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A B.Tech. Project Report submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Bachelor of Technology Under Biju Patnaik University of Technology By

Toshalika Ray Abhishek Ranjan

Roll # EIE200750152 Roll # EIE200720449

2010 - 2011 Under the guidance of

Mr. Bhanu Prasad Behera

NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE &TECHNOLOGY Palur Hills, Berhampur, Orissa – 761008, India

ABSTRACT

This report provides an analytical overview of job satisfaction among the faculty members of BPUT, Rourkela based on various college contributions to a questionnaire. This Questionnaire postulates that job satisfaction depends on the balance between work-role inputs - such as education, working time, effort - and work-role outputs wages, fringe benefits, status, working conditions, intrinsic aspects of the job. If work-role outputs (‘pleasures’) increase relative to work-role inputs(‘pains’), then job satisfaction will increase. The report then examines survey results on levels of general or overall job satisfaction among faculty members, as well as identifying the relationship between specific factors relating to work and job satisfaction. Taking into consideration the work force, this report draws a conspicuous conclusion of the BPUT work prospects.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Completing a task is never one man's effort and this dissertation is no exception. Here we would like to take this opportunity to thank all those individuals whose invaluable contribution in a direct or indirect manner has gone into the making of this dissertation. First and foremost we express our deep sense of gratitude to our advisor, Mr. Bhanu Prasad Behera for having been a constant source of encouragement and also for his valuable guidance in each and every aspect of this dissertation. We give our sincere thanks to our project co-advisors Prof. Sushanta Tripathy and Mr. Sarat Kumar Jena for their valuable guidance and constant unfailing encouragement. We give our sincere thanks to Mr. Nihar Ranjan Sahu, B. Tech Project Coordinator, for giving us the opportunity and motivating us to complete the project within stipulated period of time and providing a helping environment. Our sincere thanks to Prof. (Dr.) A. K. Panda, Dean, N.I.S.T, who has given us opportunity to do this project. We thank to Prof. Sangram Mudali, for his immense effort to provide a better quality at NIST. Finally we thank our parents, friends and all those people who are related to this dissertation at any stage of its making, for their readiness to help us out whenever required Toshalika Ray Abhishek Ranjan

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

ABSTRACT...................................................................................................................i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT...........................................................................................ii 49.....................................................................................................................................i TABLE OF CONTENTS...........................................................................................iii LIST OF FIGURE......................................................................................................vi INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................7 1.2 Objectives.............................................................................................................7 1.2 Scope ...................................................................................................................7 LITERATURE REVIEW..........................................................................................8 Models of Job Satisfaction....................................................................................8 1. Affect Theory.....................................................................................................8 2. Dispositional Theory..........................................................................................8 3. Two-Factor Theory (Motivator-Hygiene Theory).............................................9 4. Job Characteristics Model......................................................................................9 5. Communication Overload and Communication Underload.................................10 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE JOB SATISFACTION......................................11 2. Stress ...............................................................................................................11 3. Leadership .......................................................................................................12 4. Work Standards ...............................................................................................12 5. Fair Rewards ...................................................................................................12 6. Adequate Authority .........................................................................................13 When these six factors are high, job satisfaction is high. When the six factors are low, job satisfaction is low.......................................................................................13 EMPLOYEE ATTITUDE AND JOB SATISFACTION........................................14 3.1 The Causes of Employee Attitudes....................................................................14

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3.1.1 Dispositional Influences..............................................................................14 3.1.2 Cultural Influences......................................................................................15 3.1.3 Work Situation Influences...........................................................................15 3.2 The Results of Positive or Negative Job Satisfaction........................................16 3.3 Job Satisfaction and Job Performance................................................................16 3.4 Job Satisfaction and Life Satisfaction................................................................18 3.5 Job Satisfaction and Withdrawal Behaviors.......................................................18 3.6 Measure and Influence Employee Attitudes......................................................19 3.6.1 Employee Attitude Surveys.........................................................................19 3.6.2 The Use of Norms.......................................................................................21 3.6.3 Comparisons and Numerical Accuracy.......................................................21 3.6.4 Survey Feedback and Action.......................................................................22 Methodology ..................................................................................................22

MINITAB....................................................................................................................22 4.1 Minitab Windows...............................................................................................22 4.2 Data Types..........................................................................................................23 4.3 Entering Data......................................................................................................23 4.4 Saving Data........................................................................................................24 STATISTICAL ANALYSIS......................................................................................26 5.1 Descriptive Statistics..........................................................................................26 5.2 Mean...................................................................................................................27 5.3 Median................................................................................................................29 5.3.1 Notation.......................................................................................................30 5.3.2 Medians in Descriptive Statistics................................................................31 5.4 Standard Deviation.............................................................................................31 5.5 Correlation..........................................................................................................32

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5.6 Regression..........................................................................................................33 49....................................................................................................................................7 DATA ANALYSIS.....................................................................................................36 6.1 Basic Analysis of the data..................................................................................36 6.2 DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS..............................................................................37 RESULTS AND INTERPRETATION....................................................................37 SCREE PLOT:.........................................................................................................38 ..................................................................................................................................38 It shows that after four factors the curve becomes more or less as a straight line signifying that we can extract four factors from the twentyfive factors..................38 From the above analysis we have found that the correlation coefficient between average and each group is very high, the values being 0.955, 0.759,0.766,0.733. .43 Whereas the correlation coefficient among the groups itself is relatively low.....43 The p-value in the Analysis of Variance table (0.000), indicates that the relationship is statistically significant.......................................................................43 FUTURE WORK.......................................................................................................43 INCREASE.................................................................................................................44 CONCLUSIONS........................................................................................................44 REFERENCES...........................................................................................................45 APPENDIX.................................................................................................................46 6.3 Factor Analysis...................................................................................................47

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LIST OF FIGURE

Figure 4.1 Worksheet.................................................................................................24 Figure 5.1 A menu of the statistics categories and the subcategories for Basic Statistics from Student Version 12 ..........................................................................26 Figure 5.2 Cumulative Probability of a normal distribution with expected value 0 and standard deviation 1........................................................................................32 .....................................................................................................................................32 Figure 5.3 A data set with a mean of 50 (shown in blue) and a standard deviation (σ ) of 20.....................................................................................................32 Figure 5.4 Positive Correlation ................................................................................33 Figure 6.1 Colleges participating and their contribution towards the project.....36 Figure 6.2 Number of male and female faculty involved in the survey.................36

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JOB SATISFACTION AMONG FACULTY MEMBERS: A STUDY OF ENGINEERING COLLEGES UNDER BPUT

INTRODUCTION

OVERVIEW Job satisfaction has been defined as a pleasurable emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job; an affective reaction to one’s job; and an attitude towards one’s job. Job satisfaction describes how content an individual is with his or her job. The happier people are within their job, the more satisfied they are said to be. Job satisfaction is not the same as motivation, although it is clearly linked. Job design aims to enhance job satisfaction and performance, methods include job rotation, job enlargement and job enrichment. Other influences on satisfaction include the management style and culture, employee involvement, empowerment and autonomous work groups. Job satisfaction is a very important attribute which is frequently measured by organizations. The most common way of measurement is the use of rating scales where employees report their reactions to their jobs. Questions relate to rate of pay, work responsibilities, variety of tasks, promotional opportunities the work itself and co-workers.

1.2 Objectives

1. 2. 3. To identify critical factors leading to job satisfaction among faculty members of different colleges under BPUT after proper analysis. To find out relationship between the critical factors To find out the most important factor that affects job satisfaction by factor analysis.

1.2 Scope

This project is limited to the job satisfaction of faculty members of engineering colleges under BPUT ,in finding out the critical factors .

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JOB SATISFACTION AMONG FACULTY MEMBERS: A STUDY OF ENGINEERING COLLEGES UNDER BPUT

LITERATURE REVIEW

Models of Job Satisfaction 1. Affect Theory Edwin A. Locke’s Range of Affect Theory (1976) is arguably the most famous job satisfaction model. The main premise of this theory is that satisfaction is determined by a discrepancy between what one wants in a job and what one has in a job. Further, the theory states that how much one values a given facet of work (e.g. the degree of autonomy in a position) moderates how satisfied/dissatisfied one becomes when expectations are/aren’t met. When a person values a particular facet of a job, his satisfaction is more greatly impacted both positively (when expectations are met) and negatively (when expectations are not met), compared to one who doesn’t value that facet. To illustrate, if Employee A values autonomy in the workplace and Employee B is indifferent about autonomy, then Employee A would be more satisfied in a position that offers a high degree of autonomy and less satisfied in a position with little or no autonomy compared to Employee B. This theory also states that too much of a particular facet will produce stronger feelings of dissatisfaction the more a worker values that facet. 2. Dispositional Theory Another well-known job satisfaction theory is the Dispositional Theory Template: Jackson April 2007. It is a very general theory that suggests that people have innate dispositions that cause them to have tendencies toward a certain level of satisfaction, regardless of one’s job. This approach became a notable explanation of job satisfaction in light of evidence that job satisfaction tends to be stable over time and across careers and jobs. Research also indicates that identical twins have similar levels of job satisfaction. A significant model that narrowed the scope of the Dispositional Theory was the Core Self-evaluations Model, proposed by Timothy A. Judge in 1998. Judge argued that there are four Core Self-evaluations that determine one’s disposition towards job

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JOB SATISFACTION AMONG FACULTY MEMBERS: A STUDY OF ENGINEERING COLLEGES UNDER BPUT

satisfaction: self-esteem, general self-efficacy, locus of control, and neuroticism. This model states that higher levels of self-esteem (the value one places on his/her self) and general self-efficacy (the belief in one’s own competence) lead to higher work satisfaction. Having an internal locus of control (believing one has control over her\his own life, as opposed to outside forces having control) leads to higher job satisfaction. Finally, lower levels of neuroticism lead to higher job satisfaction. 3. Two-Factor Theory (Motivator-Hygiene Theory) Frederick Herzberg’s Two factor theory (also known as Motivator Hygiene Theory) attempts to explain satisfaction and motivation in the workplace. This theory states that satisfaction and dissatisfaction are driven by different factors – motivation and hygiene factors, respectively. An employee’s motivation to work is continually related to job satisfaction of a subordinate. Motivation can be seen as an inner force that drives individuals to attain personal and organizational goals . Motivating factors are those aspects of the job that make people want to perform, and provide people with satisfaction, for example achievement in work, recognition, promotion opportunities. These motivating factors are considered to be intrinsic to the job, or the work carried out. Hygiene factors include aspects of the working environment such as pay, company policies, supervisory practices, and other working conditions. While Hertzberg's model has stimulated much research, researchers have been unable to reliably empirically prove the model, with Hackman & Oldham suggesting that Hertzberg's original formulation of the model may have been a methodological artifact. Furthermore, the theory does not consider individual differences, conversely predicting all employees will react in an identical manner to changes in motivating/hygiene factors. Finally, the model has been criticised in that it does not specify how motivating/hygiene factors are to be measured. 4. Job Characteristics Model Hackman & Oldham proposed the Job Characteristics Model, which is widely used as a framework to study how particular job characteristics impact on job outcomes,

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JOB SATISFACTION AMONG FACULTY MEMBERS: A STUDY OF ENGINEERING COLLEGES UNDER BPUT

including job satisfaction. The model states that there are five core job characteristics (skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback) which impact three critical psychological states (experienced meaningfulness, experienced responsibility for outcomes, and knowledge of the actual results), in turn influencing work outcomes (job satisfaction, absenteeism, work motivation, etc.). The five core job characteristics can be combined to form a motivating potential score (MPS) for a job, which can be used as an index of how likely a job is to affect an employee's attitudes and behaviors----. A meta-analysis of studies that assess the framework of the model provides some support for the validity of the JCM. 5. Communication Overload and Communication Underload One of the most important aspects of an individual’s work in a modern organization concerns the management of communication demands that he or she encounters on the job. Demands can be characterized as a communication load, which refers to “the rate and complexity of communication inputs an individual must process in a particular time frame .Individuals in an organization can experience communication over-load and communication under- load which can affect their level of job satisfaction. Communication overload can occur when “an individual receives too many messages in a short period of time which can result in unprocessed information or when an individual faces more complex messages that are more difficult to process.” Due to this process, “given an individual’s style of work and motivation to complete a task, when more inputs exist than outputs, the individual perceives a condition of overload which can be positively or negatively related to job satisfaction. In comparison, communication under load can occur when messages or inputs are sent below the individual’s ability to process them .” According to the ideas of communication over-load and under-load, if an individual does not receive enough input on the job or is unsuccessful in processing these inputs, the individual is more likely to become dissatisfied, aggravated, and unhappy with their work which leads to a low level of job satisfaction.

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JOB SATISFACTION AMONG FACULTY MEMBERS: A STUDY OF ENGINEERING COLLEGES UNDER BPUT

**FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE JOB SATISFACTION
**

1. Opportunity Employees are more satisfied when they have challenging opportunities at work. This includes chances to participate in interesting projects, jobs with a satisfying degree of challenge, and opportunities for increased responsibility. Important: this is not simply "promotional opportunity." As organizations have become flatter, promotions can be rare. People have found challenge through projects, team leadership, special assignment as well as promotions. Actions:

• • •

Promote from within when possible. Reward promising employees with roles on interesting projects. Divide jobs into levels of increasing leadership and responsibility.

It may be possible to create job titles that demonstrate increasing levels of expertise which are not limited by availability of positions. They simply demonstrate achievement. 2. Stress When negative stress is continuously high, job satisfaction is low. Jobs are more stressful if they interfere with employees' personal lives or are a continuing source of worry or concern. Actions: Promote a balance of work and personal lives. Make sure that senior managers model this behavior.

• •

•

Distribute work evenly (fairly) within workteams. Review work procedures to remove unnecessary "red tape" or bureaucracy.

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JOB SATISFACTION AMONG FACULTY MEMBERS: A STUDY OF ENGINEERING COLLEGES UNDER BPUT

•

**Manage the number of interruptions employees have to endure while trying to do their jobs.
**

•

Some organizations utilize exercise or "fun" breaks at work.

3. Leadership Data from employee satisfaction surveys has shown employees are more satisfied when their managers are good leaders. This includes motivating employees to do a good job, striving for excellence, or just taking action. Actions:

•

Make sure your managers are well trained. Leadership combines attitudes and behavior. It can be learned. People respond to managers that they can trust and who inspire them to achieve meaningful goals. 4. Work Standards Employees are more satisfied when their entire workgroup takes pride in the quality of its work. Actions:

•

•

Encourage communication between employees and customers. Quality gains importance when employees see its impact on customers. Develop meaningful measures of quality. Celebrate achievements in quality. 5. Fair Rewards Employees are more satisfied when they feel they are rewarded fairly for the work they do. Consider employee responsibilities, the effort they have put forth, the work they have done well, and the demands of their jobs. Actions:

• •

•

Make sure rewards are for genuine contributions to the organization. Be consistent in your reward policies.

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JOB SATISFACTION AMONG FACULTY MEMBERS: A STUDY OF ENGINEERING COLLEGES UNDER BPUT

• •

If your wages are competitive, make sure employees know this. Rewards can include a variety of benefits and perks other than money.

As an added benefit, employees who are rewarded fairly, experience less stress. 6. Adequate Authority Employees are more satisfied when they have adequate freedom and authority to do their jobs. Actions: When reasonable:

• • •

Let employees make decisions. Allow employees to have input on decisions that will affect them. Establish work goals, but let employees determine how they will achieve those goals. Later reviews may identify innovative "best practices." Ask, "If there were just one or two decisions that you could make, which ones would make the biggest difference in your job?" When these six factors are high, job satisfaction is high. When the six factors are low, job satisfaction is low.

•

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JOB SATISFACTION AMONG FACULTY MEMBERS: A STUDY OF ENGINEERING COLLEGES UNDER BPUT

**EMPLOYEE ATTITUDE AND JOB SATISFACTION
**

“Happy employees are productive employees.” “Happy employees are not productive employees.” We hear these conflicting statements made by HR professionals and managers in organizations. This article identifies three major gaps between HR practice and the scientific research in the area of employee attitudes in general and the most focal employee attitude in particular—job satisfaction: (1) the causes of employee attitudes, (2) the results of positive or negative job satisfaction, and (3) how to measure and influence employee attitudes The most-used research definition of job satisfaction is by Locke (1976), who defined it as “. . . a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job or job experiences” . Implicit in Locke’s definition is the importance of both affect, or feeling, and cognition, or thinking. When we think, we have feelings about what we think. Conversely, when we have feelings, we think about what we feel. Cognition and affect are thus inextricably linked, in our psychology and even in our biology. Thus, when evaluating our jobs, as when we assess anything important to us, both thinking and feeling are involved.

**3.1 The Causes of Employee Attitudes
**

3.1.1 Dispositional Influences Several innovative studies have shown the influences of a person’s disposition on job satisfaction. One of the first studies in this area demonstrated that a person’s job

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JOB SATISFACTION AMONG FACULTY MEMBERS: A STUDY OF ENGINEERING COLLEGES UNDER BPUT

satisfaction scores have stability over time, even when he or she changes jobs or companies. In a related study, childhood temperament was found to be statistically related to adult job satisfaction up to 40 years later . Evidence even indicates that the job satisfaction of identical twins reared apart is statistically similar. Although this literature has had its critics, an accumulating body of evidence indicates that differences in job satisfaction across employees can be traced, in part, to differences in their disposition or temperament. Despite its contributions to our understanding of the causes of job satisfaction, one of the limitations in this literature is that it is not yet informative as to how exactly dispositions affect job satisfaction. 3.1.2 Cultural Influences In terms of other influences on employee attitudes, there is also a small, but growing body of research on the influences of culture or country on employee attitudes and job satisfaction. The continued globalization of organizations poses new challenges for HR practitioners, and the available research on cross-cultural organizational and human resources issues can help them better understand and guide. The four cross-cultural dimensions are: (1) individualism-collectivism; (2) uncertainty avoidance versus risk taking; (3) power distance, or the extent to which power is unequally distributed; and (4) masculinity/femininity, more recently called achievement orientation. 3.1.3 Work Situation Influences As discussed earlier, the work situation also matters in terms of job satisfaction and organization impact . Contrary to some commonly held practitioner beliefs, the most notable situational influence on job satisfaction is the nature of the work itself—often called “intrinsic job characteristics.” Research studies across many years, organizations, and types of jobs show that when employees are asked to evaluate

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JOB SATISFACTION AMONG FACULTY MEMBERS: A STUDY OF ENGINEERING COLLEGES UNDER BPUT

different facets of their job such as supervision, pay, promotion opportunities, coworkers, and so forth, the nature of the work itself generally emerges as the most important job facet . This is not to say that well-designed compensation programs or effective supervision are unimportant; rather, it is that much can be done to influence job satisfaction by ensuring work is as interesting and challenging as possible. Unfortunately, some managers think employees are most desirous of pay to the exclusion of other job attributes such as interesting work. For example, in a study examining the importance of job attributes, employees ranked interesting work as the most important job attribute and good wages ranked fifth, whereas when it came to what managers thought employees wanted, good wages ranked first while interesting work ranked fifth. Of all the major job satisfaction areas, satisfaction with the nature of the work itself— which includes job challenge, autonomy,variety, and scope—best predicts overall job satisfaction, as well as other important outcomes like employee retention. Thus, to understand what causes people to be satisfied with their jobs, the nature of the work itself is one of the first places for practitioners to focus on.

**3.2 The Results of Positive or Negative Job Satisfaction
**

A second major practitioner knowledge gap is in the area of understanding the consequences of job satisfaction. We hear debates and confusion about whether satisfied employees are productive employees, and HR practitioners rightfully struggle as they must reduce costs and are concerned about the effects on job satisfaction and, in turn, the impact on performance and other outcomes. The focus of our discussion in this section is on job satisfaction, because this is the employee attitude that is most often related to organizational outcomes. Other employee attitudes, such as organizational commitment, have been studied as well, although they have similar relationships to outcomes as job satisfaction.

3.3 Job Satisfaction and Job Performance

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JOB SATISFACTION AMONG FACULTY MEMBERS: A STUDY OF ENGINEERING COLLEGES UNDER BPUT

The study of the relationship between job satisfaction and job performance has a controversial history. The Hawthorne studies, conducted in the 1930s, are often credited with making researchers aware of the effects of employee attitudes on performance. Shortly after the Hawthorne studies, researchers began taking a critical look at the notion that a “happy worker is a productive worker.” Most of the earlier reviews of the literature suggested a weak and somewhat inconsistent relationship between job satisfaction and performance. A review of the literature in 1985 suggested that the statistical correlation between job satisfaction and performance was about 17. Thus, these authors concluded that the presumed relationship between job satisfaction and performance was a “management fad” and “illusory.” This study had an important impact on researchers, and in some cases on organizations, with some managers and HR practitioners concluding that the relationship between job satisfaction and performance was trivial. However, further research does not agree with this conclusion. Organ (1988) suggests that the failure to find a strong relationship between job satisfaction and performance is due to the narrow means often used to define job performance. Organ argued that when performance is defined to include important behaviors not generally reflected in performance appraisals, such as organizational citizenship behaviors, its relationship with job satisfaction improves. Research tends to support Organ’s proposition in that job satisfaction correlates with organizational citizenship behaviors . In addition, in a more recent and comprehensive review it was found that when the correlations are appropriately corrected (for sampling and measurement errors), the average correlation between job satisfaction and job performance is a higher.30. In addition, the relationship between job satisfaction and performance was found to be even higher for complex (e.g., professional) jobs than for less complex jobs. Thus, contrary to earlier reviews, it does appear that job satisfaction is, in fact, predictive of performance, and the relationship is even stronger for professional jobs.

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JOB SATISFACTION AMONG FACULTY MEMBERS: A STUDY OF ENGINEERING COLLEGES UNDER BPUT

**3.4 Job Satisfaction and Life Satisfaction
**

An emerging area of study is the interplay between job and life satisfaction. Researchers have speculated that there are three possible forms of the relationship between job satisfaction and life satisfaction: (1) spillover- where job experiences spill over into nonwork life and vice versa; (2) segmentation-where job and life experiences are separated and have little to do with one another; and (3) compensationwhere an individual seeks to compensate for a dissatisfying job by seeking fulfillment and happiness in his or her nonwork life and vice versa.

**3.5 Job Satisfaction and Withdrawal Behaviors
**

Numerous studies have shown that dissatisfied employees are more likely to quit their jobs or be absent than satisfied employees. Job dissatisfaction also appears to be related to other withdrawal behaviors, including lateness, unionization, grievances, drug abuse, and decision to retire.” Because the occurrence of most single withdrawal behaviors is quite low, looking at a variety of these behaviors improves the ability for showing the relationship between job attitudes and withdrawal behaviors. Rather than predicting isolated behaviors, withdrawal research and applied practice would do better, as this model suggests, to study patterns in withdrawal behaviors—such as turnover, absenteeism ,lateness, decision to retire, etc.— together. Several studies have supported this, showing that when various withdrawal behaviors are grouped together, job satisfaction better predicts these behavioral groupings than the individual behaviors. Based on the research that shows job satisfaction predicts withdrawal behaviors like turnover and absenteeism, researchers have been able to statistically measure the financial impact of employee attitudes on organizations. Using these methods can be a powerful way for practitioners to reveal the costs of low job satisfaction and the value of improved employee attitudes on such outcomes as absenteeism and retention.

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JOB SATISFACTION AMONG FACULTY MEMBERS: A STUDY OF ENGINEERING COLLEGES UNDER BPUT

**3.6 Measure and Influence Employee Attitudes
**

There are a number of possible methods for measuring employee attitudes, such as conducting focus groups, interviewing employees, or carrying out employee surveys. 3.6.1 Employee Attitude Surveys Two major research areas on employee attitude surveys are discussed below: employee attitude measures used in research and facet versus global measures. In the research literature, the two most extensively validated employee attitude survey measures are the Job Descriptive Index and the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire. The JDI assesses satisfaction with five different job areas: pay, promotion, coworkers, supervision, and the work itself. The JDI is reliable and has an impressive array of validation evidence. The MSQ has the advantage of versatility—long and short forms are available, as well as faceted and overall measures. Another measure used in job satisfaction research is an updated and reliable five-item version of an earlier scale by Brayfield and Rothe (1951). All of these measures have led to greater scientific understanding of employee attitudes, and their greatest value may be for research purposes, yet these measures may be useful for practitioners as well.. There are two additional issues with measuring employee attitudes that have been researched and provide potentially useful knowledge for practitioners. First, measures of job satisfaction can be faceted (such as the JDI)—whereby they measure various dimensions of the job—while others are global—or measure a single, overall feeling toward the job. An example of a global measure is “Overall, how satisfied are you with your job?” If a measure is facet-based, overall job satisfaction is typically defined as a sum of the facets. Scarpello and Campbell (1983) found that individual questions about various aspects of the job did not correlate well with a global measure of overall job satisfaction. However, if one uses job satisfaction facet scores—based on groups of questions on the same facet or dimension rather than individual questions—to predict an independent measure of overall job satisfaction, the relationship is considerably higher. As has been noted elsewhere job satisfaction facets are sufficiently related to suggest that they are measuring a common construct

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JOB SATISFACTION AMONG FACULTY MEMBERS: A STUDY OF ENGINEERING COLLEGES UNDER BPUT

—overall job satisfaction.

Second, while most job satisfaction researchers have

assumed that overall, single item measures are unreliable and therefore should not be used, this view has not gone unchallenged. Therefore, respectable levels of reliability can be obtained with an overall measure of job satisfaction, although these levels are somewhat lower than most multiple-item measures of job satisfaction. Based on the research reviewed, there is support for measuring job satisfaction with either a global satisfaction question or by summing scores on various aspects of the job. Therefore, in terms of practice, by measuring facets of job satisfaction, organizations can obtain a complete picture of their specific strengths and weaknesses related to employee job satisfaction and use those facet scores for an overall satisfaction measure, or they can reliably use overall satisfaction questions for that purpose.

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JOB SATISFACTION AMONG FACULTY MEMBERS: A STUDY OF ENGINEERING COLLEGES UNDER BPUT

3.6.2 The Use of Norms Ratings made by employees on survey questions can systematically vary—and vary widely—no matter what company they work for. For example, ratings of pay are typically low and ratings of workgroup cooperation are typically rated very high. Similar systematic variations are found when comparing survey data . Survey norms are descriptive statistics that are compiled from data on the same survey questions.. If survey norms are not an option, unit results can serve as internal norms, although they encourage an inward focus and potentially internal competition. Actions determined through normed-based comparisons can be strong drivers of change and help focus a institute externally to other competitors. 3.6.3 Comparisons and Numerical Accuracy Comparing data is one of the most useful survey analysis techniques, such as described above for using norms to compare a organization’s survey results to that of other organization’s. Comparisons for the same organization or unit over time with a trended survey are also valuable to measure progress. At the same time, comparisons must be done with professional care, taking into account measurement issues . This is one of the major areas of practitioner misinterpretation in experience. In general, the lower the number, the greater the effects of random error on data, like the differences between flipping a coin 10 times versus 1,000 times. Thus, comparisons of groups with small numbers generally should not be done, especially when the survey is a sample survey and designed to provide data only at higher levels.To avoid these measurement issues, it is helpful to have a lower limit on the organization size and/or number of respondents needed to create reports for comparisons .Numerical accuracy and appropriate comparisons are especially important when using survey data for performance targets and employment-related decisions.

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JOB SATISFACTION AMONG FACULTY MEMBERS: A STUDY OF ENGINEERING COLLEGES UNDER BPUT

3.6.4 Survey Feedback and Action Employee surveys, used effectively, can be catalysts for improving employee attitudes and producing organizational change. This statement is based on two important assumptions: first, that employee attitudes affect behavior and second, that employee attitudes are important levers of organizational performance.

Methodology

A two member team was formed by us to carry out this project. At first we went through a lot of books and e-books for a thorough literature survey. After the literature survey, taking into account the various factors that affect job satisfaction we prepared the questionnaire and distributed the questionnaire in various engineering colleges under BPUT. After collecting the questionnaire from the colleges we ended up in having a sample size of 70. We found out the correlations and regressions between various factors as part of our analysis which helped us in reaching our objective. Data source: Primary data Data collection method: Questionaires Sample size: 70 Data analysis: MINITAB

MINITAB

Minitab is statistical analysis software. It can be used for learning about statistics as well as statistical research. Statistical analysis computer applications have the advantage of being accurate, reliable, and generally faster than computing statistics and drawing graphs by hand.

4.1 Minitab Windows

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JOB SATISFACTION AMONG FACULTY MEMBERS: A STUDY OF ENGINEERING COLLEGES UNDER BPUT

When you first open Minitab, you will see two windows, a Session window and a Worksheet window. • • Session Window: The area that displays the statistical results of your data analysis and can also be used to enter commands. Worksheet Window: A grid of rows and columns used to enter and manipulate the data. Note: This area looks like a spreadsheet but will not automatically update the columns when entries are changed. Other windows include • • Graph Window: When you generate graphs, each graph is opened in its own window. Report Window: Version 13 has a report manager that helps you organize your results in a report

4.2 Data Types

• Numerical: Numerical data is the only type Minitab will use for statistical calculations. Numerical data is aligned on the right side of the column. Minitab will not recognize numbers with commas as numbers but will consider them text. • Text: Text cannot be used for computations. Though “text” generally means words or characters, numbers can be classified as text. If column 1 has text in it, the column label will change from C1 to C1-T. Data types can be changed.

4.3 Entering Data

You can enter your data going down or across. In the top left corner of the Worksheet window, there is a cell with an arrow in it. Click this cell to change the action of the Enter key. • If the arrow is pointing down, then the cursor will go down the column when you press Enter.

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JOB SATISFACTION AMONG FACULTY MEMBERS: A STUDY OF ENGINEERING COLLEGES UNDER BPUT

•

If the arrow is pointing to the right, then the cursor will go across the row, to the next column when you press Enter

Figure 4.1 Worksheet

Minitab can change data types within limits. You cannot make a simple switch of people’s names to numeric values, but if you have a column of numbers that was accidentally entered as text, then you can change those numbers to numeric values. Minitab makes the following types of transformations. • • • • • • numeric to text text to numeric date/time to text date/time to numeric numeric to date/time text to date/time

To make these changes in Minitab, from the main menu select MANIP > CHANGE DATA TYPE. Then, select the option that you want and fill in the dialog box.

4.4 Saving Data

In Minitab, you can save data in two different formats. You can save the worksheet by itself or the entire project. Saving the worksheet as a separate file is a good habit.

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JOB SATISFACTION AMONG FACULTY MEMBERS: A STUDY OF ENGINEERING COLLEGES UNDER BPUT

Then you will always have access to the data, even if the project you are working with becomes corrupted. To save the data in a worksheet by itself 1. 2. 3. 4. Select FILE > SAVE CURRENT WORKSHEET AS. Use the arrow beside the Save in: field to select the location of your diskette or USB device. In the File Name field, type the name of the worksheet. Minitab will automatically add the extension MTW for Minitab worksheet. Click Save.

The worksheet with the data will be saved automatically.

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JOB SATISFACTION AMONG FACULTY MEMBERS: A STUDY OF ENGINEERING COLLEGES UNDER BPUT

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS

Minitab will conduct a variety of statistical calculations. These are found under the main menu option of STAT. Each category also has subcategories.

Figure 5.1 A menu of the statistics categories and the subcategories for Basic Statistics from Student Version 12 .

5.1 Descriptive Statistics

Terms in the output and some definitions • • • • N = number of data items in the sample N* = number of items in the sample that have missing values (N* does not show up when all the items in the sample have values) Mean = average Median = 50th percentile

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JOB SATISFACTION AMONG FACULTY MEMBERS: A STUDY OF ENGINEERING COLLEGES UNDER BPUT

• • • • • • •

TrMean= the 5% trimmed mean StDev = standard deviation SE Mean = standard error of the mean = standard deviation divided by the square root of the sample size Minimum = smallest data value Maximum = largest data value Q1 = 25th percentile = first quartile Q3 = 75th percentile = third quartile

5.2 Mean

In statistics, mean has two related meanings: • • the arithmetic mean (and is distinguished from the geometric mean or harmonic mean). the expected value of a random variable, which is also called the population mean. There are other statistical measures that use samples that some people confuse with averages - including 'median' and 'mode'. Other simple statistical analyses use measures of spread, such as range, interquartile range, or standard deviation. For a real-valued random variable X, the mean is the expectation of X. Note that not every probability distribution has a defined mean (or variance); see the Cauchy distribution for an example. For a data set, the mean is the sum of the values divided by the number of values. The mean of a set of numbers x1, x2, ..., xn is typically denoted by , pronounced "x bar". This mean is a type of arithmetic mean. If the data set were based on a series of observations obtained by sampling a statistical population, this mean is termed the "sample mean" to distinguish it from the "population mean". The mean is often quoted along with the standard deviation: the mean describes the central location of the data, and the standard deviation describes the spread. An alternative measure of

27

JOB SATISFACTION AMONG FACULTY MEMBERS: A STUDY OF ENGINEERING COLLEGES UNDER BPUT

dispersion is the mean deviation, equivalent to the average absolute deviation from the mean. It is less sensitive to outliers, but less mathematically tractable.

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JOB SATISFACTION AMONG FACULTY MEMBERS: A STUDY OF ENGINEERING COLLEGES UNDER BPUT

If a series of observations is sampled from a larger population (measuring the heights of a sample of adults drawn from the entire world population, for example), or from a probability distribution which gives the probabilities of each possible result, then the larger population or probability distribution can be used to construct a "population mean", which is also the expected value for a sample drawn from this population or probability distribution. For a finite population, this would simply be the arithmetic mean of the given property for every member of the population. For a probability distribution, this would be a sum or integral over every possible value weighted by the adding probability of that value. It is a universal convention to represent the population mean by the symbol µ. In the case of a discrete probability distribution, the mean of a discrete random variable x is given by taking the product of each possible value of x and its probability P(x), and then all these products together, giving

The sample mean may differ from the population mean, especially for small samples, but the law of large numbers dictates that the larger the size of the sample, the more likely it is that the sample mean will be close to the population mean. As well as statistics, means are often used in geometry and analysis; a wide range of means have been developed for these purposes, which are not much used in statistics. These are listed below. Equality holds only when all the elements of the given sample are equal.

5.3 Median

In probability theory and statistics, a median is described as the numeric value separating the higher half of a sample, a population, or a probability distribution, from the lower half. The median of a finite list of numbers can be found by arranging all the observations from lowest value to highest value and picking the middle one. If

29

JOB SATISFACTION AMONG FACULTY MEMBERS: A STUDY OF ENGINEERING COLLEGES UNDER BPUT

there is an even number of observations, then there is no single middle value; the median is then usually defined to be the mean of the two middle values. In a sample of data, or a finite population, there may be no member of the sample whose value is identical to the median (in the case of an even sample size), and, if there is such a member, there may be more than one so that the median may not uniquely identify a sample member. Nonetheless, the value of the median is uniquely determined with the usual definition. A related concept, in which the outcome is forced to correspond to a member of the sample, is the medoid. At most, half the population have values less than the median, and, at most, half have values greater than the median. If both groups contain less than half the population, then some of the population is exactly equal to the median. For example, if a < b < c, then the median of the list {a, b, c} is b, and, if a < b < c < d, then the median of the list {a, b, c, d} is the mean of b and c; i.e., it is (b + c)/2. The median can be used as a measure of location when a distribution is skewed, when end-values are not known, or when one requires reduced importance to be attached to outliers, e.g., because they may be measurement errors. A disadvantage of the median is the difficulty of handling it theoretically. 5.3.1 Notation The median of some variable x is denoted either as

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JOB SATISFACTION AMONG FACULTY MEMBERS: A STUDY OF ENGINEERING COLLEGES UNDER BPUT

5.3.2 Medians in Descriptive Statistics The median is used primarily for skewed distributions, which it summarizes differently than the arithmetic mean. Consider the multiset { 1, 2, 2, 2, 3, 14 }. The median is 2 in this case, as is the mode, and it might be seen as a better indication of central tendency than the arithmetic mean of 4. Calculation of medians is a popular technique in summary statistics and summarizing statistical data, since it is simple to understand and easy to calculate, while also giving a measure that is more robust in the presence of outlier values than is the mean.

5.4 Standard Deviation

Standard deviation is a widely used measurement of variability or diversity used in statistics and probability theory. It shows how much variation or "dispersion" there is from the average (mean, or expected value). A low standard deviation indicates that the data points tend to be very close to the mean, whereas high standard deviation indicates that the data are spread out over a large range of values. Technically, the standard deviation of a statistical population, data set, or probability distribution is the square root of its variance. It is algebraically simpler though practically less robust than the average absolute deviation. A useful property of standard deviation is that, unlike variance, it is expressed in the same units as the data. In addition to expressing the variability of a population, standard deviation is commonly used to measure confidence in statistical conclusions. For example, the margin of error in polling data is determined by calculating the expected standard deviation in the results if the same poll were to be conducted multiple times. The reported margin of error is typically about twice the standard deviation – the radius of a 95 percent confidence interval. In science, researchers commonly report the standard deviation of experimental data, and only effects that fall far outside the range of standard deviation are considered statistically significant – normal random error or variation in the measurements is in

31

JOB SATISFACTION AMONG FACULTY MEMBERS: A STUDY OF ENGINEERING COLLEGES UNDER BPUT

this way distinguished from causal variation. Standard deviation is also important in finance, where the standard deviation on the rate of return on an investment is a measure of the volatility of the investment.

Figure 5.2 Cumulative Probability of a normal distribution with expected value 0 and standard deviation 1

Figure 5.3 A data set with a mean of 50 (shown in blue) and a standard deviation (σ ) of 20

5.5 Correlation

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JOB SATISFACTION AMONG FACULTY MEMBERS: A STUDY OF ENGINEERING COLLEGES UNDER BPUT

In statistics and probability theory, correlation means how closely related two sets of data are. Correlation does not always mean that one causes the other. It is very possible that there is a third factor involved. Correlation usually has one of two directions. These are positive or negative. If it is positive, then the two sets go up together. If it is negative, then one goes up while the other goes down. Lots of different measurements of correlation are used for different situations. For example on a scatter graph, people draw a line of best fit to show the direction of the correlation.

Figure 5.4 Positive Correlation

Explaining Correlation Strong and weak are words used to describe correlation. If there is strong correlation, then the points are all close together. If there is weak correlation, then the points are all spread apart. There are ways of making numbers show how strong the correlation is. These measurements are called correlation coefficients. The best known is the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient. You put in data into a formula and it gives you a number. If the number is 1 or -1, then there is strong correlation. If the answer is 0, then there is no correlation. Another kind of correlation coefficient is Spearman's rank correlation coefficient.

5.6 Regression

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JOB SATISFACTION AMONG FACULTY MEMBERS: A STUDY OF ENGINEERING COLLEGES UNDER BPUT

In statistics, regression analysis includes any techniques for modeling and analyzing several variables, when the focus is on the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. More specifically, regression analysis helps one understand how the typical value of the dependent variable changes when any one of the independent variables is varied, while the other independent variables are held fixed. Most commonly, regression analysis estimates the conditional expectation of the dependent variable given the independent variables — that is, the average value of the dependent variable when the independent variables are held fixed. Less commonly, the focus is on a quantile, or other location parameter of the conditional distribution of the dependent variable given the independent variables. In all cases, the estimation target is a function of the independent variables called the regression function. In regression analysis, it is also of interest to characterize the variation of the dependent variable around the regression function, which can be described by a probability distribution. Regression analysis is widely used for prediction and forecasting, where its use has substantial overlap with the field of machine learning. Regression analysis is also used to understand which among the independent variables are related to the dependent variable, and to explore the forms of these relationships. In restricted circumstances, regression analysis can be used to infer causal relationships between the independent and dependent variables. A large body of techniques for carrying out regression analysis has been developed. Familiar methods such as linear regression and ordinary least squares regression are parametric, in that the regression function is defined in terms of a finite number of unknown parameters that are estimated from the data. Nonparametric regression refers to techniques that allow the regression function to lie in a specified set of functions, which may be infinite-dimensional. The performance of regression analysis methods in practice depends on the form of the data-generating process, and how it relates to the regression approach being used. Since the true form of the data-generating process is in general not known, regression analysis often depends to some extent on making assumptions about this process. These assumptions are sometimes (but not always) testable if a large amount of data is

34

JOB SATISFACTION AMONG FACULTY MEMBERS: A STUDY OF ENGINEERING COLLEGES UNDER BPUT

available. Regression models for prediction are often useful even when the assumptions are moderately violated, although they may not perform optimally. However, in many applications, especially with small effects or questions of causality based on observational data, regression methods give misleading results.

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JOB SATISFACTION AMONG FACULTY MEMBERS: A STUDY OF ENGINEERING COLLEGES UNDER BPUT

DATA ANALYSIS

CONTRIBUTION OF VARIOUS ENGINEERING COLLEGES IN THE SURVEY

6.1 Basic Analysis of the data

Figure 6.1 Colleges participating and their contribution towards the project

Figure 6.2 Number of male and female faculty involved in the survey

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JOB SATISFACTION AMONG FACULTY MEMBERS: A STUDY OF ENGINEERING COLLEGES UNDER BPUT

6.2 DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS

Variable Ideas Variety bst wrk job sec Pay knw-hw copertn result Wrkabilt Surndngs getn ahe pride Routine rub elbo bks up Promotns wrk div Cmplnts Helps Frdm Apprcntn servce trnsfrs Advncmnt

N 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70

Mean 3.9714 4.0714 4.171 4.000 3.514 3.914 4.143 4.2286 4.086 4.014 3.8143 4.1143 4.0571 3.729 3.986 3.714 3.900 3.800 4.071 3.700 4.0857 3.8857 3.7000 4.1286

Median 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000

Minimum 2.0000 2.0000 2.0000 1.000 1.000 2.0000 1.000 2.000 1.000 2.0000 2.0000 2.0000 2.0000 2.0000 1.000 1.000 2.0000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 2.0000 2.0000 2.0000

Maximum 5.000 5.000 5.000 5.000 5.000 5.000 5.000 5.000 5.000 5.000 5.000 5.000 5.000 5.000 5.000 5.000 5.000 5.000 5.000 5.000 5.000 5.000 5.000 5.000

RESULTS AND INTERPRETATION

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JOB SATISFACTION AMONG FACULTY MEMBERS: A STUDY OF ENGINEERING COLLEGES UNDER BPUT

SCREE PLOT:

Scree Plot of ideas, ..., advncmnt

9 8 7 6 Eigenvalue 5 4 3 2 1 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 F actor N umber 18 20 22 24

It shows that after four factors the curve becomes more or less as a straight line signifying that we can extract four factors from the twentyfive factors

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JOB SATISFACTION AMONG FACULTY MEMBERS: A STUDY OF ENGINEERING COLLEGES UNDER BPUT

FOUR MAJOR GROUPS AFTER ANALYSIS AND THE VARIABLES INCLUDED IN IT Group1 helps wrk div bks up cmplnts copertn promotns bst wrk wrkabilty result advncmnt pay surndngs Group2 trnsfrs ideas rub elbows servce knw-hw routine Group3 variety Getn ahed Job security appreciation Group4 pride Freedom friendship

REGRESSION ANALYSIS Regression Analysis: Avg versus gr1, gr2, gr3, gr4

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JOB SATISFACTION AMONG FACULTY MEMBERS: A STUDY OF ENGINEERING COLLEGES UNDER BPUT

The regression equation is Avg = - 0.0120 + 0.474 gr1 + 0.240 gr2 + 0.170 gr3 + 0.118 gr4

Predictor gr1 gr2 gr3 gr4

Coef SE Coef

T

P

Constant -0.01203 0.01857 -0.65 0.519 0.473904 0.005549 85.40 0.000 0.240368 0.005504 43.67 0.000 0.170153 0.005034 33.80 0.000 0.118036 0.004105 28.76 0.000

S = 0.0180904 R-Sq = 99.9% R-Sq(adj) = 99.9%

Analysis of Variance Source Regression Total DF SS MS F P

4 18.8496 4.7124 14399.46 0.000 69 18.8709

Residual Error 65 0.0213 0.0003

Source DF Seq SS gr1 gr2 gr3 gr4 1 17.2138 1 0.9229 1 0.4422 1 0.2706

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JOB SATISFACTION AMONG FACULTY MEMBERS: A STUDY OF ENGINEERING COLLEGES UNDER BPUT

Source - indicates the source of variation, either from the factor, the interaction, or the error. The total is a sum of all the sources. DF - degrees of freedom from each source. the degrees of freedom for sample size 70 is 70 (n - 1). SS - sum of squares between groups (factor) and the sum of squares within groups (error) MS - mean squares are found by dividing the sum of squares by the degrees of freedom. F - calculate by dividing the factor MS by the error MS; you can compare this ratio against a critical F found in a table or you can use the p-value to determine whether a factor is significant. P - use to determine whether a factor is significant; typically compare against an alpha value of 0.05. If the p-value is lower than 0.05, then the factor is significant. For our Variance table we have p-value= (0.000), indicating that the relationship is statistically significant. For our Regression analysis we have R-Sq or Percentage of response variable variation that is explained by its relationship with one or more predictor variables is 99.99%.. R is always between 0 and 100%. It is also known as the

2

coefficient of determination or multiple determination (in multiple regression). Since in our case the R-Sq is 99.99% R-Sq (adj) is also 99.99%, it signifies that model fits the data well. MAJOR CORREALTIONS: Correlations: Avg, gr1 Pearson correlation of Avg and gr1 = 0.955 P-Value = 0.000

Correlations: Avg, gr2

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JOB SATISFACTION AMONG FACULTY MEMBERS: A STUDY OF ENGINEERING COLLEGES UNDER BPUT

Pearson correlation of Avg and gr2 = 0.759 P-Value = 0.000

Correlations: Avg, gr3 Pearson correlation of Avg and gr3 = 0.766 P-Value = 0.000

Correlations: Avg, gr4 Pearson correlation of Avg and gr4 = 0.733 P-Value = 0.000

Correlations: gr1, gr2 Pearson correlation of gr1 and gr2 = 0.612 P-Value = 0.000

Correlations: gr1, gr3 Pearson correlation of gr1 and gr3 = 0.644 P-Value = 0.000

Correlations: gr1, gr4 Pearson correlation of gr1 and gr4 = 0.657 P-Value = 0.000

Correlations: gr2, gr3

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JOB SATISFACTION AMONG FACULTY MEMBERS: A STUDY OF ENGINEERING COLLEGES UNDER BPUT

Pearson correlation of gr2 and gr3 = 0.526 P-Value = 0.000

Correlations: gr2, gr4 Pearson correlation of gr2 and gr4 = 0.417 P-Value = 0.000

Correlations: gr3, gr4 Pearson correlation of gr3 and gr4 = 0.481 P-Value = 0.000 From the above analysis we have found that the correlation coefficient between average and each group is very high, the values being 0.955, 0.759,0.766,0.733 Whereas the correlation coefficient among the groups itself is relatively low. The p-value in the Analysis of Variance table (0.000), indicates that the relationship is statistically significant

FUTURE WORK

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JOB SATISFACTION AMONG FACULTY MEMBERS: A STUDY OF ENGINEERING COLLEGES UNDER BPUT

INCREASE

CONCLUSIONS

From the literature survey we came to the conclusion that there are 25 factors which affect job satisfaction among faculty members of various engineering colleges under BPUT .After determining these factors we did the factor analysis and found out that these factors can be subdivided into four major groups.Group1 comprising of pay, result, advancement, workability, surroundings, promotion, cooperation, complaints taken care of, back up, work division, chance to help and the work one is best at, while Group2 includes six factors namely ideas, know-how, routine, transfers, service they can provide and chances to rub-elbows with important people. Group3 and Group4 includes variety, getting ahead, job security , appreciation and pride ,freedom ,friendship respectively. Then from regressions and correlations we found the p-value to be 0.000 and R-Sq value to be 99.99% which signifies the significance of these groups and from pearson correlation coefficient we determined that Group1 is the most important of all having value of 0.955.

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JOB SATISFACTION AMONG FACULTY MEMBERS: A STUDY OF ENGINEERING COLLEGES UNDER BPUT

REFERENCES

[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Job_satisfaction http://www.management.org/Free Questionnaire.mht http://www.ieee.org/Case Satisfaction.mht http://www.wikipedia.org/whitepapers/abstract/details/Jobsatisfaction.pdf http://www.NBRI.inc/ Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mean http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Median http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/standard deviation http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/correlation http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Regression http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Minitab Study Six Factors that Influence Job Employee Job Satisfaction

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JOB SATISFACTION AMONG FACULTY MEMBERS: A STUDY OF ENGINEERING COLLEGES UNDER BPUT

APPENDIX

QUESTIONNAIRE On my present job, this is how I feel about 1. The change to try out some of my own ideas 2. The variety in my work 3. The chance to do the kind of work that I do best 4. My job security 5. The amount of pay for the work I do 6. The technical “know-how” of my supervisor 7. The spirit of cooperation among my co-workers 8. Being able to see the result of the work I do 9. The chance to do work that is well suited to my abilities 10. The physical surroundings where I work 11. The chance of getting ahead on this job 12. The chance to develop close friendships with my co-workers 13. Being able to take pride in a job well done 14. The routine in my work 15. The chance to “rub elbows” with important people 16. The way my boss backs up his/her employees (with top management) 17. The way promotions are given out on this job 18. The way my boss delegates work to others 19. The way my boss takes care of the complaints of his/her employees 20. The way my boss provides help on hard problems 21. The freedom to use my own judgment 22. The way they usually tell me when I do my job well 23. The chance to be of some small service to other people 24. The way layoffs and transfers are avoided in my job 25. My chances for advancements

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JOB SATISFACTION AMONG FACULTY MEMBERS: A STUDY OF ENGINEERING COLLEGES UNDER BPUT

6.3 Factor Analysis

Sorted Rotated Factor Loadings and Communalities Variable helps wrk div bks up cmplnts copertn promotns bst wrk pride wrkabilty result variety getn ahed advncmnt trnsfrs ideas servce job sec apprcntn pay knw-hw routine frndshp frdm surndngs Factor1 Factor2 Factor3 Factor4 Factor5 Factor6 Factor7 0.797 -0.212 -0.079 0.778 -0.165 -0.251 0.749 -0.214 0.690 -0.212 0.123 0.095 0.738 -0.053 -0.149 0.622 -0.240 -0.282 0.338 -0.767 -0.071 0.304 -0.707 -0.114 0.226 -0.677 -0.125 0.237 -0.403 -0.338 0.108 0.046 0.196 0.127 0.252 0.143 0.149 0.118 0.266 0.227 -0.210 -0.029 0.345 -0.082 -0.023 0.419 -0.114 -0.153 0.004 -0.371 0.186 0.106 -0.012 -0.238 0.048 -0.115 -0.131 0.217 -0.224 -0.091 0.099 0.095 0.046 0.179 -0.042 -0.200 0.393 -0.005 -0.036 0.189 -0.056 0.145 0.066 -0.063 -0.304 0.160 -0.076 -0.017 -0.069

-0.050 -0.738 -0.158 -0.054

0.016 -0.156 -0.804 -0.000 0.294 -0.136 -0.754 -0.124 0.031 -0.082 -0.547 0.275 -0.097 0.019 0.193 -0.111 0.342

0.160 -0.031 -0.306 0.258 -0.110 -0.268 0.073 -0.212 0.787 -0.137 0.263 0.027

0.741 -0.026 -0.033 -0.162 0.613 0.566 0.121

rub elbows

0.110

-0.055 -0.368 -0.493 0.170 -0.199 -0.191

0.372 -0.288 -0.156 -0.064 0.203 -0.003 -0.011 0.065 -0.203 -0.059 0.376 -0.185 0.092 0.341 0.213 0.092 0.042

0.601 -0.045 -0.119 0.293 -0.694 0.159 -0.256 0.036 0.117 -0.223 0.050 0.132 0.028

0.195 -0.149 -0.156 -0.066 -0.016 -0.774 -0.251 0.031 -0.132 -0.842 0.050 -0.194

0.473 -0.090 -0.297 -0.047 0.293 -0.262 -0.118

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JOB SATISFACTION AMONG FACULTY MEMBERS: A STUDY OF ENGINEERING COLLEGES UNDER BPUT

Variance % Var Variable helps wrk div bks up cmplnts copertn promotns bst wrk pride wrkabilty result variety getn ahed advncmnt trnsfrs ideas servce job sec apprcntn pay knw-hw routine frndshp frdm surndngs Variance

4.4324 2.9826 2.3373 1.8636 1.8542 1.5781 1.4098 0.177 0.119 0.093 0.075 0.074 0.063 0.056

Factor8 Factor9 Communality 0.122 0.077 0.816 0.799 0.808 0.860 0.766 0.728 0.792 0.778 0.703 0.649 0.684 0.773 0.798 0.807 0.670 0.714 0.831 0.778 0.691 0.797 0.760 0.823 0.847 0.747 0.793 19.2129 0.176 -0.188 0.060 -0.230 0.201 -0.020 0.216 -0.041 -0.001 -0.269 -0.174 -0.020 0.288 -0.116 0.067 -0.225 0.175 -0.076 -0.261 -0.015 -0.084 0.096 0.237 0.093 0.051 -0.200 0.091 -0.504 0.013 0.030 0.192 -0.297 0.130 -0.055 0.016 -0.253 0.006 -0.212 0.181 -0.010 -0.001 -0.030 0.738 -0.026 0.618 -0.035 0.014 -0.747 1.3941 1.3608

rub elbows

48

JOB SATISFACTION AMONG FACULTY MEMBERS: A STUDY OF ENGINEERING COLLEGES UNDER BPUT

% Var

0.056

0.054

0.769

49

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