This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
LECTURE NOTES FOR TOPOLOGY I
Clark Barwick
Department of Mathematics, Harvard University, One Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA.
Email : clarkbar@gmail.com
LECTURE NOTES FOR TOPOLOGY I
Clark Barwick
CONTENTS
Act I. General topology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
1. The category of topological spaces. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
1.1. Topological spaces. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
1.2. First examples. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
1.3. Continuous maps and homeomorphisms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
2. Constructing topologies and continuous maps. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
2.1. Quotients. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
2.2. Coverings and locality. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
3. Compactness I. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
3.1. Compact spaces. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
3.2. The Tychonoff Product Theorem. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
3.3. The compactopen topology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
4. Compactness II. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
4.1. Forms of compactness. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
4.2. Locally compact Hausdorff spaces. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
5. Countability and separation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
5.1. Taxonomy of separation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
5.2. Normality, Urysohn’s lemma, and the Tietze extension theorem. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
6. Metrization theorems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
6.1. First and second countability. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
6.2. Urysohn’s metrization theorem. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
6.3. The Bing–Nagata–Smirnov metrization theorem. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Entr’Acte. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
7. Sheaf theory. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
7.1. Presheaves. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
7.2. Stalks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
7.3. Sheaves. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
7.4. The espace étalé and sheaﬁﬁcation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
7.5. Direct and inverse images of sheaves. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Act II. An introduction to homotopy theory. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
8. Covering space theory. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
8.1. Connectedness and π
0
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
6 CONTENTS
8.2. Covering spaces and locally constant sheaves. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
8.3. The étale fundamental group. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
8.4. Homotopy classes of loops and lifts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
8.5. Universal covering spaces. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
9. Computing the étale fundamental group. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
9.1. The étale fundamental group of S
1
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
9.2. Seifertvan Kampen Theorem. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
9.3. Simple connectedness. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
10. Homotopy theory. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
10.1. Paths and π
0
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
10.2. Homotopies of maps. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
10.3. The homotopytheoretic fundamental group. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
10.4. Homotopy invariance of the étale fundamental group. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
11. The comparison theorem. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
11.1. The two fundamental groups. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
ACT I
GENERAL TOPOLOGY
CHAPTER 1
THE CATEGORY OF TOPOLOGICAL SPACES
1.1. Topological spaces
Notation 1.1.1. — Given a set S, we denote by ´(S) the power set of S, i.e., the set of all subsets of S. Any map
f : T
S induces a map
f
−1
: ´(S)
´(T) ,
where for any subset A⊂ S,
f
−1
A:=¦t ∈ T  f (t ) ∈ A] ⊂T.
One may verify that f
−1
respects arbitrary intersections and arbitrary unions: for any subset · ⊂´(S),
f
−1
¸
¸
¸
A∈·
A
=
¸
A∈·
f
−1
A and f
−1
¸
¸
¸
A∈·
A
=
¸
A∈·
f
−1
A;
moreover, f
−1
respects complements: for any set A∈ ´(S), one may verify that
f
−1
(
S
A) =
T
( f
−1
A).
Deﬁnition 1.1.2. — A topological space (or more simply a space) is a pair (X, Op(X)) comprised of a set X and a
subset Op(X) ⊂´(X) satisfying the following properties.
(1.1.2.1) For any ﬁnite subset ¹ ⊂Op(X), the intersection
¸
U∈¹
U ∈ Op(X).
(1.1.2.2) For any subset ¹
/
⊂Op(X), the union
¸
U
/
∈¹
/
U
/
∈ Op(X).
In this case, the set Op(X) is said to be a topology on X. The elements U ∈ Op(X) will be called open in X. A subset
V ∈ ´(X) will be called closed if its complement V :=X −V is an open set.
1.1.3. — In the deﬁnition above, note that when ¹ = ∅, condition (1.1.2.1) translates to the condition that X ∈
Op(X). Similarly, when ¹
/
=∅, condition (1.1.2.2) translates to the condition that ∅∈ Op(X).
1.1.4. — We have described a topology on a set X by prescribing the set Op(X) of open sets; we may also describe
a topology on a set X by prescribing the set (l(X) of closed sets.
A topology on a set X is, equivalently, a subset (l(X) ⊂´(X) satisfying the following axioms.
(1.1.4.1) For any subset · ⊂(l(X), the intersection
¸
V∈·
V ∈ (l(X).
10 CHAPTER 1. THE CATEGORY OF TOPOLOGICAL SPACES
(1.1.4.2) For any ﬁnite subset ·
/
⊂(l(X), the union
¸
V
/
∈·
/
V
/
∈ (l(X).
As a result, we sometimes refer to the pair (X, (l(X)) as a topological space. In practice, it will always be clear
whether we are describing the set of open subsets of X or the set of closed subsets of X.
Deﬁnition 1.1.5. — Suppose X a set, and suppose Op(X) and Op
/
(X) two topologies on X. If Op
/
(X) ⊂ Op(X),
then we say that Op(X) is ﬁner than Op
/
(X) and that Op
/
(X) is coarser than Op(X).
Deﬁnition 1.1.6. — Suppose (X, Op(X)) a topological space. Then there are many different kinds of subsets of X.
(1.1.6.1) For any point x ∈ X, an open neighborhood of x is an open set U ∈ Op(X) containing x. A neighborhood
of x is a subset V ⊂X containing an open neighborhood of x.
(1.1.6.2) For any subset A⊂X, the closure of Ais the set
A:=¦x ∈ X  for any neighborhood V of x, V ∩A(=∅].
In other words, the points of A are those points x ∈ X with the property that every neighborhood of x
meets A.
(1.1.6.3) Consider two subsets A⊂B ⊂X. We say that Ais dense in B if A∩B =B.
(1.1.6.4) Dual to the closure is the interior. For any subset A⊂X, the interior of Ais the set
A
◦
:=¦x ∈ A there exists a neighborhood V of x such that V ⊂A].
In other words, the points of A
◦
are those points x ∈ A with the property that there is a neighborhood of
x contained in A.
Exercise 1. — Suppose (X, Op(X)) a topological space. Suppose that A⊂X is a subset. Prove that the closure A⊂X
can be characterized in the following two ways.
(1.1) The closure Ais the set
A:=¦x ∈ X  for any open neighborhood V of x, V ∩A(=∅].
(1.2) The closure Ais the smallest closed subset containing A.
(1.3) The closure Ais the intersection of all the closed subsets containing A:
A=
¸
V∈(l(X),A⊂V
V.
Dually, prove that the interior A
◦
⊂X can be characterized in the following two ways.
(1.4) The interior A
◦
is the set
A
◦
:=¦x ∈ A there exists an open neighborhood V of x such that V ⊂A].
(1.5) The interior A
◦
is the largest open subset contained in A.
(1.6) The interior A
◦
is the union of all the open subsets contained in A:
A
◦
=
¸
U∈Op(X),U⊂A
U.
Show that the closure and the interior operations are dual operations in the sense that, for any subset A⊂X,
((A)
◦
) =A and (A) =A
◦
.
Exercise
2. — Suppose X a set. A Kuratowski closure operator on X is a map
κ : ´(X)
´(X)
satisfying the following properties.
(2.1) For any subset U ⊂X, one has U ⊂κ(U).
(2.2) For any subset U ⊂X, one has κ(κ(U)) =κ(U).
1.2. FIRST EXAMPLES 11
(2.3) For any ﬁnite subset ¹ ⊂´(X), one has
κ
¸
¸
¸
U∈¹
U
=
¸
U∈¹
κ(U).
Given a Kuratowski closure operator κ, deﬁne subsets
(l(X
κ
) :=¦V ∈ ´(X)  κ(V) =V] ⊂´(X) and thus Op(X
κ
) :=¦U ∈ ´(X)  U ∈ (l(X
κ
)] ⊂´(X)
Show that the pair X
κ
:=(X, Op(X
κ
)) is a topological space.
Moreover, show that the map
¦Kuratowski closure operators on X]
¦topologies on X]
κ
Op(X
κ
)
is a bijection, where the inverse is the operation A
A
described in 1.1.6. That is, a topology on a set X can be
speciﬁed simply by describing a Kuratowski closure operator.
1.2. First examples
Example 1.2.1. — For any set S, there are two topologies that exist automatically on S.
(1.2.1.1) The indiscrete topology S
ι
is the pair (S, ¦∅, S]).
(1.2.1.2) The discrete topology S
δ
is the pair (S, ´(S)).
Example 1.2.2. — The Sierpi´ nski space Σ
0
is the set ¦0, 1] equipped with the subset:
Op(Σ
0
) :=¦∅, ¦1], ¦0, 1]] ⊂´ (¦0, 1]) .
One may verify directly that the Sierpi´ nski space is in fact a topological space. The set ¦0, 1] can also be given a
topology given by the subset
Op(Σ
1
) :=¦∅, ¦0], ¦0, 1]] ⊂´ (¦0, 1]) .
This deﬁnes a space Σ
1
, which is — as we will explain — homeomorphic to Σ
0
. The topologies
¦0, 1]
ι
, Σ
0
, Σ
1
, and ¦0, 1]
δ
specify all the topologies on the set ¦0, 1].
Exercise 3. — Describe explicitly all the topologies on the set ¦0, 1, 2].
Example 1.2.3. — Any set S can be given the coﬁnite topology, in which a subset U ⊂ S is declared to be open if
and only if either S =∅, or else the complement
S
U is ﬁnite. In this case, the closed subsets of S are the ﬁnite sets
and S itself.
Similarly, any set S can be given the cocountable topology, in which a subset U ⊂ S is declared to be open if and
only if either S =∅, or else the complement
S
U is countable. In this case, the closed subsets of S are the countable
sets and S itself.
Example 1.2.4. — Suppose (X, Op(X)) a topological space, and suppose A⊂X a subset of X. Then Amay be given
the subspace topology, deﬁned by
Op(A) :=¦U ∈ ´(U)  there exists U
/
∈ Op(X) such that U = U
/
∩A].
A subspace of X is thus a subset A⊂X, equipped with the subspace topology.
Example 1.2.5. — Let us consider the vector space R
n
. For any point x ∈ R
n
and any real number >0, the (open)
ball of radius r centered at x is the subset
B(x, ) :=¦y ∈ R
n
 y −x <].
Now the set R
n
can be given a topology in the following manner: we will say that a subset U ⊂R
n
is open if for any
point x ∈ U, there is a real number >0 such that B(x, ) ⊂ U. This is known as the standard topology on R
n
.
12 CHAPTER 1. THE CATEGORY OF TOPOLOGICAL SPACES
Example 1.2.6. — We can now combine the previous two examples to get a whole world of interesting topological
spaces.
(1.2.6.1) The open ball of radius 1 at 0 is sometimes called the ncell.
(1.2.6.2) The closed ndisk is the set
D
n
:=¦x ∈ R
n
 x ≤1].
It is equal to the closure B(0, 1) of the ball of radius 1 at 0.
(1.2.6.3) The (n −1)sphere is the set
S
n−1
:=¦x ∈ R
n
 x ≤1].
It is equal to the complement of the ncell in this ndisk.
(1.2.6.4) The rational numbers Q⊂R can be given the subspace topology.
(1.2.6.5) The irrational numbers R−Q⊂R can also be given the subspace topology.
Exercise 4. — Show that the subspace topology on Q is not the discrete topology on Q. Show also that Q is dense
in R.
1.2.7. — One of the most difﬁcult aspects of topology is that, despite the fact that the subset Op(X) ⊂ ´(X) is
the information that is needed in order to specify a topology on a set X, it is frequently difﬁcult to give an explicit
description of the elements of Op(X).
This leads us to the notion of a subbase for a topology.
Proposition 1.2.8. — Suppose X a set, and suppose · ⊂ ´(X) a collection of subsets of X. Then there exists a unique
coarsest topology Op
·
(X) containing · .
Proof. — Deﬁne a topology in the following manner: let 0 be the set of all ﬁnite intersections of elements of ·
(including the empty intersection, which is all of X). Then let Op
·
(X) be the set of all unions of elements of 0.
This is indeed a topology. Unions of unions of elements of 0 are unions of elements of 0. Moreover, for any
ﬁnite subset ¹ ⊂Op
·
(X), one may write any element U ∈ ¹ as a union of elements of 0:
U =
¸
i ∈I
U
B
i
,
where B
i
∈ 0. Now
¸
U∈¹
U =
¸
U∈¹
¸
i ∈I
U
B
i
=
¸
U∈¹, i
U
∈I
U
¸
U∈¹
B
i
U
,
and since each set
¸
U∈¹
B
i
U
is an element of 0 by construction, this intersection is a union of elements of 0.
(1)
Any topology containing · must contain all unions of ﬁnite intersections of elements of · , so any such topol
ogy must be ﬁner than Op
·
(X). Thus Op
·
(X) is the unique coarsest topology containing · .
Deﬁnition 1.2.9. — In the situation of the previous proposition, the topology Op
·
(X) is said to be generated by · ,
and the set · is said to be a subbase for the topological space (X, Op
·
(X)).
Exercise 5. — Show that the standard topology on R [1.2.5] is generated by the set
¦(a, ∞)  a ∈ R] ∪¦(−∞, b)  b ∈ R] ⊂´(R).
Example 1.2.10. — More generally, on any totally ordered set X, one may deﬁne the order topology, which is gen
erated by the set
¦(a, ∞)  a ∈ X] ∪¦(−∞, b)  b ∈ X] ⊂´(X),
where (a, ∞) and (−∞, b) are shorthand:
(a, ∞) :=¦x ∈ X  x >a] and (−∞, b) :=¦x ∈ X  x < b].
(1)
If this formula seems confusing, contemplate the case when ¹ has cardinality 2.
1.3. CONTINUOUS MAPS AND HOMEOMORPHISMS 13
Example 1.2.11. — Suppose X and Y two spaces. Then their product
X ×Y :=¦(x, y)  x ∈ X, y ∈ Y]
has a topology, called the product topology generated by the set
¦U ×Y  U ∈ Op(X)] ∪¦X ×V  V ∈ Op(Y)].
Exercise 6. — Show that the standard topology on R
n
can be described inductively in the following way.
(6.1) If n =0, then R
0
=, and the standard topology is just the discrete topology.
(6.2) If n =1, then R
1
=R, and the standard topology is just the order topology, as you showed above.
(6.3) If n > 1, then R
n
= R
n−1
×R, and the standard topology on R
n
is just the product topology of the standard
topology on R
n−1
with the standard topology on R.
1.3. Continuous maps and homeomorphisms
Deﬁnition 1.3.1. — Suppose X and Y topological spaces. Then a map f : X
Y is continuous if the inverse
image of any open set is open, that is, if for any U ∈ Op(Y), the set f
−1
U ∈ Op(X).
Example 1.3.2. — Of course the identity map of any space is a homeomorphism. More generally, suppose X a
space, and suppose A ⊂ X is a subset, equipped with the subspace topology. Then the inclusion map i : A
X
(given by the rule i (a) =a) is continuous.
Exercise 7. — In fact, the subspace topology is rigged precisely to make this happen. Show that if X is a space,
and A⊂ X is a subset, then the subspace topology on A is the coarsest topology on A such that the inclusion map
i : A
X is continuous.
Example 1.3.3. — The composition of two continuous functions is continuous.
Example 1.3.4. — Suppose X is a set with two topologies Op(X) and Op
/
(X). Then Op(X) is ﬁner than Op
/
(X) if
and only if the identity map on X is a continuous map
(X, Op(X))
(X, Op
/
(X)) .
Example 1.3.5. — Suppose X and Y two spaces, and consider the product X ×Y with the product topology. Then
we have two projection maps
pr
1
: X ×Y
X and pr
2
: X ×Y
Y ,
given by the rules pr
1
(x, y) = x and pr
2
(x, y) = y. Both of these maps are continuous.
Exercise 8. — Once again, the way we deﬁned the product topology guaranteed that this property was as sharp as
possible. If X and Y are spaces, then the product topology is the coarsest topology on X ×Y such that the two
projection maps
pr
1
: X ×Y
X and pr
2
: X ×Y
Y ,
are continuous.
Deﬁnition 1.3.6. — A map f : X
Y is open if the image of any open set is open, that is, if for any U ∈ Op(X),
f U ∈ Op(Y).
Example 1.3.7. — Open maps need not be continuous. Suppose X a topological space, and suppose S any set. Let
us endow S with the discrete topology S
δ
. Then one sees that any map p : X
S
δ
is open; however, in order for
p to be continuous, for any s ∈ S the ﬁber over s — i.e., the inverse image f
−1
¦s ] — would have to be an open set.
Hence the ﬂoor function · : R
Z (which just rounds any real number down to the nearest integer) is open, but
not continuous.
Example 1.3.8. — If X and Y are topological spaces, then the projection maps pr
1
and pr
2
are both continuous (as
we have seen) and open.
Example 1.3.9. — Consider the function f : R
R given by the rule f (x) = x
2
. This is continuous, but not
open.
14 CHAPTER 1. THE CATEGORY OF TOPOLOGICAL SPACES
Exercise 9. — Show that if X is a space, and A⊂X is a subset with the subspace topology, then the inclusion map
i : A
X is open if and only if Ais an open subset of X.
Deﬁnition 1.3.10. — A continuous map f : X
Y is a homeomorphism if it is both a bijection and an open map.
Two spaces X and Y are said to be homeomorphic if there is a homeomorphism X
Y .
1.3.11. — A homeomorphism between two topological spaces is a guarantee that those two spaces are indistin
guishable from the point of view of topology. In group theory or set theory, an isomorphism or bijection between two
objects (groups in the ﬁrst case, sets in the second) guaranteed that the objects involved were the same, up to some
“relabeling,” so anything you knew about the ﬁrst group or set was reﬂected in the second group of set.
As we will see, the same phenomenon happens here. In the case of homeomorphisms, not only do you have the
same points up to some relabeling, but you have the same open sets up to that relabeling!
1.3.12. — Here’s another way to think of homeomorphism. If f : X
Y is a continuous map, then the inverse
image can be viewed as a map
f
−1
: Op(Y)
Op(X) .
The statement that f is a homeomorphism is the statement that both f and f
−1
are bijections.
Alternately, if f : X
Y is a bijection, then it has an inverse f
−1
: Y
X . The statement that f is a
homeomorphism is the statement that both f and f
−1
are continuous.
(We’re being totally sloppy about notation here, but only because everyone else is too, and you might as well
get used to it now. Mathematicians use the symbol f
−1
in two different ways, often in close proximity to one
another. (1) In the ﬁrst description, we were assuming that f is continuous, and we were talking about the function
Op(Y)
Op(X) that takes an open set U to its inverse image f
−1
U, which is again an open set. (2) In the second
description, we were assuming that f is a bijection, and we were talking about the function Y
X which is the
inverse to f .)
Example 1.3.13. — Of course the identity map is a homeomorphism.
Example 1.3.14. — The two Sierpi´ nski spaces Σ
0
and Σ
1
are homeomorphic.
Example 1.3.15. — Note that, in order for f : X
Y to be a homeomorphism, we do not only require that f
be a bijective continuous map. That is not enough: let us think of the set
U(1) :=¦z ∈ C  z =1]
with the subspace topology from C
∼
=R
2
. Now contemplate the map
ρ : [0, 2π)
U(1)
given by the rule ρ(x) = e
i x
. This wraps the halfopen interval around the circle. It is a bijective continuous map,
but it had better not be a homeomorphism!
Example 1.3.16. — Here’s a very important example to contemplate. Consider the tangent function as a map
tan :
−
π
2
,
π
2
R.
It’s a homeomorphism! This suggests something that may at ﬁrst seem surprising: topology doesn’t “see” the differ
ence between an inﬁnitely long line and an open interval of ﬁnite length.
This might seem a little odd, since we’ve been thinking of topological spaces as sets with a concept of “nearness”
of points. But this leads to an important idea about what topology actually is: one might say that topology is what
is left over from geometry when you throw out the notion of distance.
Exercise 10. — Continuing with that idea, ﬁnd a homeomorphism between R and the ray (0, ∞).
Exercise 11. — Suppose n is a nonnegative integer. Show that any two ndimensional balls B
n
(x, δ) and B
n
(y, ) in
R
n
are homeomorphic, and so are their closures.
Exercise
12. — Suppose n is a nonnegative integer. Show that the following three spaces are all homeomorphic:
(12.1) the ndimensional ball B
n
(x, ) for any x ∈ R
n
and any >0,
(12.2) the euclidean space R
n
, and
1.3. CONTINUOUS MAPS AND HOMEOMORPHISMS 15
(12.3) the product space
¸
m
i =1
B
k
i
(x
i
,
i
) for any decomposition n =
¸
m
i =1
k
i
, and points x
i
∈ R
k
i
, and any real
numbers
i
>0.
Example 1.3.17. — Here’s a challenging example. Consider the spaces R
m
and R
n
with the standard topology. It is
a fact that they are homeomorphic if and only if m = n. Certainly one direction here is obvious! But how on earth
could you show that there is no homeomorphism between two spaces? What kind of contradiction could you get
from the existence of a homeomorphism? These kinds of questions will lead us naturally to
Example 1.3.18. — Here’s another example that merits some contemplation. Consider the function f (x) = 1/x.
This can regarded as a map
f : R−¦0]
R−¦0].
Since f is its own inverse, f here is a homeomorphism. (In general, a homeomorphism from a space to itself is
called an automorphism.) Of course we have removed the point 0 ∈ R, because in elementary school we were told
that 1/0 is “undeﬁned.” But let’s try to deﬁne it anyhow.
We note that, as x approaches 0 from the right, 1/x increases without bound; as x approaches 0 from the left,
1/x decreases without bound. If we wanted to add a point that would play the role of 1/0, then this leads us to the
following idea: consider the set R¦∞], where ∞here is just a formal symbol that we’ve tacked on. Let’s topologize
this set in the following way: we will contemplate the set
¦(a, b)  a, b ∈ R] ∪¦(−∞, c) ∪¦∞] ∪(d, ∞)  c, d ∈ R] ⊂´(R∪¦∞]),
and we will contemplate the topology generated by this set. That is, we will look at all unions of all ﬁnite intersec
tions of open intervals in R along with sets
(−∞, c) ∪¦∞] ∪(d, ∞)
that “wrap around” our added point ∞.
Now we think of our map f : R−¦0]
R−¦0], and we note that we can extend it to a map F :
R∪¦∞]
R∪¦∞], where we set F (x) := 1/x for any x ∈ R−¦0], we set F (0) := ∞, and we set F (∞) := 0.
With the topology we’ve given R∪¦∞], this is continuous!
The space R∪¦∞] we’ve constructed here is called a compactiﬁcation of R. (We’ll explain more about that later.)
The subspace R⊂R∪¦∞] is open, and ∞is contained in the closure of any ray (−∞, c) or (d, ∞).
Exercise 13. — A little bit of thought should convince you that the space R∪¦∞] we’ve described in the previous
example is in fact a circle. Let’s ﬁnd a homeomorphism that makes this explicit. Translate our circle S
1
so that we
are looking at the unit circle around the point (0, 1) in R
2
:
S
1
(1) :=¦θ ∈ R
2
 θ −(0, 1) =1].
Now let us deﬁne a map g : S
1
(1) −¦(0, 2)]
R in the following way. For any point θ ∈ S
1
(1) −¦(0, 2)], let
θ
be the unique line passing through (0, 2) and θ in R
2
. Now deﬁne g(θ) to be the xcoordinate of the point of
intersection between
θ
and the xaxis ¦(x, y) ∈ R
2
 y =0].
(13.1) Write an explicit formula for g.
(13.2) Show that g is a homeomorphism.
(13.3) Show that g can be extended to a homeomorphism
G : S
1
(1)
R∪¦∞]
by setting G(θ) := g(θ) for any θ ∈ S
1
(1) −¦(0, 2)] and G((0, 2)) :=∞.
(13.4) In the previous example, we constructed a homeomorphism F : R∪¦∞]
R∪¦∞] (which is not the
identity). Using the homeomorphism G, we can rewrite this as a homeomorphism
G
−1
◦ F ◦ G : S
1
(1)
S
1
(1) .
What homeomorphism is this? How might you draw its graph?
16 CHAPTER 1. THE CATEGORY OF TOPOLOGICAL SPACES
Exercise 14. — The space R∪¦∞] is not the only compactiﬁcation of R; we were led to consider it by our example.
If we thought of another example, we might be led to a different compactiﬁcation. Think, for example, of the
function h(x) = x
3
, which we regard as a map
h : R
R.
(14.1) Show that h is a homeomorphism. (Be careful if you decide to study h
−1
!)
(14.2) Show that h(x) increases without bound as x does, and likewise h(x) decreases without bound as x does.
(14.3) Describe a space R∪¦−∞, ∞] (where −∞and ∞are each just formal symbols) with the following properties.
(1) R is an open subspace of R∪¦−∞, ∞]. (2) The closure of a ray (−∞, a) ⊂R in R∪¦−∞, ∞] is the set
[−∞, a] :=¦−∞] ∪(−∞, a],
and the closure of a ray (b, ∞) ⊂R in R∪¦−∞, ∞] is the set
[b, ∞] :=[b, ∞) ∪¦∞].
(14.4) Describe an extension of h to a homeomorphism
H : R∪¦−∞, ∞]
R∪¦−∞, ∞].
(14.5) Show that the space R∪¦−∞, ∞] is homeomorphic to the interval [−1, 1].
(14.6) Show that the map
p : R∪¦−∞, ∞]
R∪¦∞]
(with the topologies deﬁned here and above) is continuous. Show, moreover, that for any topological space
X, and any continuous map f : R∪¦−∞, ∞]
X such that f (−∞) = f (∞), there exists a unique map
f
/
: R∪¦∞]
X such that f = f
/
◦ p.
CHAPTER 2
CONSTRUCTING TOPOLOGIES AND CONTINUOUS MAPS
2.1. Quotients
Deﬁnition 2.1.1. — Suppose X a space, and suppose A⊂X a subspace. Then a quotient of X by Ais a pointed space
(X/A, α) and a continuous map q : X
X/A such that q(A) =¦α], and for any space Y and any continuous map
f : X
Y such that f (A) = ¦a] for some element a ∈ Y, there exists a unique continuous map f
/
: X/A
Y
such that f
/
(α) =a and f = f
/
◦ q.
2.1.2. — Suppose X a space, and suppose A⊂ X a subspace. The deﬁnition above is nonconstructive, in the sense
that it does not make it apparent that such a space X/A exists. In fact, it always does. Here’s one way to construct
it.
Let X/A=(X −A) ¦α]; consider the map q : X
X/A, given by the formula
q(x) :=
x if x ∈ X −A;
α otherwise.
We topologize X/Ain the following manner. We say that a subset U ⊂X/Ais open if and only if the inverse image
q
−1
U is open in X. This forces q to be continuous. (In fact, this is the ﬁnest possible topology on X/Asuch that q
is continuous.)
I claim that the space X/A and the continuous map q : X
X/A satisfy the conditions of the deﬁnition
of a quotient. To see this, suppose Y a topological space, and suppose f : X
Y a continuous map such that
f (A) =¦a] for some element a ∈ Y. Let us deﬁne f
/
: X/A
Y in the following way
f
/
(x) :=
x if x ∈ X −A;
a otherwise.
One sees that this is the only possible map such that f = f
/
◦q. Moreover, f
/
is continuous: for any open set V ⊂Y,
f
/−1
V is open in X/Aif and only if f
−1
V = q
−1
f
/−1
V is open in X, but this is automatic since f is continuous.
Exercise 15. — Show that the above description of X/A is unique up to unique homeomorphism. That is, show
that if X is a space, A⊂ X is a subspace, and both q : X
W and q
/
: X
W
/
are each quotients of X by A,
then there is a unique homeomorphism h : W
W
/
such that h ◦ q = q
/
.
Exercise
16. — For any integer n ≥0, show that the quotient D
n
/S
n−1
is homeomorphic to S
n
.
2.1.3. — Contemplate the quotient X/∅. The answer may surprise you!
2.2. Coverings and locality
Exercise 17. — Subbases for topologies permit the easy identiﬁcation of continuous maps. Suppose X and Y topo
logical spaces, and suppose · a subbase for the topology on Y. Then show that a map f : X
Y is continuous
if and only if the inverse image of any element U ∈ · under f is open in X.
18 CHAPTER 2. CONSTRUCTING TOPOLOGIES AND CONTINUOUS MAPS
2.2.1. — The previous result is helpful because it permits one to check only a small number of conditions on subsets
of Y in order to guarantee the continuity of a function.
Deﬁnition 2.2.2. — Suppose X and Y two topological spaces, suppose f : X
Y a map, and suppose x ∈ X.
Then one says that f is continuous at x if for any neighborhood V of f (x) ∈ Y, there is a neighborhood U of x ∈ X
such that f (U) ⊂V.
2.2.3. — Note that I have written “neighborhood” in the above deﬁnition. I could easily as well have written “open
neighborhood”: f is continuous at x if and only if for any open neighborhood V of f (x) ∈ Y, there is an open
neighborhood U of x ∈ X such that f (U) ⊂V.
Lemma 2.2.4. — Suppose X a topological space, and suppose U ⊂X a subset thereof. Then U is open if and only if, for
any point x ∈ U, there exists an open neighborhood W of x with W ⊂ U.
Proof. — If U is open, then of course U itself is an open neighborhood of any point x ∈ U.
Conversely, one may for the interior U
◦
of U, which is the union of all the open sets W ⊂ U. One sees that
U
◦
= U: indeed, U
◦
⊂ U, and for any point x ∈ U, there exists an open neighborhood W of x with W ⊂ U,
whence x ∈ U
◦
.
Proposition 2.2.5. — Suppose X and Y two topological spaces, and suppose f : X
Y a map. Then f is continuous
if and only if it is continuous for every point x ∈ X.
Proof. — Suppose f continuous, and suppose x ∈ X a point. Then for any neighborhood V of f (x) ∈ Y, one may
contemplate the interior V
◦
, which is open, and its inverse image f
−1
(V
◦
), which is open as well. Now the image
f ( f
−1
(V
◦
)) ⊂V
◦
⊂V. Hence f is continuous at every point x ∈ X.
Suppose, conversely, that f is continuous at every point x ∈ X. Suppose V ⊂ Y an open set. The claim is that
f
−1
(V) is open. For any point x ∈ f
−1
(V), there is an open neighborhood W of x ∈ f
−1
(V) with f (W) ⊂V, or
equivalently, with W ⊂ f
−1
(V). Now we apply the lemma above to see that f
−1
(V) is open.
Deﬁnition 2.2.6. — Suppose X a space. A collection · ⊂ ´(X) of subspaces of X is said to cover X — or to be a
covering of X — if X =
¸
V∈·
V. One says that · is an open covering of X if every V ∈ · is an open set; likewise,
one says that · is an closed covering of X if every V ∈ · is an closed set.
For a subspace A ⊂ X, we say that a collection · ⊂ ´(X) of subspaces of X is said to cover A — or to be a
covering of A— if A⊂
¸
V∈·
V, or, equivalently, of A=
¸
V∈·
A∩V.
Exercise 18. — Suppose X a space, and suppose · an open covering of X. Now suppose, for any V ∈ · , that
f
V
: V
Y is a continuous function, and suppose that, for any elements V, W ∈ · , one has
f
V

V∩W
= f
W

V∩W
: V ∩W
Y .
Then there exists a unique continuous map f : X
Y such that for any V ∈ · ,
f 
V
= f
V
: V
Y .
Deﬁnition 2.2.7. — Suppose X a topological space, and suppose x ∈ X. Then a fundamental system of neighborhoods
of x ∈ X is a collection ·
x
of neighborhoods of x with the following property. For any neighborhood W of x, there
is a neighborhood V ∈ ·
x
with V ⊂W.
Deﬁnition 2.2.8. — Suppose X a topological space. Then a base for X is a collection 0 ⊂Op(X) such that for any
point x ∈ X, the set
0
x
:=¦U ∈ 0  x ∈ U]
is a fundamental system of neighborhoods of x ∈ X.
2.2.9. — A base for a topological space is also a subbase for the topology Op(X).
Proposition 2.2.10. — Suppose X is a topological space, and suppose 0 a base for the topology. The the following are
equivalent for a subset U ⊂X.
(2.2.10.1) The set U is open in X.
(2.2.10.2) For any point x ∈ U, there exists an element V ∈ 0
x
such that V ⊂ U.
2.2. COVERINGS AND LOCALITY 19
(2.2.10.3) The set U can be written as the union of elements of 0.
Proof. — Suppose U is open in X; then for any point x ∈ U, U is an open neighborhood of x. Since 0
x
is an
open system of neighborhoods of x ∈ X, there is an element V ∈ 0
x
such that V ⊂ U. This shows that the ﬁrst
condition implies the second.
Suppose that, for any point x ∈ U, there exists an element V ∈ 0
x
such that V ⊂ U. Then (using the axiom of
choice) one may select, for every point x ∈ U, one element V
x
∈ 0
x
such that V
x
⊂ U. The union U
/
:=
¸
x∈U
V
x
contains every point of U by deﬁnition, so that U
/
⊃ U, and since V
x
⊂ U for every x ∈ U, it follows that U
/
⊂ U.
Thus U is a union of elements of 0. This shows that the second condition implies the third.
Finally, suppose that U can be written as the union of elements of 0. By deﬁnition, every element of 0 is open,
so by the axioms for a topological space, U is open as well. This completes the proof.
Proposition 2.2.11. — Suppose X a topological space. Then a subset 0 ⊂Op(X) is a base for the topology if and only if
the following conditions are satisﬁed.
(2.2.11.1) The elements of 0 cover X.
(2.2.11.2) For any U, V ∈ 0 and any element x ∈ U ∩V, there is an element W ∈ 0
x
such that W ⊂ U ∩V.
Example 2.2.12. — For any totally ordered set X, the set
¦(a, b)  a, b ∈ X]
is a base for the order topology on X. (Here, one writes
(a, b) :=¦x ∈ X  a < x < b].)
Example 2.2.13. — Suppose n ≥0 an integer. Then the set
¦B
n
(x, )  x ∈ Q
n
, ε ∈ Q]
is a base for the standard topology on euclidean space R
n
.
Exercise 19. — Suppose X a set with two topologies Op(X) and Op
/
(X); suppose 0 a base for (X, Op(X)) and 0
/
a base for (X, Op
/
(X)). Show that Op(X) is ﬁner than Op
/
(X) if and only if, for any x ∈ X and any element U ∈ 0
/
x
,
there exists an element V ∈ 0
x
such that V ⊂ U.
Example 2.2.14. — Here is a standard counterexample in topology; everyone must see it once in their lives. The
Sorgenfrey line R
is the set Rwith the lower limit topology. This is the topology generated by the halfopen intervals
[a, b) for a, b ∈ R. The set
0
:=¦[a, b)  a, b, ∈ R]
is then a basis for R
. (One may also deﬁne the upper limit topology R
u
, which is homeomorphic to R
via the map
x
−x .) One can check fairly easily that these basic open sets [a, b) are both open and closed.
The previous exercise can be used to show that the Sorgenfrey line is ﬁner than the standard (= order) topology
on R. Indeed, for any open interval (a, b), one may choose any point a
/
∈ (a, b), and then [a
/
, b) ⊂(a, b).
A map f : R
R is continuous if and only if, for any x ∈ R,
f (x) = lim
→0
+
f (x +).
In particular, the ﬂoor function · : R
R is continuous.
CHAPTER 3
COMPACTNESS I
3.1. Compact spaces
Deﬁnition 3.1.1. — A topological space X is compact if any open covering has a ﬁnite subcovering. A compact
topological space is sometimes called a compactum.
For any space X, write (p(X) for the set of all compact subsets of X.
Example 3.1.2. — Any ﬁnite space is compact, and the indiscrete topology on any set is compact.
Example 3.1.3. — The euclidean spaces R
n
are not compact; indeed, the open balls B
n
(x, ) form an open covering,
but there is no ﬁnite subcovering. To see this, consider any ﬁnite covering of R
n
by balls B
n
(x
i
,
i
) for i =1, 2, . . . , m,
and suppose x a point of one of the balls. Then one may choose a real number r so that B
n
(x, r ) ⊃
¸
m
i =1
B
n
(x
i
,
i
).
Lemma 3.1.4. — Suppose X and Y spaces, and suppose f : X
Y a continuous function. Then the image f (A) of
any compact subspace A⊂X is compact.
Proof. — Suppose ¹ an open covering of f (A); then the set
¦ f
−1
U  U ∈ ¹]
is an open covering of A, which thus has a ﬁnite subcovering · . Now the claim is that the subset
¦U ∈ ¹  f
−1
U ∈ · ],
which is ﬁnite, is a covering of f (A). Indeed, suppose y = f (a) ∈ f (A) a point with a ∈ A. Then there exists some
U ∈ ¹ such that f
−1
U ∈ · and a ∈ f
−1
U, whence f (a) ∈ U.
Lemma 3.1.5. — A closed subspace of a compact space is compact.
Proof. — Suppose X a compactum, and suppose A ⊂ X closed. Suppose ¹ an open covering of A. Since each
element U ∈ ¹ is open in A, one may choose a collection ¹
/
⊂Op(X) such that
¹ =¦U ∈ Op(A)  U = U
/
∩Afor someU
/
∈ ¹
/
].
Now the set ¹
/
∪¦X −A] is an open covering of A; hence there is a ﬁnite subcovering ·
/
⊂¹
/
. Now
· =¦U ∈ Op(A)  U = U
/
∩Afor someU
/
∈ ·
/
]
is a ﬁnite subcovering of ¹.
Exercise 20. — Suppose we are given a ﬁnite collection ¦X
i
] of compact spaces, i = 1, 2, . . . , n. Show that the
product space
¸
n
i =1
X
i
is compact. (This is the easy case of Tychonoff’s Theorem, to which we shall return.)
Theorem 3.1.6. — The following are equivalent for a subspace A⊂R
n
.
(3.1.6.1) Ais compact.
(3.1.6.2) [Bolzano–Weierstraß] Every sequence of points in Ahas a convergent subsequence.
(3.1.6.3) [Heine–Borel] Ais closed and bounded.
22 CHAPTER 3. COMPACTNESS I
Proof. — Let us show that the ﬁrst of these conditions implies the second. Suppose Acompact, and suppose (x
i
)
i ≥0
a sequence of points in A. If there were no convergent subsequence of (x
i
)
i ≥0
, then the set ¦x
i
]
i ≥0
would be a closed
subset of A, hence compact, and there would be a sequence
i
of positive real numbers such that the balls B
n
(x
i
,
i
)
would be disjoint. But then ¦B
n
(x
i
,
i
)]
i ≥0
would be an open cover of ¦x
i
]
i ≥0
with no ﬁnite subcover.
Let us show that the second property implies the third. Suppose A has the property that every sequence has a
convergent subsequence. Then A must be bounded, since otherwise there exists a sequence (x
i
)
i ≥0
of points in A
such that x
i
 → ∞. It must also be closed, since if x ∈ A−A is a point “at the boundary,” one can construct a
sequence of points of Aconverging to x.
Finally, let us show that the third condition implies the ﬁrst. Suppose A is closed and bounded. Since A is
bounded, it is contained in a box [−a, a]
n
for some a > 0. Since every closed subspace of a compact space is
compact, it is enough to show that [−a, a]
n
is compact. By the previous exercise, it is enough to show that [−a, a]
is compact. Suppose ¹ an open covering of [−a, a]; then let
c =sup¦x ∈ R  [−a, x] can be covered by ﬁnitely many elements of ¹].
Suppose, to generate a contradiction, that c < a; then let U ∈ ¹ be an element of the open covering containing
c. Then for some > 0, one has B(c, ) ⊂ U. By the deﬁnition of c, one may cover [−a, a − c/2] with ﬁnitely
many elements of ¹; adding in U to that set yields a ﬁnite open covering of [−a, a + c/2], yielding the desired
contradiction.
Exercise 21. — Suppose X a compact space, and suppose f : X
R a continuous function. Then f attains both
a maximum and a minimum value.
3.2. The Tychonoff Product Theorem
Deﬁnition 3.2.1. — A collection ¨ of sets is said to be of ﬁnite character if the following condition holds: a set Ais
an element of ¨ if and only if every ﬁnite subset of Ais an element of ¨.
Lemma 3.2.2 (Tukey). — Suppose ¨ a nonempty collection of sets. Then if ¨ is of ﬁnite character, then every element
A∈ ¨ is contained in a maximal set M ∈ ¨, i.e., a set M such that no element of ¨ properly contains M.
Proof. — Give ¨ a partial ordering by inclusion. The union of every chain of elements of ¨ must also belong to
¨, so by Zorn’s Lemma, every element A∈ ¨ is contained in a maximal element.
Theorem 3.2.3 (Alexander Subbase). — Suppose X a topological space, and suppose · a subbase for Op(X) that is
also an open cover of Op(X). If every subcover of · has a ﬁnite subcover, then X is compact.
Proof. — The language here can get a tad confusing, so let’s introduce some new terminology to make things a little
simpler. Let’s call a family ¹ ⊂´(X) exiguous if it does not cover X, and let’s call ¹ bourgeois if any ﬁnite subset
of ¹ is exiguous.
Using our new terminology, we see that X is compact if and only if any bourgeois family of open sets is exiguous.
We can also rewrite our assumption on the subbase · : we are assuming that any bourgeois subfamily of · is
exiguous.
Our aim is to show that any bourgeois family · of open sets is exiguous. Write
¨ :=¦¹ ∈ ´(Op(X))  ¹ is bourgeois].
This family is obviously of ﬁnite character. So suppose · a bourgeois family of open sets, and let ¨(·) be the
collection of all bourgeois families of open sets of X that contain ·:
¨(·) :=¦¹ ∈ ¨  · ⊂¨].
Tukey’s Lemma says that it contains a maximal element . ∈ ¨(·). It is enough to show that . is exiguous, and
this is now our goal.
Exercise 22. — Prove the following Key Fact about our maximal element .:
If ¦U
i
]
n
i =1
is a ﬁnite collection of open sets of X such that the intersection
¸
n
i =1
U
i
is contained in
an element of ., then one of the U
i
is itself an element of ..
3.3. THE COMPACTOPEN TOPOLOGY 23
(Hint: if U is an open set of X that is not contained in ., show that there is a ﬁnite collection ¦V
j
]
m
j =1
of elements
of . such that ¦U] ∪¦V
j
]
m
j =1
is a covering of X.)
All right, now it’s time to consider our subbase · ; again, we are assuming that any bourgeois subcollection of
· is exiguous. Let’s contemplate the intersection . ∩ · ; it is bourgeois, and thus (by our assumption on · )
exiguous.
Now I claim that
¸
U∈.
U ⊂
¸
U∈.∩·
U.
Suppose x ∈ U ∈ .; then since · is a subbase, there is a ﬁnite intersection W :=
¸
n
i =1
U
i
of elements U
i
∈ ·
such that x ∈ W and W ⊂ U. By the Key Fact above, one of the U
i
is itself and element of .. This means that
x ∈ U
i
∈ . ∩· , just as we had hoped.
But remember the intersection . ∩· is exiguous, so we conclude that . is also!
Exercise
23. — Suppose X a totally ordered set. Let us say that X is ordercomplete if every subset of X has a
supremum in X. Show that X is compact (with the order topology) if and only if it is ordercomplete.
Theorem 3.2.4 (Tychonoff Product). — The product of compact spaces is compact.
Proof. — Suppose ¦X
α
 α ∈ A] a collection of compact spaces, and give
¸
α∈A
X
α
the product topology. This is the
topology generated by the subbase
· :=¦pr
−1
α
(U)  α ∈ A, U ∈ Op(X
α
)].
Let’s use the Alexander Subbase Theorem. We need to show that any bourgeois subcollection ¹ of · is exigu
ous. Suppose ¹ a bourgeois subcollection of · . For every α ∈ A, set
¹
α
:=¦U ∈ Op(X
α
)  pr
−1
α
(U) ∈ ¹].
It is obvious that ¹
α
is bourgeois and hence exiguous (since X
α
is compact). Hence for each α ∈ A, we can choose a
point x
α
∈ X
α
such that x
α
/ ∈
¸
U∈¹
α
U. But now the point
x :=(x
α
)
α∈A
is not a member of any element of ¹. So ¹ is exiguous.
3.3. The compactopen topology
Deﬁnition 3.3.1. — Suppose X and Y two topological spaces. Denote by ((X, Y) the set of all continuous maps
X
Y . For any subsets A⊂X and B ⊂Y, write
· (A, B) :=¦ f ∈ ((X, Y)  f (A) ⊂B].
Now we topologize the set ((X, Y) in the following manner. Take the topology generated by the subbase
¦· (K, U)  K ∈ (p(X), and U ∈ Op(Y)].
This is called the compactopen topology.
Exercise 24. — Suppose X any compact space, and suppose (Y, d) a metric space. A sequence of continuous func
tions f
n
∈ ((X, Y) is said to converge uniformly to a continuous function f ∈ ((X, Y) if
lim
n→∞
sup
x∈X
d( f
n
(x), f (x)) =0;
in other words, for every >0, there exists a natural number N such that for any x ∈ X and any n ≥N,
d( f
n
(x), f (x)) <.
Prove that a sequence f
n
of continuous functions X
Y converges uniformly if and only if it converges in
((X, Y) with the compactopen topology. Is the same true if X is not compact?
Exercise 25. — Suppose X = S
δ
a discrete space. Showthat the compactopen topology on ((X, Y) coincides with
the product topology on
¸
s ∈S
Y.
CHAPTER 4
COMPACTNESS II
4.1. Forms of compactness
We have already seen that for subspaces of a euclidean space, compactness is equivalent to the Heine–Borel prop
erty (closed and bounded) of the Bolzano–Weierstraß property (the property every sequence has a convergent subse
quence). This doesn’t quite cut it for more general spaces. In this section, we’ll discuss analogues and generalizations
of these notions, and we’ll also talk about the notion of a net or Moore–Smith sequence.
Deﬁnition 4.1.1. — Suppose X a topological space.
(4.1.1.1) One says that X is limit point compact if and only if every inﬁnite subset A of X has a limit point (i.e., a
point x ∈ X that is contained in A−¦x]).
(4.1.1.2) One says that X is countably compact if and only if every countable open cover has a ﬁnite subcover.
(4.1.1.3) One says that X is sequentially compact if and only if every sequence x : N
X has a convergent subse
quence.
4.1.2. — These three notions seemremarkably similar, and in R
n
(and more generally, in any metrizable space) they
are indistinct and, moreover, equivalent to compactness. However, they are different conditions in general, and they
are very different from compactness. To see this, will contemplate some examples, including a key counterexample.
First, let’s see what implications we do have.
Exercise 26. — Show that a space X is countably compact if and only if every nested sequence X ⊃ V
1
⊃ V
2
⊃
V
3
⊃· · · of closed, nonempty subspaces of X has a nonempty intersection.
Proposition 4.1.3. — Consider the following properties for a topological space X.
(4.1.3.1) X is compact.
(4.1.3.2) X is sequentially compact.
(4.1.3.3) X is countably compact.
(4.1.3.4) X is limit point compact.
Then we have a diagram of implications
(1)
I
I
I
I
(2)
·u
u
u
u
(3)
(4)
Proof. — It is obvious that a compact spaces is countably compact.
Let us now see that a sequentially compact space is countably compact. Suppose ¹ =¦U
i
]
i ≥0
a countable open
cover of X. Proceeding inductively, write V
0
:= U
0
, and let V
p
be the ﬁrst of the sequence of U
i
’s not covered by
the V
0
∪V
1
∪· · · ∪V
p−1
. If this choice is impossible at any (ﬁnite) stage, then we have our required ﬁnite subcover;
if this choice is always possible, then for every n ∈ N we may select an element x
n
∈ V
n
such that for any i < n,
26 CHAPTER 4. COMPACTNESS II
x
n
/ ∈ V
i
. Now sequential compactness guarantees that the sequence (x
n
)
n≥0
has a convergent subsequence (x
n
i
)
i ≥0
;
let y be the limit of this subsequence. Then y ∈V
n
for some integer n, so for every i >0 (in particular for i so that
n
i
> n), we have x
n
i
∈V
m
, a contradiction.
Let us now see that a countably compact space is limit point compact. Suppose X a countably compact space,
and suppose B ⊂X a subset with no limit point. Let us show that every countable subset A⊂B is ﬁnite, whence B
is itself ﬁnite. Of course any countable subset A⊂B has no limit point; so Ais closed, and for every point a ∈ A, we
can choose an open neighborhood U
a
such that U
a
∩A=¦a]. Now write
X =(X −A) ∪
¸
a∈A
U
a
;
this is an open cover of X, which must admit a ﬁnite subcover. But it admits no proper subcover at all, so A must
be ﬁnite.
Example 4.1.4. — To construct this example, we have to appeal to some basic facts about ordinals.
First, let’s recall that a strict wellordering on a set A is a wellordering < that is irreﬂexive, in the sense that for
any element a ∈ A, it is not the case that a <a. Now we come to von Neumann’s deﬁnition of ordinal: a set Ais an
ordinal if
(4.1.4.1) every element of Ais also a subset of A, and
(4.1.4.2) Ais strictly wellordered with respect to set membership.
Put differently, an ordinal is a set Asuch that the following conditions hold.
(4.1.4.1’) If β∈ A, then βA.
(4.1.4.2’) If β, γ ∈ A, then one of the following is true: (1) β=γ, (2) β∈ γ, or (3) γ ∈ β.
(4.1.4.3’) If ∅(=βA, then there exists an element β∈ Asuch that γ ∩β=∅.
With this deﬁnition, we deﬁne 0 := ∅, the minimal ordinal. Now recursively, we deﬁne, for every integer n > 0
the ordinal
n :=¦0, 1, . . . , n−1].
These are the ﬁnite ordinals.
Every ordinal α has a successor, namely
α +1 :=α ∪¦α].
Some ordinals are not successors; these are called limit ordinals. The minimal ordinal 0 is a limit ordinal.
The ﬁrst inﬁnite ordinal is also the ﬁrst nonzero limit ordinal; it is
ω :=¦0, 1, . . . ].
It has a successor ω+1, and its successor has a successor ω+2, etc.
If α and β are ordinals, then we say that α <β if α ∈ β. Suppose Aany set of ordinals; then Ais wellordered by
this relation. Consequently, a set Aof ordinals is itself an ordinal if and only if, for every element α ∈ A, any ordinal
β<α is also an element of A. Using this, there is a supremum of any set A of ordinals: it is simply the union of the
elements of A.
We won’t prove it here, but in fact every wellordered set is orderisomorphic to a unique ordinal in a unique fash
ion. As a result, if we build a wellordered set A, there is an ordinal ord(A) and an orderisomorphism A
ord(A) .
In particular, every ordinal α is equal to the set [0, α) of all ordinals less than α.
We can deﬁne operations of ordinal arithmetic in the following manner. Given two ordinals α and β, we can
concatenate them by well ordering the disjoint union αβso that the order within α and βis preserved, and every
element of α is strictly less than every element of β. Now set
α +β:=ord(α β).
Similarly, one can give the product α ×β the lexicographic ordering, so that (a, b) < (a
/
, b
/
) if either a < a
/
or else
a =a
/
and b < b
/
. This is wellordered, and so one may set
α · β:=ord(α ×β).
4.2. LOCALLY COMPACT HAUSDORFF SPACES 27
We can generalize the lexicographic order to a well ordering on the set Map(α, β) of all maps f : α
β such that
only ﬁnitely many elements of α are mapped to an element larger than 0 ∈ β; one sets
β
α
:=ord(Map(α, β)).
Note that none of these operations is commutative, though both addition and multiplication are commutative.
If we apply these operations to the ﬁnite ordinals and to ω, we get a sequence of ordinals:
0, 1, 2, . . . , ω, ω+1, ω+2, . . . , ω· 2, ω· 2 +1, ω· 2 +2, . . . , ω
2
, . . . , ω
3
, . . . , ω
ω
, . . . , ω
ω
ω
, . . . , ω
ω
ω
ω
, . . . ,
0
, . . . .
The last one listed there was studied by Cantor: it is the smallest ordinal satisfying the equation
0
=ω
0
;
it can be expressed as the supremum of the sequence
0
=sup¦ω, ω
ω
, ω
ω
ω
, ω
ω
ω
ω
, . . . ].
The surprising fact is that these ordinals are all countable, because every supremum of a countable set of countable
ordinals is countable. So the inﬁnite ordinals all have the same cardinality, but they are nonisomorphic as well
ordered sets.
We can give any of these sets the order topology, but it might not be an interesting enterprise:
Exercise 27. — Show that for any ordinal α, the order topology and the discrete topology coincide if and only if α
contains no limit ordinal apart from 0.
Now the supremum of all countable cardinals is an uncountable cardinal ω
1
. This is the ﬁrst uncountable cardi
nal, and it is going to give us a useful counterexample now and in the future.
Every increasing sequence in ω
1
converges to an element of ω
1
. Hence the space ω
1
(when equipped with the
order topology) is sequentially compact, but it cannot be compact, since it contains no maximal element. The set
ω
1
+1 is, however, compact.
Exercise 28. — Consider the discrete space ¦0, 1]
δ
. Show that the product
X :=
¸
x∈[0,1]
¦0, 1]
δ
is compact, but not sequentially compact.
Exercise
29. — Find a space that is limit point compact, but not countably compact. (Hint: such a space must have
the property that it contains a ﬁnite subspace that is not closed.)
4.2. Locally compact Hausdorff spaces
The next variant of compactness we want to consider, local compactness, is most interesting when coupled with a
particular separation axiom, called Hausdorffness. We will discuss a variety of separation axioms later, but for now,
let us concentrate on this one, since it appears so often.
Deﬁnition 4.2.1. — A space X is said to be Hausdorff if for any two distinct points x, y ∈ X, there are neighbor
hoods U of x and V of y such that U ∩V =∅.
Proposition 4.2.2. — A space X is Hausdorff if and only if, for any point x ∈ X, the intersection I
x
of all closed
neighborhoods of x is the singleton ¦x].
Proof. — Suppose X Hausdorff, and suppose x ∈ X. Surely x ∈ I
x
, and I claim that any point y ∈ X −¦x] is not
in I . Indeed, for any such point, one may ﬁnd disjoint open neighborhoods U of x and V of y, whence X −V is a
closed neighborhood of x not containing y. Thus I =¦x].
Conversely, suppose that, for any point x ∈ X, one has I
x
= ¦x]. Suppose x and y two distinct points of X.
Then since I
x
=¦x], there exists a closed neighborhood W of x not containing y, and now the interior W
◦
and the
complement X −W are disjoint open neighborhoods of x and y, respectively.
28 CHAPTER 4. COMPACTNESS II
Exercise 30. — Show that a space X is Hausdorff if and only if the diagonal
∆
X
:=¦(x, x) ∈ X ×X]
is a closed subspace of X ×X.
Example 4.2.3. — Any metric space (in particular any euclidean space R
n
) is Hausdorff. The coﬁnite topology on
any inﬁnite set is not.
Proposition 4.2.4. — Any subspace of a Hausdorff space is Hausdorff, and any product of any collection of Hausdorff
spaces is Hausdorff.
Proposition 4.2.5. — If X and Y are spaces, and Y is Hausdorff, then for any continuous maps f , g : X
Y , the
equalizer
E
( f , g)
:=¦(x, x
/
) ∈ X ×X  f (x) = g(x
/
)]
is closed in X ×X, and
Proof. — The set E
( f , g)
is the inverse image of ∆
Y
under the map ( f , g) : X ×X
Y ×Y .
Corollary 4.2.6. — If S and T are spaces, and T is Hausdorff, then for any continuous map h : S
T , the graph
Γ
h
:=¦(s , t ) ∈ S ×T  h(s ) = t ]
is closed in S ×T.
Proof. — Apply the proposition to the case when X = S ×T, Y = T, f (s , t ) = t , and g(s , t ) = h(s ) to obtain a
closed subspace of S ×T ×S ×T, and intersect this with the diagonal ∆
S×T
.
Proposition 4.2.7. — If X is a Hausdorff space, then any compact subspace K ⊂X is closed.
Proof. — Suppose K ⊂ X a compact subspace. Write U = X −K. Suppose x ∈ U. For any element y ∈ K, choose
disjoint open neighborhoods V
y
of x and W
y
of y. The collection ¦W
y
 y ∈ K] is an open cover of K, so there
is a ﬁnite collection of points y
1
, y
2
, . . . , y
n
such that the subcollection ¦W
y
i
 i ∈ ¦1, 2, . . . , n]] covers n. Now the
intersection
¸
n
i =1
V
y
i
is an open neighborhood of x that is disjoint from K, i.e., completely contained in U.
Exercise 31. — Suppose X a Hausdorff space, and suppose K, L ⊂ X two disjoint compact subspaces. Show that
there exist open sets U, V ⊂X such that K ⊂ U, L ⊂V, and U ∩V =∅.
Deﬁnition 4.2.8. — A space is said to be locally compact if and only if any point has a compact neighborhood.
Example 4.2.9. — Any compact space is of course locally compact. The euclidean spaces R
n
are locally compact,
and any discrete space is locally compact.
More exotically, suppose X any set, and suppose x ∈ X. Then the particular point topology for (X, x) is the
topology in which
Op(X) :=¦U ∈ ´(X)  x ∈ U] ∪¦∅].
The particular point topology is always locally compact.
Example 4.2.10. — The space Q with the subspace topology is not locally compact, since its compact subspaces
have empty interior.
Exercise 32. — Suppose X a locally compact Hausdorff space X, and suppose K ⊂ X a compact subspace. Show
that for any point x ∈ X − K, there exists a neighborhood U of x and an open set V containing K such that
U ∩V =∅, and the closure V is compact.
Lemma 4.2.11. — Suppose X a locally compact Hausdorff space X, and suppose U an open subset that contains a
compact subspace K. Then there exists an open set W whose closure is compact such that K ⊂W ⊂W ⊂ U.
4.2. LOCALLY COMPACT HAUSDORFF SPACES 29
Proof. — If U = X, then exercise 32 applies directly. If not, then for every point x ∈ X −U, the exercise 32 gives
an open neighborhood V
x
of x and an open set W
x
whose closure is compact such that
K ⊂V
x
and V
x
∩W
x
=∅.
Now the family ¦(X −U) ∩W
x
 x ∈ X −U] is a family of compact subspaces of X whose intersection is empty.
Consequently there are a ﬁnite number of elements x
1
, x
2
, . . . , x
n
∈ X − U such that the intersection (X − U) ∩
¸
n
i =1
W
x
is empty. Now W :=
¸
n
i =1
W
x
does the job.
Proposition 4.2.12. — Suppose X a Hausdorff space. Then the following are equivalent.
(4.2.12.1) Every point x ∈ X has a fundamental system of compact neighborhoods.
(4.2.12.2) Every point x ∈ X has a closed compact neighborhood.
(4.2.12.3) X is locally compact.
Proof. — The ﬁrst two conditions imply the third by deﬁnition. The third also implies the second, since compact
subspaces of a Hausdorff space are closed. Thus it remains only to show that the third condition implies the ﬁrst.
So suppose X is locally compact, and suppose V an open neighborhood of x; I can apply the previous lemma to get
an open neighborhood W of x such that W is compact and contained in V.
4.2.13. — We often think of locally compact and Hausdorff as a single condition, which we abbreviate as LCH.
Lemma 4.2.14. — A closed subspace of an LCH space is itself LCH.
Proof. — The intersection of a closed set and a compact set is compact. (Why does our result follow from this?)
Exercise 33. — More generally, a subspace of an LCH space X is itself LCH if and only if it can be written as the
complement of a closed subspace inside another closed subspace.
4.2.15. — We now turn to the Alexandroff or onepoint compactiﬁcation of a space X.
Deﬁnition 4.2.16. — Suppose X a space. Then deﬁne X
to be the set X ¦∞], with the following topology: a set
U ⊂X
will be said to be open if and only if either U is an open subset of X, or else U contains ∞, and X −U is
closed and compact.
Exercise 34. — Show that this indeed deﬁnes a topology on X
, and the resulting space is compact.
Theorem 4.2.17. — Suppose X a space. We have the following facts about the Alexandroff compactiﬁcation.
(4.2.17.1) The inclusion map i : X
X
is continuous and open.
(4.2.17.2) The image of i is a dense open set in X unless X is already compact.
(4.2.17.3) The Alexandroff compactiﬁcation X
is Hausdorff if and only if X is LCH.
Exercise 35. — Prove the previous theorem.
Exercise 36. — Suppose Y an LCH space, and suppose Z ⊂ Y a closed subspace. Compare the Alexandroff com
pactiﬁcation (Y −Z)
and the quotient space Y/Z. Are they homeomorphic? Prove it or give a counterexample. If
it’s true, is the LCH condition necessary? If it’s false, can you add conditions on Z and Y so that it will be true?
Exercise 37. — Describe the Alexandroff compactiﬁcations of the following spaces in terms of more familiar spaces.
(37.1) R
n
.
(37.2) A discrete space.
(37.3) The subspace ¦(n, x)  n ∈ Zx ∈ R] ⊂R
2
.
(37.4) Q with the subspace topology.
CHAPTER 5
COUNTABILITY AND SEPARATION
5.1. Taxonomy of separation
Deﬁnition 5.1.1. — Suppose X a space. Then two points x, y ∈ X are topologically distinguishable if they do not
have the same collection of open neighborhoods. Otherwise, the points are said to be topologically indistinguishable.
Exercise 38. — Observe that for any space X, if x, y ∈ X topologically distinguishable points, then x (= y. Give an
example to show that the converse need not hold.
Deﬁnition 5.1.2. — Suppose X a space. Then a neighborhood of a subset A⊂ X is a set containing whose interior
contains A.
Deﬁnition 5.1.3. — Suppose X a space, and suppose A, B ⊂X two subspaces of X.
(5.1.3.1) The sets Aand B are said to be separated if both A∩B and A∩B are empty.
(5.1.3.2) The sets A and B are said to be separated by neighborhoods if there exists disjoint neighborhoods U and V
and Aand B, respectively.
(5.1.3.3) The sets Aand B are said to be separated by closed neighborhoods there exists disjoint closed neighborhoods
U and V and Aand B, respectively.
(5.1.3.4) The sets A and B are said to be separated by a function if there exists a continuous map f : X
[0, 1]
such that f 
A
=0 and f 
B
=1.
(5.1.3.5) The sets A and B are said to be precisely separated by a function if there exists a continuous map f :
X
[0, 1] such that A= f
−1
¦0] and B = f
−1
¦1].
5.1.4. — Suppose X a space, and suppose A, B ⊂ X. It is easy to see that each of these conditions follows from the
next.
(5.1.4.1) Aand B are separated.
(5.1.4.2) Aand B are separated by neighborhoods.
(5.1.4.3) Aand B are separated by closed neighborhoods.
(5.1.4.4) Aand B are separated by a function.
(5.1.4.5) Aand B are precisely separated by a function.
Deﬁnition 5.1.5. — Suppose X a space. Then we introduce the Trennungsaxiome.
T
0
One says that X is Kolmogoroff or T
0
if any two distinct points are topologically distinguishable.
T
1
One says that X is T
1
if any two distinct points are separated.
T
2
One says that X is Hausdorff or T
2
if any two distinct points are separated by neighborhoods.
T
2
1
2
One says that X is Urysohn or T
2
1
2
if any two points are separated by closed neighborhoods.
T
3
One says that X is regular Hausdorff or T
3
if it is T
0
and if any closed subset Z ⊂ X and any point x / ∈ Z are
separated by neighborhoods.
T
3
1
2
One says that X is Tychonoff or T
3
1
2
if it is T
0
and if any closed subset Z ⊂X and any point x / ∈ Z are separated
by a function.
32 CHAPTER 5. COUNTABILITY AND SEPARATION
T
4
One says that X is normal Hausdorff or T
4
if it is T
1
and if any two closed subsets can be separated by
neighborhoods.
T
5
One says that X is completely normal Hausdorff or T
5
if it is T
1
and if any two separated sets are separated by
neighborhoods.
T
6
One says that X is perfectly normal Hausdorff or T
6
if it is T
1
and if any two closed sets are precisely separated
by a function.
5.1.6. — For any space X, topological indistinguishability is an equivalence relation on the points of X. The quo
tient space under this equivalence relation is the Kolmogoroff quotient KX of X. This space is automatically Kol
mogoroff. This is frequently done in analysis.
Lemma 5.1.7. — The following are equivalent for a space X.
(5.1.7.1) X is T
1
.
(5.1.7.2) X is T
0
, and any two topologially distinguishable points are separated.
(5.1.7.3) Points of X are closed.
(5.1.7.4) Every ﬁnite set in X is closed.
Theorem 5.1.8. — For any i , j ∈ ¦0, 1, 2, 2
1
2
, 3, 3
1
2
, 4, 5, 6], if i ≤ j , then any T
j
space is also T
i
.
Example 5.1.9. — Let us convince ourselves that these conditions are distinct.
(5.1.9.1) You have already given an example of a space that is not T
0
.
(5.1.9.2) The Sierpi´ nski space Σ
0
is T
0
but not T
1
.
(5.1.9.3) The coﬁnite topology on an inﬁnite set is T
1
but not T
2
.
(5.1.9.4) Let X =¦(x, y) ∈ Q
2
 y ≥0], and ﬁx an irrational number θ. Topologize this set in the following manner:
for any point (x, y) ∈ X, and any >0, let
N
(x, y) =¦(x, y)] ∪
¸
x +
y
θ
−, x +
y
θ
+
∪
x −
y
θ
−, x −
y
θ
+
∩Q
.
,
and contemplate the topology generated by these sets; the sets N
(x, y) form a base for this topology. The
closure of each basic neighborhood N
(x, y) contains the union of four strips of slope ±θ extending from
the intervals (x +
y
θ
−, x +
y
θ
+) and (x −
y
θ
−, x −
y
θ
+). Hence the closures of every two open sets
intersect. This is a T
2
space that is not T
2
1
2
.
(5.1.9.5) Let H be the upper halfplane ¦(x, y) ∈ R
2
 y ≥ 0]. Topologize this set in the following manner. Begin
with all the open sets in the set P =¦(x, y) ∈ R
2
 y >0], and add in sets of the form¦ p] ∪(U ∩P), where
p =(x, 0), and U is an open neighborhood of p in the topology on R
2
. This is a topology on H; and it is
not difﬁcult to see that it is T
2
1
2
. However, the complement of a neighborhood of p = (0, 0) intersects the
closure of every neighborhood of p. So H is not T
3
.
(5.1.9.6) The Tychonoff corkscrew is the standard example of a space that is T
3
but not T
3
1
2
, but it’s an absurd space
that just makes you sorry you ever tried to contemplate it. Here’s one that’s slightly simpler (though
still pretty absurd), due to A. B. Raha. Let’s call it the Raha space. For every even integer n, set T
n
:=
¦n] ×(−1, 1), and let X
1
=
¸
n even
T
n
. Now let (t
k
)
k≥1
be an increasing sequence of positive real numbers
converging to 1. For every odd integer n, set T
n
:=
¸
k≥1
¦(x, y) ∈ R
2
 (x − n)
2
+ y
2
= t
2
k
], and let
X
2
=
¸
n odd
T
n
. Now let X = ¦a, b] ∪
¸
n∈Z
T
n
. Topologize X so that: (1) every point of X
2
except the
points (n, t
k
) are isolated; (2) a neighborhood of (n, t
k
) consists of all but ﬁnitely many elements of ¦(x, y) ∈
R
2
 (x −n)
2
+y
2
= t
2
k
]; (3) a neighborhood of a point (n, y) ∈ X
1
consists of all but a ﬁnite number of
points of ¦(z, y)  n −1 < z < n +1] ∩(T
n−1
∪T
n
); (4) a neighborhood of a is a set U
c
containing a and all
points of X
1
∪X
2
with xcoordinate greater than a number c; (5) a neighborhood of b is a set V
d
containing
b and all points of X
1
∪X
2
with xcoordinate less than a number d. This is a space that is T
3
, but every
continuous map f : X
R has the property that f (a) = f (b), so it is not T
3
1
2
.
(5.1.9.7) Consider the space Map(R, R) of all maps R
R with the topology of pointwise convergence. This
space is T
3
1
2
but not T
4
.
5.2. NORMALITY, URYSOHN’S LEMMA, AND THE TIETZE EXTENSION THEOREM 33
(5.1.9.8) The Tychonoff plank is the space P :=(ω+1) ×(ω
1
+1). It is compact and Hausdorff, and hence it is T
4
.
It is not, however T
5
, because the space P −¦(ω, ω
1
)] is not normal. (So you walk the plank . . . Get it? It’s
clever.)
(5.1.9.9) Suppose X an uncountable set, and suppose x ∈ X. Then we have the variant on the particular point
topology, which is called the Fort space topology. The closed sets are declared to be those sets V such that
either V is ﬁnite or x ∈ V. Then it is simple to verify that X is T
5
, and a short argument shows it cannot
be T
6
.
The moral of the story is not, of course, to memorize exotic counterexamples. The point is to realize that there
are examples that prevent the reversal of any of the implications T
j
⇒T
i
for i ≤ j . Also, in each case the example
listed is the simplest one I could ﬁnd. This suggests something interesting: the differences between T
2
1
2
and T
2
and
T
3
is pretty small, as is the difference between T
3
1
2
and T
3
. However, the difference between T
4
and T
3
1
2
is pretty
signiﬁcant, contrary to what might have been your expectation. This shows us two relatively bright lines separating
the “easy” separation axioms T
0
−T
1
fromthe “midrange” separation axioms T
2
−T
3
1
2
, and separating the “midrange”
axioms from the “hard” separation axioms T
4
−T
6
.
5.1.10. — There is another condition, called sobriety, that is better suited to applications in algebraic geometry.
Deﬁnition 5.1.11. — A space X is said to be irreducible (or hyperconnected) if no two nonempty open subsets of X
are disjoint.
Exercise 39. — Show that the following are equivalent for a space X.
(39.1) X is irreducible.
(39.2) Every nonempty open set of X is dense.
(39.3) X cannot be written as the union of two proper nonempty closed subsets.
(39.4) The interior of every proper closed subset is empty.
Deﬁnition 5.1.12. — A point of a space X is said to be generic if it is dense in X.
Deﬁnition 5.1.13. — A space X is said to be sober if every irreducible closed subspace Z ⊂ X has a unique generic
point.
5.1.14. — Every Hausdorff space is sober, and every sober space is Kolmogoroff, but there is no comparison be
tween sobriety and T
1
.
Exercise
40. — Suppose X and Y sober spaces, and consider the posets (Op(X), ⊂) and (Op(Y), ⊂). Show that if
(Op(X), ⊂) and (Op(Y), ⊂) are isomorphic as posets, then X and Y are homeomorphic.
5.2. Normality, Urysohn’s lemma, and the Tietze extension theorem
Deﬁnition 5.2.1. — A space X is said to be normal if disjoint closed sets have disjoint neighborhoods.
5.2.2. — A normal T
1
space is normal Hausdorff, or T
4
. The results of this section do not require the T
1
property,
so we do not include it in our deﬁnition.
Lemma 5.2.3. — Suppose D ⊂ R
>0
a dense subset, and suppose that for each element t ∈ D, there is a subset F
t
of a set
X such that
(5.2.3.1) if t < s , then F
t
⊂ F
s
, and
(5.2.3.2) the sets F
t
cover X.
Then for any x ∈ X, let f (x) =inf¦t  x ∈ F
t
]. Then for any element s ∈ R, one has
¦x ∈ X  f (x) < s ] =
¸
¦F
t
 t ∈ D and t < s ]
and
¦x ∈ X  f (x) ≤ s ] =
¸
¦F
t
 t ∈ D and t > s ].
Proof. — An exercise in set theory (not to be handed in).
34 CHAPTER 5. COUNTABILITY AND SEPARATION
Lemma 5.2.4. — Suppose now X a space, and suppose D ⊂ R
>0
a dense subset. If for each element t ∈ D, there is an
open subset F
t
⊂X such that
(5.2.3.1) if t < s , then F
t
⊂ F
s
, and
(5.2.3.2) the sets F
t
cover X,
then the function f deﬁned by f (x) =inf¦t  x ∈ F
t
] is continuous.
Proof. — It’s enough to check that the inverse image of the sets (−∞, s ) and (−∞, s ] are open and closed (respec
tively) for every s ∈ R.
The previous lemma shows that the inverse images of sets of the ﬁrst kind, (−∞, s ), are the union of open sets,
hence open.
It now follows from the previous lemma that the inverse images of sets of the second kind, (−∞, s ], are closed
(and hence we are done) if the following equality obtains:
¸
¦F
t
 t ∈ D and t > s ] =
¸
¦F
t
 t ∈ D and t > s ].
It is clear that the ﬁrst set is contained in the second. On the other hand, for any t ∈ D with t > s , there is an
element r ∈ D with s < r < t , whence F
r
⊂ F
t
. This completes the proof.
Lemma 5.2.5 (Urysohn). — Suppose X a normal space, and suppose A and B two disjoint closed subsets of X. Then A
and B are separated by functions, i.e., there is a continuous map f : X
[0, 1] such that f 
A
=0 and f 
B
=1.
Proof. — We wish to apply the previous lemma with the set
D =¦x ∈ Q x = p2
−q
, where p, q ∈ N].
We deﬁne our sets F
t
for t ∈ D thus.
(5.2.5.1) If t >1, then let F
t
=X.
(5.2.5.2) Let F
1
=X −B.
(5.2.5.3) Let F
0
be an open set containing Asuch that F
0
is disjoint from B.
(5.2.5.4) For 0 < t < 1, we proceed by recursion. Write t = (2m +1)2
−n
and let F
t
be an open set containing
F
(2m)2
−n whose closure F
t
⊂ F
(2m+2)2
−n (by normality).
It is plain to see that the conditions of the previous lemma apply, and it constructs our continuous function f .
By construction, f 
A
=0 and f 
B
=1.
Theorem 5.2.6 (Tietze extension). — Suppose X is a normal space, and suppose A a closed subspace of X. Then any
continuous map A
[−1, 1] can be extended to a continuous map X
[−1, 1].
CHAPTER 6
METRIZATION THEOREMS
6.1. First and second countability
Deﬁnition 6.1.1. — Suppose X a space. Then X is said to satisfy the ﬁrst axiom of countability or to be ﬁrstcountable
if for every point x ∈ X there is a countable fundamental system of neighborhoods of x.
The space X is said to satisfy the second axiom of countability or to be secondcountable if the topology on X has
a countable base.
Lemma 6.1.2. — The second axiom of countability implies the ﬁrst.
Example 6.1.3. — The ordinal ω
1
(with the order topology) satisﬁes the ﬁrst but not the second axiom of count
ability, and the ordinal ω
1
+1 satisﬁes neither axiom of countability.
Lemma 6.1.4. — Any subspace of a ﬁrstcountable (respectively, secondcountable) space is ﬁrstcountable (resp., second
countable), as is any countable product of ﬁrstcountable (resp., secondcountable) spaces. Additionally, any continuous
open image of a secondcountable space is secondcountable.
Exercise 41. — Give an example demonstrating that an uncountable product of secondcountable spaces need not
be ﬁrstcountable.
Exercise 42. — Suppose X a ﬁrstcountable space. Show that for any subset A⊂ X, a point x ∈ X is contained in
the closure Aif and only if there is a sequence of points of Aconverging to x. Show also that a map f : X
Y to a
topological space Y is continuous if and only if, for any convergent sequence x
n
→x, the sequence f (x
n
) converges
to f (x). Finally, show that X is sequentially compact if and only if it is countably compact.
Example 6.1.5. — The real line R is second countable, as is any countable product of R with itself.
Exercise 43. — Suppose X a secondcountable space; show that the set Op(X) has cardinality not greater than
1
=#R (i.e., the cardinality of the continuum).
Deﬁnition 6.1.6. — A space X is said to be separable if it has a countable dense subset. A space X is said to be
Lindelöf if every open cover has a countable subcover.
Theorem 6.1.7. — Secondcountable spaces are both separable and Lindelöf.
Proof. — Suppose 0 =¦B
1
, B
2
, . . . ] a countable base for a space X.
We show ﬁrst that X is Lindelöf. Suppose ¹ an open covering of X. For every natural number j , select, if
possible, an element U
j
∈ ¹ containing B
j
. This deﬁnes a countable subset ¹
/
:=¦U
j
1
, U
j
2
, . . . ] ⊂¹ indexed by a
subset J ⊂N. I claim that this is a subcover. Indeed, for any point x ∈ X, an element U ∈ ¹ contains x, and so for
some j , we have x ∈ B
j
⊂ U. Hence j ∈ J , whence some U
j
∈ ¹
/
contains x.
Showing that X is separable is even easier. Simply select a point x
j
∈ B
j
for every j ∈ N. This set is dense.
(Why?)
36 CHAPTER 6. METRIZATION THEOREMS
Exercise 44. — Suppose X a metrizable space. Show that the following conditions are equivalent on X: (1) X
satisﬁes the second axiom of countability; (2) X is separable; and (3) X is Lindelöf. Check that the Sorgenfrey line
is ﬁrstcountable, separable, and Lindelöf, but not secondcountable.
Lemma 6.1.8 (Tychonoff). — Every T
3
Lindelöf space is T
4
.
Proof. — Suppose A and B disjoint closed subsets of X. Since X is regular, for any point a ∈ A there is a neighbor
hood of a whose closure fails to intersect B, and thus the family ¹ of open sets whose closures do not intersect B
cover A. Similarly, the family · of open sets whose closures do not intersect Acover B. Now we form a cover
¹ ∪· ∪¦X −(A∪B)]
of X.
It now follows from the Lindelöf property that there are countable subcovers ¦U
1
, U
2
, . . . ] ⊂ ¹ of A and
¦V
1
, V
2
, . . . ] ⊂· of B. Now set
U
/
r
:= U
r
−
¸
m≤r
V
m
and V
/
s
:=V
s
−
¸
m≤n
U
m
for every natural number r and s . One veriﬁes immediately that U
/
r
∩V
/
s
=∅for every pair (r, s ) of natural numbers,
and so
U =
¸
r ≥1
U
/
r
and V =
¸
s ≥1
V
/
s
are disjoint open neighborhoods of Aand B, respectively.
Exercise 45. — Show that any locally compact Hausdorff space is Tychonoff.
Example 6.1.9. — The product of two Lindelöf spaces need not be Lindelöf; indeed, the product of the Sorgenfrey
line with itself is the Sorgenfrey plane, which is not Lindelöf. Similarly, a subspace of a Lindelöf space need not be
Lindelöf.
6.2. Urysohn’s metrization theorem
Exercise
46. — Prove the following
Theorem 6.2.1 (Embedding). — A space is a Tychonoff space if and only if it is homeomorphic to a subspace of a cube
[0, 1]
A
for some set A.
Begin by proving the following
Lemma 6.2.2 (Embedding). — Suppose X a space, and suppose ¨ a family of continuous maps f : X
Y
f
(valued
in possibly many different spaces).
(6.2.2.1) The evaluation map is a continuous map E : X
¸
f ∈¨
Y
f
.
(6.2.2.2) The evaluation map E is open if for any closed subset A⊂X and any point x ∈ X −A, there exists an element
f ∈ ¨ such that f (x) / ∈ f (A).
(6.2.2.3) The evaluation map E is injective if and only if for any two distinct point x, y ∈ X, there exists an element
f ∈ ¨ such that f (x) (= f (y).
Theorem 6.2.3 (Urysohn metrization). — The following are equivalent for a space X.
(6.2.3.1) X is second countable and T
3
.
(6.2.3.2) X is homeomorphic to a subspace of the Hilbert cube [0, 1]
N
.
(6.2.3.3) X is separable and metrizable.
6.3. THE BING–NAGATA–SMIRNOV METRIZATION THEOREM 37
Proof. — It is not hard to see that the Hilbert cube is separable and metrizable; hence so is any subspace. (Why?)
Any metrizable space is T
3
, and any separable metrizable space is second countable. (Check this!)
Hence it remains to show that a T
3
space that satisﬁes the second axiom of countability is homeomorphic to a
subspace of the Hilbert cube. Using the embedding lemma above, it is enough to construct a countable family ¨ of
continuous functions X
[0, 1] such that for any closed subset A⊂ X and any point x ∈ X −A, there exists an
element f ∈ ¨ such that f (x) / ∈ f (A). Suppose 0 a countable base for the topology of X, and set
· :=¦(U, V) ∈ 0×0  U ⊂V].
One sees that · is a countable set. Since X is T
3
and Lindelöf, it is also T
4
by Tychonoff’s lemma. So, using
Urysohn’s lemma, choose, for any (U, V) ∈ ·, a Urysohn function f
(U,V)
: X
[0, 1] such that f 
U
= 0 and
f 
X−V
=1; set
¨ :=¦ f
(U,V)
 (U, V) ∈ ·].
This is a countable set of functions, and it remains to show that it has the desired properties. Suppose A⊂X a closed
subset, and suppose x ∈ X −A. We may now choose a basic open V ∈ 0 such that x ∈ U ⊂X −Aand a basic open
U ∈ 0 such that x ∈ U ⊂V. (Why?) Since (U, V) ∈ ·, the corresponding function f
(U,V)
does the job.
Exercise 47. — Fill in the details I skipped in the proof of the Urysohn metrization theorem, and write up a com
plete proof.
6.3. The Bing–Nagata–Smirnov metrization theorem
Deﬁnition 6.3.1. — A family ¹ of subspaces of a topological space X is said to be locally ﬁnite if every point is
contained in a neighborhood that intersects only ﬁnitely many elements of ¹. One says that ¹ is discrete if every
point is contained in a neighborhood that intersects only one element of ¹.
Afamily · of subspaces of a space X is said to be σlocally ﬁnite (respectively, σlocally discrete) if it can be written
as the union of a countable collection of locally ﬁnite (resp., locally discrete) families of subspaces of X.
Theorem 6.3.2 (Bing–Nagata–Smirnov metrization). — The following are equivalent for a space X.
(6.3.2.1) X is metrizable.
(6.3.2.2) X is T
3
, and there is a σlocally ﬁnite base for X.
(6.3.2.3) X is T
3
, and there is a σlocally discrete base for X.
Outline of proof. — First, observe that the ﬁnal condition implies the penultimate condition. The ﬁrst two lemmas
here will show that the second condition implies the ﬁrst.
Lemma 6.3.3. — A T
3
space whose topology has a σlocally ﬁnite base is T
4
.
Lemma 6.3.4. — A T
3
space whose topology has a σlocally ﬁnite base is metrizable.
Lemma 6.3.5. — Any open cover of a metrizable space has a σdiscrete open reﬁnement.
It is now an immediate consequence that a metrizable space has a σdiscrete base.
6.3.6. — One question that might naturally arise here is: so? I can show that if a space satisﬁes some abstract
conditions, then it can be given a metric that gives rise to its topology. Let’s list some of the purely topological
corollaries of the metrizability of a space X.
(6.3.6.1) A subset U ⊂X is open if and only if no sequence of X −U converges to a point of U.
(6.3.6.2) Dually, for any subspace A ⊂ X, a point x ∈ X is a member of the closure A if and only if there is a
sequence of points in Athat converge to A.
(6.3.6.3) For any space Y, function f : X
Y is continuous if and only if, for any convergent sequence x
n
→x
in X, the sequence f (x
n
) → f (x).
(6.3.6.4) Asubspace A⊂X is compact if and only if it is countably compact, if and only if it is sequentially compact.
(6.3.6.5) X is T
6
.
(6.3.6.6) X is paracompact, i.e., every open cover of X has a locally ﬁnite open reﬁnement.
ENTR’ACTE
CHAPTER 7
SHEAF THEORY
7.1. Presheaves
Example 7.1.1. — Let us begin right away with a motivational example. Suppose X is a topological space, and let’s
contemplate, for any open set U ∈ Op(X), the set
O
cts
X
(U) :=¦ f : U
R  f is continuous].
It is not difﬁcult to see that if I have a continuous function f on U, then I may restrict it to a continuous function
f 
V
on any open subset V ⊂ U. This deﬁnes a restriction map
ρ
V⊂U
: O
cts
X
(U)
O
cts
X
(V) .
I can, of course, be rather silly in how I restrict: I might have taken V = U; then my restriction map is simply the
identity.
On the other hand, what if I consider three open sets W ⊂ V ⊂ U in X? If I restrict a function f on U to a
function on V, and thence to a function on W, I see that I get the same answer as if I had restricted f all the way
from U to W. That is, we get an equality of maps
ρ
W⊂V
◦ ρ
V⊂U
=ρ
W⊂U
.
We can now attempt to study, not the individual sets O
cts
X
(U) or the restriction maps ρ
V⊂U
, but the entire system
made up of these:
O
cts
X
:=
(O
cts
X
(U))
U∈Op(X)
, (ρ
V⊂U
)
V⊂U∈Op(X)
.
Example 7.1.2. — There was nothing particularly special about the topological space R in the above example. I
could try the same trick with any “target” topological space Y: for any open set U ∈ Op(X), write
O
Y
X
(U) :=¦ f : U
Y  f is continuous].
Again, it’s pretty clear that we can restrict continuous maps, and so we have a similar structure
O
Y
X
:=
(O
Y
X
(U))
U∈Op(X)
, (ρ
V⊂U
)
V⊂U∈Op(X)
.
Example 7.1.3. — More interestingly, suppose p : Y
X a continuous map. Then we can make a similar deﬁni
tion: for any open set U ∈ Op(X), set
Γ( p)(U) =Γ(X/Y)(U) :=¦s : U
Y  s is continuous and p ◦ s =id
U
].
We say that Γ(X/Y)(U) is the set of sections of p over U.
Deﬁnition 7.1.4. — Suppose X a topological space. Then a presheaf ¨ on X is the following data:
(7.1.4.A) for any open set U ∈ Op(X), a set ¨(U), and
(7.1.4.B) for any open sets U, V ∈ Op(X) with V ⊂ U, a restriction map ρ
V⊂U
: ¨(V)
¨(U) .
These data are subject to the following conditions.
(7.1.4.1) For any open set U ∈ Op(X), the map ρ
U⊂U
is the identity map on ¨(U).
42 CHAPTER 7. SHEAF THEORY
(7.1.4.2) For any three open sets U, V, W ∈ Op(X) with W ⊂V ⊂ U, we have
ρ
W⊂V
◦ ρ
V⊂U
=ρ
W⊂U
: ¨(U)
¨(W) .
In other words, the data of a presheaf is a pair
¨ :=
(¨(U))
U∈Op(X)
, (ρ
V⊂U
)
V⊂U∈Op(X)
,
and these data are subject to the axioms ρ
U⊂U
=id, and ρ
W⊂V
◦ ρ
V⊂U
=ρ
W⊂U
.
For an open set U ∈ Op(X), an element s ∈ ¨(U) is sometimes called a section of ¨ over U.
7.1.5. — This sort of pattern appears all the time: to any “object” of some collection (in this case Op(X)), you
assign a set, and to any “relation” between two objects (in this case set inclusion), you assign a map between the
corresponding sets. Sometimes that map goes in the same direction as your relation; sometimes (as here), the map
goes in the opposite direction.
When you have these data, then you want to impose some conditions. These conditions always amount to the
same thing: when the relation is trivial (U ⊂ U, for example), the corresponding map has to be the identity, and
composing relations (W ⊂V ⊂ U) gives rise to compositions of maps.
These data, with these conditions, are collectively called a functor in general. When the maps go in the same
direction as the relation, then the functor is said to be covariant; when the maps go in the opposite direction, the
functor is said to be contravariant. Thus presheaves are particular kinds of functors. We won’t say more about this
here, but you can expect functors to appear again in your mathematics education!
7.1.6. — One of the most challenging aspects of modern mathematics for beginners is to maintain a clear idea
which of a list of bullet points are data, and which are conditions. In the case of a presheaf ¨ on a space X, it’s a
little more subtle than anything we’ve seen so far: the data are the choice of all the sets ¨(U) and the choice of all
the restriction maps ρ
V⊂U
: ¨(V)
¨(U) . It isn’t enough to say that there are suitable maps out there; one has
to specify them as part of the information of a presheaf.
Example 7.1.7. — Our deﬁnition is general enough to allow for some “degenerate” examples of presheaves. For
any set S, one may form the constant presheaf ´
S
at S, which assigns to any open set U the set S, and to any open
sets U, V ∈ Op(X) with V ⊂ U the identity map on S.
Example 7.1.8. — It’s not difﬁcult to see that for any topological space X, the objects O
Y
X
(and hence the object
O
cts
X
) are presheaves on X.
Example 7.1.9. — Likewise, for any continuous map p : Y
X , the object Γ(Y/X) is a presheaf on X. Let’s
contemplate this example in a few particular cases.
(7.1.9.1) Suppose p is a homeomorphism. Then Γ(Y/X) is not so very interesting. For any open set U ∈ Op(X),
there is exactly one section of p over U. It’s not hard to see that, in this case, Γ(Y/X) is the constant
presheaf on one point.
(7.1.9.2) Now if p is not a homeomorphism, but a local homeomorphism (so that every point of Y in contained
in a neighborhood V such that the restriction of p to V is open and injective), then the story becomes
a lot more interesting. First, consider the folding map ∇ : S
1
S
1
S
1
; in this case Γ(∇) is somewhat
more interesting: to any interval (a, b) it assigns a twopoint set. But if the open set is more complicated,
the value of Γ(∇) is more complicated as well. If, for example, U is the disjoint union of two intervals,
Γ(∇)(U) is a four point set. And in general, Γ(∇)(V) has cardinal 2
n
, where n is the number of connected
components of V. Note, in particular, that Γ(∇)(S
1
) is a twopoint set also.
(7.1.9.3) But now consider the map p : S
1
S
1
given by ξ
ξ
2
(with respect to complex multiplication,
thinking of S
1
⊂C). This too is a local homeomorphism, but observe that the presheaf Γ( p) has no global
sections, i.e., Γ( p)(S
1
) = ∅. One way to think of this is to think that there is no single, consistent way to
extract square roots of complex numbers. This is quite striking: the ﬁber over each point of p is two points,
just as in the previous example. But the presheaf Γ( p) has shown us that there is something nontrivial about
our map p.
7.1. PRESHEAVES 43
(7.1.9.4) Here’s yet another example in the same vein: consider the exponential map exp : C
C
×
:=C−¦0].
We can contemplate the presheaf Γ(exp), and we see immediately that over a sufﬁciently small open neigh
borhood U of any point in C
×
, there are countably inﬁnitely many elements of Γ(exp)(U); these corre
spond to the branches of the logarithm: if we write a complex number z = r exp(i θ), then we might write
log(z) = logr  +i θ; however, this is ambiguous, I can add 2kπ to θ. Once again, however, one sees that
one cannot make a consistent choice of a branch of the logarithm: there are no global sections of Γ(exp)!
Example 7.1.10. — Suppose X a space, and suppose A∈ Op(X) a particular ﬁxed open set. We have an associated
presheaf h
A
deﬁned by the rule
h
A
(U) :=
if U ⊂A
∅ else.
In this case, the restriction maps are forced on us: for any open sets V, U ∈ Op(X) with V ⊂ U, there is necessarily
only one map h
A
(U)
h
A
(V) . Observe that we cannot expect this in general: ordinarily, we’ll have to put some
effort into describing the restriction maps!
This gives us a way (in fact, a very powerful way) of “representing” open sets A ∈ Op(X) as presheaves; conse
quently, the presheaves h
A
are known as representable presheaves, or presheaves represented by A∈ Op(X).
Exercise 48. — Suppose X a space, A ∈ Op(X) an open subset. Suppose I attempted to deﬁne a presheaf h
A
the
other way around from our representable friend:
h
A
(U) :=
∅ if U ⊂A
else.
What goes wrong here? Why does this not deﬁne a presheaf?
Example 7.1.11. — Suppose S is a set, and suppose X a space with a distinguished point x ∈ X. Then the skyscraper
presheaf at x with value S is deﬁned by the rule
S
x
(U) :=
S if x ∈ U
else.
7.1.12. — We can also ask for additional structure on a presheaf ¨. If all the sets ¨(U) are equipped with a group
structure, and all the restriction maps ρ
V⊂U
are group homomorphisms, then the presheaf ¨ is said to be a presheaf
in groups. Similarly, if all the sets ¨(U) are equipped with an abelian group (respectively, ring, vector space, algebra,
...) structure, and all the restriction maps ρ
V⊂U
are group (resp., ring, vector space, algebra, ...) homomorphisms,
then the presheaf ¨ is said to be a presheaf in abelian groups (resp., rings, vector spaces, algebras, ...). The key point
here is that both the sets ¨(U) and the maps ρ
V⊂U
carry this added structure.
Example 7.1.13. — Suppose X =R
n
with the euclidean topology. Then for any open set U ⊂R
n
, we can contem
plate the set
O
an
X
(U) =(
ω
(U) :=¦ f : U
R  f is analytic].
(Recall that a function f on an open set U is analytic if it is inﬁnitely differentiable and, for any point x ∈ U, there
is a neighborhood of x in U such that the Taylor series of f at x converges to f . This is surely a presheaf as well;
moreover, since the sum, difference, and product of any two analytic functions is analytic, we can see that O
an
X
is a
sheaf of rings (even of Ralgebras).
Deﬁnition 7.1.14. — A morphism or simply map of presheaves φ: ¨
¼ is the following data: for any open set
U ∈ Op(X), a map (called the component of φ)
φ
U
: ¨(U)
¼(U) ,
44 CHAPTER 7. SHEAF THEORY
subject to the following condition: for any open sets U, V ∈ Op(X) with V ⊂ U, the following diagram commutes:
¨(U)
ρ
V⊂U
φ
U
¼(U)
ρ
V⊂U
¨(V)
φ
V
¼(V),
that is, for any section s ∈ ¨(U), one has
ρ
V⊂U
(φ
U
(s )) =φ
V
(ρ
V⊂U
(s )).
Given morphisms of presheaves φ: ¨
¼ and ψ : ¼
· , we can form the composite ψ◦ φ: ¨
·
in the following manner: for any open set U ∈ Op(X), set
(ψ◦ φ)
U
=ψ
U
◦ φ
U
.
This deﬁnes a morphism of presheaves ¨
· as desired.
A morphism of presheaves φ : ¨
¼ is said to be an isomorphism if there exists a morphism of sheaves
ψ: ¼
¨ such that both ψ◦ φ=id and φ◦ φ=id.
Exercise 49. — (49.1) Check that our description of the composite of two morphisms of presheaves is indeed again
a morphism of presheaves.
(49.2) Verify that if we have three morphisms of presheaves φ: ¨
¼ , ψ: ¼
· , and χ : ·
· , then
one has
(χ ◦ ψ) ◦ φ=χ ◦ (ψ◦ φ).
(49.3) Finally, show that a morphism of presheaves φ: ¨
¼ is an isomorphism if and only if, for any open set
U ∈ Op(X), the components φ
U
are all bijections.
Deﬁnition 7.1.15. — We say that a morphism ¨
¼ of presheaves is injective if for every open set U ∈ Op(X),
the corresponding map ¨(U)
¼(U) is injective. (We’ll need to be a little more cautious when we deﬁne sur
jectivity.)
Notation 7.1.16. — For any space X, and any presheaves ¨ and ¼, write Mor
X
(¨, ¼) for the set of all morphisms
of presheaves ¨
¼ .
Exercise 50. — Show that for any space X, and any pair of open sets U, V ∈ Op(X) with V ⊂ U, there is a unique
morphism of presheaves h
V
h
U
.
Exercise
51. — Show that for any space X, any open set U ∈ Op(X), and any presheaf ¨ on X, there is a natural
bijection
Φ
U
: ¨(U)
∼
=Mor
X
(h
U
, ¨).
This word natural gets thrown around a lot. In this case, we can say exactly what we mean by it: for any pair of
open sets U, V ∈ Op(X) with V ⊂ U, we have our unique morphism of presheaves j : h
V
h
U
. Composition
with j induces a map −◦ j : Mor
X
(h
U
, ¨)
Mor
X
(h
V
, ¨) . (How?) For an extra challenge, show that in this
case, the following diagram of sets commutes:
¨(U)
ρ
U⊂V
Φ
U
Mor
X
(h
U
, ¨)
−◦j
¨(V)
Φ
V
Mor
X
(h
V
, ¨).
Exercise 52. — Show that for any two spaces X and Y, the presheaf O
Y
X
of local Yvalued functions is isomorphic
to the presheaf Γ(Y ×X/X) of local sections of the projection map Y ×X
X .
7.3. SHEAVES 45
7.2. Stalks
Deﬁnition 7.2.1. — Suppose X a space, and suppose ¨ a presheaf on X. Then for any point x ∈ X, consider the
set
¸
x∈U∈Op(X)
¨(U) =¦(U, s )  x ∈ U ∈ Op(X), s ∈ ¨(U)].
On this set we may impose an equivalence relation ∼ in the following manner. For any two elements (U, s ) and
(V, t ), we say that (U, s ) ∼ (V, t ) if and only if there exists an open neighborhood W ⊂ U ∩V of x such that
ρ
W⊂U
(s ) =ρ
W⊂V
(t ). Now deﬁne the stalk of ¨ at x to be the set
¨
x
:=
¸
¸
¸
x∈U∈Op(X)
¨(U)
∼.
The equivalence class of a section s under this equivalence relation is called the germ of s , and is dented s
x
.
Example 7.2.2. — Suppose p : Y
X a covering space, i.e., a surjective continuous map with the property that
every point x ∈ X is contained in an open neighborhood U such that p
−1
U is a disjoint union
¸
α∈Λ
V
α
of open
subsets V
α
⊂ Y such that p
V
α
: V
α
U is a homeomorphism. It is easy to see that such a map must be a local
homeomorphism, but here we have required much more: we have required that we can choose the neighborhoods
of various points in a ﬁber in a consistent manner.
For any point x ∈ X, we can compute the stalk Γ(Y/X)
x
easily: there exists an open neighborhood U of x whose
inverse image is homeomorphic (via p) to a disjoint union of copies of U. But now it’s easy to see that a section of
Γ(Y/X) over this open set U is completely determined by where it sends out point x. For every subneighborhood
V ⊂ U, we’ll be in the same situation, so the equivalence relation doesn’t change anything from this point on as the
neighborhoods get smaller. Hence the stalk Γ(Y/X)
x
is simply the ﬁber p
−1
(x) again.
We will undertake a more systematic study of coverings spaces very soon.
Exercise 53. — Suppose p : Y
X any continuous map. Is it true that for any point x ∈ X, the stalk Γ(Y/X)
x
is the ﬁber p
−1
(x)? Prove or give a counterexample.
Example 7.2.3. — Let us consider the case of two topological spaces X and Y, and let us consider the presheaf O
Y
X
of local continuous functions on X valued in Y. What is the stalk of this presheaf at a point x ∈ X? It’s difﬁcult to say
in familiar language. The elements of O
Y
X,x
are equivalence classes of continuous functions deﬁned in a neighborhood
of x, where we declare two such functions to be equivalent when there is a neighborhood of x on which they agree.
These equivalence classes are known as germs of continuous functions.
Example 7.2.4. — Suppose X =R
n
, and consider the presheaf O
an
X
of local analytic functions on X. For any point
x ∈ X, the stalk O
an
X,x
is the set of all power series at x with a positive radius of convergence. This is a ring, sometimes
denoted R¦x
1
, x
2
, . . . , x
n
].
7.3. Sheaves
Example 7.3.1. — To motivate the sheaf axiom, let’s brieﬂy recall a little lemma we proved in Exercise 18 some
time back. If X is a space with an open covering · , and if for any V ∈ · we are given a continuous function
f
V
: V
Y with the property that for any elements V, W ∈ · , one has
f
V

V∩W
= f
W

V∩W
: V ∩W
Y ,
then there exists a unique continuous map f : X
Y such that for any V ∈ · ,
f 
V
= f
V
: V
Y .
7.3.2. — Suppose ¨ a presheaf on a space X. For any open set U, and any cover ¦U
α
]
α∈Λ
of U, we can contemplate
the following diagram:
(7.3.2.1)
¨(U)
¸
α∈Λ
¨(U
α
)
¸
β,γ∈Λ
¨(U
β
∩U
γ
).
46 CHAPTER 7. SHEAF THEORY
Let us describe these maps in more detail. The ﬁrst map is the assignment
¨(U)
¸
α∈Λ
¨(U
α
)
s
ρ
U
α
⊂U
(s )
α∈Λ
.
The other two maps are the assignments
¸
α∈Λ
¨(U
α
)
¸
β,γ∈Λ
¨(U
β
∩U
γ
)
(s
α
)
α∈Λ
ρ
U
β
∩U
γ
⊂U
β
(s
β
)
β,γ∈Λ
and
¸
α∈Λ
¨(U
α
)
¸
β,γ∈Λ
¨(U
β
∩U
γ
)
(s
α
)
α∈Λ
ρ
U
β
∩U
γ
⊂U
γ
(s
γ
)
β,γ∈Λ
We can ask whether the diagram (7.3.2.1) is an equalizer, i.e., whether the map ¨(U)
¸
¨(U
α
) is
an injective map whose image consists of exactly those elements that have the same values under the maps
¸
¨(U
α
)
¸
¨(U
β
∩U
γ
)
. In other words, (7.3.2.1) is an equalizer if and only if the following condition is
satisﬁed: for every α ∈ Λ there is a section s
α
∈ ¨(U
α
) such that for any pair β, γ ∈ Λ, the restrictions
ρ
U
β
∩U
γ
⊂U
β
(s
β
) =ρ
U
β
∩U
γ
⊂U
γ
(s
γ
)
coincide, then there exists a unique section s ∈ ¨(U) such that ρ
U
α
⊂U
(s ) = s
α
.
Deﬁnition 7.3.3. — A presheaf ¨ on a space X is said to be a sheaf if, for any open set U ∈ Op(X) and any open
cover ¦U
α
]
α∈Λ
of U, the diagram
¨(U)
¸
α∈Λ
¨(U
α
)
¸
β,γ∈Λ
¨(U
β
∩U
γ
).
is an equalizer in the sense above.
7.3.4. — This is a little tricky, so let’s discuss this. A sheaf ¨ on a space X is a presheaf that has a powerful localto
global property.
To illustrate this localtoglobal property, consider the case of an open cover with just two open sets. Suppose
that U ⊂X is an open set, which we have written as a union U =V ∪W for some open sets V, W ⊂X. Then the
sheaf condition for ¨ says that if we are given sections s
V
∈ ¨(V) and s
W
∈ ¨(W) that match up on V ∩W (so
that ρ
V∩W⊂V
(s
V
) = ρ
V∩W⊂W
(s
W
)), then there is one and only one set s ∈ ¨(U) who restrictions to V and to W
are s
V
and s
W
, respectively.
What does this say? It says that sections glue uniquely. In other words, specifying a section of ¨ over an open set
U ⊂X is the same as specifying a compatible family of sections of ¨ over each element of an open cover of ¨.
Example 7.3.5. — Our ﬁrst example of this section shows that, indeed, for any two topological spaces X and Y,
the presheaf O
Y
X
is a sheaf, called the sheaf of local continuous functions on X with values in Y.
Example 7.3.6. — More generally, one can see that for any continuous map p : Y
X , the associated presheaf
Γ(Y/X) is indeed a sheaf, called the sheaf of local sections of p.
Example 7.3.7. — For an space X, any point x ∈ X, and any set S, the skyscraper presheaf S
x
is a sheaf as well.
Exercise 54. — Show that for any sheaf ¨, the map
¨(U)
¸
x∈U
¨
x
is injective. Give a counterexample to show that this is not true of presheaves.
Lemma 7.3.8. — Suppose ¨ a sheaf on a space X. Then ¨(∅) =.
Lemma 7.3.9. — Suppose ¨ and ¼ sheaves on a space X. Then if f , g : ¨
¼ are two morphisms such that for
every point x ∈ X, the induced maps f
x
, g
x
: ¨
x
¼
x
on stalks coincide (so that f
x
= g
x
), then f = g.
Proof. — This follows immediately from the previous exercise.
7.4. THE ESPACE ÉTALÉ AND SHEAFIFICATION 47
Proposition 7.3.10. — Suppose ¨ and ¼ sheaves on a space X. Then a morphism φ: ¨
¼ is an isomorphism, or
an injection, if and only if, for every point x ∈ X, the map on stalks ¨
x
¼
x
is so.
Proof. — The injectivity statement follows from the fact that if the composite of two maps is injective, then the
ﬁrst of the two must also be injective.
Now suppose U ∈ Op(X) any open set, and consider the component φ
U
: ¨(U)
¼(U) . The claim is that
it is surjective. To demonstrate this, suppose s ∈ ¼(U) a section. For every point x ∈ U, the element (U, s ) ∈ ¼
x
has an inverse image in ¨
x
, i.e., for each point x ∈ U there is a pair (V
x
, t
x
), consisting of an open neighborhood
V
x
⊂ U of x along with a section t
x
∈ ¨(V
x
) such that φ
V
x
(t
x
) =ρ
V
x
⊂U
(s ). Since φ is injective, for any two points
x, y ∈ U, we have
ρ
V
x
∩V
y
⊂V
x
(t
x
) =ρ
V
x
∩V
y
⊂V
y
(t
y
).
The sheaf axiom applied to the open cover ¦V
x
 x ∈ U] of U now implies that there is a global section t ∈ ¨(U)
such that t
x
= ρ
V
x
⊂U
(t ). And now φ(t ) ∈ ¼(U) is the unique section whose restriction to any V
x
is φ
V
x
(t
x
) =
ρ
V
x
⊂U
(s ), namely, s itself!
Warning 7.3.11. — Note that what we have not said is that two sheaves ¨ and ¼, all of whose stalks are iso
morphic, are themselves isomorphic. This is false. We must have a morphism ¨
¼ inducing the stalkwise
isomorphism in order to make this conclusion. This sounds like a minor point, but it is extremely important.
Indeed, recall our two examples of double covers of the circle: we were given two local homeomorphisms ∇ :
S
1
S
1
S
1
and p : S
1
S
1
. The former map is simply the folding map, and the second is z
z
2
. We saw
that, while Γ(∇) was simply the constant sheaf on a two point set, Γ( p) was a more subtle object, with no global
sections. In this case, the stalk over any point x ∈ S
1
is always the same: simply two points. But the two sheaves
differ dramatically! The point is that there is no morphism of sheaves between Γ(∇) and Γ( p) inducing bijections
on the stalks. This situation is quite typical, and it’s one that sheaves are particularly welladapted to.
Exercise 55. — Suppose n a positive integer. Consider the continuous map p
n
: S
1
S
1
given by z
z
n
(where again we think of S
1
as embedded in C, where we may use complex multiplication). Consider also the
nfold folding map ∇
n
: S
1
S
1
· · · S
1
S
1
. Prove that Γ( p
n
) and Γ(∇
n
) are both sheaves, that their stalks at
any point are isomorphic, but the sheaves themselves are not isomorphic.
7.4. The espace étalé and sheaﬁﬁcation
Deﬁnition 7.4.1. — A continuous map p : Y
X is said to be a local homeomorphism if every point y ∈ Y is
contained in a neighborhood V such that p is open and injective.
7.4.2. — Suppose X a space and ¨ a presheaf on X. Consider the set
´
Et(¨) :=
¸
x∈X
¨
x
; there is an obvious map
p
¨
:
´
Et(¨)
X whose ﬁbers are precisely the stalks of ¨. For any open set U and any section s ∈ ¨(U), there
is a corresponding map σ
s
: U
´
Et(¨)
, x
s
x
, such that p ◦ s =id. (This is the origin of the term “section.”)
Deﬁnition 7.4.3. — Suppose X a space and ¨ a presheaf on X. The espace étalé of ¨ is the set
´
Et(¨) equipped with
the ﬁnest topology such that for any section s ∈ ¨(U), the corresponding map σ
s
: U
´
Et(¨)
is continuous.
That is, we declare a subset V ⊂
´
Et(¨) to be open if and only if, for any open set U ∈ Op(X) and any section
s ∈ ¨(U), the inverse image σ
−1
s
(V) is open in U.
Exercise 56. — Show that for any space X and any presheaf ¨ on X, the natural morphism p
¨
:
´
Et(¨)
X is
a local homeomorphism.
Exercise 57. — Suppose S a set, and suppose ¨
S
is the constant presheaf at S on a space X. Then show that the
éspace étalé of ¨
S
is the fold map ∇
(S)
: X
(S)
X , where X
(S)
is the Sfold disjoint union of X with itself:
X
(S)
:=
¸
s ∈S
X =X ×S
δ
.
48 CHAPTER 7. SHEAF THEORY
Lemma 7.4.4. — Suppose p : Y
X a local homeomorphism. Then the éspace étalé of the sheaf Γ(Y/X) is canoni
cally homeomorphic over X to Y. That is, there is a unique homeomorphism Y
´
Et(Γ(Y/X))
such that the diagram
´
Et(Γ(Y/X))
p
Γ(Y/X)
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
w
Y
p
·
X
commutes.
Proof. — Suppose s ∈
´
Et(Γ(Y/X)) a germ of a section near x ∈ X. Then its value w(s ) = s (x) at x is welldeﬁned.
This deﬁnes a map w :
´
Et(Γ(Y/X))
Y such that p ◦ w = p
Γ(Y/X)
.
In the other direction, suppose y ∈ Y, and suppose x = p(y). Then there exist open neighborhoods U of x
and V of y such that p restricts to a homeomorphism V
U ; denote by s : U
V its inverse, and deﬁne
v(y) ∈ Γ(Y/X)
x
as the germ of the section s . The class v(y) does not depend upon the choice of U or V. This
deﬁnes an inverse v : Y
´
Et(Γ(Y/X))
to the map w.
It remains to show that w is continuous and open. We leave this to the reader.
Deﬁnition 7.4.5. — Suppose X a space and ¨ a presheaf on X. The sheaﬁﬁcation of ¨ is the sheaf a¨ :=
Γ(
´
Et(¨)/X) of sections of the projection map p :
´
Et(¨)
X . The canonical morphismof presheaves ¨
a¨
that assigns to any section s ∈ ¨(U) the local section x
s
x
is called the unit morphism.
Proposition 7.4.6. — For any presheaf ¨ on a space X, the natural morphism ¨
a¨ induces an isomorphism on
all stalks.
Proof. — By 7.4.4, the stalks of a¨ correspond under the unit morphism to the ﬁbers of
´
Et(¨)
X , which in
turn are the stalks of ¨.
Corollary 7.4.7. — For any sheaf ¨ on a space X, the unit morphism ¨
a¨ is an isomorphism.
Corollary 7.4.8. — There is a bijective correspondence between isomorphism classes of sheaves on X and homeomor
phism classes of local homeomorphisms Y
X .
Exercise 58. — Recall that on a space X, the presheaf O
bdd
X
of local bounded continuous functions (valued in R)
may not be a sheaf. Describe its sheaﬁﬁcation.
Example 7.4.9. — The constant sheaf ¨
S
at a set S on a space X is the sheaﬁﬁcation of the constant presheaf ´
S
at
S. Observe that the constant sheaf is not really constant: it can take many different values on an open set U ⊂X.
Theorem 7.4.10. — Suppose X a space, suppose ¨ a presheaf on X, and suppose ¼ a sheaf on X. Then any morphism
¨
¼ factors uniquely through the unit. In other words, for any morphism ¨
¼ , there exists a unique morphism
a¨
¼ such that the diagram
¨
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
¼
a¨
commutes.
Proof. — Let us show that unicity is guaranteed once the existence of the morphism a¨
¼ satisfying the
diagram above is conﬁrmed. Indeed, any two morphisms a¨
¼ satisfying the diagram above must agree an all
stalks, since the unit morphism ¨
a¨ is a bijection on all stalks. Now we may employ 7.3.9 to see that the
morphisms a¨
¼ coincide.
To verify existence, observe that we can simply apply a to the morphism ¨
¼ to get a morphism of sheaves
a¨
a¼ ; since the unit morphism ¼
a¼ is an isomorphism, we can compose a¨
a¼ with the inverse
a¼
¼ to get the desired morphism a¨
¼ .
7.5. DIRECT AND INVERSE IMAGES OF SHEAVES 49
7.4.11. — There is a more sophisticated way of talking about all this. The construction of the espace étalé is a functor
´
Et from the category ´re·h(X) of presheaves on a space X to the category ('·/X) of local homeomorphisms
to X. Now ('·/X) is actually equivalent (via the sections sheaf functor Γ) to the category ·h(X) of sheaves
on X. Now the composite a = Γ ◦
´
Et is the sheaﬁﬁcation functor, which is left adjoint to the inclusion ·h(X) ⊂
´re·h(X).
7.5. Direct and inverse images of sheaves
Deﬁnition 7.5.1. — For any two continuous maps f : X
Y and h : Z
Y , the ﬁber product X ×
Y
Z is the
set
X ×
Y
Z :=¦(x, z) ∈ X ×Z  f (x) = h(z)] ⊂X ×Z,
equipped with the subspace topology. (Note that the notation here is ambiguous, since it makes no explicit mention
of the maps f and h.) The (continuous) projection X ×
Y
Z
X is called the pullback of the map h.
Exercise 59. — For any map f : X
Y , contemplate the continuous map ∆
f
: X
X ×
Y
X given by the
assignment x
(x, x) . Show that f is a local homeomorphism if and only if both f and ∆
f
are open maps.
Exercise 60. — Show that the pullback of a local homeomorphism is a local homeomorphism.
Deﬁnition 7.5.2. — Suppose f : X
Y a continuous map.
(7.5.2.1) For any sheaf ¨ on X, deﬁne the direct image f
¨ of ¨ as the sheaf that assigns to any open set V ∈ Op(Y)
the set
f
¨(V) :=¨( f
−1
V).
(7.5.2.2) For any sheaf ¼ on Y, we deﬁne the inverse image f
¼ as the sheaf of sections of the pullback
X ×
Y
´
Et(¼)
X of the map p
¼
:
´
Et(¼)
Y
Example 7.5.3. — Suppose A⊂X a subspace of a topological space X. Then for any sheaf ¨ on X, if i denotes the
inclusion map, the sheaf i
¨ on A is denoted ¨
A
and is called the restriction of ¨ to A. If, in particular, A is an
open set, then the restriction ¨
A
assigns to any open set U ⊂Athe set ¨(U). On the other hand, if A=¦x], then
¨
¦x]
is simply the stalk of ¨ at x, regarded as a sheaf on ¦x].
Exercise 61. — Any sheaf on the onepoint space is uniquely determined by a set S. Show that the direct image of
such a sheaf along the inclusion
X of a point x of a space X is the skyscraper sheaf S
x
. Show that the inverse
image of such a sheaf under the unique map X
is the constant sheaf a¨
S
.
ACT II
AN INTRODUCTION TO HOMOTOPY THEORY
CHAPTER 8
COVERING SPACE THEORY
8.1. Connectedness and π
0
Warning 8.1.1. — The deﬁnitions we give here do not coincide with deﬁnitions in many other texts. The deﬁni
tions agree in “good cases,” i.e., in all the cases with which we will have to deal in the sequel; however, there are
important ways in which our deﬁnitions differ from those found elsewhere in the literature.
8.1.2. — For any set S, consider the constant presheaf ´
S
on a space X; its associated sheaf is the constant sheaf ¨
S
.
The unit morphism ´
S
¨
S
induces a canonical map S
¨
S
(X) on global sections. If S is the onepoint set,
then this map is an isomorphism. If S is empty, then this map is a bijection unless X is empty.
An alternate description of the sheaf a¨
S
is the following. It is the sheaf O
S
δ
X
of local continuous functions valued
in the discrete space S
δ
.
Deﬁnition 8.1.3. — A space X is said to be connected if for any set S, the obvious map S
¨
S
(X) (which assigns
to any element s ∈ S the global section x
(x, s ) ) is a bijection.
8.1.4. — Thus a space X is connected if and only if it is nonempty and every global section of the constant sheaf at
S is the inclusion X ×¦s ]
δ
⊂X ×S
δ
for some s ∈ S. Equivalently, X is connected if and only if the only continuous
maps X
S
δ
are constant.
Deﬁnition 8.1.5. — Suppose X a space. Then π
´et
0
X is a set along with a global section u ∈ ¨
π
´et
0
X
(X) such that for
any set S and any global section σ ∈ ¨
S
(X), there exists a unique morphism of sheaves ¯ σ :
a¨
π
´et
0
X
a¨
S
such
that ¯ σ(u) =σ.
8.1.6. — Note that π
´et
0
X is a set with a continuous map X
(π
´et
0
X)
δ
such that for any set S and any continuous
map X
S
δ
, there exists a unique map π
´et
0
X
S such that the diagram
X
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
S
δ
.
(π
´et
0
X)
δ
8.1.7. — Note that a space X is connected if and only if π
´et
0
X =.
Warning 8.1.8. — Note that this deﬁnition of π
0
is a little strange. In particular, the deﬁnition is nonconstructive
in the sense that it is not clear from the deﬁnition alone that π
´et
0
X exists for a given space X. In fact, it may very
well not exist: in the case of Q with the subspace topology, for instance, there is no π
´et
0
.
However, it’s much easier to compute this version of π
0
than it is to compute other variants, at least once you get
used to checking universal properties. This is primarily because it involves ﬁnding maps out of your space.
54 CHAPTER 8. COVERING SPACE THEORY
Exercise 62. — Recall that for any collection of spaces ¦V
α
]
α∈Λ
, the topological disjoint union
¸
α∈Λ
V
α
is the set
theoretic disjoint union
¸
α∈Λ
V
α
equipped with the following topology: an open set U ⊂
¸
α∈Λ
V
α
is open if and
only if each intersection U ∩V
α
is open in V
α
.
Now for any space V, a decomposition of V is a collection of subspaces V
α
⊂ V — called summands — such
that V can be written as
¸
α∈Λ
V
α
. Show that there is a bijective correspondence between decompositions V =
¸
α∈Λ
V
α
and continuous maps V
Λ
δ
. Let us call a decomposition V =
¸
α∈Λ
V
α
nondegenerate if and only if
the corresponding map V
Λ
δ
is surjective, or, equivalently, if no summand V
α
is empty.
Show that a space X is connected if and only if it is nonempty and admits no nondegenerate decomposition.
Show that if X is a space such that π
´et
0
X exists, then the continuous map X
π
´et
0
X is surjective. Conclude that
π
´et
0
X exists if and only if there exists a maximal nondegenerate decomposition of X, i.e., a decomposition of X such
that each summand is connected.
8.1.9. — Let us consider Q with the subspace topology. The only connected subspaces of Q are points. (Proof: if
A⊂Q is a connected subspace containing two distinct points a and b, choose an irrational number a < c < b. Now
consider the map g : A
¦0, 1]
δ
given by the rule
g(x) :=
0 if x < c;
1 else.
This is continuous, since g
−1
¦0] =(−∞, c) ∩Aand g
−1
¦1] =(c, ∞) ∩A.) But it is not the case that Q is the disjoint
union of its points, for then points would be open in Q. Hence there is no maximal nondegenerate decomposition
of Q, so π
´et
0
Q does not exist.
Exercise 63. — Compute π
´et
0
of the following spaces. (In all these cases, π
´et
0
exists, so there are no tricks here.)
(63.1) a set S with the discrete topology,
(63.2) the sphere S
n
for any n >0,
(63.3) the set GL
n
R of n ×n invertible matrices with real entries, with the subspace topology from the inclusion
GL
n
R⊂R
n
2
, for n >0,
(63.4) the set SL
n
R of n × n matrices with real entries of determinant 1, with the subspace topology from the
inclusion SL
n
R⊂R
n
2
, for n >0, and
(63.5) the set GL
n
C of n ×n invertible matrices with complex entries, with the subspace topology from the inclu
sion GL
n
C⊂C
n
2
, for n >0.
Exercise 64. — Consider the letters of the (English) alphabet A–Z as subspaces of the plane R
2
. (Consider them in
their simplest possible form, without any thickness of any lines, and without any serifs!) Can you classify all of them
up to homeomorphism? (Hint: if two spaces X and Y are homeomorphic, then their π
´et
0
agree, and if f : X
Y
is a homeomorphism, then so is f : X −¦x]
Y −¦ f (x)] for any x ∈ X.)
8.1.10. — The construction X
π
´et
0
X is functorial in the sense that for any continuous map f : X
Y , there
is a corresponding map π
´et
0
f : π
´et
0
X
π
´et
0
Y if both π
´et
0
X and π
´et
0
Y exist. Indeed, the deﬁnition implies that there
exists a unique map π
´et
0
f : π
´et
0
X
π
´et
0
Y such that the diagram
X
f
Y
(π
´et
0
X)
δ
π
´et
0
f
(π
´et
0
Y)
δ
commutes.
8.2. COVERING SPACES AND LOCALLY CONSTANT SHEAVES 55
8.2. Covering spaces and locally constant sheaves
Deﬁnition 8.2.1. — A covering space over a topological space B (called the base) is a continuous map p : E
B
such that every point b ∈ B is contained in an open neighborhood U for which there is a homeomorphism
γ
U
: p
−1
U
U ×( p
−1
b)
δ
such that the diagam
p
−1
U
p
p
−1
U
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
γ
U
U ×( p
−1
b)
δ
pr
1
·
U
commutes.
Exercise 65. — Show that a covering space is a local homeomorphism.
Exercise 66. — Check that the pullback E ×
B
B
/
B
/
of a covering space E
B along any continuous map
B
/
B is a covering space.
Deﬁnition 8.2.2. — A morphism of covering spaces from p
/
: E
/
B to p : E
B (covering spaces over the same
base) is simply a continuous map f : E
/
E such that the diagram
E
/
p
/
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
f
E
p
·
B
commutes.
Example 8.2.3. — (8.2.3.1) For any space X and any set S, the map ∇
(S)
: X
(S) ∼
=X ×S
δ
X is a covering
space. These covering spaces are known as the trivial covering spaces. The corresponding locally constant
sheaves are constant.
(8.2.3.2) Consider again the continuous map p
n
: S
1
S
1
given by z
z
n
. This is a covering space too. The
corresponding sheaf assigns to any open set U ⊂ S
1
the set of nth root functions deﬁned on U.
(8.2.3.3) The exponential map exp : C
C
×
:=C−¦0] is a covering map. One can pull this example back to
S
1
⊂ C
×
to get the covering space R
S
1
given by θ
e
2πθ
−1
. The corresponding sheaf assigns to
any open set U a logarithm deﬁned on U.
Exercise 67. — Consider the subspace (C−¦0])
×n
⊂ C
n
. Show that for any ntuple (k
1
, . . . , k
n
) of nonnegative
integers, the map
p
(k
1
,...,k
n
)
: (C−¦0])
×n
(C−¦0])
×n
(z
1
, . . . , z
n
)
(z
k
1
1
, . . . , z
k
n
n
)
is a covering space. Pull this back to get a covering space on the ndimensional torus T
n
. Now contemplate the ﬁber
over (1, . . . , 1). Can you draw a picture of this when n =2?
Deﬁnition 8.2.4. — A sheaf ¨ on a space X is locally constant if every point of X is contained in an open neigh
borhood U such that the restriction ¨
U
is a constant sheaf.
Theorem 8.2.5. — A local homeomorphism p : E
B is a covering map if and only if the sheaf Γ(E/B) is locally
constant; correspondingly, a sheaf ¨ is locally constant if and only if the espace étalé
´
Et(¨) is a covering space.
56 CHAPTER 8. COVERING SPACE THEORY
8.2.6. — Under our bijective correspondence between homeomorphism classes of local homeomorphisms and iso
morphism classes of sheaves, we see that locally constant sheaves correspond (bijectively) to covering spaces. As we
have seen, constant sheaves correspond to trivial covering spaces.
To put this more formally, for any space B, let ('(/B) be the category of locally constant sheaves on B, and let
(ov(B) denote the category of covering spaces with base B. Then our equivalence of categories ('·/B) ~·h(B)
restricts to an equivalence of categories ('(/B) ~(ov(B).
Exercise
68. — Show that the only possible locally constant sheaves on the interval [0, 1] are constant. (Hint:
Suppose ¨ a locally constant sheaf on [0, 1]. Show that there is a ﬁnite open cover of [0, 1] comprised of intervals
U on which ¨
U
. Now induct on the size of ¹ in order to show that ¨ must be constant. Why doesn’t this
argument work for S
1
?)
Using this, suppose X any space, and suppose γ a path in X — i.e., a continuous map γ : [0, 1]
X . For any
locally constant sheaf ¼ on X, the pullback γ
¼ is a constant sheaf. More precisely, for each t ∈ [0, 1], show that
there is a unique isomorphism between γ
¼ and the constant sheaf ¨
S(t )
at the stalk S(t ) := ¼
γ(t )
. Now if γ is a
loop in X — i.e., a path such that γ(0) =γ(1) = x ∈ X —, we have speciﬁed two isomorphisms:
¨
x
=¨
S(0)
γ
¼ ¨
S(1)
=¨
x
,
so we have an automorphism of the stalk ¨
x
. Give an example to show that this autmorphism need not be the
identity.
Deﬁnition 8.2.7. — We say that a covering space p : E
X is ﬁnite if the ﬁbers of p are ﬁnite. If π
´et
0
X exists,
then we say that it is of ﬁnite type if π
´et
0
E exists, and the ﬁbers of π
´et
0
p : π
´et
0
E
π
´et
0
X are ﬁnite. Let us denote by
((ov
ft
/X) the set of all isomorphism classes of covering spaces of ﬁnite type over X.
8.3. The étale fundamental group
8.3.1. — We are now interested in classifying all locally constant sheaves/covering spaces over a connected space
X. In order to do this, we will begin by constructing, for any point x ∈ X, the étale fundamental group π
´et
1
(X, x)
out of the collection of all covering spaces of ﬁnite type over X.
Deﬁnition 8.3.2. — Suppose X a space, and suppose x ∈ X. For any covering space E
X , a monodromy element
for E at x is an automorphism of the ﬁber E
x
.
A uniform monodromy element at x is an element
γ =(γ
E
) ∈
¸
E∈((ov
ft
/X)
Aut(E
x
)
such that for any morphism φ: E
/
E of covering spaces of ﬁnite type,
E
/
x
γ
E
/
φ
x
E
x
γ
E
E
/
x
φ
x
E
x
.
For any two uniform monodromy elements γ and γ
/
, one may compose them to obtain
γ
/
◦ γ :=(γ
/
E
◦ γ
E
) ∈
¸
E∈((ov
ft
/X)
Aut(¨
x
)
The étale fundamental group π
´et
1
(X, x) is the set of uniform monodromy elements.
Lemma 8.3.3. — The set π
´et
1
(X, x) is a group under composition.
8.5. UNIVERSAL COVERING SPACES 57
Proof. — Since π
´et
1
(X, x) is given as a subset of a group, we only have to check that π
´et
1
(X, x) contains the identity
(obvious) and that it is closed under composition. This latter point follows from inspection of the diagram
E
/
x
γ
E
/
φ
x
E
x
γ
E
E
/
x
γ
/
E
/
φ
x
E
x
γ
/
E
E
/
x
φ
x
E
x
.
8.4. Homotopy classes of loops and lifts
Lemma 8.4.1. — Consider the following commutative diagram of spaces
E
p
Y
f
B
in which p : E
B is a covering space and Y is connected space. Then a lift of f , if it exists, is unique.
Proof. — Suppose g and h two lifts. Deﬁne a map r : Y
¦0, 1]
δ
by
r (y) =
1 if g(y) = h(y)
0 if not.
I claim r is continuous. Indeed, suppose y ∈ Y; let U be an open neighborhood of f (y) such that p
−1
U
∼
= U×E
f (y)
.
Let e
g
, e
h
∈ E
f (y)
be the projections of the element g(y), h(y) to E
f (y)
; then the set
V := g
−1
(U ×¦e
g
]) ∩ h
−1
(U ×¦e
h
])
is open in Y, and one veriﬁes that V ⊂ r
−1
( f (y)). This shows that r is continuous, and the result follows from the
connectedness of Y.
Lemma 8.4.2. — Unique path lifting ...
Lemma 8.4.3. — In the situation above, assume that Y is locally path connected. Then a lift exists if and only if the
image of π
1
(Y) in π
1
(X) is contained in the image of π
1
(E).
Proof. — Necessity is obvious. For sufﬁciency, deﬁne a lift φ : Y
E in the following manner. For any point
y ∈ Y, choose a path γ from the basepoint to y. Then there is a unique lift γ
/
of this path to E; deﬁne φ(y) =γ
/
(1).
The assumption guarantees that this is independent of the choice of path.
8.5. Universal covering spaces
Deﬁnition 8.5.1. — Suppose X a space, and suppose x ∈ X. Then a universal locally constant sheaf on (X, x) is a
locally constant sheaf ¿ on X along with a germ of a section υ ∈ ¨
x
such that for any locally constant sheaf ¨ and
any germ σ ∈ ¨
x
, there is a unique morphism φ: ¿
¨ of sheaves such that φ
x
(υ) =σ.
Exercise 69. — Suppose X a space, and suppose x ∈ X. Show that the universal locally constant sheaf (¿, υ) on
(X, x), if it exists, has the following property: for any locally constant sheaf ¨ on X, the map Mor
X
(¿, ¨)
¨
x
,
φ
φ
x
(υ) , is a bijection. Deduce that if a universal locally constant sheaf on (X, x) exists, then it is unique up to
a unique isomorphism.
58 CHAPTER 8. COVERING SPACE THEORY
8.5.2. — There is a natural candidate for the universal locally constant sheaf on a pointed space (X, x).
Deﬁnition 8.5.3. — Suppose X a space, and suppose x ∈ X. Then a universal covering space over (X, x) is a covering
space u :
¯
X
X along with a point ¯x ∈ u
−1
(x) such that for any covering space p : E
X and any point
e ∈ p
−1
(x), there exists a unique covering space map f :
¯
X
E with the property that f (¯x) = e.
Deﬁnition 8.5.4. — A space X is said to be well connected if it is path connected, it admits a basis comprised of
pathconnected neighborhoods, and any point x is contained in a neighborhood U such that the homomorphism
π
1
(U, x)
π
1
(X, x) is trivial.
Theorem 8.5.5. — Suppose X a well connected space. Then X admits a universal covering space. Moreover, it is the
unique connected pointed covering space (
¯
X, ¯x) of X such that π
1
(
¯
X, ¯x) is trivial.
Proof. — Let us construct the corresponding locally constant sheaf. Begin by contemplating the based path space
Π
x
(X) ⊂ ((I , X), whose points are those paths γ such that γ(0) = x, equipped with the subspace topology. Eval
uation at 1 gives a continuous map e : Π
x
(X)
X Consider now the sheaf of sections Γ(e); for any open set U
of X, deﬁne ¼(U) as the quotient Γ(e)(U)/ ∼, where we say that two sections s , t ∈ Γ(e)(U) are equivalent if they
are homotopic as maps U ×I
X rel U ×¦0, 1]. The result is a presheaf ¼; the claim is that its sheaﬁﬁcation is
locally constant. To this end, observe that since X is well connected, it admits a base consisting of path connected
open sets U such that the induced homomorphism π
1
(U)
π
1
(X) is trivial. Over these open sets, the espace
étalé of ¼ is a trivial covering space.
So now we have the corresponding covering space
¯
X. It is the space of homotopy (rel ¦0, 1]) classes of paths
starting at x; evaluation at 1 gives the structure map
¯
X
X . Write ¯x for the constant map at x. If now we can
check that
¯
X is path connected and that π
1
(
¯
X, ¯x) is trivial, then we are done by 8.4.3.
To show that
¯
X is path connected, consider an equivalence class α of paths. Let f be a representative thereof.
Now for any real number t , let f
t
(s ) = f (s t ). This gives a path from ¯x to α.
To show that π
1
(
¯
X, ¯x) is trivial, ...
Theorem 8.5.6. — Suppose X admits a universal covering space. Then there is a bijective correspondence between
((ov
ft
/X) and the set of isomorphism classes of π
´et
1
(X, x)sets with ﬁnitely many orbits, and under this correspondence,
the connected covering spaces correspond to the transitive π
´et
1
(X, x)sets.
CHAPTER 9
COMPUTING THE ÉTALE FUNDAMENTAL GROUP
9.1. The étale fundamental group of S
1
9.2. Seifertvan Kampen Theorem
9.3. Simple connectedness
CHAPTER 10
HOMOTOPY THEORY
10.1. Paths and π
0
10.2. Homotopies of maps
10.3. The homotopytheoretic fundamental group
10.4. Homotopy invariance of the étale fundamental group
CHAPTER 11
THE COMPARISON THEOREM
11.1. The two fundamental groups
Clark Barwick Department of Mathematics, Harvard University, One Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. Email : clarkbar@gmail.com
LECTURE NOTES FOR TOPOLOGY I Clark Barwick
.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . First and second countability. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sheaf theory. . . . . . . . . . The Tychonoff Product Theorem. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Forms of compactness. . . . .2. . . . . . . 51 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 35 36 37 Entr’Acte. . . . . . . . . . . Direct and inverse images of sheaves. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Compactness II. . . . . . . . . First examples. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Urysohn’s lemma. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sheaves. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The category of topological spaces. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Continuous maps and homeomorphisms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . 9 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . Urysohn’s metrization theorem. . . . . . . . . . . . . . The espace étalé and sheaﬁﬁcation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Coverings and locality. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Constructing topologies and continuous maps. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . An introduction to homotopy theory. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Locally compact Hausdorff spaces. . . . . . . . . . . Connectedness and π0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 2. . . . Normality. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Presheaves. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and the Tietze extension theorem. . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Countability and separation. . . . . . . . . . . Topological spaces. . . . . . . . Stalks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . .2. . . . . . . Quotients. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Metrization theorems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General topology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Covering space theory. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS Act I. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 4. . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . Compact spaces. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Compactness I. . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The compactopen topology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 41 45 45 47 49 Act II. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Taxonomy of separation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Bing–Nagata–Smirnov metrization theorem. . . 21 21 22 23 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . The étale fundamental group of S 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . The two fundamental groups. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The étale fundamental group. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The comparison theorem. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Homotopy invariance of the étale fundamental group. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Paths and π0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Covering spaces and locally constant sheaves. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Homotopy classes of loops and lifts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Simple connectedness. . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . .6 CONTENTS 8. . . .5. . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . 55 56 57 57 59 59 59 59 61 61 61 61 61 11. . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The homotopytheoretic fundamental group. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Seifertvan Kampen Theorem. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Universal covering spaces. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Homotopies of maps. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . Homotopy theory. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Computing the étale fundamental group. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ACT I GENERAL TOPOLOGY .
.
4. (1. (1. equivalently.1. the union U ∈ p(X ).1. one may verify that T (f −1 ( S A) = A).1. a subset l(X ) ⊂ (X ) satisfying the following axioms. f −1 A := {t ∈ T  f (t ) ∈ A} ⊂ T .2) translates to the condition that ∅ ∈ p(X ). p(X )) comprised of a set X and a subset p(X ) ⊂ (X ) satisfying the following properties. — In the deﬁnition above. we may also describe a topology on a set X by prescribing the set l(X ) of closed sets. A = f −1 A and f −1 A = f −1 A∈ A∈ A∈ A∈ ⊂ (S).1. f −1 : (S) where for any subset A ⊂ S. — A topological space (or more simply a space) is a pair (X . moreover. Topological spaces Notation 1.1. we denote by (S) the power set of S. 1.2. f −1 respects complements: for any set A ∈ f −1 (S).1. U∈ (1. when = ∅. U ∈ In this case. the set p(X ) is said to be a topology on X .2) For any subset ⊂ p(X ).CHAPTER 1 THE CATEGORY OF TOPOLOGICAL SPACES 1. note that when = ∅.1) translates to the condition that X ∈ p(X ). Deﬁnition 1. A topology on a set X is.1. condition (1. The elements U ∈ p(X ) will be called open in X .3.2.1.1. condition (1.4. . Any map / S induces a map f :T / (T ).1. — Given a set S.2. Similarly. i. the set of all subsets of S.e.2.. — We have described a topology on a set X by prescribing the set p(X ) of open sets.1. the intersection U ∈ p(X ).1) For any subset ⊂ l(X ). the intersection V∈ V∈ l(X ).2. One may verify that f −1 respects arbitrary intersections and arbitrary unions: for any subset f −1 A. A subset V ∈ (X ) will be called closed if its complement V := X − V is an open set.1) For any ﬁnite subset ⊂ p(X ). 1.
Prove that the closure A ⊂ X can be characterized in the following two ways. l(X )) as a topological space. p (X ) ⊂ p(X ). (1. one has κ(κ(U )) = κ(U ). prove that the interior A ⊂ X can be characterized in the following two ways. Show that the closure and the interior operations are dual operations in the sense that. we sometimes refer to the pair (X .1) For any point x ∈ X .4) The interior A◦ is the set A◦ := {x ∈ A  there exists an open neighborhood V of x such that V ⊂ A}. For any subset A ⊂ X . (1. (1.5. and suppose p(X ) and p (X ) two topologies on X .1. the interior of A is the set A◦ := {x ∈ A  there exists a neighborhood V of x such that V ⊂ A}.1. for any subset A ⊂ X . Exercise 1.6. A Kuratowski closure operator on X is a map / (X ) κ : (X ) satisfying the following properties. an open neighborhood of x is an open set U ∈ p(X ) containing x. (1. As a result.10 CHAPTER 1. (2.U ⊂A U.6.6.1. A neighborhood of x is a subset V ⊂ X containing an open neighborhood of x. (1.1. V ∩ A = ∅}. the points of A are those points x ∈ X with the property that every neighborhood of x meets A.3) Consider two subsets A ⊂ B ⊂ X . Deﬁnition 1.1. the closure of A is the set A := {x ∈ X  for any neighborhood V of x.4. the points of A◦ are those points x ∈ A with the property that there is a neighborhood of x contained in A. (( A)◦ ) = A and ( A) = A◦ .1) For any subset U ⊂ X .1. . — Suppose (X . Then there are many different kinds of subsets of X . p(X )) a topological space. (1. Dually.2) For any ﬁnite subset ⊂ l(X ). the union V ∈ V ∈ l(X ).6.2) For any subset U ⊂ X . — Suppose (X . If then we say that p(X ) is ﬁner than p (X ) and that p (X ) is coarser than p(X ). In practice. In other words.1) The closure A is the set A := {x ∈ X  for any open neighborhood V of x. (1.6) The interior A◦ is the union of all the open subsets contained in A: A◦ = U ∈ p(X ).4) Dual to the closure is the interior. Exercise 2.A⊂V ◦ V. (1. it will always be clear whether we are describing the set of open subsets of X or the set of closed subsets of X . p(X )) a topological space.5) The interior A◦ is the largest open subset contained in A.3) The closure A is the intersection of all the closed subsets containing A: A= V ∈ l(X ).2) For any subset A ⊂ X .6. We say that A is dense in B if A ∩ B = B. — Suppose X a set. (2.1. (1. one has U ⊂ κ(U ). — Suppose X a set. (1. In other words. Suppose that A ⊂ X is a subset. V ∩ A = ∅}. Deﬁnition 1. THE CATEGORY OF TOPOLOGICAL SPACES (1.2) The closure A is the smallest closed subset containing A.
Given a Kuratowski closure operator κ. Example 1. (1. That is. {0.4. the (open) ball of radius r centered at x is the subset B(x. one has κ U∈ U = U∈ κ(U ). 1. .2. This deﬁnes a space Σ1 . (1. show that the map / {topologies on X } {Kuratowski closure operators on X } / p(X κ ) κ / A described in 1. 2}.2. In this case.1. 1}δ specify all the topologies on the set {0.3) For any ﬁnite subset ⊂ (X ). The set {0. or else the complement S U is ﬁnite.2. First examples Example 1.2. in which a subset U ⊂ S is declared to be open if and only if either S = ∅.2. ) := {y ∈ Rn  y − x < }. the closed subsets of S are the ﬁnite sets and S itself. Similarly. 1}. For any point x ∈ Rn and any real number > 0. there is a real number > 0 such that B(x. deﬁned by p(A) := {U ∈ (U )  there exists U ∈ p(X ) such that U = U ∩ A}. Σ0 . {0. Example 1. in which a subset U ⊂ S is declared to be open if and only if either S = ∅.1. and {0. — Suppose (X . Σ1 . 1}ι . This is known as the standard topology on Rn .3. {0}. the closed subsets of S are the countable sets and S itself. 1}} ⊂ ({0. there are two topologies that exist automatically on S. — Describe explicitly all the topologies on the set {0. Then A may be given the subspace topology. p(X )) a topological space. — Let us consider the vector space Rn .2.1.1.2. A subspace of X is thus a subset A ⊂ X . {1}. Now the set Rn can be given a topology in the following manner: we will say that a subset U ⊂ Rn is open if for any point x ∈ U .2.1) The indiscrete topology S ι is the pair (S.1. Moreover. Example 1.2. and suppose A ⊂ X a subset of X . deﬁne subsets l(X κ ) := {V ∈ (X )  κ(V ) = V } ⊂ (X ) and thus p(X κ ) := {U ∈ (X )  U ∈ l(X κ )} ⊂ (X ) Show that the pair X κ := (X . 1}} ⊂ ({0. equipped with the subspace topology. 1}) . Example 1. where the inverse is the operation A speciﬁed simply by describing a Kuratowski closure operator. any set S can be given the cocountable topology. — For any set S. a topology on a set X can be is a bijection. — The Sierpi´ ski space Σ0 is the set {0.2.6. FIRST EXAMPLES 11 (2. 1. 1} equipped with the subset: n p(Σ0 ) := {∅. — Any set S can be given the coﬁnite topology. ) ⊂ U . In this case. (S)). p(X κ )) is a topological space. 1}) . 1} can also be given a n topology given by the subset p(Σ1 ) := {∅. One may verify directly that the Sierpi´ ski space is in fact a topological space. or else the complement S U is countable. S}). which is — as we will explain — homeomorphic to Σ0 .5. The topologies {0. {∅.2) The discrete topology S δ is the pair (S. Exercise 3.
it is frequently difﬁcult to give an explicit description of the elements of p(X ). (1.2.6. .2.6. b ) are shorthand: (a. (1. which is generated by the set {(a. Exercise 5. — More generally.6. .2.3) The (n − 1)sphere is the set S n−1 := {x ∈ Rn  x ≤ 1}. — Suppose X a set. 1. ∞)  a ∈ X } ∪ {(−∞. the topology p (X ) is said to be generated by and the set is said to be a subbase for the topological space (X . iU ∈IU U ∈ B iU . contemplate the case when has cardinality 2. ∞)  a ∈ R} ∪ {(−∞.6. one may deﬁne the order topology. ∞) := {x ∈ X  x > a} (1) If and (−∞. on any totally ordered set X .10. Now U= U∈ U∈ i ∈IU Bi = U∈ .2. — In the situation of the previous proposition. ⊂ (X ) a collection of subsets of X . one may write any element U ∈ as a union of elements of : U= i∈IU Bi .2. 1) of the ball of radius 1 at 0. (1. b ) := {x ∈ X  x < b }. this intersection is a union of elements of . — Show that the standard topology on R [1.5] is generated by the set {(a. Then let p (X ) be the set of all unions of elements of . p (X )). This is indeed a topology.(1) Any topology containing must contain all unions of ﬁnite intersections of elements of .2.9. (1.8. where (a. — Deﬁne a topology in the following manner: let be the set of all ﬁnite intersections of elements of (including the empty intersection. despite the fact that the subset p(X ) ⊂ (X ) is the information that is needed in order to specify a topology on a set X . ∞) and (−∞.2.6.2.5) The irrational numbers R − Q ⊂ R can also be given the subspace topology. — Show that the subspace topology on Q is not the discrete topology on Q. this formula seems confusing.6. It is equal to the closure B(0. Show also that Q is dense in R. for any ﬁnite subset ⊂ p (X ). This leads us to the notion of a subbase for a topology. Proposition 1. THE CATEGORY OF TOPOLOGICAL SPACES Example 1. — One of the most difﬁcult aspects of topology is that.7.2. Moreover. so any such topology must be ﬁner than p (X ).2) The closed ndisk is the set D n := {x ∈ Rn  x ≤ 1}. Unions of unions of elements of are unions of elements of .1) The open ball of radius 1 at 0 is sometimes called the ncell. b )  b ∈ R} ⊂ (R). which is all of X ).2. where Bi ∈ .2.12 CHAPTER 1. (1. — We can now combine the previous two examples to get a whole world of interesting topological spaces. Example 1. and since each set U ∈ BiU is an element of by construction. Deﬁnition 1. Exercise 4. b )  b ∈ X } ⊂ (X ). It is equal to the complement of the ncell in this ndisk. Thus p (X ) is the unique coarsest topology containing . Then there exists a unique Proof. and suppose coarsest topology p (X ) containing .4) The rational numbers Q ⊂ R can be given the subspace topology.
— Of course the identity map of any space is a homeomorphism. / Z (which just rounds any real number down to the nearest integer) is open. This is continuous. — The composition of two continuous functions is continuous. More generally. the inverse image f −1 {s} — would have to be an open set. Then their product X × Y := {(x. but not .11. but Hence the ﬂoor function · : R not continuous.. Then p(X ) is ﬁner than p (X ) if and only if the identity map on X is a continuous map / (X . — If X and Y are topological spaces.8. p (X )). — Open maps need not be continuous. Deﬁnition 1.3.2. and the standard topology is just the order topology.3.3.3. then Rn = Rn−1 × R. 1. If X and Y are spaces. Then the inclusion map i : A (given by the rule i(a) = a) is continuous. p(X )) Example 1. Let / S δ is open. — A map f : X f U ∈ p(Y ). Example 1. however.e. then the projection maps pr1 and pr2 are both continuous (as we have seen) and open. y ∈ Y } has a topology. Exercise 8. (6. that is. (6. — Consider the function f : R open.6. (6. if for any U ∈ p(Y ). the set f U ∈ p(X ). and A ⊂ X is a subset. the subspace topology is rigged precisely to make this happen.2) If n = 1. Continuous maps and homeomorphisms / Y is continuous if the inverse Deﬁnition 1.3. and suppose A ⊂ X is a subset. — Suppose X and Y two spaces. called the product topology generated by the set {U × Y  U ∈ p(X )} ∪ {X × V  V ∈ p(Y )}.3.3. and consider the product X × Y with the product topology. and the standard topology is just the discrete topology. Exercise 7. Example 1. and the standard topology on Rn is just the product topology of the standard topology on Rn−1 with the standard topology on R. Example 1. pr1 : X × Y 2 given by the rules pr1 (x. then R0 = .3) If n > 1. Suppose X a topological space.5. / X and pr : X × Y pr1 : X × Y 2 are continuous. equipped with the subspace topology.1. Example 1. suppose X a /X space. CONTINUOUS MAPS AND HOMEOMORPHISMS 13 Example 1. Both of these maps are continuous. in order for us endow S with the discrete topology S δ . / Y is open if the image of any open set is open. y)  x ∈ X . — Suppose X is a set with two topologies p(X ) and p (X ).1) If n = 0. (X . — Once again. as you showed above. i:A Example 1. Example 1. and suppose S any set.3. that is. then the product topology is the coarsest topology on X × Y such that the two projection maps /Y . then the subspace topology on A is the coarsest topology on A such that the inclusion map / X is continuous.7. Exercise 6. — In fact. y) = y.3.2. the way we deﬁned the product topology guaranteed that this property was as sharp as possible. — Show that the standard topology on Rn can be described inductively in the following way. Then we have two projection maps / X and pr : X × Y /Y .3. — Suppose X and Y topological spaces.1. Then one sees that any map p : X p to be continuous.3.3. — Suppose X and Y two spaces. then R1 = R. Then a map f : X −1 image of any open set is open. if for any U ∈ p(X ).9.4. for any s ∈ S the ﬁber over s — i. y) = x and pr2 (x. / R given by the rule f (x) = x 2 . Show that if X is a space.
This wraps the halfopen interval around the circle.10. i:A / Y is a homeomorphism if it is both a bijection and an open map. then the inverse The statement that f is a homeomorphism is the statement that both f and f −1 are bijections. Deﬁnition 1.12. but you have the same open sets up to that relabeling! 1. Example 1. then the inclusion map / X is open if and only if A is an open subset of X .3. since we’ve been thinking of topological spaces as sets with a concept of “nearness” of points. — Continuing with that idea. and A ⊂ X is a subset with the subspace topology. — A homeomorphism between two topological spaces is a guarantee that those two spaces are indistinguishable from the point of view of topology. In the case of homeomorphisms.14 CHAPTER 1. — Of course the identity map is a homeomorphism. but only because everyone else is too.” so anything you knew about the ﬁrst group or set was reﬂected in the second group of set. ∞). (We’re being totally sloppy about notation here. In group theory or set theory. in order for f : X be a bijective continuous map. the same phenomenon happens here.2) the euclidean space Rn . Exercise 12. The statement that f is a Alternately.14. Show that the following three spaces are all homeomorphic: (12.15. n / Y to be a homeomorphism. which is again an open set.) Example 1. we were assuming that f is a bijection. often in close proximity to one another.16.3. THE CATEGORY OF TOPOLOGICAL SPACES Exercise 9. and so are their closures. sets in the second) guaranteed that the objects involved were the same. If f : X image can be viewed as a map / p(X ). (12. — Suppose n is a nonnegative integer. — Suppose n is a nonnegative integer.1) the ndimensional ball B n (x. Exercise 11.3. and we were talking about the function Y inverse to f . up to some “relabeling. — A continuous map f : X /Y . and we were talking about the function / p(X ) that takes an open set U to its inverse image f −1 U . (1) In the ﬁrst description.3. δ) and B n (y. — The two Sierpi´ ski spaces Σ0 and Σ1 are homeomorphic. ) in Rn are homeomorphic. Mathematicians use the symbol f −1 in two different ways. if f : X −1 homeomorphism is the statement that both f and f are continuous. 2π) given by the rule ρ(x) = e i x . As we will see. — Here’s a very important example to contemplate. — Show that if X is a space. But this leads to an important idea about what topology actually is: one might say that topology is what is left over from geometry when you throw out the notion of distance. and you might as well get used to it now. an isomorphism or bijection between two objects (groups in the ﬁrst case. — Note that. Show that any two ndimensional balls B n (x. Now contemplate the map with the subspace topology from C = / U (1) ρ : [0.13.3. This might seem a little odd. and . we do not only require that f Example 1. Two spaces X and Y are said to be homeomorphic if there is a homeomorphism X 1. then it has an inverse f −1 : Y / X . π 2 2 / R.3. we were assuming that f is continuous. Exercise 10. It’s a homeomorphism! This suggests something that may at ﬁrst seem surprising: topology doesn’t “see” the difference between an inﬁnitely long line and an open interval of ﬁnite length.11. ﬁnd a homeomorphism between R and the ray (0. not only do you have the same points up to some relabeling. That is not enough: let us think of the set U (1) := {z ∈ C  z = 1} ∼ R2 . Consider the tangent function as a map tan : − π . (2) In the second p(Y ) / X which is the description. but it had better not be a homeomorphism! Example 1.3. — Here’s another way to think of homeomorphism. f −1 : p(Y ) / Y is a continuous map. ) for any x ∈ Rn and any > 0. It is a bijective continuous map. / Y is a bijection.
CONTINUOUS MAPS AND HOMEOMORPHISMS 15 (12. m B ki (xi . as x approaches 0 from the right. ∞) that “wrap around” our added point ∞. Let’s topologize this set in the following way: we will contemplate the set {(a. That is. d ∈ R} ⊂ (R ∪ {∞}). Let’s ﬁnd a homeomorphism that makes this explicit. — Here’s a challenging example. c) ∪ {∞} ∪ (d .3. 2) and θ in R .3) the product space numbers i > 0. 2)} 2 θ be the unique line passing through (0. and any real Example 1. let Now let us deﬁne a map g : S 1 (1) − {(0.3) Show that g can be extended to a homeomorphism G : S 1 (1) / R ∪ {∞} by setting G(θ) := g (θ) for any θ ∈ S 1 (1) − {(0. For any point θ ∈ S 1 (1) − {(0. we constructed a homeomorphism F : R ∪ {∞} identity). 1/x increases without bound.) Of course we have removed the point 0 ∈ R.1. y) ∈ R  y = 0}. It is a fact that they are homeomorphic if and only if m = n. (We’ll explain more about that later. and we note that we can extend it to a map F : Now we think of our map f : R − {0} / R ∪ {∞} . then this leads us to the following idea: consider the set R {∞}. 2)} and G((0. as x approaches 0 from the left. ∞)  c. i =1 i and points xi ∈ Rki .3. Exercise 13. (In general. 2)}. Translate our circle S 1 so that we are looking at the unit circle around the point (0.) The subspace R ⊂ R ∪ {∞} is open. What homeomorphism is this? How might you draw its graph? . Consider the spaces R m and Rn with the standard topology. R ∪ {∞} With the topology we’ve given R ∪ {∞}. 1/x decreases without bound. — Here’s another example that merits some contemplation. because in elementary school we were told that 1/0 is “undeﬁned. b )  a. and we will contemplate the topology generated by this set. we set F (0) := ∞. Consider the function f (x) = 1/x. / R ∪ {∞} (which is not the (13.2) Show that g is a homeomorphism. f here is a homeomorphism. (13. 1) in R2 : S 1 (1) := {θ ∈ R2  θ − (0. Using the homeomorphism G. (13.4) In the previous example. This can regarded as a map / R − {0} . and we set F (∞) := 0. / R − {0} . a homeomorphism from a space to itself is called an automorphism. where ∞ here is just a formal symbol that we’ve tacked on. and ∞ is contained in the closure of any ray (−∞. Certainly one direction here is obvious! But how on earth could you show that there is no homeomorphism between two spaces? What kind of contradiction could you get from the existence of a homeomorphism? These kinds of questions will lead us naturally to Example 1. ∞). We note that. / R in the following way. i ) i=1 for any decomposition n = m k. f : R − {0} Since f is its own inverse. we can rewrite this as a homeomorphism G −1 ◦ F ◦ G : S 1 (1) / S 1 (1).18.1) Write an explicit formula for g . 2)) := ∞.17. c) ∪ {∞} ∪ (d . (13. — A little bit of thought should convince you that the space R ∪ {∞} we’ve described in the previous example is in fact a circle. we will look at all unions of all ﬁnite intersections of open intervals in R along with sets (−∞.3. where we set F (x) := 1/x for any x ∈ R − {0}. b ∈ R} ∪ {(−∞.” But let’s try to deﬁne it anyhow. this is continuous! The space R ∪ {∞} we’ve constructed here is called a compactiﬁcation of R. 1) = 1}. Now deﬁne g (θ) to be the xcoordinate of the point of 2 intersection between θ and the xaxis {(x. If we wanted to add a point that would play the role of 1/0. c) or (d .
Show. (2) The closure of a ray (−∞. we might be led to a different compactiﬁcation.5) Show that the space R ∪ {−∞. h:R (14. Think. a] := {−∞} ∪ (−∞. f : R ∪ {∞} . and the closure of a ray (b . (14. ∞} / X such that f = f ◦ p. ∞] := [b . ∞} (with the topologies deﬁned here and above) is continuous. ∞) ⊂ R in R ∪ {−∞. ∞) ∪ {∞}. ∞} . (14. THE CATEGORY OF TOPOLOGICAL SPACES Exercise 14. If we thought of another example. (1) R is an open subspace of R ∪ {−∞. ∞} is the set [−∞. ∞} / R ∪ {−∞. for example. ∞} is homeomorphic to the interval [−1. — The space R∪{∞} is not the only compactiﬁcation of R. there exists a unique map X .1) Show that h is a homeomorphism. which we regard as a map /R. ∞}.6) Show that the map / R ∪ {∞} p : R ∪ {−∞. (14. a) ⊂ R in R ∪ {−∞. ∞} (where −∞ and ∞ are each just formal symbols) with the following properties. a]. and likewise h(x) decreases without bound as x does. that for any topological space / X such that f (−∞) = f (∞).3) Describe a space R∪{−∞. (14.16 CHAPTER 1. moreover. 1].4) Describe an extension of h to a homeomorphism H : R ∪ {−∞. and any continuous map f : R ∪ {−∞. ∞} is the set [b . we were led to consider it by our example.2) Show that h(x) increases without bound as x does. (Be careful if you decide to study h −1 !) (14. of the function h(x) = x 3 .
.2. it always does. We topologize X /A in the following manner. The deﬁnition above is nonconstructive.3. α) and a continuous map q : X / Y such that f (A) = {a} for some element a ∈ Y . show / W are each quotients of X by A. and both q : X / W such that h ◦ q = q . 2. A ⊂ X is a subspace. and suppose f : X / Y in the following way f (A) = {a} for some element a ∈ Y .1. in the sense that it does not make it apparent that such a space X /A exists.2. Let us deﬁne f : X /A f (x) := x a if x ∈ X − A. To see this. 2. / W and q : X that if X is a space. This forces q to be continuous. — Show that the above description of X /A is unique up to unique homeomorphism. Then a quotient of X by A is a pointed space / X /A such that q(A) = {α}. (In fact.CHAPTER 2 CONSTRUCTING TOPOLOGIES AND CONTINUOUS MAPS 2. Coverings and locality Exercise 17. We say that a subset U ⊂ X /A is open if and only if the inverse image q −1 U is open in X . Then show that a map f : X if and only if the inverse image of any element U ∈ under f is open in X . — Suppose X a space. and suppose a subbase for the topology on Y . but this is automatic since f is continuous. there exists a unique continuous map f : X /A /Y f :X such that f (α) = a and f = f ◦ q.1. given by the formula Let X /A = (X − A) {α}. and for any space Y and any continuous map (X /A.1. One sees that this is the only possible map such that f = f ◦ q. f −1V is open in X /A if and only if f −1V = q −1 f −1V is open in X . Here’s one way to construct it. — Contemplate the quotient X /∅. otherwise. That is. suppose Y a topological space. The answer may surprise you! 2.) / X /A satisfy the conditions of the deﬁnition I claim that the space X /A and the continuous map q : X / Y a continuous map such that of a quotient. Suppose X and Y topo/ Y is continuous logical spaces. show that the quotient D n /S n−1 is homeomorphic to S n . and suppose A ⊂ X a subspace. Quotients Deﬁnition 2. f is continuous: for any open set V ⊂ Y . — Subbases for topologies permit the easy identiﬁcation of continuous maps.1. and suppose A ⊂ X a subspace. otherwise. consider the map q : X q(x) := x α if x ∈ X − A. — For any integer n ≥ 0. Exercise 15. — Suppose X a space. this is the ﬁnest possible topology on X /A such that q is continuous. then there is a unique homeomorphism h : W Exercise 16. Moreover. In fact.1. / X /A.
8. suppose f : X Then one says that f is continuous at x if for any neighborhood V of f (x) ∈ Y .2. Now we apply the lemma above to see that f −1 (V ) is open.5. I could easily as well have written “open neighborhood”: f is continuous at x if and only if for any open neighborhood V of f (x) ∈ Y . Deﬁnition 2. For any point x ∈ f −1 (V ). Then U is open if and only if. Deﬁnition 2. Then a base for X is a collection point x ∈ X . One says that is an open covering of X if every V ∈ is an open set.4. of A = V ∈ A ∩ V . — Suppose f continuous. — If U is open. and suppose a base for the topology. Exercise 18. whence x ∈ U ◦ . Suppose. or.2. one says that is an closed covering of X if every V ∈ is an closed set. (2. — A base for a topological space is also a subbase for the topology p(X ). one may for the interior U ◦ of U .2.18 CHAPTER 2. For any neighborhood W of x. conversely. / Y such that for any V ∈ . Proposition 2. Hence f is continuous at every point x ∈ X .2. which is the union of all the open sets W ⊂ U . CONSTRUCTING TOPOLOGIES AND CONTINUOUS MAPS 2.1. or equivalently. and for any point x ∈ U . Now suppose. . Then f is continuous Proof.2. Conversely. equivalently. ⊂ p(X ) such that for any . for any elements V .9. Proof. and its inverse image f −1 (V ◦ ). which is open as well.2. Now the image f ( f −1 (V ◦ )) ⊂ V ◦ ⊂ V . that Deﬁnition 2. and suppose x ∈ X a point. and suppose an open covering of X . for any V ∈ / Y is a continuous function. there is a neighborhood V ∈ x with V ⊂ W . there exists an open neighborhood W of x with W ⊂ U . — Suppose X and Y two topological spaces.1) The set U is open in X . U ◦ ⊂ U . there is an open neighborhood U of x ∈ X such that f (U ) ⊂ V . — Suppose X a topological space. one has fV : V fV V ∩W = fW V ∩W : V ∩ W Then there exists a unique continuous map f : X f V = fV : V /Y . 2. — Suppose X is a topological space. and suppose x ∈ X .2.6. and suppose x ∈ X .2. — Suppose X a space. Then for any neighborhood V of f (x) ∈ Y . Proposition 2. — Suppose X and Y two topological spaces. /Y . there exists an element V ∈ x such that V ⊂ U . there is a neighborhood U of x ∈ X such that f (U ) ⊂ V . there is an open neighborhood W of x ∈ f −1 (V ) with f (W ) ⊂ V .7. there exists an open neighborhood W of x with W ⊂ U . — Note that I have written “neighborhood” in the above deﬁnition. — Suppose X a space. Suppose V ⊂ Y an open set.2) For any point x ∈ U . the set  x ∈ U} x := {U ∈ is a fundamental system of neighborhoods of x ∈ X . Deﬁnition 2.10.2. Lemma 2.10. The claim is that f −1 (V ) is open. one may contemplate the interior V ◦ . with W ⊂ f −1 (V ). and suppose that. / Y a map.2.2. which is open. — Suppose X a topological space. — The previous result is helpful because it permits one to check only a small number of conditions on subsets of Y in order to guarantee the continuity of a function. and suppose U ⊂ X a subset thereof. then of course U itself is an open neighborhood of any point x ∈ U .3.10. One sees that ◦ U = U : indeed.W ∈ . likewise. that f is continuous at every point x ∈ X . we say that a collection ⊂ (X ) of subspaces of X is said to cover A — or to be a covering of A — if A ⊂ V ∈ V . The the following are equivalent for a subset U ⊂ X . and suppose f : X if and only if it is continuous for every point x ∈ X . — Suppose X a topological space.2.2. A collection ⊂ (X ) of subspaces of X is said to cover X — or to be a covering of X — if X = V ∈ V . Then a fundamental system of neighborhoods of x ∈ X is a collection x of neighborhoods of x with the following property. for any point x ∈ U . 2. / Y a map. For a subspace A ⊂ X . (2.
U is open as well. )  x ∈ Qn . Show that p(X ) is ﬁner than p (X ) if and only if. — Suppose X a topological space. there is an element V ∈ x such that V ⊂ U . suppose that U can be written as the union of elements of . (One may also deﬁne the upper limit topology R u . the set {(a. (2. for every point x ∈ U . x Example 2.) One can check fairly easily that these basic open sets [a. COVERINGS AND LOCALITY 19 (2.13. so that U ⊃ U . b ) are both open and closed. one may choose any point a ∈ (a.2. Indeed. Since x is an open system of neighborhoods of x ∈ X .11.2. for any x ∈ R. and since V x ⊂ U for every x ∈ U . — Suppose n ≥ 0 an integer.2. Then the set {B n (x. the ﬂoor function · : R / R is continuous. Thus U is a union of elements of . Exercise 19. b ∈ X } is a base for the order topology on X . b )  a. + →0 In particular. b ) ⊂ (a. A map f : R f (x) = lim f (x + ). for any x ∈ X and any element U ∈ there exists an element V ∈ x such that V ⊂ U . Finally.10. for any open interval (a. and then [a . The Sorgenfrey line R is the set R with the lower limit topology. ε ∈ Q} is a base for the standard topology on euclidean space Rn . This is the topology generated by the halfopen intervals [a.2. everyone must see it once in their lives.2. every element of is open. Then (using the axiom of choice) one may select. / R is continuous if and only if. then for any point x ∈ U . b ).2. (Here. — Suppose X a set with two topologies p(X ) and p (X ).1) The elements of cover X . Example 2. Proof. b ) for a. b ). b ) := {x ∈ X  a < x < b }. for any point x ∈ U . This shows that the second condition implies the third. p(X )) and a base for (X . one element V x ∈ x such that V x ⊂ U .2) For any U . x The previous exercise can be used to show that the Sorgenfrey line is ﬁner than the standard (= order) topology on R.2.) Example 2. b ∈ R. which is homeomorphic to R via the map / − x . U is an open neighborhood of x. The union U := x∈U V x contains every point of U by deﬁnition. Suppose that. one writes (a. so by the axioms for a topological space. — For any totally ordered set X .11. ∈ R} is then a basis for R . This shows that the ﬁrst condition implies the second. there is an element W ∈ x such that W ⊂ U ∩ V . b )  a.14. — Suppose U is open in X . By deﬁnition.V ∈ and any element x ∈ U ∩ V . b . . (2. Proposition 2. p (X )). b ).12.2. Then a subset ⊂ p(X ) is a base for the topology if and only if the following conditions are satisﬁed. it follows that U ⊂ U .3) The set U can be written as the union of elements of .2. The set := {[a. — Here is a standard counterexample in topology.11. there exists an element V ∈ x such that V ⊂ U . This completes the proof. . suppose a base for (X .
.
Since each element U ∈ is open in A. i = 1. Example 3. — The following are equivalent for a subspace A ⊂ Rn .1. ⊂ . i ). Indeed. m and suppose x a point of one of the balls. i ) for i = 1. and the indiscrete topology on any set is compact. — A closed subspace of a compact space is compact. . . 2. . consider any ﬁnite covering of Rn by balls B n (xi .1. Compact spaces Deﬁnition 3. ) form an open covering. indeed. Then the image f (A) of which is ﬁnite. hence there is a ﬁnite subcovering Exercise 20.1.1. which thus has a ﬁnite subcovering {U ∈  f −1 U ∈ } . and suppose f : X any compact subspace A ⊂ X is compact. but there is no ﬁnite subcovering. (3.1. Lemma 3. the open balls B n (x. Now the claim is that the subset }. Suppose an open covering of A. For any space X . Example 3.1.2. — Any ﬁnite space is compact. whence f (a) ∈ U . — A topological space X is compact if any open covering has a ﬁnite subcovering. r ) ⊃ i=1 B n (xi . (3.2) [Bolzano–Weierstraß] Every sequence of points in A has a convergent subsequence. (3.6. .6.1. . . .CHAPTER 3 COMPACTNESS I 3.6. — Suppose an open covering of f (A). Show that the product space n=1 Xi is compact. Then one may choose a real number r so that B n (x. — Suppose X and Y spaces. Lemma 3.3) [Heine–Borel] A is closed and bounded.1. — Suppose we are given a ﬁnite collection {Xi } of compact spaces. one may choose a collection ⊂ p(X ) such that = {U ∈ p(A)  U = U ∩ A for someU ∈ Now the set = {U ∈ p(A)  U = U ∩ A for someU ∈ is a ﬁnite subcovering of . — The euclidean spaces Rn are not compact. to which we shall return. — Suppose X a compactum. 2. }. A compact topological space is sometimes called a compactum.1. write p(X ) for the set of all compact subsets of X .3.1. .6.) i Theorem 3.5.1) A is compact. Now } ∪ {X − A} is an open covering of A. Proof. and suppose A ⊂ X closed. is a covering of f (A). Then there exists some U∈ such that f −1 U ∈ and a ∈ f −1 U . (This is the easy case of Tychonoff’s Theorem. suppose y = f (a) ∈ f (A) a point with a ∈ A. n.1.4. . Proof. m. To see this. / Y a continuous function. then the set { f −1 U  U ∈ is an open covering of A.
Proof.2 (Tukey). then let c = sup{x ∈ R  [−a. Suppose an open covering of [−a. Lemma 3. COMPACTNESS I Proof. and suppose a subbase for also an open cover of p(X ).e. Exercise 21.22 CHAPTER 3. — A collection of sets is said to be of ﬁnite character if the following condition holds: a set A is an element of if and only if every ﬁnite subset of A is an element of . then every element A ∈ is contained in a maximal set M ∈ .. ) ⊂ U . Since A is bounded. So suppose a bourgeois family of open sets. Using our new terminology.2. — Suppose X a topological space. ). since otherwise there exists a sequence (xi )i≥0 of points in A such that xi  → ∞. and suppose f : X a maximum and a minimum value. that c < a. one has B(c.2. The union of every chain of elements of . If there were no convergent subsequence of (xi )i ≥0 . — Suppose a nonempty collection of sets. Then f attains both Theorem 3. i ) would be disjoint. But then {B n (xi . Then A must be bounded. By the previous exercise. let us show that the third condition implies the ﬁrst. then the set {xi }i ≥0 would be a closed subset of A. a − c/2] with ﬁnitely many elements of . a set M such that no element of properly contains M . Our aim is to show that any bourgeois family of open sets is exiguous.” one can construct a sequence of points of A converging to x. to generate a contradiction. adding in U to that set yields a ﬁnite open covering of [−a. i )}i ≥0 would be an open cover of {xi }i ≥0 with no ﬁnite subcover. — The language here can get a tad confusing. a]. Since every closed subspace of a compact space is compact. x] can be covered by ﬁnitely many elements of }. Proof. and there would be a sequence i of positive real numbers such that the balls B n (xi . so by Zorn’s Lemma. — Prove the following Key Fact about our maximal element : If {Ui }n=1 is a ﬁnite collection of open sets of X such that the intersection i an element of . Then if is of ﬁnite character. — Let us show that the ﬁrst of these conditions implies the second. one may cover [−a. n U i =1 i is contained in . then let U ∈ be an element of the open covering containing c. hence compact. Suppose A compact. a]n is compact. a]n for some a > 0. The Tychonoff Product Theorem Deﬁnition 3. Let us show that the second property implies the third. ( ) be the This family is obviously of ﬁnite character. It is enough to show that Exercise 22. Suppose A has the property that every sequence has a convergent subsequence. and let’s call bourgeois if any ﬁnite subset of is exiguous.1. it is contained in a box [−a.2. a + c/2]. Suppose A is closed and bounded. Write := { ∈ ( p(X ))  is bourgeois}. it is enough to show that [−a. and let collection of all bourgeois families of open sets of X that contain : ( ) := { ∈ ∈  ( ⊂ }. is exiguous. then X is compact.3 (Alexander Subbase). must also belong to p(X ) that is / R a continuous function. yielding the desired contradiction. Finally. Then for some > 0. since if x ∈ A − A is a point “at the boundary. We can also rewrite our assumption on the subbase : we are assuming that any bourgeois subfamily of is exiguous. i. — Give a partial ordering by inclusion. 3. If every subcover of has a ﬁnite subcover. a] is compact. Let’s call a family ⊂ (X ) exiguous if it does not cover X . so let’s introduce some new terminology to make things a little simpler. it is enough to show that [−a. we see that X is compact if and only if any bourgeois family of open sets is exiguous. every element A ∈ is contained in a maximal element. and suppose (xi )i≥0 a sequence of points in A. Suppose. By the deﬁnition of c. It must also be closed. — Suppose X a compact space. then one of the Ui is itself an element of .2. and Tukey’s Lemma says that it contains a maximal element this is now our goal.
Let us say that X is ordercomplete if every subset of X has a supremum in X . Theorem 3. (X . This means that x ∈ Ui ∈ ∩ .4 (Tychonoff Product). d ) a metric space. and give topology generated by the subbase α∈A Xα the product topology. Y ) is said to converge uniformly to a continuous function f ∈ (X . d ( fn (x). Show that X is compact (with the order topology) if and only if it is ordercomplete. It is obvious that α is bourgeois and hence exiguous (since Xα is compact).3.3. again. so we conclude that is also! Exercise 23. and thus (by our assumption on ) U⊂ U∈ ∩ U. we can choose a point xα ∈ Xα such that xα ∈ U ∈ U . n Suppose x ∈ U ∈ .2. Denote by / Y . Suppose a bourgeois subcollection of . / Y converges uniformly if and only if it converges in Prove that a sequence fn of continuous functions X (X . (X . — Suppose X a totally ordered set. THE COMPACTOPEN TOPOLOGY 23 (Hint: if U is an open set of X that is not contained in of such that {U } ∪ {V j } m is a covering of X . Take the topology generated by the subbase lim sup d ( fn (x). write X (A. But now the point / α x := (xα )α∈A is not a member of any element of 3. B) := { f ∈ Now we topologize the set { (K.) j =1 All right. U )  K ∈ This is called the compactopen topology. Y )  f (A) ⊂ B}. now it’s time to consider our subbase is exiguous. — The product of compact spaces is compact. Y ) in the following manner. So is exiguous. We need to show that any bourgeois subcollection ous. This is the := {pr−1 (U )  α ∈ A. for every > 0. in other words. Y ) with the compactopen topology. A sequence of continuous functions fn ∈ (X . one of the Ui is itself and element of .1. — Suppose X any compact space. Exercise 24. f (x)) = 0.3. Show that the compactopen topology on the product topology on s ∈S Y . just as we had hoped. — Suppose X = S δ a discrete space. we are assuming that any bourgeois subcollection of ∩ . Let’s contemplate the intersection exiguous. U ∈ p(Xα )}. For any subsets A ⊂ X and B ⊂ Y . and suppose (Y. (X . Y ) if n→∞ x∈X . then since is a subbase. Is the same true if X is not compact? Exercise 25.3. The compactopen topology Deﬁnition 3. By the Key Fact above. show that there is a ﬁnite collection {V j } m of elements j =1 . p(X ). there is a ﬁnite intersection W := i=1 Ui of elements Ui ∈ such that x ∈ W and W ⊂ U . Now I claim that U∈ . — Suppose {Xα  α ∈ A} a collection of compact spaces. set α of is exigu := {U ∈ p(Xα )  pr−1 (U ) ∈ α }. f (x)) < . Proof. and U ∈ p(Y )}. — Suppose X and Y two topological spaces. α Let’s use the Alexander Subbase Theorem. there exists a natural number N such that for any x ∈ X and any n ≥ N . Hence for each α ∈ A. But remember the intersection ∩ is exiguous. For every α ∈ A. it is bourgeois. Y ) coincides with . Y ) the set of all continuous maps (X .
.
(4. and in Rn (and more generally. Then we have a diagram of implications (1) I II I( (3) (4) Proof. including a key counterexample. / X has a convergent subse(4. equivalent to compactness. — It is obvious that a compact spaces is countably compact. In this section.1.3.1.2) X is sequentially compact.1.3.1. This doesn’t quite cut it for more general spaces.3) One says that X is sequentially compact if and only if every sequence x : N quence. let’s see what implications we do have.3) X is countably compact. write V0 := U0 .1. nonempty subspaces of X has a nonempty intersection.1.3. and let V p be the ﬁrst of the sequence of Ui ’s not covered by the V0 ∪ V1 ∪ · · · ∪ V p−1 . (4. (4.1. Proceeding inductively. Let us now see that a sequentially compact space is countably compact.1. will contemplate some examples.1. If this choice is impossible at any (ﬁnite) stage. Proposition 4. — Show that a space X is countably compact if and only if every nested sequence X ⊃ V1 ⊃ V2 ⊃ V3 ⊃ · · · of closed.. (4. then we have our required ﬁnite subcover.e.3. and we’ll also talk about the notion of a net or Moore–Smith sequence. then for every n ∈ N we may select an element xn ∈ Vn such that for any i < n. moreover. Suppose = {Ui }i ≥0 a countable open cover of X . To see this.1. and they are very different from compactness. 4. Deﬁnition 4.CHAPTER 4 COMPACTNESS II 4. (4.2. in any metrizable space) they are indistinct and.4) X is limit point compact. — Suppose X a topological space.1. we’ll discuss analogues and generalizations of these notions. — These three notions seem remarkably similar.1. First.1) One says that X is limit point compact if and only if every inﬁnite subset A of X has a limit point (i.1. if this choice is always possible. they are different conditions in general.3. a point x ∈ X that is contained in A − {x}).1.2) One says that X is countably compact if and only if every countable open cover has a ﬁnite subcover. (4. Exercise 26.1. — Consider the following properties for a topological space X . Forms of compactness We have already seen that for subspaces of a euclidean space. uu v~ uu (2) . compactness is equivalent to the Heine–Borel property (closed and bounded) of the Bolzano–Weierstraß property (the property every sequence has a convergent subsequence).1) X is compact. However.
Put differently. . for every element α ∈ A. Consequently. let’s recall that a strict wellordering on a set A is a wellordering < that is irreﬂexive.1. which must admit a ﬁnite subcover.4.26 CHAPTER 4. . (4.1. These are the ﬁnite ordinals. these are called limit ordinals. Suppose A any set of ordinals. this is an open cover of X . then one of the following is true: (1) β = γ . Let us now see that a countably compact space is limit point compact. Now we come to von Neumann’s deﬁnition of ordinal: a set A is an ordinal if (4. Then y ∈ Vn for some integer n. then A is wellordered by this relation. any ordinal β < α is also an element of A. we can choose an open neighborhood Ua such that Ua ∩ A = {a}. Now sequential compactness guarantees that the sequence (xn )n≥0 has a convergent subsequence (xni )i ≥0 .4. and (4. Some ordinals are not successors. (4. and every element of α is strictly less than every element of β.1) every element of A is also a subset of A. we can concatenate them by well ordering the disjoint union α β so that the order within α and β is preserved. and so one may set α · β := ord(α × β). and its successor has a successor ω + 2. so A must be ﬁnite. Example 4.2) A is strictly wellordered with respect to set membership.1. an ordinal is a set A such that the following conditions hold. 1. we have xni ∈ V m . if we build a wellordered set A. Now set α + β := ord(α β). — To construct this example.2’) If β. every ordinal α is equal to the set [0. the minimal ordinal.4. it is ω := {0. whence B is itself ﬁnite. . . . . }. n − 1}. it is not the case that a < a. we deﬁne 0 := ∅. ion. then there exists an element β ∈ A such that γ ∩ β = ∅. (2) β ∈ γ . 1. γ ∈ A. one can give the product α × β the lexicographic ordering.3’) If ∅ = β A. and for every point a ∈ A. COMPACTNESS II xn ∈ Vi .1.1. or (3) γ ∈ β. This is wellordered.4. Every ordinal α has a successor. . etc. so for every i 0 (in particular for i so that ni > n). a set A of ordinals is itself an ordinal if and only if. If α and β are ordinals. for every integer n > 0 the ordinal n := {0. Given two ordinals α and β.1. Of course any countable subset A ⊂ B has no limit point. in the sense that for any element a ∈ A. .4.4. We can deﬁne operations of ordinal arithmetic in the following manner. then we say that α < β if α ∈ β. Similarly. and suppose B ⊂ X a subset with no limit point. namely α + 1 := α ∪ {α}. so A is closed. / let y be the limit of this subsequence. The ﬁrst inﬁnite ordinal is also the ﬁrst nonzero limit ordinal. we deﬁne. there is an ordinal ord(A) and an orderisomorphism A In particular. (4. Now recursively. b ) < (a . It has a successor ω + 1. so that (a. Let us show that every countable subset A ⊂ B is ﬁnite. b ) if either a < a or else a = a and b < b . With this deﬁnition. We won’t prove it here. Suppose X a countably compact space. As a result. but in fact every wellordered set is orderisomorphic to a unique ordinal in a unique fash/ ord(A). But it admits no proper subcover at all. a contradiction. there is a supremum of any set A of ordinals: it is simply the union of the elements of A. The minimal ordinal 0 is a limit ordinal. Using this. First.1’) If β ∈ A. Now write X = (X − A) ∪ a∈A Ua . then β A. we have to appeal to some basic facts about ordinals. α) of all ordinals less than α.
1] {0. The surprising fact is that these ordinals are all countable. . since it appears so often.1. . Show that the product X := x∈[0. ω + 1. }. ω 2 . — Show that for any ordinal α. but it cannot be compact. ω + 2. . β) of all maps f : α only ﬁnitely many elements of α are mapped to an element larger than 0 ∈ β. y ∈ X . ω ω .. ω · 2 + 2. / β such that Note that none of these operations is commutative. the intersection I x of all closed neighborhoods of x is the singleton {x}. ω ω . . Locally compact Hausdorff spaces The next variant of compactness we want to consider. Then since I x = {x}. but they are nonisomorphic as wellordered sets. ω ωω it can be expressed as the supremum of the sequence 0 = sup{ω. Proposition 4. . — A space X is Hausdorff if and only if. β)). we get a sequence of ordinals: 0. . — A space X is said to be Hausdorff if for any two distinct points x. the order topology and the discrete topology coincide if and only if α contains no limit ordinal apart from 0. . (Hint: such a space must have the property that it contains a ﬁnite subspace that is not closed. .2. . but it might not be an interesting enterprise: Exercise 27. and suppose x ∈ X . local compactness. . . . Conversely. The set ω1 + 1 is. . ω · 2. . Exercise 29. 0. respectively. . Indeed. Suppose x and y two distinct points of X . Exercise 28. 1. .4. however.2. ω ω . because every supremum of a countable set of countable ordinals is countable. — Suppose X Hausdorff. one sets βα := ord(Map(α. . . .) 4. We can give any of these sets the order topology.2. ω ω The last one listed there was studied by Cantor: it is the smallest ordinal satisfying the equation 0 ω ωω . If we apply these operations to the ﬁnite ordinals and to ω. let us concentrate on this one. . called Hausdorffness. . . and it is going to give us a useful counterexample now and in the future.. So the inﬁnite ordinals all have the same cardinality. .. . and I claim that any point y ∈ X − {x} is not in I . This is the ﬁrst uncountable cardinal. LOCALLY COMPACT HAUSDORFF SPACES 27 We can generalize the lexicographic order to a well ordering on the set Map(α. Hence the space ω1 (when equipped with the order topology) is sequentially compact. Every increasing sequence in ω1 converges to an element of ω1 . for any such point. ω. whence X − V is a closed neighborhood of x not containing y. for any point x ∈ X . but not sequentially compact. . . 1}δ . . We will discuss a variety of separation axioms later.. .2. there are neighborhoods U of x and V of y such that U ∩ V = ∅. though both addition and multiplication are commutative. for any point x ∈ X . — Consider the discrete space {0. is most interesting when coupled with a particular separation axiom. . ω 3 . and now the interior W ◦ and the complement X − W are disjoint open neighborhoods of x and y. 1}δ is compact. compact. — Find a space that is limit point compact. . one has I x = {x}. = ω 0. Thus I = {x}. suppose that. . . Proof. there exists a closed neighborhood W of x not containing y. ω ω . Surely x ∈ I x . one may ﬁnd disjoint open neighborhoods U of x and V of y.2. Now the supremum of all countable cardinals is an uncountable cardinal ω1 . since it contains no maximal element. but for now. but not countably compact. . . Deﬁnition 4. . 2. ω ω . ω · 2 + 1. .
Lemma 4. Y = T . — Any subspace of a Hausdorff space is Hausdorff. — Suppose X a locally compact Hausdorff space X . Proposition 4.7.2.2. . Show that for any point x ∈ X − K. — The space Q with the subspace topology is not locally compact. f (s . so there is a ﬁnite collection of points y1 . — Show that a space X is Hausdorff if and only if the diagonal ∆X := {(x. . L ⊂ V . Then the particular point topology for (X . t ) = t . g : X equalizer E( f . — Suppose X a locally compact Hausdorff space X . x ) ∈ X × X  f (x) = g (x )} is closed in X × X .e. and intersect this with the diagonal ∆S×T . the Corollary 4. Deﬁnition 4. and Y is Hausdorff. The coﬁnite topology on any inﬁnite set is not. then any compact subspace K ⊂ X is closed. Proof. the graph / Y .4. n}} covers n. The euclidean spaces Rn are locally compact. — A space is said to be locally compact if and only if any point has a compact neighborhood. .5. i. . and any product of any collection of Hausdorff spaces is Hausdorff. then for any continuous map h : S Γ h := {(s. x) ∈ X × X } is a closed subspace of X × X .. / T . and suppose x ∈ X . and suppose K ⊂ X a compact subspace.V ⊂ X such that K ⊂ U .2. . Write U = X − K. . — Suppose K ⊂ X a compact subspace. and Proof. — The set E( f .9. completely contained in U . Proposition 4. and the closure V is compact. then for any continuous maps f .g ) is the inverse image of ∆Y under the map ( f . Show that there exist open sets U . — If X and Y are spaces.2. — Any compact space is of course locally compact. Now the n intersection i =1 Vyi is an open neighborhood of x that is disjoint from K. L ⊂ X two disjoint compact subspaces. t ) ∈ S × T  h(s) = t } is closed in S × T . Proof. g ) := {(x. x) is the topology in which p(X ) := {U ∈ (X )  x ∈ U } ∪ {∅}. — Any metric space (in particular any euclidean space Rn ) is Hausdorff. suppose X any set. Example 4.2. there exists a neighborhood U of x and an open set V containing K such that U ∩ V = ∅. y2 . and T is Hausdorff.2.2. Suppose x ∈ U . .3. and suppose K. For any element y ∈ K. Example 4. 2. — If X is a Hausdorff space. g ) : X × X /Y × Y . Exercise 31. — Apply the proposition to the case when X = S × T . t ) = h(s) to obtain a closed subspace of S × T × S × T . COMPACTNESS II Exercise 30. and suppose U an open subset that contains a compact subspace K.10. The particular point topology is always locally compact.11.2. yn such that the subcollection {Wyi  i ∈ {1. — If S and T are spaces. The collection {Wy  y ∈ K} is an open cover of K. Example 4. since its compact subspaces have empty interior. and U ∩ V = ∅.8. and g (s. Proposition 4. . More exotically. — Suppose X a Hausdorff space.6. choose disjoint open neighborhoods Vy of x and Wy of y. .2.28 CHAPTER 4. Exercise 32. and any discrete space is locally compact. Then there exists an open set W whose closure is compact such that K ⊂ W ⊂ W ⊂ U .
1) Rn . — A closed subspace of an LCH space is itself LCH.16. (4.4. — Describe the Alexandroff compactiﬁcations of the following spaces in terms of more familiar spaces. (4. a subspace of an LCH space X is itself LCH if and only if it can be written as the complement of a closed subspace inside another closed subspace. (37. Now the family {(X − U ) ∩ W x  x ∈ X − U } is a family of compact subspaces of X whose intersection is empty. Proof. — Suppose X a space. Lemma 4. (37. If it’s true. x)  n ∈ Zx ∈ R} ⊂ R2 . Exercise 36. — Suppose X a space. — Suppose Y an LCH space.2. is the LCH condition necessary? If it’s false. . — More generally.2) A discrete space. (4. .12.2. xn ∈ X − U such that the intersection (X − U ) ∩ n n W x is empty. — The ﬁrst two conditions imply the third by deﬁnition.4) Q with the subspace topology.2. Thus it remains only to show that the third condition implies the ﬁrst.12.2. Then deﬁne X to be the set X {∞}. Then the following are equivalent. i=1 Proposition 4. / X is continuous and open. (4. Consequently there are a ﬁnite number of elements x1 .1) Every point x ∈ X has a fundamental system of compact neighborhoods.17.3) The Alexandroff compactiﬁcation X is Hausdorff if and only if X is LCH.17.2. I can apply the previous lemma to get an open neighborhood W of x such that W is compact and contained in V . then exercise 32 applies directly. Theorem 4.14. — Show that this indeed deﬁnes a topology on X . (4.2. We have the following facts about the Alexandroff compactiﬁcation. (Why does our result follow from this?) Exercise 33.17. — The intersection of a closed set and a compact set is compact. the exercise 32 gives an open neighborhood V x of x and an open set W x whose closure is compact such that K ⊂ Vx and V x ∩ W x = ∅. and suppose Z ⊂ Y a closed subspace.2. So suppose X is locally compact.13. since compact subspaces of a Hausdorff space are closed.17. 4.2.2. — Prove the previous theorem. LOCALLY COMPACT HAUSDORFF SPACES 29 Proof. with the following topology: a set U ⊂ X will be said to be open if and only if either U is an open subset of X .2) The image of i is a dense open set in X unless X is already compact.12. and X − U is closed and compact. then for every point x ∈ X − U . The third also implies the second. x2 . and suppose V an open neighborhood of x. — If U = X . . (37.2) Every point x ∈ X has a closed compact neighborhood. Now W := i =1 W x does the job. and the resulting space is compact. . Are they homeomorphic? Prove it or give a counterexample.15.2. — We now turn to the Alexandroff or onepoint compactiﬁcation of a space X . or else U contains ∞. 4. can you add conditions on Z and Y so that it will be true? Exercise 37. Exercise 35. — We often think of locally compact and Hausdorff as a single condition. . which we abbreviate as LCH.2.3) The subspace {(n.3) X is locally compact.2. If not. Compare the Alexandroff compactiﬁcation (Y − Z) and the quotient space Y /Z.2.12.1) The inclusion map i : X (4. Exercise 34. Proof. — Suppose X a Hausdorff space. Deﬁnition 4. (37.
.
Then a neighborhood of a subset A ⊂ X is a set containing whose interior contains A.1.3.1) A and B are separated. T2 1 One says that X is Urysohn or T2 1 if any two points are separated by closed neighborhoods. Then two points x.3.4) A and B are separated by a function. respectively.4.1. Otherwise. — Suppose X a space. (5. (5. T0 One says that X is Kolmogoroff or T0 if any two distinct points are topologically distinguishable.3.1. (5.1.5) The sets A and B are said to be precisely separated by a function if there exists a continuous map f : / [0. Exercise 38. then x = y. (5. Then we introduce the Trennungsaxiome. (5.1. (5.4. T2 One says that X is Hausdorff or T2 if any two distinct points are separated by neighborhoods. and suppose A.1. T1 One says that X is T1 if any two distinct points are separated.3.1. / [0. if x. B ⊂ X .4. y ∈ X topologically distinguishable points. It is easy to see that each of these conditions follows from the next. y ∈ X are topologically distinguishable if they do not have the same collection of open neighborhoods. and suppose A. B ⊂ X two subspaces of X .CHAPTER 5 COUNTABILITY AND SEPARATION 5.1. . — Suppose X a space. Deﬁnition 5. — Suppose X a space. Deﬁnition 5.1) The sets A and B are said to be separated if both A ∩ B and A ∩ B are empty. (5.2.3) A and B are separated by closed neighborhoods. 1] such that A = f −1 {0} and B = f −1 {1}.1. (5.1.4. X 5. 1] (5.3.1. Give an example to show that the converse need not hold. (5. — Observe that for any space X .4.1. — Suppose X a space.1. T3 1 One says that X is Tychonoff or T3 1 if it is T0 and if any closed subset Z ⊂ X and any point x ∈ Z are separated / 2 2 by a function. 2 2 T3 One says that X is regular Hausdorff or T3 if it is T0 and if any closed subset Z ⊂ X and any point x ∈ Z are / separated by neighborhoods. Deﬁnition 5. respectively.2) A and B are separated by neighborhoods. Taxonomy of separation Deﬁnition 5.5) A and B are precisely separated by a function.1.3) The sets A and B are said to be separated by closed neighborhoods there exists disjoint closed neighborhoods U and V and A and B.3. the points are said to be topologically indistinguishable. — Suppose X a space.1.1.2) The sets A and B are said to be separated by neighborhoods if there exists disjoint neighborhoods U and V and A and B.1.4) The sets A and B are said to be separated by a function if there exists a continuous map f : X such that f A = 0 and f B = 1.5.4.
9. 4. Now let X = {a. T5 One says that X is completely normal Hausdorff or T5 if it is T1 and if any two separated sets are separated by neighborhoods.8. This (5. (5. due to A.6) The Tychonoff corkscrew is the standard example of a space that is T3 but not T3 1 . (2) a neighborhood of (n.2) (5. Let X = {(x. but it’s an absurd space 2 that just makes you sorry you ever tried to contemplate it. j ∈ {0. However. y) ∈ R2  y ≥ 0}. but every / R has the property that f (a) = f (b ).2) (5. and ﬁx an irrational number θ. — For any space X . tk ) consists of all but ﬁnitely many elements of {(x. tk ) are isolated. (5. This is a T2 space that is not T2 1 . 5.1. Hence the closures of every two open sets intersect. 2. Topologize this set in the following manner: for any point (x. B.1.9. For every odd integer n.3) (5. and let X1 = n even Tn . Every ﬁnite set in X is closed. y) contains the union of four strips of slope ±θ extending from y y y y the intervals (x + θ − .9. so it is not T 1 .1. 6}.5) Let H be the upper halfplane {(x.6.1. continuous map f : X 32 / R with the topology of pointwise convergence.9. — The following are equivalent for a space X .1. This is a space that is T3 .4) X is T1 . X is T0 . topological indistinguishability is an equivalence relation on the points of X .x + y θ + ∪ x− y θ − . — For any i. 1. Topologize this set in the following manner.1. y) ∈ X1 consists of all but a ﬁnite number of points of {(z. (3) a neighborhood of a point (n. n The coﬁnite topology on an inﬁnite set is T1 but not T2 .9.32 CHAPTER 5. where p = (x.1) (5. and U is an open neighborhood of p in the topology on R2 . set Tn := k≥1 {(x. Let’s call it the Raha space. The closure of each basic neighborhood N (x. let N (x. then any T j space is also Ti . Begin with all the open sets in the set P = {(x.7) Consider the space Map(R. Raha. y) ∈ 2 R2  (x − n)2 + y 2 = tk }. and let X2 = n odd Tn . x + θ + ) and (x − θ − . — Let us convince ourselves that these conditions are distinct.1. b } ∪ n∈Z Tn .1. and add in sets of the form { p} ∪ (U ∩ P ).1. 2 2 Example 5. The quotient space under this equivalence relation is the Kolmogoroff quotient KX of X .9. Lemma 5. Now let (tk )k≥1 be an increasing sequence of positive real numbers 2 converging to 1.3) (5. if i ≤ j .1. R) of all maps R space is T3 1 but not T4 .1.7.4) You have already given an example of a space that is not T0 . and it is not difﬁcult to see that it is T2 1 . Theorem 5. 3 1 . Topologize X so that: (1) every point of X2 except the points (n. Here’s one that’s slightly simpler (though still pretty absurd). (4) a neighborhood of a is a set Uc containing a and all points of X1 ∪X2 with xcoordinate greater than a number c. 1). (5) a neighborhood of b is a set Vd containing b and all points of X1 ∪ X2 with xcoordinate less than a number d .7. This is frequently done in analysis. COUNTABILITY AND SEPARATION T4 One says that X is normal Hausdorff or T4 if it is T1 and if any two closed subsets can be separated by neighborhoods. 3.1. set Tn := {n} × (−1.7. 0) intersects the 2 closure of every neighborhood of p. y) ∈ Q2  y ≥ 0}. Points of X are closed. the complement of a neighborhood of p = (0. y) ∈ R2  y > 0}.7. This is a topology on H . For every even integer n. y) ∈ R2  (x − n)2 + y 2 = tk }.7. y) ∈ X .1) (5. the sets N (x. (5.x − y θ + ∩Q . and contemplate the topology generated by these sets. T6 One says that X is perfectly normal Hausdorff or T6 if it is T1 and if any two closed sets are precisely separated by a function.1.1. 2 1 .9. So H is not T3 . y)  n − 1 < z < n + 1} ∩ (Tn−1 ∪ Tn ). 2 2 . y)} ∪ x+ y θ − .1. 5. y) = {(x. and any two topologially distinguishable points are separated. This space is automatically Kolmogoroff.9. (5. The Sierpi´ ski space Σ0 is T0 but not T1 . 0). y) form a base for this topology. and any > 0. x − θ + ).
(39. — Show that the following are equivalent for a space X .1. Urysohn’s lemma.4) The interior of every proper closed subset is empty. Exercise 39.1) if t < s . (39.13. in each case the example listed is the simplest one I could ﬁnd. of course.) (5. {F t  t ∈ D and t > s }.2. (So you walk the plank . Deﬁnition 5.2. or T4 .5. It is not. the difference between T4 and T3 1 is pretty 2 2 signiﬁcant. This suggests something interesting: the differences between T2 1 and T2 and 2 T3 is pretty small. Lemma 5. but there is no comparison between sobriety and T1 .1) X is irreducible.3) X cannot be written as the union of two proper nonempty closed subsets. Normality. NORMALITY. — Every Hausdorff space is sober. (39.1.9. Then for any x ∈ X . contrary to what might have been your expectation. called sobriety. The closed sets are declared to be those sets V such that either V is ﬁnite or x ∈ V .1. and (5. Deﬁnition 5.12.10. This shows us two relatively bright lines separating the “easy” separation axioms T0 −T1 from the “midrange” separation axioms T2 −T3 1 . and a short argument shows it cannot be T6 .1. 5.1.1. ⊂) are isomorphic as posets.11.2. 5. ⊂) and ( p(Y ). however T5 . and hence it is T4 . Get it? It’s clever. 5. and the Tietze extension theorem Deﬁnition 5. — An exercise in set theory (not to be handed in).2) Every nonempty open set of X is dense. {F t  t ∈ D and t < s} . to memorize exotic counterexamples. because the space P − {(ω. then X and Y are homeomorphic. — A space X is said to be normal if disjoint closed sets have disjoint neighborhoods. However. It is compact and Hausdorff.2. ω1 )} is not normal. .1. — A space X is said to be sober if every irreducible closed subspace Z ⊂ X has a unique generic point. ⊂).2. which is called the Fort space topology.3. let f (x) = inf{t  x ∈ F t }. that is better suited to applications in algebraic geometry. (39. AND THE TIETZE EXTENSION THEOREM 33 (5. The point is to realize that there are examples that prevent the reversal of any of the implications T j ⇒ Ti for i ≤ j . and consider the posets ( p(X ).1. and every sober space is Kolmogoroff.3.2. . and suppose that for each element t ∈ D. and suppose x ∈ X .14. there is a subset F t of a set X such that (5.2) the sets F t cover X . Exercise 40.9) Suppose X an uncountable set. then F t ⊂ F s .2. — A point of a space X is said to be generic if it is dense in X . Then for any element s ∈ R. — Suppose X and Y sober spaces. Then it is simple to verify that X is T5 . — Suppose D ⊂ R>0 a dense subset. URYSOHN’S LEMMA. ⊂) and ( p(Y ). Also.8) The Tychonoff plank is the space P := (ω + 1) × (ω1 + 1). Then we have the variant on the particular point topology.3. — A normal T1 space is normal Hausdorff. Deﬁnition 5. The moral of the story is not.9. — A space X is said to be irreducible (or hyperconnected) if no two nonempty open subsets of X are disjoint. 5. so we do not include it in our deﬁnition. — There is another condition. as is the difference between T3 1 and T3 .2. Show that if ( p(X ). one has {x ∈ X  f (x) < s} = and {x ∈ X  f (x) ≤ s} = Proof. The results of this section do not require the T1 property. and separating the “midrange” 2 axioms from the “hard” separation axioms T4 − T6 .
6 (Tietze extension).3. continuous map A .2. Theorem 5.5. f A = 0 and f B = 1. On the other hand. If for each element t ∈ D. 1] can be extended to a continuous map X / [−1. It is clear that the ﬁrst set is contained in the second. — Suppose X is a normal space.2. and suppose A a closed subspace of X .2. there is an open subset F t ⊂ X such that (5. 1] . (−∞. Proof.2. there is an element r ∈ D with s < r < t .2) the sets F t cover X . then F t ⊂ F s .5. This completes the proof. — Suppose now X a space. It is plain to see that the conditions of the previous lemma apply. where p. q ∈ N}.2.1) If t > 1. By construction. — Suppose X a normal space.34 CHAPTER 5.1) if t < s .2. then the function f deﬁned by f (x) = inf{t  x ∈ F t } is continuous. then let F t = X .4.5.4) For 0 < t < 1.2. Then any / [−1. Then A / [0.2. and it constructs our continuous function f . are the union of open sets.3. Write t = (2m + 1)2−n and let F t be an open set containing F (2m)2−n whose closure F t ⊂ F(2m+2)2−n (by normality). (5. and (5. COUNTABILITY AND SEPARATION Lemma 5. (5. are closed (and hence we are done) if the following equality obtains: {F t  t ∈ D and t > s} = {F t  t ∈ D and t > s}. (5. and B are separated by functions. s].5 (Urysohn). (5. hence open.5. i. We deﬁne our sets F t for t ∈ D thus. (−∞. 1] such that f  = 0 and f  = 1. for any t ∈ D with t > s. Lemma 5.e. and suppose D ⊂ R>0 a dense subset.3) Let F0 be an open set containing A such that F 0 is disjoint from B.2) Let F1 = X − B. It now follows from the previous lemma that the inverse images of sets of the second kind. and suppose A and B two disjoint closed subsets of X . The previous lemma shows that the inverse images of sets of the ﬁrst kind. whence F r ⊂ F t . — It’s enough to check that the inverse image of the sets (−∞.2. there is a continuous map f : X A B Proof.. s ] are open and closed (respectively) for every s ∈ R. we proceed by recursion. — We wish to apply the previous lemma with the set D = {x ∈ Q  x = p2−q . s) and (−∞. s ).
The space X is said to satisfy the second axiom of countability or to be secondcountable if the topology on X has a countable base. — Suppose = {B1 . . Example 6. — The second axiom of countability implies the ﬁrst.2. — The real line R is second countable. for any point x ∈ X . a point x ∈ X is contained in / Y to a the closure A if and only if there is a sequence of points of A converging to x. we have x ∈ B j ⊂ U . } ⊂ indexed by a subset J ⊂ N. secondcountable) space is ﬁrstcountable (resp. First and second countability Deﬁnition 6.1.1. — Suppose X a ﬁrstcountable space. Then X is said to satisfy the ﬁrst axiom of countability or to be ﬁrstcountable if for every point x ∈ X there is a countable fundamental system of neighborhoods of x. Simply select a point x j ∈ B j for every j ∈ N. Suppose an open covering of X .3. . — Secondcountable spaces are both separable and Lindelöf. Lemma 6. secondcountable) spaces. show that the set 1 = #R (i. This set is dense. I claim that this is a subcover. Example 6. Showing that X is separable is even easier. } a countable base for a space X . . This deﬁnes a countable subset := {Uj1 . and the ordinal ω1 + 1 satisﬁes neither axiom of countability. for any convergent sequence xn → x.1. select. an element Uj ∈ containing B j .. .e. if possible. Proof. Exercise 42. — Suppose X a secondcountable space. Exercise 41. Theorem 6. as is any countable product of R with itself. Exercise 43.CHAPTER 6 METRIZATION THEOREMS 6..1. ..6. A space X is said to be Lindelöf if every open cover has a countable subcover. Show also that a map f : X topological space Y is continuous if and only if. (Why?) . — A space X is said to be separable if it has a countable dense subset.1. the sequence f (xn ) converges to f (x).1.1. Finally. Uj2 . Show that for any subset A ⊂ X . Additionally. secondcountable).4. p(X ) has cardinality not greater than Deﬁnition 6. Lemma 6. B2 . For every natural number j . Indeed.5. — Suppose X a space. as is any countable product of ﬁrstcountable (resp. any continuous open image of a secondcountable space is secondcountable. an element U ∈ contains x. the cardinality of the continuum). show that X is sequentially compact if and only if it is countably compact. We show ﬁrst that X is Lindelöf.1. — Any subspace of a ﬁrstcountable (respectively. .7. and so for some j . Hence j ∈ J . — Give an example demonstrating that an uncountable product of secondcountable spaces need not be ﬁrstcountable. whence some Uj ∈ contains x.1. — The ordinal ω1 (with the order topology) satisﬁes the ﬁrst but not the second axiom of countability.
which is not Lindelöf. — The following are equivalent for a space X .2. Begin by proving the following / Y f (valued Lemma 6. and suppose a family of continuous maps f : X in possibly many different spaces). — A space is a Tychonoff space if and only if it is homeomorphic to a subspace of a cube [0.2.1 (Embedding). the family of open sets whose closures do not intersect A cover B. . . U2 .2. .3. Similarly. (6. (6. s ) of natural numbers. and so U= r ≥1 Ur and V= s ≥1 Vs are disjoint open neighborhoods of A and B. / (6. Urysohn’s metrization theorem Exercise 46.2. y ∈ X .36 CHAPTER 6.2. but not secondcountable. Show that the following conditions are equivalent on X : (1) X satisﬁes the second axiom of countability. there exists an element f ∈ such that f (x) ∈ f (A). Theorem 6. Similarly.2. Now we form a cover ∪ ∪ {X − (A ∪ B)} of A and of X . Example 6.2. respectively. — The product of two Lindelöf spaces need not be Lindelöf.1. there exists an element f ∈ such that f (x) = f (y). 1]N . . Exercise 45. Since X is regular. / f ∈ Yf . separable. and thus the family of open sets whose closures do not intersect B cover A.9.2.2. Lemma 6. for any point a ∈ A there is a neighborhood of a whose closure fails to intersect B. a subspace of a Lindelöf space need not be Lindelöf. — Suppose X a metrizable space. the product of the Sorgenfrey line with itself is the Sorgenfrey plane. and (3) X is Lindelöf. 1]A for some set A. (6. (6.3. — Suppose X a space. It now follows from the Lindelöf property that there are countable subcovers {U1 . } ⊂ {V1 . and Lindelöf.2. — Suppose A and B disjoint closed subsets of X . — Every T3 Lindelöf space is T4 . 6.2) X is homeomorphic to a subspace of the Hilbert cube [0.3 (Urysohn metrization). .V2 . Check that the Sorgenfrey line is ﬁrstcountable.2) The evaluation map E is open if for any closed subset A ⊂ X and any point x ∈ X − A. Proof. — Prove the following Theorem 6.3) The evaluation map E is injective if and only if for any two distinct point x. .1. Now set Ur := Ur − m≤r Vm and V s := V s − m≤n Um for every natural number r and s. One veriﬁes immediately that Ur ∩V s = ∅ for every pair (r.8 (Tychonoff).2. indeed.1) The evaluation map is a continuous map E : X (6. (2) X is separable.3) X is separable and metrizable. — Show that any locally compact Hausdorff space is Tychonoff.2. . METRIZATION THEOREMS Exercise 44.3.2.2 (Embedding).1) X is second countable and T3 . } ⊂ of B.
It is now an immediate consequence that a metrizable space has a σdiscrete base.6. — Any open cover of a metrizable space has a σdiscrete open reﬁnement.5) X is T6 . the corresponding function f(U . Suppose / a countable base for the topology of X .3) For any space Y . Lemma 6. a Urysohn function f(U . Lemma 6.3.3. Outline of proof. := {(U .6. (6.2) X is T3 .V ) : X U f X −V = 1. .V ) ∈ One sees that is a countable set. Let’s list some of the purely topological corollaries of the metrizability of a space X .2. (6. One says that is discrete if every point is contained in a neighborhood that intersects only one element of . Since X is T3 and Lindelöf. (Why?) Any metrizable space is T3 .3) X is T3 .3. and there is a σlocally ﬁnite base for X .V ) ∈ . Lemma 6.3. function f : X n in X . and set ×  U ⊂ V }. Theorem 6. — One question that might naturally arise here is: so? I can show that if a space satisﬁes some abstract conditions.3. set := { f(U .6.6. locally discrete) families of subspaces of X .1.3.2.2) Dually. for any subspace A ⊂ X .3. if and only if it is sequentially compact. (Why?) Since (U ..2.3. it is also T4 by Tychonoff’s lemma.6. (6. the sequence f (xn ) → f (x). hence so is any subspace. 6. (6.3.V ) ∈ .1) A subset U ⊂ X is open if and only if no sequence of X − U converges to a point of U .6. i. 6. — A T3 space whose topology has a σlocally ﬁnite base is T4 . / Y is continuous if and only if. 1] such that for any closed subset A ⊂ X and any point x ∈ X − A. The ﬁrst two lemmas here will show that the second condition implies the ﬁrst. Suppose A ⊂ X a closed subset.3. (6. (6. Using the embedding lemma above. for any (U . there exists an continuous functions X element f ∈ such that f (x) ∈ f (A). (6. a point x ∈ X is a member of the closure A if and only if there is a sequence of points in A that converge to A. and there is a σlocally discrete base for X .. So. every open cover of X has a locally ﬁnite open reﬁnement. it is enough to construct a countable family of / [0.5.3.2 (Bing–Nagata–Smirnov metrization).1) X is metrizable. THE BING–NAGATA–SMIRNOV METRIZATION THEOREM 37 Proof. 1] such that f  = 0 and Urysohn’s lemma. — Fill in the details I skipped in the proof of the Urysohn metrization theorem.3. (6.4. and it remains to show that it has the desired properties. and suppose x ∈ X − A.V )  (U . for any convergent sequence x → x (6.3.V ) ∈ }.V ) does the job.3. A family of subspaces of a space X is said to be σlocally ﬁnite (respectively.e. The Bing–Nagata–Smirnov metrization theorem Deﬁnition 6. σlocally discrete) if it can be written as the union of a countable collection of locally ﬁnite (resp. observe that the ﬁnal condition implies the penultimate condition.6. We may now choose a basic open V ∈ such that x ∈ U ⊂ X − A and a basic open U∈ such that x ∈ U ⊂ V . — First. — The following are equivalent for a space X . — A T3 space whose topology has a σlocally ﬁnite base is metrizable. — It is not hard to see that the Hilbert cube is separable and metrizable. Exercise 47.3.3.4) A subspace A ⊂ X is compact if and only if it is countably compact. then it can be given a metric that gives rise to its topology.6) X is paracompact. choose. and write up a complete proof. This is a countable set of functions. (Check this!) Hence it remains to show that a T3 space that satisﬁes the second axiom of countability is homeomorphic to a subspace of the Hilbert cube. using / [0.3.6. — A family of subspaces of a topological space X is said to be locally ﬁnite if every point is contained in a neighborhood that intersects only ﬁnitely many elements of .3. and any separable metrizable space is second countable.
.
ENTR’ACTE .
.
This deﬁnes a restriction map ρV ⊂U : cts (U ) X / cts (V ) . set Γ( p)(U ) = Γ(X /Y )(U ) := {s : U We say that Γ(X /Y )(U ) is the set of sections of p over U . then my restriction map is simply the identity. Then we can make a similar deﬁni/ Y  s is continuous and p ◦ s = id }. and thence to a function on W . for any open set U ∈ p(X ).4. Suppose X is a topological space. — More interestingly. Example 7.1. be rather silly in how I restrict: I might have taken V = U . (U ) := { f : U X Again. (7. a restriction map ρV ⊂U : (V ) These data are subject to the following conditions.3. Then a presheaf on X is the following data: (7.4. of course. then I may restrict it to a continuous function f V on any open subset V ⊂ U . a set (U ).B) for any open sets U .CHAPTER 7 SHEAF THEORY 7. . and let’s contemplate. We can now attempt to study. On the other hand.2.A) for any open set U ∈ p(X ).1.1. suppose p : Y tion: for any open set U ∈ p(X ). but the entire system p(X ) (ρV ⊂U )V ⊂U ∈ . I see that I get the same answer as if I had restricted f all the way from U to W . Example 7. what if I consider three open sets W ⊂ V ⊂ U in X ? If I restrict a function f on U to a function on V . it’s pretty clear that we can restrict continuous maps. Presheaves Example 7.1. we get an equality of maps ρW ⊂V ◦ ρV ⊂U = ρW ⊂U .1) For any open set U ∈ p(X ).4.1. U Deﬁnition 7. and so we have a similar structure Y X := ( Y (U ))U ∈ p(X ) . That is. (U ) := { f : U X It is not difﬁcult to see that if I have a continuous function f on U . the map ρU ⊂U is the identity map on (U ).1. I could try the same trick with any “target” topological space Y : for any open set U ∈ p(X ). (7. — Suppose X a topological space.V ∈ p(X ) with V ⊂ U . write Y / Y  f is continuous}. X (ρV ⊂U )V ⊂U ∈ p(X ) .1. and / (U ). the set cts / R  f is continuous}. / X a continuous map. — Let us begin right away with a motivational example. — There was nothing particularly special about the topological space R in the above example. X I can.1.1. not the individual sets made up of these: cts cts := ( X (U ))U ∈ X cts (U ) X p(X ) . or the restriction maps ρV ⊂U .4.
it’s a little more subtle than anything we’ve seen so far: the data are the choice of all the sets (U ) and the choice of all / (U ).1. in this case. over U . which assigns to any open set U the set S. one has the restriction maps ρV ⊂U : (V ) to specify them as part of the information of a presheaf.1. We won’t say more about this here. when the maps go in the opposite direction. But the presheaf Γ( p) has shown us that there is something nontrivial about our map p. SHEAF THEORY (7. First. and ρW ⊂V ◦ ρV ⊂U = ρW ⊂U . Γ(∇)(U ) is a four point set.9.9. you assign a set. One way to think of this is to think that there is no single. For an open set U ∈ p(X ). And in general.42 CHAPTER 7. — Likewise. Then Γ(Y /X ) is not so very interesting. the data of a presheaf is a pair := ( (U ))U ∈ p(X ) .V . the map goes in the opposite direction. Note. — Our deﬁnition is general enough to allow for some “degenerate” examples of presheaves. consider the folding map ∇ : S 1 S 1 more interesting: to any interval (a. consistent way to extract square roots of complex numbers. This too is a local homeomorphism.1. for example). (7. where n is the number of connected components of V . the objects cts ) are presheaves on X . Y X (and hence the object / X . But if the open set is more complicated. . and to any open sets U . It’s not hard to see that.4. Example 7. that Γ(∇)(S 1 ) is a twopoint set also. For any open set U ∈ p(X ). These data. — One of the most challenging aspects of modern mathematics for beginners is to maintain a clear idea which of a list of bullet points are data.2) For any three open sets U . For any set S. the value of Γ(∇) is more complicated as well. then the story becomes / S 1 . and which are conditions. (7. and composing relations (W ⊂ V ⊂ U ) gives rise to compositions of maps. X Example 7. then you want to impose some conditions. If. there is exactly one section of p over U ..1. (ρV ⊂U )V ⊂U ∈ p(X ) . and these data are subject to the axioms ρU ⊂U = id. / S 1 given by ξ / ξ 2 (with respect to complex multiplication. for example. you assign a map between the corresponding sets. the functor is said to be contravariant.9. In the case of a presheaf on a space X . When you have these data. Γ(∇)(V ) has cardinal 2n . — It’s not difﬁcult to see that for any topological space X . b ) it assigns a twopoint set. in this case Γ(∇) is somewhat a lot more interesting. the corresponding map has to be the identity.1. Example 7.1. and to any “relation” between two objects (in this case set inclusion). with these conditions. just as in the previous example. in particular.W ∈ p(X ) with W ⊂ V ⊂ U . sometimes (as here).5. Sometimes that map goes in the same direction as your relation. Let’s (7.1. one may form the constant presheaf S at S.6. but observe that the presheaf Γ( p) has no global sections. but a local homeomorphism (so that every point of Y in contained in a neighborhood V such that the restriction of p to V is open and injective).1) Suppose p is a homeomorphism.8. — This sort of pattern appears all the time: to any “object” of some collection (in this case p(X )).2) Now if p is not a homeomorphism. Thus presheaves are particular kinds of functors. we have ρW ⊂V ◦ ρV ⊂U = ρW ⊂U : In other words. then the functor is said to be covariant. i.1. These conditions always amount to the same thing: when the relation is trivial (U ⊂ U .7.1. (U ) / (W ).e.9. the object Γ(Y /X ) is a presheaf on X .V ∈ p(X ) with V ⊂ U the identity map on S. are collectively called a functor in general. but you can expect functors to appear again in your mathematics education! 7. This is quite striking: the ﬁber over each point of p is two points. Γ( p)(S 1 ) = ∅. It isn’t enough to say that there are suitable maps out there. When the maps go in the same direction as the relation. an element s ∈ (U ) is sometimes called a section of 7. for any continuous map p : Y contemplate this example in a few particular cases. Γ(Y /X ) is the constant presheaf on one point.3) But now consider the map p : S 1 thinking of S 1 ⊂ C). U is the disjoint union of two intervals.
and we see immediately that over a sufﬁciently small open neighborhood U of any point in C× . and suppose X a space with a distinguished point x ∈ X . Suppose I attempted to deﬁne a presheaf h A the other way around from our representable friend: h A(U ) := ∅ if U ⊂ A else..10. this is ambiguous. Deﬁnition 7. Exercise 48. . algebra. a map (called the component of φ) φU : (U ) / (U ). (7. and product of any two analytic functions is analytic. What goes wrong here? Why does this not deﬁne a presheaf? Example 7. In this case. A ∈ p(X ) an open subset.) homomorphisms. or presheaves represented by A ∈ p(X ). If all the sets (U ) are equipped with a group structure. — Suppose S is a set... if all the sets (U ) are equipped with an abelian group (respectively.14. these correspond to the branches of the logarithm: if we write a complex number z = r exp(iθ). one sees that one cannot make a consistent choice of a branch of the logarithm: there are no global sections of Γ(exp)! Example 7. and suppose A ∈ p(X ) a particular ﬁxed open set. we’ll have to put some only one map hA(U ) A effort into describing the restriction maps! This gives us a way (in fact. vector space.9.11. however. Once again. rings. — Suppose X a space. Example 7.1. an moreover. / is the following data: for any open set . we can see that X is a sheaf of rings (even of Ralgebras). — Suppose X = Rn with the euclidean topology. We have an associated presheaf hA deﬁned by the rule hA(U ) := ∅ if U ⊂ A else. difference.. there is a neighborhood of x in U such that the Taylor series of f at x converges to f . the restriction maps are forced on us: for any open sets V .) structure. consequently. algebra. Then the skyscraper presheaf at x with value S is deﬁned by the rule S x (U ) := S if x ∈ U else. I can add 2kπ to θ. ring. — Suppose X a space.12. (U ) = ω (U ) := { f : U X (Recall that a function f on an open set U is analytic if it is inﬁnitely differentiable and... — We can also ask for additional structure on a presheaf . Similarly. since the sum. Observe that we cannot expect this in general: ordinarily.13. PRESHEAVES 43 / C× := C − {0} .7. Then for any open set U ⊂ Rn . ring. vector space. and all the restriction maps ρV ⊂U are group (resp. and all the restriction maps ρV ⊂U are group homomorphisms.1. there is necessarily / h (V ). U ∈ p(X ) with V ⊂ U . .. then the presheaf is said to be a presheaf in abelian groups (resp. a very powerful way) of “representing” open sets A ∈ p(X ) as presheaves. we can contemplate the set an / R  f is analytic}..1. then the presheaf is said to be a presheaf in groups.4) Here’s yet another example in the same vein: consider the exponential map exp : C We can contemplate the presheaf Γ(exp). algebras. the presheaves hA are known as representable presheaves. . — A morphism or simply map of presheaves φ : U ∈ p(X ). This is surely a presheaf as well.1. then we might write log(z) = log r  + i θ.1. for any point x ∈ U . 7. vector spaces. however.1. there are countably inﬁnitely many elements of Γ(exp)(U ). The key point here is that both the sets (U ) and the maps ρV ⊂U carry this added structure.1.).
— Show that for any space X . / . ). any open set U ∈ p(X ). then (49.15. ) X V case. the presheaf X of local Y valued functions is isomorphic /X . ρV ⊂U (V ) φV that is. of presheaves and . Composition open sets U . (How?) For an extra challenge. ψ: Exercise 49. we have our unique morphism of presheaves j : hV U / Mor (h .1.ψ: / . — (49.1) Check that our description of the composite of two morphisms of presheaves is indeed again a morphism of presheaves. for any open set (49.3) Finally. X V −◦ j ) ). ) for the set of all morphisms Exercise 50. morphism of presheaves hV U Exercise 51. one has ρV ⊂U (φU (s)) = φV (ρV ⊂U (s )). SHEAF THEORY subject to the following condition: for any open sets U . In this case.16. the following diagram commutes: (U ) ρV ⊂U φU / / (U ) (V ). there is a natural This word natural gets thrown around a lot. / .2) Verify that if we have three morphisms of presheaves φ : one has (χ ◦ ψ) ◦ φ = χ ◦ (ψ ◦ φ).V ∈ p(X ) with V ⊂ U . — Show that for any two spaces X and Y . / is an isomorphism if and only if. for any section s ∈ (U ). / This deﬁnes a morphism of presheaves as desired. Deﬁnition 7. show that a morphism of presheaves φ : U ∈ p(X ). show that in this with j induces a map − ◦ j : MorX (hU .V ∈ p(X ) with V ⊂ U .) Notation 7. — We say that a morphism / (U ) is injective. set (ψ ◦ φ)U = ψU ◦ φU . ).44 CHAPTER 7. to the presheaf Γ(Y × X /X ) of local sections of the projection map Y × X . we can form the composite ψ ◦ φ : / / and ψ : Given morphisms of presheaves φ : in the following manner: for any open set U ∈ p(X ). the components φU are all bijections. — For any space X . there is a unique /h . / of presheaves is injective if for every open set U ∈ p(X ). (We’ll need to be a little more cautious when we deﬁne surthe corresponding map (U ) jectivity. and any pair of open sets U . and any presheaf bijection ΦU : (U ) ∼ MorX (hU . and χ : / . we can say exactly what we mean by it: for any pair of / h . (V ) ΦV Y Exercise 52.1. = on X . and any presheaves / . the following diagram of sets commutes: (U ) ρU ⊂V ΦU / Mor (h .V ∈ p(X ) with V ⊂ U . X U / Mor (h . write MorX ( . — Show that for any space X . / is said to be an isomorphism if there exists a morphism of sheaves A morphism of presheaves φ : / such that both ψ ◦ φ = id and φ ◦ φ = id.
7. SHEAVES 45 7. f  =f  : V ∩W V V ∩W W V ∩W then there exists a unique continuous map f : X / Y such that for any V ∈ /Y . x∈U ∈ p(X ) On this set we may impose an equivalence relation ∼ in the following manner. sometimes denoted R{x1 . — Suppose X a space.4. (Uα ) (U ) / (7. For any point an x ∈ X . t ) if and only if there exists an open neighborhood W ⊂ U ∩ V of x such that ρW ⊂U (s) = ρW ⊂V (t ). For every subneighborhood V ⊂ U . s ∈ (U )}. / X any continuous map. / X a covering space. we’ll be in the same situation.γ ∈Λ α∈Λ .2. — Suppose X = Rn . For any point x ∈ X . The elements of X . and if for any V ∈ we are given a continuous function / Y with the property that for any elements V .2. — Suppose p : Y x −1 is the ﬁber p (x)? Prove or give a counterexample. Then for any point x ∈ X .2. We will undertake a more systematic study of coverings spaces very soon. Hence the stalk Γ(Y /X ) x is simply the ﬁber p −1 (x) again. we say that (U .3. an Example 7. i.2. It is easy to see that such a map must be a local subsets Vα ⊂ Y such that pVα : Vα homeomorphism.1.W ∈ .3. and suppose a presheaf on X .2. — Suppose a presheaf on a space X .3. For any two elements (U . we can compute the stalk Γ(Y /X ) x easily: there exists an open neighborhood U of x whose inverse image is homeomorphic (via p) to a disjoint union of copies of U . and is dented s x . Sheaves Example 7.2. What is the stalk of this presheaf at a point x ∈ X ? It’s difﬁcult to say Y in familiar language. and let us consider the presheaf X of local continuous functions on X valued in Y . the stalk X .x are equivalence classes of continuous functions deﬁned in a neighborhood of x.7.1) β. Now deﬁne the stalk of at x to be the set (U ) ∼ . a surjective continuous map with the property that Example 7. xn }. the stalk Γ(Y /X ) Exercise 53. Y Example 7. where we declare two such functions to be equivalent when there is a neighborhood of x on which they agree.e. — Let us consider the case of two topological spaces X and Y . If X is a space with an open covering . f V = fV : V .2. one has fV : V /Y .1. . and consider the presheaf X of local analytic functions on X . consider the set (U ) = {(U . s)  x ∈ U ∈ p(X ). let’s brieﬂy recall a little lemma we proved in Exercise 18 some time back.2. Stalks Deﬁnition 7. . Is it true that for any point x ∈ X . This is a ring. . — To motivate the sheaf axiom.x is the set of all power series at x with a positive radius of convergence. — Suppose p : Y every point x ∈ X is contained in an open neighborhood U such that p −1 U is a disjoint union α∈Λ Vα of open / U is a homeomorphism.3. These equivalence classes are known as germs of continuous functions. but here we have required much more: we have required that we can choose the neighborhoods of various points in a ﬁber in a consistent manner. x2 . so the equivalence relation doesn’t change anything from this point on as the neighborhoods get smaller. and any cover {Uα }α∈Λ of U . For any open set U .3.. .3. x := x∈U ∈ p(X ) The equivalence class of a section s under this equivalence relation is called the germ of s . t ). 7. s) ∼ (V . But now it’s easy to see that a section of Γ(Y /X ) over this open set U is completely determined by where it sends out point x. s ) and (V . we can contemplate the following diagram: / / (Uβ ∩ Uγ ).
γ ∈ Λ. Give a counterexample to show that this is not true of presheaves.3. one can see that for any continuous map p : Y Γ(Y /X ) is indeed a sheaf. the restrictions (U ) such that ρUα ⊂U (s) = sα . called the sheaf of local sections of p. Example 7. 7. consider the case of an open cover with just two open sets.1) is an equalizer if and only if the following condition is (U ) satisﬁed: for every α ∈ Λ there is a section sα ∈ α (Uα ) such that for any pair β.γ ∈Λ (sα )α∈Λ / ρU ∩U ⊂U (sγ ) β γ γ β. the associated presheaf / α∈Λ (Uα ) / / β. and any set S. so let’s discuss this.3.2.3. for any two topological spaces X and Y .6. To illustrate this localtoglobal property. specifying a section of over an open set U ⊂ X is the same as specifying a compatible family of sections of over each element of an open cover of . — More generally. — For an space X . i. — This follows immediately from the previous exercise. the map (U ) / x∈U x is injective.3. / X ..γ ∈Λ / (Uα ) is (U ) We can ask whether the diagram (7.7. g x : x x on stalks coincide (so that f x = g x ).3. called the sheaf of local continuous functions on X with values in Y . A sheaf on a space X is a presheaf that has a powerful localtoglobal property.3. — Our ﬁrst example of this section shows that. Then (∅) = . . — A presheaf cover {Uα }α∈Λ of U . — Show that for any sheaf . Y the presheaf X is a sheaf.γ ∈Λ (Uβ ∩ Uγ ). (7.e. Then the sheaf condition for says that if we are given sections sV ∈ (V ) and sW ∈ (W ) that match up on V ∩ W (so that ρV ∩W ⊂V (sV ) = ρV ∩W ⊂W (sW )).3. whether the map an injective map whose image consists of exactly those elements that have the same values under the maps / (Uβ ∩ Uγ ) .9. In other words.γ ∈Λ (Uβ ∩ Uγ ) and α∈Λ (Uα ) / β. Example 7.3. / are two morphisms such that for Lemma 7.W ⊂ X .5. (Uα ) / β.8. — This is a little tricky. Then if f . The ﬁrst map is the assignment (U ) s The other two maps are the assignments α∈Λ / α∈Λ (Uα ) α∈Λ / ρU ⊂U (s ) α . then there exists a unique section s ∈ Deﬁnition 7. In other words. the diagram on a space X is said to be a sheaf if. Example 7. indeed.3. Proof.γ ∈Λ (Uβ ∩ Uγ ) (sα )α∈Λ / ρU ∩U ⊂U (sβ ) β γ β β. any point x ∈ X . ρUβ ∩Uγ ⊂Uβ (sβ ) = ρUβ ∩Uγ ⊂Uγ (sγ ) coincide.46 CHAPTER 7. g : / every point x ∈ X . Suppose that U ⊂ X is an open set. then f = g . What does this say? It says that sections glue uniquely. — Suppose a sheaf on a space X . Exercise 54. Lemma 7. — Suppose and sheaves on a space X .3. respectively. which we have written as a union U = V ∪ W for some open sets V .2.1) is an equalizer. the skyscraper presheaf S x is a sheaf as well. for any open set U ∈ p(X ) and any open (U ) is an equalizer in the sense above. then there is one and only one set s ∈ (U ) who restrictions to V and to W are sV and sW . SHEAF THEORY Let us describe these maps in more detail.4. the induced maps f x .
4. the map on stalks x x is so. that their stalks at nfold folding map ∇n : S 1 S 1 · · · S 1 n any point are isomorphic. — Suppose X a space and a presheaf on X . Then a morphism φ : / an injection.”) ´ is a corresponding map σ s : U x ´ Deﬁnition 7. s) ∈ x has an inverse image in x . for any open set U ∈ p(X ) and any section s ∈ (U ). To demonstrate this. while Γ(∇) was simply the constant sheaf on a two point set. — Suppose X a space and a presheaf on X . Exercise 56.4. 7. i. for any two points x. if and only if. / is an isomorphism. — Suppose and sheaves on a space X . — Note that what we have not said is that two sheaves and . the corresponding map σ s : U ´ That is. recall our two examples of double covers of the circle: we were given two local homeomorphisms ∇ : / S 1 and p : S 1 / S 1 . Indeed. THE ESPACE ÉTALÉ AND SHEAFIFICATION 47 Proposition 7. — The injectivity statement follows from the fact that if the composite of two maps is injective. ´ 7. x / s . the natural morphism p : Et( ) / X is is the constant presheaf at S on a space X . / S 1 given by z / zn Exercise 55. and the second is z / z 2 . and suppose éspace étalé of S is the fold map ∇(S) : X (S) X S ´ on X . but it is extremely important. we declare a subset V ⊂ Et( ) to be open if and only if. all of whose stalks are iso/ inducing the stalkwise morphic. The espace étalé of is the set Et( ) equipped with / Et( ) is continuous. / (U ). And now φ(t ) ∈ (U ) is the unique section whose restriction to any V x is φVx (t x ) = ρVx ⊂U (s ).1.4. Consider the continuous map pn : S 1 1 (where again we think of S as embedded in C. such that p ◦ s = id. suppose s ∈ (U ) a section. This is false.4. Exercise 57. (This is the origin of the term “section.2. consisting of an open neighborhood V x ⊂ U of x along with a section t x ∈ (V x ) such that φVx (t x ) = ρVx ⊂U (s).11. but the sheaves themselves are not isomorphic. are themselves isomorphic. Then show that the / X . the element (U . we have ρVx ∩Vy ⊂Vx (t x ) = ρVx ∩Vy ⊂Vy (ty ). For every point x ∈ U . for every point x ∈ X .e. then the ﬁrst of the two must also be injective.3. namely. there is an obvious map / X whose ﬁbers are precisely the stalks of . — Suppose S a set. The espace étalé and sheaﬁﬁcation / X is said to be a local homeomorphism if every point y ∈ Y is Deﬁnition 7. and it’s one that sheaves are particularly welladapted to. The claim is that Now suppose U ∈ p(X ) any open set. for each point x ∈ U there is a pair (V x . But the two sheaves differ dramatically! The point is that there is no morphism of sheaves between Γ(∇) and Γ( p) inducing bijections on the stalks. The sheaf axiom applied to the open cover {V x  x ∈ U } of U now implies that there is a global section t ∈ (U ) such that t x = ρVx ⊂U (t ). — Show that for any space X and any presheaf a local homeomorphism. ´ the ﬁnest topology such that for any section s ∈ (U ). or Proof. This sounds like a minor point. . Consider the set Et( ) := x∈X x . Prove that Γ( p ) and Γ(∇n ) are both sheaves. For any open set U and any section s ∈ (U ).. The former map is simply the folding map.3. and consider the component φU : (U ) it is surjective. the inverse image σ s−1 (V ) is open in U . with no global sections. Consider also the / S 1 . — A continuous map p : Y contained in a neighborhood V such that p is open and injective. Γ( p) was a more subtle object.4. where X (S) is the Sfold disjoint union of X with itself: := s∈S (S) X = X × Sδ . In this case. We must have a morphism isomorphism in order to make this conclusion.3. the stalk over any point x ∈ S 1 is always the same: simply two points. where we may use complex multiplication). This situation is quite typical. y ∈ U . there ´ p : Et( ) / Et( ) . t x ).10. Since φ is injective. s itself! Warning 7.7. We saw S1 S1 that. — Suppose n a positive integer.
48
CHAPTER 7. SHEAF THEORY
/ X a local homeomorphism. Then the éspace étalé of the sheaf Γ(Y /X ) is canoniLemma 7.4.4. — Suppose p : Y / Et(Γ(Y /X )) such that the diagram ´ cally homeomorphic over X to Y . That is, there is a unique homeomorphism Y ´ Et(Γ(Y /X )) ?? ?? ? pΓ(Y /X ) ? ?? commutes. ´ Proof. — Suppose s ∈ Et(Γ(Y /X )) a germ of a section near x ∈ X . Then its value w(s) = s(x) at x is welldeﬁned. / Y such that p ◦ w = p ´ This deﬁnes a map w : Et(Γ(Y /X )) Γ(Y /X ) . In the other direction, suppose y ∈ Y , and suppose x = p(y). Then there exist open neighborhoods U of x / U ; denote by s : U / V its inverse, and deﬁne and V of y such that p restricts to a homeomorphism V v(y) ∈ Γ(Y /X ) x as the germ of the section s. The class v(y) does not depend upon the choice of U or V . This / Et(Γ(Y /X )) to the map w. ´ deﬁnes an inverse v : Y It remains to show that w is continuous and open. We leave this to the reader. Deﬁnition 7.4.5. — Suppose X a space and a presheaf on X . The sheaﬁﬁcation of is the sheaf a := ´ / X . The canonical morphism of presheaves /a ´ Γ(Et( )/X ) of sections of the projection map p : Et( ) / s is called the unit morphism. that assigns to any section s ∈ (U ) the local section x x Proposition 7.4.6. — For any presheaf all stalks. Proof. — By 7.4.4, the stalks of a turn are the stalks of . Corollary 7.4.7. — For any sheaf on a space X , the natural morphism /a induces an isomorphism on ) / X , which in /Y p
w
X
´ correspond under the unit morphism to the ﬁbers of Et( on a space X , the unit morphism /a
is an isomorphism.
Corollary 7.4.8. — There is a bijective correspondence between isomorphism classes of sheaves on X and homeomor/X . phism classes of local homeomorphisms Y Exercise 58. — Recall that on a space X , the presheaf may not be a sheaf. Describe its sheaﬁﬁcation.
bdd X
of local bounded continuous functions (valued in R)
Example 7.4.9. — The constant sheaf S at a set S on a space X is the sheaﬁﬁcation of the constant presheaf S at S. Observe that the constant sheaf is not really constant: it can take many different values on an open set U ⊂ X . Theorem 7.4.10. — Suppose X a space, suppose a presheaf on X , and suppose / factors uniquely through the unit. In other words, for any morphism / such that the diagram a / ?? ? ?? ?? ?? ? a commutes. a sheaf on X . Then any morphism / , there exists a unique morphism
/ satisfying the Proof. — Let us show that unicity is guaranteed once the existence of the morphism a / satisfying the diagram above must agree an all diagram above is conﬁrmed. Indeed, any two morphisms a / a is a bijection on all stalks. Now we may employ 7.3.9 to see that the stalks, since the unit morphism / coincide. morphisms a / to get a morphism of sheaves To verify existence, observe that we can simply apply a to the morphism / a ; since the unit morphism / a is an isomorphism, we can compose a / a with the inverse a / to get the desired morphism a / . a
7.5. DIRECT AND INVERSE IMAGES OF SHEAVES
49
7.4.11. — There is a more sophisticated way of talking about all this. The construction of the espace étalé is a functor ´ Et from the category re h(X ) of presheaves on a space X to the category ( /X ) of local homeomorphisms to X . Now ( /X ) is actually equivalent (via the sections sheaf functor Γ) to the category h(X ) of sheaves ´ on X . Now the composite a = Γ ◦ Et is the sheaﬁﬁcation functor, which is left adjoint to the inclusion h(X ) ⊂ re h(X ). 7.5. Direct and inverse images of sheaves / Y and h : Z / Y , the ﬁber product X × Z is the Deﬁnition 7.5.1. — For any two continuous maps f : X Y set X ×Y Z := {(x, z) ∈ X × Z  f (x) = h(z)} ⊂ X × Z, equipped with the subspace topology. (Note that the notation here is ambiguous, since it makes no explicit mention / X is called the pullback of the map h. of the maps f and h.) The (continuous) projection X ×Y Z / X × X given by the / Y , contemplate the continuous map ∆ : X Exercise 59. — For any map f : X Y f / (x, x). Show that f is a local homeomorphism if and only if both f and ∆ are open maps. assignment x f Exercise 60. — Show that the pullback of a local homeomorphism is a local homeomorphism. / Y a continuous map. Deﬁnition 7.5.2. — Suppose f : X (7.5.2.1) For any sheaf on X , deﬁne the direct image f of as the sheaf that assigns to any open set V ∈ p(Y ) the set f (V ) := ( f −1V ). (7.5.2.2) For any sheaf on Y , we deﬁne the inverse image f as the sheaf of sections of the pullback / X of the map p : Et( ) /Y ´ ´ X ×Y Et( ) Example 7.5.3. — Suppose A ⊂ X a subspace of a topological space X . Then for any sheaf on X , if i denotes the inclusion map, the sheaf i on A is denoted A and is called the restriction of to A. If, in particular, A is an open set, then the restriction A assigns to any open set U ⊂ A the set (U ). On the other hand, if A = {x}, then {x} is simply the stalk of at x, regarded as a sheaf on {x}. Exercise 61. — Any sheaf on the onepoint space is uniquely determined by a set S. Show that the direct image of / X of a point x of a space X is the skyscraper sheaf S . Show that the inverse such a sheaf along the inclusion x / is the constant sheaf a . image of such a sheaf under the unique map X S
ACT II AN INTRODUCTION TO HOMOTOPY THEORY .
.
X? ?? ? ?? ?? ? e (π´t X )δ 0 e 8. — Note that a space X is connected if and only if π´t X = .e. at least once you get used to checking universal properties.1. it may very 0 e well not exist: in the case of Q with the subspace topology. its associated sheaf is the constant sheaf S . there exists a unique morphism of sheaves σ : a such e e / (π´t X )δ such that for any set S and any continuous 8. / / (X ) on global sections.4. Equivalently. s)) is a bijection. Connectedness and π0 Warning 8..CHAPTER 8 COVERING SPACE THEORY 8. Then π´t X is a set along with a global section u ∈ 0 e π´t X (X ) 0 e π´t X 0 such that for /a S any set S and any global section σ ∈ that σ(u) = σ. Deﬁnition 8. — Note that π´t X is a set with a continuous map X 0 0 e / S δ . — Note that this deﬁnition of π0 is a little strange.1.” i. the obvious map S / (x. the deﬁnition is nonconstructive e in the sense that it is not clear from the deﬁnition alone that π´t X exists for a given space X . It is the sheaf X of local continuous functions valued in the discrete space S δ . to any element s ∈ S the global section x / S (X ) (which assigns 8. In particular. — A space X is said to be connected if for any set S. there exists a unique map π´t X / S such that the diagram map X 0 / Sδ .6. 8. Sδ An alternate description of the sheaf a S is the following.1.5. If S is the onepoint set.1. — Thus a space X is connected if and only if it is nonempty and every global section of the constant sheaf at S is the inclusion X ×{s }δ ⊂ X × S δ for some s ∈ S. If S is empty. X is connected if and only if the only continuous / S δ are constant. it’s much easier to compute this version of π0 than it is to compute other variants.2.1. then this map is a bijection unless X is empty. 0 Warning 8.1. consider the constant presheaf S on a space X . there is no π´t .1.3. — For any set S. — The deﬁnitions we give here do not coincide with deﬁnitions in many other texts. In fact.8. This is primarily because it involves ﬁnding maps out of your space. however. there are important ways in which our deﬁnitions differ from those found elsewhere in the literature. . in all the cases with which we will have to deal in the sequel. — Suppose X a space.1. maps X e Deﬁnition 8.1.7. The deﬁnitions agree in “good cases. S (X ).1. for instance. The unit morphism S S induces a canonical map S S then this map is an isomorphism. 0 However.
and if f : X 0 / Y − { f (x)} for any x ∈ X .) is a homeomorphism. — Let us consider Q with the subspace topology. and without any serifs!) Can you classify all of them e /Y up to homeomorphism? (Hint: if two spaces X and Y are homeomorphic. ∞) ∩ A. /Y e / (π´t Y )δ 0 e π´t f 0 . (In all these cases.) 0 0 (63.. (Consider them in their simplest possible form. (Proof: if A ⊂ Q is a connected subspace containing two distinct points a and b . This is continuous. with the subspace topology from the 2 inclusion SLn R ⊂ Rn .1.) But it is not the case that Q is the disjoint union of its points. for n > 0. since g −1 {0} = (−∞. — Consider the letters of the (English) alphabet A–Z as subspaces of the plane R2 . with the subspace topology from the inclusion 2 GLn R ⊂ Rn .3) the set GLn R of n × n invertible matrices with real entries. π´t exists. — The construction X e / π´t X is functorial in the sense that for any continuous map f : X / Y . choose an irrational number a < c < b .9.2) the sphere S n for any n > 0. if no summand V is empty. Now / {0. (63.1. — Compute π´t of the following spaces. so there are no tricks here. then their π´t agree. and (63.4) the set SLn R of n × n matrices with real entries of determinant 1. for then points would be open in Q. there 0 e e e e e / π´t Y if both π´t X and π´t Y exist. with the subspace topology from the inclu2 sion GLn C ⊂ Cn . c) ∩ A and g −1 {1} = (c. else. Conclude that Show that if X is a space such that π´t X exists. The only connected subspaces of Q are points. 0 e e Exercise 63. Let us call a decomposition V = α∈Λ Vα and continuous maps V α∈Λ Vα nondegenerate if and only if / Λδ is surjective.10. or. so π´t Q does not exist. the deﬁnition implies that there is a corresponding map π´t f : π´t X 0 0 0 0 0 e e e / π´t Y such that the diagram exists a unique map π´t f : π´t X 0 0 0 f X e (π´t X )δ 0 commutes. e e / π´t X is surjective.54 CHAPTER 8. the topological disjoint union α∈Λ Vα is the settheoretic disjoint union α∈Λ Vα equipped with the following topology: an open set U ⊂ α∈Λ Vα is open if and only if each intersection U ∩ Vα is open in Vα . (63. then so is f : X − {x} 8. 1}δ given by the rule consider the map g : A g (x) := 0 1 if x < c. for n > 0.5) the set GLn C of n × n invertible matrices with complex entries. Exercise 64. — Recall that for any collection of spaces {Vα }α∈Λ . COVERING SPACE THEORY Exercise 62. (63. for n > 0. equivalently. Now for any space V . Hence there is no maximal nondegenerate decomposition e of Q. 8.1) a set S with the discrete topology.e. i. Indeed. then the continuous map X 0 0 e π´t X exists if and only if there exists a maximal nondegenerate decomposition of X . a decomposition of V is a collection of subspaces Vα ⊂ V — called summands — such that V can be written as α∈Λ Vα . a decomposition of X such 0 that each summand is connected. Show that there is a bijective correspondence between decompositions V = / Λδ . without any thickness of any lines. the corresponding map V α Show that a space X is connected if and only if it is nonempty and admits no nondegenerate decomposition.
— A covering space over a topological space B (called the base) is a continuous map p : E such that every point b ∈ B is contained in an open neighborhood U for which there is a homeomorphism γU : p −1 U such that the diagam p −1 U ?? ?? ?? ?? p p −1 U commutes.2) Consider again the continuous map pn : S 1 1 corresponding sheaf assigns to any open set U ⊂ S the set of nth root functions deﬁned on U . correspondingly. Show that for any ntuple (k1 . — A sheaf on a space X is locally constant if every point of X is contained in an open neighborhood U such that the restriction U is a constant sheaf. . .. . Now contemplate the ﬁber over (1.3.5.. .8. the map / (C − {0})×n p : (C − {0})×n (k1 . This is a covering space too.2.3) The exponential map exp : C / S 1 given by θ / e 2πθ −1 . the map ∇(S) : X (S) ∼ X × S δ = space. — Check that the pullback E ×B B / B is a covering space.2. Exercise 67. Theorem 8. — A morphism of covering spaces from p : E / E such that the diagram base) is simply a continuous map f : E E ? ?? ?? ?? ?? p commutes.3.2. f B /E p / X is a covering Example 8. . . kn ) of nonnegative integers.2. . Covering spaces and locally constant sheaves Deﬁnition 8. z kn ) 1 n is a covering space. The (8. / S 1 given by z / z n . The corresponding locally constant sheaves are constant.4. B / B of a covering space E / B along any continuous map / B (covering spaces over the same γU /B / U × ( p −1 b )δ / U × ( p −1 b )δ pr1 U / B to p : E Deﬁnition 8. . — Consider the subspace (C − {0})×n ⊂ Cn .3. .kn ) (z1 . One can pull this example back to (8. zn ) / (z k1 . COVERING SPACES AND LOCALLY CONSTANT SHEAVES 55 8. — Show that a covering space is a local homeomorphism..1) For any space X and any set S.3.2. — A local homeomorphism p : E constant.2.2. / C× := C − {0} is a covering map.1. .2..2. Can you draw a picture of this when n = 2? Deﬁnition 8.2. . 1). a sheaf / B is a covering map if and only if the sheaf Γ(E/B) is locally ´ is locally constant if and only if the espace étalé Et( ) is a covering space. The corresponding sheaf assigns to S 1 ⊂ C× to get the covering space R any open set U a logarithm deﬁned on U .2. . — (8. . . . Exercise 66. Exercise 65. These covering spaces are known as the trivial covering spaces. . Pull this back to get a covering space on the ndimensional torus Tn . .
/γ o S(1) = x. If π´t X exists. — We are now interested in classifying all locally constant sheaves/covering spaces over a connected space e X . we will begin by constructing. for any point x ∈ X .3. the étale fundamental group π´t (X .2. A uniform monodromy element at x is an element γ = (γE ) ∈ E∈( ovft /X ) / X .7. let ( /B) be the category of locally constant sheaves on B. 1 e Lemma 8. 1].2. The étale fundamental group 8.3. — We say that a covering space p : E ( ovft /X ) the set of all isomorphism classes of covering spaces of ﬁnite type over X . x) 1 out of the collection of all covering spaces of ﬁnite type over X . x) is a group under composition. For any Using this. we have speciﬁed two isomorphisms: x = S(0) x. Now if γ is a loop in X — i.6. Ex γE φx / Ex γE Ex φx / Ex . Now induct on the size of in order to show that must be constant.1.56 CHAPTER 8. 1] are constant. Show that there is a ﬁnite open cover of [0. constant sheaves correspond to trivial covering spaces. In order to do this. More precisely. suppose X any space. one may compose them to obtain γ ◦ γ := (γE ◦ γE ) ∈ E∈( ov /X ) ft Aut( x) e The étale fundamental group π´t (X .3. (Hint: Suppose a locally constant sheaf on [0. a path such that γ (0) = γ (1) = x ∈ X —. — Under our bijective correspondence between homeomorphism classes of local homeomorphisms and isomorphism classes of sheaves. so we have an automorphism of the stalk identity. and suppose x ∈ X . 1] comprised of intervals U on which U . and let ov(B) denote the category of covering spaces with base B. a continuous map γ : [0. As we have seen.. Then our equivalence of categories ( /B) h(B) restricts to an equivalence of categories ( /B) ov(B). show that there is a unique isomorphism between γ and the constant sheaf S(t ) at the stalk S(t ) := γ (t ) . For any covering space E for E at x is an automorphism of the ﬁber E x . Exercise 68. — The set π´t (X .2.e. x) is the set of uniform monodromy elements. 1].e. — Suppose X a space. 1 . the pullback γ is a constant sheaf. and suppose γ a path in X — i. COVERING SPACE THEORY 8. we see that locally constant sheaves correspond (bijectively) to covering spaces. 0 e e e e / π´t X are ﬁnite. For any two uniform monodromy elements γ and γ . for each t ∈ [0.. Let us denote by then we say that it is of ﬁnite type if π´t E exists. Why doesn’t this argument work for S 1 ?) / X . a monodromy element Aut(E x ) such that for any morphism φ : E / E of covering spaces of ﬁnite type. To put this more formally. 1] locally constant sheaf on X . 8.3. and the ﬁbers of π´t p : π´t E 0 0 0 0 Deﬁnition 8. Give an example to show that this autmorphism need not be the e / X is ﬁnite if the ﬁbers of p are ﬁnite.3. for any space B. — Show that the only possible locally constant sheaves on the interval [0. Deﬁnition 8.
is unique. This latter point follows from inspection of the diagram Ex γE φx / Ex / Ex γE Ex Ex φx γ E γE φx / Ex .4. For sufﬁciency. ) x. — Necessity is obvious. Then there is a unique lift γ of this path to E.. if it exists. and the result follows from the connectedness of Y . there is a unique morphism φ : x Exercise 69. 8. assume that Y is locally path connected. then the set V := g −1 (U × {e g }) ∩ h −1 (U × {e h }) is open in Y .5. x) contains the identity 1 1 (obvious) and that it is closed under composition. deﬁne a lift φ : Y y ∈ Y . x) is a locally constant sheaf on X along with a germ of a section υ ∈ x such that for any locally constant sheaf and / of sheaves such that φ (υ) = σ. Lemma 8. — Suppose X a space. For any point Proof. x).4. 8. and one veriﬁes that V ⊂ r −1 ( f (y)). — In the situation above.8. the map MorX ( .5. then it is unique up to φ x a unique isomorphism. x) exists. is a bijection.2. 1}δ by if g (y) = h(y) if not. — Suppose X a space. / E in the following manner. Show that the universal locally constant sheaf ( . Deﬁne a map r : Y r (y) = 1 0 I claim r is continuous. Lemma 8. and suppose x ∈ X .5. UNIVERSAL COVERING SPACES 57 e e Proof. Then a lift exists if and only if the image of π1 (Y ) in π1 (X ) is contained in the image of π1 (E). Then a universal locally constant sheaf on (X . e h ∈ E f (y) be the projections of the element g (y). has the following property: for any locally constant sheaf on X .3. The assumption guarantees that this is independent of the choice of path. x) is given as a subset of a group. deﬁne φ(y) = γ (1). — Suppose g and h two lifts. Proof. Deduce that if a universal locally constant sheaf on (X . suppose y ∈ Y . Then a lift of f . if it exists. / {0. Universal covering spaces Deﬁnition 8.1. and suppose x ∈ X . h(y) to E f (y) . / φ (υ). This shows that r is continuous. — Unique path lifting .. we only have to check that π´t (X . — Consider the following commutative diagram of spaces /E Y in which p : E /B p f / B is a covering space and Y is connected space.1. Indeed. let U be an open neighborhood of f (y) such that p −1 U ∼ U ×E f (y) . choose a path γ from the basepoint to y. .4. Homotopy classes of loops and lifts Lemma 8. υ) on / (X . any germ σ ∈ x . — Since π´t (X .4. = Let e g .
4. Theorem 8.5. and under this correspondence. 1 e the connected covering spaces correspond to the transitive π´t (X .3. 1}) classes of paths / X . x). x)sets with ﬁnitely many orbits. . and suppose x ∈ X . Then there is a bijective correspondence between e ( ovft /X ) and the set of isomorphism classes of π´t (X .5. equipped with the subspace topology. COVERING SPACE THEORY 8. — Suppose X a well connected space. 1 . X ). So now we have the corresponding covering space X . This gives a path from x to α. deﬁne (U ) as the quotient Γ(e)(U )/ ∼.6.58 CHAPTER 8.5. x) of X such that π1 (X . π1 (U . Deﬁnition 8. Then X admits a universal covering space. whose points are those paths γ such that γ (0) = x. — A space X is said to be well connected if it is path connected. Proof. it is the unique connected pointed covering space (X .5. evaluation at 1 gives the structure map X check that X is path connected and that π1 (X . — There is a natural candidate for the universal locally constant sheaf on a pointed space (X .. — Suppose X admits a universal covering space. Write x for the constant map at x. x)sets. x) is trivial. To show that π1 (X . e ∈ p (x). x) is trivial. where we say that two sections s. x) 1 Theorem 8. and any point x is contained in a neighborhood U such that the homomorphism / π (X . the espace open sets U such that the induced homomorphism π1 (U ) 1 étalé of is a trivial covering space. Moreover. Then a universal covering space over (X . Begin by contemplating the based path space Π x (X ) ⊂ (I . — Let us construct the corresponding locally constant sheaf. x) is trivial.2. it admits a base consisting of path connected / π (X ) is trivial. To this end. It is the space of homotopy (rel {0. then we are done by 8.. Let f be a representative thereof. it admits a basis comprised of pathconnected neighborhoods.5. The result is a presheaf . x) is a covering / X and any point / X along with a point x ∈ u −1 (x) such that for any covering space p : E space u : X −1 / E with the property that f (x) = e. Now for any real number t . Over these open sets. — Suppose X a space. Eval/ X Consider now the sheaf of sections Γ(e).5.3. If now we can starting at x.4. the claim is that its sheaﬁﬁcation is are homotopic as maps U × I locally constant. To show that X is path connected. let f t (s) = f (s t ). there exists a unique covering space map f : X Deﬁnition 8. t ∈ Γ(e)(U ) are equivalent if they / X rel U × {0. observe that since X is well connected. for any open set U uation at 1 gives a continuous map e : Π x (X ) of X . x) is trivial. 1}. consider an equivalence class α of paths.
Seifertvan Kampen Theorem 9.3.1. Simple connectedness . The étale fundamental group of S 1 9.CHAPTER 9 COMPUTING THE ÉTALE FUNDAMENTAL GROUP 9.2.
.
1.3.CHAPTER 10 HOMOTOPY THEORY 10. Homotopy invariance of the étale fundamental group .4. Homotopies of maps 10. The homotopytheoretic fundamental group 10.2. Paths and π0 10.
.
1. The two fundamental groups .CHAPTER 11 THE COMPARISON THEOREM 11.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.