The State of Cyber Civil Liberties in Russia Netfreedom, Growing Civic Activism, Repression 2.

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Heritage Foundation Washington, DC June 1, 2011

Net Freedom @ Freedom House
–  Freedom on the Net (FOTN)
•  2009 (15), 2011 (37)

–  Technology Support
•  Support, Training, Monitoring, Research

–  Advocacy / Policy
•  Internet Governance (IGF)
•  Freedom of Expression •  Engaging NGO Networks

–  Strategic Partnerships

HOW DO WE MEASURE NET FREEDOM

•  Obstacles to Access •  Limits on Content •  Violations of User Rights

GROWING THREATS TO INTERNET FREEDOM
•  Legal repercussions:
–  Use of general media legislation against online activities as well as development of internet-specific legislation

•  Extra-legal harassment and violence:
–  Detentions, intimidation –  Technical violence: Hacking, DDoS attacks, etc..

•  Surveillance and infringements on privacy in a wide range of environments

Repression 2.0 : New Threats
Just in Time Blocking
Key website, services or infrastructure blocked •  Flag for removal:
–  Can “crowd sourced” mechanisms be used to suspend accounts?

•  Communications infrastructure turned off •  Technical Attacks:
–  –  –  –  Compromising SSL : Man in the middle attacks Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attack Country level Phishing attacks (Tunisia, Syria) Targeted Malware: China, Egypt

•  Targeted Censorship:

–  Block key sites at critical time (Elections, protests, etc)

Emergence of Malware Industry

What can be done (II) ?
•  Understanding the vulnerabilities
–  Need to understand user knowledge & choices
•  Surveys, Assessments, Research

–  Need to explain vulnerabilities, threats and solutions in simple to use language
•  High Risk Environments / Pervasive Surveillance

–  Sending messages via insecure networks
•  Internet •  Mobile Networks (location tracking, remote access of phone, etc..)

Freedom House is an independent watchdog organization that supports the expansion of freedom around the world. Freedom House supports democratic change, monitors freedom, and advocates for democracy and human rights.

For more information contact: Robert Guerra Freedom House Email: guerra@freedomhouse.org Web: freedomhouse.org Twitter: netfreedom Support the right of every individual to be free.

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