centre of the element. The above analysis can be easily extended to 8-node or higher-order plate elements.244 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎧ Mx ⎪ ⎨ My ⎪M ⎩ xy ⎫ ⎪ h3 = − [ I3 ] [ D ] B B ⎬ 12 ⎪ ⎭ [ ]{q }.

and the two rotations θ x = and ∂y θy = − ∂w with respect to the local axes.1962). In order to maintain symmetry. ( ) (10.0) .10. (10. a) w = ⎣P ( x .1 Thin triangular element (non-conforming) Figure 10.0) and (x3 . the displacement function can be represented by a polynomial having nine terms.6 The expression (10. 2 and 3 have coordinates (0.80) is incomplete.82) Differentiating (10. Fig.80) Note that a complete cubic has ten terms so that the polynomial (10. Nodes 1.4. (x2 . PLATE BENDING 245 10. 10. the transverse displacement w . that is w = α1 + α 2 x + α 3 y + α 4 x 2 + α 5 x y + α 6 y 2 + + α 7 x3 + α8 x 2 y + x y 2 + α 9 y 3 .6 shows the T element (Tocher .80) can be written in the following matrix form w= 1 x ⎣ y x2 xy y2 x3 (x 2 y + x y2 ) y3 ⎦ {α } .81) (10. ∂x Since the element has 9 degrees of freedom. y )⎦ {α } . The local x-axis lies along the side 1-2 and the local y-axis is perpendicular to it.81. There are three degrees of freedom at each ∂w node. namely. y3 ) . the coefficients of x 2 y and x y 2 are taken to be equal. (10. where {α }T = ⎣ α1 α 2 α3 L α9 ⎦ .81) gives .

87) into (10. e e (10.85) and the matrix ⎡1 0 0 ⎢0 0 1 ⎢ ⎢ 0 −1 0 ⎢ ⎢ 1 x2 0 =⎢0 0 1 ⎢ ⎢ 0 −1 0 ⎢1 x y3 3 ⎢ ⎢0 0 1 ⎢ ⎣ 0 −1 0 0 0 0 2 x2 0 − 2 x2 2 x3 0 0 0 0 2 x2 0 2 2 x3 y3 + x3 y3 2 x3 + 2 x3 y3 2 − 2 x3 y3 − y3 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 y3 2 3 y3 0 [A ] e 0 − 2 x3 0 2 − 3x3 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ .88) x2 − 2 x3 − y3 = 0 (10.87) Substituting (10. Unfortunately. the matrix [ A ] is singular whenever w = ⎣P (x .83) ⎥ ⎦ Evaluating (10. 0 0 0 0 x2 0 x3 y3 x3 − y3 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 y3 2 y3 0 0 0 0 3 x2 0 2 3 x2 3 x3 (10.246 ⎧w ⎪ ⎨ θx ⎪θ ⎩ y ⎫ ⎡ 1 x y x2 x y y2 x3 ⎪ ⎢ 0 0 x 2y ⎬=⎢0 0 1 ⎪ ⎢ 0 − 1 0 − 2 x − y 0 − 3x 2 ⎭ ⎣ FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS x2 y + x y2 x2 + 2x y − 2x y − y2 y3 3y2 0 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ {α }. e −1 (10. y )⎦ Ae e e (10.83) along the side 1-2. gives . a) yields [ ] { q }. of equation y = 0 . Evaluating (10.84) for {α } gives {α } = [ Ae ] −1 {q } . If this occurs.83) at the nodal points gives { q } = [ A ] {α } .86) ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ Solving (10. (10.81.89) and. (10.84) where { q } = ⎣w e T 1 θ x1 θ y1 L w3 θ x 3 θ y 3 ⎦ . This element is non-conforming. cannot be inverted. therefore. the locations of the nodes should be altered to avoid this condition.

Therefore the normal slope is not continuous between elements. α 5 and α 8 .90) The rotation θ x is a quadratic function having coefficients α 3 .4) and (10. The edge 1-2 was taken along the x-axis.8) gives Ue = 1 2 { q } [ k ]{ q } e T e e (10. The vector of consistent nodal forces is given by (10.10.91) where the element stiffness matrix in the local coordinate system is h [ k ] = [ A ] ∫ 12 [ B ] e e −T 3 A T [ D ] [ B ]d A [A ] e −1 (10. while the tangential component θ x is not. To alleviate this. ⎥ ⎢ 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 4 (x + y ) 0 ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ A typical element of the integrand in (10. The transverse displacement w and the normal component θ y are continuous between elements.92) and the strain-displacement matrix is 2y 0 ⎤ ⎡ 0 0 0 2 0 0 6x ⎢0 0 0 0 0 2 0 [B ]= ⎢ 2x 6y ⎥ .92) is of the form which can be evaluated analytically. { f }= [ A ] ∫ e e −T A T ⎣P ⎦ p z d A .80) is not invariant with respect to the choice of coordinate axes. (10. In this case θ x is a tangential component and θ y is a normal component of rotation. the assumed function (10. PLATE BENDING 247 0 x2 0 0⎤ ⎥ 0 ⎥ {α } .93) ∫x A m n y dA . due to the x 2 y and x y 2 terms. in some plate-bending elements a linear variation of the tangential component of rotation is adopted.94) Note that nodal coordinates are usually given in global axes. These cannot be determined using the values of θ x at nodes 1 and 2 only.88) into (10. Calculation of the element stiffness matrix referred to local axes requires the local coordinates of . Substituting (10. Moreover. 0⎥ ⎦ ⎧w ⎪ ⎨ θx ⎪θ ⎩ y ⎡ 1 x 0 x2 0 0 ⎫ x3 ⎢ ⎪ 0 x 0 0 ⎬ =⎢0 0 1 ⎪ ⎢ 0 − 1 0 − 2 x 0 0 − 3x 2 ⎭1− 2 ⎣ (10.

the transverse displacement w . In order to assemble the global stiffness matrix.248 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS nodes 2 and 3. 10.95) where wi . namely. These can be obtained from their global coordinates using the corresponding transformation matrix.98) Functions expressed in area coordinates can be differentiated with respect to Cartesian coordinates using .4. In matrix form. Nodes 1. The displacement functions are assumed to be w = ∑ ζ i wi .95) are written ⎧ w ⎪ ⎨θX ⎪θ ⎩ Y ⎫ ⎪ ⎬=[N ⎪ ⎭ ]{ q e }. θ X and θY are continuous between elements. There are three independent degrees of freedom at each node. 2 and 3 have area coordinates ζ 1 . They ensure that w . expressions (10. θ X i and θY i are the degrees of freedom at node i. i =1 i =1 i =1 3 3 3 (10. (10. Tocher. ζ 2 and ζ 3 (8.2 Thick triangular element (conforming) Consider a thick triangular element (THT element – Henschel. (10. θY = ∑ ζ i θY i .96) where the vector of nodal displacements is { q } = ⎣w e T 1 θ X 1 θ Y 1 L w3 θ X 3 θ Y 3 ⎦ .35). 1969) referred to a global coordinate system. θ X = ∑ ζ i θ X i .97) and ⎡ ζ1 0 0 ζ 2 0 0 ζ 3 0 0 ⎤ [ N ] = ⎢ 0 ζ1 0 0 ζ 2 0 0 ζ 3 0 ⎥ . and the two rotations θ X and θY with respect to the global axes. the element matrices have to be first transformed from local to global axes through a matrix triple product which is one of the more time-consuming procedures in finite element analysis. ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ 0 0 ζ1 0 0 ζ 2 0 0 ζ 3 ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ (10.

8). ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎦ (10. [ k ] ⎥⎦ S S 12 13 S S 22 23 (10.104) S 33 where .99) Substituting (10.24) and using (10.24) and using (10. ∂ y 2 A i =1 i (10. the stiffness matrix due to bending is h [ k ] = 12 A [ B ] B 3 B T [ D ] [ B B ]. (10.96) into (10.100) As this matrix is constant.96) into (10.101) Substituting (10.103) gives the stiffness matrix due to shear ⎡ kS ⎢ 11 = κG h ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ SYM ⎣ [k ] S [ ] [ k ] [ k ] ⎤⎥ [ k ] [ k ] ⎥⎥ .67) and integrating using the formula ∫ζ A m n p 1 ζ2 ζ3 dA = m ! n!p ! 2A (m + n + p + 2)! (10.102) into (10. PLATE BENDING 249 ∂ 1 3 ∂ = ∑ β i ∂ζ .99) gives the straindisplacement matrix due to bending [B ] B ⎡ 0 0 − β1 0 0 1 ⎢ = 0 γ1 0 0 γ2 2A ⎢ ⎢ 0 β 1 − γ1 0 β 2 ⎣ −β2 0 −γ2 0 0 0 γ3 0 β3 −β3 ⎤ ⎥ 0 ⎥. ∂ 1 3 ∂ = ∑ γ i ∂ζ . −γ3 ⎥ ⎦ (10.102) Substituting (10.99) shows that the straindisplacement matrix due to shear is [B ] S ⎡ ⎢ =⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ β1 2A 0 − ζ1 ζ1 0 β2 2A 0 −ζ2 ζ2 0 β3 2A 0 −ζ3 ζ3 ⎥ ⎤ γ1 γ2 γ3 2A 2A 2A ⎥.10. ∂ x 2 A i =1 i where β i and γ i are defined in (8.

Stricklin et al. .65).4.105) which shows that one third of the total force is concentrated at each node. ⎥ A⎥ 6 ⎥ ⎦ [k ] S 23 ⎡ β3 β 2 + γ 3 γ 2 ⎢ 4A ⎢ γ3 ⎢ =⎢ − 6 ⎢ β3 ⎢ ⎢ 6 ⎣ − γ2 β2 ⎤ 6 A 12 0 ⎥ 6 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥. For pz = constant.76) and integrating gives the vector of equivalent nodal forces { f }= p e z A T ⎣1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0⎦ 3 (10. 10.3 Discrete Kirchhoff triangles (DKT) The difficulties to formulate simple (minimum degrees of freedom) and high-performing elements based on the Kirchhoff theory at the continuum level (which requires a C1 continuity for w ) led to the development of the so-called Discrete Kirchhoff (DK) technique (Wempner-1969. The above relationships are presented in reference [87]. ⎥ A⎥ 12 ⎥ ⎦ β1 ⎤ − γ2 6 A 6 0 β2 ⎤ [k ] S 22 ⎥ 6 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥.-1969. ⎥ A⎥ 12 ⎥ ⎦ β1 ⎤ [k ] S 13 ⎡ β3 β 1 + γ 3 γ 1 ⎢ 4A ⎢ γ3 ⎢ =⎢ − 6 ⎢ β3 ⎢ ⎢ 6 ⎣ − γ1 6 A 12 0 ⎥ 6⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥. ⎥ A⎥ 12 ⎥ ⎦ [k ] S 33 2 ⎡β 2 +γ3 3 ⎢ ⎢ 4A γ3 ⎢ =⎢ − 6 ⎢ β 3 ⎢ ⎢ 6 ⎣ − γ3 6 A 6 0 β3 ⎤ ⎥ 6 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥.98) into (10. Dhatt1967). ⎥ A⎥ 6⎥ ⎦ [k ] S 12 ⎡ β2 β 1 + γ 2 γ1 ⎢ 4A ⎢ γ2 ⎢ =⎢ − 6 ⎢ β2 ⎢ ⎢ 6 ⎣ 2 ⎡β 2 +γ2 2 ⎢ ⎢ 4A γ2 ⎢ =⎢ − 6 ⎢ β 2 ⎢ ⎢ 6 ⎣ − γ1 6 A 12 0 ⎥ 6⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥. ⎥ A⎥ 6 ⎥ ⎦ The complete element stiffness matrix is the sum (10.250 2 2 ⎡ β 1 + γ1 ⎢ ⎢ 4A γ1 ⎢ =⎢ − 6 ⎢ β 1 ⎢ ⎢ 6 ⎣ FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS − γ1 6 A 6 0 β1 ⎤ [k ] S 11 ⎥ 6⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥. substituting the shape functions from (10.

The shear strain energy is neglected. The latter condition means that the transverse displacement w can vary cubically. as in the ReissnerMindlin plate theory.7 b For a side i − j . while the normal component θ n varies quadratically (Fig. in the discrete Kirchhoff triangles the two components of rotations are assumed independent of one another. The T element presented in section 10. the transverse shear strains are either taken equal to zero at the mid-side points (collocation on sides) or their integral along each edge is taken equal to zero. in terms of the first derivatives of the rotations (10. To remedy this. The aim is to preserve the C 0 continuity of the tangential components of rotations (normal slopes). The Kirchhoff constraints are imposed in a discrete manner on the element or/and on the sides. Constant curvature patch-tests are needed to check the validity of the elements.106) . 10. In this case only C 0 approximations of these rotations can be considered. along a side. PLATE BENDING 251 In the formulation of various DK plate elements.10. It was shown that.24). only the bending strain energy is considered.1 can be called a ‘continuous’ Kirchhoff triangle. For instance. the rotations vary quadratically and their tangential component (normal slope) is not continuous between elements. the tangential and normal components of rotations θ s k and θ n k at the mid-side node k.4. a). in which the curvatures are expressed. of length l k . 10.7. The tangential component θ s is assumed to vary linearly along each edge. a Fig. are defined in terms of the components along the coordinate axes by ⎧ θ s k ⎫ ⎡ ck ⎨θ ⎬ = ⎢ ⎩ n k ⎭ ⎣ − sk where sk ⎤ ⎧ θ x k ⎫ ⎨ ⎬ ck ⎥ ⎩ θ y k ⎭ ⎦ (10.

a). 10. At the mid-side node k 1 θ ni + θ n j + α k . ( ) (10.7. it is assumed that it has six nodes (Fig. Fig. One kind of ‘discrete’ Kirchhoff constraint is formulated in integral form as j j ∫ i γ s z ds = ∫ i ⎛ ∂w ⎞ ⎜ ⎜ ∂s + θn ⎟ ds = 0 . α 6 must be expressed in terms of the degrees of freedom at the corner nodes. 2 θnk = ( ) where the first term in the right hand side is expressed in terms of the rotations at the corner nodes.108) . 10. The parameter α k has to be eliminated. b) θ s = ( 1 − s′ )θ s i + s′θ s j . Its expression in terms of the dimensionless coordinate can be written as s′ = s l k θ n = ( 1 − s′ )θ ni + s′θ n j + 4s′ ( 1 − s′ )α k . This is done requiring the shear strains γ s z to vanish along each side. Then. The rotation θ s is assumed to vary linearly (Fig. the three parameters α 4 . Initially.107) Consider a discrete Kirchhoff triangle (DKT) with three nodes and three degrees of freedom per node (sometimes called DKT9). ( ) sk = y j − y i l k . α 5 .252 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ck = x j − x i l k . 10.8. ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (10.8 In order to eliminate the degrees of freedom at mid-side nodes. 10. b). The rotation θ n varies parabolically (Fig. the degrees of freedom at mid-side nodes are eliminated.8.

the condition γ s z = 0 will be ∂s satisfied at all points along the contour.10. (w j − wi ) + l k ∫ [ ( 1 − s′ )θ ni + s′θ n j + 4s′ ( 1 − s′ )α k ] d s′ = 0 . θ y = ⎣N ⎦ {θ y }+ ⎣Py ⎦ {α }.109) The equation (10.108) can be written ∫ dw + ∫ θ i 0 1 0 j lk n ds = 0 . The rotations θ x and θ y can be expressed as θ x = ⎣N ⎦ {θ x } + ⎣Px ⎦ {α }. Then. PLATE BENDING 253 Equation (10.110) we obtain the explicit expressions of . wherefrom we obtain αk = 3 3 wi − w j − θ n i + θ n j . {θ x } = ⎣θ x1 θ x 2 θ x3 ⎦T .109) can also be obtained by adopting a Hermitian cubic polynomial for w (s ) and using the discrete Kirchhoff collocation constraint (zero ∂w shear strain) γ s z = + θ n = 0 at points i. θ x and θ y in terms of the corner nodal variables Substituting (10.109) into (10. ⎣Py ⎦ = ⎣ P4c4 P5c5 P6 c6 ⎦ . where (10.111) {α } = ⎣ α 4 ⎣Px ⎦ = ⎣ − P4 s4 − P5 s5 − P6 s6 ⎦ . 2l k 4 ( ) ( ) or. j. because w is cubical and θ n is quadratic. k. θ y 2 θ y 3 ⎦T . (10. in terms of the degrees of freedom of the corner points αk = 3 3 wi − w j − − s k θ x i + c k θ y i − s k θ x j + c k θ y j . 2l k 4 ( ) ( ) (10. ⎣ P4 P5 P6 ⎦ = ⎣ 4ξ ( 1 − ξ − η ) 4ξη 4η ( 1 − ξ − η ) ⎦ .110) ⎣N ⎦ = ⎣ N1 N 2 N3 ⎦ = ⎣1 − ξ − η ξ η ⎦ . {θ y }= ⎣θ y1 α5 α6 ⎦ T .

4 4 3 3 Pk ck − Pm cm . the shape functions have the following expressions 3 3 Pk sk + Pm sm . (10.116) 3 3 2 2 Pk ck − Pm cm .115) In (10.1 Corner point. 3 ⎦ (10.112) { q } = ⎣w e T 1 θ x1 θ y1 L w3 θ x 3 θ y 3 ⎦ . the nodal rotations θ x i and θ y i have the expressions used in Kirchhoff’s theory θ xi = ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ∂y ⎟ .113) [ N ]= ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣N 2x ⎦ ⎣N3x ⎦ ⎤ . (10. i 1 2 3 Side k ( i − j ) 5 (2−3 ) 6 (3 −1 ) 4 (1− 2 ) Side m ( i − j ) 4 (1− 2 ) 6 (3 −1 ) 5 (2−3 ) . 2l k 2l m 3 3 2 2 Pk sk − Pm sm .1. 4 4 N ix2 = N i − N ix = 3 N iy = N ix . 3 ⎦ ⎣N1y ⎦ = ⎣Niy1 N iy = 1 N iy 2 N iy . Table 10.115).254 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎧ θx ⎫ ⎨ ⎬=[N ⎩θy ⎭ where ] {q e }. 3 2 3 3 Pk sk ck + Pm sm cm . 2l k 2l m (10. as shown in Table 10. 2.114) ⎣N1x ⎦ = ⎣N ix1 N ix = − 1 N ix2 N ix . 4 4 N iy = N i − 3 In the above expressions the indices k and m relate to the two edges having the common corner point i. ⎥ y y y ⎥ ⎢ ⎣N1 ⎦ ⎣N 2 ⎦ ⎣N 3 ⎦ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ Nx 1 (10. ⎠i ⎝ ⎛∂w⎞ ( i = 1. 3 ) allowing the introduction of Kirchhoff-type boundary conditions. ⎠i ⎝ ⎛∂w⎞ θ yi = − ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ∂x ⎟ . Taking into account the hypotheses adopted in formulating the DKT.

{ } θ y = ⎣H ⎦ q e .117) The shape function row vectors ⎣G ⎦ and ⎣H ⎦ . 2A { } (10.120) ⎧ β 2 ⎣G ⎦ + β 3 ⎣G ⎦ ⎫ 2 3 ⎪ ⎪ { X } = ⎨ 2β 2 ⎣G ⎦ 4 + β 3 ⎣G ⎦ 5 ⎬ .120) χ12 = { } where A is the area of the triangle with vertices (x1 . ⎪ γ H + 2γ H ⎪ 3 ⎣ ⎦6 ⎭ ⎩ 2 ⎣ ⎦5 . PLATE BENDING 255 Because the parameters α k are eliminated using an expression which is a function of the nodal variables of the side k only. In (10. presented explicitly in terms of the local oblique coordinates ξ and η . y1 ) . The stiffness matrix of the DKT element can be expressed in explicit form.112) can be split as θ x = ⎣G ⎦ q e . Equation (10. y3 ) . In the following. it will be derived in global coordinates as in [68].119) The elements of the curvature vector can be expressed in terms of the rows of the ( 6 × 9 ) matrices [ G ] and [ H ] as follows χ1 = χ2 = 1 ⎣1 ξ η ⎦ { X 2A }{ q e }.118) The curvature vector (10. { } (10. (x2 . 2A 1 e ⎣1 ξ η ⎦ { Z } q . (10. y2 ) and (x3 .10.24) is written for convenience as ∂θ x ∂y ∂θ x ∂θ y ⎥ − ⎥ ∂x ∂y ⎦ T = ⎣ χ1 χ2 χ12 ⎦ T . (10. using a Hammer integration rule. in a local coordinate system [18]. the continuity C 0 of θ n is maintained. ⎪ β G + 2β G ⎪ 3 ⎣ ⎦6 ⎭ ⎩ 2 ⎣ ⎦5 ⎧ γ 2 ⎣H ⎦ + γ 3 ⎣H ⎦ ⎫ 2 3 ⎪ ⎪ {Y } = ⎨ 2γ 2 ⎣H ⎦ 4 + γ 3 ⎣H ⎦ 5 ⎬ . can be rewritten as ⎣G ⎦ = ⎣1 ⎣H ⎦ = ⎣1 ⎢ ∂θ {χ }= ⎢ − y ⎣ ∂x ξ η ξ 2 ξη η 2 ⎦ [ G ] . ξ η ξ 2 ξη η 2 ⎦ [ H ] . 1 e ⎣1 ξ η ⎦ {Y } q .

256

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

⎧ γ 2 ⎣G ⎦ + γ 3 ⎣G ⎦ + β 2 ⎣H ⎦ + β 3 ⎣H ⎦ ⎫ 2 3 2 3 ⎪ ⎪ { Z } = ⎨ 2γ 2 ⎣G ⎦ 4 + γ 3 ⎣G ⎦ 5 + 2β 2 ⎣H ⎦ 4 + β 3 ⎣H ⎦ 5 ⎬ , ⎪ γ G + 2γ G + β H + 2 β H ⎪ 3 ⎣ ⎦6 2 ⎣ ⎦5 3 ⎣ ⎦6 ⎭ ⎩ 2 ⎣ ⎦5

(10.121)

where ⎣G ⎦ i and ⎣H ⎦ i represent the ith row of [ G ] and [ H ] , respectively, and

**β i = y j − yk and γ i = xk − x j as in (8.8), with i, j, k taking values 1, 2, 3
**

cyclically. Substituting for the curvature terms into the bending strain energy expression 1 { χ }T [ D ] { χ }d x d y , Ue = (10.122) 2

∫

A

**where the material matrix [ D
**

Ue =

]

1 2

has the form (10.13), U e can be written as

{ q } [ K ]{ q },

e T e e

where K e is the element stiffness matrix in global coordinates, given by

[ ]

[K ]

e

⎡ [ X ]⎤ 1 ⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ [Y ] ⎥ 2A ⎢ [Z ]⎥ ⎣ ⎦

T

⎡ D11 [ R ] D12 [ R ] D16 [ R ]⎤ ⎡ [ X ] ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ D22 [ R ] D26 [ R ]⎥ ⎢ [ Y ] ⎥ , ⎢ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ SYM D66 [ R ]⎥ ⎢ [ Z ] ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦

(10.123)

with ⎡ 12 4 4 ⎤ 1 ⎢ [ R ]= ⎢ 4 2 1 ⎥ . ⎥ 24 ⎢ 4 1 2⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (10.124)

The matrix K e is of rank 6, so there are 3 deformation modes with zero strain energy. The integrations in (10.122) have the form

[ ]

∫∫

0 0

ξ 1−ξ

ξ mη n dξ dη ==

m ! n! . (m + n + 2)!

The presented procedure avoids the matrix triple products needed when the element stiffness matrix is given in the local coordinate system.

References

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150. 95 − frame 98 − constant strain triangle 160 − linear quad 199 31 .Index ACM plate-bending element Admissible functions 144 Area coordinates 180 Aspect ratio 178 Assembly of global matrices Axial effects 97 232 8-node quad 214 ACM plate-bending element 237 T plate-bending element 247 THT plate-bending element 249 Expanded stiffness matrix 29 External potential energy 140 Force transformation 20 Four-node rectangle 176 Frame element 97 Gauss points 200 Gauss quadrature 200 − one-dimensional 200 − two-dimensional 203 Gravity loading 217 Grids 111 Hermitian polynomials 85 HTK plate-bending element 239 Initial strain effects 59 Internal forces 35 Inverse of Jacobian matrix 196 Isoparametric elements 191 Jacobian matrix 195 Jacobian positiveness 223 Joint force equilibrium equations Kinematic equivalent forces 47 Kirchhoff’s hypotheses 225 Lagrange polynomials 220 Linear elasticity 123 Linear strain triangle 182 Master element 192 Natural coordinates 192 Nine-node quad 219 Nodal approximation 155 Nodal forces 55 Node numbering 37 Non-conforming elements 232. 238. 187 Conforming elements 150. 187 Coordinate transformation 19. 245 Numerical integration 200 100. 98 Deep beam 117 Direct method 26 Direct stiffness method 17 Discrete Kirchhoff constraints 252 Discrete Kirchhoff triangle 250 Displacement method 9 Effective shear area 118 Eight-node quad 208 Eight-node rectangle 178 Energy methods 131 Equation of equilibrium 199 Equivalent nodal forces. vector of − beam 90. 151 − − − − Band storage 38 Bars 47 Bar element 47 Beams 79 Beam element 83 − stiffness matrix 87 − vector of nodal forces 89 Bernoulli-Euler beam theory 79 BFS plate-bending element 238 Compatibility 28. 248 Consistent nodal forces 214 Consistent vector of nodal forces 89 Constant strain triangle 153 Continuity 132 Convergence 97.

107. 230 Six-node triangle 221 . 236 − relations 121 Strain energy 124 .139 − bending 231 − shear 232 Stress averaging 161 Stress-strain relations 122 Subparametric elements 191 T plate-bending element 245 Temperature effects 124 Thick plate theory 229 Thermal loads 36 Thin plate theory 225 Total potential energy 140 Transformation of − differential operators 195 − infinitesimal area 197 Triangle area 156 − quadratic strain triangle 185 Triangular membrane element 180 − linear strain triangle 182 − quadratic strain triangle 185 − six-node 221 Triangular thin plate element 245 − thick plate element 248 Two-dimensional elements 153 Two-point formula 202 Unreduced global stiffness matrix Virtual displacements 131 − work of external loads 133 − work of internal forces 193 WB plate-bending element 239 30 Pascal’s triangle 220 Patch test 190 Plate bending elements 225 − rectangular 232 − triangular 244 Polynomial approximation 154 Principle of − minimum total potential energy − virtual displacements 134 − virtual work 131 Quadratic strain triangle 185 − triangle 222 Quadrilateral membrane element − eight-node 208 − linear 191 − nine-node 219 139 191 Rayleigh-Ritz method 143 Reactions 35 Rectangular membrane element 176 − thin plate element 232 − thick plate elements 239 Reduced global stiffness matrix 33 − integration 205 Reference element 192 Reissner-Mindlin plate theory 229 Serendipity elements 209 Shaft elements 60 Shape functions − bars 50. 52 − shaft 61 − beam 87. 122 − constant strain triangle 159 − frame 98 − grid 113 − linear strain triangle 183 − linear quadrilateral 199 − eight-node quad 211 − T plate-bending element 247 − ACM plate-bending element 236 − HTK plate-bending element 242 − THT plate-bending element 249 Strain-displacement matrix 158.266 Object of FEA 1 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Skyline storage 39 Stiffness matrix 17 − bars 17. 53 − shaft 62 − beam 85. 22.. 94. 120 − constant strain triangle 157 − four-node rectangle 177 − eight-node rectangle 179 − linear strain triangle 182 − quadratic strain triangle 186 − linear quadrilateral 193 − eight-node quad 209 − nine-node quad 221 − six-node triangle 221 − ACM plate-bending element 234 − BFS plate-bending element 238 − HTK plate-bending element 240 − THT plate-bending element 248 Shear correction factor 118.

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