Related Sections U-M Design Guideline Technical Sections: SBA-A Animal Facilities 11610 Laboratory Fume Hoods 15975 Mechanical Systems Controls U-M Master Specification: 15010 Basic Mechanical Requirements 15910 Laboratory and Fume Hood Air Flow Controls U-M Standard Details: Laboratory Terminal Air Flow Unit Sample Schedule Laboratory Terminal Air Flow Unit Clearances Where this Design Guideline requires consultation with U-M Occupational Safety and Environmental Health Department (OSEH), all such contacts shall be made via the U-M Design Manager. Quick Links To Sections In This Document: Lab Equipment Parameters Lab Room Airflow Modeling HVAC and Exhaust Systems Design First Cost Optimization/Energy Conservation Appendix A: Typical Minimum Air Changes, Room Pressurization, and Air Flow Control Appendix B: Perchloric Acid Fume Hood Systems Appendix C: Definitions



for hoods with a 100 FPM design face velocity.) vary by fume hood manufacturer. and hood opening area (sq. Fume Hood Monitor: Exhaust monitors shall be provided on each fume hood. or diffusers. not the airfoil). For “low flow” hoods. Provide the hood basis of design (manufacturer and model) on the mechanical design documents. U-M requires sash stops be provided to restrict normal sash operation to no higher than 14" above the work surface (14” above the bench top. set to alarm when face velocity falls below 80 FPM. The audible signal shall have a silence override. Face Velocity: Unless low flow fume hoods have been approved for the project. For VAV applications. laboratory terminal airflow units (LTAU). the average face velocity shall be maintained at 100 FPM at the 14” sash stop position . For constant volume applications. Specify that the fume hood monitors are provided by the lab air flow controls contractor. for vertical opening sashes.) Assure the TAB specification requires that the air balancer adjust the LTAUs to the air volume required for the particular manufacturer’s hood that is installed. NOT the hood manufacturer. static pressure. ft. Fume hoods shall not be located such that fire. Refer to manufacturer's data and size duct. Monitor shall have an audible and a visual alarm signal. Hood and Cabinet Location in the Lab Hoods and cabinets shall be located so they are not exposed to excessive traffic. the alarm shall be set to alarm at the alarm face velocity recommended by the hood manufacturer. Unless approved otherwise by the UM Design Manager. the normal face velocity for fume hoods used at U-M shall be 100 FPM. and fans to accommodate the highest manufacturer's requirements. hoods shall maintain an average face velocity of 100 feet per minute at any position of the sash between the fully closed position and the 14” sash stop position. doors. and at approximately 100 FPM when the sash is closed (bypass style hoods shall be used). Designate the alarm activation setpoint on the design drawings.15910 Lab Equipment Parameters Chemical Fume Hoods General: The required exhaust flow (CFM). explosion or toxic material escaping the hood would cross the immediate path of SEPTEMBER 2008 LABORATORY VENTILATION 15910 PAGE 2 OF 19 . (Sash stops should be of the type that can be temporarily by-passed to allow the sash to be raised to the full open position for equipment/experiment set-up and removal. cross drafts and air turbulence from windows. NOT the typical 18”.

other nearby CV LTAUs (serving snorkels. delineate space for a future filter box directly above radioisotope hoods. class. Where a storage space for chemicals is required. constant volume hoods are recommended in explosion proof rooms. thimble (canopy) connection. Biological Safety Cabinets (BSC) and Other Specialty Cabinets and Hybrid Hoods Selection of the type. obtain approval from U-M OSEH before doing so. gang multiple cabinet exhausts on to a dedicated CV LTAU(s). a storage cabinet below the fume hood may be provided. Typically exhaust connections for cabinets should consist of a 2 inch polypropylene vent pipe equipped with a noncorrosive ball valve for balancing. hood mfg. Verify the type required. in coordination with the Architect/Lab Planner/Mechanical Engineer. In all cases. Fume Hoods in Explosion Proof Rooms Since typical VAV controls are not explosion proof. If the lab occupant requests solvent storage cabinets be ventilated. Hood shall be located away from doors. with UM OSEH. hard or thimble connect. it is typically made via an indirect. and manufacturers of BSCs and special “hybrid” hoods shall be made by the researcher and the U-M OSEH representative. or a direct exhaust duct route to the outside. Mount fume hood controls and alarm monitors outside of explosion proof rooms. Solvent and Corrosive Storage Cabinets Chemicals shall not be stored within fume hoods. Filtration and direct exhaust are not typically required.15910 room egress. This could be a CV LTAU serving a CV hood. Instead run a separate exhaust from the cabinet up to the exhaust duct. Solvent storage cabinets shall not normally be ventilated.e. provided. Hood locations should also follow the general recommendations in the National Institutes of Health publication Methodology for Optimization of Laboratory Hood Containment. Many specialty cabinets and hybrid hoods (which often filter downflow supply air) require higher than typical exhaust flow rates (i. Do not duct into the fume hood bench top. for example). If exhaust connection is required to a BSC. triggered by the fume hood alarm monitor. rates higher than would be suggested based on SEPTEMBER 2008 LABORATORY VENTILATION 15910 PAGE 3 OF 19 . Laboratory Fume Hoods for use with Radioactive Materials (Isotope Hoods) Although a special fume hood is generally required for use with radioactive materials. with U-M OSEH. verify the need for special filtration. Corrosive storage cabinets shall be ventilated at a rate of 2 CFM exhaust per square foot of cabinet footprint. Mount an explosion proof audible and visual alarm indicator inside the room. Connect cabinet exhausts to constant volume (CV) Laboratory Terminal Airflow Units (LTAUs). size. or.

the mechanical engineer will need to provide an exhaust connection for the removal of hot. Lab Room Airflow Modeling Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) studies are typically required when multiple hoods are located near each other and within the same room. and evaluate supply outlet and exhaust inlet locations. New lab buildings with “typical” fume hood alcoves or lab modules shall have CFD modeling done for each module type. or continuous work activity is planned. moist air rejected from the desiccant unit. For example. optimize air-change-rates (ACH). consider ganging the rooms on common CV LTAUs. Ventilate at 6 air changes per hour or as required by code. a project installing a new outdoor air intake on a lab building likely would justify a study. Thus. in addition to a ventilation supply and exhaust air connection to the room. safe. Dispersion studies shall be considered for all other renovation projects. Environmental (Cold) Rooms Ventilation air is required in all environmental rooms where work with volatile chemicals. whichever is higher. dilution of exhaust emissions. CFD Studies shall be considered for other unique air flow arrangements where proper ventilation. All new lab buildings shall have a comprehensive dispersion study performed. air conditioning. CFDs shall demonstrate hood capture effectiveness. compressed gasses. Dispersion studies shall be done by qualified firms that have a minimum of 5 years of experience performing such studies. Always consult the manufacturer’s product manuals and design accordingly. HVAC and Exhaust Systems Design Exhaust Dispersion Assessments Dispersion studies ensure proper. Renovation projects with exhaust fan volumes ≥ 5000 cfm capacity shall have a dispersion study. or exhaust are considered critical. Ventilated environmental rooms typically require desiccant dryers to avoid excess defrost cycle times. SEPTEMBER 2008 LABORATORY VENTILATION 15910 PAGE 4 OF 19 . to provide the required supply and exhaust air. All critical exhaust sources shall have a dispersion study.15910 hood face area) or have high static pressure drop. Perchloric Acid Fume Hood Systems Refer to Appendix B of this Design Guideline. unless this requirement is waived by the UM Design Manager. Where multiple environmental rooms are located in close proximity to one anther.

Designs may also need to comply with various U. the use of VAV fume hoods should be assumed. The use of non-DX type fan coils for sensible loads is encouraged to reduce the amount of outside air required for lab cooling. Lab minimum air changes per hour (ACH) shall be established in consultation with U-M OSEH. vivariums. evaluate and justify VAV vs CV fume hoods. Health Facilities Evaluation Section. the Minimum Design Standards for Health Care Facilities in Michigan precludes the use of recirculating fan coil units in labs unless outfitted with a HEPA filter. e. shall comply with the Minimum Design Standards for Health Care Facilities in Michigan. Hospital: All hospital projects governed by the Michigan Department of Health. The guidelines expressed herein are meant to supplement. Evaluate the use of chilled beams as a substitute for fan coil units for new lab buildings. it shall not be recirculated outside a laboratory room. etc.). The following are typical requirements: Research labs: NFPA 45 Standard for Fire Protection for Laboratories Using Chemicals. HVAC systems used for laboratories. local fan coils.S. Design Fundamentals General: The specific standards that apply to a particular project should be determined during programming. Government standards or guidelines (e.g. to reduce first cost and improve energy efficiency and maintainability. as permitted by code. it does not necessarily mean fume hoods are to be variable flow: For purposes of initial program budget. Consider the following when determining which type of hood is most appropriate for the design.g. general exhaust and fume hood LTAUs. and NFPA 99 Standard for Health Care Facilities. Supply air shall be “once through” (100% outside air). For labs affecting patient care in hospital facilities. While this means supply and general exhaust shall be variable flow. Where conflicts exist. As the program is further developed. Lab general and fume hood exhaust shall be manifolded whenever possible. the AE shall review with the U-M Design Manager. Air may be recirculated within the laboratory room itself. establish which apply during project programming phase. including those with chemical fume hoods. etc). they should be started as early as possible in the design process. not supercede. Laboratory supply and exhaust air shall be dedicated to lab areas within the building and shall not be part of HVAC systems serving other building areas (offices. Department of Agriculture.15910 Since the results of dispersion studies often require the A/E’s initial design to be modified. Some very low hazard level labs may use recirculated air when approved by U-M OSEH. toilet rooms. code requirements. National Institute of Health. shall be designed for variable air volume (VAV) using tracking supply. on a lab room by lab room basis: SEPTEMBER 2008 LABORATORY VENTILATION 15910 PAGE 5 OF 19 .

Determine the appropriate additional capacity in consultation with the U-M Design Manager. Vivarium air handlers. and controls shall be fed from the emergency power system. Exhaust grille style filter frames are not preferred but may be used with the permission of the U-M Design Manager. terminal units. Ventilation Lab minimum air changes per hour (ACH) shall be established in consultation with U-M OSEH. in compliance with codes. animal room exhaust systems.15910 • • • Lab minimum required air change rate Lab heat load Quantity of hoods in the lab room When analyzing the potential benefit of VAV type fume hoods. Rooms and LTAUs shall be scheduled. The air valves serving animal holding rooms shall be selected such that air flow to those rooms can be increased an additional 10% minimum. Provide all of the information contained on the UM sample schedule Laboratory Terminal Air Flow Unit Sample Schedule. Minimum additional capacity: 10%. and in compliance with the Minimum Design Standards for Health Care Facilities in Michigan (when applicable).C. Typical minimum lab air LABORATORY VENTILATION 15910 PAGE 6 OF 19 SEPTEMBER 2008 .) control valves to prevent over-heating animals upon a valve failure. Assume fume hood sashes without automatic devices will result in an average hood air flow reduction of 10%. Size the vivarium air handler with sufficient capacity to accommodate this additional air flow capability. evaluate with and without automatic sash lowering devices. • • • Assume fume hood sashes with automatic devices will result in an average hood air flow reduction of 30%. Factor out hoods where sash closure is not possible due to minimum room air change rate requirements. Reheat coils shall utilize normally closed (N. Size supply and exhaust systems with additional capacity for future use. assume all hoods are at 14” sash position at all times . Each animal room exhaust shall be equipped with a duct mounted filter rack. fully redundant air handlers. Size fume hood LTAUs and the associated LTAU branch duct as follows: to maintain a hood face velocity of 60 FPM at the full open sash position. Do not diversify fume hood loads relative to exhaust fan/system sizing. Specify that the LTAU shall be set to maintain a 100 FPM face velocity with the sash 14” above the bench top. future. Vivariums: Vivariums require dedicated.

Indicate in the Design Intent Document. if the supply air handler trips on freeze stat or smoke detector. fire. If a local means of adjusting space pressurization is requested (typically accomplished with a potentiometer).15910 changes per hour. etc. Local means of adjusting pressure is discouraged. creating a pressure differential. to prevent excess negative pressure at egress doors. Laboratory Exhaust Duct Materials The below descriptions are considered normative for U-M lab projects. For example. however the A/E shall give consideration to the nature of materials being exhausted and shall specify SEPTEMBER 2008 LABORATORY VENTILATION 15910 PAGE 7 OF 19 . Provide room pressure indication for rooms indicated in Appendix A. Exhaust fans and corresponding supply fans shall automatically restart when power is restored after a power failure. exhaust system operation under all emergency conditions (loss of power. the associated lab exhaust fan(s) shall not shut down. Sealing of all room penetrations and joints shall be specified to maintain space pressurization. Proper door operation for egress shall be maintained when the supply system shuts down and the lab exhaust system operates. Some large systems may require a design that automatically reduces exhaust fan volumes. Laboratory Pressurization Gauge Local pressure indication is not typically required for general purpose labs. Emergency Operation Provide emergency power for laboratory systems where a power failure endangers life safety. Negative or Positive Pressure Pressurization in and out of rooms shall be indicated on plans with directional arrows and airflow quantities (CFM). room pressurization. specify that the adjustment device be clearly labeled to identify which direction produces positive or negative pressurization adjustment.). Fire detection and alarm systems shall not be interlocked to automatically shut down chemical fume hood exhaust. Exhaust fans shall continue to operate in the event of a failure or alarm condition of the supply air system. supply air failure. Specify a locking enclosure for the adjustment device. Consult Appendix A for indicator requirements. and air flow control requirements can be found in Appendix A of this Design Guideline.

etc. piped to a local floor drain. Chemical Fume Hood Exhaust: PCD from hood to main lateral. Acid Exhaust: Teflon lined stainless steel duct shall be consider in lieu of FRP duct.). gasket and sealant types.15910 appropriate duct materials. Prohibit tie-rods in any duct carrying corrosive exhaust. LTAUs shall not be used. including shafts. sterilizer and glass washer hoods. Duct shall slope back toward the hood so that any condensate formed in the duct drains away from the main lateral duct.g. Evaluate the need for drains on exterior horizontal exhaust duct work. Hoods shall have drain lips. Therefore the associated duct shall be stainless steel all the way to the exhaust fan. specify PCD for the entire exhaust duct run. avoiding horizontal runs. see “Fan Construction” for additional considerations regarding such drains. and duct coatings. construction methods (e. For exhaust duct connected to animal rooms. Fire and/or Smoke Dampers Not allowed in laboratory exhaust ductwork per NFPA 45. Cage and rack washers shall be exhausted via a dedicated exhaust fan. Fan Selection/Number of Fans SEPTEMBER 2008 LABORATORY VENTILATION 15910 PAGE 8 OF 19 . Lab General Exhaust: G-90 galvanized where accessible. specify riveted duct upstream of filters. and any ductwork carrying moist air: “seal” welded (water leakage tight) 316 stainless steel. from hood to main lateral. Cage and rack washers. Exhaust ducts running on the building exterior will typically require insulation to prevent condensation formation inside the duct during cold outside air conditions. If there is insignificant general exhaust flowing through the main lateral. Note: Obtain concurrence from U-M OSEH that exhaust acidity justifies these specialized materials. Exhaust Fans Fan Capacity Specify at least 10% additional design flow at the required system static pressure for all lab exhaust fans. Specify plastic coated duct (PCD) in concealed spaces. routed as directly as possible. Construction Prohibit tie-rod re-enforcement methods for PCD.

with the drain valve and hose bib on the outside. Fan Construction Fan housings (centrifugal fans) shall be welded construction with a cleanout door. Location and Design Exhaust fans shall be located on a roof so that all duct in the building is negatively pressurized. Contact the U-M HVAC/Controls Mech Tech team for additional info on air tight enclosures.g. VSDs shall not be used to maintain stack velocity. LABORATORY VENTILATION 15910 PAGE 9 OF 19 SEPTEMBER 2008 . e. Cage and rack washers shall be exhausted via a dedicated exhaust fan. If a roof location is impossible and the fan(s) must be located in a mechanical penthouse or room. For systems 10. plenum access doors. provide 100% redundant standby fans. Typically fans. Fan stacks shall be self-supporting. For all critical exhaust systems. high-plume exhaust fans shall be provided on systems above 5000 CFM when no fan redundancy is provided. design an air tight enclosure around the fan(s) and specify that the discharge duct from the fan be seal welded. Fans located in enclosures shall have scroll drains piped to the enclosure exterior. Fan Types Centrifugal fan systems are preferred. Guy wires shall not be used without the permission of the UM Design Manager. and the drain labeled as a hazard. or when found to be required by dispersion studies. fan blades. Biosafety Level 3 labs. and fan back-draft dampers should have a Heresite anti-corrosion coating. Provide a scroll drain for centrifugal fans (drain valve with hose bib). Specific applications may require different anti-corrosion coatings. Also specify a heavy-duty coating for the exterior surfaces that prevents corrosion.000 CFM or less.15910 For lab exhaust systems over 10. Direct-drive. provide 100% redundant standby fans. provided it can shown they safely disperse the effluent. fan plenums. The fan stack velocity shall be maintained through the use of normally-closed bleed-in dampers or other means. Provide direct drive fans when available. Extend stacks a minimum of 10 feet above the highest local roof. Design the stack to provide a minimum stack discharge exit velocity of 3000 FPM unless a dispersion study demonstrates a lower tip velocity achieves the required dilution target.000 CFM capacity. consider two fans at 50% capacity each. Provide windows in enclosures to facilitate maintenance. Orient the fan discharge duct (stack) vertically from the fan outlet. It is the A/E/Lab Planners’s responsibility to select appropriate coatings.

provide drains in exhaust plenums located outside (drain valve/hose connection/cap). One piece flexible rubber/elastomeric connectors may be used in some low risk applications. and be properly trapped. some exterior plenums will require drains that continuously remove routine condensation formation occurring in winter months.15910 Similar to scroll drains. Exhaust systems with filters that require a specific stack velocity to achieve required dilution targets must include provisions to maintain stack velocities as filters load up. A method of preventing excess negative duct/plenum pressure shall be provided. These same dampers shall close when the fan is turned off by normal means. Such drains should be routed to termination points inside the building. Flexible Connectors On positively pressurized duct work. and in compliance with requirements stated in Minimum Design Standards for Health Care Facilities in Michigan.e. Damper actuators shall be located outside of the exhaust air stream. Portions of such drains located outside must be heat traced. stainless steel. See UM Design Guideline 15975 Mechanical Systems Controls. Radioactive hoods typically do not require filters. etc. when applicable. except for exhaust fans mounted inside enclosures. Depending on the relative humidity of the space being exhausted.) Exhaust Filters The installation and type of filter in the laboratory exhaust system (if any) shall be determined by The Department of Occupational Safety and Environmental Health (OSEH) or the Radiation Safety Control Department of the University of Michigan. Provide trap primers. Such dampers shall be designed to fail to the “open” position on loss of power. Damper construction shall meet or exceed ductwork construction (i. Similarly. Motorized bleed-in dampers shall fail to “closed” position. Fabric flexible connectors shall never be used. protective coating. with the approval of the U-M Design Manager Dampers Motorized control dampers shall be used to prevent back drafting of exhaust fans. All exhaust filters shall be provided with a differential pressure gauge to indicate pressure drop across filter. SEPTEMBER 2008 LABORATORY VENTILATION 15910 PAGE 10 OF 19 . evaluate the need for drains on exterior horizontal exhaust duct work. Exhaust System Fan Control Exhaust fans shall be controlled by the owners Building Automation/DDC System. flexible connectors are prohibited indoors.

as application dictates. above. Coatings: Specify Heresite coating (minimum) for LTAUs serving chemical fume hoods. is as important as hood velocity and should preferably be no more than 1/2 the hood or cabinet face velocity (near the hood). U-M Master Specification section 15910 Laboratory and Fume Hood Air Flow Controls specifies lab terminal airflow units and associated controls and shall be used as the lab controls specification on projects. Fail Mode: Generally. Therefore terminal throw velocities in areas with hoods or cabinets should be far less than those typical for lab air supply. bio-safety cabinets. Optimize design and layout of supply air devices in consideration of all lab requirements. future. Vivarium LTAU Sizing: The air valves serving animal holding rooms shall be selected such that air flow to those rooms can be increased an additional 10% minimum. Clearances: Utilize U-M Standard Detail Laboratory Terminal Air Flow Unit Clearances to indicate required clearances. Do not exceed 50 LTAUs per 20 amp circuit. Require that LTAUs be mounted no higher than 2’ above the ceiling grid. On any project requiring more than 25 LTAUs. consult with the HVAC/Controls Mech Tech Team during SD Phase for specific direction regarding LTAUs/LTAU controls. etc. Perforated Diffusers SEPTEMBER 2008 LABORATORY VENTILATION 15910 PAGE 11 OF 19 . The A/E shall edit U-M Master Specification 15910 to make it project specific.15910 Laboratory Terminal Airflow Units (LTAU) and LTAU Control Venturi valve type terminal units shall be specified. supply LTAUs shall be indicated to fail closed and exhaust LTAUs shall be indicated to fail open. Sizing fume hood LTAUs: See “HVAC and Exhaust Systems Design”. LTAUs Prohibited: On exhaust connected to a dedicated fan serving cage and rack washer exhaust. Laboratory Supply Air Diffusers and Registers Terminal Velocity Terminal velocity of supply air near fume hoods. “Dash out” required clearances at each LTAU on the plan views. including velocity. Balancing Damper: Provide a stainless steel balance damper downstream of all LTAUs serving chemical fume hoods. Work with LTAU suppliers to determine the number of 20 amp circuits required. for testing purposes. Specify other protective coating types. Power Requirements: Designate circuits in receptacle panels on each floor for LTAU power supplies.. throw and low flow performance.

Evaluate low flow hoods. when supply diffusers must be located near fume hoods or other sensitive cabinets.g. above. if proposed. consider perforated diffuser technology (similar to Titus RadiaTec or TriTec ) that diffuses supply air in a radial manner at high volumes and low velocity. evaluate strategies to reduce reheat coil pressure drops. e. Controls to reduce the minimum room air change rate when the lab is unoccupied. the A/E/Lab Planner shall calculate the following and indicate the result in the Design Intent Document: • • Fume hood density per 5000 gsf of building Fume hood density per 5000 nsf of lab Densities above 3 hoods per 5000 gsf shall be justified. Evaluate the following technologies (also see “HVAC and Exhaust Systems Design”. Specific low flow hood manufacturers must be approved by UM OSEH. “zone presence sensors”.25 in. shall be reviewed and approved by the HVAC/Controls Mech Tech Team. Wall Registers If wall registers are used in labs with hoods or cabinets. such as larger face area reheat coils or radiant heating panels or floors in lieu of duct reheat coils. for required analysis parameters): • • • • Variable volume hoods Automatic sash closure systems Devices to reduce hood face velocity when users are not standing in front of the hoods. Noise Control (silencers) 0. Improve ventilation air flow efficiency by reducing the pressure drop of air system components. Provide fan coils/chilled beams or other strategies to reduce the quantity of “once-through” outside air required for cooling.15910 To avoid cross draft problems. Chilled beams. w. First Cost Optimization/Energy Conservation Comply with U-M Design Guideline SID-D.g. w. Consider alternatives such as snorkels and chemical storage cabinets.g.25 in. they should have double deflection louvers and shall be set for maximum deflection position away from the hood. At each phase. SEPTEMBER 2008 LABORATORY VENTILATION 15910 PAGE 12 OF 19 . The following targets (maximums at full design flow) shall be met for all once through air handlers that will run continuously: • • • Air Handler Component Face Velocity: 400 FPM Total supply and exhaust duct pressure drop: 2. In spaces with high once through air requirements ( > 6 ACH).

unless the lab user group can validate higher heat load requirements. Exhaust Air Heat Recovery: Evaluate heat recovery (enthalpy) wheels. Laboratory luminance levels shall not exceed IESNA Handbook (most recent edition) foot candle levels. while the spaces are fully occupied. however the A/E/Lab Planner in conjunction with the U-M Design Manager will identify comparable laboratories and analyze the collected data. including plug loads and hard wired equipment. humidity floating but no greater than 60% RH Winter: 70 dbt maximum. evaluate the energy benefit gained from additional fan staging (i. obtain 7 days of continuous power metering at the branch circuit panel level of all lab equipment. Setpoints outside these ranges shall be justified in the Design Intent Document. Normal lab setpoints are: Summer: 74 dbt minimum. Measure comparable U-M laboratories to establish HVAC plug/equipment loads during early SD phase.. flat plate air-to-air heat exchangers. Avoid tight temperature and humidity requirements. and base the lab design on this measured data. by increasing the number of fans drawing air from common exhaust plenums. For each comparable laboratory space.e. SEPTEMBER 2008 LABORATORY VENTILATION 15910 PAGE 13 OF 19 . humidity floating but no less than 25% RH. Continuous metering data shall include: • • • Apparent instantaneous power Real instantaneous power Real power averaged over 15 minute intervals The design heat load criteria shall be based on the 15 minute time averaged Real power draw of the comparable space.15910 For manifolded exhaust systems. from smaller staging increments). U-M will provide the labor to take the measurements. heat pipes (including pumped type). and run-around coils. Include impact of additional pressure drop through each device type.

Teaching Synthetic Chemistry Bio-Chem Analysis/Micro Biology/Genomics/Proteomics Genome DNA Processing Tissue Culture. biological or physical hazards present 6 4 V Equipment Rooms (Labs) Fume Hood Alcoves 6 6 4 4 V CorV N N Animal Holding Rooms: Ventilated Racks 6 6 C A Animal Holding Rooms: Static Racks Animal Procedure Rooms Laboratories affecting Patient Care in UM Hospital & Health Center Facilities 10 6 10 6 C C A A See Minimum Design Standards for Health Care Facilities in Michigan ACH: (minimum) Air Changes per Hour C: Constant Volume V: Variable Volume N: Negative A: Adjustable SEPTEMBER 2008 LABORATORY VENTILATION 15910 PAGE 14 OF 19 .Occ. Provide visual pressurization indicators.Research Open Wet Lab. or any room containing BSCs 6 6 4 10 10 6 6 Pressurization Occ. Hoods to be CV or VV as justified by LCC analysis If ventilated racks with rack mounted fan packs are utilized. ACH Room Type Open Wet Lab. typically negative. ACH Comments 4 4 1 4 6 4 4 V V V V V V V N N N N N N N Pressure relationship is dependant on project. No significant chemical. Provide visual pressurization indicators. Room Pressurization. Rooms w/high sensible loads due to freezers and other research equipment. Provide visual pressurization indicators. Provide visual pressurization indicators. room air change rates must be as listed for static rack rooms.15910 Appendix A Table 1: Typical Minimum Air Changes. and Air Flow Control Air Flow Control Un.Teaching Dry Lab Chemical Labs.

) to allow unoccupied setback of the minimum ACH. Where a reduced ACH is indicated in the unoccupied column. Infectious disease research at BSL 2 or 3. The University of Michigan recognizes that such ventilation minimums are achievable through: (1) Progressive or innovative laboratory design – moving heavy chemical use out of the large/open laboratory spaces and into segregated fume hood alcoves. which shall also be indicated on the drawings. The risk assessment portion of this evaluation process must be conducted in conjunction with the U-M Department of Occupational Safety and Environmental Health to determine suitability of ventilation minimums for the proposed spaces and research or teaching they will support. opportunities quickly arise. Provide analog room pressurization gauges outside and above laboratory door(s) (inside. and ensuring minimization or micronization of hazardous chemical quantities and processes. B. outside. and reliable technology is now in common use that allows this energy-saving functionality. Biohazardous research is defined as: A. as classified by the NIH office of Recombinant DNA Activities. All rooms where bio-hazardous research is conducted shall be designed to provide negative pressure relative to adjacent spaces. Typical range: negative 0. the minimum setting of terminal units (LTAUs)shall provide the room ACH value indicated. The maximum settings. method of air flow control. 2+. Analog gauges are preferred over the installation of “ping pong ball” style indicators. visual pressurization indicators shall be provided so that room occupants can locally verify the direction of room pressurization. Also see “Design Philosophy”. etc. such spaces shall.c. The “occupied” minimums listed are about half of what was once considered to be conventional for laboratory ventilation. SEPTEMBER 2008 LABORATORY VENTILATION 15910 PAGE 15 OF 19 . Where indicated. and shall include visual pressure indication. and above the door of BSL-3 labs) to indicate pressurization. Specify a gauge range that will indicate both positive and negative pressure. (2) Sound risk assessment – closely examining the hazardous materials and methods to be used in a given space or zone over time. For variable volume systems. and for exhaust make-up. When such factors come into play. requirements should always be validated for the specific project.25 inches w. The “unoccupied” minimums recognize that it is often prudent to reduce ventilation rates when no employees or students are present. Design Philosophy: Typical minimum air change rates (Table 1) offer both opportunity and challenge to “right size” ventilation to appropriately meet safety needs while reducing energy waste. Recombinant research at BSL 2.25 to positive 0.g occupancy sensors. or 3. Offices contained within lab areas shall operate as positive with respect to the lab. for typical laboratory and vivarium spaces at U-M. if meeting a 6 year simple payback criteria (SID-D). below. The A/E shall indicate this minimum setting on the drawings. The above table is a guide only. shall be as required to account for sensible and latent loads. and room pressurization relative to adjacent spaces. as classified by CDC/NIH Biosafety Guideline. be provided with methods (e.15910 Table 1 indicates the minimum ACH.

Require 316 stainless steel fasteners or fasteners with corrosion resistance equivalent to the selected duct material. Equip the ventilation system with a built-in water wash-down system. Automatic washdown systems are normally recommended and should be reviewed with the U-M Design Manager and U-M OSEH. Exhaust System: Provide a dedicated exhaust system for perchloric exhaust. typically shall be all welded 316 stainless steel. A backflow preventer shall be provided on the cold water supply to the wash-down system.g. Service fitting controls for internal outlets and for the wash-down system shall be external to the hood. Terminate vertical stacks no less than 100 feet from an air intake. Drain material shall be polypropylene. non-reactive materials selected for the specific chemical use in the hood. and hood. Provide access to permit visual inspection of duct internals. Provide positive drain back to the hood. The point of drain discharge shall be approved by U-M OSEH. with no offsets or horizontal runs. etc. Drain(s) shall be provided to catch the wash-down water.). plenum. Additionally. toilet exhaust. fan. Ensure that the system will adequately spray all interior surfaces of the duct. Do not manifold with other exhaust systems (e. perchloric acid fume hoods shall be provided with wash down nozzles for rinsing the area behind the baffle.15910 Appendix B Perchloric Acid Fume Hood Systems Perchloric acid fume hood designs shall be reviewed and approved by U-M Occupational Safety and Environmental Health Department (OSEH). The designer should also adhere to the perchloric hood requirements found in NFPA 45. Duct material: acid resistant. specify gaskets and sealants that are non-reactive and resistant to perchloric acid. For final connections where welded joints are not possible. Flexible connections shall not be used. Duct: Route via the shortest and straightest route possible to the outside. particulate exhaust. fan stack. Specify that all duct shall be watertight. Labeling: Require duct. fans and stacks to be marked as follows: SEPTEMBER 2008 LABORATORY VENTILATION 15910 PAGE 16 OF 19 . The following are general guidelines. Provide a frost proof hydrant near the fan/fan stack to allow manual wash-down. Indicate clearly on the design drawings that the contractor may not modify the duct design without written approval from the engineer.

and at maximum 5' intervals along duct runs. Specify fan types with fan motors located outside the duct work. non-reactive fan materials selected for the specific chemical use in the hood. Locate markers near points where ductwork originates or continues into shafts. Specify acid resistant. Specify Type A spark proof fans. Teflon or PVC coated blades can typically be used. Drive belts shall be nonspark conductive type and shall not be located within the ductwork. SEPTEMBER 2008 LABORATORY VENTILATION 15910 PAGE 17 OF 19 . Fans: Eductor type fans systems shall normally be used in lieu of conventional fan arrangements. floors or walls.15910 EXPLOSION HAZARD Do no service work or inspection on this duct without prior approval from U-M Occupational Safety and Environmental Health Department.

However. Hood .Laboratory Fume A ventilated. This is typically accomplished by the use of a bypass opening located on the upper face of the hood. Face Velocity Speed of air moving into fume hood entrance or working access opening. There is no industry recognized standard definition of the term “restricted bypass” and thus hood performance attributes should be specified rather than relying on generalized terminology.Low Flow (“High Performance”) Fume A fume hood that can pass ASHRAE 110 “as-manufactured” testing with face velocities typically less than 80 FPM. there is no industry recognized standard definition of LABORATORY VENTILATION 15910 PAGE 18 OF 19 SEPTEMBER 2008 .Restricted By-Pass A hood that restricts the amount of bypass air through a bypass grille to only that amount necessary to maintain containment around the sash edges at all sash positions. Hood . Restricted bypass hoods are appropriate for VAV hood applications only. which opens or closes to compensate for variations in sash position. Use vertical operating sashes only on constant volume hoods because combination and horizontal operating sashes will likely cause unacceptable variances in face velocity depending on the sash position. “restricted bypass”. There is no industry recognized standard definition of the terms “bypass”. Hood – (Full) By-Pass Constant Volume Fume A constant volume fume hood that maintains hood face velocities with-in an acceptable range regardless of sash position. Biological Safety Cabinets are not fume hoods and the two are not interchangeable. horizontal or combination operating sash.15910 Appendix C Definitions Capture Velocity The air velocity at the hood face or capture device necessary to overcome opposing air currents. Hood .Variable Air Volume Fume A fume hood that maintains a constant face velocity while generating a variable volume of exhaust air flow through the positions of a vertical. and to contain contaminated air within that device. or “partial bypass” and thus hood performance attributes should be specified rather than relying on generalized terminology. contain and exhaust fumes. usually expressed in feet per minute (FPM). Hood . vapors and particulate matter generated inside the enclosure. not constant volume types. enclosed work space intended to capture.

Fume hood and other exhaust accessories are often included as part of the design for these facilities. Make-Up Air (Once-Through Air) The supply of outdoor air to a building replacing air removed by exhaust ventilation systems. Vivarium A cluster of animal housing areas and support facilities. should not be used at U-M except by special permission from the U-M Design Manager.15910 the term “low flow ” or “high performance” and thus specific hood performance attributes should be specified rather than relying on generalized terminology Hood . Seal Welded Duct Joints Both the longitudinal and transverse duct joints are continuously welded to form a 100% air and water tight seal.Auxiliary Air Fume A fume hood typically using “raw” outside air for make-up air. and therefore require special system design considerations. Main (duct) Lateral Large duct main running on a lab floor with multiple fume hood and general exhaust duct connections such that the large proportion of general exhaust connections is expected to result in a very dilute exhaust air stream. Laboratory Terminal Airflow Unit (LTAU) Venturi-type terminal control valve. End of U-M DG 15910 SEPTEMBER 2008 LABORATORY VENTILATION 15910 PAGE 19 OF 19 .

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